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Sample records for spain 1994-2004 characteristics

  1. Comparación de las lesiones no mortales por accidente de trabajo por Comunidades Autónomas en España (1994-2004 Comparison of non-fatal occupational injuries by autonomous communities in Spain (1994-2004

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    María López-Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Dadas las diferencias observadas en estudios previos de la incidencia de lesiones por accidente de trabajo (LAT por Comunidades Autónomas (CC.AA., en este estudio hemos evaluado la hipótesis de homogeneidad de la incidencia de las LAT para tipos específicos de accidentes y en determinadas actividades, entre 1994 y 2004. Métodos: Las LAT analizadas fueron no mortales con baja, de tipo mecánico y sobreesfuerzo, ocurridas en jornada en centro para empresas manufactureras y de la construcción. Se calculó el riesgo relativo ajustado por sexo, edad y tipo de contrato en cada una de las CC.AA. mediante la razón de LAT estandarizada, tomando como referencia las tasas de España, y estratificando según duración de la baja (menos de 16 días y más de 15 días. Resultados: El riesgo relativo ajustado de LAT según los diferentes tipos de accidentes analizados presenta una distribución heterogénea entre CC.AA. Murcia, Navarra, Baleares y País Vasco se encuentran generalmente entre las comunidades con riesgos más elevados, mientras que Castilla-León y Extremadura son las que tienen principalmente menores riesgos de sufrir una LAT. Conclusiones: La heterogeneidad en la incidencia de LAT entre CC.AA. persiste después de seleccionar una serie de formas de accidente específicas y ajustar por sexo, edad y tipo de contrato. Por ello sugerimos que, además de seguir analizando las condiciones de trabajo como explicación de esta heterogeneidad, se tengan en cuenta otras variables socioeconómicas al comparar las incidencias de LAT entre CC.AA.Objectives: Given the differences observed in previous studies with respect to occupational injury rates in Spain's autonomous communities, this study tested the homogeneity hypothesis of occupational injury for specific accident types and economic activity between 1994 and 2004. Methods: We analyzed non-fatal injuries of a mechanical nature or those due to overexertion taking place in

  2. A scientific review about sexual and reproductive rights on Colombia, 1994-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina Muñoz, Doris Elena; Castaño López, Rosa Amalia

    2009-01-01

    Estudio realizado entre julio/2005 y julio/2008 siguiendo la Base de Productos Nacionales de COLCIENCIAS (X-acta). Objetivo: caracterizar el conocimiento producido sobre derechos sexuales y reproductivos en Colombia durante 1994-2004. Metodología: se consulta X-acta utilizando descriptores. Los artículos son organizados en tres grupos según la revista en que se publican: nacionales indexadas (T1), nacionales no indexadas (T2), extranjeras (T3). Se construyen categorías. Resultados...

  3. Chinese migration in Spain. General characteristics

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    Amelia Sáiz López

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Chinese presence in Spain is analyzed from a chronological perspective along with the ongoing changes in geographic location and economic activity. The growth in numbers of this community has obliged its members to look for new locations, distancing themselves from their ethnic strongholds, with the aim of bringingtheir migratory plans to fruition.

  4. Producción científica sobre derechos sexuales y reproductivos, Colombia 1994-2004 A scientific review about sexual and reproductive rights on Colombia, 1994-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Elena Ospina Muñoz; Rosa Amalia Castaño López

    2009-01-01

    Estudio realizado entre julio/2005 y julio/2008 siguiendo la Base de Productos Nacionales de COLCIENCIAS (X-acta). Objetivo: caracterizar el conocimiento producido sobre derechos sexuales y reproductivos en Colombia durante 1994-2004. Metodología: se consulta X-acta utilizando descriptores. Los artículos son organizados en tres grupos según la revista en que se publican: nacionales indexadas (T1), nacionales no indexadas (T2), extranjeras (T3). Se construyen categorías. Resultados: se identif...

  5. Drinking in transition: trends in alcohol consumption in Russia 1994-2004

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    Perlman Francesca JA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol consumption is widespread in Russia, but studying changes in drinking during the transition from Communism has been hampered previously by the lack of frequent data. This paper uses 1-2 yearly panel data, comparing consumption trends with the rapid concurrent changes in economic variables (notably around the "Rouble crisis", shortly preceding the 1998 survey round, and mortality. Methods Data were from 9 rounds (1994-2004 of the 38-centre Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Respondents aged over 18 were included (>7,000 per round. Trends were measured in alcohol frequency, quantity per occasion (by beverage type and 2 measures of potentially hazardous consumption: (i frequent, heavy spirit drinking (≥80 g per occasion of vodka or samogon and >weekly (ii consuming samogon (cheap home-distilled spirit. Trends in consumption, mean household income and national mortality rates (in the same and subsequent 2 years were compared. Finally, in a subsample of individual male respondents present in both the 1996 and 1998 rounds (before and after the financial crash, determinants of changes in harmful consumption were studied using logistic regression. Results Frequent, heavy spirit drinking (>80 g each time, ≥weekly was widespread amongst men (12-17% throughout, especially in the middle aged and less educated; with the exception of a significant, temporary drop to 10% in 1998. From 1996-2000, samogon drinking more than doubled, from 6% to 16% of males; despite a decline, levels were significantly higher in 2004 than 1996 in both sexes. Amongst women, frequent heavy spirit drinking rose non-significantly to more than 1% during the study. Heavy frequent male drinking and mortality in the same year were correlated in lower educated males, but not in women. Individual logistic regression in a male subsample showed that between 1996 and1998, those who lost their employment were more likely to cease frequent, heavy

  6. Drinking in transition: trends in alcohol consumption in Russia 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Heavy alcohol consumption is widespread in Russia, but studying changes in drinking during the transition from Communism has been hampered previously by the lack of frequent data. This paper uses 1-2 yearly panel data, comparing consumption trends with the rapid concurrent changes in economic variables (notably around the "Rouble crisis", shortly preceding the 1998 survey round), and mortality. Methods Data were from 9 rounds (1994-2004) of the 38-centre Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey. Respondents aged over 18 were included (>7,000 per round). Trends were measured in alcohol frequency, quantity per occasion (by beverage type) and 2 measures of potentially hazardous consumption: (i) frequent, heavy spirit drinking (≥80 g per occasion of vodka or samogon and >weekly) (ii) consuming samogon (cheap home-distilled spirit). Trends in consumption, mean household income and national mortality rates (in the same and subsequent 2 years) were compared. Finally, in a subsample of individual male respondents present in both the 1996 and 1998 rounds (before and after the financial crash), determinants of changes in harmful consumption were studied using logistic regression. Results Frequent, heavy spirit drinking (>80 g each time, ≥weekly) was widespread amongst men (12-17%) throughout, especially in the middle aged and less educated; with the exception of a significant, temporary drop to 10% in 1998. From 1996-2000, samogon drinking more than doubled, from 6% to 16% of males; despite a decline, levels were significantly higher in 2004 than 1996 in both sexes. Amongst women, frequent heavy spirit drinking rose non-significantly to more than 1% during the study. Heavy frequent male drinking and mortality in the same year were correlated in lower educated males, but not in women. Individual logistic regression in a male subsample showed that between 1996 and1998, those who lost their employment were more likely to cease frequent, heavy drinking; however, men

  7. Fire Regime Characteristics along Environmental Gradients in Spain

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    María Vanesa Moreno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Concern regarding global change has increased the need to understand the relationship between fire regime characteristics and the environment. Pyrogeographical theory suggests that fire regimes are constrained by climate, vegetation and fire ignition processes, but it is not obvious how fire regime characteristics are related to those factors. We used a three-matrix approach with a multivariate statistical methodology that combined an ordination method and fourth-corner analysis for hypothesis testing to investigate the relationship between fire regime characteristics and environmental gradients across Spain. Our results suggest that fire regime characteristics (i.e., density and seasonality of fire activity are constrained primarily by direct gradients based on climate, population, and resource gradients based on forest potential productivity. Our results can be used to establish a predictive model for how fire regimes emerge in order to support fire management, particularly as global environmental changes impact fire regime characteristics.

  8. Characteristic roofing slates from Spain: Mormeau and Los Molinos

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    Cardenes Van den Eynde, Victor; Cnudde, Veerle; Cnudde, Jean Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Characteristic roofing slates from Spain: Mormeau and Los Molinos Cardenes1, V., Cnudde1, V., Cnudde1, J.P. 1 Department of Geology and Soil Science, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, S8, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. The world's major roofing slate outcrops are found in the NW of Spain, in the Ordovician terrains of the domain of the Truchas Syncline. In this remote area, slate was quarried since ancient times for the use of the inhabitants of the region. Half of a century ago, an industrialization process took place in this area, which began to produce high quality roofing slate for many buildings from Japan to the USA, and especially in Europe. Since then, Spanish slate roofing has been widely used for new buildings and also for restoration of historical buildings. This work revises the occurrence and characteristics of the two most representative grey slate varieties from the Truchas Syncline, Mormeau, a fine-grained slate, and Los Molinos, also a grey slate with a slightly coarser grain. Both slates have a very similar aspect, but Mormeau slate have some iron sulphides on its composition that sometimes forms oxidation spots. Mormeau beds are found at the Middle-Upper Ordovician age Casaio Formation, while Los Molinos beds are located at the Rozadais Formation, of age Upper Ordovician, defined as formation just for the Truchas Syncline domain. Both slates have a high degree of homogeneity on their constructive characteristics, with a typical composition of quartz, mica and chlorites, and a metamorphic degree corresponding to the green schists facies. This work revises the history and characteristics of both slates, that can be considered as lithotypes that can be used as a reference during the prospection of new slate outcrops worldwide. The presented varieties of slate are proposed for their inclusion as Global Heritage Stones.

  9. Smoking prevalence trends in Indigenous Australians, 1994-2004: a typical rather than an exceptional epidemic

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    Thomas David P

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, national smoking prevalence has successfully fallen below 20%, but remains about 50% amongst Indigenous Australians. Australian Indigenous tobacco control is framed by the idea that nothing has worked and a sense of either despondency or the difficulty of the challenge. Methods This paper examines the trends in smoking prevalence of Australian Indigenous men and women aged 18 and over in three large national cross-sectional surveys in 1994, 2002 and 2004. Results From 1994 to 2004, Indigenous smoking prevalence fell by 5.5% and 3.5% in non-remote and remote men, and by 1.9% in non-remote women. In contrast, Indigenous smoking prevalence rose by 5.7% in remote women from 1994 to 2002, before falling by 0.8% between 2002 and 2004. Male and female Indigenous smoking prevalences in non-remote Australia fell in parallel with those in the total Australian population. The different Indigenous smoking prevalence trends in remote and non-remote Australia can be plausibly explained by the typical characteristics of national tobacco epidemic curves, with remote Indigenous Australia just at an earlier point in the epidemic. Conclusion Reducing Indigenous smoking need not be considered exceptionally difficult. Inequities in the distribution of smoking related-deaths and illness may be reduced by increasing the exposure and access of Indigenous Australians, and other disadvantaged groups with high smoking prevalence, to proven tobacco control strategies.

  10. Producción científica sobre derechos sexuales y reproductivos, Colombia 1994-2004 A scientific review about sexual and reproductive rights on Colombia, 1994-2004

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    Doris Elena Ospina Muñoz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudio realizado entre julio/2005 y julio/2008 siguiendo la Base de Productos Nacionales de COLCIENCIAS (X-acta. Objetivo: caracterizar el conocimiento producido sobre derechos sexuales y reproductivos en Colombia durante 1994-2004. Metodología: se consulta X-acta utilizando descriptores. Los artículos son organizados en tres grupos según la revista en que se publican: nacionales indexadas (T1, nacionales no indexadas (T2, extranjeras (T3. Se construyen categorías. Resultados: se identifican 123 artículos, clasificados por categorías así: 32 en género, equidad y educación, 30 en salud de las mujeres, 22 en ciudadanía y educación; 13 en sistema de salud y derechos humanos; ocho en diferenciales de género; ocho en interrupción voluntaria del embarazo; cinco en homosexualidad y prostitución; tres en derechos de los niños/as y dos en salud de los hombres. Predominan estudios cualitativos y hay algunos etnográficos. La relación autor-artículo puede indicar baja especialización en el área pero bastante interés en el tema. Conclusiones: la producción sobre equidad, ciudadanía y educación, diversidad sexual y derechos de los niños y las niñas muestra preocupación teórica y avances discursivos que deben integrarse a la política de salud sexual y reproductiva. Existe gran producción investigativa cualitativa y formativa. Sin embargo, es necesario avanzar en el diseño de investigaciones más complejas y cualificar la formación de investigadores con perspectiva de género.Study carried out between July 2005-July 2008, started from COLCIENCIAS' National Base of Products (X-ACTA. Objective: to gather knowledge and critical reflections about knowledge accumulated in the categories associated to sexual and reproductive rights in Colombia, 1994-2004. Methodology: we consult XACTA using descriptor. The articles are organized in three groups according to where they are published: national indexed journal (T1, national non indexed

  11. [Characteristics of Hospitalizations of Homeless Persons in Seville, Spain].

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    Tornero Patricio, Sebastián; Fernández Ajuria, Alberto; Charris Castro, Liliana

    2016-02-10

    The aim was to determine the characteristics of hospital admissions of homeless persons in Seville, Spain. Observational study of 103,802 hospital admissions of 71,756 patients admitted in the Hospitals "Virgen del Rocío" and "Virgen Macarena" (Seville), in 2013 and 2014. Bivariate analysis were performed using χ2 and t-Student tests and multivariate analysis using binomial logistic regression model. 0.16% (n=163) of admissions were homeless persons and 99.84% (n=103,639) were not. The mean age at admission in homeless patients was 48 years and 76.5% of them were men. Hospital deaths of homeless patients occurred being 23 years younger. 92% of hospital admissions came from emergency departments and 10.0% of their discharges were against medical advice. The average length of stay was 4.8 days longer in homeless persons and the most frequent diagnoses on admission were mental (27.0%), infectious (19.6%) and respiratory diseases (18.4%). Mental disorders were present on 83.7% of homeless patients as secondary diagnose and 77.6% referred drugs consumption. Hospital admissions characteristics of homeless persons were particularly different. Homeless patients were hospitalized and died at a younger age than non-homeless patients. The morbidity and mortality of homeless persons reflect their vulnerable health condition.

  12. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  13. Publicación de artículos originales desde el pregrado en una revista médica colombiana entre 1994-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Mauricio Pachajoa-Londoño

    2006-01-01

    Objetivos: Evidenciar la presencia de la participación estudiantil dentro de la publicación de artículos originales en una revista médica colombiana; entre 1994 al 2004. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal, se realizó una búsqueda y revisión manual de; todos los artículos originales publicados en la revista Colombia Médica durante el periodo 1994-2004, se ordenaron según año, tipo de autoría:; profesional de la salud, estudiantes de pregrado o era de ...

  14. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  15. Characteristics Leading Teachers to Nominate Secondary Students as Gifted in Spain

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    Hernandez-Torrano, Daniel; Prieto, Maria Dolores; Ferrandiz, Carmen; Bermejo, Rosario; Sainz, Marta

    2013-01-01

    What are the characteristics leading teachers to nominate gifted students in Spain? To answer this question, several demographic (i.e., gender, grade) and psychological (i.e., multiple intelligences, emotional intelligence, intellectual aptitude, and divergent thinking) characteristics of 563 secondary students nominated as gifted by their…

  16. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Spanish low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are disposed of at the El Cabril Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba (SPAIN). The fundamental safety objective of the facility consists of the immediate and longer term protection of people and the environment. This objective leads to the need to isolate the wastes from the human surroundings, such that any release of the radionuclides contained in them does not pose any radiological risk for either people or the environment over the necessary time period. Consequently, it is necessary to fully protect the wastes against external aggression, from both the climatic and biological point of view (infiltration of water, temperature variations, chemical action of water, attacks by living macro and microorganisms, plants, etc.). This waste isolation is achieved by means of a multi-barrier system separating the activity stored from the aforementioned actions

  17. Characteristics of pertussis outbreaks in Catalonia, Spain, 1997 to 2010.

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    Crespo, Inma; Broner, Sonia; Soldevila, Núria; Martínez, Ana; Godoy, Pere; Sala-Farré, Maria-Rosa; Company, Maria; Rius, Cristina; Domínguez, Angela; Group Of Catalonia, The Pertussis Working

    2015-01-01

    In Catalonia, pertussis outbreaks must be reported to the Department of Health. This study analyzed pertussis outbreaks between 1997 and 2010 in general and according to the characteristics of the index cases. The outbreak rate, hospitalization rate and incidence of associated cases and their 95%CI were calculated. Index cases were classified in two groups according to age (<15 years and ≥15 years) and the vaccine type received: whole cell vaccine (DTwP) or acellular vaccine (DTaP). During the study period, 230 outbreaks were reported. The outbreak rate was 2.43 × 10(-6) persons-year, and outbreaks ranged from 2 to 32 cases, with a median duration of 18 days. There were 771 associated cases, with an incidence rate of 0.8 × 10(-5) persons-year.   After classifying outbreaks according to the age of the index case, 126 outbreaks (1.3 × 10(-6) persons-year) had an index case aged <15 y and 87 (0.87 × 10(-6) person-year) had an index case aged ≥15 y (RR = 1.44, 95%CI 1.10-1.90; P = 0.007). Between 2003 and 2010, after the introduction of the acellular vaccine, the index case was vaccinated with DTwP vaccine in 25 outbreaks (0.43 × 10(-6) persons-year) and with DTaP vaccine in 32 outbreaks (0.55 × 10(-6) person-year) (RR = 0.78, 95%CI 0.46-1.31; P = 0.35). Of cases, 37.2% were correctly vaccinated, suggesting waning immunity of pertussis vaccine protection and endogenous circulation of pertussis. A greater number of outbreaks had an index case aged <15 y. No changes in the disease incidence, associated cases and hospitalization rate were observed after the introduction of DTaP.

  18. Frequency and characteristics of familial melanoma in Spain: the FAM-GEM-1 Study.

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    Iván Márquez-Rodas

    Full Text Available Familial history of melanoma is a well-known risk factor for the disease, and 7% melanoma patients were reported to have a family history of melanoma. Data relating to the frequency and clinical and pathological characteristics of both familial and non-familial melanoma in Spain have been published, but these only include patients from specific areas of Spain and do not represent the data for the whole of Spain.An observational study conducted by the Spanish Group of Melanoma (GEM analyzed the family history of patients diagnosed with melanoma between 2011 and 2013 in the dermatology and oncology departments.In all, 1047 patients were analyzed, and 69 (6.6% fulfilled criteria for classical familial melanoma (two or more first-degree relatives diagnosed with melanoma. Taking into account other risk factors for familial melanoma, such as multiple melanoma, pancreatic cancer in the family or second-degree relatives with melanoma, the number of patients fulfilling the criteria increased to 165 (15.8%. Using a univariate analysis, we determined that a Breslow index of less than 1 mm, negative mitosis, multiple melanoma, and a history of sunburns in childhood were more frequent in familial melanoma patients, but a multivariate analysis revealed no differences in any pathological or clinical factor between the two groups.Similar to that observed in other countries, familial melanoma accounts for 6.6% of melanoma diagnoses in Spain. Although no differences in the multivariate analysis were found, some better prognosis factors, such as Breslow index, seem more frequent in familial melanoma, which reflect a better early detection marker and/or a different biological behavior.

  19. Gender differences in the jealousy-evoking effect of rival characteristics : A study in Spain and Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham P.; Castro Solano, Alejandro; Zurriaga, Rosario; Gonzalez, Pilar

    This study examines gender differences in the jealousy-evoking nature of rival characteristics in two Spanish-speaking countries (Argentina and Spain). A total of 388 Spanish students and 444 Argentinean students participated in the study. First, the cross-cultural validity of a Dutch scale

  20. Women and entrepreneurial challenge in Spain, characteristics and determinants; Mujer y desafio emprendedor en Espana. Caracteristicas y determinantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Navarro, J.; Camelo Ordaz, M. C.; Coduras Martinez, A.

    2012-11-01

    This article contextualizes the discrete level of female entrepreneur ship in Spain and its differential aspects. It includes an analysis of the general characteristics of female entrepreneur ship, grouping them into contextual, demographic and perceptual factors. In addition, it considers in more depth those that promote or hinder the development of female entrepreneur ship: social networks, access to finance and the institutional framework supporting entrepreneurial activity. Finally, it makes a number of specific recommendations in order to correct the major weaknesses in this area and exploit female entrepreneur ship opportunities in Spain. (Author) 49 refs.

  1. Columnar characteristics of aerosols by spectroradiometer measurements in the maritime area of the Cadiz Gulf (Spain)

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    Vergaz, Ricardo; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Ángel M.; Vilaplana, José M.; de La Morena, Benito A.

    2005-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol characteristics represented by the spectral aerosol optical depth AOD) and the Ångström turbidity parameter were determined in the coastal area of the Gulf of Cádiz, (southwest of Spain). The columnar aerosol properties presented here correspond to the 1996-1999 period, and were obtained by solar direct irradiance measurements carried out by a Licor1800 spectroradiometer. The performance of this type of medium-spectral resolution radiometric system is analysed over the measured period. The detailed spectral information of these irradiance measurements enabled the use of selected non-absorption gases spectral windows to determine the columnar spectral AOD that was modelled by Ångström formula to obtain the coefficient. Temporal evolutions of instantaneous values together with a general statistical analysis represented by seasonal values, frequency distributions and some representative correlations for the AOD and the derived Ångström coefficient gave us the first insight of aerosol characteristics in this coastal area. Special attention was paid to the analysis of these aerosol properties at the nominal wavelengths of 440 nm, 670 nm, 870 nm and 1020 nm for the near-future comparisons with the Cimel sun-photometer data. However, taking the most representative aerosol wavelength of 500 nm, the variability of the AOD ranges from 0.005 to 0.53, with a mean of 0.12 (s.d = 0.07) and that of the parameter is given by a mean value of 0.93 (s.d. = 0.58) falling inside the range of marine aerosols. A quantitative discrimination of aerosol types was conducted on the basis of the spectral aerosol properties and air mass back trajectory analysis, which resulted in a mixed type because of the specificity of this area, given by very frequent desert dust episodes, continental and polluted local influences. This study represents the first extended data characterization about columnar properties of aerosols in Spain which has been continued by Cimel

  2. Social, Clinical and Microbiological Differential Characteristics of Tuberculosis among Immigrants in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, José-María; Blanquer, Rafael; Rodrigo, Teresa; Caylà, Joan A.; Caminero, José A.; Vidal, Rafael; Casals, Martí; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background To identify the differential tuberculosis (TB) characteristics within the immigrant population with respect to natives in Spain. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospective cohort study design was implemented to examine the TB cases diagnosed and starting standard antituberculous treatment in Spain, between January 1st 2006 and March 31st 2007. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine differential characteristics. 1,490 patients were included in the study population, 1,048 natives and 442 (29.7%) immigrants. According to the multivariate analysis, the following variables were significantly associated with immigrant TB cases: younger age (OR = 3.79; CI:2.16–6.62), living in group situation (OR = 7.61; CI:3.38–12.12), lower frequency of disabled (OR:0.08; CI:0.02–0.26) and retired (OR:0.21; CI:0.09–0.48) employment status, lower frequency of pulmonary disease presentation (OR = 0.47; CI:0.24–0.92), primary or emergency care admission (OR = 1.80; CI:1.05–3.06 and OR = 2.16; CI:1.36–3.45), drug resistance (OR = 1.86; CI:1.01–3.46), treatment default (OR:2.12; CI:1.18–3.81), lower frequency of alcohol and cigarette consumption (OR = 2.10; CI:1.42–3.11 and OR = 2.85; CI:2.10–3.87 respectively), more directly observed treatment (OR = 1.68; CI:1.04–2.69), and poor understanding of TB disease and its treatment (OR = 3.11; CI:1.86–5.20). The low percentage of primary MDR-TB in the native population (0.1% vs. 2.2% of immigrants) should be noted. Conclusions/Significance The differences show the need to introduce specific strategies in the management of TB within the immigrant population, including the improvement of social and work conditions. PMID:21283716

  3. [Characteristics of communication systems of suspected occupational disease in the Autonomous Communities, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Gómez, Montserrat; Urbaneja Arrúe, Félix; García López, Vega; Estaban Buedo, Valentín; Rodríguez Suárez, Valentín; Miralles Martínez-Portillo, Lourdes; González García, Isabel; Egea Garcia, Josefa; Corraliza Infanzon, Emma; Ramírez Salvador, Laura; Briz Blázquez, Santiago; Armengol Rosell, Ricard; Cisnal Gredilla, José María; Correa Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Coto Fernández, Juan Carlos; Díaz Peral, Mª Rosario; Elvira Espinosa, Mercedes; Fernández Fernández, Iñigo; García-Ramos Alonso, Eduardo; Martínez Arguisuelas, Nieves; Rivas Pérez, Ana Isabel

    2017-03-17

    There are several initiatives to develop systems for the notification of suspected occupational disease (OD) in different autonomous communities. The objective was to describe the status of development and characteristics of these systems implemented by the health authorities. A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on the existence of systems for the information and surveillance of suspected OD, their legal framework, responsible institution and availability of information. A specific meeting was held and a survey was designed and sent to all autonomous communities and autonomous cities (AACC). Information was collected on the existence of a regulatory standard, assigned human resources, notifiers, coverage and number of suspected OD received, processed and recognized. 18 of 19 AACC responded. 10 have developed a suspected OD notification system, 3 of them supported by specific autonomic law. The notifiers were physicians of the public health services, physicians of the occupational health services and, in 2 cases, medical inspectors. 7 AACC had specific software to support the system. The OD recognition rate of suspected cases was 53% in the Basque Country; 41% in Castilla-La Mancha; 36% in Murcia; 32.6% in the Valencian Community and 31% in La Rioja. The study has revealed an heterogeneous development of suspected OD reporting systems in Spain. Although the trend is positive, only 55% of the AACC have some type of development and 39% have specific software supporting it. Therefore unequal OD recognition rates have been obtained depending on the territory.

  4. Impact of provincial characteristics on the number of traffic accident victims on interurban roads in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez González, María Pilar; Escribano Sotos, Francisco; Tejada Ponce, Ángel

    2018-02-21

    This study has two aims. The first is to determine how various factors impact on the number of fatalities, serious injuries and slight injuries adjusted for the level of traffic on interurban roads in Spain. The second is to establish the number of victims per million vehicle-kilometres (veh-km) travelled on interurban roads in each province resulting from the effect of its specific characteristics. To this end, we developed six fixed effect panel data models with panel corrected standard errors for the 1999-2015 period. Our results show that while the proportion of high capacity roads, the unemployment rate and the motorization rate contribute to a reduction in the number of fatalities, serious injuries and slight injuries adjusted for level of traffic, the penalty-points licence system is effective in reducing the number of fatalities and serious injuries but not the number of slight injuries. Furthermore, the specific conditions in Ávila, Toledo, Madrid, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, the Balearic Islands, Lleida and all the provinces on the Mediterranean coast cause a higher number of victims per million veh-km travelled than in the remaining provinces. Thus, greater public investment and more socially responsible behaviour are essential tools for reducing the number of traffic accident victims on Spanish interurban roads. Moreover, the provincial institutions emerge as key agents in improving road safety, due to their greater knowledge of the specific conditions and factors affecting each province. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiología molecular de la rabia urbana en Colombia, 1994-2004. La rabia en ecosistemas silvestres como amenaza para la población humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Boshell

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    En Colombia la rabia ocurre en dos ciclos epidemiológicos principales: la rabia urbana con el perro como principal reservorio y transmisor principalmente a humanos, y la rabia silvestre con especies animales de la vida silvestre como los quirópteros y zorros entre otros, como reservorios y transmisores principalmente a especies ganaderas y eventualmente a humanos que se convierten en víctimas accidentales. Durante los últimos años la rabia silvestre en Colombia ha cobrado mayor relevancia como problema de salud pública que la rabia urbana, a juzgar por el número de víctimas humanas. Con el fin de perfeccionar el diagnóstico y la tipificación del virus de la rabia en Colombia, el Laboratorio Nacional de Referencia del Instituto Nacional de Salud estandarizó técnicas para amplificar y secuenciar un fragmento de ADN complementario (cADN a una fracción de 902 nucleótidos seleccionados del ARN del virus, con el fin de adelantar estudios de epidemiología molecular. La fracción mencionada contiene secuencias que codifican para los aminoácidos 447-525 de la glicoproteína y 1-35 de la proteína L. Además contiene la región intergénica no codificante conocida como Pseudogen Psi.

    Las técnicas estandarizadas fueron las siguientes: a extracción de ARN total a partir de cerebro de ratón infectado. b amplificación molecular por transcripción reversa y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. c secuenciación del fragmento amplificado.

    Mediante estas técnicas de epidemiología molecular viral se determinó que durante 1994-2004, la rabia urbana se concentró en tres regiones geográficas definidas, con epizootias en el antiplano cundiboyacense, departamento de Arauca y la región Caribe. Las dos primeras se controlaron

  6. Physiochemical, site, and bidirectional reflectance factor characteristics of uniformly moist soils. [Brazil, Spain and the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The bidirectional reflectance factor (0.5 micron to 2.3 micron wavelength interval) and physiochemical properties of over 500 soils from 39 states, Brazil and Spain were measured. Site characteristics of soil temperature regime and moisture zone were used as selection criteria. Parent material and internal drainage were noted for each soil. At least five general types of soil reflectance curves were identified based primarily on the presence or absence of ferric iron absorption bands, organic matter content, and soil drainage characteristics. Reflectance in 10 bands across the spectrum was found to be negatively correlated with the natural log of organic matter content.

  7. APPLICATION DEVELOPERS AND APP BOOKS FOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPAIN: CHARACTERISTICS, PROSPECTS AND BUSINESS MODEL

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    Neila Sanz Pilar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish market of Children and Young people’s Literature has been on the rise in recent decades and has undergone an exponential increase since introduction of ICT and the acquisition of digital contents which are dedicated to the children and young audience. For this reason, this research aims to show brief X-ray developers of a particular kind of ebooks, enhanced ebooks in Anglo-Saxon terminology, to set aside children and young people in Spain. Due to the lack of studies on these kinds of ebooks in the Children and Young people’s literature in Spain, an exploratory methodology has been applied. On the one hand, it’s based on the collection of primary and secondary sources of information, and on the other hand, an orderly and systematic survey of controlled variables has been created to obtain the answers from developers of enhanced ebooks. The purpose is to know the intrinsic characteristics that define its; to analyze the changes in the business model through the production, marketing and promotion of enhanced ebooks; and finally, to outline the future prospects these companies both application books in Spanish Children and Young people’s literature subsector; showing that they are young companies, composed by interdisciplinary teams and advocating the renewal of the business model through the integration of digital media, online sales platforms and 2.0 Social Media tools.

  8. Alternative Strategic Environments, 1994-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    between sensors and human intepreters made feasible by the new technologies as being particularly significant. He foresaw the development of "instrumented...from submarines, "including hydro- electromagnetic phenomena ... *- and various chemical and physical perturbations in the state of .* the ocean induced...particularly in Germany, deepen; despite strains of one sort or another, the basic Western alliance structure remains sound . It is further hypothesized

  9. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

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    S. Yahaya

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  10. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  11. [Familial characteristics and self-perceived health among female and male primary care physicians in Andalusia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ana; Saletti-Cuesta, Lorena; López-Fernández, Luis Andrés; Toro-Cárdenas, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    To determine the relationships between a group of professional and family characteristics and the components of physical and mental health in female and male primary care physicians working in health centers in Andalusia (Spain). A descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study was performed. The population consisted of urban health centers in Andalusia and their physicians. The sample comprised 88 health centers and 500 physicians. Measurements consisted of sex, age, professional characteristics (postgraduate training in family medicine, position of health center manager, accreditation as a residents' tutor, and workload based on patient quota and the mean number of patients/day); family responsibilities, defined by two dimensions of the family-work relationship (support overload-family support deficit and family-work conflict); and perceived physical and mental health. The data source was a self-administered questionnaire sent by surface mail. Multiple regression analyses were performed for physical and mental health for the whole sample and by gender. Responses were obtained from 368 physicians (73.6%). Mental health was worse in female physicians than in male physicians; no differences were found between genders in physical health. The family-work conflict was associated with physical and mental health in physicians of both genders. Physical health deteriorated with increasing age in both genders, improved in the female tutors of residents, and decreased with increasing family-work conflict in male physicians. Mental health decreased with increasing housework on the weekends and with family-work conflict in both genders. In male physicians, mental health deteriorated with postgraduate training in family medicine and improved if they were health center managers. Workload and professional characteristics have little relationship with the health of primary care physicians. Family characteristics play a greater role. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier

  12. Health inequalities by socioeconomic characteristics in Spain: the economic crisis effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Clara; Abásolo, Ignacio; Cáceres, José J

    2016-04-11

    An economic crisis can widen health inequalities between individuals. The aim of this paper is to explore differences in the effect of socioeconomic characteristics on Spaniards' self-assessed health status, depending on the Spanish economic situation. Data from the 2006-2007 and 2011-2012 National Health Surveys were used and binary logit and probit models were estimated to approximate the effects of socioeconomic characteristics on the likelihood to report good health. The difference between high and low education levels leads to differences in the likelihood to report good health of 16.00-16.25 and 18.15-18.22 percentage points in 2006-07 and 2011-12, respectively. In these two periods, the difference between employees and unemployed is 5.24-5.40 and 4.60-4.90 percentage points, respectively. Additionally, the difference between people who live in households with better socioeconomic conditions and those who are in worse situation reaches 5.37-5.46 and 3.63-3.74 percentage points for the same periods, respectively. The magnitude of the contribution of socioeconomic characteristics to health inequalities changes with the economic cycle; but this effect is different depending on the socioeconomic characteristics indicator that is being measured. In recessive periods, health inequalities due to education level increase, but those linked to individual professional status and household living conditions are attenuated. When the joint effects of individuals' characteristics are considered, the economic crisis brings about a slight increase in the inequalities in the probability of reporting good health between the two extreme profiles of individuals. The design of public policies aimed at preventing any worsening of health inequalities during recession periods should take into account these differential effects of socioeconomic characteristics indicators on health inequalities.

  13. The electric power market in Spain characteristics, evolution and results from January 1998 to February 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Fernandez-Castaneda, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the organized spanish Electricity production market. The main characteristics of the Day-ahead and Intra day spo to markets, and the evolution and results achieved along the more than 11 years of operations are presented. The relations between the Spanish market and the rest of the European electricity markets, with especial emphasis on those markets interconnected with the Spanish system, are also described. (Author)

  14. Radar Interferometry for Monitoring the Vibration Characteristics of Buildings and Civil Structures: Recent Case Studies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzi, Guido; Crosetto, Michele; Fernández, Enric

    2017-03-24

    The potential of a coherent microwave sensor to monitor the vibration characteristics of civil structures has been investigated in the past decade, and successful case studies have been published by different research teams. This remote sensing technique is based on the interferometric processing of real aperture radar acquisitions. Its capability to estimate, simultaneously and remotely, the displacement of different parts of the investigated structures, with high accuracy and repeatability, is its main advantage with respect to conventional sensors. A considerable amount of literature on this technique is available, including various case studies aimed at testing the ambient vibration of bridges, buildings, and towers. In the last years, this technique has been used in Spain for civil structures monitoring. In this paper, three examples of such case studies are described: the monitoring of the suspended bridge crossing the Ebro River at Amposta, the communications tower of Collserola in Barcelona, and an urban building located in Vilafranca del Penedès, a small town close to Barcelona. This paper summarizes the main outcomes of these case studies, underlining the advantages and limitations of the sensors currently available, and concluding with the possible improvements expected from the next generation of sensors.

  15. Optional accounting criteria under IFRSs and corporate characteristics: evidence from spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana Aledo Martínez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the IFRSs by EU member States in 2005 represents one of the most relevant events that have taken place to achieve the convergence of international accounting standards. In this article, we examine the annual reports of the groups listed on the Spanish Continuous Market that adopted IFRSs in 2005 in order to determine the optional accounting criteria they apply under IFRSs and, secondly, identify corporate characteristics affecting these choices. Because there are important differences across countries as a consequence of different institutional frameworks, the mandatory IFRSs adoption is an opportunity to analyze its economic effects. The main finding of this study is that Spanish groups apply the most conservative criteria to limit the number of changes they introduce related to the previous local GAAP, particularly in regards to presentation and measurement options. Additionally, we find that corporate characteristics such as industry, return on equity, size and type of audit firm (Big Four vs. non-Big Four influence the choice of accounting methods used to prepare their financial statements. The analysis of these results provides a basis for discussion between responsible international standard setters (such as IASB and FASB and regulators to work towards the convergence's goals.

  16. Characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain from a gender perspective

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    Hernandez-Barrera Valentin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical and management characteristics of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in men and women, to determine possible gender-associated differences between the two groups of patients. Methods An observational and descriptive epidemiological study (EPIDEPOC study. The study included patients with stable COPD and aged ≥ 40 years, evaluated in primary care. Data were collected relating to sociodemographic variables, clinical characteristics, quality of life (SF-12, severity of disease and treatment. The results obtained in men and women were compared. Results A total of 10,711 patients (75.6% males and 24.4% females were evaluated. Significant differences were found between males and females in relation to the following parameters: age (67.4 ± 9.2 years in men vs 66.1 ± 10.8 in women, p 2-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergic agents, theophyllines and mucolytic agents was significant greater in men. The total annual cost of COPD was greater in males than in females (1989.20 ± 2364.47 € vs 1724.53 ± 2106.90, p Conclusion The women with COPD evaluated in this study were younger, smoked less and have more comorbidity, a poorer quality of life, and lesser disease severity than men with COPD. However, they generated a lesser total annual cost of COPD than men.

  17. Domestic work count! Characteristics and transformations of the domestic service in Spain

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    Raquel Martínez Buján

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the characteristics of and transformations that Spanish domestic service has undergone in the since 2000. The paper also analyzes the domestic service’s contribution to the Spanish economy since the beginning of the country’s economic crisis. Relying on quantitative analysis of the domestic work data from the Active Population Survey, the most relevant changes identified are the increase of its demand and the consolidation of migrants workers in it. The paper also looks at the tasks carried out in the households of employers. The recent conversion of the domestic services in a nonprofessional care sector seems to mitigate the burden of personal care work that Spanish families aim to provide to their older relatives. This transformation of domestic work into care work has changed some traditional features of this occupation: the outcomes of qualitative data show changes in the intensification of the tasks carried out, a tendency to higher male workers, a reappearance of live-in workers, and key modifications in the relationship between employer families and employees. Finally, this paper incorporates a short assessment of Real Royal Decree 1620/2011 (which regulates domestic service and Law 39/2006 (Law on the Promotion of Personal Autonomy and Care for Dependent Persons to analyze which is the legal space delegate to the labor category related with the non-professional caregivers in private homes.

  18. Hydrodynamic characteristics of the western Doñana Region (area of El Abalario), Huelva, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trick, Thomas; Custodio, Emilio

    The Doñana region, in southwestern Spain, comprises a large and important nature reserve, the wetlands of which are affected by human activity. Planting of an extensive eucalyptus forest in the 1950s and, more recently, the use of aquifers for irrigation and water supply for some coastal tourist resorts, have altered the natural groundwater-flow system. The area of the study is the western sector of the region, called El Abalario, which is a gentle topographic elevation between the Atlantic coast and La Rocina Creek (Arroyo de la Rocina). Underneath a variable layer of eolian sands with high dunes near the coast, thick Plio-Quaternary detritic strata, mostly fine silica sands, overlie marls. Near the base there is a variable, deltaic-origin layer of coarse sands and gravels. The dome-shaped water table, inside the sands, is close to the surface everywhere except beneath the dune belt, and small, temporary, shallow lagoons are numerous. The coarse sand and gravel layer conditions groundwater flow and behaves as a semiconfined layer between sands. A cross section through the area was simulated with a model to check the validity of the conceptual groundwater-flow pattern and its sensitivity to the hydraulic parameters. The model was calibrated using parameter values obtained by pumping tests and multilevel piezometric data, and checked against the estimated groundwater discharge into La Rocina Creek. Groundwater flows peripherally to the sea coast, to La Rocina Creek, or directly east and southeastward into the Doñana marshlands, in the Guadalquivir River delta. The average net aquifer recharge rate was calculated to be between 100 and 200 mm year-1 for the area covered by brush, but is remarkably lower in the areas of eucalyptus trees. The transient-state model shows that recharge varies spatially and is not clearly proportional to annual precipitation. Phreatic evapotranspiration plays an important role in decreasing the net value of aquifer recharge to

  19. Optional accounting criteria under ifrss and corporate characteristics: evidence from spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUANA ALEDO MARTÍNEZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the IFRSs by EU member States in 2005 represents one of the most relevant events that have taken place to achieve the convergence of international accounting standards. In this article, we examine the annual reports of the groups listed on the Spanish Continuous Market that adopted IFRSs in 2005 in order to determine the optional accounting criteria they apply under IFRSs and, secondly, identify corporate characteristics affecting these choices. Because there are important differences across countries as a consequence of different institutional frameworks, the mandatory IFRSs adoption is an opportunity to analyze its economic effects. The main finding of this study is that Spanish groups apply the most conservative criteria to limit the number of changes they introduce related to the previous local GAAP, particularly in regards to presentation and measurement options. Additionally, we find that corporate characteristics such as industry, return on equity, size and type of audit firm (Big Four vs. non-Big Four influence the choice of accounting methods used to prepare their financial statements. The analysis of these results provides a basis for discussion between responsible international standard setters (such as IASB and FASB and regulators to work towards the convergence’s goals.RESUMENLa adopción de las NIIFs por los Estados Miembro de la UE en 2005 representa uno de los acontecimientos en materia armonizadora más importantes de los últimos años. En este artículo examinamos los estados financieros de las compañías cotizadas españolas que integran el Mercado Continuo, con la finalidad de determinar los criterios contables opcionales adoptados de conformidad con las NIIFs, e identificamos las características corporativas de estas compañías que influyen en dicha elección. Los resultados alcanzados revelan que los grupos españoles adoptan los criterios más conservadores con la finalidad de limitar el número de

  20. Epidemiologic and clinical profiles of bone and joint tuberculosis: observational study at hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paul, Medellín, Colombia, 1994-2004. Perfiles epidemiológico y clínico de la tuberculosis osteoarticular: estudio observacional en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, 1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo López Valencia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An observational, retrospective study was performed at Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, in Medellín, Colombia, based on the clinical records of patients with bone and joint tuberculosis between January 1994 and December 2004; based on the findings, epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic characteristics of 47 patients are described. These patients represented 3.4% of the total of tuberculosis cases found in this hospital during the studied period; 35 had spinal tuberculosis and in 12 the disease affected other bones; a history of pulmonary tuberculosis was found in only 7 patients; 23 were males and 24, females; their ages were between 1 and 71 years; 18 were younger than 12 years; cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were positive in 14 patients (29.8% and biopsies were consistent with tuberculosis in 26 (55.3%. Eleven of the 12 patients with extraspinal disease had the radiological findings of Phemisther. Predominant symptoms of spinal tuberculosis were: pain, neurological manifestations and deformity, mostly kyphosis. From the radiological point of view, these patients had destruction of vertebral bodies and decrease of articular space in addition to osteopenia. Tomography was performed in 19 patients and revealed medullary compression in 5 of them; magnetic resonance carried out in 17 patients showed medullary compression in 8 and paravertebral abscesses in the 17. Results are discussed on the basis of reports from the world medical literature and in the context of the health situation of the Colombian population. Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional retrospectivo en el Hospital Universitario San Vicente de Paúl, de Medellín, basado en la revisión de las historias de pacientes con tuberculosis osteoarticular, entre enero de 1994 y diciembre de 2004; con base en los hallazgos se describen las características demográficas, clínicas, de laboratorio y de tratamiento de 47 pacientes que correspondían al 3

  1. [Prevalence and characteristics of anemia and iron deficiency in patients hospitalized for gastrointestinal diseases in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; González-Galilea, Ángel; Gisbert, Javier P; Cucala, Mercedes; Ponce, Julio

    2013-10-01

    To determine the prevalence and characteristics of anemia and iron deficiency in patients hospitalized for gastrointestinal diseases. An epidemiological, multicenter, mixed design study (retrospective review of randomized clinical records and prospective visits) conducted between February 2010 and March 2011 in 22 Spanish gastroenterology departments. Severe anemia was defined as Hb iron deficiency as ferritin anemia at admission was 60% (95% CI 55 to 65), and anemia was severe (Hb iron deficiency was 54% of evaluable patients (95% CI 47 to 61). Gastrointestinal bleeding at admission was found in 39% of the patients, of whom 83% (121/146) were anemic. At discharge, the proportion of anemic patients was unchanged (from 60% at admission to 58% at discharge) (95% CI 53 to 63) and iron deficiency was found in 41% (95% CI 32 to 50): anemia was severe in 17% and mild/moderate in 41%. During follow-up, at 3-6 months after admission, 44% (95% CI 39 to 50) of evaluable patients continued to have iron deficiency and 28% (95% CI 23 to 32) were still anemic: 5% severe and 23% mild/moderate. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 44% (95% CI: 39-50). During admission, 50% of patients with anemia did not receive treatment. At discharge, 55% were untreated. The prevalence of anemia in patients hospitalized for gastroenterological diseases was very high. Anemia persisted in over a quarter of patients at the follow-up visit. Only half of hospitalized patients received treatment for anemia, even when the anemia was severe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer in Navarra (Spain). Evolution and clinical characteristics, 1986-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo Álvaro, Jorge; Bermejo Fraile, Begoña; Menéndez Torre, Edelmiro; Ardanaz, Eva; Guevara, Marcela; Anda Apiñániz, Emma

    The latest published studies show an increased incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes in the incidence of thyroid cancer in Navarra and its clinical presentation regarding sex, histological subtype and size over the last 25 years. Thyroid cancer incidence rates were calculated on the basis of data from the Cancer Registry of Navarra during 1986-2010. Clinical data were obtained from the historical cohort of the Hospital Registry of Cancer of Navarra, which includes all the new cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed and treated in the public health network of this Community in that period. The overall incidence of thyroid cancer in Navarra increased over the last 25 years, with an increase in the adjusted rate in men from 2.24 (1986-1990) to 5.85 (2006-2010) per 100,000 population/year (P<.001) and in women from 9.05 to 14.04, respectively (P<.001). This increase occurs only in papillary carcinoma. The clinical characteristics of 739 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were studied. The mean age at diagnosis increased over the years and the predominance of women (about 80%) remains stable. Mean tumor size decreased over the five-year periods from 30.9 to 22.5mm (P<.001), the proportion of microcarcinomas (T1a) increased from 8.8% to 30% (P<.001) and, despite this increase, there were no statistical differences in the TNM stage at diagnosis during the study period. The distribution of histological variants of papillary and follicular carcinoma did not change over 25 years. During the period studied, the incidence of thyroid cancer increased in Navarra in both sexes. The increase occurred only in papillary carcinoma, without changes in the distribution of his histological variants. The increase in the proportion of T1a tumors is remarkable, but the TNM stage distribution was maintained. These results suggest an increase in the diagnosis of thyroid microcarcinomas due to changes in clinical practice

  3. Epidemiological characteristics and predictors of late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain during the period 2001-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guelar Ana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early diagnosis of HIV infection can prevent morbidity and mortality as well as reduce HIV transmission. The aim of the present study was to assess prevalence, describe trends and identify factors associated with late presentation of HIV infection in Barcelona (Spain during the period 2001-09. Methods Demographic and epidemiological characteristics of cases reported to the Barcelona HIV surveillance system were analysed. Late presentation was defined for individuals with a CD4 count below 350 cells/ml upon HIV diagnosis or diagnosis of AIDS within 3 months of HIV diagnosis. Multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of late presentation. Results Of the 2,938 newly diagnosed HIV-infected individuals, 2,507 (85,3% had either a CD4 cell count or an AIDS diagnosis available. A total of 1,139 (55.6% of the 2,507 studied cases over these nine years were late presenters varying from 48% among men who have sex with men to 70% among heterosexual men. The proportion of late presentation was 62.7% in 2001-2003, 51.9% in 2004-2005, 52.6% in 2006-2007 and 52.1% in 2008-2009. A decrease over time only was observed between 2001-2003 and 2004-2005 (p = 0.001 but remained constant thereafter (p = 0.9. Independent risk factors for late presentation were older age at diagnosis (p Conclusion Late presentation of HIV is still too frequent in all transmission groups in spite of a strong commitment with HIV prevention in our city. It is necessary to develop interventions that increase HIV testing and facilitate earlier entry into HIV care.

  4. [Changes in clinic-epidemiological characteristics of new cases of HIV-1 infection in Castellón (Spain), and its impact on delayed presentation (1987-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Gallego, Carlos; Vera-Remartinez, Enrique J; Albert-Coll, Monica; Roldán-Puchalt, M Concepción; Aguilar-Climent, Manuel; Rovira-Ferrando, Rosa E; Andrés-Soler, Jorge; Roig-Espert, Belén; Penadés-Vidal, María; Usó-Blasco, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    To describe the trend of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of a cohort of HIV-1 infected patients in Castellón (Spain), and its impact on the delayed presentation. Data from HIV-1 infected outpatients presenting for care for the first time between 1987 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. There have been significant changes in the characteristics of the 1001 newly presented patients during the period studied. An increase in the mean age was observed (increasing from about 30 years before 1996, to approximately 35 after the 2000-2002 period), as well as an increase in the percentage of immigrants (de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics (abundance, type and origin) of beach litter on the Galician coast (NW Spain) from 2001 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Gago, J. (Jesús); Lahuerta, F. (Fernando); Antelo, P. (Pilar)

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the situation of beach litter on the Galician coast (NW Spain), we conducted a seasonal series of sampling on three beaches: A Lanzada, Baldaio and O Rostro. A total of 79 surveys were conducted from 2001 to 2010 on a stretch of 100 m and a stretch of 1 km. A total of 37862 beach litter items were counted and classified on the 100-m stretch and 7845 on the 1-km stretch. The average annual value of litter items for the 100-m beach stretch was 1016±633, 88±31 and 332±183; for...

  6. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  7. Comparative study of the main characteristics and composition of the mainstream smoke of ten cigarette brands sold in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcilla, A; Martínez, I; Berenguer, D; Gómez-Siurana, A; Beltrán, M I

    2012-05-01

    In this study 10 commercial top selling cigarette brands in Spain have been machine smoked and the mainstream smoke has been analyzed. Multifunctional analysis has been satisfactorily employed to correlate the effect of the main design features of the cigarettes including amount of tobacco, filter size or paper weight with the amount of smoked tobacco and with the ratio CO(2)/CO. The composition of the vapor phase and that of the particulate matter have been analyzed. The particulate matter retained in the filter of the cigarettes has also been analyzed showing a distinct behavior of the compounds condensed in the cigarette filters and in the traps, related to their retention time. A general trend for the relative yield of some compounds in the different brands have been identified and confirmed by multifunctional analysis. Nevertheless, there are some noticeable compounds that behave differently in the different brands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic myeloid leukaemia in Spain: Its presentation characteristics have changed. Spanish section of the EUTOS population-based registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, S; Casado, L F; Giraldo, P; Maestro, B; Andrade, M; Redondo, S; García-Gutiérrez, V; Ayala, R; Garcia, N; Steegmann, J L

    2016-01-01

    To provide more reliable data on the epidemiology of chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) in Spain than are currently available. The EUTOS population-based project of European LeukemiaNet is a population registry of new CML cases in patients 18 years of age or older from 22 European areas. The Spanish section included the autonomous communities of Madrid, Castilla-La Mancha and Aragon, from 1-2-2010 to 31-12-2012. A total of 250 cases were recorded in 35 months. The overall incidence was 1.08 cases/10(5) inhabitants-year, with a predominance of men (58%) and clear differences among the communities. The incidence standardised by age was similar (overall, 1.04; men, 1.31; women, 0.81). The median age was 54 years. The incidence increased with age, reaching a peak at>65 years, although 31.7% of cases appeared between the ages of 20 and 44 years. Four percent of cases were diagnosed in advanced stages (2.4% in accelerated phase, 1.6% in blast crisis), 56% were asymptomatic, 38% had splenomegaly, and the Sokal score was high in 11% (lower than what was previously reflected in the literature). The current incidence of CML in Spain is higher than previously reported and similar to that of the European studies. Unlike the classical descriptions, CML presented mostly in asymptomatic form, with no splenomegaly, less leucocytosis and in stages with better prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in radiological patterns, tumour characteristics and diagnostic precision between digital mammography and screen-film mammography in four breast cancer screening programmes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingo, Laia; Sala, Maria; Romero, Anabel; Belvis, Francesc; Macia, Francesc; Castells, Xavier; Sanchez, Mar; Ferrer, Joana; Salas, Dolores; Ibanez, Josefa; Vega, Alfonso; Ferrer, Francesc; Laso, M.S.

    2011-01-01

    To compare tumour characteristics between cancers detected with screen-film mammography (SFM) and digital mammography (DM) and to evaluate changes in positive predictive values (PPVs) for further assessments, for invasive procedures and for distinct radiological patterns in recalled women. 242,838 screening mammograms (171,191 SFM and 71,647 DM) from 103,613 women aged 45-69 years, performed in four population-based breast cancer screening programmes in Spain, were included. The tumour characteristics and PPVs of each group were compared. Radiological patterns (masses, calcifications, distortions and asymmetries) among recalled women were described and PPVs were evaluated. The percentages of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were higher in DM than in SFM both in the first [18.5% vs. 15.8%(p = 0.580)] and in successive screenings [23.2% vs. 15.7%(p = 0.115)]. PPVs for masses, asymmetries and calcifications were higher in DM, being statistically significant in masses (5.3% vs. 3.9%; proportion ratio: 1.37 95%CI: 1.08-1.72). Among cancers detected by calcifications, the percentage of DCIS was higher in DM (60.3% vs. 46.4%, p = 0.060). PPVs were higher when DM was used, both for further assessments and for invasive procedures, with similar cancer detection rates and no statistically significant differences in tumour characteristics. The greatest improvements in PPVs were found for masses. (orig.)

  10. Differences in radiological patterns, tumour characteristics and diagnostic precision between digital mammography and screen-film mammography in four breast cancer screening programmes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, Laia; Sala, Maria [IMIM-Hospital del Mar, Department of Epidemiology and Evaluation, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), EHEA Doctoral Program in Public Health. Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Barcelona (Spain); Romero, Anabel; Belvis, Francesc; Macia, Francesc; Castells, Xavier [IMIM-Hospital del Mar, Department of Epidemiology and Evaluation, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Barcelona (Spain); Sanchez, Mar [Government of Cantabria, General Directorate of Public Health, Department of Health, Santander (Spain); Ferrer, Joana [Radiology Unit. Hospital Santa Caterina, Girona (Spain); Salas, Dolores; Ibanez, Josefa [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia (Spain); Vega, Alfonso [Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla, Radiology Unit, Santander (Spain); Ferrer, Francesc [Hospital del Mar, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Service, Barcelona (Spain); Laso, M.S. [Breast Cancer Screening Unit Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    To compare tumour characteristics between cancers detected with screen-film mammography (SFM) and digital mammography (DM) and to evaluate changes in positive predictive values (PPVs) for further assessments, for invasive procedures and for distinct radiological patterns in recalled women. 242,838 screening mammograms (171,191 SFM and 71,647 DM) from 103,613 women aged 45-69 years, performed in four population-based breast cancer screening programmes in Spain, were included. The tumour characteristics and PPVs of each group were compared. Radiological patterns (masses, calcifications, distortions and asymmetries) among recalled women were described and PPVs were evaluated. The percentages of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were higher in DM than in SFM both in the first [18.5% vs. 15.8%(p = 0.580)] and in successive screenings [23.2% vs. 15.7%(p = 0.115)]. PPVs for masses, asymmetries and calcifications were higher in DM, being statistically significant in masses (5.3% vs. 3.9%; proportion ratio: 1.37 95%CI: 1.08-1.72). Among cancers detected by calcifications, the percentage of DCIS was higher in DM (60.3% vs. 46.4%, p = 0.060). PPVs were higher when DM was used, both for further assessments and for invasive procedures, with similar cancer detection rates and no statistically significant differences in tumour characteristics. The greatest improvements in PPVs were found for masses. (orig.)

  11. Fiber Patterns in Young Adults Living in Different Environments (USA, Spain, and Tunisia. Anthropometric and Lifestyle Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José García-Meseguer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of dietary fiber go beyond its effect on chronic diseases associated with development. Consequently, the pattern of fiber intake has been considered an indicator for diet quality. Young adults are especially vulnerable to a food environment that drives an increase in chronic diseases linked to economic development. The aim of this work was to characterize patterns of fiber intake among university students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 730 students enrolled at the University of Castilla-La Mancha (Spain, the University of Carthage (Tunisia, and Florida International University (USA. Mean age was 21.2. Food consumption was self-reported in two 24-h recalls. Mean dietary fiber intake was 17.8 g, not reaching the adequate intake. Contrary to expectations, American participants were the highest consumers (p < 0.001, and also exhibited the highest BMI. Cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruit were the main food sources of fiber. Fiber from appetizers, prepared and precooked meals, sauces, spices and condiments accounted for 16.7% in American participants, 7.4% in Spanish participants and 2.6% in Tunisian participants. Total fiber intake increased with energy intake but did not depend on smoking habits and physical activity in any country. It is essential to improve consumers’ interpretation of guidelines on fiber intake.

  12. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  13. [Characteristics of smoking, nicotine dependence and motivation for change in specialists training in health sciences (residents) in Andalusia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Jiménez, M V; Valverde-Bolívar, F J; Pérez-Milena, A; Moreno-Corredor, A

    2015-09-01

    As there are few studies on the smoking habits of specialists training in health sciences (residents), it is of interest to determine the prevalence of smoking, nicotine dependence and motivation for change, and their relationship with other variables (personal, work and consumption of other drugs). A multicentre, cross-sectional study using a questionnaire was conducted in 2012. All the residents who were studying in Teaching Health Centres in Andalusia (Spain) completed a questionnaire, which was sent by e-mail, collecting: age, sex, specialty, country of origin, qualitative-quantitative consumption of tobacco, age of onset/cessation, Fagerström test and stage of change (Proschaka). A total of 2667 residents (63% of total) completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 29.1 years (± 5.2), 69% female, 89% Spanish, and 86% physicians. Of the 17% who smoked (daily pattern-47%, intermittently-41%, related to leisure-3%), starting at 17.4 years (±3.5) and mean of 7.5 cigarettes per day (±7.1), higher medical specialties (P=.067 ANOVA), and in men (P=.074, Student-t). More than three-quarters (82%) had a low nicotine dependence, being higher in hospital medical specialties (P=.078 χ(2)). Of the total, 7% were former smokers, and 48% wanted to quit smoking (contemplation 38%, preparation 10%). In the multivariate analysis there was a link between smoking and alcohol consumption (OR 2.84) and illegal drugs (OR 3.57). There were no differences by age or country. The consumption of tobacco in residents is less than the general population, with a low dependence and better willingness to change. The period of specialised training is a good time to offer tobacco interventions. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis and Mapping of the Spectral Characteristics of Fractional Green Cover in Saline Wetlands (NE Spain Using Field and Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Domínguez-Beisiegel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Inland saline wetlands are complex systems undergoing continuous changes in moisture and salinity and are especially vulnerable to human pressures. Remote sensing is helpful to identify vegetation change in semi-arid wetlands and to assess wetland degradation. Remote sensing-based monitoring requires identification of the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation and their correspondence with the vegetation cover and soil conditions. We studied the spectral characteristics of soils and vegetation of saline wetlands in Monegros, NE Spain, through field and satellite images. Radiometric and complementary field measurements in two field surveys in 2007 and 2008 were collected in selected sites deemed as representative of different soil moisture, soil color, type of vegetation, and density. Despite the high local variability, we identified good relationships between field spectral data and Quickbird images. A methodology was established for mapping the fraction of vegetation cover in Monegros and other semi-arid areas. Estimating vegetation cover in arid wetlands is conditioned by the soil background and by the occurrence of dry and senescent vegetation accompanying the green component of perennial salt-tolerant plants. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI was appropriate to map the distribution of the vegetation cover if the green and yellow-green parts of the plants are considered.

  15. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infants admitted to hospital due to human parechovirus infections: A prospective study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Del Valle, Fernando; Calvo, Cristina; Martinez-Rienda, Inés; Cilla, Amaia; Romero, María P; Menasalvas, Ana Isabel; Reis-Iglesias, Leticia; Roda, Diana; Pena, María J; Rabella, Nuria; Portugués de la Red, María Del Mar; Megías, Gregoria; Moreno-Docón, Antonio; Otero, Almudena; Cabrerizo, María

    2018-02-01

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) is one of the recently described picornaviridae viruses that have been associated with fever of unknown origin (FUO), clinical sepsis, gastroenteritis, meningitis, or encephalitis in very young infants. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of these viruses. A prospective multicentre 3-year study was conducted in 12 hospitals in Spain. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%), with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%) for HPeV, with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae CONCLUSIONS: HPeV circulates in our country, mainly during spring and summer, and affects young infants with a FUO and clinical sepsis. Molecular diagnostic techniques in all hospitals could help in improving the management of patients with these infections. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatr

  16. Evaluation of the physico-chemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of commercially available Frankfurters in Spain and consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Viñas, M A; Caballero, A B; Gallego, I; García Ruiz, A

    2004-08-01

    The physico-chemical, rheological and sensory characteristics of different commercially available Frankfurters were studied. Samples presented values of A(w) and pH from 0.954 to 0.972 and 5.88 to 6.43, respectively. Greater differences were observed in parameters such as fat and salt content, with values ranging from 10.83% to 21.92% and 1.85% to 3.01%, respectively. With regard to total nitrogen, all samples presented values close to 2%. Free-choice profiling and generalised procrustes analysis of the sensory data permitted differentiation between samples and provided information about the attributes responsible for the observed differences. All the frankfurters scored in the moderate range for overall acceptability. Consumers identified reasons for purchasing frankfurters when evaluating the product's packaging. The most important criterion for consumers when purchasing frankfurters was the appetising aspect of the product in the packaging's illustration.

  17. Clinical characteristics of adult patients with inborn errors of metabolism in Spain: A review of 500 cases from university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pérez-López

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs have become an emerging and challenging group in the adult healthcare system whose needs should be known in order to implement appropriate policies and to adapt adult clinical departments. We aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics of adult patients with IEMs who attend the most important Spanish hospitals caring for these conditions. A cohort study was conducted in 500 patients, categorized by metabolic subtype according to pathophysiological classification. The most prevalent group of IEMs was amino acid disorders, with 108 (21.6% patients diagnosed with phenylketonuria. Lysosomal storage disorders were the second group, in which 32 (6.4% and 25 (5% patients had Fabry disease and Gaucher disease respectively. The great clinical heterogeneity, the significant delay in diagnosis after symptom onset, the existence of some degree of physical dependence in a great number of patients, the need for a multidisciplinary and coordinated approach, and the lack of specific drug treatment are common features in this group of conditions.

  18. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Rafael

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD. Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434 and 4 (n = 695 defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD was very high (39.1%. In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p 300 mg/day was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively. A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p Conclusion This study provides an overview of key clinical parameters in patients with CKD Stages 3 and 4 where delivery or care was largely by nephrologists working in a network of hospital-based clinics of the Spanish National Healthcare System.

  19. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgars have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common bean and Medicago rhizobia isolated from five locations on the island of Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, by partial analysis of 10 chromosomal genes were shown to exhibit close similarity to Sinorhizobium meliloti. Several bean isolates from Lanzarote, mainland Spain and Tunisia nodulated Leu...

  20. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  1. [Initial antiretroviral treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in Spain: Decisions made in relation to particular immunovirological characteristics (PERFIL-es study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Hevia, Henar; Palazuelos, Marta; Ledesma, Francisco

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of Perfil-es study was to identify the proportion of patients starting ARV treatment based on NNRTIs or PI/r, and to identify the variables involved in the therapeutic decision-making in standard clinical practice. An observational retrospective study performed in 65 Spanish hospitals. Was a total of 1,687 starts: 53% with NNRTI-based regimen and 42% with PI/r, and of the 642 patients analyzed, 72% had a CD4 count<350 cells/μl. The initiation of ARV treatment is still late in Spain. NNRTIs are the more frequent choice, although PI/r plays an important role. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Rhizobia from Lanzarote, the Canary Islands, that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris have characteristics in common with Sinorhizobium meliloti isolates from mainland Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo-Piñeiro, José Luis; García-Fraile, Paula; Rivas, Raúl; Peix, Alvaro; León-Barrios, Milagros; Willems, Anne; Mateos, Pedro Francisco; Martínez-Molina, Eustoquio; Velázquez, Encarna; van Berkum, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The stable, low-molecular-weight (LMW) RNA fractions of several rhizobial isolates of Phaseolus vulgaris grown in the soil of Lanzarote, an island of the Canary Islands, were identical to a less-common pattern found within Sinorhizobium meliloti (assigned to group II) obtained from nodules of alfalfa and alfalfa-related legumes grown in northern Spain. The P. vulgaris isolates and the group II LMW RNA S. meliloti isolates also were distinguishable in that both had two conserved inserts of 20 and 46 bp in the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region that were not present in other strains of S. meliloti. The isolates from P. vulgaris nodulated bean but not Medicago sativa, while those recovered from Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. nodulated both host legumes. The bean isolates also were distinguished from those of Medicago, Melilotus, and Trigonella spp. by nodC sequence analysis. The nodC sequences of the bean isolates were most similar to those reported for S. meliloti bv. mediterranense and Sinorhizobium fredii bv. mediterranense (GenBank accession numbers DQ333891 and AF217267, respectively). None of the evidence placed the bean isolates from Lanzarote in the genus Rhizobium, which perhaps is inconsistent with seed-borne transmission of Rhizobium etli from the Americas to the Canaries as an explanation for the presence of bean-nodulating rhizobia in soils of Lanzarote.

  3. [Prevalence and clinical characteristics of subclinical hypothyroidism in an opportunistic sample in the population of Castile-León (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal Hidalgo, Ana Isabel; Lozano Alonso, José E; Vega Alonso, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    To describe the distribution of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) values and to estimate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in the adult population of Castile and León (Spain). An observational study was conducted in an opportunistic sample of 45 primary care centers in Castile and León. TSH was determined in people aged ≥35 years that attended a primary care physician and had a blood test for any reason. Confirmatory analysis included free thyroxine and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody determination. A total of 3957 analyses were carried out, 63% in women. The mean age was 61.5 years. The median TSH value was 2.3 μIU/mL (2.5 μIU/mL in women and 2.1 μIU/mL in men), with a rising trend with age. TSH values were higher in undiagnosed or untreated subclinical hypothyroidism than in patients under treatment. The lowest levels were found in euthyroidism. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 9.2% (95%CI: 8.3-10.2), and hypothyroidism was three times higher in women than in men (12.4% versus 3.7%). Hypothyroidism increased with age, reaching a peak of 16.9% in women aged 45 to 64 years. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism in our sample was high and in the upper limits of values found in previous studies. Proper diagnosis and treatment are important because of the risk of progression to hypothyroidism and the association with multiple diseases and other risk factors. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. What's Going On? An Overview of Adult Education Policies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to present the state of adult education in Spain. Adult education in Spain is not unlike that of other countries in Europe in that it focuses on the policies and practices of lifelong learning rather than on the perspectives of people and communities. However, Spain has two specific characteristics that are distinctive…

  5. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  6. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  7. Analysis of the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances in water, sediment and biota of the Jucar River (E Spain). Sources, partitioning and relationships with water physical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: Julian.Campo@uv.es [Environmental Forensic and Landscape Chemistry Research Group. Desertification Research Centre - CIDE (Spanish Council for Scientific Research, University of Valencia, Generalitat Valenciana), Carretera Moncada - Náquera km 4.5 (Campus IVIA), Moncada, 46113 Valencia (Spain); Earth Surface Science, Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystems Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lorenzo, María [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA–UV), Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificación (CIDE, UV–CSIC–GV) and Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Pérez, Francisca [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA–UV), Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificación (CIDE, UV–CSIC–GV) and Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de València, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2016-05-15

    The presence, sources and partitioning of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were assessed in water, sediment, and biota of the Jucar River basin (E Spain). Considering the three matrices, perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the most frequent compounds, being remarkable the high occurrence of short-chain PFASs (C≤8), which are intended to replace the long-chain ones in several industrial and commercial applications. In general, all samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, with the exception of three fish samples. Mean concentrations detected in sediments (0.22–11.5 ng g{sup −1}) and biota (0.63–274 µg kg{sup −1}) samples were higher than those measured in water (0.04–83.1 ng L{sup −1}), which might suggest (bio) accumulation. The occurrence of PFAS is related to urban and industrial discharges (Cuenca city in the upper part of basin, and car's factory, and effluents of the sewage treatment plant (STP) of Alzira, in the lower part). Increasing pollution gradients were found. On the other hand, higher contamination levels were observed after regulation dams of the catchment pointing out their importance in the re-distribution of these contaminants. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). PFAS concentrations found in this study can be considered in acceptable levels if compared to existing Regulatory Legislation and, consequently, they do not pose an immediate human health risk. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Jucar River is established. • PFPeA and PFOS are the predominant but high PFDA levels are related to industry. • PFASs in water and sediment related to the increase in NaCl, conductivity and TDS. • PFAS concentration in sediment/biota suggests (bio)accumulation. • None of the

  8. Analysis of the presence of perfluoroalkyl substances in water, sediment and biota of the Jucar River (E Spain). Sources, partitioning and relationships with water physical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Julian; Lorenzo, María; Pérez, Francisca; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella

    2016-01-01

    The presence, sources and partitioning of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were assessed in water, sediment, and biota of the Jucar River basin (E Spain). Considering the three matrices, perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were the most frequent compounds, being remarkable the high occurrence of short-chain PFASs (C≤8), which are intended to replace the long-chain ones in several industrial and commercial applications. In general, all samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, with the exception of three fish samples. Mean concentrations detected in sediments (0.22–11.5 ng g −1 ) and biota (0.63–274 µg kg −1 ) samples were higher than those measured in water (0.04–83.1 ng L −1 ), which might suggest (bio) accumulation. The occurrence of PFAS is related to urban and industrial discharges (Cuenca city in the upper part of basin, and car's factory, and effluents of the sewage treatment plant (STP) of Alzira, in the lower part). Increasing pollution gradients were found. On the other hand, higher contamination levels were observed after regulation dams of the catchment pointing out their importance in the re-distribution of these contaminants. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). PFAS concentrations found in this study can be considered in acceptable levels if compared to existing Regulatory Legislation and, consequently, they do not pose an immediate human health risk. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Jucar River is established. • PFPeA and PFOS are the predominant but high PFDA levels are related to industry. • PFASs in water and sediment related to the increase in NaCl, conductivity and TDS. • PFAS concentration in sediment/biota suggests (bio)accumulation. • None of the calculated

  9. Microbial Diversity and Its Relationship to Physicochemical Characteristics of the Water in Two Extreme Acidic Pit Lakes from the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Santofimia

    Full Text Available The Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB hosts one of the world's largest accumulations of acidic mine wastes and pit lakes. The mineralogical and textural characteristics of the IPB ores have favored the oxidation and dissolution of metallic sulfides, mainly pyrite, and the subsequent formation of acidic mining drainages. This work reports the physical properties, hydrogeochemical characteristics, and microbial diversity of two pit lakes located in the IPB. Both pit lakes are acidic and showed high concentrations of sulfate and dissolved metals. Concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals were higher in the Nuestra Señora del Carmen lake (NSC by one order of magnitude than in the Concepción (CN lake. The hydrochemical characteristics of NSC were typical of acid mine waters and can be compared with other acidic environments. When compared to other IPB acidic pit lakes, the superficial water of CN is more diluted than that of any of the others due, probably, to the strong influence of runoff water. Both pit lakes showed chemical and thermal stratification with well defined chemoclines. One particular characteristic of NSC is that it has developed a chemocline very close to the surface (2 m depth. Microbial community composition of the water column was analyzed by 16S and 18S rRNA gene cloning and sequencing. The microorganisms detected in NSC were characteristic of acid mine drainage (AMD, including iron oxidizing bacteria (Leptospirillum, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and facultative iron reducing bacteria and archaea (Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidiphilium, Actinobacteria, Acidimicrobiales, Ferroplasma detected in the bottom layer. Diversity in CN was higher than in NSC. Microorganisms known from AMD systems (Acidiphilium, Acidobacteria and Ferrovum and microorganisms never reported from AMD systems were identified. Taking into consideration the hydrochemical characteristics of these pit lakes and the spatial distribution of the identified

  10. Physico-chemistry characteristics of compost from urban solid wastes in Valencia (Spain); Caracteristicas fisico-quimicas de los composts de residuos solidos urbanos de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albiach, M. R.; Canet, R.; Pomares, F.; Tarazona, F.; Chaves, C.; Ferrer, E.

    2004-07-01

    For nearly twenty years samples of MSW compost produced in the Valencia region. have been analysed in our laboratories. Their main characteristics are summarised and discussed in this article, which reveals their compliance with current regulations, but also the problems which may arise if stricter requirements are eventually applied by the European Commission. (Author)

  11. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present states of nuclear power in Spain is shortly surveyed. Data are provided on NPPs currently in operation, under construction, designed and planned. In line with the 10-year ''National programme of electricity supply'' a major and all increasing part of the electricity generation growth is to be ensured by NPPs and to account for more than 50% by the end of the period (1987). Out of the 7 units of NPPs now under construction, 6 units utilize PWR reactors and only 1 unit- a BWR reactor. The roles of private and public sectors are noted. Main characteristics of the ''ENSA'' plant now under construction are provided where components of NPPs with PWR and BWR reactors will be fabricated. Major developments in the fields of mining, milling and extraction of U from lignites, U enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing are considered. Measures now taken to improve the licensing procedure, surveillance of NPPs and personnel training are to advance the nuclear power development programme in the country

  12. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    having Spain as a member. Spain is a traditional country in many ways. Religion is still a strongly-felt part of national life and atheism is looked at... Siglo XXI, 30 April 1979. Pedro J. Ramirez, "Diez Razones a favor de la OTAN," ABC, 17 September 1978, p. 7. 8 Ibid. Il 167 - SPAIN - WHAT’S IN IT...Cordoba and Granada. All three of the country’s major religions lived in relative harmony primarily in Moorish kingdoms, where the arts, commerce, and the

  13. INES in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Spain addressing the following issues: applicability; rating procedure; public information; activities in 1997; events above level 0 (October 1996 - September 1997); difficulties

  14. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; FISZMAN DAL SANTO, SUSANA; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  15. Incidence, characteristic and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia among type 2 diabetes patients: An observational population-based study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; de Miguel-Díez, Javier; de Miguel-Yanes, José M; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; Méndez-Bailón, Manuel; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Salinero-Fort, Miguel-Ángel; López-de-Andrés, Ana

    2017-05-01

    To describe incidence, characteristics and outcomes of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) during hospitalization among patients with or without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We used the Spanish national hospital discharge database to select all hospitalization with VAP in subjects aged 40years or more from 2010 to 2014. We analyzed incidence, patient comorbidities, procedures, pneumonia pathogens and in-hospital outcomes according to diabetes status (T2DM and no-diabetes). We used propensity score analysis to estimate the effect of T2DM on in-hospital mortality RESULTS: In 7952 admissions, the patient developed a VAP (13.6% with T2DM). Adjusted incidence rate of VAP was slightly, but significantly, higher in T2DM than in non-diabetic patients (36.46[95% CI 34.41-38.51] vs. 32.57[95% CI 31.40-33.74] cases per 100,000/inhabitants). T2DM people were older and had higher Charlson comorbidity index than non-diabetic people. T2DM patients had a lower mean number of failing organs than non-diabetic patients (1.20 SD 1.17 vs. 1.45 SD 1.44, ppatients and 37.91% for non-diabetic patients (ppatients. In-hospital mortality was higher among the older patients and those with more co-morbid conditions. T2DM does not predict higher mortality in VAP during hospitalization. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of life in family caregivers of schizophrenia patients in Spain: caregiver characteristics, caregiving burden, family functioning, and social and professional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribé, José M; Salamero, Manel; Pérez-Testor, Carles; Mercadal, Josep; Aguilera, Concepción; Cleris, Margarida

    2018-03-01

    Caregivers experience physical and mental stress that ends up lowering their quality of life (QoL). Our goal was to research (a) the level of caregivers QoL; (b) the relationships between the demographic characteristics of the caregivers, their caregiving burden, their family functioning, their social and professional support and their QoL and (c) the best predictors of caregivers QoL. 100 key caregivers (70% parents, 8% spouses, 17% siblings and 5% children) were studied using the world health organization quality of life-Bref (WHOQOL-BREF) to research their QoL, the Zarit Scale to assess their perception of their caregiving burden, the Social Network Questionnaire to examine their social support, the Family APGAR to assess the satisfaction with social support from the family and a professional support scale (Escala de Apoyo Profesional) to determine the professional support received by caregivers was performed. Scores on the WHOQOL-BREF in the Physical, Psychological, Social and Environment domains were 15.0 (SD = 3.7), 13.3 (SD = 4.2), 11.0 (SD = 4.7) and 13.5 (SD = 3.1), respectively. Through bivariate analysis, the dimensions that showed a positive significant association with QoL were being a young male caregiver who was a working father with a high educational level and help from other family members. Caregivers of patients who were older and had a later onset of the illness, a lower score on the Zarit Scale and a high score on the Social Network Questionnaire, Family APGAR and Escala de Apoyo Profesional showed higher QoL. Many of these variables made a unique contribution in the multivariate analysis. There is a significant association between the caregiver's burden and their QoL. Regression analysis showed that the best predictors of QoL were caregiving burden, social support and professional support.

  17. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  18. Quality assurance in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villate, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this lecture is devoted to present the energy program in Spain and the three generations of nuclear plants. The evolution of QA is outlined pointing out how IAEA Codes of Practice on QA is now a requirement and also how USA regulations, codes and standards have constituted, up to now, the main framework to develop QA activities in Spain. A general idea is given of the Spanish program of courses to qualify the personnel to be involved in QA tasks in nuclear power plants. Finally a general scheme is given, emphasizing the three main aspects: design, procurement and fabrication; construction (QA on site). (orig./RW)

  19. Spain investigates PLEX options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1990-01-01

    Spain's nuclear generation capacity will be reduced by some 6000MWe by the year 2015 if decommissioning of the units currently in operation takes place at the end of their 40-year design life. Bearing this in mind, in 1988 the Santa Maria de Garona BWR and the Jose Cabrera PWR were chosen by their respective owners as reference units for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. These plants are the oldest of their types operating in Spain and PLEX programmes were already under way. (author)

  20. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Intensive care medicine is a medical specialty that was officially established in our country in 1978, with a 5-year training program including two years of common core training followed by three years of specific training in an intensive care unit accredited for training. During this 32-year period, intensive care medicine has carried out an intense and varied activity, which has allowed its positioning as an attractive and with future specialty in the hospital setting. This document summarizes the history of the specialty, its current situation, the key role played in the programs of organ donation and transplantation of the National Transplant Organization (after more than 20 years of mutual collaboration), its training activities with the development of the National Plan of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, with a trajectory of more than 25 years, its interest in providing care based on quality and safety programs for the severely ill patient. It also describes the development of reference registries due to the need for reliable data on the care process for the most prevalent diseases, such as ischemic heart disease or ICU-acquired infections, based on long-term experience (more than 15 years), which results in the availability of epidemiological information and characteristics of care that may affect the practical patient's care. Moreover, features of its scientific society (SEMICYUC) are reported, an organization that agglutinates the interests of more than 280 ICUs and more than 2700 intensivists, with reference to the journal Medicina Intensiva, the official journal of the society and the Panamerican and Iberian Federation of Critical Medicine and Intensive Care Societies. Medicina Intensiva is indexed in the Thompson Reuters products of Science Citation Index Expanded (Scisearch(®)) and Journal Citation Reports, Science Edition. The important contribution of the Spanish intensive care medicine to the scientific community is also analyzed, and in relation to

  1. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy....

  2. [Tuberculosis and immigration in Spain: scoping review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Rodrigo, Teresa; Camprubí, Esteve; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is a fairly recent phenomenon in Spain and there are still few scientific publications on tuberculosis (TB) and immigration. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the differential characteristics of TB in the immigrant population with respect to natives in Spain. Literature review of original articles written in Spanish or English and published 1998-2012 about TB among immigrant population. The articles with the key words "Tuberculosis", "immigrants" and "Spain" were included. Literature search was performed in Medline and MEDES. A total of 72,087 articles on TB were detected worldwide, 6% of them dealt with the immigration issue. Regarding Spain we found 2,917 articles representing 4% of the papers published worldwide, and in 219 (7.5%) immigration was considered. Of the 219 articles, 48% were published in Spanish journals and the 52% remaining in Anglo-Saxon journals. 93.5% of immigrants with TB were younger than 51, whereas this percentage was 64.9% in natives. Drug resistance can be seen in 7.8% of the immigrant population but in only 3.8% of natives. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem. Immigrants with TB were characterized by being younger and having more drug resistance and coming mostly from Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem.

  3. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  4. From sender to host: context, size and characteristics of Latin American immigration to Spain De la España que emigra a la España que acoge: contexto, dimensión y características de la inmigración latinoamericana en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio ANTÓN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the immigration phenomenon in Spain. First, we analyse the evolution of migration flows in Spain over the last years. Secondly, we examine the main demographic and socio-economic characteristics of Latin Americans living in Spain, pointing out the differences among Latin Americans and Spaniards and other foreign population.El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar una panorámica del fenómeno de la inmigración latinoamericana en España. Para ello, se analiza, por un lado, la evolución y composición de los flujos migratorios en España a lo largo de los últimos años. Por otra parte, se examinan las principales características demográficas y socioeconómicas de los latinoamericanos residentes en España, destacando las diferencias existentes con los españoles y con otros colectivos de extranjeros.

  5. Pakistanis in Spain: a study based on the community living in the city of Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Solé Aubia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the characteristics of Spain becoming a country of immigration is the greater protagonism that some countries have acquired which had not traditionally been a major source of migration movements towards Spain. Such is the case of Pakistan, whose nationals living in Spain have considerably increased in recent years, mainly in the area of Barcelona. This study seeks to undertake a research line in order to get to know more deeply the reality of this community.

  6. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  7. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    the plans of the Spanish Government to reduce their dependence on oil over the next ten years by a considerable increase in nuclear generating capacity are outlined. Data on the type, generating power, location and commissioning data of a number of nuclear power stations in Spain are tabulated. The use of foreign companies for the design and construction of the nuclear stations and the national organisations responsible for different aspects of the programme are considered. (UK)

  8. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  9. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  10. Design and construction of the multilayer cover for uranium ores landfills in Andujar (Spain) mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Santiago, J.L. de.

    1994-01-01

    This report shows the design and construction of multilayer cover for the landfill of sterile uranium ores in Andujar Mining (Spain). The main chapters are: 1.- Decommissioning project of Uranium Mining in Andujar (Spain) 2.- Elements and design of cover. 3.- Characteristic material

  11. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  12. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  14. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  15. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  16. Burn care in Los Angeles, California: LAC+USC experience 1994-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Warren L; Reiss, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    The LAC+USC Burn Center has admitted 3118 patients for treatment in the last 10 years. A majority of patients were young adults (1868), with the second largest group being small children (543). The ethnicity of the patients reflects the diverse nature of the population of Los Angeles County. Forty-eight percent of injuries were less than 5% TBSA and approximately 2% were greater than 60% TBSA. Eighty-two percent were accidental injuries. Sixty percent of admitted patients underwent skin grafting. Mortality was negligible in the group with burns over less than 10% of their body and very high (15/19), 79% in the most severely burned group. Further, there was a high correlation between age and mortality. Complications during treatment included: deep venous thrombosis 1% per year; pulmonary emboli in 5 patients; endotracheal tube dislodgment early or self-extubation about 1 month (11.3 per year); 4.5 patients per year who developed acute renal failure; abdominal compartment syndrome developed in 4.7 patients each year; heterotopic ossification was seen in 4 patients (0.4%); 4 patients (0.4%) developed stage II-IV pressure sores; hypothermia was present in 0.8% of patients.

  17. Energetic matrix of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil - 1994/2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This book has been structured into three parts and three appendices. In the first part, named Energetic matrix of Rio de Janeiro State, the most important economic and social aspects of the State and the methodology for elaboration of economic and energetic scenarios has been detailed. In the second part, an analysis of seven consumption sectors components of the energetic matrix structure ( industrial, transports, residential, commercial, energetic, agriculture and cattle-breeding, non energetic) has been performed, with the objective of providing information on the present status and future prospects of energy consumption by sectors up to 2004. Finally, in the third part, the energy supply of Rio de Janeiro State for the consumption sectors has been discussed

  18. Primary Dental Care 1994-2004: the first ten years. A chronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renson, Ted

    2004-10-01

    The prime purpose of a professional journal is to keep its readers informed of changes of importance affecting the practise of that profession. That is the criterion that I have applied in producing this chronology of the papers that have been published in Primary DENTAL CARE during the past decade. The ambition which has guided me since I received the invitation to carry out this review is a simple one: to include as much as may generally be found useful by general dental practitioners (GDPs), who form the bulk of our readership. In 1789 the English philosopher Jeremy Bentham extolled the virtues of utility for mankind when he declared that 'the greatest happiness of the greatest number is the foundation of morals and legislation'. The contributors that I have included, by contrast, think of their utilitarianism as striving after the most practical. The principal purpose of this chronology is to achieve a summary, without weighing causes or consequences. From past experience, an outstanding virtue of such an aggregated record is that it can inspire fresh patterns of thought and thus encourage the submission of manuscripts as a result of those thoughts. I can think of scarcely any facet of the general practice of dentistry that has not been touched upon, for the most part authoritatively. I hope that these brief aide-memoires may persuade old readers to return to those articles of particular interest to them and that new readers will feel informed about past papers. Every issue of the journal to date has been reviewed. Dates, volume and issue numbers and principal authors' names are all included. With these identifying features any paper, to which reference is made, may be quickly found. It would be manifestly absurd to use precious space on a formal listing of more than 250 references and this listing has, therefore, been omitted.

  19. Internal lecture | LEP II era/precision physics (1994-2004) | Main Auditorium | 25 July

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    LEP II era/precision physics, by Lydia Fayard, Roberto Tenchini, and Steve Myers.   3.30 p.m. - 3.45 p.m.: coffee 3.45 p.m. - 4.30 p.m.: The quest for the direct CP Violation in the Kaon System at CERN: The NA31 & NA48 experiments by Lydia Iconomidou-Fayard (Université de Paris-Sud 11 (FR)). Abstract After years of studying kaon properties at CERN, the hunt for direct CP violation in this system started in the 1980s and lasted about two decades. While expected to be small, this component is a probe into the validity of the Standard Model and its precise measurement was the main goal of two experiments at CERN, namely NA31 and NA48. In this talk, we will review the two collaborations in their historical contexts. The challenging detectors and beams, the analyses, the innovative methods and tools, and the first non-zero evidence of Re(epsilon'/epsilon) that resulted in the evolution from NA31 to NA48 in order to increase accuracy and further squeeze the...

  20. Teraviljatoodete tootmine, tarbimine ja kaubandus : [1994-2004 Eestis] / Taavi Kuntu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuntu, Taavi

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Agriculture and the development of rural life : overview 2004/2005. - Tallinn, 2005, lk. 34-41. Teravilja, teraviljasaadusi ja muid toiduaineid töötlev tööstus annab väärtuseliselt ligikaudu 18% Eesti toiduainetööstuse kogutoodangust. Diagrammid. Tabel

  1. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data on CCW disposal practices and State regulatory requirements at landfills and surface impoundments that were permitted, built, or laterally expanded between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2004. The scope of the study excluded waste units that manage CCWs in active or abandoned coal mines. The EPA identified the following three areas of interest: (1) Recent and current CCW industry surface disposal management practices, (2) State regulatory requirements for CCW management, and (3) Implementation of State requirements (i.e., the extent to which States grant or deny operator requests to waive or vary regulatory requirements and the rationales for doing so). DOE and the EPA obtained data on recent and current disposal practices from a questionnaire that the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group (USWAG) distributed to its members that own or operate coal-fired power plants. USWAG, formed in 1978, is responsible for addressing solid and hazardous waste issues on behalf of the utility industry. It is an informal consortium of approximately 80 utility operating companies, the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the American Gas Association (AGA). EEI is the principal national association of investor-owned electric power and light companies. NRECA is the national association of rural electric cooperatives. APPA is the national association of publicly owned electric utilities. AGA is the national association of natural gas utilities. Together, USWAG member companies and trade associations represent more than 85% of the total electric generating capacity of the United States and service more than 95% of the nation's consumers of electricity. To verify the survey findings, the EPA also asked State regulators from nine selected States that are leading consumers of coal for electricity generation for information on disposal units that may not have been covered in the USWAG survey. The selected States were Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, and Texas. A total of 56 waste units were identified, and information from these units formed the basis for the analysis of recent and current surface disposal management practices. Table S-1 summarizes the numbers of units for the various categories covered in this study.

  2. The church and society in South Africa celebrating first ten years of democracy (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R T H Dolamo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, colonialism, slavery, racism and apartheid are singled out as scourges that have afflicted South Africans for over three-and-half centuries in respect of the first four scourge, and for four-and-half decades in respect of apartheid.� Against this backdrop, the struggles of the people of South Africa against these scourges are portrayed and analysed.� With the attainment of freedom and democracy in 1994, the� ANC led government enacted pieces of legislation whose aim was to deepen and broaden democracy, thereby transforming the society beyond recognition of how it was before 1994. Celebrating the first ten years of freedom and democracy, the people of South Africa are taking stock of what has been achieved and not achieved and bracing themselves for the challenges that are facing them into the second decade.

  3. 1st review of the status of national air quality: 1994-2004

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taviv, I

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available od (WC ) Se ttle rs (KZ N) We ntw or th (KZ N) Wa ter va l (M P) Ta ble Vie w (WC ) Mo the rw ell (EC ) Le itru m (FS ) Ale xa ndr a (GA U) Ora nge Fa rm (GA U) Kh aye lits ha (WC ) Ne...) La ng ve rw ac ht (MP ) Le itru m (FS ) Ale xa nd ra (GA U) At hlo ne (WC ) Bu cc leu ch (GA U) Cit y D ee p(G AU ) Ne wt ow n (GA U) No rth er n Wo rks (GA U) O 3 ( p p b ) Average...

  4. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  5. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  6. Uneven chances of breastfeeding in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Río Isabel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No large scale studies on breastfeeding onset patterns have been carried out in Spain. This work aims to explore the prevalence and the risk factors for not initiating breastfeeding in hospitals from Catalonia (CAT and Valencia (V, two regions accounting approximately for 30% of the annual births in Spain. Methods The prevalence of not initiating breastfeeding was calculated by maternal/neonatal characteristics and type of hospital, and logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted risks of not breastfeeding in each region. Results Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 81.7% and 82.5% in Catalonia and Valencia, respectively. We identified conspicuous regional differences in the adjusted-risk of not breastfeeding, especially for multiple [CAT = 3.12 (95% CI: 2.93, 3.31, V = 2.44 (95% CI: 2.23, 2.67] and preterm and low birth weight deliveries [very preterm and very low birth weight: CAT = 7.61 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.92, V = 4.03 (95% CI: 3.13, 5.19; moderate preterm and moderate low birth weight: CAT = 4.28 (95% CI: 4.01, 4.57, V = 2.55 (95% CI:2.34, 2.79]. Conclusions Our results suggest the existence of regional variations in breastfeeding initiation in Spain. Taking into account the known short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding it is recommended that further research should explore these differences in order to prevent potential inequities in neonatal, child and adult health.

  7. Training in the Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector in Spain. Report for the FORCE Programme. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    An international team of researchers studied the following aspects of training in Spain's motor vehicle repair and sales sector: structure and characteristics; institutional and social context; relationship to Spain's overall labor market; changing structural, economic, and organizational conditions; and training and recruitment and relationship…

  8. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  9. Forum on stakeholder confidence: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2006-01-01

    The FSC workshop in Spain provided an important opportunity to carry out an in-depth examination of decision-making processes undertaken in an NEA member country, and to reflect on the evolution that has taken place over time. It offered a well-rounded perspective on the inclusion of stakeholders in decision making, and the atmosphere of the meetings was conducive to an honest and open exchange of ideas. The workshop started with the introduction of two case studies: the earlier attempt in Spain to locate a potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) disposal facility, and the dismantling of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant. This was followed by two days of presentations and round-table discussions based on the recent COWAM Spain initiative (stemming from the EU-wide project on Community Waste Management), which aims at developing recommendations for institutional arrangements and decision-making processes concerning the siting of waste management facilities in Spain. This article provides a brief summary of the case studies and the COWAM Spain initiative, followed by some of the lessons learnt from an international perspective. (authors)

  10. History of health technology assessment: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Asua, Jose; Briones, Eduardo; Gol, Jordi

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the introduction and diffusion of health technology assessment (HTA) in Spain. A survey to summarize the evolution of HTA was sent to representatives of different HTA initiatives in Spain. HTA was introduced in the late 1980s. The main factors were the trend to an increase in healthcare expenditure, concerns regarding efficiency in providing health care, as well as in the level of rationality introducing high technology. Spain has direct (i.e., regulation) and indirect (i.e., payment systems, evidence-based programs, HTA) mechanisms to control health technologies. A recent high priority regulation has established the need of HTA to decide the introduction of a new health technology in the lists of public healthcare coverage, although similar regulations existed in the past and were scarcely implemented. HTA initiatives started at the regional government level. Its introduction followed a progressive pattern among regions. In the beginning, resources were scarce and expertise limited, with work done at intramural level. With time, expertise increase, and promotion of commissioned work was implemented. HTA knowledge transfer in the healthcare system has been carried out through courses, publications, and commissioned research. Currently, there are seven HTA units/agencies, which coordinate their work. HTA in Spain is in its maturity. Facing the unavoidable change of health care environment over time, HTA is also evolving and, currently, there is a trend to broaden the areas of influence of HTA by devolving capacity to hospitals and applying principles to very early phases of health technology development, under the umbrella of regional HTA units/agencies. However, there are two main challenges ahead. One is to have a real impact at the highest level of healthcare policy coordination among Spanish regions, which is done at the Central Ministry of Health. The other is to avoid the influence of political waves

  11. Spain: Success story in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Norman

    From the early 1960's, European governments were aware that they had to take part in the exploration, and potential exploitation, of space, or be left behind in a field of high-technology that had far-reaching possibilities. It was also realized that financial and manpower constraints would limit the extent to which individual nations could carry out their own national programs. They, therefor, joined forces in two organizations: the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) and the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO). By 1975, when the potential of space development had been more fully appreciated, the two organizations were merged into the Europeans Space Agency (ESA) of which Spain was a founding member. ESA looks after the interest of 13 member states, one associated member state (Finland), and one cooperating state (Canada) in the peaceful uses of space. Its programs center around a mandatory core of technological research and space science to which member states contribute on the basis of their Gross National Product. Spain in 1992 contributes 6.46% to this mandatory program budget. The member states then have the chance to join optional programs that include telecommunications, observation of the earth and its environment, space transportation systems, microgravity research, and participation in the European contribution to the International Space Station Freedom. Each government decides whether it is in its interest to join a particular optional program, and the percentage that it wishes to contribute to the budget. Although in the early days of ESA, Spain participated in only a few optional programs, today Spain makes a significant contribution to nearly all of ESA's optional programs. This document presents Spain's contributions to particular ESA Programs and discusses Spain's future involvement in ESA.

  12. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  13. Urea cycle disorders in Spain: an observational, cross-sectional and multicentric study of 104 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Martín-Hernández, Elena; Aldámiz-Echevarría, Luis; Castejón-Ponce, Esperanza; Pedrón-Giner, Consuelo; Couce, María Luz; Serrano-Nieto, Juliana; Pintos-Morell, Guillem; Bélanger-Quintana, Amaya; Martínez-Pardo, Mercedes; García-Silva, María Teresa; Quijada-Fraile, Pilar; Vitoria-Miñana, Isidro; Dalmau, Jaime; Lama-More, Rosa A; Bueno-Delgado, María Amor

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) have led to a higher survival rate. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of patients with urea cycle disorders in Spain. Methods Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study. Clinical, biochemical and genetic data were collected from patients with UCDs, treated in the metabolic diseases centers in Spain between February 2012 and February 2013, covering the entire Spanish populatio...

  14. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia; Vázquez Morón, Sonia; Berciano, José M; Nicolás, Olga; Aznar López, Carolina; Juste, Javier; Rodríguez Nevado, Cristina; Aguilar Setién, Alvaro; Echevarría, Juan E

    2013-05-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  15. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nidia Ar?chiga; Mor?n, Sonia V?zquez; Berciano, Jos? M.; Nicol?s, Olga; L?pez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodr?guez; Seti?n, ?lvaro Aguilar; Echevarr?a, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  16. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  17. Radon in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín Sánchez, A.; Torre Pérez, J. de la; Ruano Sánchez, A.B.; Naranjo Correa, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon measurements are usually associated with housing. However, a typical person spends about one-third of the day at their workplace. A survey was made of radon levels in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain). More than 200 measurements were performed in some 130 firms and organizations of different sectors (urban wellness centres, spas, caves, mines, water management facilities, underground carparks, wine cellars, museums, etc.). Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. The results indicated the importance of performing this type of measurement because the exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. - Highlights: ► More than 200 measurements were performed in about 130 working places. ► Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. ► The exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. ► Geological characteristics of the soil influence the indoor radon levels.

  18. Reintegration upon return: insights from Ecuadorian returnees from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mercier, Marion; David, Anda; Mahia, Ramón; De Arce, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Using the ECM2 survey data on Ecuadorian migrants returning from Spain, we investigate the determinants of reintegration upon return. We study how the migration experience, but also the before- and after-migration characteristics, correlate with migrants’ outcomes upon return. We adopt a broad conception of reintegration, considering jointly labour market-related outcomes that proxy for structural reintegration and subjective indicators that provide insights on sociocultural reintegration. Th...

  19. Fiscal federalism in Spain : The decentralisation: an unfinished work

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez Pandiello, Javier

    1999-01-01

    I am going to destine this paper to critically summarise this process [decentralising] and the current situation about this. To do it, I will divide the work in four parts. First, I will briefly describe the general characteristics of the administrative Spanish system and I will try to remark which have been, in my opinion, the main determinants of the administrative and fiscal decentralisation process produced in Spain and its political and economic explanations. Instituto de Investigacio...

  20. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  1. The labour trajectories of immigrant women in Spain: Are there signs of upward social mobility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vidal-Coso

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Spain, foreign-born women are disproportionately employed in housework or care work, and quantitative research has shown that female migrants are disadvantaged relative to male migrants in the occupational status of their first job in Spain. However, the process that created this female penalty has not yet been explored. Objective: In this paper, we focus on female occupational mobility at migration and during settlement in Spain. First, we compare female and male labour mobility at migration. Second, we identify the main socio-demographic factors which increase the likelihood that the first job a foreign-born woman holds in Spain will be as a cleaner or a domestic worker. Third, we investigate female labour mobility from the time of migration, particularly trajectories that lead away from the cleaning and domestic occupations, and consider the importance of the assimilation process in occupational mobility. Methods: We apply quantitative methods to Spain's 2007 National Immigrant Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, using descriptive (mobility matrixes and simple and multinomial logistic regression analyses. We include the main socio-demographic, family, and migratory characteristics of immigrants in the explanatory models. Results: The results of our analysis revealed that female migrants to Spain are more likely than their male counterparts to experience occupational downgrading at the time of migration, and that 41.6Š of women work in domestic services in their first job in Spain. Finally, our results have demonstrated that, although occupational immobility is common among female migrants in Spain, movement out of domestic services is possible, especially for the most assimilated immigrant women. Conclusions: This paper contextualises female immigration in Spain, attributing the labour market choices made by female migrants to the externalisation of domestic and cleaning occupations in private households, and to the

  2. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Spain, with an area of 504 748 km''2, occupies a large part of the Iberian Peninsula. At present the country appears to have about 6300 t of reasonably assured uranium reserves and 8500 t of additional estimated reserves (all at less than $30/lb of U 3 O 8 ). Spain has devoted some $33 million to prospecting for uranium since the beginning of such work. Most of the reasonably assured reserves are located in ores impregnating Cambrian schists intersected by Hercynian granites (of so-called 'Iberian type'); a small amount, however, is found in veins in Hercynian granites of the Spanish Meseta. The additional estimated reserves are situated in the peripheral post-Hercynian continental basins of the Meseta. Apart from these classical ores, sub-ores have been identified in Silurian quartzites with low concentrations of uranium associated with refractory minerals, totalling more than 200,000 t of U (at concentrations of a few hundred ppm); there are likewise uranium-bearing Oligocene lignites in the Ebro Basin with some 140,000 t of U. These facts, and also the very wide distribution of uranium in space and time (from the Cambrian to the Miocene!) and the country's favourable geological characteristics, suggest that Spain ought in fact to have large reserves of uranium, a conclusion unfortunately belied by the paucity of the economic reserves identified so far. Two things must be borne in mind, however; firstly, Spain's financial outlay for uranium prospecting up till now represents only a quarter of what has been invested in France, for example, and, secondly, the nature of the mineralised bodies in Spain makes exploration difficult. In conclusion it seems that prospecting both of the Iberian-type deposits in the Meseta region and of the deposits associated with detrital sediments in the peripheral continental basins - especially blind mineralized bodies - should hold out excellent prospects for Spain. Consequently we propose that Spain should be placed at least in

  3. Spain; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update for Spain. Although there is a core of strong banks that are well managed and appear resilient to further shocks, vulnerabilities remain. Substantial progress has been made in reforming the former savings banks, and the most vulnerable institutions have either been resolved or are being restructured. Recent measures address the most problematic part of banks’ portfolios. Moving ahead, a further restru...

  4. Update on Spain's oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.; Gutierrez, I.

    1994-01-01

    Since Spain's entry into the European Community a liberalisation of the oil industry has occurred culminating in two oil sector reform laws passed in 1992. While competition has increased, a return to the free-market policies which held sway before 1927 has not happened. Rather, three large companies dominate the Spanish oil market, with continuing input from government towards liberalization, if somewhat slowly. This paper describes recent changes and examines factors which limit liberalization policies. (UK)

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its designated...

  6. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  7. [Emergency Medical Technician profile in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Isasi, Santiago; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, María José; Vázquez-Santamariña, David; Abella-Lorenzo, Javier; Castro Dios, Diana Josefa; Fernández García, Daniel

    2017-12-11

    The emergency medical technician plays a fundamental role and is the most important figure quantitatively in pre-hospital emergencies. The aim was to asses the socio-demographic, work-related, health characteristics and technical skills of an Emergency Medical Technician in Spain. Cross-sectional descriptive study. An ad hoc questionnaire was managed using Google Docs® that was delivered between April-June 2014 via email and social networks. A total of 705 questionnaires were collected. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS ® 20.0 Windows version. A significance level p≤0.05 was used for all analyzes. The data analyzed show that the profile of the Emergency Medical Technician in Spain is an 39 year-old man, married or living as a couple and has a child. The average BMI is 27 kg/m2, does regular exercise, does not smoke. His seniority in the company is 10 years and has the Medium Cycle of Emergency Medical Technician. The analysis for gender shows that men have an average of 40, an average BMI of 27, 5 kg/m2 and work in an advanced life support unit; while women have an average of 36,5 years, an average BMI of 24,7 kg/m2, mainly work in Basic Life Support Unit and her seniority in the company is 6,76 years. Emergency Medical Technician profile is a overweight men, who refer to practise regular exercise, his seniority in the company is 10 years and is in possession of CMTES; differences were observed according to gender in BMI, resource where they perform their work, seniority and age.

  8. Comparisons in the Organisation, Methods, and Results of the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spain) and The Open University of The United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The organization, methods, and outcomes of the distance education systems at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of the United Kingdom are compared. The following topics are covered: higher education in Spain, UNED's ideology, student characteristics in both universities, organization,…

  9. El dolor de espalda en la población catalana: Prevalencia, características y conducta terapéutica Back pain in the general population of Catalonia (Spain: Prevalence, characteristics and therapeutic behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bassols

    2003-04-01

    situación clínica de elevada frecuencia en la población catalana y un motivo muy importante de utilización de atención médica y de limitación de la actividad personal y profesional.Background: Back pain is a common symptom of health assistance in Western countries. The goal of the present survey was to establish the prevalence of back pain in the general population in Catalonia, as well as to establish its characteristics, its relationship to sociodemographic variables, the therapeutic behavior followed by those affected and the associated-impairment and disabilities for the sufferers. Methods: The survey was a descriptive study including a sample of 1,964 people, obtained from the census (1991 and representative of the population older than 18 years. The study was done in 1994 and data were obtained by means of a telephone interview. The prevalence of pain in the last six months was determined. Among those suffering back pain, additional information was obtained concerning its characteristics, the relationship with socio-demographic variables, the therapeutic behaviors used by patients, and the personal, social and work impairment and disabilities. Results: Back pain was highly prevalent (50.9%, appeared in all ages (mean age of 47.6 years, was the highest in women (60.7%, in manual workers (54.9% and in those less educated (71.1%. Back pain was long lasting (69.2% more than 3 years, frequent (49.7% more than the half of the days, and highly painful (severe-unbearable in 51.4%. The therapeutic behaviors most commonly used were the visit to the physician (71.9%, the use of alternative medical treatments (24.7%, physical therapy (22.7%, physical exercises and electrotherapy and self-medication (14.6%, being acetylsalicylic acid the most employed. In general, the duration and degree of improvement was variable. Back pain limited the daily activities (36.7% and forced to bed rest (22.7%. It was also a significant reason for time off work (17% and disability pension (6

  10. EELA Training Activities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubino, C.; Ciuffo, L. N.; Fuentes, A.; Mayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    EELA (E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America) is a collaboration project between Latin American and European institutions whose aim is to consolidate a shared e-Infrastructure for e-Science applications. Training activities play a crucial role in this scope, providing the necessary skills to the users and allowing them to properly utilize the available grid infrastructure at all levels. This paper highlights the results achieved by the knowledge dissemination task of the project, in particular those obtained in Spain, one of the most active EELA partners. The EELA project is funded by the European Commission under the contract number IST- 2006-026409. (Author)

  11. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  12. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  13. Spain succeeds on the PWR learning curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of nuclear power in Spain is described. Although the programme has been delayed and cut back, success has been achieved in carrying out technology transfer. Spain now has an industry capable of exporting nuclear components, equipment and expertise. An architect-engineering capability has also developed. (U.K.)

  14. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  15. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  16. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  17. The public promotion of wind energy in Spain from the transaction costs perspective 1986-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Yannick; Ramos-Real, Francisco Javier

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the success of wind energy in Spain from 1986 to 2007. Certain special characteristics have emerged in Spain that provide credibility to the feed-in tariff (FIT) device to promote this energy source. To explain this success, the analysis will focus on the intrinsic characteristics of FIT using the concepts of the transaction cost theory (TCE). Nevertheless, in this framework, special attention is placed on the role that specific political and institutional factors have played in providing stability to this instrument. Thanks to an early start and an on-going and generous FIT device, wind energy promotion for electricity has become a political success story in Spain. The main implication of this analysis is that this success is mainly due to the trade-off between stability and flexibility in the use of Spanish FIT. (author)

  18. Synonyms and homonyms of Malvasia cultivars (Vitis vinifera L.) existing in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Torres, I.; Ibanez, J.; Andres, M. T. de; Rubio, C.; Borrego, J.; Cabello, F.; Zerolo, J.; Munoz Organero, G.

    2009-07-01

    Malvasia is a common name for different grape cultivars that have long been grown in Spain. In many cases, these cultivars are noted as being aromatic, sweet, and similar to Muscat in flavour. However, not all grapes that share this name exhibit these characteristics. This study compares the Malvasia cultivars in the Spanish Denominations of Origin with those grape cultivars grown in the grapevine collection of El Encin (Alcala de Henares, Spain) using morphological, iso enzymatic, and micro satellite analysis as well as a large bibliographic search of the studied cultivars. Despite their Malvasia denomination, some cultivars have been identified as synonyms of Macabeo, Alarije, Dona Blanca, Chasselas, or Planta Nova, all included on the official Spanish list of commercial grape cultivars. Malvasia de Sitges and Malvasia de Lanzarote have the characteristic flavour of Malvasia grapes and no synonyms were found among the cultivars grown in Spain, whereas Malvasia Rosada resulted from a colour mutation in Malvasia de Sitges. (Author) 26 refs.

  19. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  20. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  1. National and regional analysis of road accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolón-Becerra, A; Lastra-Bravo, X; Flores-Parra, I

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, the absolute fatality figures decreased almost 50 percent between 1998 and 2009. Despite this great effort, road mortality is still of great concern to political authorities. Further progress requires efficient road safety policy based on an optimal set of measures and targets that consider the initial conditions and characteristics in each region. This study attempts to analyze road accidents in Spain and its provinces in time and space during 1998-2009. First, we analyzed daily, monthly, and nationwide (NUTS 0) development of road accidents, the correlation between logarithmic transformations of road accidents and territorial and socioeconomic variables, the causality by simple linear regression of road accidents and territorial and socioeconomic variables, and preliminary frequency by fast Fourier transform. Then we analyzed the annual trend in accidents in the Spanish provinces (NUTS 3) and found a correlation between the logarithmic transformations of the mortality rate, fatalities per fatal accident, and accidents resulting in injuries per inhabitant variables and population, population density, gross domestic product (GDP), length of road network, and area. Finally, causality was analyzed by simple linear regression. The most outstanding results were the negative correlation between mortality rate and population density in Spanish provinces, which has increased over time, and that road accidents in Spain have an approximate periodicity of 57 days. The fast Fourier transform analysis of road accident frequency in Spain was useful in identifying the periodic, harmonic components of accidents and casualties. The periodicity observed both for the period 1998-2009 and by year showed that the highest intensity in road accidents was bimonthly, despite the lower number of accidents and casualties in the spectra of amplitude and power and efforts to reduce the intensity and concentration during off-season travel (summer and December).

  2. Infant milk in Spain during the period 1955-1975: the years of transition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Boatella

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By following the historical sequence started in previous articles, this work describes and analyses the characteristics and producers of infant milk sold in Spain during the period from 1955 to 1975 (n = 41. A wide variability, diffi culties in their classification, and the use of various new ingredients in their formulas was observed when comparing them.

  3. The occurrence of mycoplasmas in the lungs of swine in Gran Canaria (Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assuncao, P.; De la Fe, C.; Kokotovic, Branko

    2005-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the mycoplasmal flora in the lungs of pigs with enzootic pneumonia at Gran Canaria (Spain). From 54 pneumonic lungs collected at an abattoir, 85 isolates were cultivated. On the basis of cultural and biochemical characteristics, the isolates were preliminarily...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in pest-proof...

  5. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  6. 12''th International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry Casa del Cordon. Conference Center (Caja de Burgos), July 5''th-10''th, 1998, Burgos Spain: Programme and Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The 12 International Conference on Solid State Dosimetry celebrate in Burgos (Spain) during July on 1998. 1.- Basic Physical Processes 2.- Materials characteristics 3.- Instrumentation 4.- Personal Dosimetry 5.- Clinical Dosimetry 6.- Environmental Dosimetry 7.- Dating retrospective dosimetry 8.- Miscellaneous

  7. Superconductivity in Spain. Midas program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.

    1996-01-01

    The different activities in the field of applied superconductivity carried out in Spain under the auspices of the MIDAS program are reported. Applications using both low- and high-temperature superconductors are considered. In the low temperature superconductors case, the design and construction of a 1 mega joule SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) unit, as well as the fabrication of voltage and resistance standards, are reviewed. Developments involving the design and fabrication of an inductive current fault limited and mono- and multi-filamentary wires and tapes using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Finally, the prospects for the application of superconductivity technology to electric power systems for the electric utilities is considered. (author)

  8. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  9. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  10. Uranium ore processing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the Spanish needs of uranium concentrates and uranium ore processing technology and trends in Spain. Spain produces approximately 200t U 3 O 8 /a at two facilities. One plant in the south (Andujar, Jaen) can obtain 70t U 3 O 8 /a and uses a conventional acid leaching process with countercurrent solvent extraction. A second plant, situated in the west (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) has started in 1975 and has a capacity of 120-130t U 3 O 8 /a, using acid heap leaching and solvent extraction. There is another experimental facility (Don Benito, Badajoz) scheduled to start in 1976 and expected to produce about 25-35t U 3 O 8 /a as a by-product of the research work. For the near future (1978) it is hoped to increase the production with: (a) A new conventional acid leaching/solvent extraction plant in Ciudad Rodrigo; its tentative capacity is fixed at 550t U 3 O 8 /a. (b) A facility in the south, to recover about 130t U 3 O 8 /a from phosphoric acid. (c) Several small mobile plants (30t U 3 O 8 /a per plant); these will be placed near small and isolated mines. The next production increase (1979-1980) will come with the treatment of sandstones (Guadalajara and Cataluna) and lignites(Cataluna); this is being studied. There are also research programmes to study the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (heap, in-situ and bacterial leaching) and from other industries. (author)

  11. Tendencia de la tasa de mortalidad en una prisión española (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Jesús Vera Remartínez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: Hay pocos trabajos sobre mortalidad en el ámbito penitenciario. El objetivo es describir las causas, tasas de mortalidad y su tendencia en una prisión española. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, de los fallecimientos en una prisión entre 01-01-1994 y 31-12-2004. Se recogieron las variables edad, sexo, fecha del óbito, serología VIH, número de CD4+ en su caso, y causa de muerte según la clasificación: muerte por VIH, por enfermedad no VIH, suicidio, intoxicación por drogas, y accidentes. Previa estandarización indirecta de tasas, comparamos la mortalidad del Centro con la del resto de las prisiones españolas. Establecimos la tendencia de las tasas de mortalidad mediante un modelo de regresión lineal. Resultados: 42 muertes, 41 hombres, 1 mujer. Mediana de edad de 33,10 años (27,72 - 36,12; IQR: 8,40. 30 (71,4% VIH+, con mediana de 177 linfocitos CD4+/µl 20 pacientes (45,24% fallecieron por VIH, 15 (38,10% por enfermedades no VIH, 3 (7,14% suicidios, 3 (7,14% intoxicaciones por drogas y 1 (2,38% accidentalmente. Las tasas crudas de mortalidad estuvieron entre 12,605‰ internos/año en 1997 y 1,758‰ internos/año en 2003, con tendencia descendente a razón de 0,976 muertes‰ internos/año (IC95%: 0,399-1,552; p=0,004. Estandarizando tasas nos corresponderían 28,6 muertes esperadas en el período, con una SMR de 1,4679. Conclusiones: Aunque la tendencia es descendente, la tasa de mortalidad obtenida en el período estudiado fue mayor que la esperada. La principal causa de mortalidad fue el síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida.

  12. Oil sector in Spain: Final adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Quemada, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes organizational and marketing changes occurring in Spain's oil industry as a result of its conversion from a state run monopoly system to a free market system. The analysis uses statistical data to indicate national oil production, import and consumption trends and compares these with overall trends in the European Communities. An explanation of the way in which oil is marketed in Spain makes reference to data on Spain's refining capacity and pipeline network, deemed to be amongst the most complete and modern in Europe. Comments are also made on the efficacy of Spain's national energy policies which stress energy source diversification to lessen this country's heavy dependence on foreign supplied oil

  13. Transfer of nuclear technology from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, G.

    1985-01-01

    Technology transfer from Spain is possible in several fields of nuclear technology ranging from the head end of the fuel cycle (ENUSA) to the back end (ENRESA). The advantages of such a transfer are emphasized

  14. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N; Lechon, Y; Labriet, M; Cabal, H; Rua, C de la; Saez, R; Varela, M

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  15. Características sociodemográficas de la población inmigrante diagnosticada de tuberculosis en la Comunidad de Madrid Sociodemographic characteristics of the immigrant population with a diagnosis of tuberculosis in the autonomous community of Madrid (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Sanz Barbero

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las características sociodemográficas de la población inmigrante enferma de tuberculosis en la Comunidad de Madrid. Pacientes y método: Estudio descriptivo. Captación de casos: 15 hospitales de la Comunidad de Madrid y 3 consultas de atención primaria de la Cruz Roja. Se incluyeron a los inmigrantes económicos, mayores de 15 años, no internos en prisión y diagnosticados de tuberculosis durante el año 2003. Resultados: Se identificaron 312 personas, 296 formaron parte del estudio. Las principales nacionalidades fueron Ecuador (27,4% y Marruecos (19,3%. Un 18,9% de la población no tenía cobertura sanitaria. El tiempo medio transcurrido desde la entrada en España y la enfermedad fue de 29,5 meses. El 66,9% vivía con algún familiar. El 63,2% de la población que estaba laboralmente activa realizaba trabajos informales. El principal factor de riesgo fue ser bebedor de riesgo. Conclusiones: Es necesario conocer la situación sociosanitaria de la población inmigrante enferma de tuberculosis para poder adaptar los programas de control a una nueva situación epidemiológica y social.Objetive: To describe the social and demographic characteristics of immigrant patients diagnosed of tuberculosis in the Community of Madrid. Participants and method: Descriptive study. The information was gathered from the patients diagnosed in 15 hospitals of the Community of Madrid, and 3 primary health Red Cross facilities. Criteria for inclusion: to be tuberculosis diagnosed during the year 2003, to be economic immigrant, to be older than 15 year-old, and not to be in prison. Results: 312 persons were identified. 296 were included in the study. Main nationalities: Ecuador (27.4% and Morocco (19.3%. The 18.9% of the population does not have health insurance. The time between the arrival to Spain and the illness was 29.5 months. The 66.9% of the cases lived with some relatives. The 63.2% of the active population worked in the informal

  16. Spain: From massive immigration to vast emigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, Mario; Jimeno, Juan F.; Lacuesta, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Large immigration flows during the 1995-2007 period increased the weight of foreigners living in Spain to 12 % of the total population. The rapid increase in unemployment associated with the Great Recession and the subsequent European debt crisis, substantially changed migration flows, so that, from the beginning of the 2010s, Spain experienced positive net outflows. In this paper, we take on three tasks. First, we show that sensitivity of migration flows to unemployment is similar between Sp...

  17. Cost and price auditing: effectiveness in the procurement of defense services in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aguado Romero

    Full Text Available Abstract Contract auditing, or cost and price auditing, has been applied in Spain as a means of determining prices in non-competitive defense contracts since 1989. Factors such as Spain's participation in international defense organizations, the characteristics of the defense market and the contractual legal framework for the procurement of defense goods and services help underscore the need for the Spanish Ministry of Defense to implement cost and price auditing. With the evolution of cost and price auditing in Spain in mind, this paper analyses the entire process, describes the audit procedures that are most commonly used today and assesses the main results achieved, in terms of financial savings. The results obtained show that cost and price auditing does indeed contribute to a more efficient use of public resources.

  18. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (University. The paper analyzes the political and economic aspects of life in Spain, and its foreign policy of the period of government of Mariano Rajoy (from 2011 to the present time. The article is dedicated to actual problems of modern Spain: the economy and the priorities of the government of M.Rajoy, the problem of separatism and political system of the country. Modern Spain is still recovering economically from the euro debt crisis and continues to struggle with near-record unemployment. Domestic economic recovery of Spain and the country's foreign position are closely linked. The European integration process still remains the main strategic task of the spanish foreign policy. Spain increases its role in world politics and obtains a non-permanent UN's Security Council seat for the 2015-2016 term.

  19. Spain and the Hamas government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the restoration of democracy, Spain’s successive governments have been noted for their favourable stance toward the issue of Palestine and their support for the creation of a sovereign independent state in the territories that Israel occupied during the Six-Day War. Yasser Arafat’s visit to Spain in the time of the UCD, the holding of the Madrid Conference during the term of government of the PSOE and the designation of Miguel Ángel Moratinos as the EU’s special envoy for the Peace Process during the Partido Popular’s term of government are some of the landmarks that have expressed this exemplary relationship between the Spanish State and the Palestine question. However, the victory of Hamas in the legislative elections of 25 January 2006 radically changed the situation, as it led to Rodríguez Zapatero’s government joining the international boycott of the new Islamist executive; even so, the Spanish government clearly maintained its support for restarting the Peace Process, in the form of its backing for Mahmud Abbas, the President of the Palestine Authority. The armed conflict in Gaza in June 2007 which led to the Islamists retaking the Gaza Strip and the formation of a new government in the West Bank led by the technocrat Salam Fayad served to normalise the situation, given that it encouraged the raising of international sanctions and a return to normality in Spanish-Palestine relations.

  20. NDT performance demonstration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The experience obtained from the in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of Spanish nuclear power plants and the participation in several international programs, such as PISC, has shown the need for a performance demonstration, not only for the ultrasonic inspection techniques of RPV, but also for other ISI non-destructive techniques as in the case of eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing. Section XI of the ASME Code, which is applied in Spain for ISI, has incorporated recently the Appendix VIII for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques. As a direct consequence of this, a Spanish project for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques has been launched recently, which includes the manufacturing of full-scale mock-ups of nozzle to vessel welds, reactor vessel welds, wrought austenitic piping welds and ferritic piping welds of PWR and BWR nuclear power plants from different suppliers. This considerable technical effort will let the different Spanish organizations which are part of the project to participate and colaborate with similar international projects and in particular with a European initiative for performance demonstration. (Author)

  1. Quality and safety in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Barrio, J. M.; Martinez Martin, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    For three decades, and after the entry of Spain into the EU, it has been developed a regulatory, stable but evolving, framework that has allowed to create the conditions and structures to have stringent safety conditions of products and manufacturing facilities, as well as all the activities necessary for their certification and control. This development has been possible, among others, by the work of impulse and coordination of the Ministry of industry, Energy and Tourism, and particularly of the quality and Industrial safety sub directorate. On the other hand it has been developed a quality infrastructure that has, at the State level, with a standardisation (AENOR) entity and an accreditation body (ENAC) with recognized prestige around the world. In this article, in the first part, a list the regulations which apply to products and manufacturing facilities is shown, as well as explain the role played by standards and accreditation system in industrial safety and the factor of competitiveness that this entails for our industrial sector, and, in the second part, the institutional role of the Ministry and, the aforementioned Sub directorate, is described. The aim of the article is to be a descriptive reference of the current regulatory framework as well as the role of the State in this process. (Author)

  2. Climate index for Spain - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Spain. (J.S.)

  3. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U 3 O 8 per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U 3 O 8 per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author)

  4. Prevalence of actinic keratosis among dermatology outpatients in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrándiz, C; Plazas, M J; Sabaté, M; Palomino, R

    2016-10-01

    Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common skin lesions associated with an increased risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma. Few studies in Europe have focused on AK prevalence. To determine the point prevalence of AKs in a dermatology outpatient population in Spain, to describe the clinical characteristics of these lesions and to characterise the profile of AK patients. Observational, cross-sectional, multicentre study conducted in 19 hospitals (dermatology outpatient services) around Spain. A total of 204 consecutive patients per hospital who were ≥45 years old were screened for the presence of AKs. 3877 patients were assessed and the overall AKs prevalence was 28.6%. Prevalence was significantly higher in men than women (38.4% vs. 20.8%, p<0.0001) and increased with age for both sexes (45.2% in 71-80 years). Scalp and ear lesion locations were significantly more frequent in men (51.9% vs. 2.7% and 16.9% vs. 2.4%, respectively, p<0.0001 both cases) and the cheek, nose and neckline in women (46.3% vs. 34.0% [p<0.0001], 43.0% vs. 24.8% [p<0.0001] and 5.3% vs. 1.8% [p=0.002]). Men showed a significantly higher frequency of ≥2 affected areas than women (42.7% vs. 20.3%, p<0.0001). Among patients with AK lesions, only 65% confirmed that they were the reason for the visit to the clinic. Approximately a quarter of the dermatology outpatient population in Spain aged ≥45 years old have AKs, with the prevalence rate being highest in men and in older age groups. AK is underdiagnosed and a proactive strategy is needed for the diagnosis and early treatment of these lesions. Copyright © 2016 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. [Medication adherence and use of health services in patients with psychosis in the region of Osona (Catalonia, Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmarola-Ginesta, Joan; Chirveches-Pérez, Emilia; Puigoriol-Juvanteny, Emma; Bleda-García, Francesc; Villa-Ribas, Ester; Arrufat-Nebot, Francesc Xavier

    2014-04-01

    To describe and analyze sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence and use of health resources by country of birth of psychosis diagnosed patients treated with long-term antipsychotic injectable drugs in the region of Osona (Catalonia, Spain). Descriptive observational study in psychosis diagnosed patients over 18 years old, receiving long-term antipsychotic injectable treatment and treated at a Mental Health Center for adults in Vic (Catalonia, Spain). 185 patients were included, of them: 163 (88.1%) were born in Spain and 22 (17.9%) abroad. The sample was gender homogeneous with differences in age, employment status, family situation and diagnosis (p Spain-born patients and 9.1% of abroad-born patients received the injectable treatment at Primary Care Center (p Spain and 6 (27.3%) abroad (p = 0.012). All patients diagnosed with psychosis, either born or not in Spain, describe good adherence to long-term antipsychotic injectable treatment, with similar use of health resources from a quantitative point of view and some differences in the type of visits.

  6. University Teacher’s Evaluation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tejedor Tejedor

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to make a brief overview about the performance evaluation for university teachers in democratic Spain. It contents: a considerations about teaching evaluation, in order to delimit the authors’ position in this matter, due to the fact that this position obviously conditions any revision; b a brief summary of the history of university teachers evaluation in Spain during the last years, since the Spanish Constitution of 1978 approval; c a typology of the evaluation plans, in order to define a map of the planning lines for evaluations applied in Spain; d the technical guidelines for teachers´ evaluation and presentation of the current model, exampled by its application in the university of Salamanca; and e as a conclusion, some considerations about the consequences of evaluation and its entailment with the professionalization of university teachers.

  7. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  8. [Spleen injuries in Spain: at what point are we?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Fuertes, Montiel; Costa Navarro, David; Jover Navalón, José María; Turégano Fuentes, Fernando; Ceballos Esparragón, José; Yuste, Pedro; Sánchez Tocino, Juan María; Navarro Soto, Salvador; Montmany, Sandra

    2013-11-01

    Management of spleen trauma has changed over last decades, although there is no data on its treatment in Spain. The aim of this study is to determine the characteristics of spleen injuries in adults with severe abdominal injuries and how we manage them. A prospective study using the databases of six Spanish hospitals: Gregorio Marañón Hospital, Virgen de la Vega Hospital, Torrevieja Hospital, Getafe Hospital, Doce de Octubre Hospital and Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí. A total of 566 patients who had sustained spleen injuries were analyzed (448 males and 118 females), most of them were due to blunt trauma (94%), and the most frequent mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident. The mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 25.2. The initial treatment was surgical in 56.6% of the patients (85.3% total splenectomy and 14.7% other conservative surgical procedures, of which 4.6% finally failed and required total splenectomy). The remaining 43.4% were initially managed conservatively, but 6.5% of them finally required surgical splenectomy, and in 8.8% angio-embolization was performed. In Spain, management of spleen trauma is mainly surgical (particularly splenectomy). Angio-embolization and conservative surgical procedures are now hardly used. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. [Health services utilization by the immigrant population in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Sanz, Belén; Pascual, Cruz; Lostao, Lourdes; Sánchez, Elisabeth; Díaz Olalla, José Manuel

    2009-12-01

    To compare health services utilization between the immigrant and indigenous populations in Spain. We used information provided by the following four health surveys carried out around 2005: Catalonia 2005; city of Madrid 2005, Canary Islands 2004 and the Autonomous Community of Valencia 2005. The health services studied were general practice, specialist services, emergency services, hospitalization, and two preventive services: pap smear test and mammography. In general, most health services were less frequently used by the immigrant population than by the Spanish population. The health services showing the least differences between the two populations were general practice and hospitalization, while the greatest differences were found in the use of specialist and preventive services. The most heterogeneous results were found in general practice and hospitalization, since some immigrant groups showed a relatively high frequency of use in some geographical areas and a relatively low frequency in other areas. The results of the present study reproduce those found in other studies carried out in countries with similar social and economic characteristics to Spain. Like previous results, the present results are difficult to explain. Future research should aim to use other study designs and to test hypotheses not put forward by the scientific community to date.

  10. [Mental health in the immigrant population in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazos Sánchez, Francisco; Ghali Bada, Khalid; Ramos Gascón, Mar; Qureshi Burckhardt, Adil

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between migration of people and the impact on their mental health is a complex issue, and its study implies multiple variables at stake. The objective is to describe the state of the mental health of the immigrant population in Spain. scoping Review of the literature published in the period 1998-2012. Articles in Spanish or English developed in Spain and that fulfil the definition of immigrant from the International Organization for Migration were selected. The literature search was performed in Medline and MEDES. The main characteristics of the articles are described. The period of maximum production is between 2004 and 2011. The country of origin is the most common way of classifying immigrants. Most of the studies reviewed have a social and epidemiological approach, making many references to the socio-economic conditions of the inmigrant collective. Work and psychosocial factors are crucial to the mental health of immigrants. The migration process is a risk factor itself, and if personal, social or familial vulnerability is added, all of which may promote the development of mental disorders. The main results of the studies conducted in this field are inconsistent, if not contradictory. Lack of consistency in the results reveals how this field is still in a very early stage.

  11. Restoration activities in uranium mining and milling facilities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Quiros, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    From the end of the 80's up to now, several tasks have been carried out in Spain on restoration in the field of uranium mining and milling, significant among them being Andujar Uranium Mill (FUA) closure and La Haba closure. Also, a study has been carried out on restoration of inoperative and abandoned uranium mine sites. At present, detailed plans are being worked out for the project on the closure of the Elefante plant. All activities have been developed in the common framework of national standards and regulations which are generally in compliance with the standards, regulations and recommendations of international organizations. This paper describes briefly the standards and the criteria applied to the restoration tasks at various sites of the uranium mining and milling facilities in Spain. The restoration activities have different characteristics La Haba facility is an isolated and conventional facility to produce uranium concentrate; in the case of old and abandoned uranium mines the intervention criteria is more relevant than the activities to be carried out; the closure (the first phase of licensing) and restoration activities of Elefante plant have to be developed taking into account that it is sited within the area of Quercus plant which is currently in operation. (author)

  12. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  13. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of expedited reviews pursuant... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be likely...

  14. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  15. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor represents that the...

  16. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  17. Data on the determinants of the risk of fatalities, serious injuries and light injuries in traffic accidents on interurban roads in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, María Pilar Sánchez; Sotos, Francisco Escribano; Ponce, Ángel Tejada

    2018-06-01

    This article describes the data collection used to analyse the risk of fatalities and injuries resulting from traffic accidents on interurban roads in the provinces of Spain from 1999 to 2015. The database includes data on different factors related to accidents rates for each Spanish province. These data were used in the article entitled "Impact of provincial characteristics on the number of traffic accident victims on interurban roads in Spain" (Sánchez et al., 2018) [1].

  18. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  19. Food-related life style in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European ...

  20. Wind turbines in Spain: la vuelta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, E.; Trancart, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ten years ago it was just the beginning of the wind industry in Spain. Today it takes the third place in Europe and the fourth in the world. The pilot regions are the Galicia and the Navarre. (A.L.B.)

  1. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  2. Prospects of spent management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melches, C.; Ramirez, E.; Selgas, F.; Cabanilles, P.A.; Lopez Perez, B.; Uriarte, A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the forecast on spent fuel management in Spain, taking into account the international developments produced during the last years and specially on LWR fuels. This forecast is based on the following actions: increase of the storage capacity in the reactors: construction of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) and a fuel reprocessing pilot plant. (author)

  3. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through

  4. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  6. Economic crisis and nursing in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, Adelaida; Cabrera, Esther

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe the economic context in Spain and its impact on the health care sector and in nursing schools. The global economic crisis is affecting nursing in Spain. This study analyses and compares indicators related to health care and nursing schools among European countries. Some new strategies to cope with the challenges arising from the health care crisis are suggested. Health care costs are increasing as a result of the ageing of the Spanish population, immigration, chronicity of health problems and new medical technology. Nursing education has changed in 2010 from a 3-year diploma programme to a 4-year University degree in Nursing. This change requires new resources involving staff, facilities and equipment, all of which are lacking because of the economic crisis in Spain. The worldwide economic crisis has affected Spain more than it has other European Union (EU) countries. This global crisis has an impact on the health care sector as well on nursing schools. It is essential for nursing management to develop creative approaches to maintain cost effective patient care. New programmes and technology must be carefully evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness before being implemented. All health care professionals should be well informed and have a solid understanding of this situation.

  7. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Recent reforms affecting every aspect of Spain's educational system are reviewed in this report. The first part presents the observations of three educators from other European countries ("The Examiners' Report"). Part 2 is a "Record of the Review Meeting" held in Paris in December of 1985 10 months after the examiners' visit…

  8. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  9. Stepfamily Couples in Spain: An Emerging Phenomenon with Heterogeneous Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ajenjo-Cosp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the demographic profile of couples in reconstituted nuclei with at least one child under 18 in Spain. In the last decade there has been an increase in these nuclei that is largely explained by the presence of couples of immigrant and mixed immigrant-Spanish origin. In addition to national origin, three other characteristics of these couples stand out: high rates of cohabitation, age difference between members of the couple and economic precariousness. However, our analysis reveals large heterogeneity in their profiles, mainly differentiated by the presence or absence of shared children as well as the sex and nationality of the parent who brings children into the relationship. We also find that the most important determinant in the decision to have a child in common in a reconstituted relationship is the number of non-common children, being much less important which parent brought them into the reconstituted family.

  10. Drug prescribing and use among elderly people in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, X; Laporte, J R; Frati, M E; Busquet, L; Arnau, J M; Ibañez, L; Séculi, E; Capellà, D; Arbonés, G

    1983-05-01

    As a result of the lack of an adequate regulation, the supply and the use of medicines is irrational in Spain. In order to know the characteristics of the prescription and use of drugs among the elderly, two drug utilization studies were carried out. The first study was an analysis of 981 prescriptions from an outpatient clinic of the Spanish Social Security. The results show that a high proportion of fixed-dose combinations were prescribed and that drugs without any demonstrated therapeutic value are often prescribed for the elderly. The second study was a survey of 389 individuals randomly chosen among people affiliated with a pensioners' club. The results show that drug use is highly prevalent among the elderly, that many medicines without any demonstrated benefit are being taken, and that potentially harmful drugs were being used by a high proportion of patients without medical follow-up. The prevalence of the use of some particular groups of drugs is also presented.

  11. Demographic stagnation and decline in Spain: A cause for concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrano-Martínez José-María

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available For years, the Spanish population has been rapidly ageing, showing signs of atony and stagnation. Between 1996 and 2007, in a phase of economic growth, the entry of foreign immigrants drove a global increase in population. But after the economic recession migratory flows show negative net balances. Our objective is to explain and confirm the demographic regression suffered by Spain. We are also interested in showing how the recent and intense immigration process has failed to generate significant changes in natural demographic characteristics and trends. National censuses, published by the National Institute of Statistics (INE, are our main source of demographic data. The analysis of the most recent relevant scientific literature has allowed us to compare opinions and discuss results. The data confirm an uncertain and worrying future for the Spanish population.

  12. Perception of physical fitness is associated with perception of body weight: sociodemographic analysis in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Tejero-González, Carlos Mª

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics, body weight perception and physical fitness perception. Methods: Survey by means of personal interview. The sample consisted of 8,594 participants living in Spain between 15 and 97 years of age. Sampling error was ±1.07%. Results: Of the people who reported having good or excellent physical fitness, there was a proportionally greater prevalence of males, people aged 15 to 34, pe...

  13. The Adoption of agricultural credit cooperativism in Spain (1890-1935) : solidarity from below?

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Soto, Ángel; Martínez Rodríguez, Susana

    2008-01-01

    The spread of agrarian credit cooperativism in Spain (1890-1934) was done under a variety of ideological and economic orientations. This article focuses on the construction of a few tools and indicators to explain the characteristics of agricultural credit cooperatives. An analysis of financial operations of rural savings banks is related with socio-political aspects that influenced their development; This analysis helps us to explain the relative success of German credit cooperative models a...

  14. Similarities of Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Strain in Mother and Son in Spain to UK Reference Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diack, Abigail B; Boyle, Aileen; Ritchie, Diane; Plinston, Chris; Kisielewski, Dorothy; de Pedro-Cuesta, Jesús; Rábano, Alberto; Will, Robert G; Manson, Jean C

    2017-09-01

    We investigated transmission characteristics of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a mother and son from Spain. Despite differences in patient age and disease manifestations, we found the same strain properties in these patients as in UK vCJD cases. A single strain of agent appears to be responsible for all vCJD cases to date.

  15. Amount and distribution of coarse woody debris in pine ecosystems of north-western Spain, Russia and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celia Herrero; Olga Krankina; Vicente J. Monleon; Felipe. Bravo

    2014-01-01

    The quantity and characteristics of coarse woody debris (CWD) were examined in four distinct pine ecosystems of north-western (NW) Spain, NW Russia and the NW USA. Despite differences in species, ecological conditions and management histories, in all four ecosystems the mean snag volume was less than that of logs, most of the CWD mass was in an intermediate degree of...

  16. Evaluating mental health care and policy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Costa-Font, Joan; Cabases, Juan; McDaid, David; Alonso, Jordi

    2010-06-01

    The reform and expansion of mental health care (MHC) systems is a key health policy target worldwide. Evidence informed policy aims to make use of a wide range of relevant data, taking into account past experience and local culture and context. To discuss the organisation, provision and financing of MHC in Spain visa vis the goals of recent psychiatric reforms. We draw upon existing literature, reports and empirical data from regional and national health plans, as well as European reports pertinent to Spain. In addition we have made use of iterative discussion by an expert panel on the features of Spanish MHC services, namely its history, characteristics and determinants in comparison to reforms in other European health systems. In contrast to most other European health systems, the Spanish case reveals that political regional devolution leads to a greater heterogeneity in MHC systems, with some of the 17 autonomous communities (ACs) or region states that make up the country moving more rapidly to full de-institutionalisation alongside coverage expansion and policy innovation. There remains a lack of specific earmarked budgets for MHC at a time of under-funding. There has been an imbalance in MHC reforms, with more focus on the principles underpinning the process of de-institutionalisation and less on the actual development of alternative community based mental health services. Moreover there has been a lack of monitoring of the reform process. Common to other countries, attempts to develop a more informed evidence policy have been hampered by a dislocation between the production of research evidence and the timing of actual policy reform implementation. Much of the focus of policy attention is on how to improve coordination within and across sectors, tackle socioeconomic inequalities and thus reduce the gap between perceived and observed need while monitoring any trends suggesting trans-institutionalisation. Other issues include developing and strengthening

  17. Pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Maria-Reyes; Hernández, Juana; Antoñanzas, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Assisted reproduction is one of the health services currently being considered for possible limitation or exclusion from the public health services portfolio in Spain. One of the main reasons claimed for this is the impact on the budget for pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of the pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain. This study focused on medical practice in Spain, and is based on the opinions of experts in assisted reproduction and the results provided by professional societies' publications. The reference year is 2012 and the setting was secondary care. We have included all existing pharmaceutical modalities for assisted reproduction, as well as the most common drug for each modality. We have considered the pharmaceutical cost per cycle for artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF_ICSI), and cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception. In Spain, artificial insemination has a pharmaceutical cost per cycle of between €69.36 and €873.79. This amounts to an average cycle cost of €364.87 for partner's sperm and €327.10 for donor sperm. The pharmaceutical cost of IVF_ICSI ranges between €278.16 and €1,902.66, giving an average cost per cycle of €1,139.65. In the case of cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception, the pharmaceutical cost per cycle is between €22.61 and €58.73, yielding an average cost of €40.67. The budgetary impact of pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction in Spain for the year 2012 was estimated at €98.7 million. In Spain, the total pharmaceutical cost of assisted reproduction is substantial. According to our results, we can say that about 29% of the total pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction techniques is funded by the National Health System and the rest represents 2.4% of the total annual out-of-pocket family expenditure on drugs.

  18. Modeling soil organic carbon stocks and changes in Spain using the GEFSOC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Easter, Mark; Cantero-Martínez, Carlos; Paustian, Keith

    2010-05-01

    Currently, there is little information about soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in Spain. To date the effects of land-use and soil management on SOC stocks in Spain have been evaluated in experimental fields under certain soil and climate conditions. However, these field experiments do not account for the spatial variability in management, cropping systems and soil and climate characteristics that exist in the whole territory. More realistic approaches like ecosystem-level dynamic simulation systems linked to geographic information systems (GIS) allow better assessments of SOC stocks at a regional or national level. The Global Environmental Facility Soil Organic Carbon (GEFSOC) system was recently built for this purpose (Milne et al., 2007) and it incorporates three widely used models for estimating SOC dynamics: (a) the Century ecosystem model; (b) the RothC soil C decomposition model; and (c) the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method for assessing soil C at regional scales. We modeled 9.5 Mha in northeast Spain using the GEFSOC system to predict SOC stocks and changes comprising: pasture, forest, cereal-fallow, cereal monoculture, orchards, rice, irrigated land and grapes and olives. The spatial distribution of the different land use categories and their change over time was obtained from the European Corine database and from Spanish census data on land use from 1926 to 2007. At the same time, current and historical management information was collected from different sources in order to have a fairly well picture of changes in land use and management for this area. Soil parameters needed by the system were obtained from the European soil map (1 km x 1 km) and climate data was produced by the Meteorology State Agency (Ministry of the Environment and Rural and Marine Environs of Spain). The SOC stocks simulated were validated with SOC values from the European SOC map and from other national studies. Modeled SOC results suggested that spatial

  19. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades-Lopez, A.; Martinez-Arias, R.; Diaz-Hidalgo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  20. Courses and syllabus: the situation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranzo, E.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation covering radioactive and nuclear installations classifies workers operating such installations as operators or supervisors. Operators are persons who, working directly under a supervisor, handle the installation operational equipment and which have a bearing on nuclear safety or protection against radiation. Supervisors are persons directing the operations of a radioactive or nuclear installation and operator activities. The study deals with the courses given in Spain which qualify operators and supervisors in industrial radioactive installations as permit holders, as well as the courses currently being run for persons engaged in the transport of radioactive materials. Spain regulations covering transport of dangerous goods are based on separate Royal Decrees dealing with road and air transport respectively

  1. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  3. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. On October 2015, a new support scheme (the 'Regimen Retributivo Especifico') was established in Spain. The aim was to grant a specific remuneration regime for new biomass plants located in the mainland electricity system and for wind energy plants. The allocation of the referred specific remuneration regime has been done through a competitive call for tenders. A tax regulation mechanism for investments related to RESE plants is in place. There is a tax credit for solar thermal and for bio-fuels in transport. Furthermore a quota system for bio-fuels is in place. RES-E operators are entitled to grid connection, priority dispatch against the grid operator. Currently no support schemes for RES-H and C are in place in Spain

  4. Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.; Martin, J.L., E-mail: mrm@csn.es [Nuclear Safety Council, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    The arrangements for the regulatory control of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources in Spain are described. Emphasis is given to the situations which are most likely to result in the loss of control of sources and on the procedures introduced to reduce the likelihood of losses in these cases. Finally, the strategy for locating sources which have been lost from control (orphan sources) is described. (author)

  5. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  6. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina) for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology), which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (Uni...

  7. The dilemmas of nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranzadi, C.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the economic basis of some controversial political choices concerning the future of nuclear energy in Spain: authorisation or refusal of existing nuclear power plants life extension and investment in new ones. These decisions are to be taken in an environment characterised by a reluctant public opinion that feel uninformed and whose risk perception differs deeply from experts assessment, but prefers not to be consulted. (Author) 19 refs

  8. National registry of hemoglobinopathies in Spain (REPHem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Elena; Bellón, José M; de la Cruz, María; Beléndez, Cristina; Berrueco, Rubén; Ruiz, Anna; Elorza, Izaskun; Díaz de Heredia, Cristina; Cervera, Aurea; Vallés, Griselda; Salinas, J Antonio; Coll, M Teresa; Bermúdez, Mar; Prudencio, Marta; Argilés, Bienvenida; Vecilla, Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Although highly prevalent throughout the world, the accurate prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain is unknown. This study presents data on the national registry of hemoglobinopathies of patients with thalassemia major (TM), thalassemia intermedia (TI), and sickle cell disease (SCD) in Spain created in 2014. Fifty centers reported cases retrospectively. Data were registered from neonatal screening or from the first contact at diagnosis until last follow-up or death. Data of the 715 eligible patients were collected: 615 SCD (497 SS, 64 SC, 54 SBeta phenotypes), 73 thalassemia, 9 CC phenotype, and 18 other variants. Most of the SCD patients were born in Spain (65%), and 51% of these were diagnosed at newborn screening. Median age at the first diagnosis was 0.4 years for thalassemia and 1.0 years for SCD. The estimated incidence was 0.002 thalassemia cases and 0.03 SCD cases/1,000 live births. Median age was 8.9 years (0.2-33.7) for thalassemia and 8.1 years (0.2-32.8) for SCD patients. Stroke was registered in 16 SCD cases. Transplantation was performed in 43 TM and 23 SCD patients at a median age of 5.2 and 7.8 years, respectively. Twenty-one patients died (3 TM, 17 SCD, 1 CC) and 200 were lost to follow-up. Causes of death were related to transplantation in three patients with TM and three patients with SCD. Death did not seem to be associated with SCD in six patients, but nine patients died secondary to disease complications. Overall survival was 95% at 15 years of age. The registry provides data about the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain and will permit future cohort studies and the possibility of comparison with other registries. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Lessons learned from Spain's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The commercial nuclear program in Spain dates back to the beginning of the 1960s. There are currently nine units in operation, one more has been decommissioned and a further five are in different phases of construction but under nuclear moratorium since 1983. This article gives a general overview of the program, the criteria applied, what it has meant to and required of the industry and, finally, what lessons have been learned. (author) 2 figs

  10. Water Markets in Spain: Performance and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palomo-Hierro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Law 46/1999 incorporated formal water markets into the Spanish legal and regulatory framework, allowing spot water markets and the creation of water banks. The implementation of water markets in Spain aimed at improving the efficiency of water use by reallocating water towards uses with higher added value. However, the performance of water markets in Spain has been rather disappointing, since they have been operative only during drought periods, and even under these extreme scarcity situations, trading activity counted for less than 5.0% of total water use. The narrowness of the market suggests that there are some barriers hampering their effective functioning. This paper examines the evolution and performance of water markets in Spain, relying on a transaction costs analysis framework. This analysis allows the identification of the main factors impeding water markets from operating effectively as a water reallocation tool. This analysis also provides some guidelines on how to overcome these obstacles and, thus, how to improve the efficiency of water use.

  11. Small hydro: Policy and potential in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, C.

    2001-01-01

    In Spain, the benefits of small-scale (less than 10 MW) hydro are apparently rarely appreciated and there is little support from European institutions. The article suggests that small hydro technology can make a significant contribution to the country's energy requirements and create employment, provided certain obstacles can be removed. Data on the number of small hydros in Spain, and of recent installations are given; the share of hydro in Spain's total energy production is 2.5%. The low environmental impact of hydro is extolled, and the conclusions of a recent study of 'environmental impacts of the production of electricity' are listed. There are said to be unreasonable administrative obstacles; for example, it is more difficult to obtain permission to refurbish a 100 kW hydro plant in Castilla y Leon than it is to install a 30,000 kW gas plant. Some details relating to the affect of hydro on aquatic ecosystems, noise levels, and water quality, are given

  12. Social determinants of self-perceived discrimination in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-González, D; Vives-Cases, C; Borrell, C; Agudelo-Suárez, A A; Álvarez-Dardet, C

    2013-03-01

    To analyse the association between self-perceived discrimination and social determinants (social class, gender, country of origin) in Spain, and further to describe contextual factors which contribute to self-perceived discrimination. Cross-sectional design using data from the Spanish National Health Survey (2006). The dependent variable was self-perceived discrimination, and independent and stratifying variables were sociodemographic characteristics (e.g. sex, social class, country of origin, educational level). Logistic regression was used. The prevalence of self-perceived discrimination was 4.2% for men and 6.3% for women. The likelihood of self-perceived discrimination was higher in people who originated from low-income countries: men, odds ratio (OR) 5.59 [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.55-6.87]; women, OR 4.06 (95% CI 3.42-4.83). Women were more likely to report self-perceived discrimination by their partner at home than men [OR 8.35 (95% CI 4.70-14.84)]. The likelihood of self-perceived discrimination when seeking work was higher among people who originated from low-income countries than their Spanish counterparts: men, OR 13.65 (95% CI 9.62-19.35); women, OR 10.64 (95% CI 8.31-13.62). In comparison with Spaniards, male white-collar workers who originated from low-income countries [OR 11.93 (95% CI 8.26-17.23)] and female blue-collar workers who originated from low-income countries (OR 1.6 (95% CI 1.08-2.39)] reported higher levels of self-perceived discrimination. Self-perceived discrimination is distributed unevenly in Spain and interacts with social inequalities. This particularly affects women and immigrants. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, Ma Jose; Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Palau, Margarita; Damian, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Barrio, Jose Luis del; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Background: High-chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. At low-chronic levels, as those present in Spain, evidence is scarce. In this ecological study, we evaluated the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations during the period 1998-2002 with cardiovascular mortality in the population of Spain. Methods: Arsenic concentrations in drinking water were available for 1721 municipalities, covering 24.8 million people. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cardiovascular (361,750 deaths), coronary (113,000 deaths), and cerebrovascular (103,590 deaths) disease were analyzed for the period 1999-2003. Two-level hierarchical Poisson models were used to evaluate the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations with mortality adjusting for social determinants, cardiovascular risk factors, diet, and water characteristics at municipal or provincial level in 651 municipalities (200,376 cardiovascular deaths) with complete covariate information. Results: Mean municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from 10 μg/L. Compared to municipalities with arsenic concentrations 10 μg/L, respectively (P-value for trend 0.032). The corresponding figures were 5.2% (0.8% to 9.8%) and 1.5% (-4.5% to 7.9%) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 0.3% (-4.1% to 4.9%) and 1.7% (-4.9% to 8.8%) for cerebrovascular disease mortality. Conclusions: In this ecological study, elevated low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 μg/L.

  14. Costs, outcomes and challenges for diabetes care in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Bastida, Julio; Boronat, Mauro; Moreno, Juan Oliva; Schurer, Willemien

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is becoming of increasing concern in Spain due to rising incidence and prevalence, although little information is known with regards to costs and outcomes. The information on cost of diabetes in Spain is fragmented and outdated. Our objective is to update diabetes costs, and to identify outcomes and quality of care of diabetes in Spain. Methods We performed systematic searches from secondary sources, including scientific literature and government data and reports. Results ...

  15. Catalonia and Spain at the crossroads: financial and economic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Castells, Antoni (Castells Oliveres)

    2014-01-01

    In some large European countries, in recent decades, economic globalization has gone hand in hand with a powerful trend to political decentralization (this has been the case in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain). In Spain, and after years of apparent stability, the relations between Catalonia and Spain are experiencing troubled times. This paper examines particularly the main economic effects of both the staying together and the secession scenarios. Following the introduction, the ...

  16. Old Age, Widows, and Rural Solitude in the Eighteenth Century Central-Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco GARCÍA GONZÁLEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current research about old age during the Ancient Regime in Spain is insufficient. And the same is the case with women, despite the large number of studies about gender and family history in the past decades. Taking, as a starting point, the analysis of widow women which became heads of households, this paper aims to know which specific characteristics had those households during their old age, composition, size, typology and the tendency to solitude; which activities and livelihood they had, paying attention to those differences as an expression of inequality; and which mechanisms and social reproduction strategies they followed to deal with the effects of aging. This paper is geografically focused in a wide rural area of central-southern Spain and aims to review the assumption that single and widow women in preindustrial age had subordinted lives. 

  17. Social exclusion and high speed rail: The case study of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagliara, F.; Menicocci, F.; Vassallo, J.M.; Gomez, J.

    2016-07-01

    Very few contributions in the literature have dealt with the issue of social exclusion related to High Speed Rail systems. The objective of this manuscript is to understand what are the factors excluding users from choosing High Speed Rail services considering as case study Spain. For this purpose, a Revealed Preference survey was employed in November and December 2015. A questionnaire was submitted to users of the Spanish transport systems travelling for long distance-journeys. The aim was that of investigating their perception of High Speed Rail system and the factors inhibiting passengers or excluding them from its use. Data about their socioeconomic characteristics were collected as well. The main result of the survey has been that a relationship between social exclusion and High Speed Rail in Spain is present, especially in terms of geographical exclusion. (Author)

  18. Forecasting total natural-gas consumption in Spain by using the stochastic Gompertz innovation diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, R.; Nafidi, A.; Gutierrez Sanchez, R.

    2005-01-01

    The principal objective of the present study is to examine the possibilities of using a Gompertz-type innovation diffusion process as a stochastic growth model of natural-gas consumption in Spain, and to compare our results with those obtained, on the one hand, by stochastic logistic innovation modelling and, on the other, by using a stochastic lognormal growth model based on a non-innovation diffusion process. Such a comparison is carried out taking into account the macroeconomic characteristics and natural-gas consumption patterns in Spain, both of which reflect the current expansive situation characterizing the Spanish economy. From the technical standpoint a contribution is also made to the theory of the stochastic Gompertz Innovation diffusion process (SGIDP), as applied to the case in question. (author)

  19. Analysis of the mutual funds and pension funds in Spain: evolution and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Alda García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutual funds and pension funds are the most important investment products in Spain. Nonetheless, it should not be confused with each other, or take them as equivalent; since the latter have also the characteristic of a long-term savings product, in order to obtain additional funds for retirement. These differences may influence the investor when deciding on one of these instruments, but also the manager, developing different management strategies.Therefore, on this paper we examine the main magnitudes of both markets in Spain. Moreover, we analyze the performance of two Spanish fund samples (one with global equity mutual funds and another with global equity pension funds with the purpose of showing if their performance is efficient, and if there are differences on their management.

  20. Immigrants in Spain - Their Role in the Economy and the Effects of the Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Éltető

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade Spain definitely became a country of immigrants. This article describes the characteristics and economic role of immigration, the official policy towards the phenomenon and the effects of the financial and economic crisis of the last two years. The five million immigrants had important effect on the Spanish demography, employment and education system. Foreigners found vacant jobs first of all in the construction industry and agriculture. To the end of 2007 however, the construction boom ended and Spain sank into a deep recession. Unemployment rate jumped to 20 percent to the spring of 2010 leaving mass of immigrants without jobs. Tolerance of the Spanish people towards immigrants seems to decrease and foreigners has become another problem for the – otherwise overloaded government.

  1. A Mediterranean derecho: Catalonia (Spain), 17th August 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, J. Manuel

    2007-02-01

    At approximately 6:10 UTC in the morning of 17th August 2003, a squall line developed over south Catalonia (the northeast region of Spain). During the next 9 h, the squall moved rapidly northeast and crossed Catalonia and the French regions of Languedoc-Roussillon and Province, damaging and uprooting hundreds of trees and blocking trains in the region. Wind gusts reached were recoded up to 52 m/s with evidence of F2 intensity damage. This case study shows the characteristics of a derecho (widespread convectively induced windstorm). Radar observations of the evolving squall line show signatures often correlated with damaging surface winds, including: Bow echoes, Rear inflow notches, Rear inflow jets, Medium altitude radial convergence, Narrow gradient of very marked reflectivity, Development of isolated cells ahead of the convective line, A band of convection off the northern end of the line known as a "warm advection wing". When examining the different surface observations, satellite, radar imagery and cloud-to-ground lightning data, this case shows many similarities to those investigated in the United States. The derecho is a hybrid case, but has many characteristics of warm season derechoes. This emanates from a mesoscale convective complex (MCC) moving along a quasi-stationary, low-level thermal boundary in an environment characterized by high potential instability and relatively strong mid-tropospheric winds.

  2. Mercury concentrations in cattle from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2003-01-20

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is released into the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural processes. It can be accumulated by domestic animals and so contaminate human foodstuffs. To date, there is no information on mercury residues in livestock in Spain and the aim of the present study was to quantify the concentrations of mercury in cattle in two of the major regions in north-west Spain, Galicia (a largely rural region) and Asturias, which is characterised by heavy industry and mining. Total mercury concentrations were determined in tissue (liver, kidney and muscle) and blood from 284 calves (6-10 months old) and 56 cows (2-16 years old) from across the whole of the two regions. Mercury was usually detected in the kidney (62.4-87.5% of samples) but most (79.5-96%) liver, muscle and blood samples did not contain detectable residues. Renal mercury concentrations did not differ between male and female calves but were significantly greater in female calves than in cows. Unexpectedly, kidney mercury concentrations were significantly higher in calves from the predominantly rural region of Galicia (geometric mean: 12.2 microg/kg w.wt.) than in animals from the industrialised-mining region of Asturias (3.40 microg/kg w.wt.). Overall, mercury residues in cattle from NW Spain were similar to those reported in cattle from non-polluted areas in other countries and do not constitute a risk to animal or human health. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  4. Prevalence and patterns of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing among college population in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Caravaca Sánchez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional bullying victimization and the growing number of cyber-teasing victims during the last decade is a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between students’ experiences of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing and the sociodemographic characteristics of a sample composed of college students in Spain. Methods In the fall of 2014, 543 sixth-grade students from southeast Spain completed an anonymous survey on their experience of both kinds of to ascertain any relationship with sociodemographic characteristics, including gender, nationality, economic problems, family conflicts and alcohol and cannabis use. Results A total of 62.2 % of the students reported to having suffered traditional bullying victimization and 52.7 % reported that they had been subject to cyber-teasing. 40.7 % of participants had been victims of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing in the past 12 months. Most (65.7 % of the victims were at the same time cyber-teasing victims; 77.6 % of cyber-teasing victims were also victimized in a different manner. Traditional bullying victimization was higher among boys than among girls, while female students were more likely to have been subjected to cyber-teasing than male students. The characteristics that most heavily influenced suffering traditional bullying victimization were economic problems, family conflicts and cannabis use. Conclusions Our findings confirm overlapping results in the risk factors that influence suffering both traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing: there was a strong influence of certain sociodemographic and individual characteristics of the college population, suggesting that specific policies are necessary to improve college students’ environment in Spain.

  5. Prevalence and patterns of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing among college population in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca Sánchez, Francisco; Falcón Romero, María; Navarro-Zaragoza, Javier; Luna Ruiz-Cabello, Aurelio; Rodriges Frantzisko, Oriali; Luna Maldonado, Aurelio

    2016-02-19

    Traditional bullying victimization and the growing number of cyber-teasing victims during the last decade is a major public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between students' experiences of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing and the sociodemographic characteristics of a sample composed of college students in Spain. In the fall of 2014, 543 sixth-grade students from southeast Spain completed an anonymous survey on their experience of both kinds of to ascertain any relationship with sociodemographic characteristics, including gender, nationality, economic problems, family conflicts and alcohol and cannabis use. A total of 62.2% of the students reported to having suffered traditional bullying victimization and 52.7% reported that they had been subject to cyber-teasing. 40.7% of participants had been victims of traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing in the past 12 months. Most (65.7%) of the victims were at the same time cyber-teasing victims; 77.6% of cyber-teasing victims were also victimized in a different manner. Traditional bullying victimization was higher among boys than among girls, while female students were more likely to have been subjected to cyber-teasing than male students. The characteristics that most heavily influenced suffering traditional bullying victimization were economic problems, family conflicts and cannabis use. Our findings confirm overlapping results in the risk factors that influence suffering both traditional bullying victimization and cyber-teasing: there was a strong influence of certain sociodemographic and individual characteristics of the college population, suggesting that specific policies are necessary to improve college students' environment in Spain.

  6. The quality assurance practice in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugica, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Even when the basic requirements for a Quality Assurance Program are delineated in documents such as the Code of Federal Regulations or Standards like ANSI N 45. 2, the way in which these requirements are put into practice is very dependent on the organization to which they are applied. So, in order to approach accurately the Quality Assurance practice and experience in Spain, the legal and industrial scenario must be considered. We are trying to present an outlook of the Spanish Energy Plan, Regulations and Nuclear Industry. (orig.)

  7. Country policy profile - Spain. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy in the year 2020 for Spain is 20% (according to EurObserv'ER calculation the share was 14.2% in 2012). The Directive has a mandatory 10 % target for transport to be achieved by all Member States, which refers to renewable sources as a whole, not bio-fuels alone. In Spain, the main support scheme called 'Regimen Especial' (Royal Decree 661/2007) operated until the end of 2011 was suspended at the beginning of 2012. The price regulation system is currently phased out trough Real Decreto 9/2013. In the former system, operators could choose between two options: a guaranteed feed-in tariff and a guaranteed bonus (premium) paid on top of the electricity price derived on the free market. More recently, the 6 June, Spain approved a clean energy bill that introduces an entirely new subsidy system. The FiT and market price plus premium systems have effectively been abolished retroactively and replaced by a sum to be allocated based on the plant's installed capacity to compensate for investment-related financial outlay. Under the decree, generators will earn a rate of return of about 7.5 percent over their lifetimes. This rate, which may be revised every three years, is based on the average interest of a 10-year sovereign bond plus 3 percentage points. These measures will be implemented retroactively to apply from July 2013. Currently, there is no support scheme for RES-H and C in place in Spain but building must satisfy a minimal solar contribution of warm sanitary water. Approved in March 2006, through Royal Decree 314/2006 of 17 March 2006, the Building Technical Code (CTE - Codigo Tecnico de la Edificacion) requires all new or renovated buildings to cover 30%-70% of the Domestic Hot Water demand with solar thermal energy. Some

  8. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  10. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  11. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  12. Deregulation and restructuring of the electricity sector in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, L.

    2000-01-01

    This economic analysis of the Electric Power industry and market in Spain shows how the electricity deregulation and liberalization in Spain have given rise to an electricity industry which not only complies in spirit and letter with the E.U. Directive on the internal energy market, but which in fact goes much further. (A.L.B.)

  13. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  14. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  15. Implementation of the new maintenance rule in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, A. L.; Gerez, L.

    2000-01-01

    The maintenance rule involving a change in philosophy both for the facilities and regulations has been implemented in Spain nuclear power plants as from April 1st this year. The authors describe this rule and detail its fulfillment in Spain. (Author)

  16. [Heart failure mortality in Spain: is there an andalusian paradox?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Navarro, M; Gómez-Doblas, J; Molero, E; Galván, E de Teresa

    2006-06-01

    Congestive heart failure has a high mortality, as reflected in different clinical trials and observational studies. Spain, as other countries around the Mediterranean basin, have a relatively low rate of coronary deaths, attributed to the so-called Mediterranean lifestyle. Andalusia, in the southern most part of Spain, constitutes the paradigm of Mediterranean lifestyle. However, different reports show that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease is higher in Andalusia than in other zones of Spain. Thus the mortality rate due to heart failure in Spain in the year 2000 per 100,000 inhabitants was 27.3 in men and 28.88 in women and each one of the eight Andalusia provinces had greater rates than the national mean in both men and woman. Even in countries with a relatively low prevalence of coronary heart disease as is the case in Spain, heart failure mortality seems to be parallel to local differences in IHD prevalence.

  17. Growth and demographic patterns of marriages of foreign population in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Cortina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic growth of international immigration in Spain during the last decade has considerably increased the number of marriages with at least one foreign national. Between 1989 and 2004, the proportion of these marriages increased from 4% to12%, totalling 25.618 unions in 2004. However, marriage patterns of foreign nationals have attracted little attention among researcher spartly because of the small number of cases that were available until recently. Within this context, this paper examines the growth and demographic patterns of marriages of foreign populationin Spain, compared to those of only Spanish nationals, taking into account the age at marriage, type of union (religious or civil,first and later order of marriages, and degree of endogamy. We use microdata from the Spanish vital statistics on marriages (Movimiento Natural de la Población between 1989 and 2004. Results show that marriages of foreign population in Spain, particularly those that involve one Spanish partner, present some distinct characteristics, in particular associated with gender, in contrast to those marriages that only involve Spanish nationals.

  18. [Who is against prevention? A map of policy actors favoring smoking in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Lluís; Villalbí, Joan Ramón; Gallego, Raquel

    2004-01-01

    For a comprehensive approach to policies on smoking, the map of actors related to tobacco and their political ties needs to be identified. The present article constitutes the first attempt at this task in Spain. Analysis of the press, industry publications, and interviews with key people. Active actors favoring smoking in Spain were identified and classified according to their characteristics, the sphere in which they act, and their preferred territorial arena. We identified tobacco companies (Altadis and Philip Morris dominate the market), tobacco trade organizations (tobacconists), front-line organizations created by the tobacco industry (The Smokers for Tolerance Club), organizations of tobacco growers, and processing companies. Distribution to retailers is dominated by Logista, owned by Altadis. Other sectors to take into account are vending companies and those manufacturing related products (cigarette paper, matches or lighters). The contacts of these actors with the public administration are reviewed, notable among which are the role of the Commissioner for the Tobacco Market, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of the Economy. Ties were also found with employers' organizations, some political parties, and unions, as well as with other sectors with social influence such as the media and advertising sectors. The map of actors favoring smoking in Spain is complex and goes beyond the confines of the tobacco industry. Understanding this web is crucial to promoting comprehensive prevention policies.

  19. Radioactive waste communication policy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, V.

    1993-01-01

    ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A.), is a State-owned company, founded in 1985 and is responsible for radioactive waste management in Spain. ENRESA's activities are developed following a General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish Government. As in most countries, Spanish public opinion is concerned with the most activities related to radioactivity or rad-waste management due to different facts but mainly to a lack of information on the matter. This situation provides misuse of information on it by some politicians, green groups and media which increases distrust of public on responsible companies and institutions. To gain public acceptance, it would be necessary to develop long-term information policy, due to the fact that results in communication are reached in the long term. ENRESA is carrying out a Communication Plan (CP) which has been implemented in a continuous way with success around the area of the disposal site of low and intermediate level wastes as well as around an old uranium mill factory in which remedial actions are being implemented. The implantation of CP at a national level is being done stepwise. The more relevant issues related to the radioactive waste situation in Spain, as well as the communication actions are explained in this document

  20. Nuclear power training programmes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanarro, A.; Izquierdo, L.

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of nuclear power in Spain is developing very rapidly. At present 1.1GW(e) are installed in Spain and this is expected to increase to 8GW(e) in 1980 and to 28GW(e) in 1990. Spanish industry and technology are also rapidly increasing their participation in building nuclear stations, in manufacturing the necessary components and in the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. All of this requires properly trained personnel, which is estimated to become approximately 1200 high-level technicians, 1100 medium-level technicians and 1500 technical assistants by 1980. This personnel is trained: (a) in engineering schools; (b) in the Nuclear Studies Institute; (c) in the electric companies with nuclear programmes. The majority of the high-level engineering schools in the country include physics and basic nuclear technology courses in their programmes. Some of them have an experimental low-power nuclear reactor. The Nuclear Studies Institute is an official organism dependent on the Nuclear Energy Commission and responsible, among other subjects, for training personnel for the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy in the country. The electric companies also participate in training personnel for future nuclear stations and they plan to have advanced simulators of PWR and BWR type stations for operator training. The report deals with the personnel requirement forecasts and describes the training programmes. (author)

  1. [Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R; Córdoba, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulatory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a qualitative leap, taking advantage of the legal transposition of the European directive on advertising. With broad political consensus, the Law 28/2005 was established regarding sanitary measures for tobacco and the regulation of the sale, supply and consumption of tobacco products. The objective stated in this law is to prevent the initiation of tobacco consumption, especially among youth, guarantee the right of non-smokers to breathe air free from tobacco smoke and make quitting this habit easier for people who wish to do so. The main issues included are the prohibition of tobacco advertising and the limitation of tobacco consumption in common work areas and enclosed public spaces. The new law has replaced the previous rules in Spain, which were some of the most permissive in the European Union in terms of tobacco sales, advertising limitations and restrictions on smoking locations. It is clear that there is still much to be done. At this time, more social support needs to be generated in favor of the new regulations, and an important effort needs to be made to educate the public.

  2. CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY IN SPAIN: PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of legal psychology, as it is understood in Spain, we can distinguish between the applications of psychology in the different steps of the judicial process: in police stations during criminal investigations, in court when the perpetrators have already been identified and arrested, and in prisons where they are eventually sent after being convicted. This paper argues that when psychology assists the criminal investigation in the first step of the judicial process - the police activities-, we are talking about criminal psychology, at two levels: the operational level (mostly pertaining to criminal psychology and the strategic level (shared with other areas of expertise. After describing its peculiarities and specific areas, in analogy with the support provided by other forensic sciences, we explain that in Spain this specialty is carried out professionally from within our own police forces, with a profile that is very different from the more traditional police psychology, and in close collaboration with the academic environment with regard to the scientific development of techniques and procedures.

  3. Nucleoelectric energy training programs in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanarro, A.; Izquierdo, L.

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of nucleoelectric energy in Spain is developing very rapidly. The nuclear power installed in Spain at the present time is 1,1 GWe and it is expected to increase to 8 GWe in 1980 and to 28 GWe in 1990. Spanish industry and technology are also rapidly increasing their participation in building nuclear stations, in manufacturing the necessary components and in the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. All of this requires properly trained personnel which is estimated at approximately 1200 high-level technicians, 1100 medium-level technicians and 1500 technical assistants by 1980. This personnel is trained: a) In engineering schools; b) In the Nuclear Studies Institute; and c) In the electric companies with nuclear programs. The majority of the high-level engineering schools in the Country include physics and basic nuclear technology courses in their programs. Some of them have an experimental low-power nuclear reactor. The Nuclear Studies Institute is an official organism depending on the Nuclear Energy Commission responsible, among other subjects, of training personnel for the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy in the Country. The electric companies also participate in training personnel for future nuclear stations and they plan to have advanced simulators of the PWR and BWR type stations for operator training. The report deals with the personnel requirement forecasts and describes the personnel training programs [es

  4. Structure, organisation and clinical outcomes in cancer patients of hospital support teams in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuca-Rodriguez, Albert; Gómez-Batiste, Xavier; Espinosa-Rojas, Jose; Martínez-Muñoz, Marisa; Codorniu, Nuria; Porta-Sales, Josep

    2012-12-01

    To describe the structure, characteristics of patients and basic clinical outcomes in cancer patients receiving care from palliative care hospital support teams (HSTs) in Spain. A multi-centre observational two phase study. Phase I: A descriptive survey of all HSTs in Spain. Phase II: A quasi-experimental prospective cohort study to describe the clinical outcomes, symptom severity and survival. 60 HSTs in Spain met the inclusion criteria. All HSTs were multidisciplinary with wide experience (mean 6.8 years). HSTs coverage was 21.5% of all cancer deaths in Spain. A total number of 364 advanced cancer patients were included in the cohort study; 76% were classified as moderate or high complexity. Overall, 64% were male subjects and the most frequent primary cancer site was lung (26%). Half of the patients had no detailed information about cancer staging and only 19% knew their short-term prognosis. The mean length of intervention was 6.5 days (mean three visits per patient). Outcomes were: 34% deaths during the admission process; 38% were discharged home; and 28% were transferred to another medium-term-stay specialist unit. The main symptoms were pain (68%), dyspnoea (43%), vomiting (24%), anorexia (72%), asthenia (78%), insomnia (50%), anxiety (45%) and depression (35%). After the HSTs intervention, the symptom severity was significantly reduced (p<0.001) for all symptoms, except for weakness and anorexia. The mean survival from inclusion was 111 days. Palliative intervention of HSTs is characterised by being adjusted to patient needs and short duration. Their care was focused on the preterminal phase of cancer patients of moderate-high complexity.

  5. Biomass power. Exploring the diffusion challenges in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass resources for power generation offers numerous benefits of interest for political decision-makers: fuel security, rural and industrial development, ecological benefits. In Spain, policy instruments have been used since 1980 to stimulate biomass power generation. However, the diffusion outcome by 2007 was very disappointing: only 525 MW. This paper argues that two factors lie at the core of this: the conceptualization of biomass resources by political decision-makers in the instruments used, and the desire that policy instruments be in line with market liberalization principles. These generated a persistent economic obstacle for biomass power generation, and impeded the development of markets for the supply of biomass resources. The policy learning regarding the heterogeneity of biomass resources, and the investors' expectations on risks, profitability and resource markets was very slow among political decision-makers. The paper contributes to the understanding of diffusion outcomes by proposing to analyse diffusion by means of five indicators: types of resources, technologies, developers, motivations to invest and project sizes. Besides, the paper shows the usefulness of investigating policy instruments in terms of their risk and profitability characteristics. This enables a better understanding of the diffusion patterns and outcomes. (author)

  6. Bibliometric analysis of interventions with batterers in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Ferrer Perez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyse the evolution and characteristics of scientific production on intervention programmes with gender violence perpetrators performed in Spain. The standard bibliometric indicators were applied to 148 studies identified. The greatest productivity is focused between 2008 and 2010 and the largest number of records corresponds to articles in specialised scientific journals. As far as authorship is concerned, an analysis of the number of studies per person indicates that the results obtained are only initially consistent with Lotka’s Law, that is, there are a majority of not very productive authors and a minority who publish frequently, but the data do not fit this law. An analysis of collaboration between authors enables us to determine the existence of one “Social Circle” or “Invisible College”, at least. Most of the records analysed focus on the description of one or several intervention programmes with men who abuse their partner. Results show that there are progressively more evidence based studies on batterers and their treatment.

  7. [Tobacco and alcohol consumption according to workday in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, Vanesa; Fernández-Feito, Ana; Arias, Lucía; Lana, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between smoking and alcohol consumption and the type of working day in the Spanish population Cross-sectional study among employees residing in Spain aged >18 years (N=8,736). We took data from the National Health Survey (2011-2012). Information was collected on the type of working day (morning, afternoon, evening, part-time, reduced hours, and shift-work) and smoking and drinking habits. Demographic characteristics and health- and work-related factors were also taken into account. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated through log-binomial regressions. Among respondents, 32.1% smoked regularly, especially those working the night shift (43.5%). Moderate alcohol consumption was found in 54.8% of workers and excessive consumption in 1.5%. Most of the moderate and heavy drinkers worked part-time, with 57.6% and 1.8% respectively. The aOR of being a smoker was higher among night workers (OR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.01-2.46). None of the work shifts were significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Night shift work was associated with regular smoking. This collective of workers should be monitored closely by occupational health services and regularly undergo programs to control tobacco consumption and smoking-related diseases. Additional research to elucidate the reasons for this association could help to achieve preventive and therapeutic success. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk informed in-service inspection and testing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, Juan; Marcelles, Ignacio

    2002-01-01

    The Spanish nuclear regulatory authority, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN), requires the use of codes and standards in force in the country of origin of the plant technology. For this reason, the in-service inspection and testing programs applied at Spanish nuclear power plants basically adhere to the requirements of the ASME XI and ASME OM Codes. It is not surprising that when the earliest developments aimed at drawing up risk informed inservice inspection and testing programs were initiated within the framework of ASME, the Spanish industry should follows such developments very closely. In fact, persons within the Spanish nuclear industry joined different ASME committees involved in the development and approval of the various code cases encompassing these developments. Developments specific to the Spanish nuclear power plants were initiated at a time when the aforementioned reference documentation was in a very advanced stage of development/approval. Two clearly differentiated lines of work got under way: On the one hand, and as regards risk informed in-service testing programs, the American standards were used as the sole reference. In the case of risk informed in-service inspection programs, the Spanish nuclear power plant-owning utilities and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear decided to draw up a Spanish guideline that, although using the ASME developments as a reference, would have its own specific characteristics. In relation to the above, and referring to the chronology of the events, the activities performed to date in Spain are described

  9. Caregiver burden in Alzheimer's disease patients in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Longobardo, Luz María; Oliva-Moreno, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease constitutes one of the leading causes of burden of disease, and it is the third leading disease in terms of economic and social costs. To analyze the burden and problems borne by informal caregivers of patients who suffer from Alzheimer's disease in Spain. We used the Survey on Disabilities, Autonomy and Dependency to obtain information on the characteristics of disabled people with Alzheimer's disease and the individuals who provide them with personal care. Additionally, statistical multivariate analyses using probit models were performed to analyze the burden placed on caregivers in terms of health, professional, and leisure/social aspects. 46% of informal caregivers suffered from health-related problems as a result of providing care, 90% had leisure-related problems, and 75% of caregivers under 65 years old admitted to suffering from problems related to their professional lives. The probability of a problem arising for an informal caregiver was positively associated with the degree of dependency of the person cared for. In the case of caring for a greatly dependent person, the probability of suffering from health-related problems was 22% higher, the probability of professional problems was 18% higher, and there was a 10% greater probability of suffering from leisure-related problems compared to non-dependents. The results show a part of the large hidden cost for society in terms of problems related to the burden lessened by the caregivers. This information should be a useful tool for designing policies focused toward supporting caregivers and improving their welfare.

  10. Low permeability volcanics in the Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custodio, E.

    1985-01-01

    The Canary Islands, about 2000 km to the SW of continental Spain, are fully volcanic, from mid Miocene to recent. The permeability of the formations depends very much on the age and lithology. In most instances young, pervious basalts are devoid of water due to their altitude and most water abstraction works must go into the underlaying, much less pervious, older formations. Long water galleries or large diameter wells fitted with a crown of horizontal bores are able to catch significant quantities of water from formations which permeability is less than 0.1 m/day. The anisotropic behavior of the formations, specially due to the injection of subvertical dykes parallel to the coast, explains the high hydraulic gradient found, up to 0.15, and the relative high yield of the wells and galleries. The specific yield of the volcanics is fairly high, about 0.02 to 0.05, thus allowing the use of reserves to supply the demand. Conventional finite-difference models give a sound picture of the groundwater behavior but preliminary adjustments of the hydraulic parameters need the study of simplified cross-sections. The study of the chemical characteristics of groundwater is a key factor in the understanding of groundwater flow. The discussion refers mainly to Lanzarote, Tenerife and Gran Canaria Islands, but some comment will use information from other islands. 23 references, 10 figures, 2 tables

  11. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  12. Chemical characterization of tin-lead glazed ceramics from Aragon (Spain) by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inanez, J.G.; Barcelona Univ.; Speakman, R.J.; Buxeda i Garrigos, J.; Glascock, M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Majolica pottery was the most characteristic tableware produced in Spain during the Medieval and Renaissance periods. A study of the three main production centers in the historical region of Aragon during Middle Ages and Renaissance was conducted on a set of 71 samples. The samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), and the resulting data were interpreted using an array of multivariate statistical procedures. Our results show a clear discrimination among different production centers allowing a reliable provenance attribution of ceramic sherds from the Aragonese workshops. (orig.)

  13. Stressful life events in countries of differing economic development: Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Rincón, Paulina Paz

    2007-08-01

    the aim was to describe a study involving 481 psychology students in the last courses of their degrees (M age = 21.9 yr., SD=4.2; 94 men and 386 women) from Nicaragua, Chile, and Spain. The study examined the potential risk of experiencing certain stressful life events, the number of stressors, and their characteristics. Also were analyzed the strength of their relation to social class and stressful life events experienced. Greater presence of stressful life events were reported among people from less developed countries, Chile and Nicaragua, and among people belonging to lower social class.

  14. Herpetomonas spp. isolated from tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum) in southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Clotilde; Fabre, Sandrine; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel; Dollet, Michel

    2007-05-01

    A flagellate of the family Trypanosomatidae was isolated from fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) in southeastern Spain. The isolate was successfully adapted to in vitro culture in monophasic media. The morphology showed the kinetoplast to be positioned towards the middle of the body, and the typical opistomastigote form characteristic of members of the genus Herpetomonas. Amplification of the mini-exon gene was negative, whilst for the 5S ribosomal rRNA gene the result was positive. The DNA sequence was obtained and its alignment with other trypasomatids, obtained using the BLAST algorithm, suggested it was closely related to Herpetomonas samuelpessoai.

  15. A contribution to the characterisation by electrophoresis of grape plant varieties cultivated in Galicia (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pilar Saa-Otero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrophoresis was employed as the method of study for the characterisation of Vitis vinifera varieties cultivated in Galicia (Spain. Mature dormant shoots were used for the study. The enzymatic system glucose- phosphate isomerase (GPI was analysed using the method of PARFITT and ARULSEKAR (1989. Seventeen varieties (Albariño, Dona Blanca, Godello, Loureira, Treixadura, Torrontés, Albillo, Palomino, Verdejo Blanco, Macabeo, Jerez Fina, Asal Galego, Moscatel Galego, Galego Dourado, Galego de Montemor, Brancellao, and Caiño Bravo were studied. Eight groups of phenotypes were obtained. Each one of which had clearly differentiated characteristics from more than one varity, except in the case of Garnacha.

  16. Chemical composition of spoil from bituminous coal and anthracite in Spain. Composicion quimica de los esteriles de hulla y antracita de Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Canibano, J; Fernandez Valcarce, A

    1991-05-01

    The article describes the chemical composition of spoil from bituminous coal and anthracite in Spain. Chemical composition, mineralogical properties and physical and mechanical characteristics are used to determine the most suitable application for the spoil in order to solve the problem of disposal. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, Ma Jose, E-mail: pmedrano@isciii.es [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Palau, Margarita [Subdireccion General de Sanidad Ambiental y Salud Laboral, Direccion General de Salud Publica y Sanidad Exterior, Ministerio de Sanidad y Politica Social, Madrid (Spain); Damian, Javier [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Ramis, Rebeca [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Barrio, Jose Luis del [Departamento de Salud Publica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Background: High-chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. At low-chronic levels, as those present in Spain, evidence is scarce. In this ecological study, we evaluated the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations during the period 1998-2002 with cardiovascular mortality in the population of Spain. Methods: Arsenic concentrations in drinking water were available for 1721 municipalities, covering 24.8 million people. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cardiovascular (361,750 deaths), coronary (113,000 deaths), and cerebrovascular (103,590 deaths) disease were analyzed for the period 1999-2003. Two-level hierarchical Poisson models were used to evaluate the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations with mortality adjusting for social determinants, cardiovascular risk factors, diet, and water characteristics at municipal or provincial level in 651 municipalities (200,376 cardiovascular deaths) with complete covariate information. Results: Mean municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from <1 to 118 {mu}g/L. Compared to the overall Spanish population, sex- and age-adjusted mortality rates for cardiovascular (SMR 1.10), coronary (SMR 1.18), and cerebrovascular (SMR 1.04) disease were increased in municipalities with arsenic concentrations in drinking water >10 {mu}g/L. Compared to municipalities with arsenic concentrations <1 {mu}g/L, fully adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates were increased by 2.2% (-0.9% to 5.5%) and 2.6% (-2.0% to 7.5%) in municipalities with arsenic concentrations between 1-10 and>10 {mu}g/L, respectively (P-value for trend 0.032). The corresponding figures were 5.2% (0.8% to 9.8%) and 1.5% (-4.5% to 7.9%) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 0.3% (-4.1% to 4.9%) and 1.7% (-4.9% to 8.8%) for cerebrovascular disease mortality. Conclusions: In this ecological study, elevated low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking

  18. Protected area effectiveness against land development in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, David; Martínez-Vega, Javier

    2018-06-01

    Land use-land cover (LULC) changes towards artificial covers are one of the main global threats to biodiversity conservation. In this comprehensive study, we tested a number of methodological and research hypotheses, and a new covariate control technique in order to address common protected area (PA) assessment issues and accurately assess whether different PA networks have had an effect at preventing development of artificial LULCs in Spain, a highly biodiverse country that has experienced massive socioeconomic transformations in the past two decades. We used digital census data for four PA networks designated between 1990 and 2000: Nature Reserves (NRs), Nature Parks (NPs), Sites of Community Importance (SCIs) and Special Protection Areas (SPAs). We analysed the effect of explanatory variables on the ecological effectiveness of protected polygons (PPs): Legislation stringency, cummulative legal designations, management, size, age and bio-physical characteristics. A multiple Before-After-Control-Impact (BACI) semi-experimental research design was used whereby artificial land cover increase (ALCI) and proportional artificial land cover increase (PALCI) results were compared inside and outside PAs, using 1 km and 5 km buffer areas surrounding PAs as controls. LULC data were retrieved from Corine Land Cover (CLC) 1990 and 2006 data. Results from three spatial-statistical models using progressively restrictive criteria to select control areas increasingly more accurate and similar to the assessed PPs were compared. PAs were a generally effective territorial policy to prevent land development in Spain. NRs were the most effective PA category, with no new artificial land covers in the assessed period, although exact causality could not be attributed due to legal overlaps. SPAs were the least effective category, with worse ALCI data than their control areas. Legal protection was effective against land development, which was influenced by most bio-physical variables

  19. Operational air quality forecasting system for Spain: CALIOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasano, J. M.; Piot, M.; Jorba, O.; Goncalves, M.; Pay, M.; Pirez, C.; Lopez, E.; Gasso, S.; Martin, F.; García-Vivanco, M.; Palomino, I.; Querol, X.; Pandolfi, M.; Dieguez, J. J.; Padilla, L.

    2009-12-01

    The European Commission (EC) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) have shown great concerns to understand the transport and dynamics of pollutants in the atmosphere. According to the European directives (1996/62/EC, 2002/3/EC, 2008/50/EC), air quality modeling, if accurately applied, is a useful tool to understand the dynamics of air pollutants, to analyze and forecast the air quality, and to develop programs reducing emissions and alert the population when health-related issues occur. The CALIOPE project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of the Environment, has the main objective to establish an air quality forecasting system for Spain. A partnership of four research institutions composes the CALIOPE project: the Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), the center of investigation CIEMAT, the Earth Sciences Institute ‘Jaume Almera’ (IJA-CSIC) and the CEAM Foundation. CALIOPE will become the official Spanish air quality operational system. This contribution focuses on the recent developments and implementation of the integrated modelling system for the Iberian Peninsula (IP) and Canary Islands (CI) with a high spatial and temporal resolution (4x4 sq. km for IP and 2x2 sq. km for CI, 1 hour), namely WRF-ARW/HERMES04/CMAQ/BSC-DREAM. The HERMES04 emission model has been specifically developed as a high-resolution (1x1 sq. km, 1 hour) emission model for Spain. It includes biogenic and anthropogenic emissions such as on-road and paved-road resuspension production, power plant generation, ship and plane traffic, airports and ports activities, industrial and agricultural sectors as well as domestic and commercial emissions. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the model was performed for a reference year (2004) using data from ground-based measurement networks. The products of the CALIOPE system will provide 24h and 48h forecasts for O3, NO2, SO2, CO, PM10 and PM2.5 at surface level. An operational evaluation system has been developed

  20. Spain and Portugal facing Euratom. Some considerations in the access of Spain and Portugal to Euratom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corretjer, L.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1985-01-01

    The access of Spain and Portugal to the European Community of Atomic Energy (EURATOM) will give rise to significative consequences and it is a subject which must be thoroughly considered as to its implications regarding the present state of nuclear development in both countries and with regard to their reciprocal relations in nuclear energy matters. To determine such consequences and implications it is necessary, first of all, to analyze what EURATOM is and how it acts, in addition to consider the situation of each of its Member States as to the utilization of nuclear energy. As well, it is necessary to explain the evolution and the present situation of nuclear development in Spain and in Portugal and their mutual relations in this field. In pursuit of such analysis we may determine the possible consequences of their access; this is made bearing in mind each of the aspects in which EURATOM acts, according to the Treaty and the ''acquis communitaire'', and dividing them into common consequences and individual ones for both countries. The whole exposition, which was studied and carried out from an exclusively technical point of view, has a result the deduction of the joint possibilities offered to Spain and Portugal to make use of EURATOM's availabilities and of the joint actions which both countries may achieve to benefit as much as possible from their access to EURATOM. (author)

  1. Saint Benedict of Palermo in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard VINCENT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the devotions to the black Saints, the one of which Benedict of Palermo was the object in Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries was the most remarkable. Born near Palermo to African slaves, this lay brother of a Sicilian franciscan convent, died in the odor of sanctity in 1589. His immediate popularity, encouraged both by the Church and by the Hispanic monarchy, was considerable within the communities of slaves and free blacks. Benedict was beatified in 1743, event which was followed by numerous celebrations and his eventual canonization in 1807. The fervour which surrounded him fade gradually because of the competition represented by the devotion to other black saints and by the very visible decline of slavery. However, thanks to the efforts of the franciscan order, the worship of Saint Benoît of Palermo continued until our days, particularly in Galicia.

  2. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Spain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of Granada jointly organised a course called "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" in Granada, Spain, from 28 October to 9 November, 2012.   The course attracted over 200 applicants, of whom 139 were selected to attend. The students were of 25 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, China, Guatemala and India. The intensive programme comprised 38 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the students was very positive, praising the expertise of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. CERN's Director-General, Rolf Heuer, gave a public lecture at the Parque de las Ciencias entitled "The Large Hadron Collider: Unveiling the Universe". In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity to visit the well...

  3. Spain's greatest and most recent mine disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Flor Ma; Lozano, Macarena; Rueda-Cantuche, José M

    2008-03-01

    On 25 April 1998, the mineral waste retaining wall at the Swedish-owned pyrite mine at Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain) burst, causing the most harmful environmental and socio-economic disaster in the history of the River Guadiamar basin. The damage was so great that the regional government decided in May 1998 to finance a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research initiative with the objective of eradicating or at least minimising all of the negative social, economic and environmental impacts. This paper utilises a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis to identify eight strategic measures aimed at providing policymakers with key guidelines on implementing a sustainable development model, in a broad sense. Empirical evidence, though, reveals that, to date, major efforts to tackle the negative impacts have centred on environmental concerns and that the socio-economic consequences have not been completely mitigated.

  4. [Imported dengue: an emerging arbovirosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Geldres, T T; García López-Hortelano, M; Baquero-Artigao, F; Montero Vega, D; López Quintana, B; Mellado Peña, M J

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is caused by one of 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Only imported cases have been reported in Spain. The main clinical findings are fever and exanthema, although there may be severe forms, particularly in secondary infections. Five children with a primary, non severe dengue infection are presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion and epidemiological history, and confirmed by immunochromatography and ELISA tests. The outcome was favourable in all cases. It is important to consider this diagnosis in international travellers that present with fever within the 14 days of returning from an endemic area, in order to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a good prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. The problems of asbestosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, F

    1979-04-01

    About 50 cases of asbestosis have been descirbed in Spain from 1948 through 1974. Since 1975 the Instituto Territorial de Barcelona, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, has initiated a survey of all the industries with an asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area. Nearly 300 cases of asbestosis have been detected to date. Given the poor hygienic conditions of most of the industries, with an asbestosis risk, and the considerably large number of exposed people, it can easily be predicted that a rapid increase of the incidence of the disease in the years to come will occur. Most of the observed cases in Barcelona were from two fibrocement industries. Of a total of 1003 workers examined, 247 (about 25%) had asbestosis.

  6. Media Speech about Youth in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alcoceba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the media treatment of young people in Spain. Besides, we offer some tools to help media editors and journalists to be more impartial in information about youth. The research held a media content analysis (three months in 2006, for newspapers, radio and TV and a qualitative speech analysis (for a reduce number of news in newspapers, radio and TV. From first analysis, we noticed that most news about youth are related with difficult, problematic and controversial circumstances. The main recommendation of this study is for the responsible of media: to understand young people in diversity, with functions and capabilities to change social life.

  7. Retrofit of radwaste solidification systems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorcillo, R.; Virzi, E.

    1983-01-01

    In order to meet current Spanish engineering criteria as well as to provide for likely future Spanish Regulatory requirements, utilities committed to a major policy change in the preferred radwaste solidification media. In the early 1970's Spanish utilities, following the United States experience, purchased inexpensive solidification systems which used urea formaldehyde (UF) as the binding matrix. By the late 1970's the Spanish utilities, seeing the deterioration of the UF position and slow progress toward its improvement, unilaterally changed their binding matrix to cement. This paper illustrates the implementation of this change at the ASCO Nuclear Plant. The problems of layout modifications, shortened delivery schedule and criteria unique for Spain are addressed. Also presented is the operating experience acquired during the pre-operational start-up of the ASCO I Radwaste System

  8. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  9. [Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  10. [Gender inequalities in occupational health in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Serna, Javier; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Artazcoz, Lucía; Benavides, Fernando G

    2012-01-01

    To analyze gender inequalities in employment and working conditions, the work-life balance, and work-related health problems in a sample of the employed population in Spain in 2007, taking into account social class and the economic sector. Gender inequalities were analyzed by applying 25 indicators to the 11,054 workers interviewed for the VI edition of the National Working Conditions Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), stratifying by occupational social class and economic sector. More women than men worked without a contract (OR=1.83; 95% CI: 1.51-2.21) and under high-effort/low-reward conditions (1.14:1.05-1.25). Women also experienced more sexual harassment (2.85:1.75-4.62), discrimination (1.60:1.26-2.03) and musculoskeletal pain (1.38:1.19-1.59). More men than women carried out shift work (0.86:0.79-0.94), with high noise levels (0.34:0.30-0.40), and high physical demands (0.58:0.54-0.63). Men also suffered more injuries due to occupational accidents (0.67:0.59-0.76). Women white-collar-workers were more likely than their male counterparts to have a temporary contract (1.34:1.09-1.63), be exposed to psychosocial hazards and discrimination (2.47:1.49-4.09) and have occupational diseases (1.91:1.28-2.83). Gender inequalities were higher in the industry sector. There are substantial gender inequalities in employment, working conditions, and work-related health problems in Spain. These gender inequalities are influenced by social class and the economic sector, and should be considered in the design of public policies in occupational health. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Q and A. The future of nuclear energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, The Independent Global Nuclear News Agency, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-11-15

    Nuclear is the primary source of electricity in Spain. Wind is second. In the first quarter of 2017 nuclear's contribution was 25 %, but by the end of the year it will even out to more or less the same level of 2016. Nuclear is still very important for Spain's energy mix. The question is, what will happen with nuclear in the near future? NucNet spoke to Ignacio Araluce, president of Spanish industry group Foro Nuclear, about energy policy, plant shut-downs and how Spain's nuclear industry is successfully diversifying overseas.

  12. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  13. Application of hyper spectral imagings techniques to study soil degradation in arid environments. (Los Monegros, Spain); Aplicacion de tecnicas hiperespectrales de imagen al estudio de la degradacion de suelos en ambientes aridos (Los Monegros, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumuzzio Such, A.; Palacios Orueta, A.; Schmid, T.; Dominguez, J. A.; Gumuzzio, J.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to identify characteristics associated to soils affected by degradation within and arid area of Spain using optical hyper spectral airborne data. The methodological approach was developed to determine the spatial distribution of selected soils affected by degradation processes. A satisfactory spatial distribution is obtained where the corresponding soil characteristics are closely related to degradation processes. (Author) 2 refs.

  14. Variability in complications and operative mortality after radical cystectomy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, C; López, B; Hernández, V; Guijarro, A; Pérez-Fernández, E

    In the literature, mortality for radical cystectomy (RC) varies between 2.3% and 7.5%. In Spain, there are no published general data on morbidity and mortality. To identify the complications and mortality of RC in Spain through an analysis of all procedures performed over a 3-year period and to study the geographic variability of these results. We identified patients who underwent RC in the Spanish National Health System between 2011 and 2013 based on the minimum basic data set. We analysed the complications and mortality during hospitalisation and at 30, 60 and 90 days. We compared these results in the various autonomous communities, adjusted them by age, Charlson score and sex and subsequently added the hospital size. We studied 7999 patients who underwent RC in 197 hospitals of the Spanish National Health System. The mean age of the series was 67.2±9.8 years. The median stay was 15 days (IQR, 11-24). Some 47.2% of the patients had complications. The mean mortality in-hospital and at 30, 60 and 90 days was 4.7, 2.9, 5 and 6.2%, respectively. There was considerable variability in the mortality at 90 days among the communities (3.8-9.1%). When adjusting by the patient and hospital characteristics, there were still significant geographic variations (3.8-11.5%). RC mortality in Spain at 90 days is similar to the rate in the literature. There are significant geographic variations unexplained by the characteristics of the patients or by those of the hospitals in which these operations were performed. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Bargaining for Social Rights (BARSORI) project: Country report on Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martin, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Barsori project studied social partners' initiatives contributing to the reduction of precarious employment through collective bargaining and social dialogue. The project compared experiences in seven EU countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the UK. Trade

  16. Different Patterns in Health Care Use Among Immigrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Nazmy; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyze the differences in the use of primary care (PC), hospital, and emergency services between people born in Spain and immigrants. Data were obtained from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. The sample was composed of individuals aged 16-64 years from Spain and the seven countries with most immigrants in Spain (n = 22,224). Hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Romanian men were less likely to use health care at all levels compared to men from other countries. Women from Argentina, Bolivia and Ecuador reported a lower use of PC. Among women, there were no differences in emergency visits or hospitalizations between countries. Bolivian men reported more hospitalizations than Spanish men, whereas Argentinean men reported more emergency visits than their Spanish counterparts. In Spain, most immigrants made less than, or about the same use of health care services as the native Spanish population.

  17. State of the art of reservoir sedimentation management in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño Salas, Cándido; Sanz Montero, Esther; Cobo Rayán, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Part of the total reservoir storage capacity in Spain (56 km3) is lost due to sedimentation processes taking place. Surveys carried out in 121 reservoirs indicate that 6% of them have undergone a capacity reduction of over 50%. However, most of them (81%) are characterised by a reservoir capacity loss below 20%. The most frequent methods used to control reservoir sedimentation in Spain fall into one of the following groups: reduction of sediment yield through basin management and removal of t...

  18. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  19. Immigration and labor productivity: New empirical evidence for Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodemo, Catia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper of this paper is to explore the immigration and productivity in Spain. We estimate the effect of immigration on labor productivity from 2004 until 2008 for Spain. Using firms (SABI) and individuals data (Social Security Records) we calculate the effect by sector and municipality for the two big Spanish provinces that have received most immigrants in the last decade: Barcelona and Madrid. After controlling for endogeneity of immigration, the results demonstrate that i...

  20. The Sixteenth Nation: Spain’s Role in NATO,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Clerks Pat Williams (Lead Clerk) Dorothy M. Mack Laura W. Hall Carol A. Valentine Editorial Board Advisers Rear Admiral S. A. Swarztrauber, USN, Inter...industrial defense potential is in J. Sanchez Mendez , "Spain and its Defense Organization, Part 2: The Defense Industry," International Defense Review 13...discussion of Spanish military capabilities, see J. Sanchez Mendez , "Spain and its Defense Organization, Part 1: The Armed Forces," International Defense

  1. Tangible fixed assets For SME: Portuguese and Spain evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Maria Lúcia; Abreu, Rute; Pérez-López, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The problem statement of this research is the application level of IAS 16 - Property, Plant and Equipment in SMEs provide by SME in Portugal and Spain. Indeed, the purpose of the research is comparing the accounting framework of IAS 16 - Property, Plant and Equipment in SME in Portugal and Spain. Also, it considers the information disclosure, conduct annually by the SME in both countries, comparing their similarities and differences. The methodology a used descriptive, pilot and explanatory a...

  2. Information transfer in the agricultural sector in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Canavate, Antonio; Hipola, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the structures of information transfer to the agricultural (production) and agro-alimentary (transformation and commercialization of the products) sector within Spain. A historical perspective is provided to better illustrate the reality and complexity of Spain with regard to the systems of agrarian extension, agricultural research, resources provided by Spain’s central administration, and the use of information by related enterprises. The Service of Agrarian Extens...

  3. Perfil de los usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral que mantienen conductas de riesgo relacionadas con la inyección en Cataluña Characteristics of intravenous drug users who share injection equipment in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta Folch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Estimar la prevalencia de las prácticas de riesgo directas e indirectas relacionadas con la inyección de drogas e identificar los factores asociados en los usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral (UDVP en centros de reducción de daños en Cataluña. Métodos: Estudio transversal realizado entre 2008 y 2009 en centros de reducción de daños. La información conductual se recogió mediante un cuestionario anónimo administrado por entrevistadores previamente formados. Resultados: De los 748 entrevistados, el 31,5% compartió jeringas usadas en los últimos 6 meses y el 55,2% compartió la cuchara, el agua o el filtro, o realizó el front/backloading con jeringas usadas. Los UDVP que se inyectan diariamente (odds ratio [OR]=1,5, se inyectan cocaína (OR=1,6, obtienen menos jeringas gratuitas (OR=2,5 menos de la mitad a ninguna, tienen una pareja sexual UDVP (OR=1,8 y comparten indirectamente (OR=4,1 presentaron una mayor probabilidad de haber compartido jeringas. Por otro lado, tener una fuente de ingresos ilegal (OR=1,5, inyectarse diariamente (OR=1, 5, inyectarse cocaína (OR=1,4, haber compartido jeringas (OR=3,9 y haber tenido alguna sobredosis en la vida (OR=1,5 fueron factores asociados a compartir de forma indirecta. Conclusiones: A pesar de la generalización de los programas de reducción de daños, en Cataluña se mantiene un porcentaje de UDVP que realizan conductas de riesgo relacionadas con la inyección. Sería necesario mejorar el acceso a todo el material estéril de inyección, en especial entre los que se inyectan cocaína y los que se inyectan con mayor frecuencia, e incluir también a las parejas sexuales UDVP en estas intervenciones preventivas.Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of direct and indirect syringe sharing among intravenous drug users (IDUs attending a harm reduction center in Catalonia (Spain and to identify factors associated with risk behaviors. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted

  4. A spatio-temporal landslide inventory for the NW of Spain: BAPA database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Pablo; Domínguez-Cuesta, María José; Mora García, Manuel Antonio; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat

    2017-09-01

    A landslide database has been created for the Principality of Asturias, NW Spain: the BAPA (Base de datos de Argayos del Principado de Asturias - Principality of Asturias Landslide Database). Data collection is mainly performed through searching local newspaper archives. Moreover, a BAPA App and a BAPA website (http://geol.uniovi.es/BAPA) have been developed to obtain additional information from citizens and institutions. Presently, the dataset covers the period 1980-2015, recording 2063 individual landslides. The use of free cartographic servers, such as Google Maps, Google Street View and Iberpix (Government of Spain), combined with the spatial descriptions and pictures contained in the press news, makes it possible to assess different levels of spatial accuracy. In the database, 59% of the records show an exact spatial location, and 51% of the records provided accurate dates, showing the usefulness of press archives as temporal records. Thus, 32% of the landslides show the highest spatial and temporal accuracy levels. The database also gathers information about the type and characteristics of the landslides, the triggering factors and the damage and costs caused. Field work was conducted to validate the methodology used in assessing the spatial location, temporal occurrence and characteristics of the landslides.

  5. [Precarious employment in undocumented immigrants in Spain and its relationship with health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porthé, Victoria; Benavides, Fernando G; Vázquez, M Luisa; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; García, Ana M; Ahonen, Emily; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Benach, Joan

    2009-12-01

    To describe the characteristics of precarious employment in undocumented immigrants in Spain and its relationship with health. A qualitative study was conducted using analytic induction. Criterion sampling, based on the Immigration, Work and Health project (Inmigración, Trabajo y Salud [ITSAL]) criterion (current definitions of 'legal immigrant' in Spain and in the literature) was used to recruit 44 undocumented immigrant workers from four different countries, living in four Spanish cities. The characteristics of precariousness perceived by undocumented immigrants included high job instability; disempowerment due to lack of legal protection; high vulnerability exacerbated by their legal and immigrant status; perceived insufficient wages and lower wages than coworkers; limited social benefits and difficulty in exercising their rights; and finally, long hours and fast-paced work. Our informants reported they had no serious health problems but did describe physical and mental problems associated with their employment conditions and legal situation. Our results suggest that undocumented immigrants' situation may not fit the model of precarious employment exactly. However, the model's dimensions can be expanded to better represent undocumented immigrants' situation, thus strengthening the general model. Precarious employment in this group can be defined as , as it affects their working and social lives. If these workers continue to be exposed to such precarious conditions, the impact on their health may increase.

  6. Current status and future challenges of programs for men convicted of gender violence in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Carbajosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Programmes involving men convicted of intimate partner violence are subject to a wide range of discussions these days. There are numerous international debates regarding programmes aimed at men convicted of intimate partner violence. Some of the most controversial issues are: a intervention approaches, b the possibility of performing specific treatments according to the offender's characteristics, or c the need to take account of external factors such as institutional coordination or the specifics of the therapeutical process (context, therapeutical alliance, motivation of the convict, and the therapist. The aim of this article is to review the main themes that are the focus of this international debate and weigh their impact on the research and the principal programmes that exist in Spain for men convicted of gender violence. The conclusions show that research in Spain is gradually incorporating the topics identified internationally such as the efficacy of programmes in different contexts, the existence of typologies, motivational aspects, analysis of dropouts, risk factors, cultural aspects, or offenders' addictions problems. Nevertheless, it appears necessary to more closely align the programmes with the characteristics of the aggressor.

  7. [Criminologic problems of political change in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A S

    1981-01-01

    In this article the Author considers the modern-day and historical situation as regards the administration of justice in Spain, pausing to make a particularly careful analysis of those crimes whose rate of increase, over the past few years, has been the greatest. He runs back over the various stages of Spain's recent history: from the period preceding Franco's regime, during which a multiplicity of criminological theories were developed by Spanish authors, leading to the creation of a school of jurisprudence, in which theory and practice tended toward seeking a balance between freedom and security; through the period of the dictatorship, in which there was a tightening-up of the preceding trend, with a definite predisposition towards security, whether within the State or external to it (to be noted--the Author observes--is that this security in reality is not a guarantee of the lives and liberties of the citizens, but rather only a safeguarding of the State from attacks on its supremacy and power); to the successive period of the democracy, which came about without cruel and revolutionary upsets, but nonetheless has felt for many years the effects of the preceding political climate; criminality is increasing considerably, but the administration of justice is not able to soundly and accurately evaluate it, it having functioned at only 45% efficiency--or so says the Author--up until 1978: the imbalances in the society that can be seen in its passage through the various political regimes are, therefore, present too in the field of criminality; this, in fact, is apparently decreasing (since crimes against the external and internal security of the State are decreasing, as the number of convictions are decreasing); but in reality this criminality is undergoing a strong evolutionary movement, due more than anything else to the fact that the tendency is to give priority to liberty, and no longer to security, as is true in fact of every democratic regime. Even in 1978, when

  8. Agave azul y el desarrollo sustentable en la cuenca baja del río Ayuquila, Costa Sur de Jalisco (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter R.W. Gerritsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber es un cultivo nuevo para la cuenca del río Ayuquila en la Costa Sur de Jalisco, y es importante para su progreso agropecuario. Sin embargo, se observan efectos socioambientales negativos. Desde 2003 se han estudiado las condiciones del cultivo y su expansión, así como alternativas posibles. Los resultados muestran un crecimiento acelerado desde su introducción, a mitad de la década de 1990. Se destaca una concentración de propietarios privados y a través de contratos. Si bien sembrar esta planta puede ser redituable, las tendencias cíclicas de sobreproducción y escasez han originado una falta de incentivos para hacerlo y un deterioro de la capacidad productiva. Se discuten las perspectivas del avance agropecuario basado en el cultivo del agave azul, y se ofrecen algunas recomendaciones para fomentar la sustentabilidad de su sistema de producción comercial.

  9. Observations of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a) at AGAGE and SOGE monitoring stations in 1994-2004 and derived global and regional emission estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greally, B. R.; Manning, A. J.; Reimann, S.; McCulloch, A.; Huang, J.; Dunse, B. L.; Simmonds, P. G.; Prinn, R. G.; Fraser, P. J.; Cunnold, D. M.; O'Doherty, S.; Porter, L. W.; Stemmler, K.; Vollmer, M. K.; Lunder, C. R.; Schmidbauer, N.; Hermansen, O.; Arduini, J.; Salameh, P. K.; Krummel, P. B.; Wang, R. H. J.; Folini, D.; Weiss, R. F.; Maione, M.; Nickless, G.; Stordal, F.; Derwent, R. G.

    2007-03-01

    Ground-based in situ measurements of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) which is regulated under the Kyoto Protocol are reported under the auspices of the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) and SOGE (System of Observation of halogenated Greenhouse gases in Europe) programs. Observations of HFC-152a at five locations (four European and one Australian) over a 10 year period were recorded. The annual average growth rate of HFC-152a in the midlatitude Northern Hemisphere has risen from 0.11 ppt/yr to 0.6 ppt/yr from 1994 to 2004. The Southern Hemisphere annual average growth rate has risen from 0.09 ppt/yr to 0.4 ppt/yr from 1998 to 2004. The 2004 average mixing ratio for HFC-152a was 5.0 ppt and 1.8 ppt in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, respectively. The annual cycle observed for this species in both hemispheres is approximately consistent with measured annual cycles at the same locations in other gases which are destroyed by OH. Yearly global emissions of HFC-152a from 1994 to 2004 are derived using the global mean HFC-152a observations and a 12-box 2-D model. The global emission of HFC-152a has risen from 7 Kt/yr to 28 Kt/yr from 1995 to 2004. On the basis of observations of above-baseline elevations in the HFC-152a record and a consumption model, regional emission estimates for Europe and Australia are calculated, indicating accelerating emissions from Europe since 2000. The overall European emission in 2004 ranges from 1.5 to 4.0 Kt/year, 5-15% of global emissions for 1,1-difluoroethane, while the Australian contribution is negligible at 5-10 tonnes/year, <0.05% of global emissions.

  10. The Long-Term Hospitalization Experience Following Military Service in the 1991 Gulf War Among Veterans Remaining on Active Duty, 1994-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-13

    7.9 Pain & other symptoms assoc with female genital organs 225 7.6 Obesity & other hyperalimentation 54 7.6 Disorders of menstruation & other abnormal...individuals with technologically advanced training and education , who may typify a health and safety-oriented group. Similarly, frontline Marine

  11. The Impact of International Business Games on Improving Cultural Awareness and Writing Proficiency: An Evaluation of The “Course in International Business Writing” (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teun De Rycker

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives a critical evaluation of the advantages of adopting a cross-cultural approach to teaching language for specific purposes (i.e., business English by reporting on ten years of experience with the “Course in International Business Writing,” a course that was taught simultaneously at institutions in Belgium, Germany, Finland and the United States between 1994 and 2004. After a brief description of the three course components, i.e., instruction, simulation and case study analysis, this study examines the impact of this teaching and research project on participants’ cultural awareness and writing proficiency. The main findings are that international projects need to contain sufficient product and process authenticity in order to increase student motivation and output and to improve cultural awareness but also that these beneficial effects can only be made visible if they adopt a sufficiently rigourous and formal research methodology.

  12. Evaluation of transfixation casting for treatment of third metacarpal, third metatarsal, and phalangeal fractures in horses: 37 cases (1994-2004).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescun, Timothy B; McClure, Scott R; Ward, Michael P; Downs, Christopher; Wilson, David A; Adams, Stephen B; Hawkins, Jan F; Reinertson, Eric L

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate clinical findings, complications, and outcome of horses and foals with third metacarpal, third metatarsal, or phalangeal fractures that were treated with transfixation casting. Retrospective case series. Animals-29 adult horses and 8 foals with fractures of the third metacarpal or metatarsal bone or the proximal or middle phalanx. Medical records were reviewed, and follow-up information was obtained. Data were analyzed by use of logistic regression models for survival, fracture healing, return to intended use, pin loosening, pin hole lysis, and complications associated with pins. In 27 of 35 (77%) horses, the fracture healed and the horse survived, including 10 of 15 third metacarpal or metatarsal bone fractures, 11 of 12 proximal phalanx fractures, and 6 of 8 middle phalanx fractures. Four adult horses sustained a fracture through a pin hole. One horse sustained a pathologic unicortical fracture secondary to a pin hole infec-tion. Increasing body weight, fracture involving 2 joints, nondiaphyseal fracture location, and increasing duration until radiographic union were associated with horses not returning to their intended use. After adjusting for body weight, pin loosening was associated with di-aphyseal pin location, pin hole lysis was associated with number of days with a transfixation cast, and pin complications were associated with hand insertion of pins. Results indicated that transfixation casting can be successful in managing fractures distal to the carpus or tarsus in horses. This technique is most suitable for comminuted fractures of the proximal phalanx but can be used for third metacarpal, third metatarsal, or middle phalanx fractures, with or without internal fixation.

  13. Perfiles de resistencia a fluoroquinolonas en aislamientos clínicos de cocos Gram positivos provenientes de hospitales colombianos, 1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César A. Arias

    2008-06-01

    Conclusión. Los aislamientos colombianos de S. pneumoniae mantienen susceptibilidad a las fluoroquinolonas de última generación. La resistencia a fluoroquinolonas es alta en S. aureus, especialmente en aislamientos resistentes a la meticilina (cercana al 100%.

  14. The Al Hoceima earthquake sequence of 1994, 2004 and 2016: Stress transfer and poroelasticity in the Rif and Alboran Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariche, J.; Meghraoui, M.; Timoulali, Y.; Cetin, E.; Toussaint, R.

    2018-01-01

    The 2016 January 25 earthquake (Mw 6.3) follows in sequence from the1994 May 26 earthquake (Mw 6.0) and the 2004 February 24 earthquake (Mw 6.4) in the Rif Mountains and Alboran Sea. The earlier two seismic events which were destructive took place on inland conjugate faults, and the third event occurred on an offshore fault. These earthquake sequences occurred within a period of 22 yr at ˜25 km distance and 11-16-km depth. The three events have similar strike-slip focal mechanism solutions with NNE-SSW trending left-lateral faulting for the 1994 and 2016 events and NW-SE trending right-lateral faulting for the 2004 event. This shallow seismic sequence offers the possibility (i) to model the change in Coulomb Failure Function (ΔCFF with low μ΄ including the pore pressure change) and understand fault-rupture interaction, and (ii) to analyse the effect of pore fluid on the rupture mechanism, and infer the clock-time advance. The variation of static stress change has a direct impact on the main shock, aftershocks and related positive lobes of the 2004 earthquake rupture with a stress change increase of 0.7-1.1 bar. Similarly, the 2004 main shock and aftershocks indicate loading zones with a stress change (>0.25 bar) that includes the 2016 earthquake rupture. The tectonic loading of 19-24 nanostrain yr-1 obtained from the seismicity catalogue of Morocco is comparable to the 5.0 × 1017 N.m yr-1 seismic strain release in the Rif Mountains. The seismic sequence is apparently controlled by the poroelastic properties of the seismogenic layer that depend on the undrained and drained fluid conditions. The short interseismic period between main shocks and higher rate of aftershocks with relatively large magnitudes (4 stress-rate ranges between 461 and 582 Pa yr-1 with a ΔCFF of 0.2-1.1 bar. The computed clock-time advance reaches 239 ± 22 yr in agreement with the ˜10 yr delay between main shocks. The calculated static stress change of 0.9-1.3 bar, under pore-fluid stimulus added with well-constrained geodetic and seismic strain rates are critical for any seismic hazard assessment.

  15. [Mortality cost of smoking in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobacho Tornel, Ma Belén; López Nicolás, Angel; Ramos Parreño, José María

    2010-01-01

    Public policies are crucial for smoking prevention and improving health among the population. Despite the positive impact in Spain of the law for smoking prevention in 2006, there is room for further improvement in this area of public policy. The estimate of the mortality cost per pack of cigarretes is a crucial factor in cost-benefit analysis for policies aimed to reducing smoking induced mortality. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we estimate the Value of Statistical Life (VSL) among Spanish smokers. Secondly, we quantify the mortality cost of smoking. We use a hedonic wage model to quantify the marginal value of an increase in the mortality risk in monetary terms. We estimate the model for the Spanish labour market using the European Community Household Data and the Encuesta de Accidentes de Trabajo from the Ministerio de Trabajo e Inmigración. We estimate a VSL of 3.78 million Euros for Spanish smokers. Using this value, in conjunction with the increase in the mortality risk over the life cycle due to smoking, the private mortality cost of smoking is 78 Euros per pack for men, and 54 Euros per pack for women (in 2000 Euros). The mortality cost per pack of cigarettes is highly above its market price.

  16. Suicide, unemployment, and economic recession in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-García, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar A; Burón, Patricia; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Jiménez-Treviño, Luis; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Al-Halabí, Susana; Corcoran, Paul; García-Portilla, M Paz; Bobes, Julio

    The aim of the present work is to determine the association between unemployment and suicide, and to investigate whether this association is affected by changes in the economic cycle or other variables such as age and sex. A time-trend analysis was conducted to study changes in the number of suicides between 1999 and 2013 in Spain. Pearson's correlation coefficients and regression models were used to find the association between unemployment and suicide. A significant positive association was found between unemployment and suicide in the pre-crisis period in men. In that period (1999-2007), each 1% annual increase in unemployment was associated with a 6.90% increase in the annual variation of suicide in the total population, and with a 9.04% increase in the annual variation of suicide in working age men. The correlation between unemployment and suicide is significant in periods of economic stability, but has weakened during the recent financial crisis. Unemployment and suicide have a complex relationship modulated by age, sex and economic cycle. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-Employed Foreign Workers In Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Trinidad Luisa García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a full study of the legal system applicable to selfemployed foreigners wishing to carry out an economic activity in Spain. The focus varies according to the country of origin of the individual, whether it lies within the European Economic Community, whether it is a country with which the European Union has co-operation and association agreements or finally, whether it is under the general regime. The utilitarian perspective which considers immigration as necessary manual labour has justified more efficient legal mechanisms to facilitate the employment of immigrant manual workers. These mechanisms do not apply to self-employed workers. The lack of interest of legislators in this type of worker is highlighted by the suppression of motivation and refusal of the mandatory visa. The detailed analysis of the anticipated administrative requirements emphasises that within the labour legislation for immigrants there is a marked difference between those who work for an employer and those who are self-employed and there is no correspondence or comparison with the more far reaching policies of the labour doctrine with regard to the rights and guarantees of both categories of workers.

  18. Occupation and gastric cancer in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C A; Sanz, M; Marcos, G; Pita, S; Brullet, E; Vida, F; Agudo, A; Hsieh, C C

    1991-08-01

    The association between occupational exposure and stomach cancer was investigated in a multicenter case-referent study conducted in Spain on 354 histologically confirmed cases and 354 hospital referents, matched by age, gender, and residence. An increased risk of gastric cancer was found for coal mining workers [odds ratio (OR) 11.8], but the number of workers was small, and therefore the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was wide (95% CI 1.36-103). An increased risk was observed for wood and furniture workers (OR 1.76), construction workers (OR 1.68), and glass and ceramic workers (OR 2.18), but none of these risks were statistically significant. According to an occupation-exposure linkage system an increased risk was found for occupations associated with exposure to silica and mineral dust (OR 1.80, 95% CI 0.90-3.59). All of the OR estimates were adjusted for the confounding factors socioprofessional status and dietary habits. The possibility of a causal association between stomach cancer and coal and mineral dust is supported by the results.

  19. [25 years of laparoscopic surgery in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sanz, Carlos; Tenías-Burillo, Jose María; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Balague-Ponz, Carmen; Díaz-Luis, Hermógenes; Enriquez-Valens, Pablo; Manuel-Palazuelos, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Cortijo, Sagrario; Olsina-Kissler, Jorge; Socas-Macias, María; Toledano-Trincado, Miguel; Vidal-Pérez, Oscar; Noguera-Aguilar, Juan Francisco; Salvador-Sanchís, José Luis; Feliu-Pala, Xavier; Targarona-Soler, Eduard M

    2014-04-01

    The introduction of laparoscopic surgery (LS) can be considered the most important advancement in our specialty in the past 25 years. Despite its advantages, implementation and consolidation has not been homogenous, especially for advanced techniques. The aim of this study was to analyse the level of development and use of laparoscopic surgery in Spain at the present time and its evolution in recent years. During the second half of 2012 a survey was developed to evaluate different aspects of the implementation and development of LS in our country. The survey was performed using an electronic questionnaire. The global response rate was 16% and 103 heads of Department answered the survey. A total of 92% worked in the public system. A total of 99% perform basic laparoscopic surgery and 85,2% advanced LS. Most of the responders (79%) consider that the instruments they have available for LS are adequate and 71% consider that LS is in the right stage of development in their environment. Basic laparoscopic surgery has developed in our country to be considered the standard performed by most surgeons, and forms part of the basic surgical training of residents. With regards to advanced LS, although it is frequently used, there are still remaining areas of deficit, and therefore, opportunities for improvement. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Low and intermediate waste management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this facility is the final disposal of all L and ILW produced in Spain, mainly in the operating Nuclear Power Reactors, in the Nuclear Power Plant under decommissioning by ENRESA, a fuel fabrication plant and institutional producers, as well as those arising from incidents outside the nuclear industry. The disposal concept consists of so called disposal units, mainly durable concrete overpacks, placed in concrete vaults. A drain control system exists in inspection galleries constructed beneath the disposal vaults. These vaults are protected from the weather during their operation and sealing by a metallic shelter, which also supports the handling crane. The facility also include: A treatment and conditioning shop, which includes incineration, institutional wastes segregation and conditioning, drum transfer into overpacks, supercompaction, liquid waste collection, and grout preparation and injection. A waste form characterisation laboratory with means for non-destructive radiological characterisation and for destructive test on the waste forms(specimens extractions, unskinning of the drums, mechanical strength, leaching test on specimens and full size packages) to supports the waste acceptance procedures and the verification of the overall quality of the packages. A fabrication shop for overpacks construction. Auxiliary systems and buildings in support of operation, maintenance and surveillance of the facility. The paper deals with the design, the operating experience of the facility, the waste packages characterisation and acceptance practises and the reception of the wastes from the generating facilities. (author)

  1. Decommissioning and radwaste management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colino, A.

    2004-01-01

    The management of radioactive wastes in Spain is undertaken by 'Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos, S.A.' (ENRESA), the Spanish national radioactive waste company, constituted in 1984. ENRESA operates as a management company, whose role is to develop radioactive waste management programs in accordance with the policy and strategy approved by the Spanish government. Its responsibilities include the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations. ENRESA is a state company whose shareholders are CIEMAT (Centre for Energy-Related, Environmental and Technological Research), previously known as the 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' (Nuclear Energy Council) and SEPI (State Industrial Holding Company). Both of them are governmental institutions with an eighty and twenty percent of the company respectively. In 1980 the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) was constituted as the sole competent organisation in the field of nuclear safety and radiological protection, and in general is responsible for regulating and supervising nuclear installations. This organisation, governed by a legal statute, is independent from the administration and reports directly to parliament. (author)

  2. Environmental impact of household activity in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Choliz, Julio; Duarte, Rosa; Mainar, Alfredo [Department of Economic Analysis University of Zaragoza Gran Via 2, 50005, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2007-04-20

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the environmental impacts of the Spanish economy by way of water and atmospheric pollution on the basis of a Spanish Accounting Matrix for 1999. Only households were taken as an exogenous account. The pollution measures are estimated for seven categories of pollution: three atmospheric pollutants (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}) and four indicators for water (waste water, nitrogen, metals and biological oxygen demand (BOD)). The environmental data base was obtained from the Spanish Statistical Institute. The analysis reveals that pollution in Spain is closely linked to food production, energy, extractive industries and paper manufacturing. We show that services, taken as a whole, are major polluters, though this is due to the volume of household expenditure they represent rather than their pollution potential as such. We also show that the Spanish economy avoids a great deal of pollution by importing inputs, which pollute where they are produced. Finally, the study also provides per capita pollution values for the aforementioned seven pollutants. (author)

  3. [Social perception of biomedicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Sedeño, Eulalia; Miranda Suárez, María José

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing concern that studies of public understanding of science, especially biomedicine, should be expected to bring shared frameworks to European and national policies. The present article aims to provide a critical overview of the most recent studies of public understanding of biomedicine in Spain. Specifically, this essay reviews the similarities and differences in the latest European and Spanish surveys. Throughout this article we compare the Third National Survey of Social Perception of Science and Technology produced by the Spanish National Science and Technology Foundation, focusing on issues related to biomedicine, and the Medical and Health Research. A special Eurobarometer Public Survey published by the European Commission. The two surveys were compared attending to the three main common items of science, technology and biomedicine: the level of interest, the level of information and political attitudes. Some discrepancies in the results of the two studies, such as public interest in these subjects, may partly be due to the different methodologies used in the survey designs. Further national studies exploring public understanding of science, technology and biomedicine at the national level, as well as the use of European standards, would be of great help in other cross-national studies and policies. Improving qualitative studies would also be useful to strengthen relations among science, technology and society.

  4. Spain's magic mountain: narrating prehistory at Atapuerca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochadel, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    The Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain is ranked among the most important excavation sites in human origins research worldwide. The project boasts not only spectacular hominid fossils, among them the 'oldest European', but also a fully fledged 'popularization industry'. This article interprets this multimedia industry as a generator of different narratives about the researchers as well as about the prehistoric hominids of Atapuerca. It focuses on the popular works of the three co-directors of the project. Juan Luis Arsuaga, José María Bermúdez de Castro and Eudald Carbonell make deliberate use of a variety of narrative devices, resonant cultural references and strategies of scientific self-commodification. All three, in different ways, use the history of science and of their own research project to mark their place in the field of human origins research, drawing on mythical elements to tell the story of the rise of a humble Spanish team overcoming all odds to achieve universal acclaim. Furthermore, the co-directors make skilful use of palaeofiction - that of Björn Kurtén and Jean Auel, as well as writing their own - in order to tell gripping stories about compassion and solidarity in human prehistory. This mixture of nationalist and universalist narratives invites the Spanish audience to identify not just with 'their ancestors' but also with the scientists, as objects and subjects of research become conflated through popularization.

  5. [Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Angel; Monge, Diana

    2012-06-01

    There has been increasing interest in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due its association with healthcare and its impact on morbidity and mortality in the elderly. During the last few years there has been a growing increase in the number of published studies on the incidence, changes on the clinical presentation and on the epidemiology, with the description of new risk factors. The frequency of CDI in Spain is not sufficiently characterised. The available data indicates that incidence is within the range of that of surrounding countries but increasing. Furthermore, the high and growing use of broad spectrum antibiotics, both in our hospitals and in the community setting, are factors that favour the increase of the disease. The hyper-virulent ribotype 027 has not spread in our hospitals. We need to know with enhanced validity and accuracy the incidence of CDI, both community and healthcare-associated, the information on outbreaks, the incidence on certain population groups, the characterisation of circulating ribotypes and the impact of the disease in terms of mortality and health costs. We need to implement programs for the improvement of antibiotic therapy in the hospital, as well as in the community. Furthermore, the knowledge and the performance of standard precautions need to be improved, particularly hand hygiene, and the specific measures to limit the transmission of C. difficile among the healthcare institutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. The Technological Consolidation of UNED in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Garcia Aretio

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the technologies that have been utilized to advance distance teaching and learning by the National Distance Education University (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia – UNED of Spain. Following a description of UNED's historical development and organizational structure, UNED's experience with various educational media is discussed. Printed teaching materials, in the form of didactic units, were one of the first methods to be utilized when UNED began its operations in 1972. In turn, the role of radio and audio recordings, television and video recordings, telephone, videoconferencing, computer systems and computer-mediated communications are also described. UNED's pioneering projects, including the virtual classroom, virtual campus, and a program for the physically handicapped, are also detailed. Recent experiments include providing access to radio and television programs on the Internet and adoption of WebCT. On the horizon for UNED are portals for cellular phones using WAP technology and gearing up for multiple applications in accordance with Universal Mobile Telecommunications Technology (UMTS.

  7. [Health and the media in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, Gemma

    2006-03-01

    The so-called media agenda has a great influence on the issues considered to be important by society. In this article, based on the Informe Quiral (Quiral Survey), the author analyses the coverage of health issues in Spanish press. In Spain, media concentration causes a clear tendency to information homogeneity and thus, health issues are rarely dealt with in an independent way or in its own specific space or by specialized professionals. The main chronic issues the Spanish press has followed during the years included in the survey have been: cancer, sexuality and reproduction, aids, drugs (including tobacco), mental disorders and nutrition-related issues. Politicians or individuals with political and technical posts are the sources which carry the burden of informing about health issues (49%). On the other hand, the more specialized sector is the source of information in only 26% of the cases. In order to improve health information, the author suggests establishing communication platforms and closer collaboration between the specialized sector and the media, fostering mutual knowledge of all professional groups taking part in the process and ridding health information of all political influences.

  8. Core optimization studies at JEN-Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Alonso, M.

    1983-01-01

    The JEN-1 is a 3-MW reactor which uses flat-plate fuel elements. It was originally fueled with 20%-enriched uranium but more recently with 90%-enriched fuel. It now appears that it will have to be converted back to using 20%- enriched fuel. Progress is presently being made in fuel fabrication. Plates with meat thicknesses of up to 1.5 mm have been fabricated. Plates are being tested with 40 wt % uranium in the fuel meat. Progress is also being made in reactor design in collaboration with atomic energy commissions of other countries for swimming pool reactors being designed or under construction in Chile, Ecuador, and Spain itself. The design studies address core optimization, safety analysis report updating, irradiation facilities, etc. Core optimization is specifically addressed in this paper. A common swimming-pool-type reactor such as the JEN-1 served as an example. The philosophy adopted in this study is not to try to match the high enrichment core, but rather to treat the design as new and try to optimize it using simplified neutronic/thermal hydraulic/economic models. This philosophy appears to be somewhat original. As many as possible of the fuel parameters are constrained to remain constant

  9. Intensification of citrus production and soil loss in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Burguet, M.; Giménez Morera, A.

    2012-04-01

    After land abandonment for five decades (Arnáez et al., 2010; Belmonte Serrato et al., 1999) as a widespread process in Spain, agriculture intensification is taken place. This is changing the nature of the soil erosion processes as they were known (Cerdà, 1997; Cammeraat and Imeson, 1999; Ruiz Sinoga et al., 2010; Zavala et al., 2010). Citrus production are being reallocated on slopes due to the new irrigation systems (drip-irrigation), the thermic inversion on the bottom of the valley and then the frost affecting the plantations, the high prices of the bottom valley lands and the investment in agriculture from other economic sectors such as tourism and industry. Those new plantations are based on intense pesticides and herbicides use, and erosion processes are triggered due to the sloping surface developed (Cerdà et al., 2010). Five study sites were selected in the Montesa Municipality research zone, where an increase in the orange and clementines plantations were found during the last 20 years. Measurements were perfomed by a simple method, which consist in measuring the surface characteristics: stoniness, crust, herbs, bare soil, sheet flow, rills and gullies. One thousand meters were monitored at each of the study sites and measurements were done in January and August with a precision of 1 cm. The results show that the erosion rates are controlled by the sheet erosion (78,4 %), although rill and gullies exist (managed new citrus plantation non sustainable. The intensification of agriculture is triggering new soil erosion processes to be added to the traditional ones (García Ruiz and López Bermúdez, 2009). This research study is being supported by the the research project CGL2008-02879/BTE

  10. Means of discourse manipulations in political party programs in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Smirnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to different mass media sources, members of any society are well aware of political developments and events and politicians. Every person has his or her own formed political beliefs and affirmations, interpreters other people's actions during political developments and evaluates events that take place. Political forces, in turn, see a person (a potential elector as an object of external information influence. This lets them use political communication when competing for the power. In the modern democratic society this competition is carried out via parliamentarian debates, politicians' speeches, examining political parties' programs, political agitation and voting. General audience-oriented political discourse implements its function of political information influence. As the goal of any political party's program (as an independent form of text in the system of political discourse is to win the elections and come to power, thus the audience influence function is one of the most fundamental and serve as the basis for the text. The text of a program itself is characterized by its persuasive orientation towards the audience, which reveal itself in such methods as convincing, argumentation, manipulation and evaluation. All the political programs pertain to parties which are at the power or which are in opposition. The main characteristic of oppositional programs is the criticism of the power, vice versa, the dominant party's programs confirm the correctness of their policy. All the political programs are multi-authored. The written form of any political program lets put into practice a detailed text analysis. This article presents the analysis of the texts of two leading Spanish political parties (the Spanish socialist worker's party and the people's party of Spain.

  11. Udder health in organic dairy cattle in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Villar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents first data on the udder health status of organic dairy farms in Northern Spain and analyses some management and productive characteristics related to milk production comparing with the conventional sector. Five certified organic farms from the Cantabrian Region were monitored monthly from February 2006 to January 2008 and individual samples of all lactating cows were taken from parturition to the end of lactation. Although organic farms in our study showed a great individual variability, overall these were small (<50 lactating cows traditional farms, with a high degree of pasture (66-82% dry matter intake and a milk production (average milk yield: 5950 L 23% lower compared with the reference conventional sector (<50 cow farms. The organic farms had higher (p<0.05 average number of calves per cow (3.93 and a lower number of first-lactation cows (16.9% than the comparable conventional farms (2.47 calves per cow and 33.1% first-lactation cows. Organic farms showed higher (p<0.05 somatic cell counts (SCC than the reference conventional farms (mean log10±SD for all cows: 5.25±0.49 and 5.06±0.59, respectively. Detailed analysis of the SCC depending on the number of lactation and % of monthly SCC tests with linear scores indicative of udder infection suggest that while the heifers’ sanitary condition at the beginning of their productive cycle was similar in both types of farms, this seems to become worse along the productive cycle in the organics. This could be related to a low use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of udder infections and merits further investigation.

  12. Udder health in organic dairy cattle in Northern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villar, A.; López-Alonso, M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents first data on the udder health status of organic dairy farms in Northern Spain and analyses some management and productive characteristics related to milk production comparing with the conventional sector. Five certified organic farms from the Cantabrian Region were monitored monthly from February 2006 to January 2008 and individual samples of all lactating cows were taken from parturition to the end of lactation. Although organic farms in our study showed a great individual variability, overall these were small (<50 lactating cows) traditional farms, with a high degree of pasture (66-82% dry matter intake) and a milk production (average milk yield: 5950 L) 23% lower compared with the reference conventional sector (<50 cow farms). The organic farms had higher (p<0.05) average number of calves per cow (3.93) and a lower number of first-lactation cows (16.9%) than the comparable conventional farms (2.47 calves per cow and 33.1% first-lactation cows). Organic farms showed higher (p<0.05) somatic cell counts (SCC) than the reference conventional farms (mean log10±SD for all cows: 5.25±0.49 and 5.06±0.59, respectively). Detailed analysis of the SCC depending on the number of lactation and % of monthly SCC tests with linear scores indicative of udder infection suggest that while the heifers’ sanitary condition at the beginning of their productive cycle was similar in both types of farms, this seems to become worse along the productive cycle in the organics. This could be related to a low use of antibiotics for prophylaxis and treatment of udder infections and merits further. (Author)

  13. Hepatitis A outbreaks in the vaccination era in Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Ana; Broner, Sonia; Torner, Nuria; Godoy, Pere; Batalla, Joan; Alvarez, Josep; Barrabeig, Irene; Camps, Neus; Carmona, Gloria; Minguell, Sofía; Sala, Rosa; Caylà, Joan; Domínguez, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis A outbreaks have a major impact on public health services and involve case investigation and intervention measures to susceptible contacts. At the end of 1998 a universal vaccination program with a combined hepatitis A+B vaccine was started in Catalonia (Spain) in 12-years-old preadolescents. The objective of this study was to compare the characteristics of hepatitis A outbreaks in the periods before and after the introduction of the preadolescent vaccination program and to estimate the preventable fraction of cases associated to outbreaks. The incidence rates of outbreaks, cases and hospitalization associated with each outbreak were calculated. Two periods were considered: before (1991-1998) and after (2000-2007) the introduction of mass vaccination. The preventable fraction and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cases associated with outbreaks was calculated. The rate of associated cases with outbreaks was higher in the period before the vaccination program than in the post vaccination period (1.53 per 100,000 person-year vs 1.12 ; pcases associated to outbreaks was 19.6%(95%CI 6.7-32.5) in the 0-4 years group and 16.7% (95% CI 6.0-27.5) in the 5-14 years group, but the highest figure (38.6%; 95%CI 21.3-55.9) was observed in the 15-24 years age group. The estimated proportion of cases associated with outbreaks that would theoretically have been prevented with the vaccination program suggests that substantial benefits have been obtained in Catalonia in people aged less than 25 years.

  14. [Renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuecos, A; Pascual, J; Gómez, E; Sola, E; Cofán, F; López, F; Puig-Hooper, C E; Baltar, J M; González-Molina, M; Oppenheimer, F; Marcén, R; Rivero, M

    2006-01-01

    HIV infection has experienced dramatic improvement in morbidity and mortality with the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This prompted a reevaluation of organ-solid transplantation as a treatment option for HIV-infected patients. Some trials in the United States have shown that one- and 2-year graft and patient survival is comparable to HIV-negative transplant population. In Europe the experience is still scarce. The aim of this study is to analyse the outcome and the clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients who received kidney transplantation in Spain in the HAART era. Ten patients were transplanted in our country since 2001. Only one patient was black. The main cause of end-stage renal disease reported was glomerulonephritis. Six of the recipients were coinfected by hepatitis C virus. Inclusion criteria included undetectable HIV viral load and CD4 counts greater than 200/pL. Immunosuppression consisted of steroids, tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil, with antibody induction in 4 cases. The median and mean follow-up was 11 and 16.3+/-15.6 (3-46) months, respectively. One recipient lost his graft because of early renal venous thrombosis. The remaining patients are functioning graft with mean serum creatinina level of 1.5 +/- 0.5 mg/dl. Biopsy-proven acute rejection was diagnosed in 4 recipients and was reversed in all cases with antirejection treatment. The plasma HIV RNA levels have remained controlled and CD4 counts have been stable in excess of 200 cell/microL. None of patients have developed AIDS complications. Recipients receiving protease inhibitor-based HAART regimens required significant dosing modification to maintain appropriate tacrolimus levels. Our results show that renal transplantation can be a safe and effective treatment in select HIV-infected patients. Like other series, the acute rejection rate was higher than in non-HIV recipients. The reasons of this rejection incidence remain unknown.

  15. Fruit quality parameters of some southern high bush blueberries (Vaccinium xcorymbosum L.) grown in Andalusia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, J. M.; Calvo, D.; Medina, J. J.; Barrau, C.; Romero, E.

    2008-07-01

    Physical and chemical parameters of fresh berries from three southern high bush (ONeal, Sharp blue and Misty) blueberry cultivars grown in Huelva (Southwestern Spain) under two production systems were measured and evaluated. ANOVA applied to data yielded significant differences between production systems for mean fruit size and mean fruit fresh weight (P<0.05), although main effects on physical and chemical characteristics of fruit were due to cultivar. All three cultivars showed significantly different means (P<0.05) for fruit fresh weight, and all chemical characteristics. Stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA) for classification and identification of the cultivars based on physico-chemical properties of samples of fruits was performed. The model obtained gave high percentages of correct classification and prediction (81.1% and 78.4%, respectively). The variables with higher discriminating power were fruit titratable acidity, fruit size and fruit sugar content. (Author)

  16. Joint European project on underground coal gasification in Spain; Proyecto europeo conjunto de gasificacion subterranea de carbon en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Obis, A.; Menendez, E.; Albeniz, M.A.; Chandelle, V.; Mostade, M.; Bailey, A.C. [ITGE, Madrid (Spain)

    1992-09-01

    Organizations from Spain, Belgium and the United Kingdom are collaborating in a field test of underground coal gasification which is being implemented in the north of Teruel Province (Spain). The test is first phase of a European development programme on in-situ coal gasification, being carried out with financial help from the Commission of the European Communities. This paper covers a forecast of the future energy demand for Europe, the potential of in-situ coal gasification, and a summary of the recent development of in-situ coal gasification. The circumstances which led to the formation of a European organisation (UEE) which will implement the project are described, and its objectives are presented. The geological characteristics of the proposed region are detailed, together with the test programme, and its successive phases in realising the principle parameters of the operations.

  17. The physical, chemical, and microscopic properties of masonry mortars from Alhambra Palace (Spain in reference to their earthquake resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanifi Binici

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Al-Andalus mortar is an ancient binding material (lime mortar that was used for centuries in numerous historical buildings in Al-Andalus, Granada (Spain. The physico-chemical and microscopic properties of Al-Andalus mortars in Granada were studied as part of an investigation into the mineral raw materials present in the territory of Spain. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction analyses of eight main types of mortars were performed to show the presence of calcite, gypsum, quartz, and muscovite minerals with organic fibers. Chemical analyses of the specimens showed that high SiO2+Al2O3+Fe2O3 contents yielded high values of hydraulicity and cementation indices. A significant result of this study was that mortars with high hydraulicity and cementation indices have high mechanical strengths. This characteristic may be the main reason for the earthquake resistance of the historical Alhambra Palace.

  18. Sustainable energy communities: a study contrasting Spain and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Rubio, Carmen; Andrés Díaz, José Ramón de

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several governments and organisations in the developed world have encouraged the creation of sustainable energy communities (SECs) as a strategy for achieving their energy and environmental targets. However, whereas in some of these countries (e.g., Germany), numerous SECs have been founded, there are other countries, such as Spain, where the creation and growth of SECs has been much slower. The purpose of this article is to analyse the case of Spain, to determine the causes of the lack of SECs in this country, and to propose actions adapted to the Spanish context aimed at accelerating the creation of SECs. To facilitate these tasks, we have taken the German case as a reference. The key finding is that, in contrast to Germany, in Spain, SECs have scarcely contributed to the development of RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures, despite having similar incentives for renewable electricity (until recently). Moreover, in Spain, these incentives have been drastically cut recently. Therefore, it has become even more difficult to finance a renewable electricity generation plant. That is why strategies in sectors other than renewable electricity have been suggested for the encouragement of SECs in Spain. -- Highlights: •Collective-ownership models for RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures are very widespread in Germany. •Approximately 22% of the installed renewable electricity capacity in Germany is owned by SECs. •In contrast, collective ownership of RE infrastructures is rare in Spain. •In Spain, incentives for renewable electricity have been drastically cut recently. •To encourage SECs, energy activities other than renewable electricity production are proposed

  19. Performing drought indices to identify the relationship between agricultural losses and drought events in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Gallardo, Marina; Serrano, Sergio Martín Vicente; Portugués Santiago, Beguería; Burguera Miquel, Tomás

    2017-04-01

    Drought leads to crop failures reducing the productivity. For this reason, the need of appropriate tool for recognize dry periods and evaluate the impact of drought on crop production is important. In this study, we provide an assessment of the relationship between drought episodes and crop failures in Spain as one of the direct consequences of drought is the diminishing of crop yields. First, different drought indices [the Standardized Precipitation and Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI); the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); the self-calibrated Palmer Moisture Anomaly Index (Z-Index), the self-calibrated Crop Moisture Index (CMI) and the Standardized Palmer Drought Index (SPDI)] have been calculated at different time scales in order to identify the dry events occurred in Spain and determine the duration and intensity of each event. Second, the drought episodes have been correlated with crop production estimated and final crop production data provided by the Spanish Crop Insurance System for the available period from 1995 to 2014 at the municipal spatial scale, with the purpose of knowing if the characteristics of the drought episodes are reflected on the agricultural losses. The analysis has been carried out in particular for two types of crop, wheat and barley. The results indicate the existence of an agreement between the most important drought events in Spain and the response of the crop productions and the proportion of hectare insurance. Nevertheless, this agreement vary depending on the drought index applied. Authors found a higher competence of the drought indices calculated at different time scales (SPEI, SPI and SPDI) identifying the begging and end of the drought events and the correspondence with the crop failures.

  20. Social and economic inequalities in the use of contraception among women in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Muñoz, Dolores; Pérez, Gloria; Garcia-Subirats, Irene; Díez, Elia

    2011-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities affect different areas of health, including sexual and reproductive health. The aim of the present study was to analyze inequalities in the use of contraception among women resident in Spain in 2006. This is a cross-sectional study of women aged 15-49 years and resident in Spain in 2006 that analyzes the use of contraception during their first experience of sexual intercourse and during the 4 weeks before the interview (n = 5,141). Socioeconomic inequalities are measured with indicators of socioeconomic position, such as level of education, social class, and country of origin, and such characteristics as age, religion, age at first intercourse, living with partner, and number of children. Contraception was used by 70.4% of the women during their first experience of sexual intercourse and by 78.1% during the previous 4 weeks. The women who used contraception most during their first experience of sexual intercourse were nonreligious younger women from developed countries who had a higher level of education and who had their first experience after the age of 18. The women who used contraception most often during sex in the previous 4 weeks were younger women with a higher level of education who did not live with a partner, who had children, and who had used contraception during their first experience. There are socioeconomic inequalities in the use of contraception among women in Spain. The use of contraception during the first experience of sexual intercourse was associated with more frequent use of contraception during sex in the 4 weeks before the interview.

  1. Cross-border reproductive care among French patients: experiences in Greece, Spain and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozée Gomez, Virginie; de La Rochebrochard, Elise

    2013-11-01

    What are the characteristics, motivation and experience of French patients seeking cross-border reproductive care (CBRC)? French patients seeking CBRC are same-sex couples, single women who are not eligible for assisted reproduction technologies (ARTs) in France and heterosexual couples seeking oocyte donation due to extremely limited access to this technique in France, while their choice of Greece as a destination is influenced by financial issues. CBRC is a new, increasing, complex and poorly understood phenomenon. A few studies have investigated UK, German or Italian CBRC patients, but none have specifically investigated French patients although France is one of the top four countries of origin of CBRC patients in Europe. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010-2012 in three ART centres in Greece, Belgium and Spain in order to investigate French patients treated in these centres. Recruitment was prospective in Greece and Belgium and retrospective in Spain. The overall response rate was 68%, with 128 French patients participating. French patients filled in a questionnaire. Information was collected on their socio-economic characteristics and their search for ART treatment in France and in other countries. In the Belgian centre, 89% of French patients used sperm donation whereas oocyte donation was used by 100% of patients in the Greek centre and 74% of patients in the Spanish centre. The majority (94%) of French patients using sperm donation in Belgium were not legally eligible for access to ART in France as they were same-sex couples or single women, and the main criterion of choice of centre was its geographical proximity (71%). Most of the French patients using oocyte donation in Greece and Spain fulfilled criteria for fully reimbursed oocyte donation treatment in France as they were heterosexual couples (99%) with the woman aged ART centres and these too may not be representative. CBRC among French patients had been thought to reflect mainly law

  2. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  3. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Coal restructuring in Spain. Continuity and uncertainty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabanal, Nuria G.

    2009-01-01

    The policies of coal energy are currently undergoing a significant change. At the European Community level, energy concerns are dominated by environmental commitments that seem to demand coal's disappearance. The countries that for years have supplied the European energy market with this resource have confronted their future challenges in differing ways. The history of the energy sector in Spain has been marked by important changes, and coal has been a key factor in this process. Membership in the European Union has constituted a clear transition for a historically subsidized and protected sector that now faces an uncertain role in the national energy market. The aim of this paper is to offer an overview and analysis of the mechanisms that have been implemented in the energy sector. The first part analyzes the rationalization policies that preceded Spanish entry into the EU, giving a detailed description of the complex programs designed by the government to help mining companies. The second part analyzes later systems aimed at helping the coal industry that were implemented after the EU imposed new criteria and objectives. These systems led to the so-called 'mixed model' of rationalization. This model, which is completely different from that implemented in other member states, is based on maintaining a system of subsidies that discriminate between public and private companies. The third part examines the objectives of the current system and the plans projected for the future in the context of the EU's adoption of an energy strategy that seeks to reconcile a self-sufficient energy supply with adherence to environmental commitments. (author)

  5. Incidence of eating disorders in Navarra (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca; De Irala-Estévez, Jokin; Cano-Prous, Adrián; Gual-García, Pilar; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Cervera-Enguix, Salvador

    2005-03-01

    To estimate the overall annual incidence and age group distribution of eating disorders in a representative sample of adolescent female residents of Navarra, Spain. We studied a representative sample of 2734 adolescent Navarran females between 13 and 22 years of age who were free of any eating disorder at the start of our study. Eighteen months into the study, we visited the established centers and the eating attitudes test (EAT-40) and eating disorder inventory (EDI) Questionnaires were administered to the entire study population. We obtained a final response of 92%. All adolescents whose EAT score was over 21 points and a randomized sample of those who scored 21 or below, were interviewed. Any person meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) was considered a case. We detected 90 new cases of eating disorders. Taking into consideration the randomly selected group whose EAT score was 21 points or below, we estimated the overall weighted incidence of eating disorders to be 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), after 18 months of observation, in which EDNOS predominated with an incidence of 4.2% (95% CI: 2.0-6.3). The incidence of AN was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5), while that of BN was also found to be 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5). The highest incidence was observed in the group of adolescents between 15 and 16 years of age. The overall incidence of ED in a cohort of 2509 adolescents after 18 months of follow-up was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), with EDNOS outweighing the other diagnoses. The majority of new cases of eating disorders were diagnosed between ages 15 and 16.

  6. The Radioactive Waste Management Programme in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A. R.; Vico, E.

    2000-01-01

    In 1984 the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) was set up in order to be responsible for all radioactive waste management activities in the country. ENRESA is a state-owned company, the shareholders of which are CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, formerly (JEN) and SEPI (Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales), both institutions dependent on the Ministry of Industry and Energy. ENRESA has a broad scope of responsibilities, including not only the management of L/ILW, HLW and spent fuel but also the decommissioning of nuclear installations, as well as the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling facilities when required. The policy on radioactive waste management is defined by the Government, and the strategies are developed by ENRESA in accordance with the General Radioactive Waste Management Plan. This Plan is a strategic document which must be submitted yearly by ENRESA to the Government, for its approval when the Ministry of Industry and Energy decided so. The plan, in general terms, contains the main aspects related to waste generation and forecasts, as well as the strategies and technical solutions to be prepared, along with the associated economic and financial aspects. ENRESA's activities are financed by the waste producers. On the one hand the nucleoelectric sector pays a percentage fee on all the electricity sales, while small producers pay tariffs according to the services provided, both are approved by the Government. The fifth General Radioactive Waste Plan, approved by the Government in July 1999, is currently in force and contains the strategies for the management of radioactive wastes and decommissioning of nuclear installations in Spain. (author)

  7. The radioactive waste management programme in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, Alvaro R.; Vico, Elena

    2002-01-01

    In 1984 the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) was set up in order to be responsible for all radioactive waste management activities in the country. ENRESA is a state-owned company, the shareholders of which are CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, formerly (JEN) and SEPI (Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales), both institutions dependent on the Spanish Government. ENRESA has a broad scope of responsibilities, including not only the management of L/ILW, HLW and spent fuel but also the decommissioning of nuclear installations, as well as the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling facilities when required. The policy on radioactive waste management is defined by the Government, and the strategies are developed by ENRESA in accordance with the General Radioactive Waste Management Plan. This Plan is a strategic document which must be submitted yearly by ENRESA to the Government, for its approval when the Ministry of Economy decided so. The plan, in general terms, contains the main aspects related to waste generation and forecasts, as well as the strategies and technical solutions to be prepared, along with the associated economic and financial aspects. ENRESA's activities are financed by the waste producers. On the one hand the nucleoelectric sector pays a percentage fee on all the electricity sales, while small producers pay tariffs according to the services provided, both are approved by the Government. The Fifth General Radioactive Waste Plan, approved by the Government in July 1999, is currently in force and contains the strategies for the management of radioactive wastes and decommissioning of nuclear installations in Spain. (author)

  8. Gambling in Spain: update on experience, research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Menchón, Jose Manuel

    2014-10-01

    To describe the current situation of gambling in Spain, sketching its history and discussing the regulations and legislation currently in force within the framework of the European Union (EU), and to review the epidemiology of gambling in Spain, the self-help groups and professional treatments available, and their potential effectiveness. A systematic computerized search was performed in three databases (EMBASE, PubMed and PsychINFO, including articles and chapters) and the reference lists from previous reviews to obtain some of the most relevant studies published up to now on the topic of pathologic gambling in Spain. Similar to other EU countries, Spain has a high prevalence of pathologic gambling, focused on specific culturally bounded types of gambling. Expenditure in online gaming has risen significantly in the last few years, prompting the Spanish government to draft new legislation to regulate gaming. The gaming industry is expected to be one of the fastest growing sectors in Spain in the coming years owing to the rise of new technologies and the development of online gaming. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Wind power development in Spain, the model of Navarra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel Ichaso, A. de [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra S.A. (EHN), Pamplona (Spain)

    2000-08-01

    Wind power implementation in Spain has undergone spectacular growth in recent years. From 834 Megawatts installed at the end of 1998, the figure of 1,500 MW was reached at the end of 1999 and forecasts expect well over 2,500 MW by the end of the year 2000. A favourable legislative framework and tariff structure have brought about this rate of development, which is mainly based on the implementation of large wind farms on high altitude sites in Spain. The region of Navarra (northern Spain) has played a special role in this development, and EHN, a company born in this region, has carried out major projects that have given it 30% of the Spanish wind power sector. The challenges for the sector in Spain over the next few years are: (1) Make its development compatible with the supply guarantees required by the national electricity supply operator, (2) ensure that the implementation of wind farms is done with respect for the environment, (3) harmonise the wind power development of the different Autonomous Communities of Spain, and (4) reduce the investment costs in order to obtain enough profitability with falling energy prices in the coming years. (orig.)

  10. The State of the Art of Group Psychotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Taboada, Cristina; Amutio, Alberto; Elgorriaga, Edurne; Arnoso, Ainara

    2015-10-01

    (1) What is the history and the theoretical orientation of group therapy in Spain? (2) How is training organized? (3) What role does group psychotherapy play in the health system in Spain? (4) What is the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice in Spain? (5) What topics can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Spain? (6) How are group-related issues important within the social background of Spain? and (7) What does group work hold for the future? Although not even a century has passed since the birth of this discipline, there have already been many events associated with the management of power and knowledge, the development of a sense of community, and the evolution of the political and social life of our country. Group therapy training is still evolving and is properly supported and accredited by prestigious institutions. In the 2013 Symposium of the Spanish Society of Group Psychotherapy and Group Techniques (SEPTG), the need for joint group theories and techniques within the profession's activities was clearly highlighted. Further, the enthusiasm of group psychotherapists to open themselves to specific social perspectives (health, education, community prevention, organizations) is a way of encouraging society to untangle conscious and unconscious knots that are created in social interaction.

  11. Zarzalejo granite (Spain). A nomination for 'Global Heritage Stone Resource'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael; José Varas-Muriel, María

    2015-04-01

    Zarzalejo granite is quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrama (Spanish Central System) foothills, in and around Zarzalejo village, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is an inequigranular monzogranite medium-to-coarse grained, with a slight porphyritic texture (feldspar phenocrysts) and mafic micro-grained enclaves. In this abstract the candidacy of Zarzalejo granite as a "Global Heritage Resource Stone" (GHSR) is presented. This stone ideally fits the newly proposed designation as it has been used in many heritage buildings and its good petrophysical properties and durability have allowed well preserved constructions such as a Roman road, San Pedro Church in Zarzalejo (1492), Descalzas Reales Monastery in Madrid (1559-1564) and the San Lorenzo del Escorial Royal Monastery (1563-1584), to be declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. This level of construction has been a landmark in the extraction and proliferation of historic quarries created due to the high demand that such colossal monuments and buildings with granite, have required for their construction. In the mid-20th century, More, Zarzalejo granite has also been used in restoration works including the Royal Palace and the Reina Sofía Museum (2001-2005), both buildings in Madrid, Spain. Extraction of granite ashlars from tors has been a very frequent activity in the Zarzalejo neighbourhood until mid-twentieth century. So there is also a need to preserve these historic quarries. This type of stone has created a landscape that has been preserved as an open-air museum today where you can see the marks left in the granite due to historic quarry operations. The granite industry has been one of the main pillars of the Zarzalejo regional economy. For centuries, the local community have been engaged in quarrying and have created a cultural landscape based on its building stone. A quarryman monument has been erected in Zarzalejo in honor of this traditional craft as well as an architecture museum at San Lorenzo del

  12. Catalan Nationalism and Challenges to the Territorial Integrity of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Volkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century Spain faced a number of challenges, primarily the growth of separatist sentiments in the regions fraught with the danger of its fragmentation on ethno-national basis. In the context of increased ethno-national mobilization of “small peoples” in Spain one of its most economically developed regions – Catalonia – envisages a rise of the regional identity. Against the backdrop of economic problems generated by the crisis of 2008-2014 the autonomous communities of Spain, including Catalonia, came across the rise of socio-political problems, particularly the growing distance between the society and the central administrative bodies formed in democratic conditions, as well as the two-party administrative system.

  13. Eating out in Spain: Motivations, sociability and consumer contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Méndez, Cecilia; García-Espejo, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    Eating out is a consumer practice which is difficult to define. The study of this practice has traditionally been based on the work/leisure dichotomy. However, in Spain this is not so clear. If we analyse profiles, motivations, places and relationships, we discover an eating-out food model which is specific to Spain and in which food is not limited by this dual link with work and leisure. Eating linked to work does not respond only to instrumental needs. Leisure eating is not always a choice based on preference. Both contain a strong element of sociability which acts as a motivator and are linked to the familisme of Spanish society, whilst at the same time de-routinizing daily life, both at home and at work. This study is based on a national survey carried out in 2014 and helps to understand this consumer practice and those elements which are specific to Spain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing a student's decision to pursue a communications degree in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sierra Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyzes the factors that influence secondary school students’ choice of higher education options in Spain today and explores the implications and benefits of establishing provider-client relationships between universities and students.Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative approach using questionnaires to demonstrate the hypothesis and achieve the objectives. We have prepared a questionnaire via telematic LimeSurvey application consisting of twenty-four closed questions.Findings: Results depict that the leading criteria for Spanish students interested in pursuing studies in communication sciences were a university’s reputation and excellence and the quality of its educational programmes. In terms of sources of information related to universities and their degree programmes, Spanish communication sciences students placed the highest value on direct and experiential sources. Spanish students interested in pursuing degrees in communication sciences preferred public universities over private universities.Research limitations: It is a descriptive paper. The sample could have been larger and have covered the entire universe of communication schools in Spain.Practical implications: Gain in-depth insight into the academic, cultural, and sociodemographic characteristics of students who choose to pursue an undergraduate degree in communications sciences in Spain.Ascertain which sources of information proved to be the most valuable to prospective students in choosing a university and degree programme and the other factors that influenced their choices by means of a survey involving first-year undergraduate communication sciences students. Use the results of this survey to rank the criteria used by students when choosing a university and degree programme. Gain a clearer picture of how parents and friends influence a student’s choice of degree programmes and universities.Social implications: Knowing the factors of choice

  15. [Burden of influenza virus type B and mismatch with the flu vaccine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiros-Bouza, Jose Ma; Pérez-Rubio, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    Since the 80s two lineages of type B viruses are co - circulating in the world. Antigenic differences between them are important and it leads to lack of cross-reactivity. The impact on the burden of disease due to influenza B virus, poor foresight in estimating which of the two lineages of B viruses circulate in the season, and the consequent lack of immunity in case of including the wrong strain make that the availability of the quadrivalent vaccine is very useful. The aim of this paper is to analyze the past influenza seasons in Spain to assess the burden of disease, divergence between the vaccine strain and the circulating B and viral characteristics associated with type B in each seasonal epidemic. Review of all reports issued by the Influenza Surveillance System in Spain since the 2003-2004 season to 2012-2013. Over the past influenza seasons, although type A was present mostly, circulation of influenza B virus in each season was observed, even being co - dominant in some of them. In a high number of seasons the divergence between the vaccine strain and the circulating strain lineage has been observed The protective effect of influenza vaccine has varied depending on the type / subtype of influenza virus studied. The vaccine effectiveness against influenza infection by influenza B virus has varied greatly depending on the season analyzed.

  16. Women and smoking—prices and health warning messages: evidence from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel; Gil-Lacruz, Marta; Leeder, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    In Spain, fewer men are smoking every year yet the number of women smokers remains relatively high. This paper examines the impact of two anti-smoking policies (increased prices and obligatory pictorial health warning labels) on womens smoking decisions; generation cohorts are used to elucidate the determinants of those decisions. We have drawn 48,755 observations of women living in Spain from the Spanish National Health Surveys of 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011. Among the main results, we highlight that belonging to a particular generation modulates the manner in which individual characteristics and tobacco policies determine smoking decisions. For example, women's smoking was not considered as socially acceptable until the 1960s and therefore older women have lower smoking rates. However, for the younger female cohorts (generations X and Y) smoking was seen as an act of rebellion and modernity, so women belonging to these groups, irrespective of educational level, are more likely to smoke. The price of cigarettes and pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packets also influence the smoking behaviour of Spanish women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Climate change impact on water resources - Example of an anthropized basin (Llobregat, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, P.-A.; Pouget, L.; Mc Ennis, S.; Guiu Carrio, R.; Sempere-Torres, D.; Escaler, I.

    2012-04-01

    The impact of climate change is one of the central topics of study by water agencies and companies. Indeed, the forecasted increase of atmospheric temperature may change the amount, frequency and intensity of precipitation and affect the hydrological cycle: runoff, infiltration, aquifer recharge, etc… Moreover, global change combining climate change but also land use and water demand changes, may cause very important impacts on water availability and quality. Global change scenarios in Spain describe a general trend towards increased temperature and water demand, and reduced precipitation as a result of its geographical situation and socio-economic characteristics. The European project WATER CHANGE (included in the LIFE + Environment Policy and Governance program) aims to develop a modeling system to assess the Global Change impacts, and their associated uncertainties, on water availability for water supply and water use. Its objective is to help river basin agencies and water companies in their long term planning and in the definition of adaptation measures. This work presents the results obtained by applying the modelling system to the Llobregat river basin (Spain). This is an anthropized catchment of about 5000 km2, where water resources are used for different purposes, such as drinking water production, agriculture irrigation, industry and hydroelectric energy production. Based on future global change scenarios, the water resources system has been assessed in terms of water deficit and supply. A cost-benefit analysis has also been conducted in order to evaluate every realistic measure that could optimize and improve the system.

  18. [Epidemiology of falls in the elderly in Spain: a systematic review, 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Gama, Zenewton André da; Gómez Conesa, Antonia; Sobral Ferreira, Marta

    2008-01-01

    Falls in the elderly are a serious problem that results in large health care expenditures. To prevent them, it has been shown that the key is an epidemiologic knowledge of the target population. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the incidence, risk factors and consequences of falls in the Spanish population, by analyzing the methodological quality of studies that provide these data. Two independent authors identified 54 studies through manual and electronic means (MEDLINE, Dialnet, Tesis en Red, TESEO y CSIC [ICYT, IME, ISOC]). A total of 13 studies performed in Spain with non-hospitalized elderly individuals older than 64 years of age were selected and assessed for their methodological quality. We found heterogeneity in the characteristics and quality of the studies, and a general inadequacy of data analyses. The risk factors and consequences must be viewed with caution, since in most of the studies a causal inference cannot be made. We showed that the current fall rates are at the same level as those of the first epidemiologic study published 15 years ago. We conclude that Spain has a high incidence of falls and needs studies on risk factors directed toward cause and effect in the community and comparisons among nursing homes. Finally, the physical, psychosocial and economic consequences must be investigated more thoroughly.

  19. Celtiberian ceramic productions from the Central Iberian range (Spain): Chemical and petrographic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igea, J.; Perez-Arantegup, J.; Lapuente, P.; Saiz, M. E.; Burillo, F.

    2013-01-01

    As part of an extended program on archaeometric research of the Celtiberian production centres situated along the Central Iberian Range, ceramic fragments of different vessel types from two selected Celtiberian workshops were analyzed: La Rodriga (Guadalajara, Spain) and Allueva II (Teruel, Spain), dated from the 3nd to the 2st centuries BC. The characterization was focused on the chemical analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry, and subjected to commonlyused multivariate statistical methods to distinguish between ceramic materials and to discriminate among different compositional groups in each production centre. The analysis was completed by performing petrographic characterization, textural observations, colour measurement and mineralogical analysis of the pieces by means of XRD. The compositional variations from major, minor and trace elements allowed to establish two subgroups in La Rodriga and one ceramic group in Allueva II. The chemical composition differences were confirmed by the petrographic characteristics and the mineralogical composition of the ceramic fabrics. These results enabled us to complete the preliminary archaeometric study in order to improve the knowledge on cultural and commercial influences in this important Celtiberian territory. (Author) 22 refs.

  20. Heavy metal concentrations in the general population of Andalusia, South of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Fernando; Capitan-Vallvey, Luis F.; De Santiago, Esperanza; Ballesta, Julio; Pla, Antonio; Hernandez, Antonio F.; Gutierrez-Bedmar, Mario; Fernandez-Crehuet, Joaquin; Gomez, Joaquin; Lopez-Guarnido, Olga; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Villanueva, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Levels of metalloids (As - urine) and heavy metals (Hg - urine, Cd - whole blood and Zn - serum) were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry in 601 subjects living in the area affected by the Aznalcollar mine spill (SW, Spain) and compared with those of a representative sample (960 subjects) selected from the Andalusian community (non-affected area), southern Spain. The characteristic parameters of the analytical method including uncertainty were determined for each metal. Potential associations of metal concentration with age, sex and body mass index as well as life-style habits (smoking, alcohol consumption and food habits) were explored. Concentrations of all the metals studied were statistically higher in the population of the affected area with respect to that of the non-affected area in Andalusia, although levels were always lower or similar to the values reported for the general population and below occupational reference limits. In conclusion, there is a lack of evidence that the spill had any incidence on human health in the population living in the affected area. There are few references in scientific literature reporting values from large series of samples, and hence our data could be useful for further studies

  1. Synoptic patterns associated with wildfires caused by lightning in Castile and Leon, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. García-Ortega

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iberian Peninsula presents the highest number of wildfires in Europe. In the NW of Spain in particular, wildfires are the natural risk with the greatest economic impact in this region. Wildfires caused by lightning are closely related to the triggering of convective phenomena. The prediction of thunderstorms is a very complex task because these weather events have a local character and are highly dependent on mesoscale atmospheric conditions. The development of convective storms is directly linked to the existence of a synoptic environment favoring convection. The aim of this study is to classify the atmospheric patterns that provide favorable environments for the occurrence of wildfires caused by lightning in the region of Castile and Leon, Spain. The database used for the study contains 376 wildfire days from the period 1987–2006. NCEP data reanalysis has been used. The atmospheric fields used to characterise each day were: geopotential heights and temperatures at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, relative humidity and the horizontal wind at 850 hPa. A Principal Component Analysis in T-mode followed by a Cluster Analysis resulted in a classification of wildfire days into five clusters. The characteristics of these clusters were analysed and described, focusing particularly on the study of those wildfire days in which more than one wildfire was detected. In these cases the main feature observed was the intensification of the disturbance typical of the cluster to which the wildfire belongs.

  2. Applying Data-mining techniques to study drought periods in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, F.; Penades, M. C.

    2010-09-01

    Data-mining is a technique that it can be used to interact with large databases and to help in the discovery relations between parameters by extracting information from massive and multiple data archives. Drought affects many economic and social sectors, from agricultural to transportation, going through urban water deficit and the development of modern industries. With these problems and drought geographical and temporal distribution it's difficult to find a single definition of drought. Improving the understanding of the knowledge of climatic index is necessary to reduce the impacts of drought and to facilitate quick decisions regarding this problem. The main objective is to analyze drought periods from 1950 to 2009 in Spain. We use several kinds of information, different formats, sources and transmission mode. We use satellite-based Vegetation Index, dryness index for several temporal periods. We use daily and monthly precipitation and temperature data and soil moisture data from numerical weather model. We calculate mainly Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) that it has been used amply in the bibliography. We use OLAP-Mining techniques to discovery of association rules between remote-sensing, numerical weather model and climatic index. Time series Data- Mining techniques organize data as a sequence of events, with each event having a time of recurrence, to cluster the data into groups of records or cluster with similar characteristics. Prior climatological classification is necessary if we want to study drought periods over all Spain.

  3. Physical Dating Violence in Spain and the United Kingdom and the Importance of Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viejo, C; Monks, C P; Sánchez, V; Ortega-Ruiz, R

    2016-05-01

    Mixed-gender friendships, romantic relationships, and sexual behaviors increase during adolescence as a normal part of development. However, some studies have revealed potential risks to these types of social relationships. Different authors have indicated that dating violence among adolescents is an issue for concern. To date, there has been little research on this topic cross-nationally. This study examined and compared the prevalence and characteristics of physical dating violence among young people aged between 15 and 18 years in England and Spain (N = 200 in Spain, N = 199 in England), and how being involved (or not) in this violence relates to romantic relationship quality. Results indicated that approximately 23% of young people reported victimization and 30% reported perpetrating physical dating violence. In both countries, most of those involved in physical dating violence reported involvement in reciprocal violence (displaying both aggression and victimization). Those young people involved in dating violence reported higher levels on scales assessing negative aspects of relationship quality compared with those not involved, but there were no significant differences in positive aspects of relationship quality. Furthermore, different patterns appeared relating to the severity of violence and country. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for theory and practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The role of ethical banks in health care policy and financing in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Solans, Josep; Duaigues, Mónica; Balot, Jordi; García-Gutierrez, Juan Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Ethical, social, or civic banks, constitute a secondary source of financing, which is particularly relevant in Southern and Central Europe. However there is no information on the scientific literature on this source of health care financing. We review the characteristics of saving banks in Spain and illustrate the contribution of one institution "Obra Social Caixa Catalunya" (OS-CC) to the health care financing in Spain. Savings bank health care funding was equivalent to 3 percent of the public health expenditure for 2008. The programs developed by OS-CC illustrate the complex role of savings banks in health financing, provision, training, and policy, particularly in the fields of integrated care and innovation. Financing is a basic tool for health policy. However, the role of social banking in the development of integrated care networks has been largely disregarded, in spite of its significant contribution to complementary health and social care in Southern and Central Europe. Decision makers both at the public health agencies and at the social welfare departments of savings banks should become aware of the policy implications and impact of savings bank activities in the long-term care system.

  5. Health Status and Experience of the Migrant Workers Returned from Spain to Colombia: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Villa, Carolina; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Cardona-Arango, Doris; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2017-12-14

    This study aims to understand the migratory experience and the employment, work and health conditions of the returned migrants from Spain to Colombia. A qualitative study was conducted by means of 23 semi-structured interviews with Colombian returned migrant workers. Qualitative narrative content analysis was performed using Atlas.Ti software. Main findings are represented by nine categories emerged from the participants' discourses: (1) impact of the economic crisis on work and employment conditions in Spain, (2) economic crisis and return, (3) characteristics of returnees, (4) perception of the returnees about Colombia, (5) the role of social support networks, (6) employment and working conditions in Colombia, (7) health and wellbeing, (8) future plans and expectations, (9) the experience of being immigrant. Adjustment difficulties in participants are evidenced by the return migration process and the conditions of the social, political and economic system in Colombia. Return migration represents the reconfiguration of personal and working lives of this population. This situation requires the development of global policies and strategies in public health to facilitate the adaptation of these people.

  6. Spain out of Spain. Spanish Patriotism in the Argentinian emigration: an approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela García Sebastiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish migrants in Argentina prompted, from specific areas of civil society and the public sphere, corporate identity for political purposes. It was a residual patriotism and condemned from the outset. It was activated in specific circumstances and in relation to the local policies projected towards the collective migratory, the Spanish politics, and recognition of shared sociopolitical and cultural genealogies. From the perspective of cultural history of the policy, and based on primary and secondary sources, this article discusses about built imaginaries, social mobilization generated and results between 1885 and 1920. During that time, from distance, migrants also built ideas about Spain and drawn up national myths in the cultural version of liberalism that eventually led to a conservative nationalist, catholic and –at times– fascist.

  7. [Birth rates evolution in Spain. Birth trends in Spain from 1941 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés de Llano, J M; Alberola López, S; Garmendia Leiza, J R; Quiñones Rubio, C; Cancho Candela, R; Ramalle-Gómara, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse trends of births in Spain and its Autonomous Communities (CCAA) over a 70 year period (1941-2010). The crude birth rates per 1,000 inhabitants/year were calculated by CCAA using Joinpoint regression models. Change points in trend and annual percentage of change (APC) were identified. The distribution of 38,160,305 births between 1941 and 2010 shows important changes in trends both nationally and among the CCAA. There is a general pattern for the whole country, with 5 turning points being identified with changes in trend and annual percentage change (APC). Differences are also found among regions. The analysis of trends in birth rates and the annual rates of change should enable public health authorities to properly plan pediatric care resources in our country. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. [Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Barreiro, S; Rodríguez Rigual, M; Bueno Lozano, G; López Siguero, J P; González Pelegrín, B; Rodrigo Val, M P; Compés Dea, M L

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological studies in many regions and countries have contributed to determining the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in children less than 15 years old. Studies in many regions of Spain have been published, but the national incidence is not really known. A review was made of the publications on the epidemiology of T1DM in Spain, selecting the references on patients less than 15 years old. Many epidemiological studies on T1DM in almost all regions in Spain have been published. The methodology of these studies is heterogeneous, with variations in geographical definition, duration, period of study, limit of age, and data collection. The incidence rates are variable, from 11.5 cases per 100,000/year in Asturias to 27.6 in Castilla-La Mancha. Some studies report the percentage of diabetic ketoacidosis at the time of diagnosis, which is usually in the range of 25-40%. Although there have been various epidemiological studies on T1DM in almost all regions in Spain, the methodology is heterogeneous. The mean incidence of T1DM in children less than 15 years old in Spain, stimated from the selected studies is 17,69 cases per 100,000/year. T1DM registers need to be created and updated, using standardized methodology, to get more reliable data of the epidemiology of T1DM in Spain in the near future. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Inspection of nuclear power plants under construction in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoma, L.

    1977-01-01

    Brief summary of the situation of the nuclear industry in Spain, in order to better understand the questions involved in the inspection of the Spanish nuclear power plants, as well as the experience acquired, followed by a description of some of the problems which have arisen during the construction phase. Also the problems faced by the Inspection of the Junta de Energia Nuclear are described in order to fulfill the missions entrusted to it. Finally, some recommendations are made in light of the experience had by Spain.(author) [es

  10. Approaches to Open Data for Science in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wulff-Barreiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As observational data has attained new legal status, allowing their integration into open Internet systems, and experimental data continues to be assembled in common and free platforms, state of the art, easy to access data repositories have been designed in Spain. These repositories have removed many obstacles to re-utilization of GIS and other data. European legislation has also made advances in opening biodiversity data, including a European space in the Latin-American grid infrastructure. Open access biomedical repositories attract commercial attention while astronomical, meteorological, and oncological institutions promote data quality and access. This paper describes recent approaches to open access data for science in Spain.

  11. On Reproductive Work in Spain: Transnational Adoption, Egg Donation, Surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marre, Diana; San Román, Beatriz; Guerra, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Spain's plummeting fertility since the late twentieth century may seem to reflect a waning desire for children. Nevertheless, reproductive disappointments resulting from gender inequalities cause many Spanish women to postpone motherhood and experience age-related fertility problems. For them, creating a family often becomes possible only through the reproductive labor of other women. Our analysis of transnational adoption, egg donation, and surrogacy in Spain shows how anonymity and altruism play out in these three strategies, with implications for the valuation of women's reproductive work and relationships among reproductive providers, intermediaries, recipients, and the resulting children.

  12. Psychoanalysis and the transition to democracy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druet, Anne-Cécile

    2017-11-01

    This article studies the links between psychoanalysis and the transition to democracy in Spain. It examines the major changes that characterized the spread of psychoanalysis in the years after Franco's death, in particular the rise of the Lacanian movement, the impact of this phenomenon on the sociocultural sphere and, in broader terms, its role in the re-emergence of psychoanalysis as a cultural object in the country. The article also analyzes factors linked to the history of psychoanalysis during the Franco dictatorship; factors that, together with the arrival of Oscar Masotta and numerous Argentinian analysts in Spain, help explain the new vision of the field that emerged during the transition.

  13. Spain, words that succeed and climate policies that fail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabara, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Official figures submitted in 2002 showing the trends of greenhouse gases during the period 1990-2000 indicate that Spain is a long way from attaining its commitments with the international and national programmes on climate change. Both structural and cultural factors are used to explain the evolution in climate politics and the growth of its emissions with particular emphasis given to the lack of public participation in this respect. It is also argued that Spain will have either to buy emission reductions abroad or/and find new ways to reduce greenhouse gases in a more decentralised manner in tune with its current Autonomous Communities' (ACs) political organisation

  14. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  15. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an individual...

  16. Red Beads and Love Magic. Cross-Cultural Exchanges Between Spain and new Spain in Modern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Andreia Martins Torres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the significance of particular red beads used in love magic during the 17th and 18th centuries, specifically on the construction of symbolic universe through perceptions based on «others» materiality. It aims to provide a connected studied between Spain and New Spain through the histories of the gipsy Generosa Vicente and mestiza Margarita Palacios recovered from the Inquisition authorities notes. This is the way to understand the extent to which cross-cultural contacts privilege the transmission of ideas associated with objects, and how they were used apparently with similar purposes but with a very different meaning.

  17. National Intelligence Survey. Spain. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-07-01

    on to successor organiza- tions. In 1934 the meteorological services were organized as the Servicio Meteorolögico Nacional (S.M.N.). Spain became a...service’s communications system for collecting data relies heavily on tele- phone, telegraph, and CW-radio broadcasts. A micro -wave radio teletype

  18. Coal mining in Spain: first half year 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Statistical data from the first half of 1986 on coal mining in Spain. These figures cover anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite both nationally and for the coal-producing regions of Leon, Asturias, Palencia, Teruel and La Coruna. Special attention is paid to absenteeism and its causes.

  19. Current research in Spain on walnut for wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neus Alet& #224; Neus NO-VALUE

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Mediterranean Trees at the Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA) in Spain initiated a research program in 1993 to examine the variability among walnut species for wood production and to establish orchards with improved selections. The main objective of the programme is to obtain superior Persian walnut (Juglans regia...

  20. Wind energy in Spain. 2000 MW in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Spain ranks third in terms of wind energy in Europe. Its wind power capacity has been soaring for the past five years and development of renewable energies is seen as a way to stimulate economy and employment. Two regions are at the forefront in this: Galicia and Navarra. Each autonomous region has its own way to develop wind energy. (A.L.B.)

  1. Biomass power: Exploring the diffusion challenges in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass resources for power generation offers numerous benefits of interest for political decision-makers: fuel security, rural and industrial development, ecological benefits. In Spain, policy instruments have been used since 1980 to stimulate biomass power generation. However, the

  2. Acculturation Stress and Bullying among Immigrant Youths in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…

  3. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  4. Increasing Contact with Hepatitis E Virus in Red Deer, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; Martín, Marga; Vicente, Joaquín; Segalés, Joaquim; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2010-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in red deer in mainland Spain, we tested red deer for HEV RNA and antibodies. Overall, 10.4% and 13.6% of serum samples were positive by ELISA and reverse transcription–PCR, respectively. The increasing prevalence suggests a potential risk for humans. PMID:21122241

  5. Great Writers of Spain I (Nineteenth Century): 7506.26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The main goal of this course of study is for the student to understand, recognize, and interpret the many changes which occurred in the poetry and prose of Spain at the advent of Romanticism. The student also studies the movements that followed Romanticism: Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism. Performance objectives, suggested materials, learning…

  6. International Briefing 34: Training and Development in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Mike; Ponce Sanz, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This article locates training and development in Spain within the country's socio-economic context. It maps the major changes which have been introduced into the training and development system since the briefing by Escardíbul and Llinas-Audet published in this journal in 2010. It relates those changes to the ongoing economic crisis which began in…

  7. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  8. Spain: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    .... The United States and Spain have generally enjoyed good relations. However, problems have arisen in recent years over such issues as the war in Iraq, promoting democracy in Latin America, and the tactics to be used in fighting the war on terrorism...

  9. Spain gives science and technology a ministry of its own

    CERN Multimedia

    Bosch, X

    2000-01-01

    Spain's re-elected prime minister announced the creation of a new Ministry of Science and Technology. It will be responsible for policy on basic and applied research, IT and telecommunications. It will also incorporate the country's Higher Council of Research (1/2 page).

  10. Deteminants of interregional migration in Spain: new analysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Maza Fernández

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of internal migration in Spain from a regional standpoint. For this purpose, it develops both a nonparametric and semiparametric approach. The general conclusion that it is drawn from the study is that migratory movements are very persistent and mainly respond, though weakly, to the differentials of per capita income, unemployment rates and housing costs between regions.

  11. Guidance for Older Workers in Denmark and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Peter; Lopez-Sanchez, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Guidance has a role to play in helping older workers to lead meaningful and fruitful lives; inside, outside, on the edge of the labour market, or in voluntary work with examples from two very different European countries: Denmark and Spain. This paper aims to draw attention to older workers guidance from an economic policy approach. It will be…

  12. Sensors and Technologies in Spain: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue was to provide a comprehensive view on the state-of-the-art sensor technology in Spain. Different problems cause the appearance and development of new sensor technologies and vice versa, the emergence of new sensors facilitates the solution of existing real problems. [...

  13. Young Pedestrians' Gendering of Mathematics: Australia and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah; Gómez-Chacón, Inés Ma

    2012-01-01

    People aged 20-39 were stopped in the streets of Victoria (Australia) and Madrid (Spain) to gauge their views on the gendering of mathematics. The findings suggested that for respondents from both countries, if stereotyped beliefs are held they were more strongly associated with the traditional male stereotype, that is, that males are considered…

  14. Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassibille, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…

  15. Evaluation of Hybrid and Distance Education Learning Environments in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Walker, Scott L.; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Fernandez-Pascual, Maria Dolores; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation and validation of the "Distance Education Learning Environments Survey" (DELES) for use in investigating the qualities found in distance and hybrid education psycho-social learning environments in Spain. As Europe moves toward post-secondary student mobility, equanimity in access to higher education,…

  16. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Omnichannel strategy and the distribution of public services in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rey-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the current situation of the development of e-Government in Spain, showing the real applicability and degree of efficacy of the previously mentioned strategies to increase the citizens’ rate of use of e-Government, compared to traditional management channels.

  18. [Tarantism in Spain in the eighteen century: latrodectism and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Corral, I; Corral-Corral, C

    2016-10-16

    Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782. Spanish doctors described appropriately the clinical effects, identical to those produced by the bite of the spider black widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), which was at that time identified as a tarantula. The cases reported by Francisco Xavier Cid cured with the involuntary dance triggered by the tarantella, as was described in Italy since the sixteenth century. Our interpretation is that this curative effect of dance in Spain was induced by suggestion. In Spanish patients there were no behavioral disturbances, periodic recurrences or collective involvement as those reported by Italian authors, which suggest an hysterical phenomenon, probably a continuation of the dancing mania of the Middle Age. Tarantism reported in Spain in the eighteenth century includes two different phenomena: the systemic symptoms produced by the tarantula bite, which is actually latrodectism, and the curative effect of the tarantella, explained by suggestion. The psychiatric disturbances, with a hysterical nature, falsely associated to the tarantula bite, observed in Italy, were not present among the Spanish cases of tarantism in the eighteenth century.

  19. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  20. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Pérez; Claudio Aroca; Marina Díaz-Michelena; David Ciudad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  1. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  2. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Palmera-Suárez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity.

  3. Time use in Spain: is polychronicity a cultural phenomenon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, S.J.M.; van Eerde, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to measure polychronicity in Spain, traditionally typified as having a polychronic culture, characterized by a multifocused working environment. Design/methodology/approach - A sample of 134 executives from 19 organizations in Madrid completed a questionnaire

  4. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools.…

  5. From Dictatorship to Democracy: History of Education in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñao, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In a book published in 1995 providing an overview on the state of the art in European educational historiography in Europe, Marie-Madeleine Compère referring to post-Franco Spain, emphasised the "dynamism" and "the capacity to mobilise" that had arisen among Spanish researchers by "any collective initiative." Moving…

  6. The Slow Reform of Teacher Education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganstern de Finkel, Sara

    1991-01-01

    After 16 years of transition from dictatorship to democracy, Spain's teacher education system has not changed substantially. The existing model is much criticized, but politics impede the process of change. The proposed new model for preservice training shows little innovation, but some progress is seen in inservice training. (MSE)

  7. Naval Assistance to Spain and the Triple Entente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the World War I Spain rendered military support to the Triple Entente, avoiding the regime of neutrality. Five trawlers, converted into minesweepers were sold to Russia and eight – to Italy. Data, concerning France, vary. There is information about no less than 27 trawlers. But probably 243 watercrafts were sold to France and 14 were contracted to build.

  8. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  9. Ancient DNA reveals past existence of Eurasian lynx in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Varela, R.; García, N.; Nores, C.

    2016-01-01

    . The paleontological record and our data indicate a population replacement of the Iberian lynx by the Eurasian lynx during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition in the Cantabrian cornice of Spain. Phylogeographic patterns of Late Pleistocene and Holocene Eurasian lynx from Iberia, France, Italy and Denmark show...

  10. Networks and Selection in International Migration to Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubecker, Nina; Smolka, Marcel; Steinbacher, Anne

    This paper provides new evidence on migrant networks as determinants of the scale and skill structure of migration, using aggregate data from a recent migration boom to Spain. We develop a three-level nested multinomial logit migration model. Our model accommodates varying degrees of similarity...

  11. The Creative Class and the Creative Economy in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Juan Miguel; Bergua, José Angel; Pac, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an application in Spain of Florida's model (2002/2010, 2005) about creativity, economy and growth. Creativity is an indicator that measures and combines technology, talent, and tolerance. Each of these is composed of three subindices. The most important conclusion from the data reported here is that creativity in particular,…

  12. [What is an efficient health technology in Spain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, J A; Oliva, J; Del Llano, J; Prieto, L; Pinto, J L

    2002-01-01

    Despite the growing recognition of the potential applications of cost-effectiveness assessments, a criterion to establish what is an efficient health technology does not exist in Spain. The objective of this work is to describe the limits and the criteria used in Spain to recommend the adoption of health interventions. A review of the economic evaluations of health technologies published in Spain from 1990 to 2001 was conducted. Complete economic assessments in which the cost-effectiveness ratio was expressed as cost per life-year gained (LYG), cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) or cost per saved live were selected. Those interventions in which the authors established recommendations (adoption or rejection) and the criteria used were analyzed. Twenty (20%) of the 100 complete economic evaluations fulfilled the selection criteria. In16 studies, the results were expressed as cost per LYG, in 6 studies as cost per QALY and in 1 as cost per saved live. A total of 82 health interventions were assessed and some kind of recommendation was established in 44 of them. All technologies with a cost-effectiveness ratio lower than 30,000 euros (5 million pesetas) per LYG were recommended for adoption by the authors. Up to that limit there was no a clear tendency. Although the results must be interpreted with much precaution, given the limitations of the study, the limits of cost-effectiveness presented in this work could be a first reference to which would be an efficient health intervention in Spain.

  13. A survey of Rocketry and astronautics in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluquer, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The entire field of rocketry and astronautics in Spain was studied. Congreve war rockets in military actions were emphasized in the African war, the Cuban campaign and the Spanish Civil War. Rockets in space travel were also summarized along with space science fiction.

  14. Regulatory aspects to the radioactive facilities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormo Ferrero, Manuel Jose

    1998-01-01

    The work refers the history to the nuclear energy in Spain, the creation to the Junta de Energia Nuclear for the regulatory control as regards to radiological protection and security, and the laws and established ordinances for these ends in the country

  15. Languages, Minorities and Education in Spain: The Case of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ferran

    2000-01-01

    Examines Catalan's remarkable revival in Catalonia (Spain) in the past 20 years. Discusses the 1978 referendum designating "autonomous communities," their languages having co-official status with Spanish; increases in Catalan usage in many sectors and among the young; Catalan usage in education; and challenges related to bilingual…

  16. The evolution of the treatment of urban waste water Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajigas Delgado, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of the wastewater treatment sector in Spain during the last three decades and identifies the milestone events that influenced its transformation. It analyses the situation before and after the major development plans and how they have had influence in the main regulations. (Author)

  17. Canal + Spain & Live Football Broadcasts: A Whole Different Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez Ortega, Vicente; Romero Santos, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn 1988 the Law for Private Television Broadcasting was approved by Spanish parliament. Three licenses were initially awarded. Soon thereafter, in 1990, three channels started broadcasting: Antena 3, Berlusconi-related Tele 5 and, against all odds, a pay channel, Canal + Spain. This

  18. Foreign Policy Aspect of Regional Politics of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Shabaga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the regional participation of Autonomous Communities of Spain in European upbringing. The history of the process is investigated as well as the main initiatives of the Spanish government towards the integration of Autonomous Communities in the European Union decision making process are analyzed.

  19. Women, University and Science in Twentieth-Century Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Antonio Fco.

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to question the widely accepted idea that female university students in Spain have, in the past, tended to opt for degrees in the field of humanities. Based on an analysis of the official statistics that are currently available, the paper demonstrates that Spanish female university students showed a clear preference for…

  20. Postgraduate Studies in Librarianship and Information Science in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cañavate, Antonio; Larios-Suárez, Verónica

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and current situation of postgraduate studies in Librarianship and Information Science (LIS) at the university level in Spain before and after the development of the Bologna Process's European Higher Education Area (EHEA). It contextualizes the historical development of these studies, describing how official…

  1. Spain: Marine sciences information activity report for 1999/2000

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    This 99/00 marine sciences-relevant activities report is a portrait of research information available within Spain. From the least available electronic information on such subjects as vaccines to a flood of information on thematics like Spanish Antartic research.

  2. The 'Tortonian salinity crisis' of the eastern Betics (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, Miguel; Agustí, Jorge; Raffi, I.; Taberner, C.; Zachariasse, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The late Miocene depositional history of the Lorca and Fortuna basins, both occupying an internal position in the eastern Betics of Spain, is marked by a regressive sequence from open marine marls, via diatomites and evaporites, to continental sediments. Based on facies similarities, these

  3. Investigation on sea water desalination plants in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, S.; Sterner, R.; Ugarte, J.

    1978-01-01

    A description of various experimental installations at La Moncloa in Madrid, Spain, are presented. These include multi-flash, vapor compression, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and solar distillation projects. Also described are pilot projects for multi-flash and vapor-compression distillation located in Lanzarote, Canary Islands. Computer programs for these systems are given.

  4. DETERMINATION OF DISTINCTIVE COMPETENCIES IN SMES: THE CASE OF VIGO AND ITS AREA OF INFLUENCE (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M., Jardon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sources of competitive advantages are characteristic of the enterprises that allow them to be placed in better position than their competitors. As from the theory of resources and capacities it is habitual to consider that those sources are in internal and external factors of the enterprises. The entrepreneur, by means of the strategy combines these factors establishing his distinctive competencies. This paper analyzes the formation of distinguishing competences. The obtained results show the form in which the small and medium enterprises (SME organize their resources and capacities to form distinctive competencies. The SMEs of Vigo study their area of influence, a region of northwest Spain. In that case it is obtained that they form 5 great distinguishing competencies: management of human and technological resources, management of territorial resources, management of clients, management of products and innovation. These agree to a large extent with previous papers, although their contents present some differences.

  5. Are there too many or too few physicians in Spain? Is emigration the timeless resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2013-10-01

    At the end of the last century, several Spanish doctors had to migrate overseas looking for a decent job. No decent jobs were offered by then in Spain. Last decade, the lack of doctors was a problem and a great social alarm was born. Mechanisms to attract doctors form overseas and medical training, both uncontrolled, were settled in, to get the numbers right. The result was a surplus of qualified health professionals. Today, overseas doctors who were invited to come and native doctors, both, trained for specific health situations have to leave the country. An extraordinary planning never heard of in neighbouring countries due to its "inefficiency". It was characteristic its lack of capability to take advantage of health professional's abilities - doctors and nurses-, its lack of population's health education, its waste of resources in training and its uncontrolled immigration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Asian Slavery in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, 1565-1673

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Déborah Oropeza Keresey

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available When a continuous communication was established between the center of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and its Asian Audiencia in the Philippines thanks to the Nao of China, there appeared a transpacific migration of Asian slaves travelling to the center of the viceroyalty between 1656 and 1673. In this paper, I analyze the evolution and characteristics of this type of migration, including the various procedures of slave transportation, the scope of the migratory movement, as well as the different origins of Asian slaves. I also examine the kind of work undertaken by Asian slaves in the center of the Novohispanic viceroyalty. Finally, I consider the freedom process of these slaves, which took place during the second half of the 17th century.

  7. Epidemiological markers of Serratia marcescens isolates causing nosocomial infections in Spain (1981-1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquete, T; Vindel, A; Martin-Bourgon, C; Azañedo, L; Sáez-Nieto, J A

    1996-12-01

    The distribution of epidemiological markers (serotyping and phage-typing) of Serratia marcescens isolates from nosocomial episodes (63 nosocomial cutbreaks with 475 isolates, and 1208 sporadic cases) received in our laboratory during the period 1981-1991 was studied. The records for 1683 isolates from Spanish hospitals have been analyzed. In relation with the sporadic cases, the predominant types were serotype O6 (13.4%) and serotype O14 (11.4%); polyagglutinable strains accounted for 15.6%; in outbreaks, type O14 is clearly predominant (27.4%). Phage-typing was a good secondary marker, with a 87.9% of typability; the number of lytic patterns was very high, extended patterns (six or more phages) being the most frequent. We have studied the characteristics of S. marcescens isolates causing infections in the nosocomial environment in Spain.

  8. Not only Chauvet: dating Aurignacian rock art in Altxerri B Cave (northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sainz, C; Ruiz-Redondo, A; Garate-Maidagan, D; Iriarte-Avilés, E

    2013-10-01

    The discovery and first dates of the paintings in Grotte Chauvet provoked a new debate on the origin and characteristics of the first figurative Palaeolithic art. Since then, other art ensembles in France and Italy (Aldène, Fumane, Arcy-sur-Cure and Castanet) have enlarged our knowledge of graphic activity in the early Upper Palaeolithic. This paper presents a chronological assessment of the Palaeolithic parietal ensemble in Altxerri B (northern Spain). When the study began in 2011, one of our main objectives was to determine the age of this pictorial phase in the cave. Archaeological, geological and stylistic evidence, together with radiometric dates, suggest an Aurignacian chronology for this art. The ensemble in Altxerri B can therefore be added to the small but growing number of sites dated in this period, corroborating the hypothesis of more complex and varied figurative art than had been supposed in the early Upper Palaeolithic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends in rainfall erosivity in NE Spain at annual, seasonal and daily scales, 1955–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beguería

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall erosivity refers to the ability of precipitation to erode soil, and depends on characteristics such as its total volume, duration, and intensity and amount of energy released by raindrops. Despite the relevance of rainfall erosivity for soil degradation prevention, very few studies have addressed its spatial and temporal variability. In this study the time variation of rainfall erosivity in the Ebro Valley (NE Spain is assessed for the period 1955–2006. The results show a general decrease in annual and seasonal rainfall erosivity, which is explained by a decrease of very intense rainfall events whilst the frequency of moderate and low events increased. This trend is related to prevailing positive conditions of the main atmospheric teleconnection indices affecting the West Mediterranean, i.e. the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO, the Mediterranean Oscillation (MO and the Western Mediterranean Oscillation (WeMO.

  10. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Typological analysis of social linear blocks: Spain 1950-1983. The case study of western Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guajardo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge that cities will need to face in the next few years is the regeneration of the social housing estates built during the decades of 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. One of the causes of their obsolescence is the mismatch between their hous-ing typologies and the contemporary needs. The main target of this study is to contribute to take a step forward in the un-derstanding of these typologies to be able to intervene on them efficiently. With this purpose, a study on 42 linear blocks built in Spain between 1950 and 1983 in western Andalusia has been carried out. The analysis includes three stages: 1 classification of the houses in recognizable groups; 2 an identification of the most used spatial configurations and 3 definition of their programmatic and size characteristics. As a result, a characterization of linear blocks is proposed as a reference model for future regenerative interventions.

  12. A hydrous Ca-bearing magnesium carbonate from playa lake sediments, Salines Lake, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queralt, I.; Julia, R.; Plana, F.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Sediments of playa Lake Salines, SE, Spain, contain a carbonate mineral characterized by X-ray diffraction peaks very similar to, but systematically shifted from those of pure magnesite. Analyses (SEM, IR and Raman spectroscopy, DTA, TGA, and ICP) indicate the mineral is a hydrous Ca-bearing magnesium carbonate with the chemical formula (Mg0.92,Ca0.08)CO3??3H2O. Thermal characteristics of the mineral are similar to those of other known hydrated magnesium carbonates. X-ray and electron diffraction data suggests a monoclinic system (P21/n space group) with unit-cell parameters of a = 6.063(6), b = 10.668(5), and c = 6.014(4) A?? and ?? = 107.28??.

  13. The intangible city. Environmental experiences in historical settings. The case of Ruzafa in Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Puig Tarín

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The district of Ruzafa in Valencia (Spain is in a process of urban revitalization. These interventions need knowledge of the particular characteristics of existing urban weave and of the resident users. The information obtained will be managed through a graphical database that will allow to propose alternative models of energy rehabilitation based on existing heritage recovery. The proposal consists of the systematization of the information sensitive to urban environmental quality so it can be managed through a graphical database of the city (GIS. The use of this tool will allow to propose interventions adapted to the real needs of the users and to achieve a real penetration of the urban proposals among the population. 

  14. Investigating the reasons for Spain's falling birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, X

    1998-09-12

    On August 25, 1998, the Spanish National Institute of Statistics announced that Spain, which has had the most accelerated decrease in fecundity of all European countries during the last 25 years, had the lowest birth rate in Europe. Spain's average birth rate was 2.86 in 1970, 2.21 in 1980, and 1.21 in 1994. According to Eurostat, Spain's average birth rate in 1995 was 1.18, while the European Community's was 1.43. Although all the countries of the European Community have birth rates below 2.1, Spain's is 44% below this minimum rate needed to achieve generation replacement. In 1994 and 1997, in 5 northern communities, including the Basque country and Galicia, the birth rate was less than 1.0. The lowest birth rate (0.76 in 1997) was in the northern region of Asturias. Although southern autonomous regions have higher birth rates (between 1.21 and 1.44 for 1997) than northern ones, these are also decreasing (from 3.36 in 1970 to 1.29 in 1997 in Andalusia). Credit for the rapid decrease is given to improved quality of life and education, increased contraceptive usage, and social change. Employment of women has increased, and unemployed sons are remaining at home for longer periods. The most important reasons are 1) the increased number of single people and 2) the increased average age of women having their first child. The latter increase began in 1988. Most Spanish women now have their first child between the ages of 30 and 39 years. The average age was 28 years in 1975; in 1995, it was 30 years. Women from the northern autonomous regions have the highest average age at first birth (Basque women, 31.2 years in 1995). The pattern of fecundity in Spain is different from other countries in Europe. In Spain, the decrease started in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Until the 1980s, Spain had one of the highest birth rates in Europe. This was followed by a decrease in the 1990s. However, in 1997, there were 3000 more births than in 1996. The National Institute of Demography

  15. Overcoming the lock-out of renewable energy technologies in Spain: The cases of wind and solar electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del [Department of Spanish and International Economics, Econometrics and History and Economic Institutions, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales de Toledo, C/Cobertizo de S. Pedro Martir s/n, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Toledo-45071 (Spain); Unruh, Gregory [Alumni Association Chair for Corporate Sustainability, Center for Eco-Intelligent Management, Instituto de Empresa, Serrano, 105 Madrid-28006 (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    This paper applies an evolutionary economics framework to analyse the factors leading to lock-out of renewable energy technologies (RETs). The cases of wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) in Spain are empirically analysed. The paper shows that a wide array of interrelated factors (technoeconomic characteristics of technology components, system-level infrastructure and institutional factors) can create both barriers to the wide diffusion of RETs and can also be drivers that foster an escape from a lock-in situation. Based on this analysis, the paper suggests several policy measures which may help to overcome the lock-out of promising renewable energy technologies. (author)

  16. Investigation of Wave Height Reduction behind the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters and Application in Santander, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    This paper deals with a case study on the wave height reduction behind floating Wave Dragon wave energy converters in Santander Bay, Spain. The study is performed using the MIKE21 Boussinesq model from DHI. The Wave Dragon transmission characteristics in the numerical wave propagation model...... are based on previously performed physical model tests in scale 1:51. Typical winter storm conditions are considered in the case study together with different stiffness in the mooring system of the floating device. From the study it is found that if multiple Wave Dragons are positioned in a farm the wave...

  17. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  18. Crisis, suicide and labour productivity losses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Currais, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Suicide became the first cause of death between the ages of 15 and 44 in Spain in the year 2013. Moreover, the suicide rate in Spain went up by more than 9 % with respect to the previous year. This increase could be related to the serious economic recession that Spain has been experiencing in recent years. In this sense, there is a lack of evidence to help assess to what extent these suicides have a social cost in terms of losses in human capital. Firstly, this article examines the relationship between the variables related to the economic cycle and the suicide rates in the 17 Spanish regions. Secondly, an estimate is made of the losses in labour productivity owing to these suicides. In this article, panel data models are used to consider different variables related to the economic cycle. Demographic variables and the suicide rates for regions across Spain from 2002 to 2013 also come into play. The present and future production costs owing to premature death from suicide are calculated using a human capital model. These costs are valued from the gross salary that an individual no longer receives in the future at the very moment he or she leaves the labour market. The results provide a strong indication that a decrease in economic growth and an increase in unemployment negatively affect suicide rates. Due to suicide, 38,038 potential years of working life were lost in 2013. This has an estimated cost of over 565 million euros. The economic crisis endured by Spain in recent years has played a role in the higher suicide rates one can observe from the data in official statistics. From a social perspective, suicide is a public health problem with far-reaching consequences.

  19. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  20. ENERGY CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL CHARACTERISTICS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    CHARACTERISTICS OF ETHANOL-DIESEL MIX FOR AUTOMOTIVE. DIESEL ... diesel engine and the engine speed, torque, power and specific fuel consumption (sfc) were determine .... heated on an electric stove and stirred continuously.

  1. On a Lecture Trip to Spain: The Scientific Relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presas i Puig, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926) and the German academic policy that fostered it. The study of the international relations of German science during the 1920s has been carried out using as a basis the archives of scientific institutions. Personal…

  2. [Health Campaigns Against Malaria in Spain through the Specialized Journalism in Spain (1929-1954)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Cano, Natalia; Mosquera Gordillo, Miguel Armando; Ballester Añón, Rosa

    2016-06-07

    Malaria was one of the most important public health problems of the Colonial Medicine and, for this reason, the subject was reflected in the Spanish medical journalism. The aim of the paper was to reconstruct the Spanish contributions to international health during the first half of the twentieth century. The primary sources of information on malaria were the medical journals Medicina de los Países Cálidos and Medicina Colonial, between 1929 and 1954. The documents were classified according to the sections of the magazine and its contents were studied, framing them in the history of international public health. In primary sources were found 466 documents. Malaria was one of the major diseases of the Spanish Protectorate in Morocco and Spanish Guinea, favoured by the occupation of the Spanish army. Antimalaria campaigns included strategies such as the use of Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, preventive education and massive quininización. Malariology in the specialized journalism, experienced a growing boom. The most outstanding authors in magazines analyzed were Gustavo Pittaluga, Sadí de Buen, Eliseo de Buen and Juan Gil-Collado. The Spanish specialized journalism provides the importance e interaction in antimalaria campaigns in Spain and Spanish African colonies of scientific, professional, political and military factors. The colonial situation was negative and marked differences between metropolis and colonies in terms of the effort, efficiency and the different temporal sequence of the measures undertaken.

  3. Lightning-caused fires in Central Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto Solana, Hector; Aguado, Inmaculada; García, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    Lightning-caused fire occurrence has been modelled for two different Spanish regions, Madrid andAragon, based on meteorological, terrain, and vegetation variables. The model was built on two very contrasting regions, one presenting low number of lightning-caused fires whereas the other presented...... in the model, where an increasing number of thunderstorms leads to a higher probability of occurrence. Validation was assessed through the Receiver Operator Characteristic, showing a good agreement between the modelled probabilities and the reported lightning-caused fires, with an Area Under the Curve around 0...

  4. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  5. Radio Research in Spain - Characteristics, Perceptions and Impressions from the Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Piñeiro Otero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research in communication has recently gained relevance, leading to the development of a significant and specialised corpus of studies. Along these lines, this work focuses on radio studies from the perspective of the scientific community – an innovative approach in the framework of communication meta-research. Starting with the outcomes of an initial survey, an in-depth study was then conducted to focus on the importance, themes and quality of radio research. We looked into the 31 most important authors of contributions published in scientific journals (1980-2013 to understand their perceptions and impressions about Spanish research. This study helped confirm that radio research is still a minority and individual endeavour. The respondents explained that this is due to limited support from research and academic institutions. In any case, radio researchers find the object of their study to be relevant, influential and well rooted, even if the topics and approaches are permeable to the context where the studies take place.

  6. Myopia Control with Orthokeratology Contact Lenses in Spain (MCOS: Study Design and General Baseline Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Santodomingo-Rubido

    2009-01-01

    Conclusion: To the authors’ knowledge, MCOS is the first prospective clinical trial to assess the safety and efficacy of orthokeratology contact lens wear to slow myopia progression vs. single-vision spectacle wear. The MCOS offers a number of notable features: prospective design; well-matched samples and high-resolution ocular biometry measures, which should collectively elucidate whether orthokeratology contact lens wear is a feasible and safe method for myopia-progression control.

  7. Multifractal characteristics of NDVI maps in space and time in the Community of Madrid (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoca, Juan J. Martin; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Satellite information has contributed to improve our understanding of the spatial variability of hydro-climatic and ecological processes. Vegetation activity is tightly coupled with climate, hydro-ecological fluxes, and terrain dynamics in river basins at a wide range of space-time scales (Scheuring and Riedi, 1994). Indices of vegetation activity are constructed using satellite information of reflectance of the relevant spectral bands which enhance the contribution of vegetation being Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) widely used. How can we study such a complex system? Multifractals and fractals are related techniques mainly used in physics to characterize the scaling behaviour of a system; they differ in that fractals look at the geometry of presence/absence patterns, while multifractals look at the arrangement of quantities such as population or biomass densities (Saravia et al., 2012). Scaling laws are an emergent general feature of ecological systems; they reflect constraints in their organization that can provide tracks about the underlying mechanisms (Solé and Bascompte, 2006). In this work, we have applied these techniques to study the spatial pattern through one year of NDVI maps. A rectangular area that includes the Community of Madrid and part of the surroundings, consisting of 300 x 280 pixels with a resolution of 500 x 500 m2 has been selected and monthly NDVI maps analyzed using the multifractal spectrum and the map of singularities (Cheng and Agterberg, 1996). The results show a cyclical pattern in the multifractal behaviour and singularity points related to river basin networks (Martín-Sotoca, 2014). References Cheng, Q. and Agterberg, F.P. (1996). Multifractal modeling and spatial statistics. Math. Geol. Vol 28, 1-16. Martín-Sotoca, J.J. (2014) Estructura Espacial de la Sequía en Pastos y sus Aplicaciones en el Seguro Agrario. Master Thesis, UPM (In Spanish). Saravia LA, Giorgi A, Momo F.: Multifractal growth in periphyton communities. Oikos. 2012;121(11):1810-1820 10.1111/j.1600-0706.2011.20423.x Scheuring, I., Riedi, R.H., 1994. Application of multifractals to the analysis of vegetation pattern. J. Veg. Sci. 5, 489-496. Solé RV, Bascompte J.: Self-organization in complex ecosystems. Princeton University Press,2006. Acknowledgements First author acknowledges the Research Grant obtained from CEIGRAM in 2014

  8. The WELSONS experiment: overview and presentation of first results on the surface atmospheric boundary-layer in semiarid Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Frangi

    Full Text Available This study presents the preliminary results of the local energy budget and dynamic characteristics of the surface atmospheric boundary-layer (SBL during the WELSONS (wind erosion and losses of soil nutrients in semiarid Spain experiment. Some Mediterranean regions suffer land degradation by wind erosion as a consequence of their particular soil and climate conditions and inappropriate agricultural practice. In Spain, where land degradation by water erosion is well known, the lack of field studies to quantify soils losses by wind erosion resulted in the European Community organizing a scientific program for this specific issue. The European programme known as WELSONS was devoted to study the wind erosion process in central Aragon (NE Spain. This multidisciplinary experiment, which began in 1996 and finished in 1998, was carried out over an agricultural soil which was left fallow. Within the experimental field, two plots were delimited where two tillage treatments were applied, a mould-board ploughing (or conventional tillage denoted CT and chisel ploughing (reduced tillage denoted RT. This was to study on bare soil the influence of tillage method on surface conditions, saltation flux, vertical dust flux, erosion rates, dynamics characteristics such as friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget. The partitioning of the available energy, resulting from the dynamics of the SBL, are quite different over the two plots because of their own peculiar soil and surface properties. The first results show that the RT treatment seems to provide a wind erosion protection. Because of the long data recording time and particular phenomena (formation of a crust at the soil surface, very dry conditions, high wind speed for instance, these microclimatological data acquired during the WELSONS programmes may be helpful to test atmospheric boundary-layer models coupled with soil models.

    Key words: Hydrology (desertification - Meterology and

  9. Effect of immigration background and country-of-origin contextual factors on adolescent substance use in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Sordo, Luis; Pulido, José; Guitart, Anna; González-González, Rocío; Hoyos, Juan; Bravo, María J; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-08-01

    The effects of adolescent- and parental-birthplace and country-of-origin contextual factors on substance use among adolescents with recent immigrant background (ARIBs) are poorly understood. We aimed to assess these effects and identify the main mediating factors in Spain. Participants were 12,432 ARIBs (≥1 foreign-born parent) and 75,511 autochthonous adolescents from pooled 2006-2010 school surveys. Outcomes were prevalence of use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, stimulants and sedative-hypnotics. ARIBs were classified by adolescent birthplace (Spain/abroad), whether they had mixed-parents (one Spanish-born and one foreign-born), and country-of-origin characteristics. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and percent change expressing disparities in risk were estimated using Poisson regression with robust variance. Compared to autochthonous adolescents, foreign-born ARIBs without mixed-parents showed significant aPRs leisure environments and less association with peers who use such substances. ARIBs' lower risk depended more on country-of-origin characteristics and not having mixed-parents than being foreign-born. Tobacco, cannabis and stimulant use in ARIBs increased with increasing population use of these substances in the country-of-origin. ARIBs from the non-Muslim-regions had a lower risk of using alcohol and higher risk of using sedative-hypnotics than those from the Muslim-region. Among ARIBs in Spain, parental transmission of norms and values could influence substance use as much as or more than exposure to the Spanish context. Future research should better assess effects of adolescent- and parental-birthplace and country-of-origin contextual factors on substance use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The WELSONS experiment: overview and presentation of first results on the surface atmospheric boundary-layer in semiarid Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Frangi

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the preliminary results of the local energy budget and dynamic characteristics of the surface atmospheric boundary-layer (SBL during the WELSONS (wind erosion and losses of soil nutrients in semiarid Spain experiment. Some Mediterranean regions suffer land degradation by wind erosion as a consequence of their particular soil and climate conditions and inappropriate agricultural practice. In Spain, where land degradation by water erosion is well known, the lack of field studies to quantify soils losses by wind erosion resulted in the European Community organizing a scientific program for this specific issue. The European programme known as WELSONS was devoted to study the wind erosion process in central Aragon (NE Spain. This multidisciplinary experiment, which began in 1996 and finished in 1998, was carried out over an agricultural soil which was left fallow. Within the experimental field, two plots were delimited where two tillage treatments were applied, a mould-board ploughing (or conventional tillage denoted CT and chisel ploughing (reduced tillage denoted RT. This was to study on bare soil the influence of tillage method on surface conditions, saltation flux, vertical dust flux, erosion rates, dynamics characteristics such as friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget. The partitioning of the available energy, resulting from the dynamics of the SBL, are quite different over the two plots because of their own peculiar soil and surface properties. The first results show that the RT treatment seems to provide a wind erosion protection. Because of the long data recording time and particular phenomena (formation of a crust at the soil surface, very dry conditions, high wind speed for instance, these microclimatological data acquired during the WELSONS programmes may be helpful to test atmospheric boundary-layer models coupled with soil models.Key words: Hydrology (desertification - Meterology and atmospheric

  11. Can fire safety in hotels be improved? Results from the survey of a panel of experts in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Márquez-Sierra, Francisco; Suárez-Cebador, Manuel

    2016-06-08

    The hotel industry is an important driver of the European labour market with over 250,000 hotels employing some 2 million people. In Spain, 240 workers were injured by fires in hotels from 2004 to 2008. Fire is considered to be the most important risk in the hotel industry, but the lack of an EU-wide data recording system for hotels makes it difficult to give exact figures for fire events. We analysed the state of fire prevention systems in hotels in Spain with the aim of proposing strategies to improve fire safety. A 10-item questionnaire was administered from 2007 to 2009 to 15 Spanish experts in fire safety. The questions were measured using a Likert scale and classified into 4 sections: current state of installations, influence of establishment characteristics, application of regulations and priority ranking of actions. Descriptive statistics summarized the data and t-tests evaluated the agreement foreach statement in the questionnaire. The statistical analysis showed homogeneity in the responses by the experts in all four categories: current state of fire safety installations, influence of establishment characteristics, application of regulations, and priority of actions. There was consensus among the experts over the necessity to improve the enforcement of regulations and also regarding the existence of an association between the hotel category (in Spain they are ranked using a 1 to 5 "star" rating system) and the level of fire safety; hotels with a higher category had higher levels of safety. There is a need to identify ways to apply fire safety standards to older hotels so that they comply with new regulations, to standardize regulations for different regions and countries, to improve the maintenance of installations and equipment, to increase the effectiveness of inspections conducted by government bodies, and to raise the general awareness of stakeholders involved in hotel fire prevention.

  12. Epidemiology and spatio-temporal analysis of West Nile virus in horses in Spain between 2010 and 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bocanegra, I; Belkhiria, J; Napp, S; Cano-Terriza, D; Jiménez-Ruiz, S; Martínez-López, B

    2018-04-01

    During the last decade, West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks have increased sharply in both horses and human in Europe. The aims of this study were to evaluate characteristics and spatio-temporal distribution of WNV outbreaks in horses in Spain between 2010 and 2016 in order to identify the environmental variables most associated with WNV occurrence and to generate high-resolution WNV suitability maps to inform risk-based surveillance strategies in this country. Between August 2010 and November 2016, a total of 403 WNV suspected cases were investigated, of which, 177 (43.9%) were laboratory confirmed. Mean values of morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates were 7.5%, 1.6% and 21.2%, respectively. The most common clinical symptoms were as follows: tiredness/apathy, recumbency, muscular tremor, ataxia, incoordination and hyperaesthesia. The outbreaks confirmed during the last 7 years, with detection of WNV RNA lineage 1 in 2010, 2012, 2013, 2015 and 2016, suggest an endemic circulation of the virus in Spain. The spatio-temporal distribution of WNV outbreaks in Spain was not homogeneous, as most of them (92.7%) were concentrated in western part of Andalusia (southern Spain) and significant clusters were detected in this region in two non-consecutive years. These findings were supported by the results of the space-time scan statistics permutation model. A presence-only MaxEnt ecological niche model was used to generate a suitability map for WNV occurrence in Andalusia. The most important predictors selected by the Ecological Niche Modeling were as follows: mean annual temperature (49.5% contribution), presence of Culex pipiens (19.5% contribution), mean annual precipitation (16.1% contribution) and distance to Ramsar wetlands (14.9% contribution). Our results constitute an important step for understanding WNV emergence and spread in Spain and will provide valuable information for the development of more cost-effective surveillance and control programmes and improve the

  13. Economic Assessment of Opportunities for Managed Aquifer Recharge Techniques in Spain Using an Advanced Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Fernández Escalante

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the economic aspects of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR techniques considered in the DINA-MAR (Depth Investigation of New Areas for Managed Aquifer Recharge in Spain project. This project firstly identified the areas with potential for MAR for the whole of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands of Spain using characteristics derived from 23 GIS layers of physiographic features, spanning geology, topography, land use, water sources and including existing MAR sites. The work involved evaluations for 24 different types (techniques of MAR projects, over this whole area accounting for the physiographic features that favor each technique. The scores for each feature for each type of technique were set based on practical considerations and scores were accumulated for each location. A weighting was assigned to each feature by “training” the integrated score for each technique across all the features with the existing MAR sites overlay, so that opportunities for each technique could be more reliably predicted. It was found that there were opportunities for MAR for 16% of the area evaluated and that the additional storage capacity of aquifers in these areas was more than 2.5 times the total storage capacity of all existing surface water dams in Spain. The second part of this work, which is considered internationally unique, was to use this GIS methodology to evaluate the economics of the various MAR techniques across the region. This involved determining an economic index related to key physiographic features and applying this as an additional GIS overlay. Again this was trained by use of economic information for each of the existing MAR sites for which economic data and supply or storage volume were available. Two simpler methods were also used for comparison. Finally, the mean costs of MAR facilities and construction projects were determined based on the origin of the water. Maps of potential sites for Managed Aquifer

  14. [Sociodemographic Traits and Comorbidities in Pathological Gamblers With a Suicide Attempt in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdura-Vizcaíno, Ernesto José; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Vian-Lains, Antonio; Ibañez, Ángela; Baca-García, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is the first cause of non-natural death in Spain. Among addictive disorders, pathological gambling is one the most significant independent risk factors for suicidal behavior. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the sociodemographic traits, comorbidity and attempt characteristics, between suicide attempters who fulfill diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling and those who do not. A total of 345 patients admitted to the emergency department of a University Hospital in Madrid between 1999 and 2004 were interviewed for this study. To describe and compare the demographic characteristics, comorbidity and those related to attempted suicide, using logistic regression models adjusted for sex and age were used. Suicide attempters who fulfilled diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling were predominantly male, with a low education level, and had more offspring. Furthermore, these patients had more comorbidities, such as: global substance dependence, nicotine, cocaine and opioid dependence. The present study suggests that pathological gamblers represent a distinct subgroup among suicide attempters, with particular characteristics, similar to those found in pathological gamblers in the general population. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. [On alcoholic beverage taxation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Toni

    Review the price elasticity of alcoholic beverages to identify the characteristics we should take into account to make a tax policy proposal. Systematic review of articles in EBSCOhost that include in their abstract and title the words alcohol and elasticity and alcohol and tax, over the last 20 years in academic journals in English. We found 11 references. Although price elasticity is quite similar across countries, it is heterogeneous with regard togender, age, consumption level and type of beverage. Ad-hoc policies proved ineffective due to the substitution effect, and regressive in their impact on populations with lower levels of income and consumption. Tax policies should be applied to all alcoholic beverages based on their volume of alcohol and all measures, such as the minimum price per unit, should be complemented with other policies. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Chemical quality of tap water in Madrid: multicase control cancer study in Spain (MCC-Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Villanueva, Cristina M; García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Goñi-Irigoyen, Fernando; Ulibarrena, Enrique; Rantakokko, Panu; García-Esquinas, Esther; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-02-01

    Chronic consumption of water, which contains contaminants, may give rise to adverse health effects. The Madrid region, covered by the population-based multicase-control (MCC-Spain) study, includes two drinking water supply areas. The different sources of the water, coupled together with the possible differences in water management, mean that there may be differences in drinking water quality. In the context of the MCC study, our aims were to describe contaminant concentrations in tap water drawn from various sampling points distributed around the region, assess these concentrations by reference to guideline values and study possible differences between the two supply areas. Tap water samples were collected from 34 sampling points in 7 towns in the Madrid region (19-29 April 2010), and 23 contaminants (metals, nitrates, disinfection by-product and Mutagen X levels) were quantified. We undertook a descriptive analysis of the contaminant concentrations in the water and compared them between the two water supply areas (Wilcoxon test). We created maps representing the distribution of the concentrations observed at water sampling points and assessed the correlations (Spearman's coefficient) between the different parameters measured. The concentrations of the contaminants were below guideline values. There were differences between the two supply areas in concentration of nitrates (p value = 0.0051) and certain disinfection by-products. While there were positive correlations (rho >0.70) among some disinfection by-products, no correlations were found in metals or nitrates. The differences in nitrate levels could be linked to differences in farming/industrial activities in the catchment areas and in disinfection by-products might be related to the existence of different treatment systems or bromine content in source waters.

  17. A Judicialisation of Healthcare Policies in Denmark and Spain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Mayoral, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    by the ex-post judicial, administrative and political responses, particularly the national courts’ activation of EU law. By using new data, a compilation of national court cases, quasi-judicial proceedings and research interviews with key respondents, we examine the process of judicialisation in the two......This paper examines the impact of judicialisation on the right to cross-border healthcare in Denmark and Spain, i.e., the national impact of legal integration as spurred by the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). We expect the national impact of judicialisation to be conditioned...... member states. The findings demonstrate that the national courts hardly played a role in Denmark and that although the courts were more active in Spain, the rulings remained largely unobserved by the political and administrative elite and the courts were thus unable to push for change. The administrative...

  18. Vocational training in contemporary Spain: Policies, Agents and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulí DÁVILA BALSERA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The vocational training in Spain has reached a late formalization in the educational system. This situation is explained by the economical contexts thatevolve from the agricultural sector to the industrial development of certain zones, which are those who have a better network of vocational schools. In this article three levels of analysis are addressed: the first one, related to the politics and educational legislation, in order to notice the process of formalization; the second one, focused on the relevance of the Church on this sector and, the third one is the role played by the Union Organization during the Franco's regime. In this way, the intervention of the different agents who have contributed to the development of the vocational training in Spain remains clear up to the General Law of Education of 1970.

  19. The judicialization of territorial politics in Brazil, Colombia and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Ferreira do Vale

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explains how judicial review influences intergovernmental political dynamics in Brazil, Colombia and Spain. The argument is developed in light of two questions: how supreme courts have established themselves as pivotal institutions for settling vertical intergovernmental disputes, and how national and subnational politicians use judicial review in order to enhance their own interests. A comparison between the judicial review processes in federal Brazil, quasi-federal Spain, and unitary Colombia provides an answer to these questions. Accounting for the differences in the territorial organization and systems of government among these countries, the article assesses the patterns of judicial review originating from the subnational level. Findings suggest that courts affect the interaction between national and subnational politicians in the three country-cases, but through different patterns of judicialization of territorial politics.

  20. Review of the Renewable Energy Policies of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labriet, M.; Laguna, M.; Cabal, H.; Lechon, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the Spanish energy policies related to renewable energy sources (RES). It will contribute to the analysis of the renewable energy potential at the European level (RES2020 project). Despite the successful case of wind development in spain, with a favourable feed-in systems in place, and a very favourable regulation (building code) promoting solar thermal technologies, strong administrative barriers for RES projects still exist and Spain is still far from reaching its RES electricity targets, and even further from the target related to RES heating and cooling and bio fuel use. This work has been partially funded by the European Commission, Intelligent Energy-europe Programme. (Author) 7 refs.

  1. Analysis of Official Suicide Statistics in Spain (1910-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we examine the evolution of suicide rates in Spain from 1910 to 2011. As something new, we use standardised suicide rates, making them perfectly comparable geographically and in time, as they no longer reflect population structure. Using historical data from a series of socioeconomic variables for all Spain's provinces and applying new techniques for the statistical analysis of panel data, we are able to confirm many of the hypotheses established by Durkheim at the end of the 19th century, especially those related to fertility and marriage rates, age, sex and the aging index. Our findings, however, contradict Durkheim's approach regarding the impact of urbanisation processes and poverty on suicide.

  2. Molecular Investigation of Tularemia Outbreaks, Spain, 1997–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Johansson, Anders; Fernández-Natal, María Isabel; Martínez-Nistal, Carmen; Orduña, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F.; Hernández, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks occurred in northwestern Spain in 1997–1998 and 2007–2008 and affected >1,000 persons. We assessed isolates involved in these outbreaks by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with 2 restriction enzymes and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 genomic loci of Francisella tularensis, the cause of this disease. Isolates were divided into 3 pulsotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 8 allelic profiles by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis. Isolates obtained from the second tularemia outbreak had the same genotypes as isolates obtained from the first outbreak. Both outbreaks were caused by genotypes of genetic subclade B.Br:FTNF002–00, which is widely distributed in countries in central and western Europe. Thus, reemergence of tularemia in Spain was not caused by the reintroduction of exotic strains, but probably by persistence of local reservoirs of infection. PMID:24750848

  3. Present and Recent Past of High Energy Physics in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer, A.

    2005-01-01

    The organization of the research in nuclear and particle physics in Spain is presented. A review of the size of the community, the present spanish groups and the experiments in which they are involved is given. the importance of the CERN installations will be emphasized by reviewing the activities as well as the strong implication of the spanish larger groups in the LHC project. A growing interest in astroparticle physics and neutrino physics is emerging, with a total of 7 experiments with spanish participation. The two laboratories, hosting astroparticle physics experiments, that have their sites in Spain, will be briefly described: Canfranc-an underground facility-and El roque de los muchachos-the canary islands telescope observatory. A final remark on funding will also be given. (Author)

  4. Nuclear fission technology in Spain: History and social concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliende Urtasun, Ana; Luquin, Asunción; Garrido, Julián J

    2017-04-01

    This research examines the evolution of nuclear technology in Spain from the early years of the Franco dictatorship to the global financial crisis and technology's influence on Spanish culture. To this end, we take a sociological perspective, with science culture and social perceptions of risk in knowledge societies serving as the two elements of focus in this work. In this sense, this article analyses the transformation of social relationships in light of technological changes. We propose technology as a strategic place to observe the institutional and organisational dynamics of technologic-scientific risks, the expert role and Spain's science culture. In addition, more specifically, within the language of co-production, we 'follow the actor' and favour new forms of citizen participation that promote ethics to discuss technological issues.

  5. An empirical approach to estimate soil erosion risk in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Luis; Martínez-Núñez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important factors in land degradation and influences desertification worldwide. In 2001, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment launched the 'National Inventory of Soil Erosion (INES) 2002-2012' to study the process of soil erosion in Spain. The aim of the current article is to assess the usefulness of this National Inventory as an instrument of control, measurement and monitoring of soil erosion in Spain. The methodology and main features of this National Inventory are described in detail. The results achieved as of the end of May 2010 are presented, together with an explanation of the utility of the Inventory as a tool for planning forest hydrologic restoration, soil protection, erosion control, and protection against desertification. Finally, the authors make a comparative analysis of similar initiatives for assessing soil erosion in other countries at the national and European levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Luis Huerta: Eugenics, Medicine and Pedagogy in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel LÁZARO LORENTE

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By comparison with the historiography of other European and Anglo-Saxon countries, the study of the origins and spread of Eugenics in Spain has not received much attention. Even less research has been done on the degree of acceptance of eugenic thought in the pedagogical domain or on the role teachers may have in the diffusion of eugenics. This paper attempts to explore the subject while focusing the analysis on the relations that were established among Medicine, Pedagogy and Eugenics in Spain during the first third of the 20th century. We will take as a point of reference and guiding line of thought the figure of the Asturian teacher Luis Huerta Naves, who was the driving force and tireless advocate of the eugenics movement in our country.

  7. [Twenty-five years of screening eugenics in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida Donoso, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the incidence of newborns with congenital defects in Spain has fallen by 56.7% primarily due to the practice of "fetal risk" abortion, after prenatal diagnosis. In some cases, such as people with Down syndrome, the strategy involves the removal of 80-90% of those affected in pregnancy. After presenting the techniques used today and statistical data, we will make a reflection about the ethical justification for prenatal diagnosis programs and practice of "eugenic" abortion.

  8. Multivariate statistical analysis of precipitation chemistry in Northwestern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Fiestras-Janeiro, M.G.; Espada-Rios, M.I.; Lucas-Dominguez, T.

    1993-01-01

    149 samples of rainwater were collected in the proximity of a power station in northwestern Spain at three rainwater monitoring stations. The resulting data are analyzed using multivariate statistical techniques. Firstly, the Principal Component Analysis shows that there are three main sources of pollution in the area (a marine source, a rural source and an acid source). The impact from pollution from these sources on the immediate environment of the stations is studied using Factorial Discriminant Analysis. 8 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs

  9. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE PAY SYSTEM AND SOCIAL SECURITY IN SPAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela – Andreea Nastasie

    2012-01-01

    In the current context of economic crisis which manifests the world can see a very important role of the pay systems and social security in economic and social life. Staff wages means establishing a salary entitlements owed to employees and their payment, as established at the end of collective or individual employment contracts. In Spain there are various collective agreements according to geographical areas and activities. A fair and balanced wage was and will remain a core area of human re...

  10. Characterization of cyclical phases in the manufacturing industry in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sala, Mercè; Torres, Teresa; Farré, Mariona

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to characterize the cyclical phases of the manufacturing industry in Spain and detect which industries have more influence on the Spanish business cycle. We assume that economic growth is a priority; we are going to determine which industries have a more/less appropriate cyclical behavior according this priority. We analyze if the industries with better cyclical behavior are the ones that achieve greater co-movement with the business cycle of the Spanish...

  11. Information systems outsourcing: a Delphi study from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    González Ramírez, María Reyes; Gascó Gascó, José Luis; Llopis Taverner, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The widespread growth of information systems (IS) outsourcing on an international scale contrasts sharply with the somewhat limited development of this practice in Spain. The purpose of this paper is to deal with the situation of IS outsourcing in this country. Design/methodology/approach – For this purpose, the paper has used the opinions and comments of those in charge of IS departments at the largest Spanish firms through a normative Delphi study. Findings – Outsourcing makes it ...

  12. Multivariate statistical analysis of precipitation chemistry in Northwestern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Garcia-Jurado, I.; Gonzalez-Manteiga, W.; Fiestras-Janeiro, M.G.; Espada-Rios, M.I.; Lucas-Dominguez, T. (University of Santiago, Santiago (Spain). Faculty of Mathematics, Dept. of Statistics and Operations Research)

    1993-07-01

    149 samples of rainwater were collected in the proximity of a power station in northwestern Spain at three rainwater monitoring stations. The resulting data are analyzed using multivariate statistical techniques. Firstly, the Principal Component Analysis shows that there are three main sources of pollution in the area (a marine source, a rural source and an acid source). The impact from pollution from these sources on the immediate environment of the stations is studied using Factorial Discriminant Analysis. 8 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Are we assessing correctly our students? Spain versus Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Miñano, María del Mar; Del Campo, Cristina; Pascual-Ezama, David; Urquia-Grande, Elena; Rivero, Carlos; Akpinar, Murat

    2016-01-01

    [EN] The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to analyse the comparison of coursework and final examination between Finland and Spain to test if there are differences in assessment methodologies; second, to study whether there are different factors (such as gender, age, subject, students’ motivation, and preferences) that have an impact on the assessment of students from the two countries. The final grades obtained by 117 freshmen enrolled on the Statistics and/or Financial ...

  14. Gastronomy, Tourism and Destination Differentiation: A Case Study in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Tom¨¢s L¨®pez-Guzm¨¢n; Sandra S¨¢nchez-Ca?izares

    2012-01-01

    Gastronomy is becoming a key factor in the competitiveness of tourist destinations. The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of food tourism in the city of Cordoba (Spain) and its relation with the motivation. Similarly, the paper shows the connection between local cuisine and the satisfaction of tourists. The main results of this study reflect the high level of education of this kind of travelers, the importance of gastronomy for visiting this city and the satisfaction with both the l...

  15. Intercultural Education in Spain and Switzerland: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Ferrer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural education during the last two decades in Spain and Switzerland can be understood as balancing acts because policymakers in both countries saw their school systems enrolling a growing number of immigrant and minority students. While solutions were formulated and adopted in response to each country's unique problems and political tradition, they were also driven by forces that fostered a restrictive immigration policy toward immigrants from third world countries. This article examines the emergence of intercultural education and compares diverse practices linked to this process. Some similarities were found in both socio-cultural contexts. The use of compensatory education with culturally diverse children contributes to school segregation. Although cultural and linguistic diversity is a structural and historical component of Spanish and Swiss identities, there is a clear separation between "internal" and "external" diversity in educational policy. It is interesting, for instance, to observe that the concept used in addressing regional identities in Spain and Switzerland is "bilingual education" while the theme used for immigrants is "intercultural education". We also identified some important differences between the two contexts. The number of immigrant youth is much more important in Switzerland. On the other hand, the presence of Gypsy students is a central issue of cultural diversity in Spain. The paper also reports on the general lack of teacher education departments to prepare their pre-service students for diverse schools. Most teacher education programs acknowledge in principle the importance of pluralistic preparation of teachers. In practice, however, most teacher education programs actually represent a monocultural approach. Continuing education in the field of intercultural education is linked to individual initiatives rather than to an institutional awareness of the importance of cross-cultural training. In order to

  16. Labour Migration in Malaysia and Spain : Markets, Citizenship and Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Garcés-Mascareñas, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    State regulation of labour migration is confronted with a double paradox. First, while markets require a policy of open borders to fulfill demands for migrant workers, the boundaries of citizenship impose some degree of closure to the outside. Second, while the exclusivity of citizenship requires closed membership, civil and human rights undermine the state's capacity to exclude foreigners once they are in the country. By considering how Malaysia and Spain have responded to the demand for for...

  17. A regional analysis of Tourism Specialization in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Dacal, Diana; Pena-Boquete, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Tourism sector is playing an important role in the development of a region, contributing to the economy growth and job creation. Despite of the actual crisis, Tourism activities continues to growth in the last year (UNWTO 2011). Also, Spain maintains in the better positions of the world ranking. Furthermore, Tourism activities generate around 10% of GPD and represents 11.5% of total workers of the Spanish Economy. Nevertheless, this is not true for all the Spanish Regions. There are regional ...

  18. Natural radioactivity in soils of the province of Caceres (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeza, A; Del Rio, M; Miro, C; Paniagua, J M [Extremadura Univ., Caceres (Spain). Facultad de Veterinaria

    1992-01-01

    Soils from all over the province of Caceres (Spain) were studied by gamma spectrometry to determine their [sup 226]Ra, [sup 232]Th and [sup 40]K concentrations. The rock types are fundamentally granites, shales and sedimentary materials. The analyses were designed for three different studies of the radionuclide concentration: at the surface, as a function of depth, and as a function of grain size. (author).

  19. Contribution to the improvement of radon risk evaluation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega, X.; Vargas, A.

    2002-01-01

    The 96/29/Euratom Directive aims to introduce radon regulation at working places in European Countries. Within the framework, the Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body, the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), is interested in obtaining a reliable level of quality for radon measurements in Spain. The radon laboratory group at the Institute of Energetic Techniques of the Technical University of Catalonia in Barcelona (INTE) has been commissioned to adequate its radon chamber for testing radon instruments using standards as IEC 61577 and ISO 13466

  20. Implementation of PV plants in Spain: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Diez Mediavilla, Montserrat; Alonso Tristán, Cristina; Rodríguez Amigo, María del Carmen; Garcia Calderon, Teofilo

    2010-01-01

    The implementation process of a photovoltaic system and its connection to the national grid in Spain is examined from an economic, an administrative and a legal standpoint. In the first place, this case study describes the solar farm, and it goes on to examine the economic aspects of electricity production, its associated costs, and relevant grants and financial subsidies. Finally, problems related to the administration of the project and the issuing of permits by local and regional authoriti...

  1. Cement: Administrative tender specifications and standards in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Santamaría, Francisco

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes, in chronological order, the different competent Authorities in Spain and the documents issued by them regarding Cement Regulations and Standards. The origin of the early cement quality Rules is referred to, the issuing of Regulations by the Public Bodies and finally the adoption of National Standards on the one hand, as well as the first initiatives to establish International Standards, especially motivated by the export boom after the Second World War, on the other. ...

  2. CouchSurfers' motivations to host travelers in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Pietilä, Outi

    2011-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis examines the online community CouchSurfing, which is a hospitality exchange network that promotes cultural exchange, cultural diversity and tolerance. CouchSurfing members offer each other free accommodation when traveling and share their insight and knowledge of the place. The primary objective of this thesis was to define the CouchSurfers’ motivation factors behind hosting travelers in Spain, as well as produce findings to why alternative ways to travel, such as Cou...

  3. Osteoarthritis in Spain: A nationwide survey of medical specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Rafael; Sancho, Carlos; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Benjamin

    2017-11-25

    To determine the reality of the resources and care needs in Spain for the management of patients with osteoarthritis. An online survey. Description of 190 responses to a structured questionnaire (141 orthopedic surgeons and 49 rheumatologists). Osteoarthritis has yet to receive appropriate medical attention and a patient management model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  4. Tourist Spaces and Tourism Policy in Spain and Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida-Garcia, Fernando; Cortes-Macias, Rafael; Balbuena Vázquez, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between the development of the tourism policy of Spain and Portugal and their effects on regional imbalances. Despite the proximity of the two countries and their specialisation in tourism, there are few comparative studies on tourism of the two Iberian countries. The study focuses on the two major phases of tourism policy: the period of mass tourism and post-Fordist stage. In the conclusions we refer the debate on the existence of a model of development b...

  5. Implementation of PV plants in Spain: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Mediavilla, M.; Alonso-Tristan, C. [Dpto. Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela Politecnica Superior. Universidad de Burgos, Avda. Cantabria s/n, 09006 Burgos (Spain); Rodriguez-Amigo, M.C.; Garcia-Calderon, T. [Dpto. Matematicas y Computacion Escuela Politecnica Superior. Universidad de Burgos, Avda. Cantabria s/n, 09006 Burgos (Spain)

    2010-05-15

    The implementation process of a photovoltaic system and its connection to the national grid in Spain is examined from an economic, an administrative and a legal standpoint. In the first place, this case study describes the solar farm, and it goes on to examine the economic aspects of electricity production, its associated costs, and relevant grants and financial subsidies. Finally, problems related to the administration of the project and the issuing of permits by local and regional authorities are discussed. (author)

  6. Evaluation of hybrid and distance education learning environments in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Walker, Scott L.; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Fernández-Pascual, M. Dolores; Albaladejo-Blázquez, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation and validation of the Distance Education Learning Environments Survey (DELES) for use in investigating the qualities found in distance and hybrid education psycho-social learning environments in Spain. As Europe moves toward post-secondary student mobility, equanimity in access to higher education, and more standardised degree programs across the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) the need for a high quality method for continually assessing the excelle...

  7. Internal Migration Patterns of Foreign-Born Immigrants in Spain. A study based on the National Immigrant Survey (ENI-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvestre, Javier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article extends the existing literature on the internal migration patterns of the foreign-born in Spain. We analyze the spatial distribution of immigrants and their patterns of mobility at different levels. Socio-demographic characteristics of immigrants and characteristics of places of origin and destination are considered. We also examine repeat migration, duration of residence in each destination, as well as return migration within Spain. To this end, we make use of a new micro database corresponding to the National Immigrant Survey (Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, ENI-2007.

    Este artículo contribuye a la literatura sobre la migración interna de los inmigrantes nacidos fuera de España. En él se analiza la distribución espacial y las pautas de movilidad de los inmigrantes, considerando aspectos como las características sociodemográficas de los individuos y las características de los orígenes y destinos dentro de España. También se analiza la emigración repetida, la duración de la residencia en cada destino y la emigración de retorno (dentro de España. Para todo ello, se utiliza la nueva base de datos micro derivada de la Encuesta Nacional de Inmigrantes, ENI-2007.

  8. Nurse prescribing in Spain: The law and the curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Collado, Angel; Raurell-Torreda, Marta; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Rascon-Hernan, Carolina; Homs-Romero, Erica

    2017-09-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we explored course content related to pharmacology and/or healthcare products and supplies in all nursing degree programs in Spain. Changes in nurse-prescribing legislation in Spain require that nurses take a certification course before prescribing over-the-counter products and medications. Using a cross-sectional descriptive study, between July and September 2014, the degree programs of all centers that offer a degree in nursing in Spain were examined, selecting those with course information available online. All centers offered at least one pharmacology course. One-third of the required courses had content related to pharmacology and healthcare products/supplies. The analysis showed that the course content and training received during the current nursing degree program provides the knowledge and skills needed to prescribe healthcare products/supplies and medications that do not now require a doctor's prescription, without the need for additional training and certification. It is essential that government regulation of nursing education be aligned with nursing competencies, curriculum standards, clinical practice, and evidence-based research to provide the maximum level of confidence for nursing professionals and their patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. [CONTENT OF TRANS FATTY ACIDS IN FOOD PRODUCTS IN SPAIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Dal Re Saavedra, M Ángeles; Villar Villalba, Carmen; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón

    2015-09-01

    trans fatty acids are associated to several health disorders, as ischemic heart disease or diabetes mellitus. to assess the content of trans fatty acids in products in Spain, and the percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids. 443 food products were acquired in Spain, and they were classified into groups. The content in fatty acids was analyzed using gas chromatography. Estimates of central tendency and variability of the content of trans fatty acids in each food group were computed (in g of trans fatty acids/100 g of product). The percentage of trans fatty acids respecting total fatty acids was calculated in each group. 443 products were grouped into 42 groups. Median of trans fatty acids was less than 0.55 g / 100 g of product in all groups except one. 83 % of groups had less than 2 % of trans fatty acids, and 71 % of groups had less than 1 %. the content of trans fatty acids in Spain is low, and it currently doesn't play a public health problem. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  10. Radioactive waste management in Spain: co-ordination and projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The sixth workshop of the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence (FSC) was hosted by ENRESA, the Spanish agency responsible for the management of radioactive waste and the dismantling of nuclear power plants, and the Council of Nuclear Safety (CSN), with the support of the Association of Spanish Municipalities in Areas Surrounding Nuclear Power Plants (AMAC). The workshop took place at L'Hospitalet de l'Infant, Catalonia, Spain, on 21-23 November 2005. At this workshop, Spanish stakeholders and delegates from 14 countries discussed current co-ordination of radioactive waste management decision making in Spain. Findings were shared from Cowam-Spain, a co-operative research project on the involvement of local stakeholders, the relationship between national and local levels of decision making, and the long-term sustainability of decisions regarding the siting of a centralized interim storage facility for high-level waste. These proceedings include the workshop presentations and discussions, as well as the rapporteurs' reflections on what was learned about policy making and participative decision making. (author)

  11. Financial Feasibility of Public Bike Rental Systems in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Diaz, A.G.; Sastre, J.; Lopez-Sanchez, A.D.; Cuello, M.; Molina, J.

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, many public bike rental systems have proliferated in Spain. Unfortunately, many have had to close because of their poor financial feasibility. The aim of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, a benchmarking of the main public bicycle systems in Spain is conducted, analysing the growth in the last decades, with special emphasis on successful systems and on the recently failed. In addition, the financial feasibility of some successful systems in Spain is analysed: Seville, Valencia and Barcelona. Thus, major factors directly related to the viability of such systems are discussed. A proper and correct knowledge of these factors is essential when making decisions in mobility policies. The main factors on which the management company may decide are: pricing policy (annual and weekly rate), advertising rates, and system dimensions (number of docking stations, anchors and bicycles). There are other external factors not directly controlled by the company (subscribers, occupancy rate of advertising space and system maintenance cost) but which are crucial to their feasibility. To achieve the aforementioned objectives, mobility studies in Seville (1400 surveys) and Barcelona (1000 surveys) were conducted in order to achieve more accurate parameter values (time cycling, distances, used rate, frequencies, etc.). Despite the similarities between the systems in Valencia and Seville, they have shown very different profitability. The high profitability in Valencia and Barcelona is highlighted in contrast to the case of the Seville system. (Author)

  12. Men and Women Wage Differences in Spain and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszewska-Janica

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Men and women wage differences is a widely discuss topic in the literature. Some authors point the fact that size of gender wage gap (GPG is not the same across wage distribution. GPG ratio is accelerating at the top of it. Thus, the main goal of presented study is to analyse impact of outliers (top earners on the values of GPG ratio and results of its decomposition. In addition we compare outcomes obtained for Spain and Poland. Elimination outliers from the sample will reduce values of men and women wage gap ratios not only in unadjusted form but in adjusted form as well. Study is based upon the Eurostat’s Structure of Earnings Survey (SES individual data in respect of 2014. In the paper we discuss results of Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition (in extension proposed by Oaxaca and Ransom obtained for Spain and Poland. Obtained results indicated two points above all. Firstly, although unadjusted GPG ratios for Spain and Poland differ significantly, the adjusted GPG ratios are at the same level (about 15%. Such situation shows the real men and women wage differences are at the same level in both countries. This is an additional indication that women situation on Polish labour market in similar to the Spanish one. Secondly, after elimination of outliers the values of GPG measures (in adjusted and unadjusted form decreased, as was expected. These falls came to approximately 3 p.p. It can be considered as significant change.

  13. Ecological compensation and Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villarroya, Ana; Puig, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    To achieve meaningful sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should avoid the net losses in the environment resource base. But EIA practice does not always avoid the losses caused by the implementation of the projects under EIA regulation. Some environmental impacts are, simply, admitted, even without enforcing any form of compensation. When applied, compensation is sometimes just a monetary payment to offset the environmental loss. This paper looks for evidence on the role that compensation is given at present in EIA practice in Spain, and for some of its conceptual and regulatory roots. Specifically, it explores how compensation is addressed in 1302 records of decision (RODs) on those projects subject to the Spanish EIA regulation published during the years 2006 and 2007, to know how far Spain is from preserving the environmental resource base managed through this particular aspect of EIA practice. As a result, it is concluded that the practice of ecological compensation in EIA in Spain is much lower than it could be expected in a theoretical sustainability context committed to avoid net losses in the environment resource base, mainly due to an EIA practice focused on on-site mitigation that allows these net losses.

  14. Prevalence of child and youth obesity in Spain in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cruz, José-Juan; Jiménez-Moleón, José J; Fernández-Quesada, Fidel; Sánchez, María J

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is a major cardiovascular risk factor. In Spain, few studies have physically measured height and weight to estimate the magnitude of the problem. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of child and adolescent obesity in Spain in 2012. We performed a cross-sectional probability sample of 1018 children, representative of the Spanish population aged between 8 and 17 years old, with objectively measured height and weight, along with other sociodemographic variables. We calculated the prevalence of overweight and obesity according to the criteria of the World Health Organization, the International Obesity Task Force, and the enKid study. In the group aged 8 to 17 years old, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 26% and 12.6%, respectively; 4 in 10 young people were overweight or obese. Excess weight was found in 45% of the group aged 8 to 13 years and in 25.5% of that aged 14 to 17 years. This cardiovascular risk factor was associated with lower social class and lower educational level. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in Spain remains high (close to 40%), but has not increased in the last 12 years. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Sustainable Drainage Practices in Spain, Specially Focused on Pervious Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodriguez-Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish climate is full of contrasts, with torrential rains and long droughts; under these conditions, appropriate water management is essential. In Spain, until the end of the twentieth century, water management and legislative development lagged behind other more developed countries. Nowadays, great efforts are being made to reverse this situation and improve both water management and legislation in order to control the two main problems related to stormwater management in cities: floods and diffuse pollution. In this context, Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS were developed as the main solution to these problems. The study of these techniques started in the 1970s in the USA, but they were not studied in Spain until 1993 when the University of Cantabria and CLABSA started to look into solutions for stormwater management. After 20 years of research and application, sustainable drainage in Spain is still behind other countries in spite of the efforts to change this situation, notably by the University of Cantabria with 10 years of experience in these techniques, mainly regarding pervious pavements, where more than 13 related research projects have been carried out. The future challenges focus on the application of pervious pavements for Urban Hydrological Rehabilitation.

  16. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Esquinas, Esther; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; Boldo, Elena; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Lope, Virginia; Vidal, Enrique; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Aragonés, Nuria

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9 th and 10 th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively). Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying the sex-specific pattern of this tumor

  17. Pinus sylvestris L. subsp. nevadensis (Christ Heywood in southern Spain: An endangered endemic Mediterranean forest

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    Olmedo-Cobo Antonio José

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pinus sylvestris subsp. nevadensis is the most endangered pine in Spain. This taxon takes refuge in only two massifs of the Betic Cordillera -Sierra Nevada and Sierra de Baza-, where its forests represent the southernmost limit of the species global distribution, surviving under conditions of geographic, demographic and ecological marginality in the upper treeline boundary that makes them very vulnerable to any environmental change or external aggression. This research establishes for the first time, and for the entire Betic Cordillera, the locations and ecological patterns of these pine forests, their plant dynamic and floristic composition, and provides an updated map of the current and potential distribution area of this subspecies. The methodological process for this research has consisted of an integrated phytosociological and biogeographical analysis of vegetation and the resulting landscape, through fieldwork covering in as much detail as possible the distribution area of P. sylvestris in the Betic Cordillera, and a review of the bibliographic background. Taking into account the results, P. sylvestris subsp. nevadensis forests survive at present under hostile Mediterranean conditions due to the special physical characteristics of the microenvironments in which they have taken refuge, mainly the cool, relatively moist climate of their ecological niches and the relatively impermeable soils that forests occupy. However, there are significant ecological obstacles for the future preservation of this pine in southern Spain, and therefore it is necessary for the creation of programmes to protect these threatened endemic and post-glacial relict forests through continued monitoring of their evolution and further research studying the processes that make this ecosystem as a whole so unique and valuable.

  18. Cost analysis of the use of botulinum toxin type A in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. de Andrés-Nogales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate treatment costs of blepharospasm, cervical dystonia(CD, upper limb spasticity (ULS and spasticity in children withcerebral palsy (SCCP with botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A inSpain. Method: Annual BoNT-A treatment costs were calculated (2013 ex-factoryprice ( applying RDL 8/2010 and RDL 9/2011 deductions, basedon initial dose (id, average dose (ad and maximum dose (md accordingto Summary of Product Characteristics of Botox® (100U/50U, Dysport®(500U and Xeomin® (100U and considering the use of complete vials.In addition, annual treatment costs were calculated considering the useof vials in more than one patient and also patient population annualtreatment costs based on diseases’ prevalence. Results: Annual BoNT-A treatment costs per patient were estimated atbetween 265 and 2,120 with savings from 10% to 55% accordingto the selected BoNT-A. CD and ULS treatment provided the greatestcost per patient. Botox® provided greater savings in ULS (id/ad, CD(id, and in blepharospasm and SCCP (id/ad/md. Dysport® treatmentwas less costly in CD (md and ULS (md, while Xeomin® was in CD(ad. Based on the estimated treated population in Spain, the annualtreatment costs ranged from 368,392 to 13,958,836 dependingon indication, dose and BoNT-A considered. Conclusions: The appropriate BoNT-A choice would lead to considerablesavings

  19. Cost of diabetic foot in France, Spain, Italy, Germany and United Kingdom: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchero, Huidi; Kangambega, Pauline; Lin, Lucien; Mukisi-Mukaza, Martin; Brunet-Houdard, Solenne; Briatte, Christine; Retali, Gerald Reparate; Rusch, Emmanuel

    2018-04-01

    Cost estimates for diabetic foot are available for developed countries based on cost data for different years. This study aimed to provide a comparison of the cost of diabetic foot in E5 (France, Spain, Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom) and its characteristics across different conditions. PubMed, Central and Embase databases were searched in February 2017 for English language publications. Bibliographies of relevant papers were also searched manually. Reviews and research papers from E5 regions reporting on cost of diabetic foot were included. Reported cost was converted to equivalent 2016 $ for comparison purposes. All the costs presented are mean cost per patient per year in 2016 $. Nine studies were included in the analysis. The total cost of amputation ranged from $ 15,046 in 2001 to $ 38,621 in 2005. The direct cost of amputation ranged from $ 13,842 in 2001 to $ 83,728 during 2005-2009. Indirect cost of amputation was more uniform, ranging from between $ 1,043 to $ 1,442. The direct cost of gangrene ranged from $ 3,352 in 2003 to $ 8,818 in Germany. Although, for the same year, 2003, the cost for Spain was almost double that for Germany. The total cost of an uninfected ulcer was $ 6,174 in 2002, but increased to $ 14,441 in 2005; for an infected ulcer the cost increased from $ 2,637 to $ 2,957. The different countries showed variations in the components used to calculate the cost of diabetic foot. The E5 incurs a heavy cost from diabetic foot and its complications. There is an unmet need for the identification of cost-cutting strategies, as diabetic foot costs more than major cardiac diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Social disparities in access to breast and cervical cancer screening by women living in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo-Rodrigues, I; Jiménez-García, R; Hernández-Barrera, V; Carrasco-Garrido, P; Jiménez-Trujillo, I; López de Andrés, A

    2015-07-01

    To describe uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening by women living in Spain, analyse the possible associated social and health factors, and compare uptake rates with those obtained in previous surveys. Cross-sectional study using data from the 2011 Spanish national health survey. Uptake of breast cancer screening was analysed by asking women aged 40-69 years whether they had undergone mammography in the previous two years. Uptake of cervical cancer screening was analysed by asking women aged 25-65 years whether they had undergone cervical cytology in the previous three years. Independent variables included sociodemographic characteristics, and variables related to health status and lifestyle. Seventy-two percent of women had undergone mammography in the previous two years. Having private health insurance increased the probability of breast screening uptake four-fold [odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.71-5.79], and being an immigrant was a negative predictor for breast screening uptake. Seventy percent of women had undergone cervical cytology in the previous three years. Higher-educated women were more likely to have undergone cervical cancer screening (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.97-3.40), and obese women and women living in rural areas were less likely to have undergone cervical cancer screening. There have been no relevant improvements in uptake rates of either breast or cervical cancer screening since 2006. Uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening could be improved in Spain, and uptake rates have stagnated over recent years. Social disparities have been detected with regard to access to these screening tests, indicating that it is necessary to continue researching and optimizing prevention programmes in order to improve uptake and reduce these disparities. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Is leishmaniasis widespread in Spain? First data on canine leishmaniasis in the province of Lleida, Catalonia, northeast Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballart, C; Alcover, M M; Portús, M; Gállego, M

    2012-02-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a widespread disease present in 42 countries. It is considered of epidemiological importance because of its role as a reservoir of human leishmaniasis. Knowledge of the real distribution of CanL and its emergence and/or re-emergence is of great importance in order to determine the extension of the disease. This work reports the detection of CanL in a farm dog located in a Pyrenean area of northwest Catalonia (Spain) where the disease was previously unknown. Since the dog had never left the region and sandfly vectors, Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, were present in the farm the case is considered as autochthonous and is the first to be published in this region of Spain. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of the Financial Crisis on Stock Market of the Czech Republic and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Titizov, Toško

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes effects of the financial crisis on stock market of the Czech Republic and Spain. We employ BEKK-GARCH model in order to study volatility spillovers and transmissions from the US stock market to stock markets of the Czech Republic and Spain. The multivariate GARCH models results show statistically significant, but relatively small, almost irrelevant volatility spillovers from the US stock market to stock markets of the Czech Republic and Spain. The Czech stock market exhibit...

  3. The influence of democracy in the practice of public relations in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Xifra, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an exploratory study of the current status of public relationsin Spain on the basis of elements and indicators applied to other countries in thestudy The Global Public Relations Handbook (2009). Spain is one of the most notableabsentees from the study; this article therefore fills a hole in current public relationsresearch and theory. The conclusion is that Spain is a country that has undergoneradical change, from a dictatorship to one of the world’s most democratic syst...

  4. Advances and trends on earthquake-triggered landslide research in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García Mayordomo, Julián; Rodríguez Peces, Martín Jesús; Azañón, J.M.; Insúa Arévalo, Juan Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This work reviews the current situation of earthquake‐triggered landslide studies in Spain both from the point of view of regional assessment and site‐specific cases. Regional assessments have been undertaken in areas of the Betic Cordillera (South and Southeast Spain): Alcoy Basin, Lorca Basin, Granada Basin and Sierra Nevada Range; and Central Pyrenees (North Spain and Andorra). Specific studies are very scarce, outstanding those related to the Güevéjar landslide (Granada) –triggered by 175...

  5. Oath Ceremonies in Spain and New Spain in the 18th century: A Comparative Study of Rituals and Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Rodríguez Moya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper will focus on a comparative study of the royal oath ceremonies in Spain and New Spain starting with the 16th century, when the ritual was established, to later consider some examples from the 18th century. A process of consolidating a Latin American and Hispanic identity began in the 17th century and was reflected in religious and political festivals everywhere. The royal oath ceremony was a renewal of vows of loyalty to the Crown, which was especially important in a monarchy composed a variety of different kingdoms. This ritual was very important in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, where a king ruled from afar over subjects scattered throughout a vast territory that was ethnically and culturally very diverse. The ceremony was therefore used in the 18th century to assert matters of identity through ritual gestures and the images that adorned the ephemeral architecture created for it. Accounts of festivities and prints depicting the event as it took place in places like Lisbon, Barcelona, Valencia, Majorca, Mexico and Lima will be studied from a comparative point of view.

  6. Soil carbon storage as influenced by tree cover in the Dehesa cork oak silvopasture of central-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, David Scott; Moreno, Gerardo; Mosquera Losada, Maria Rosa; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D

    2011-07-01

    The extent of carbon (C) stored in soils depends on a number of factors including soil characteristics, climatic and other environmental conditions, and management practices. Such information, however, is lacking for silvopastoral systems in Spain. This study quantified the amounts of soil C stored at various depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 cm) under a Dehesa cork oak (Quercus suber L.) silvopasture at varying distances (2, 5, and 15 m) to trees. Soil C in the whole soil and three soil fractions (silvopastoral systems. The results also demonstrate the use of soil aggregate characteristics as better indicators of soil C sequestration potential and thus a tool for environmental monitoring.

  7. [The Vargas Dictatorship in Brazil (1937-1945) and the Primer Franquismo in Spain (1939-1945): power and counter-power of nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco; Gomes, Maria da Luz Barbosa; Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa de; Almeida Filho, Antonio José de

    2012-01-01

    This is a historical and social study, which aimed to describe the main characteristics of the Vargas and Franco dictatorships, and to analyze the implications of these to the institutionalization of nursing in Brazil and Spain. As fonts, it was used written documents located in the historical Brazilian and Spanish archives, in addition to the literature on the subject. Data analysis, supported by concepts of Pierre Bourdieu's World Social Theory, showed that, in Brazil and Spain, in referring to the social division of labor, the meeting point between Church and the State was the seclusion of women in private space. It is concluded that the feminine qualities were capitalized by the nurses to legitimize their actions in public space, even to reproduce in that space, consented to by the State and Church, occupations appropriate to femininity.

  8. Thermal solar energy in Spain. State of the art and objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glenn, Jaouen

    2006-01-01

    According the Kyoto protocol, Spain has to reduce its CO 2 emissions at 330 millions of tons (a decrease of 18 % from the level of 2003). From the european commission policy, the energy resources will be of 12 % of renewable energies. In this context, Spain developed an energy policy in favor of the solar energy. This document provides information on: the energy market in Spain, the thermal solar energy operating, the CO 2 emissions, the state of the art in the domain in spain, the 2010 objectives, the programs and the assistance, some data on the solar market in comparison with the Europe. (A.L.B.)

  9. [Effect of the sociodemographic, occupational, organisational and environmental variables on the duration of temporary sick leave in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaplana García, María; Sáez Navarro, Concepción; Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; García-Izquierdo, Mariano

    2015-02-01

    This study examines the relationship, and relevance of the effect between the duration of the cases of temporary sick leave, as an indicator of absenteeism, and several characteristics (sociodemographic, labor, organizational and the environment) of workers covered by the Social Security System in Spain. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 598,988 processes, between 15 and 365days. The relationships between length of absence, and several characteristics such as demographic, sociodemographic, occupational, organizational and environment characteristics were determined (using P values). The mean duration for each of the features is described, and the size effect is calculated to estimate the importance of the relationships found. There were significant relationships between the duration of temporary sick leave and several demographic characteristics (gender, age, nationality and length of service), occupational (wages, type of contract), organizational (economic sector, activity and size company), the environmental (region, state) characteristics. The age also showed a significant size effect (rxy=.134), especially after age 44. Only age had a significance effect on the duration of work absence, although there was also a relationship with the rest of the demographic, occupational and work environment characteristics. There was also evidence of a cross-effects between the variables, which could cause errors in interpreting the results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. [Variability in smoking experimentation and risk factors in 4 secondary schools in Murcia (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Pedro; Carrillo, Andrés; Sánchez, Joseph; Hurtado, Ascensión; Sánchez, Irene; Martínez, Rafaela; Cuevas, María Dolores

    2007-01-01

    To identify patterns of tobacco experimentation and consumption in 4 geographically close groups of students in the first year of secondary education, as well as attitudes and consumption in their social environments. To identify the factors associated with tobacco experimentation and consumption in each of the student groups. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study was conducted in 4 secondary schools in the region of Murcia (Spain). The study population consisted of first graders in secondary education, recruited in January 2005. The study variables were collected using a modified version of the FRISC questionnaire. The study population was composed of 377 students (190 boys) with a mean age of 12.6 years (standard deviation [SD] = 0.6). Between 15.3% and 42.1% of the students had smoked at some time. Between 2% and 6.9% smoked regularly. These differences were related to socioeconomic characteristics ("living with the mother", p = 0.049; "living with the father", p = 0.015) and consumption in the environment ("mother", p = 0.013; "friends", p pocket money, consumption among friends, experimenting with alcohol and not living in one of the towns studied. Significant differences were found among the towns studied. Application of standard preventive programs may prove ineffective unless they are adapted to the characteristics of the specific school.

  11. The impact of nontraditionalism on the malleability of gender stereotypes in Spain and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, Esther Lopez; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio

    2011-08-01

    Gender stereotypes and inequalities are based on and sustained by people's perception of gender roles. The evolution of these gender roles, however, might be substantially different depending on cultural and social evolution in different countries. In a study, we investigated stereotypes in Germany and Spain, where residents might have different beliefs about gender roles due to their different social evolution after the Second World War and their economic and social advances. Results showed that in both countries people's expectations of differences in masculine characteristics between men and women were less noticeable than perceptions in the past or present. We also demonstrated that people perceive an increase in masculinity in women. This increase is more evident in Spaniards than in Germans. In estimations about the past, present, and future, Spaniards also perceived an increase of gender-stereotypic feminine characteristics more in men than in women. Our results are consistent with the predictions of social role theory, as gender stereotypes can include dynamic aspects and the content of these stereotypes is rooted in social roles.

  12. Adolescents' educational aspirations and ethnic background: The case of students of African and Latin American migrant origins in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos J. Gil-Hernández

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minority students were found to have high educational aspirations, considering their background characteristics. This finding is often attributed to 'migrant optimism.' Yet, whether socioeconomic, educational, or demographic differences between and within ethnic groups mediate and/or moderate students' educational aspirations remains an inconclusive question. Objective: This study investigates the educational aspirations of children of African and Latin American migrants in Spain, looking at four critical factors: (1 family background, (2 educational performance, (3 years lived in Spain, and (4 language used at home. Methods: Data comes from the 2010 General Evaluation of Educational Diagnostic (GEED on lower-secondary students aged 14 (n = 19,293, on average. Multivariate logistic models are applied using mediation and moderation analyses. Results: Results show that (1 minority students have higher college aspirations than students of Spanish origin after accounting for parental socioeconomic status and educational performance; (2 ethnic differentials in aspirations - especially for pupils with Latin American origin - are concentrated among low-performing and disadvantaged students; (3 recent arrival in Spain is not significantly associated with differences in educational aspirations within minority groups; (4 speaking Spanish at home does not lead to differences in aspirations for pupils of African origin. Conclusions: Migrant optimism, as opposed to family language use and years of contact with the Spanish culture and society, seems to be an important factor for the high (net educational aspirations of students from African and Latin American backgrounds. Contribution: The article provides new evidence on ethnic heterogeneity in educational aspirations, being the first that uses representative data from the whole Spanish educational system.

  13. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Raggi

    Full Text Available To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+.In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately.Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4. The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation, chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6% and a wide and rich social network (4.6%. Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics.Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of

  14. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18-50 and 50+. In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could potentially increase QoL of ageing

  15. Social and economic inequalities in induced abortion in Spain as a function of individual and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Gloria; Ruiz-Muñoz, Dolores; Gotsens, Merce; Cases, Mariona Casals; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica

    2014-02-01

    The socioeconomic position of women who have an induced abortion has been explored extensively, but without taking contextual factors into account. The objective was to describe socioeconomic inequalities in the rate of induced abortion in Spain in 2001, jointly evaluating the effects of both regional and individual socioeconomic characteristics. A cross-sectional study using a multilevel approach was carried out among women who were resident in Spain in 2001, considering the hierarchical structure of relevant factors. Analyses were carried out at the individual and regional level. We fit Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted relative risks (aRR) of induced abortion and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The estimated abortion rate was 6.26 per 1000 women aged 20-49 years. Induced abortion was more frequent among younger women (aRR = 1.55 for women aged 20-24 years, compared with those aged 25-34 years) and those with less than primary education (aRR = 2.25 compared with women with university studies). Women residing in regions with lower public spending on non-university education (aRR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.98) and a higher percentage of non-European Union immigrants (aRR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) were also more likely to have had an induced abortion. Socioeconomic inequalities in the practice of induced abortion in Spain exist not only at the individual level but also at the regional level. The prevention of unintended pregnancy should be approached using a global political strategy aimed at changing contextual and individual factors that contribute to unintended pregnancy.

  16. Leisure-time physical activity and prevalence of non-communicable pathologies and prescription medication in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Aragones, María Teresa; Ley, Victoria

    2018-01-01

    Our aims were to describe physical activity (PA) behaviour in Spain and to examine its association with the prevalence of some of the major non-communicable diseases and with the use of prescription medication. Individualized secondary data retrieved from the 2014 European Health Interview Survey (EHIS) for Spain were used to conduct a cross-sectional epidemiological study (n = 18926). PA was assessed by two different measures: a specific designed variable for EHIS and a leisure time PA frequency-based query of the national survey. Diseases analyzed were hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, depression and anxiety. The use of prescription medication was also included in the study. Weighted percentages were computed and contingency tables were calculated to describe PA by levels of the traits and sociodemographic characteristics. Chi-square test was used to compare percentages between groups and weighted logistic regression models were used to assess the relationship between PA and the prevalence of the disease. About 73% of the Spanish population performs no PA at all or only occasionally during their leisure time, and only one third meets minimum PA international guidelines (≥ 150min/week). Men are considerably more active than women and less PA is observed as the education level decreases and as age increases. The risk of the diseases evaluated was up to three times higher among inactive individuals. This study provides national population-based estimations highlighting the impact of PA in Spain, not only in the prevalence of some of the major non-communicable diseases but also in reducing prescription medication, and the potential sex and socioeconomic influence.

  17. Consideration of climate change on environmental impact assessment in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Álvaro, E-mail: aenriquez@draba.org [Escuela de Doctorado, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Draba Ingeniería y Consultoría Medioambiental, Cañada Nueva, 29, 28200 San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Spain); Martín-Aranda, Rosa M., E-mail: rmartin@ccia.uned.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Química Técnica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Díaz-Sierra, Rubén, E-mail: sierra@dfmf.uned.es [Departamento de Física Matemática y de Fluidos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, UNED, Paseo Senda del Rey, 9, 28040, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Most of the projects subject to environmental impact assessment (EIA) are closely related to climate change, as they contribute to or are affected by it. The growing certainty about climate change and its impacts makes its consideration an essential part of the EIA process, as well as in strategic environmental assessment (SEA). This paper examines how climate change (CC) has been taken into account in EIA in Spain through the analysis of 1713 environmental records of decision (RODs) of projects submitted for EIA. In 2013 Spain approved one of the most advanced laws in terms of CC consideration in environmental assessment, although it had not yet accumulated extensive practice on the issue. This contrasts with the situation of countries like Canada or the USA, which have a significant body of experience without specific legal requirements. Only 14% of the RODs analysed included references to CC, and in more than half of the cases it was a mere citation. Thermal power plants, which are subject to specific GHG regulations, show the highest consideration, while transport infrastructures, which are important contributors to CC, show a very low consideration. Almost all the references are related to their contribution to CC, while consideration of the effects of CC is minimal. The increasingly common incorporation of CC into SEA, should not imply its exclusion from EIA, because both processes have different aims and uses. Including the obligation to consider CC in the EIA regulations is highly desirable, but probably not enough without other measures, such as practical guidance, training and motivational programmes for practitioners and evaluators. But even these actions cannot ensure effective and adequate assessments of CC. Probably more resources should be spent on creating greater awareness in all the agents involved in EIA. - Highlights: • We analyse how the climate change is considered in EIA in Spain. • Few projects seriously assess climate change.

  18. Trends in the International Academic Migration: A Case of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mihi-Ramírez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyses how undergraduate students’ mobility has changed after the last economics recession. Research Design & Methods: The study analysed the last data about public and private Universities of higher education system of Spain comparing it at international level in order to find the problems and challenges of the last few years. Findings: The results showed significant imbalances in mobile students’ trends by home and host region, especially after a deep restructuration of the higher education system of Spain due to the last crisis. In particular there are substantial differences in tuition fees, scholarships, number of teachers and their skills according to the region and type of university. Consequently international inflows and international study programs and agreements became very important. Implications & Recommendations: A growing number of students who study abroad, especially after the economic collapse of 2008, represents an excellent opportunity for the host countries due to an incomes growth and recruitment opportunities of highly skilled workers. Therefore to adapt the academic offer taking in account the language, needs and diversity of mobile students would increase their number. Also to increase the highly skilled teachers could help to attract these mobile students, and it would improve the quality of higher education system too. Contribution & Value Added: This research provided a value information to understand the current problems, challenges, changes and opportunities of the higher education mobility through the analysis of the case of Spain and international comparisons.

  19. Potential energy savings from cool roofs in Spain and Andalusia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boixo, Sergio; Diaz-Vicente, Marian; Colmenar, Antonio; Castro, Manuel Alonso

    2012-01-01

    Cool roofs are an inexpensive method to save energy and to improve the comfort level in buildings in mild and hot climates. A high scale implementation of cool roofs in Andalusia, in the south of Spain, could potentially save 295,000 kWh per year, considering only residential buildings with flat roofs using electrical heating. At the current energy prices, consumers can save 59 million euros annually in electricity costs and the emission of 136,000 metric tons of CO 2 can be directly avoided every year from the production of that electricity. If radiative forcings are considered, Andalucía can potentially offset between 9.44 and 12 Mt of CO 2 . All the provinces in the rest of Spain are also studied in this paper. The biggest savings are achieved in Gran Canaria (48%), Tenerife (48%), Cádiz (36%), Murcia (33%), Huelva (30%), Málaga (29%), Almería (29%) and Sevilla (28%), where savings are greater than 2 euros per square meter of flat roof for old buildings with dark roofs. For the biggest cities the range of savings obtained are: between 7.4% and 11% in Madrid, between 12% and 18% in Barcelona and between 14% and 20% in Valencia. -- Highlights: ► We estimate potential savings in energy, CO 2 , and money for cool roofs in Spain (residential sector with flat roofs). ► Average savings are of around one euro per square meter in the biggest cities. ► Potential savings are of more than 2 €/m 2 in the hottest cities. ► In Andalusia the potential savings are 300 MWh, 60 millions euro and 136,000 tons of CO 2 per year. ► With forcings, the CO 2 equivalence of cool roofs in Andalusia is between 9 and 12 Mt.

  20. Agua Para Todos: A New Regionalist Hydraulic Paradigm in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Lopez-Gunn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the hydraulic paradigm in Spain and its evolution over the last 100 years to the current decentralisation process of "agua para todos", i.e. where different regional governments vie for control over 'scarce' water resources and defining the concept of hydro-solidarity between regions. Recent events seem to point to a new hydraulic bureaucracy at the sub-national level due to the political devolution currently taking place in Spain, where water has an increased political value in electoral terms. Water has strategic importance in single-issue politics and territorial identity, as compared to traditional left/right ideological politics for both national and regional parties in the Spanish multilevel electoral system. This refers to an important aspect of water politics – openly discussed in Spain but rarely analysed – namely the 'political returns' on water (or 'political rent-seeking'. This also points to spatial dimensions of the definition of state, identity, and access to resources in a semiarid country. This historical process of decentralisation of water is highlighted with particular reference to key events in recent Spanish history, including the Hydraulic Plan of the 1930s, its reappearance in the 1993 National Hydrological Plan, a revised version in the year 2001, and a final change in paradigm in 2005 at the national level. This suggests that the hydraulic paradigm is re-enacted at the regional government level. It is argued that a multi-scalar analysis of Spanish water decentralisation is essential in order to understand change and stasis in public policy paradigms related to water.