WorldWideScience

Sample records for spacer student temporary

  1. Fuel spacer

    Nishida, Koji; Yokomizo, Osamu; Kanazawa, Toru; Kashiwai, Shin-ichi; Orii, Akihito.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a fuel spacer for a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor and a PTR type reactor. Springs each having a vane are disposed on the side surface of a circular cell which supports a fuel rods. A vortex streams having a vertical component are formed by the vanes in the flowing direction of a flowing channel between adjacent cylindrical cells. Liquid droplets carried by streams are deposited on liquid membrane streams flowing along the fuel rod at the downstream of the spacer by the vortex streams. In view of the above, the liquid droplets can be deposited to the fuel rod without increasing the amount of metal of the spacer. Accordingly, the thermal margin of the fuel assembly can be improved without losing neutron economy. (I.N.)

  2. Teaching empathy to undergraduate medical students using a temporary tattoo simulating psoriasis.

    Latham, Lesley; MacDonald, Aimee; Kimball, Alexa B; Langley, Richard G

    2012-07-01

    Psoriasis has a profound negative effect on quality of life that is often underappreciated by health care professionals and the public. We sought to assess the perception of the burden of psoriasis relative to other medical conditions in first-year medical students, and to determine if wearing a temporary tattoo simulating psoriasis during a teaching exercise would change their perceptions. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing their perception of the impact of psoriasis and other common medical conditions (visual analog scale). Participants then wore a temporary tattoo of a psoriatic lesion for 24 hours and completed the same questionnaire after this exercise. Of 91 students approached, 61 completed the study. At baseline, psoriasis (mean = 23.6) and eczema (mean = 23.3) were perceived as having the lowest physical burden of diseases queried (P mental impact of psoriasis was scored comparably with arthritis, heart disease, and diabetes (mean = 45.1-56.7), but lower than cancer (mean = 82.2) and depression (mean = 93.8). After the exercise, the perception of the impact of eczema (physical: mean = 37.3, P mental: mean = 66.6, P = .0005) and psoriasis (physical: mean = 37.8, P = .0014; mental: mean = 68.6, P = .0293) was significantly increased. The exercise did not simulate the chronic nature of psoriasis or the scaling and pruritic characteristics of psoriatic lesions. The survey instrument used to assess empathy has not been previously validated and statistical analysis was limited by small sample size and the absence of a control group. Temporary tattoos are a novel and effective method of teaching medical students about the psychological burden of psoriasis. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spacer st4ructure

    Masetti, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    A spacer structure is described for maintaining a spaced relation between a plurality of generally parallel fuel rods within a housing in a nuclear reactor. The spacer structure is comprised of a grid pattern of ribs slotted to interlock with each other. The slots are arranged in such a way that when the ribs are welded to each other, the weld shrinkage is distributed uniformly in all directions to reduce or eliminate the amount of rework necessary in manufacturing the spacer structure

  4. Fouling resistant membrane spacers

    Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2017-10-12

    Disclosed herein are spacers having baffle designs and perforations for efficiently and effectively separating one or more membrane layers a membrane filtration system. The spacer (504) includes a body (524) formed at least in part by baffles (520) that are interconnected, and the baffles define boundaries of openings or apertures (525) through a thickness direction of the body of the spacer. Alternatively or additionally, passages or perforations (526A, 526B) may be present in the spacer layer or baffles for fluid flow there through, with the passages and baffles having a numerous different shapes and sizes.

  5. Mixing vane grid spacer

    Patterson, J.F.; Galbraith, K.P.

    1978-01-01

    An improved mixing vane grid spacer having enhanced flow mixing capability by virtue of mixing vanes being positioned at welded intersecting joints of the spacer wherein each mixing vane has an opening or window formed therein substantially directly over the welded joint to provide improved flow mixing capability is described. Some of the vanes are slotted, depending on their particular location in the spacers. The intersecting joints are welded by initially providing consumable tabs at and within each window, which are consumed during the welding of the spacer joints

  6. Structural Stator Spacers

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand; Andreasen, Jens H.; Pijanowski, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a powerful new design aspect to reduce acoustic noise and vibration of electro-magnetic origin for electrical machines, by introducing improved slot wedges referred to as "Structural Stator Spacers". These spacers, by using a very stiff dielectric and non magnetic material...

  7. Membrane with integrated spacer

    Balster, J.H.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Many membrane processes are severely influenced by concentration polarisation. Turbulence promoting spacers placed in between the membranes can reduce the diffusional resistance of concentration polarisation by inducing additional mixing. Electrodialysis (ED) used for desalination suffers from

  8. Side insertable spacer

    Patterson, J.F.; Ewing, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a spacer for restraining the fuel rods of a nuclear fuel assembly, the assembly being formed of a plurality of parallel, elongated fuel rods so arranged that the assembly is bounded by a polygon having an even number of sides, the rods being so arranged as to lie in a plurality of sets of parallel rows, the rows of each set being perpendicular to one of the sides of the polygon. It comprises a number of spacer combs equal to at least half the number of the sides of the polygon, the spacer combs being superposed on each other, each of the spacer combs comprising: a single base strip having a length equal to that of one of the sides of the polygon and grid strips equal in number to the spaces between rows in one of the sets, and at least a majority of the grid strips being of a length sufficient to extend substantially the full length of the rows; the grid strips being provided with spring members positioned to engage each of the rods; the grid strips being provided with spring members positioned to engage each of the rods; the grid strips being secured to and extending at right angles to the base strip; the grid strips of different combs being positioned at angles to each other, so as to occupy the spaces between rows in different sets

  9. Fuel assembly spacer

    Shirakawa, Ken-etsu.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the pressure loss of coolants by fuel assembly spacers. Constitution: Spacers for supporting a fuel assembly are attached by means of a plurality of wires to an outer frame. The outer frame is made of shape memory alloy such that the wires are caused to slacken at normal temperature and the slacking of the wires is eliminated in excess of the transition temperature. Since the wires slacken at the normal temperature, fuel rods can be inserted easily. After the insertion of the fuel rods, when the entire portion or the outer frame is heated by water or gas at a predetermined temperature, the outer frame resumes its previously memorized shape to tighten the wires and, accordingly, the fuel rods can be supported firmly. In this way, since the fuel rods are inserted in the slacken state of the wires and, after the assembling, the outer frame resumes its memorized shape, the assembling work can be conducted efficiently. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Student-Led Services in a Hospital Aged Care Temporary Stay Unit: Sustaining Student Placement Capacity and Physiotherapy Service Provisions

    Nicole, Madelyn; Fairbrother, Michele; Nagarajan, Srivalli Vilapakkam; Blackford, Julia; Sheepway, Lyndal; Penman, Merrolee; McAllister, Lindy

    2015-01-01

    Through a collaborative university-hospital partnership, a student-led service model (SLS-model) was implemented to increase student placement capacity within a physiotherapy department of a 150 bed Sydney hospital. This study investigates the perceived barriers and enablers to increasing student placement capacity through student-led services…

  11. Spacer grid corner gusset

    Larson, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    There is provided a spacer grid for a bundle of longitudinally extending rods in spaced generally parallel relationship comprising spacing means for holding the rods in spaced generally parallel relationship; the spacing means includes at least one exterior grid strip circumscribing the bundle of rods along the periphery thereof; with at least one exterior grid strip having a first edge defining the boundary of the strip in one longitudinal direction and a second edge defining the boundary of the strip in the other longitudinal direction; with at least one exterior grid strip having at least one band formed therein parallel to the longitudinal direction; a plurality of corner gussets truncating each of a plurality of corners formed by at least one band and the first edge and the second edge

  12. Temporary Termination.

    Seligman, Linda

    1984-01-01

    Presents a method for helping clients deal productively with temporary intervals in counseling relationships that may be caused by either counselor or client vacations or trips. Advocates developing goals, providing an opportunity for continued communication, referrals, processing of accomplishments, and scheduling the next session. (LLL)

  13. Temporary workers

    Klein Hesselink, J.; Verbiest, S.; Goudswaard, A.

    2014-01-01

    Temporary employment contracts are often used by employers to manage fluctuations in personnel needs. Many sectors of industry experience these fluctuations, which are often seasonal. This creates uncertainty about the continuousness of demand for work, which is transferred from employers to

  14. (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer

    Cladistic relationships within the genus Cinnamomum (Lauraceae) in Taiwan based on analysis of leaf morphology and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) molecular markers.

  15. Spacer device for nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Anthony, A.J.; Gaines, A.L.; Krawiec, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    The grid-type spacer device consists of two rows of main spacers arranged parallel to each other with some space in between, the first row extending perpendicular to the second row. Parallel to the respective rows of main spacers there are rows of secondary spacers interlocked with the main spacers. The individual spacers are welded together at their points of intersection. A large number of spring cages are installed within the spacer device to hold in place the main spacers which are oriented at right angles relative to each other. In addition, the spring cages serve for supporting the fuel elements. The spacers are made of zirconium which does not greatly influence the neutron capture cross section of the reactor. The material of the spring cages with the spring elements is a nickel alloy. It has the necessary stress relaxation properties to be able to force the fuel elements against the spacers under the action of the spring. (DG) [de

  16. The Professional Value of Temporary Study in Another European Country: Employment and Work of Former ERASMUS Students

    Teichler, Ulrich; Janson, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Temporary study in another European country supported by the ERASMUS programmes spread from a few thousand participants in the late 1980s to about 150,000 annually in recent years. Such a study period is not only viewed as academically, culturally, and linguistically valuable but is also expected to have a positive impact on subsequent employment…

  17. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1978-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 0 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (DG) [de

  18. Spacer grid for fuel elements

    Hensolt, T.; Huenner, M.; Rau, P.; Veca, A.

    1980-01-01

    The spacer grid for fuel elements of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (but also for PWRs and BWRs) consists of a lattice field with dodecagonal meshes. These meshes are formed by three each adjacent hexagons grouped arround a central axis. The pairs of legs extending into the dodecagon and being staggered by 120 are designed as knubs with inclined abutting surfaces for the fuel rods. By this means there is formed a three-point bearing for centering the fuel rods. The spacer grid mentioned above is rough-worked from a single disc- resp. plate-shaped body (unfinished piece). (orig.)

  19. Cyrillic alphabet as the designation of national identity among students of University of Priština with temporary head office in Kosovska Mitrovica

    Miketić Sanja D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between culture and nationality and in that sense - national identity of a particular community - is a known thing for a long time. Nationality is usually strongly connected to culture. We will only mention few of their joint characteristics: language, religion, art, customs, tradition etc. In this article special attention will be paid to one of the features of national identity - language - and we will focus on the usage of Cyrillic alphabet of our target group (students of University of Priština, with temporary head office in Kosovska Mitrovica. The study consists of two smaller researches. In the first part we explored reactions of students at University of Priština and we assumed that they will have different reactions towards Cyrillic alphabet and Latin alphabet used as stimuli-words comparing to pupils of Belgrade and Zrenjanin high schools and students of University of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš presented in The associative dictionary of Serbian language (Asocjativni rečnik srpskog jezika, 2005. In the second part we tried to find out if our informants prefer the usage of Cyrillic or Latin alphabet, and which one they find better in the esthetic sense. We compared attitudes of students who enroll University of Priština to attitudes of students who enroll University of Belgrade and differences between their attitudes. With both researches we wanted to see if there are formed verbal stereotypes with positive or negative connotation, and what are the attitudes on using Cyrillic alphabet among students in the age of expansion of Latin alphabet. We concluded that Cyrillic alphabet is more used and valued at University of Priština than in the rest of Republic of Serbia and the reason for that might be the stronger sense of national identity among these students.

  20. Two pion correlation from SPACER

    Csoergoe, T.; Zimanyi, J.; Pratt, S.

    1989-12-01

    The correlation function for neutral and negative pions produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions was calculated without free parameters based on a space-time version of the LUND model, called SPACER: Simulation of Phase space distribution of Atomic nuclear Collisions in Energetic Reactions. This method includes the effect of Bose correlations for the emitted pion pair. Effects arising from correlations between space-time and momentum space distributions are investigated. The results are compared to the data of two different experiments. The role and interpretation of the chaocity parameter are discussed. (D.G.) 14 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Spacers for fuel rod clusters

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The proposition deals with the fixing of nuclear fuel element rods in a grid which consists of a number of crossed Zy-plates which form cells. The rectangular cells have projections which serve as spacers for the fuel rods. According to the invention there are additional butt straps which can be moved in such a way that insertion and extraction of the fuel rods can be done without obstruction and they can be spring-loaded hold in their final position. (UWI) [de

  2. Development of a High Performance Spacer Grid

    Song, Kee Nam; Song, K. N.; Yoon, K. H. (and others)

    2007-03-15

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 18 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates 16 are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models.

  3. How to use an inhaler - no spacer

    ... MDI) administration - no spacer; Bronchial nebulizer; Wheezing - nebulizer; Reactive airway - nebulizer; COPD - ... 66. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a metered-dose inhaler. ...

  4. Coronal microleakage of four temporary restorative materials in Class II-type endodontic access preparations

    Sang-Mi Yun

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of 4 temporary materials in teeth with Class II-type endodontic access preparations by using a glucose penetration model. Materials and Methods Glucose reaction test was performed to rule out the presence of any reaction between glucose and temporary material. Class II-type endodontic access preparations were made in extracted human premolars with a single root (n = 10. Each experimental group was restored with Caviton (GC, Spacer (Vericom, IRM (Dentsply-Caulk, or Fuji II(GC. Microleakage of four materials used as temporary restorative materials was evaluated by using a glucose penetration model. Data were analyzed by the one-way analysis of variance followed by a multiple-comparison Tukey test. The interface between materials and tooth were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results There was no significant reaction between glucose and temporary materials used in this study. Microleakage was significantly lower for Caviton and Spacer than for Fuji II and IRM. SEM observation showed more intimate adaptation of tooth-restoration interfaces in Caviton and Spacer than in IRM and Fuji II. Conclusions Compared to IRM and Fuji II, Caviton and Spacer can be considered better temporary sealing materials in Class II-type endodontic access cavities.

  5. Spacer for supporting fuel element boxes

    Wild, E.

    1979-01-01

    A spacer plate unit arranged externally on each side and at a predetermined level of a polygonal fuel element box for mutually supporting, with respect to one another, a plurality of the fuel element boxes forming a fuel element bundle, is formed of a first and a second spacer plate part each having the same length and the same width and being constituted of unlike first and second materials, respectively. The first and second spacer plate parts of the several spacer plate units situated at the predetermined level are arranged in an alternating continuous series when viewed in the peripheral direction of the fuel element box, so that any two spacer plate units belonging to face-to-face oriented sides of two adjoining fuel element boxes in the fuel element bundle define interfaces of unlike materials

  6. Mumps increase in Flanders, Belgium, 2012-2013: results from temporary mandatory notification and a cohort study among university students.

    Braeye, Toon; Linina, Indra; De Roy, Rikka; Hutse, Veronik; Wauters, Magali; Cox, Pia; Mak, Ruud

    2014-07-31

    In 2012, an increase in mumps notifications occurred in Belgium, affecting young vaccinated adults. At the end of 2012, a mumps outbreak occurred at the Catholic University of Leuven KU Leuven in Flanders. We investigated the outbreak to estimate incidence, mumps vaccine effectiveness and to detect potential risk factors for the disease. In June 2012, we set up mandatory notification in Flanders and we collected information on circulating genotypes from the National Reference Centre. We conducted a cohort study among KU Leuven students. We defined a case as self-reported parotitis, between September 2012 and March 2013. We distributed web-based questionnaires to a random sample of students. We calculated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the risks in students vaccinated twice with those vaccinated once. We estimated risk ratios (RR) to identify risk factors. From 16th June 2012 to 1st April 2013, 4061 mumps cases were notified to the regional public health office (30% were vaccinated once and 69% were vaccinated twice). All 16 samples collected at the KU Leuven were genotype G5. Of 717 participants of the cohort study, 38 (5%; 95%CI 4-8%) met the case-definition. All reported being vaccinated with at least one dose of mumps-containing vaccine. The incidence of mumps was 5% among those vaccinated twice and 16% among those vaccinated once (vaccine effectiveness of two doses compared to one: 68%, 95%CI -24% to 92%). The risk of mumps was lower among those vaccinated with two doses of mumps-containing vaccine ≤10 years before (RR: 0.33, 95%CI 0.10-1.02) and higher among students working in a bar (RR: 3.6, 95%CI 1.8-7.0). Incomplete protection by two doses of mumps-containing vaccine, possible waning immunity and intense social contacts may have contributed to the occurrence of this outbreak in Flanders. Efforts to maintain high vaccination coverage with two doses remain essential. However, the reasons for low vaccine effectiveness must be further explored and

  7. Fouling Resilient Perforated Feed Spacers for Membrane Filtration

    Kerdi, Sarah; Qamar, Adnan; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Ghaffour, NorEddine

    2018-01-01

    drop across the spacer filled channel. The 3-Hole spacer was found to have the lowest pressure drop (50% - 61%) compared to 0-Hole spacer for various average flow velocities. Regarding permeate flux production, the 0-Hole spacer produced 5.7 L.m-2.h-1

  8. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...... and whether parental leave is associated with a signaling cost. The results from this study of Swedish mothers show that lone mothers use more temporary parental leave than partnered mothers. Further, within the group of lone mothers, those with higher socioeconomic status take less temporary parental leave...... than those with lower socioeconomic status, whereas no such differences are found within the group of partnered mothers. One possible interpretation is that signaling costs negatively influence the utilization of temporary parental leave for lone mothers....

  9. High corrosion-resistant fuel spacers

    Yoshida, Toshimi; Takase, Iwao; Ikeda, Shinzo; Masaoka, Isao; Nakajima, Junjiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable manufacturing BWR fuel spacers by prior-art production process, using a zirconium-base alloy having very excellent corrosion resistance. Method: A highly improved nodular-resistant, corrosion-resistant zirconium alloy is devised by adding a slight amount of niobium, titanium and vanadium to zircaloy, of which fuel spacers are produced. That is, there can be obtained an alloy having much more excellent nodular resistance than conventional zircaloy, and free from a large change in plasticity, workability, and weldability, by adding to zirconium about 1.5 % of tin, about 0.15 % of iron, about 0.05 % of chromium, about 0.05 % of nickel, and 0.05 to 0.5 % of at least one or two kinds of niobium, titanium and vanadium. Using this zirconium-base alloy can manufacture fuel spacers by the same manufacturing process, thus improving economy and reliability. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Temporary physical protection systems

    Williams, J.D.; Gangel, D.J.; Madsen, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Terrorism and other aspects of world political instability have created a high demand for temporary physical protection systems within the nuclear materials management community. They can be used when vehicles carrying important assets are away from their permanent fixed site location, around areas where experiments are being temporarily conducted, around construction areas and one portions of a fixed site physical security system which is temporarily inoperable. Physical security systems can be grouped into four categories: tactical, portable, semi-permanent, and fixed. The resources and experience gained at Sandia National Laboratories in over forty years of developing and implementing security systems for protecting nuclear weapons and fixed nuclear facilities is now being applied to temporary physical security systems. This paper emphasizes temporary physical security systems and their component parts that are presently available and identify additional system-subsystem objectives, requirements, and concepts

  11. Temporary labour contracts

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  12. Fouling Resilient Perforated Feed Spacers for Membrane Filtration

    Kerdi, Sarah

    2018-04-24

    The improvement of feed spacers with optimal geometry remains a key challenge for spiral-wound membrane systems in water treatment due to their impact on the hydrodynamic performance and fouling development. In this work, novel spacer designs are proposed by intrinsically modifying cylindrical filaments through perforations. Three symmetric perforated spacers (1-Hole, 2-Hole, and 3-Hole) were in-house 3D-printed and experimentally evaluated in terms of permeate flux, feed channel pressure drop and membrane fouling. Spacer performance is characterized and compared with standard no perforated (0-Hole) design under constant feed pressure and constant feed flow rate. Perforations in the spacer filaments resulted in significantly lowering the net pressure drop across the spacer filled channel. The 3-Hole spacer was found to have the lowest pressure drop (50% - 61%) compared to 0-Hole spacer for various average flow velocities. Regarding permeate flux production, the 0-Hole spacer produced 5.7 L.m-2.h-1 and 6.6 L.m-2.h-1 steady state flux for constant pressure and constant feed flow rate, respectively. The 1-Hole spacer was found to be the most efficient among the perforated spacers with 75% and 23% increase in permeate production at constant pressure and constant feed flow, respectively. Furthermore, membrane surface of 1-Hole spacer was found to be cleanest in terms of fouling, contributing to maintain higher permeate flux production. Hydrodynamic understanding of these perforated spacers is also quantified by performing Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The performance enhancement of these perforated spacers is attributed to the formation of micro-jets in the spacer cell that aided in producing enough unsteadiness/turbulence to clean the membrane surface and mitigate fouling phenomena. In the case of 1-Hole spacer, the unsteadiness intensity at the outlet of micro-jets and the shear stress fluctuations created inside the cells are higher than those observed with

  13. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly spacer grids

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1977-01-01

    Designs of nuclear reactor fuel assembly spacer grids for supporting and spacing fuel elements are described which do not utilize resilient grid plate protrusions in the peripheral band but retain the advantages inherent in the combination resilient and rigid protrusion cells. (U.K.)

  14. Separator-spacer for electrochemical systems

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Newby, Kenneth R.; Bellows, Richard J.

    1983-08-02

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  15. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer for maintaining the fuel rods of a nuclear reactor fuel assembly in substantially parallel array is described. The invention provides for spring strips to maintain the fuel elements in their desired orientation which have more positive alignment than previous types while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of differential thermal expansion. (UK)

  16. Pressure Drop Test of Hybrid Mixing Vane Spacer Grid

    Oh, D. S.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.; Chun, S. Y.; Chun, T. H

    2007-08-15

    The pressure loss test has been accomplished in the test section containing 5x5 rod bundle with a length of 2 m including 3 spacer grids. The test has been performed for the 5 kinds of spacer grids to compare the pressure loss characteristics: 1. Plain spacer grid which has the same body of the Hybrid but without vane (Plain), 2. Hybrid Vane spacer grid (Hybrid), 3. Hybrid-SC spacer grid which is constructed with coined, chamfered strip and is fabricated by spot welding, 4. Hybrid-LC spacer grid which is constructed with coined, chamfered strip and is fabricated by line welding along intersection line, 5. Westinghouse spacer grid with split vane (Plus-7). The pressure loss coefficient of the Plain, Hybrid, Hybrid-SC, Hybrid-LC, and Plus-7 spacer grid is 0.93, 1.15, 1.02, 1.04, and 1.08, respectively.

  17. Hydraulic Design Criteria for Spacer Grids of Nuclear Fuel Element

    Juanico, Luis; Brasnarof, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a hydraulic model for calculating the pressure drop on the CARA spacer grids is extended.This model is validated and feedback from experimental hydraulic test performed in a low pressure loop.The importance of the spacer grid geometric parameter (that is, its thickness and length, the number and kind of their fix spacer), developing hydraulic design criteria for spacer grid on fuel element

  18. Flow behavior of droplets downstream of the spacer

    Kodama, Eiichiro; Morishita, Kiyohide; Aritomi, Masanori; Yano, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    The fuel spacer, of which role is to maintain an appropriate rod-to-rod clearance, is one of the components of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel rod bundles. The fuel spacer influences flow characteristics of the liquid film in fuel rod bundles, so that its geometry influences greatly thermal hydraulics such as critical power and pressure drop therein. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of the spacer geometry on the core flow split downstream of the spacer. Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA) was used for their meausrement under the conditions of a small amount of droplets in mist flows. From the experimental results, the normalized droplet velocity profiles with a spacer were split by the spacer and were different between a wider and a narrower regions in the channel, however, they became uniform at the distance far 100mm from the spacer. In the case without a spacer, the velocity was monotonously increasing nearer the rod surface with going toward the center of the channel. In the case with a spacer, the velocity profile downstream of the spacer changed in the narrower region of the channel. This tendency became more remarkable with thickening the spacer and widening clearance between the spacer and the wall. In this paper, 'drift' velocity effect was applied for the spacer model, due to the gas flows were split by the spacer which is based on the momentum balance between the narrower and wider channels. This model was confirmed from the experimental results that the droplet flowed from a wider region to a narrower one. This drift effect appeared more strongly as the spacer became thicker and the clearance did narrower. The analytical results explained qualitatively the measured ones. It is clarified that the drift effect proposed in this work was a dominant factor on droplet deposition downstream of the spacer

  19. Heterogeneous diversity of spacers within CRISPR

    Deem, Michael; He, Jiankui

    2011-03-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in bacterial and archaeal DNA have recently been shown to be a new type of anti-viral immune system in these organisms. We here study the diversity of spacers in CRISPR under selective pressure. We propose a population dynamics model that explains the biological observation that the leader-proximal end of CRISPR is more diversified and the leader-distal end of CRISPR is more conserved. This result is shown to be in agreement with recent experiments. Our results show that the CRISPR spacer structure is influenced by and provides a record of the viral challenges that bacteria face. 1) J. He and M. W. Deem, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 128102

  20. Temporary labour contracts

    2001-01-01

    At its September 2000 meeting, the Finance Committee approved a second one-year extension of the four existing temporary labour contracts (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE) until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the estimated annual expenditure on temporary labour in 2001 will amount to approximately 4 500 000 Swiss francs against the previously estimated 6 000 000 Swiss francs; - to approve the extension of the four existing contracts by six months to 30 June 2002 for an overall amount not exceeding 1 500 000 Swiss francs; - to take note that new contracts for the Swiss part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in December 2001 and that new contracts for the French part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in the course of 2002.

  1. Mechanical test for fuel assembly spacer grid

    Kang, Heung Seok; Jeong, Yeon Ho; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Bang, Je Keun.

    1997-06-01

    In order to propose some tests for a new spacer grid, the grid mechanical tests performed by ABB-CE, KWU and Westinghouse have been investigated. It is known that a static compression test, a dynamic impact test, and a grid spring characteristic test were commonly carried out by the vendors when a prototype spacer grid was developed. The static compression test is to measure the stresses on the strips as well as to obtain the grid stiffness. The dynamic impact test is to get some basic data for accident analysis such as impact stiffness, impact strength, and coefficient of restitution. Since each fuel vendor has his theory on an accident analysis, every vendor employs his particular method for the dynamic impact test. The dynamic impact test can be divided into two in accordance with the number of impact face, and the duration of impact pulse. One is an one-sided impact test and the other is an through-gird impact test. The duration of the impact pulse for the former is considerably shorter than the latter. Therefore, the grid can endure much higher load under the one-sided impact condition than under the through-grid impact condition. The grid spring characteristic test is to obtain a force versus deflection curve. This curve is very important in designing the spacer grid to provide fuel rods with a sound supports in core. (author). 18 tabs., 26 figs

  2. Antibiotic impregnated total femur spacers: a technical tip

    Colin D. Canham, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous prosthetic joint infection of ipsilateral hip and knee arthroplasties is often accompanied by significant bone loss and presents a challenging reconstructive problem. Two-stage reconstruction is favored and requires the placement of a total femur spacer, which is not a commercially available device. We describe a surgical technique, reporting on 2 cases in which a customized total femur antibiotic impregnated spacer was created by combining an articulating knee spacer and an articulating hip spacer with a reinforced cement dowel construct connecting the 2 spacers. Custom total femoral spacers are useful in the management of infected femoral megaprostheses and cases with ipsilateral injected hip and knee arthroplasties and severe femoral bone loss. Keywords: total femur spacer, revision arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty, total knee arthroplasty, prosthetic joint infection

  3. Confirming Sterility of an Autoclaved Infected Femoral Component for Use in an Articulated Antibiotic Knee Spacer: A Pilot Study.

    Lyons, Steven T; Wright, Coy A; Krute, Christina N; Rivera, Frances E; Carroll, Ronan K; Shaw, Lindsey N

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic spacer designs have proven effective at eradicating infection during a two-stage revision arthroplasty. Temporary reuse of the steam-sterilized femoral component and a new all poly tibia component has been described as an effective articulating antibiotic spacer, but sterility concerns persist. Six explanted cobalt chrome femurs from patients with grossly infected TKA's and six stock femurs inoculated with different bacterial species were confirmed to be bacteria-free after autoclaving under a standard gravity-displacement cycle. The effect of steam sterilization on cobalt chrome fragments contaminated with MRSA biofilm was analyzed microscopically to quantify remaining biofilm. The autoclave significantly reduced the biofilm burden on the cobalt chrome fragments. This study confirmed sterility of the femur after a standard gravity-displacement cycle (132°C, 27 PSIG, 10 minutes). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fouling resilient perforated feed spacers for membrane filtration.

    Kerdi, Sarah; Qamar, Adnan; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Ghaffour, Noreddine

    2018-04-24

    The improvement of feed spacers with optimal geometry remains a key challenge for spiral-wound membrane systems in water treatment due to their impact on the hydrodynamic performance and fouling development. In this work, novel spacer designs are proposed by intrinsically modifying cylindrical filaments through perforations. Three symmetric perforated spacers (1-Hole, 2-Hole, and 3-Hole) were in-house 3D-printed and experimentally evaluated in terms of permeate flux, feed channel pressure drop and membrane fouling. Spacer performance is characterized and compared with standard no perforated (0-Hole) design under constant feed pressure and constant feed flow rate. Perforations in the spacer filaments resulted in significantly lowering the net pressure drop across the spacer filled channel. The 3-Hole spacer was found to have the lowest pressure drop (50%-61%) compared to 0-Hole spacer for various average flow velocities. Regarding permeate flux production, the 0-Hole spacer produced 5.7 L m -2 .h -1 and 6.6 L m -2 .h -1 steady state flux for constant pressure and constant feed flow rate, respectively. The 1-Hole spacer was found to be the most efficient among the perforated spacers with 75% and 23% increase in permeate production at constant pressure and constant feed flow, respectively. Furthermore, membrane surface of 1-Hole spacer was found to be cleanest in terms of fouling, contributing to maintain higher permeate flux production. Hydrodynamic understanding of these perforated spacers is also quantified by performing Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). The performance enhancement of these perforated spacers is attributed to the formation of micro-jets in the spacer cell that aided in producing enough unsteadiness/turbulence to clean the membrane surface and mitigate fouling phenomena. In the case of 1-Hole spacer, the unsteadiness intensity at the outlet of micro-jets and the shear stress fluctuations created inside the cells are higher than those

  5. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly spacer grid

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1977-01-01

    A spacer grid for a nuclear fuel assembly is comprised of a lattice of grid plates forming multiple cells that are penetrated by fuel elements. Resilient protrusions and rigid protrusions projecting into the cells from the plates bear against the fuel element to effect proper support and spacing. Pairs of intersecting grid plates, disposed in a longitudinally spaced relationship, cooperate with other plates to form a lattice wherein each cell contains adjacent panels having resilient protrusions arranged opposite adjacent panels having rigid protrusions. The peripheral band bounding the lattice is provided solely with rigid protrusions projecting into the peripheral cells. (Auth.)

  6. 25 CFR 11.607 - Temporary orders and temporary injunctions.

    2010-04-01

    ... injunction: (1) Does not prejudice the rights of the parties or the child which are to be adjudicated at... temporary maintenance or temporary support of a child of the marriage entitled to support. The motion shall... the peace of the other party or of any child; (3) Excluding a party from the family home or from the...

  7. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    A bimetallic grid spacer is described comprising a grid structure of zircaloy formed by intersecting striplike members which define fuel element openings for receiving fuel elements and spring strips made of Inconel positioned within the grid structure for cooperating with the fuel elements to maintain them in their desired position. A plurality of these spring strips extend longitudinally between sides of the grid structure, being locked in position by the grid retaining strips. The fuel rods, which are disposed in the fuel openings formed in the grid structure, are positioned by means of the springs associated with the spring strips and a plurality of dimples which extend from the zircaloy grid structure into the openings. In one embodiment the strips are disposed in a plurality of arrays with those spring strip arrays situated in opposing diagonal quadrants of the grid structure extending in the same direction and adjacent spring strip arrays in each half of the spacer extending in relatively perpendicular directions. Other variations of the spring strip arrangements for a particular fuel design are disclosed herein

  8. Spacers for use in nuclear fuel assembly

    Shiohata, Hironori; Nakamura, Shozo; Hasegawa, Kunio; Higuchi, Shigeo; Nagashima, Hideaki; Kawada, Yoshishige.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent liquid film breakage at the surface of a fuel rod due to swirlings of steam flow generated at the upstream of a contact portion between the fuel rod and a spacer leaf spring, that is, below the contact portion. Constitution: Steam-hot water 2-phase streams flowing from the lower to the upper portions of a fuel assembly is hindered by leaf springs, thereby forming swirlings in the steam flow at the upstream of a contact portion between the fuel rod and the leaf springs, that is, below the contact portion. The horseshoe-like swirlings shed the liquid films at the surface of the fuel rod to remarkably decrease the heat cooling performance, by which the surface temperature of a fuel can is temporarily increased thereby possibly causing failures due to so-called burnout in view of the above, steps are formed to the spacer leaf spring for use in the fuel assembly, to reduce the pressure difference between the leaf spring and the fuel rod at the upstream of the springs relative to the 2-phase coolant stream. In this way, formation of the swirlings is moderated to prevent the liquid film breakage and improve the critical heat power. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Development of structural technology for a high performance spacer grid

    Song, Kee Nam; Kim, H. K.; Kang, H. S.

    2003-03-01

    A spacer grid in a LWR fuel assembly is a key structural component to support fuel rods and to enhance the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. In this research, the main research items are the development of inherent and high performance spacer grid shapes, the establishment of mechanical/structural analysis and test technology, and the set-up of basic test facilities for the spacer grid. The main research areas and results are as follows. 1. 14 different spacer grid candidates have been invented and applied for domestic and US patents. Among the candidates six are chosen from the patent. 2. Two kinds of spacer grids are finally selected for the advanced LWR fuel after detailed performance tests on the candidates and commercial spacer grids from a mechanical/structural point of view. According to the test results the features of the selected spacer grids are better than those of the commercial spacer grids. 3. Four kinds of basic test facilities are set up and the relevant test technologies are established. 4. Mechanical/structural analysis models and technology for spacer grid performance are developed and the analysis results are compared with the test results to enhance the reliability of the models

  10. Pressure Drop of Chamfer on Spacer Grid Strap

    Kim, Euijae; Kim, Kanghoon; Kim, Kyounghong; Nahm, Keeyil [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    A swirl flow and cross flow are generated by the spacer grid with mixing vane that enhances the thermal performance and critical heat flux (CHF). The additional pressure drop makes it difficult to meet acceptance criteria for overall pressure drop in fuel assembly depending upon the pump capacity. The chamfer on the end of spacer grid strap is one solution to reduce additional pressure drop without any adverse effect on flow fields. In this research, the pressure drop tests for spacer grid with and without chamfer were carried out at the hydraulic test facility. The result can be applied to develop high performance nuclear fuel assemblies for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) plants. The pressure drop tests for 5x5 spacer grid with and without chamfer as well as 6x6 spacer grid with and without chamfer were carried out at the INFINIT test facility. The Reynolds number ranged about from 16000 to 75000. The sweep-up and sweep-down test showed that the direction of sweep did not affect the pressure drop. The chamfer on spacer grid strap reduced the pressure drop due to the decreased in ratio of inlet area to outlet area. The pressure loss coefficient for spacer grid with chamfer was by up to 13.8 % lower than that for spacer grid without chamfer. Hence, the chamfer on spacer grid strap was one of effective ways to reduce the pressure drop.

  11. Mating of a PROSTALAC spacer with an intramedullary nail for reconstruction of an infected interprosthetic femoral shaft fracture: a case report.

    Kamath, Atul F; Austin, Daniel; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2012-08-01

    Reconstruction for concurrent infection of an ipsilateral total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a challenge. We report a 2-stage reconstruction of a THA for chronic infection of both the THA and TKA with severe femoral bone loss secondary to interprosthetic fractures. The reconstruction involved using a custom-made, temporary, antibiotic-impregnated PROSTALAC spacer mated with an intramedullary nail. The acetabulum was then exposed and the necrotic cartilage was removed and curetted. The acetabulum was reamed to accept a PROSTALAC acetabular shell. The shell was cemented into the acetabulum with antibiotic cement. The custom-made spacer was then inserted distally first into the tibia. The distal end of the intramedullary nail was interlocked with a bicortical bolt to minimise nail rotation. Antibiotic-impregnated cement was moulded around the nail and spacer. The proximal end of the spacer was then reduced into the acetabular socket, and the joint was irrigated and the wound closed. A customised abduction brace was fitted, and partial weight bearing was allowed. Sufficient leg length, soft-tissue tension, and range of hip motion were restored, and a total femur and constrained liner was re-implanted 4 months later. Mating of an intramedullary nail with a PROSTALAC spacer is a viable reconstructive option.

  12. Efficient thermal diode with ballistic spacer

    Chen, Shunda; Donadio, Davide; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2018-03-01

    Thermal rectification is of importance not only for fundamental physics, but also for potential applications in thermal manipulations and thermal management. However, thermal rectification effect usually decays rapidly with system size. Here, we show that a mass-graded system, with two diffusive leads separated by a ballistic spacer, can exhibit large thermal rectification effect, with the rectification factor independent of system size. The underlying mechanism is explained in terms of the effective size-independent thermal gradient and the match or mismatch of the phonon bands. We also show the robustness of the thermal diode upon variation of the model's parameters. Our finding suggests a promising way for designing realistic efficient thermal diodes.

  13. Nuclear reactor spring strip grid spacer

    Patterson, J.F.; Flora, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    An improved and novel grid spacer was developed for use in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. It is comprised of a series of intersecting support strips and a peripheral support band attached to the ends of the support strips. Each of the openings into which the fuel element is inserted has a number of protruding dimples and springs extending in different directions. The dimples coact with the springs to secure the fuel rods in the openings. Compared with previous designs, this design gives more positive alignment of the support stips while allowing greater flexibility to counterbalance the effects of thermal expansion. The springs are arranged in alternating directions so that the reaction forces tend to counterbalance each other, which in turn minimizes the reaction loads on the supporting structure. (D.N.)

  14. PCR-Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) genes sequencing and ...

    Methods: DNA extraction, purification, amplification and sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) genes were per- formed using ... Keywords: Internal transcribed spacer genes, phylogenetic, genetic relationship, clinical and environmental fungi, HIV-TB. ... Nigeria. An Ethical clearance was obtained from the Eth-.

  15. Stress Analysis of Single Spacer Grid Support considering Fuel Rod

    Yoo, Y. G.; Jung, D. H.; Kim, J. H. [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, J. K.; Jeon, K. L. [Korea Nuclear Fuel, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear fuel assembly is mainly composed of a top-end piece, a bottom-end piece, lots of fuel rods, and several spacer grids. Among them, the main function of spacer grid is protecting fuel rods from Fluid Induced Vibration (FIV). The cross section of spacer grid assembled by laser welding in upper and lower point. When the fuel rod inserted in spacer gird, spring and dimple and around of welded area got a stresses. The main hypothesis of this analysis is the boundary area of HAZ and base metal can get a lot of damage than other area by FIV. So, design factors of spacer grid mainly considered to preventing the fatigue failure in HAZ and spring and dimple of spacer grid. From previous researching, the environment in reactor verified. Pressure and temperature of light water observed 15MPa and 320 .deg. C, and vibration of the fuel rod observed within 0 {approx} 50Hz. In this study, mechanical properties of zirconium alloy that extracted from the test and the spacer grid model which used in the PWR were applied in stress analyzing. General-purpose finite element analysis program was used ANSYS Workbench 12.0.1 version. 3-D CAD program CATIA was used to create spacer grid model

  16. Mechanical/structural performance test method of a spacer grid

    Yoon, Kyung Ho

    2000-06-01

    The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, which supports the fuel rods, guides cooling water, and protects the system from an external impact load, such as earthquakes. In order to develop the spacer grid with the high mechanical performance, the mechanical and structural properties of the spacer grids must be extensively examined while designing it. In this report, the mechanical/structural test methods, i.e. the characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple, static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid and dynamic impact test of them are described. The characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple is accomplished with universal tensile test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied compressive load. The characteristic test data is saved at loading and unloading event. The static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid is executed with the same universal tensile testing machine, a specimen is fixed between cross-heads and then applied the compressive load. The buckling strength is decided the maximum strength at load vs. displacement curve. The dynamic impact test of a partial or full size spacer grid is performed with pendulum type impact machine and free fall shock test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied the impact load by impact hammer. Specially, the pendulum type impact test machine is also possible under the operating temperature because a furnace is separately attached with test machine

  17. ATLAS barrel hadron tile calorimeter: spacers plates mass production

    Artikov, A.M.; Budagov, Yu.A.; Khubua, J.

    1999-01-01

    In this article we expose the main problems of the mass production of the so-called 'spacer plates' for the ATLAS Barrel Hadron Tile Calorimeter. We describe all practical solutions of these problems. Particularly we present the measurement procedures and calculation schemes we used for the spacers dimensions determination. The results of the calculations are presented

  18. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    Ikeda, Kazuo, E-mail: kazuo3_ikeda@ndc.mhi.co.jp

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  19. CFD application to advanced design for high efficiency spacer grid

    Ikeda, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new LDV was developed to investigate the local velocity in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. • The design information that utilizes for high efficiency spacer grid has been obtained. • CFD methodology that predicts flow field in a PWR fuel has been developed. • The high efficiency spacer grid was designed using the CFD methodology. - Abstract: Pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuels have been developed to meet the needs of the market. A spacer grid is a key component to improve thermal hydraulic performance of a PWR fuel assembly. Mixing structures (vanes) of a spacer grid promote coolant mixing and enhance heat removal from fuel rods. A larger mixing vane would improve mixing effect, which would increase the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) benefit for fuel. However, the increased pressure loss at large mixing vanes would reduce the coolant flow at the mixed fuel core, which would reduce the DNB margin. The solution is to develop a spacer grid whose pressure loss is equal to or less than the current spacer grid and that has higher critical heat flux (CHF) performance. For this reason, a requirement of design tool for predicting the pressure loss and CHF performance of spacer grids has been increased. The author and co-workers have been worked for development of high efficiency spacer grid using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for nearly 20 years. A new laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), which is miniaturized with fiber optics embedded in a fuel cladding, was developed to investigate the local velocity profile in a rod bundle and inside a spacer grid. The rod-embedded fiber LDV (rod LDV) can be inserted in an arbitrary grid cell instead of a fuel rod, and has the advantage of not disturbing the flow field since it is the same shape as a fuel rod. The probe volume of the rod LDV is small enough to measure spatial velocity profile in a rod gap and inside a spacer grid. According to benchmark experiments such as flow velocity

  20. A non-electrostatic spacer for aerosol delivery

    Bisgaard, H; Anhøj, J; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    to 6 years, suspected to have asthma the non-electrostatic spacer delivered a mean total dose of budesonide aerosol of 39% of the nominal dose, which was significantly higher than the Babyhaler (28%), the Nebuhaler (21%), and the AeroChamber (19%). These differences were most pronounced in children......A pear shaped non-electrostatic spacer, composed of steel with a volume of 250 ml and equipped with a facemask containing integrated inlet and outlet valves for inspiration and expiration, was compared with three plastic spacers. The plastic spacers were primed with repeated puffs from a budesonide...... was 27 seconds and independent of the use of p-MDI. In vitro the maximum dose of budesonide from a p-MDI, expressed as a percentage of the nominal dose, was 56% from the non-electrostatic spacer, 61% from the Nebuhaler, 45% from the Babyhaler, and 30% from the AeroChamber. In 124 children, age 6 months...

  1. Temporary labour contracts

    2000-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L 021/PE, L 022/PE, L 023/PE and L 024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) reached the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. At CERN?s request, in September 1999 the Finance Committee approved an extension of these contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs (CERN/FC/4196). In December 1999, one of the five contractors, FIRCROFT, withdrew from its contract for 2000. Following the satisfactory execution of the four remaining contracts during 2000, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2001 for the second of the two optional years provided for in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the existing contracts until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices.

  2. The temporary international collective chronicle

    Kravchenko, Yu.Ya.

    2007-01-01

    The temporary international collective brief history is presented from the time of its establishment in 1972 (and even earlier) till the termination of its activity in 1990 (and even later). Works in the temporary international collective framework demonstrate an example of successful cooperation of specialists from different countries in the field of calculation-theoretical and experimental research on the WWER reactor physics. The results of experimental and calculation studies were reported to the topical meetings, workshops, conferences, and symposia as well as were published in the temporary international collective reports and proceedings. The answers to the questions about the temporary international collective activity-What? Where? When?-are presented in this chronicle (Authors)

  3. Temporary storage area characterization report

    1990-01-01

    The preferred alternative identified in the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for the Weldon Spring Quarry Bulk Wastes is to remove the wastes from the quarry and transport them by truck to temporary storage facility at the chemical plant site. To support the RI/FS, this report provides data to characterize the temporary storage area (TSA) site and to ensure the suitability of the proposed location. 31 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  4. Effects of different rod spacers (helical types) on coolant crossmixing

    Zhukov, A.V.; Sviridenko, E.Ya.; Matyukhin, N.M.; Rymkevich, K.S.; Ushakov, P.A.

    1981-11-01

    The results of investigations (electromagnetic measuring method) on coolant cross mixing in rod clusters with spiral wire spacers with different winding directions, with alternating unfinned and finned rods (case 'fin to rod'), as well as in rod clusters with much space between the rods, (case 'fin to fin') are reported. The local fluid dynamics parameters (distribution of the transversal and longitudinal velocity component) that define the physical processes of the coolant exchange in the rod clusters with helical spacers are explained. The investigation results for different helical spacer types are compared with each other. (orig.) [de

  5. Grid spacers for use in a nuclear fuel assembly

    Kuwako, Akira.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain spacers capable of reducing the pressure loss by enlarging coolant flow channels when the fuel temperature is high, while capable of reliably maintaining the fuel pins with no vibrations when the fuel temperature is low. Constitution: This invention concerns grid spacers for constituting fuel assemblies for use in water cooled reactors. Memory shape alloys are disposed at least a portion of a spacer element that takes such a shape as urging the pin when the fuel temperature is low, while enlarging the coolant flow channel to reduce the pressure loss when the fuel temperature is high. (Ikeda, J.)

  6. Preclinical Evaluation of Bioabsorbable Polyglycolic Acid Spacer for Particle Therapy

    Akasaka, Hiroaki; Sasaki, Ryohei; Miyawaki, Daisuke; Mukumoto, Naritoshi; Sulaiman, Nor Shazrina Binti; Nagata, Masaaki; Yamada, Shigeru; Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Fukumoto, Takumi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a polyglycolic acid (PGA) spacer through physical and animal experiments. Methods and Materials: The spacer was produced with surgical suture material made of PGA, forming a 3-dimensional nonwoven fabric. For evaluation or physical experiments, 150-MeV proton or 320-MeV carbon-ion beams were used to generate 60-mm width of spread-out Bragg peak. For animal experiments, the abdomens of C57BL/6 mice, with or without the inserted PGA spacers, were irradiated with 20 Gy of carbon-ion beam (290 MeV) using the spread-out Bragg peak. Body weight changes over time were scored, and radiation damage to the intestine was investigated using hematoxylin and eosin stain. Blood samples were also evaluated 24 days after the irradiation. Long-term thickness retention and safety were evaluated using crab-eating macaques. Results: No chemical or structural changes after 100 Gy of proton or carbon-ion irradiation were observed in the PGA spacer. Water equivalency of the PGA spacer was equal to the water thickness under wet condition. During 24 days' observation after 20 Gy of carbon-ion irradiation, the body weights of mice with the PGA spacer were relatively unchanged, whereas significant weight loss was observed in those mice without the PGA spacer (P<.05). In mice with the PGA spacer, villus and crypt structure were preserved after irradiation. No inflammatory reactions or liver or renal dysfunctions due to placement of the PGA spacer were observed. In the abdomen of crab-eating macaques, thickness of the PGA spacer was maintained 8 weeks after placement. Conclusions: The absorbable PGA spacer had water-equivalent, bio-compatible, and thickness-retaining properties. Although further evaluation is warranted in a clinical setting, the PGA spacer may be effective to stop proton or carbon-ion beams and to separate normal tissues from the radiation field

  7. 5 CFR 213.3199 - Temporary organizations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Temporary organizations. 213.3199 Section... SERVICE Excepted Schedules Schedule A § 213.3199 Temporary organizations. Positions on the staffs of temporary organizations, as defined in 5 U.S.C. 3161(a). Appointments may not exceed 3 years, but temporary...

  8. 42 CFR 488.415 - Temporary management.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary management. 488.415 Section 488.415... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies § 488.415 Temporary management. (a) Definition. Temporary management means the temporary appointment by CMS or the State of a substitute facility manager or...

  9. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun; Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun [Korea Nuclear Fuel Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. USE OF ANTIBIOTIC CEMENT SPACERS/BEADS IN TREATMENT ...

    ABSTRACT. Background: Chronic musculoskeletal infection involving bone present a big challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. ... Current data has demonstrated that the use of .... Antibiotic spacers are effective and add value in the treament of ...

  12. Analytical prediction of fuel assembly spacer grid loss coefficient

    Lim, J. S.; Nam, K. I.; Park, S. K.; Kwon, J. T.; Park, W. J.

    2002-01-01

    The analytical prediction model of the fuel assembly spacer grid pressure loss coefficient has been studied. The pressure loss of gap between the test section wall and spacer grid was separated from the current model and the different friction drag coefficient on spacer straps from high Reynolds number region were used to low Reynolds number region. The analytical model has been verified based on the hydraulic pressure drop test results for the spacer grids of three types for 5x5, 16x16(or 17x17) arrays. The analytical model predicts the pressure loss coefficients obtained from test results within the maximum errors of 12% and 7% for 5x5 test bundle and full size bundle, respectively, at Reynolds number 500,000 of the core operating condition. This result shows that the analytical model can be used for research and design change of the nuclear fuel assembly

  13. Response of an electrostatic probe for a right cylindrical spacer

    Rerup, T; Crichton, George C; McAllister, Iain Wilson

    1994-01-01

    During the last decade many experimental studies of surface charge phenomena have been undertaken employing right cylindrical spacers. Measurement of the surface charge was performed using small electrostatic field probes to scan across the dielectric surface. Charges are electrostatically induced...

  14. Surface-Tethered Iterative Carbohydrate Synthesis (STICS): A spacer study

    Ganesh, N. Vijaya; Fujikawa, Kohki; Tan, Yih Horng; Nigudkar, Swati S.

    2013-01-01

    Comparative study of STICS using HPLC-assisted experimental set-up clearly demonstrated benefits of using longer spacer-anchoring systems. The use of mixed self-assembled monolayers helps to provide the required space for glycosylation reaction around the immobilized glycosyl acceptor. Both extension of the spacer length and using mixed self-assembled monolayers help to promote reaction and the beneficial effects may include moving the glycosyl acceptor further out into solution and providing additional conformational flexibility. It is possible that surface-immobilized glycosyl acceptors with a longer spacer (C8-O-C8)-lipoic acid have a higher tendency to mimic a solution-phase reaction environment than that of acceptors with shorter spacers. PMID:23822088

  15. Optimized Design of Spacer in Electrodialyzer Using CFD Simulation Method

    Jia, Yuxiang; Yan, Chunsheng; Chen, Lijun; Hu, Yangdong

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effects of length-width ratio and diversion trench of the spacer on the fluid flow behavior in an electrodialyzer have been investigated through CFD simulation method. The relevant information, including the pressure drop, velocity vector distribution and shear stress distribution, demonstrates the importance of optimized design of the spacer in an electrodialysis process. The results show width of the diversion trench has a great effect on the fluid flow compared with length. Increase of the diversion trench width could strength the fluid flow, but also increase the pressure drop. Secondly, the dead zone of the fluid flow decreases with increase of length-width ratio of the spacer, but the pressure drop increases with the increase of length-width ratio of the spacer. So the appropriate length-width ratio of the space should be moderate.

  16. A temporary index

    Thomson, Jon; Craighead, Alison

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing management of low, intermediate and high-level nuclear waste is an unresolved issue for humanity, not least because the time-frames in question when dealing with the hazards of radioactive wastes, range from as little as a few tens of years to more than 100 000 years. It is from this starting point that we are beginning the development of an ambitious multifaceted artwork aiming to help us consider our relationship with deep-time and our nuclear legacy. The expressed aim of Temporary Index is to raise general awareness about these long-term management issues, and in doing so, to embed this knowledge into our collective cultural memory so as to transmit useful information about our nuclear waste into the future. We wish to create a series of decorative, real-time numeric counters based on the probabilistic decay (including decay of daughter products) of existing nuclear waste that we identify from the earliest weapons' development programmes in the United States right through to contemporary wastes being produced by nuclear energy production today across the world. Each display will countdown in seconds, showing the time remaining before the given item of waste (or a particular site) is considered safe to humans. A hypothetical example of one counter could be a bottle of sludge containing plutonium discovered in 2004 during an attempted clean-up of the Hanford nuclear site in Washington State, United States. Another example might be the geological storage facility for vitrified nuclear waste at Horonobe in Japan, should it be established in the future. Accident sites, such as Chernobyl or Fukushima Daiichi could also be tagged with counters, as could low-level waste (LLW) repositories such as the one at Drigg near Sellafield in the United Kingdom. Whatever the items identified and this will be a complex process requiring collaboration with experts in the field, it is important that a wide range of short- and long-term counters are established to

  17. Orthognathic model surgery with LEGO key-spacer.

    Tsang, Alfred Chee-Ching; Lee, Alfred Siu Hong; Li, Wai Keung

    2013-12-01

    A new technique of model surgery using LEGO plates as key-spacers is described. This technique requires less time to set up compared with the conventional plaster model method. It also retains the preoperative setup with the same set of models. Movement of the segments can be measured and examined in detail with LEGO key-spacers. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioinformatics analyses of Shigella CRISPR structure and spacer classification.

    Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Bing; Duan, Guangcai; Wang, Yingfang; Hong, Lijuan; Wang, Linlin; Guo, Xiangjiao; Xi, Yuanlin; Yang, Haiyan

    2016-03-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are inheritable genetic elements of a variety of archaea and bacteria and indicative of the bacterial ecological adaptation, conferring acquired immunity against invading foreign nucleic acids. Shigella is an important pathogen for anthroponosis. This study aimed to analyze the features of Shigella CRISPR structure and classify the spacers through bioinformatics approach. Among 107 Shigella, 434 CRISPR structure loci were identified with two to seven loci in different strains. CRISPR-Q1, CRISPR-Q4 and CRISPR-Q5 were widely distributed in Shigella strains. Comparison of the first and last repeats of CRISPR1, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3 revealed several base variants and different stem-loop structures. A total of 259 cas genes were found among these 107 Shigella strains. The cas gene deletions were discovered in 88 strains. However, there is one strain that does not contain cas gene. Intact clusters of cas genes were found in 19 strains. From comprehensive analysis of sequence signature and BLAST and CRISPRTarget score, the 708 spacers were classified into three subtypes: Type I, Type II and Type III. Of them, Type I spacer referred to those linked with one gene segment, Type II spacer linked with two or more different gene segments, and Type III spacer undefined. This study examined the diversity of CRISPR/cas system in Shigella strains, demonstrated the main features of CRISPR structure and spacer classification, which provided critical information for elucidation of the mechanisms of spacer formation and exploration of the role the spacers play in the function of the CRISPR/cas system.

  19. Buckling behavior analysis of spacer grid by lateral impact load

    Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Heung Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam

    2000-05-01

    The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, Which supports the fuel rods, guides cooling water, and protects the system from an external impact load, such as earthquakes. Therefore, the mechanical and structural properties of the spacer grids must be extensively examined while designing it. In this report, free fall type shock tests on the several kinds of the specimens of the spacer grids were also carried out in order to compare the results among the candidate grids. A free fall carriage on the specimen accomplishes the test. In addition to this, a finite element method for predicting the critical impact strength of the spacer grids is described. FE method on the buckling behavior of the spacer grids are performed for a various array of sizes of the grids considering that the spacer grid is an assembled structure with thin-walled plates and imposing proper boundary conditions by nonlinear dynamic impact analysis using ABAQUS/explicit code. The simulated results results also similarly predicted the local buckling phenomena and were found to give good correspondence with the shock test results

  20. The potential of standard and modified feed spacers for biofouling control

    Araújo, Paula A.

    2012-06-01

    The impact of feed spacers on initial feed channel pressure (FCP) drop, FCP increase and biomass accumulation has been studied in membrane fouling simulators using feed spacers applied in commercially available nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral wound membrane modules. All spacers had a similar geometry.Our studies showed that biofouling was not prevented by (i) variation of spacer thickness, (ii) feed spacer orientation, (iii) feed spacer coating with silver, copper or gold and (iv) using a biostatic feed spacer. At constant feed flow, a lower FCP and FCP increase were observed for a thicker feed spacer. At constant linear flow velocity, roughly the same FCP development and biomass accumulation were found irrespective of the feed spacer thickness: hydrodynamics and substrate load were more important for development and impact of biofouling than the thickness of currently applied spacers. Use of biostatic and metal coated spacers were not effective for biofouling control. The same small reduction of biofouling rate was observed with copper and silver coated spacers as well as uncoated 45° rotated spacers.The studied modified spacers were not effective for biofouling prevention and control. The impact of biofouling on FCP increase was reduced significantly by a lower linear flow velocity, while spacer orientation and spacer thickness in membrane modules had a smaller but still significant effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. The potential of standard and modified feed spacers for biofouling control

    Araú jo, Paula A.; Kruithof, Joop C.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of feed spacers on initial feed channel pressure (FCP) drop, FCP increase and biomass accumulation has been studied in membrane fouling simulators using feed spacers applied in commercially available nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral wound membrane modules. All spacers had a similar geometry.Our studies showed that biofouling was not prevented by (i) variation of spacer thickness, (ii) feed spacer orientation, (iii) feed spacer coating with silver, copper or gold and (iv) using a biostatic feed spacer. At constant feed flow, a lower FCP and FCP increase were observed for a thicker feed spacer. At constant linear flow velocity, roughly the same FCP development and biomass accumulation were found irrespective of the feed spacer thickness: hydrodynamics and substrate load were more important for development and impact of biofouling than the thickness of currently applied spacers. Use of biostatic and metal coated spacers were not effective for biofouling control. The same small reduction of biofouling rate was observed with copper and silver coated spacers as well as uncoated 45° rotated spacers.The studied modified spacers were not effective for biofouling prevention and control. The impact of biofouling on FCP increase was reduced significantly by a lower linear flow velocity, while spacer orientation and spacer thickness in membrane modules had a smaller but still significant effect. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Release of Gentamicin and Vancomycin from Preformed Spacers in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasties: Measurement of Concentrations and Inhibitory Activity in Patients’ Drainage Fluids and Serum

    Dario Regis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin (G and vancomycin (V concentrations in drainage fluids obtained from patients during the first 24 hours after implantation of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA spacers in two-stage revision of infected total hip arthroplasty were studied. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids against different multiresistant clinical isolates was investigated as well. Seven hips were treated by implantation of industrial G-loaded spacers. Vancomycin was added by manually mixing with PMMA bone cement. Serum and drainage fluid samples were collected 1, 4, and 24 hours after spacer implantation. Antibiotics concentrations and drains bactericidal titer of combination were determined against multiresistant staphylococcal strains. The release of G and V from PMMA cement at the site of infection was prompt and effective. Serum levels were below the limit of detection. The local release kinetics of G and V from PMMA cement was similar, exerting a pronounced, combined inhibitory effect in the implant site. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids showed substantial intersubject variability related to antibiotic concentrations and differed according to the pathogens tested. Gentamicin and vancomycin were released from temporary hip spacers at bactericidal concentrations, and their use in combination exerted strong inhibition against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci strains.

  3. Evaluation of the Luting Cement Space for Provisional Restoration by using Various Coats of Die Spacer Materials-An Invitro Study.

    Chiramana, Sandeep; Siddineni, Krishna Chaitanya; Jyothula, Ravi Rakesh Dev; Gade, Phani Krishna; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Kondaka, Sudheer; Hussain, Zakir; Paluri, Geetha Bhavani

    2014-09-01

    The present study was to evaluate the space provided for the temporary luting cement, after the application of various coats of die spacers, during the fabrication of provisional crowns and bridges. A total of 50 specimens of dental stone with provisional crowns on all these samples were prepared and were divided into five groups based on the application of various coats of different die spacers. Later these specimens were sectioned buccolingually and were observed using a stereomicroscope under 100X magnification. The images thus obtained were evaluated and noted for the amount of space between the inner surface of the provisional crown and the specimens at five different locations using Image Pro 6.0 Express software and the values were subjected to one-way ANOVA test, and unpaired t-test. There was a significant increase of luting space thickness with various die spacer applications than the specimens of control group. Specimens of double coat applications of silver and gold die spacers showed higher luting cement space than the separating media application specimens.

  4. Connecting Temporary and Permanent Organizing

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal; Velikova, Silviya Svejenova

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between a permanent organization and a series of temporary organizations. It draws on an in-depth study of the process through which a Danish film production company, seeking to balance innovation and persistence in a troubled industry, struggles to realize...... a novel children’s film and its sequels. The study reveals tensions at different levels as well as boundary work and boundary roles that address them, bringing in shadows of past and future projects. The study extends the understanding of the dialectic between temporary and permanent organizing...

  5. Improved spacers for high temperature gas-cooled heat exchangers

    Nordstroem, L A [Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research, Wuerenlingen (Switzerland)

    1984-07-01

    Experimental and analytical investigations in the field of heat exchanger thermohydraulics have been performed at EIR for many years, Basic studies have been carried out on heat transfer and pressure loss for tube bundles of different geometries and tube surfaces. As a part of this overall R+D programme for heat exchangers, investigations have been carried out on spacer pressure loss in bundles with longitudinal flow. An analytical spacer pressure loss model was developed which could handle different types of subchannel within the bundle. The model has been evaluated against experiments, using about 25 spacers of widely differing geometries. In a gas-cooled reactor it is important to keep the pressure loss over the primary circuit heat exchangers to a minimum. In exchangers with grid spacers these contribute a significant proportion of the overall bundle losses. For example, in the HHT Recuperator, with a shell-side pressure loss of 3.5 % of the inlet pressure, the spacers cause about one half of this loss. Reducing the loss to, say, 2.5 % results in an overall increase in plant efficiency by more than 1 % - a significant improvement Preliminary analysis identified 5 geometries in particular which were chosen for experimental evaluation as part of a joint project with the SULZER Company, to develop a low pressure-loss spacer for HHT heat exchangers (longitudinal counter-flow He/He and He/H{sub 2}O designs). The aim of the tests was to verify the low pressure-loss characteristics of these spacer grid types, as well as the quality of the results calculated by the computer code analytical model. The experimental and analytical results are compared in this report.

  6. Morbidity of temporary loop ileostomies

    Bakx, R.; Busch, O. R. C.; Bemelman, W. A.; Veldink, G. J.; Slors, J. F. M.; van Lanschot, J. J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Background/Aims: A temporary loop ileostomy is constructed to protect a distal colonic anastomosis. Closure is usually performed not earlier than 8 - 12 weeks after the primary operation. During this period, stoma-related complications can occur and enhance the adverse effect on quality of life. The

  7. Numerical analysis of the spacer grids' compression strength

    Schettino, C.F.M.; Gouvea, J.P.; Medeiros, N., E-mail: carlosschettino@inb.gov.br, E-mail: jpg@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2013-07-01

    Among the components of the fuel assembly, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly for their requirement to have enough structural strength to withstand lateral impact loads, due to fuel assembly shipping/handling and due to forces outcome from postulated accidents (earthquake and LOCA). This requirement ensures a proper geometry for cooling and for guide thimble straightness in the fuel assembly. In this way, the understanding of the macroscopic mechanical behavior of this component becomes essential even to any subsequent geometrical modifications to optimize the flue assemblies' structural behavior. In the present work, three-dimensional finite element models destined to provide consistent predictions of 16X16-type spacer grids lateral strength were proposed. Firstly, buckling tests based on results available in the literature were performed to establish a methodology for spacer grid finite element-based modeling. The, by considering a spacer grid interesting geometry and some possible variations associated to its fabrication, tolerance, the proposed numerical models were submitted to compression conditions to calculate the buckling force. Also, these models were validated for comparison with experimental buckling load results. Comparison of buckling predictions combined to observations of actual and simulated deformed spacer grids geometries permitted to verify the consistency and applicability of the proposed models. Thus, these numerical results show a good agreement between the and the experimental results. (author)

  8. Impact of spacer thickness on biofouling in forward osmosis

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2014-06-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) indirect desalination systems integrate wastewater recovery with seawater desalination. Niche applications for FO systems have been reported recently, due to the demonstrated advantages compared to conventional high-pressure membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Among them, wastewater recovery has been identified to be particularly suitable for practical applications. However, biofouling in FO membranes has rarely been studied in applications involving wastewater effluents. Feed spacers separating the membrane sheets in cross-flow systems play an important role in biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of feed spacer thickness (28, 31 and 46mil) on biofouling development and membrane performance in a FO system, using identical cross-flow cells in parallel studies. Flux development, biomass accumulation, fouling localization and composition were determined and analyzed. For all spacer thicknesses, operated at the same feed flow and the same run time, the same amount of biomass was found, while the flux reduction decreased with thicker spacers. These observations are in good agreement with biofouling studies for RO systems, considering the key differences between FO and RO. Our findings contradict previous cross-flow studies on particulate/colloidal fouling, where higher cross-flow velocities improved system performance. Thicker spacers reduced the impact of biofouling on FO membrane flux. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Impact of spacer thickness on biofouling in forward osmosis.

    Valladares Linares, R; Bucs, Sz S; Li, Z; AbuGhdeeb, M; Amy, G; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-06-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) indirect desalination systems integrate wastewater recovery with seawater desalination. Niche applications for FO systems have been reported recently, due to the demonstrated advantages compared to conventional high-pressure membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Among them, wastewater recovery has been identified to be particularly suitable for practical applications. However, biofouling in FO membranes has rarely been studied in applications involving wastewater effluents. Feed spacers separating the membrane sheets in cross-flow systems play an important role in biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of feed spacer thickness (28, 31 and 46 mil) on biofouling development and membrane performance in a FO system, using identical cross-flow cells in parallel studies. Flux development, biomass accumulation, fouling localization and composition were determined and analyzed. For all spacer thicknesses, operated at the same feed flow and the same run time, the same amount of biomass was found, while the flux reduction decreased with thicker spacers. These observations are in good agreement with biofouling studies for RO systems, considering the key differences between FO and RO. Our findings contradict previous cross-flow studies on particulate/colloidal fouling, where higher cross-flow velocities improved system performance. Thicker spacers reduced the impact of biofouling on FO membrane flux. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyses of the Collapse Behavior of a Spacer Grid

    Jang, Myung-Geun; Na, Geum Ju; Jag, Yeon-Hui; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Jong-Bong; Kim, Jaeyoug

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the protection capability of a spacer grid assembly for impact load, a hammer impact test has been carried out. The crush strength is measured in the hammer impact test. Song et al. carried out the experiment and finite element analysis for the hammer impact test for various weld line depth. Park et al. designed the spacer grid shape to get required crush strength via finite element analysis. Song et al. also optimized the spacer grid shape to maximize the crush strength, and carried out the finite element analysis for the hammer impact test considering the weld properties. Kim et al. carried out finite element analysis for various guide tube hole shape and compared the crush shape and crush strength. In this study, the effect of shape defect on the crush behavior in the hammer impact test is investigated. The spacer grid cannot be exactly the square. Therefore a lateral displacement (imperfection) is imposed to square spacer grid and then hammer impact is carried out. The effect of the lateral imperfection on the crush strength is investigated. The effect of the shape defect on the crushing behavior in the hammer impact test is investigated by finite element analysis. It is shown that the collapse become severe as the lateral imperfection displacement increases, especially when the imperfection is greater than or equal to 0.7 mm

  11. Zircaloy spacer grid for boiling light water reactors

    Borgiani, F.; Cali', G.P.; Cerretti, P.; Pazzo, P.

    1975-01-01

    The need to increase the neutronic efficiency of the new cores of BWR's, lead to study types of spacer-grids made of low neutronic absorption materials as zircaloy-4. The particular mechanical behaviour of this material suggested to design a spacer-grids such as to utilize only blanking, slotting and bending operations as plastic forming and to avoid therefore drawing effects. The optimization of the bending procedures lead to a final spacer-grids configuration equally stiff in all directions and planes. Only for the ''elastic constraints'' nichel alloy sheets were used to made easy the whole spacer design. The ''rigid constraints'', supporting the rods, have been obtained directly from the spacer structure. Calculations were performed to verify the mechanical strength of the main grid components. In this framework a computer code was developed to find the best elastic characteristic of the ''elastic constraints'' taking into account the machining tolerances. Some original methods to test the integral behaviour of the grid assembled as well as the procedures to be adopted for its best maintenance, are described

  12. Numerical analysis of the spacer grids' compression strength

    Schettino, C.F.M.; Gouvea, J.P.; Medeiros, N.

    2013-01-01

    Among the components of the fuel assembly, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly for their requirement to have enough structural strength to withstand lateral impact loads, due to fuel assembly shipping/handling and due to forces outcome from postulated accidents (earthquake and LOCA). This requirement ensures a proper geometry for cooling and for guide thimble straightness in the fuel assembly. In this way, the understanding of the macroscopic mechanical behavior of this component becomes essential even to any subsequent geometrical modifications to optimize the flue assemblies' structural behavior. In the present work, three-dimensional finite element models destined to provide consistent predictions of 16X16-type spacer grids lateral strength were proposed. Firstly, buckling tests based on results available in the literature were performed to establish a methodology for spacer grid finite element-based modeling. The, by considering a spacer grid interesting geometry and some possible variations associated to its fabrication, tolerance, the proposed numerical models were submitted to compression conditions to calculate the buckling force. Also, these models were validated for comparison with experimental buckling load results. Comparison of buckling predictions combined to observations of actual and simulated deformed spacer grids geometries permitted to verify the consistency and applicability of the proposed models. Thus, these numerical results show a good agreement between the and the experimental results. (author)

  13. A non-electrostatic spacer for aerosol delivery

    Bisgaard, H; Anhøj, J; Klug, B

    1995-01-01

    A pear shaped non-electrostatic spacer, composed of steel with a volume of 250 ml and equipped with a facemask containing integrated inlet and outlet valves for inspiration and expiration, was compared with three plastic spacers. The plastic spacers were primed with repeated puffs from a budesonide...... pressurised metered dose inhaler (p-MDI) to minimise the electrostatic charge on the plastic. The procedure prolonged the half life (t1/2) of the aerosol in the Nebuhaler from nine to 32 seconds. A normal cleaning procedure reduced the aerosol t1/2 back to baseline. The t1/2 of the aerosol in the metal spacer...... was 27 seconds and independent of the use of p-MDI. In vitro the maximum dose of budesonide from a p-MDI, expressed as a percentage of the nominal dose, was 56% from the non-electrostatic spacer, 61% from the Nebuhaler, 45% from the Babyhaler, and 30% from the AeroChamber. In 124 children, age 6 months...

  14. Impact of spacer thickness on biofouling in forward osmosis

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Bucs, Szilard; Li, Z.; AbuGhdeeb, M.; Amy, Gary L.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2014-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) indirect desalination systems integrate wastewater recovery with seawater desalination. Niche applications for FO systems have been reported recently, due to the demonstrated advantages compared to conventional high-pressure membrane processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). Among them, wastewater recovery has been identified to be particularly suitable for practical applications. However, biofouling in FO membranes has rarely been studied in applications involving wastewater effluents. Feed spacers separating the membrane sheets in cross-flow systems play an important role in biofilm formation. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of feed spacer thickness (28, 31 and 46mil) on biofouling development and membrane performance in a FO system, using identical cross-flow cells in parallel studies. Flux development, biomass accumulation, fouling localization and composition were determined and analyzed. For all spacer thicknesses, operated at the same feed flow and the same run time, the same amount of biomass was found, while the flux reduction decreased with thicker spacers. These observations are in good agreement with biofouling studies for RO systems, considering the key differences between FO and RO. Our findings contradict previous cross-flow studies on particulate/colloidal fouling, where higher cross-flow velocities improved system performance. Thicker spacers reduced the impact of biofouling on FO membrane flux. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Temporary employment and health: a review.

    Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Joensuu, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi

    2005-06-01

    We aimed to review evidence on the relationship between temporary employment and health, and to see whether the association is dependent on outcome measure, instability of employment, and contextual factors. We systematically searched for studies of temporary employment and various health outcomes and critically appraised 27 studies. The review suggests higher psychological morbidity among temporary workers compared with permanent employees. According to some studies, temporary workers also have a higher risk of occupational injuries but their sickness absence is lower. Morbidity may be higher in temporary jobs with high employment instability and in countries with a lower number of temporary workers and unemployed workers. The evidence indicates an association between temporary employment and psychological morbidity. The health risk may depend on instability of temporary employment and the context. Confounding by occupation may have biased some of the studies. Additional research to clarify the role of employment instability, hazard accumulation, and selection is recommended.

  16. Employment protection and temporary work agencies

    Baumann, Florian; Mechtel, Mario; Stähler, Nikolai

    2008-01-01

    Employers who use temporary agency staff in contrast to regular staff are not affected by employment protection regulations when terminating a job. Therefore, services provided by temporary work agencies may be seen as a substitute for regular employment. In this paper, we analyze the effects of employment protection on the size of the temporary work agency sector in a model of equilibrium unemployment. We find that higher firing costs may even reduce temporary work agency employment if agenc...

  17. 36 CFR 13.182 - Temporary facilities.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary facilities. 13.182... NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Cabins Use of Temporary Facilities Related to Taking Fish and Wildlife § 13.182 Temporary facilities. In a national preserve where the taking of fish and wildlife is...

  18. Experimental study of mechanical properties on spacer in NHR

    Jiang Yueyuan; Shi Jibing; Xu Yong

    2007-01-01

    The spacer of NHR-200 is composed mainly of the inner, outer and cornual strips which are ranged in egg-crate of 12 x 12-3. First, the pre-distortion of three kinds of three-arc springs on reactor working condition and their related clipping-force ranges are analyzed in this paper. Secondly, the mechanical experiments of 1:1 prototype, such as the load-distortion experiments, which the load and distortion are respectively measured by strain gauge and displacement sensor, of three kinds of springs, rigid supports and the spacers in two different directions are carried out on a special experimental facility. The experimental results show that the spacer can completely meet the design demands of mechanical properties of the fuel assemblies in NHR-200. (authors)

  19. Effect of a spacer moiety on radiometal labelled Neurotensin derivatives

    Mascarin, A.; Valverde, I.E.; Mindt, T.L. [Univ. of Basel Hospital (Switzerland). Div. of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry

    2013-07-01

    The binding sequence of the regulatory peptide Neurotensin, NT(8-13), represents a promising tumour-specific vector for the development of radiopeptides useful in nuclear oncology for the diagnosis (imaging) and therapy of cancer. A number of radiometal-labelled NT(8-13) derivatives have been reported, however, the effect of the spacer which connects the vector with the radiometal complex has yet not been investigated systematically. Because a spacer moiety can influence potentially important biological characteristics of radiopeptides, we synthesized three [DOTA({sup 177}Lu)]-X-NT(8-13) derivatives and evaluated the effect of a spacer (X) on the physico-chemical properties of the conjugate including lipophilicity, stability, and in vitro receptor affinity and cell internalization. (orig.)

  20. Lower end fitting debris collector and end cap spacer grid

    Bryan, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor having fuel assemblies including an upper end fitting and spaced nuclear fuel rod spacer grids for supporting and spacing a plurality of elongated nuclear fuel rods. Each includes a hollow active portion of nuclear fuel filled cladding intermediate the rod ends and tapering end cap of solid material with a circumferential groove on the rod end which first encounters reactor coolant flow, a lower end filtering debris collector and end cap spacer grid for capturing and retaining deleterious debris carried by reactor coolant before it enters the active region of a fuel assembly and creates fuel rod cladding damage

  1. Spacer grid for a nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    Jabsen, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    The spacer grid consists of pairs of plates forming rectangular cells and enclosing the cylindrical fuel assemblies. They have got rigid as well as elastic projections extending into the cells and holding the fuel assemblies. Additional pairs of plates are arranged in about the center of the grid of plates. They have got only elastic projections extending on both sides of the plates into one cell each. This spacer grid may be used for reactor cores with and without fuel channels. By the combination of spring-elastic and rigid projections there is obtained a reinforced outer tie. Hydraulic pressure losses, parasitic neutron capture, and hot spots are essentially reduced. (DG) [de

  2. Biomechanical Analysis of an Expandable Lumbar Interbody Spacer.

    Soriano-Baron, Hector; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Malhotra, Devika; Palma, Atilio E; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Crawford, Neil R; Theodore, Nicholas; Kelly, Brian P; Kaibara, Taro

    2018-06-01

    Recently developed expandable interbody spacers are widely accepted in spinal surgery; however, the resulting biomechanical effects of their use have not yet been fully studied. We analyzed the biomechanical effects of an expandable polyetheretherketone interbody spacer inserted through a bilateral posterior approach with and without different modalities of posterior augmentation. Biomechanical nondestructive flexibility testing was performed in 7 human cadaveric lumbar (L2-L5) specimens followed by axial compressive loading. Each specimen was tested under 6 conditions: 1) intact, 2) bilateral L3-L4 cortical screw/rod (CSR) alone, 3) WaveD alone, 4) WaveD + CSR, 5) WaveD + bilateral L3-L4 pedicle screw/rod (PSR), and 6) WaveD + CSR/PSR, where CSR/PSR was a hybrid construct comprising bilateral cortical-level L3 and pedicle-level L4 screws interconnected by rods. The range of motion (ROM) with the interbody spacer alone decreased significantly compared with the intact condition during flexion-extension (P = 0.02) but not during lateral bending or axial rotation (P ≥ 0.19). The addition of CSR or PSR to the interbody spacer alone condition significantly decreased the ROM compared with the interbody spacer alone (P ≤ 0.002); and WaveD + CSR, WaveD + PSR, and WaveD + CSR/PSR (hybrid) (P ≥ 0.29) did not differ. The axial compressive stiffness (resistance to change in foraminal height during compressive loading) with the interbody spacer alone did not differ from the intact condition (P = 0.96), whereas WaveD + posterior instrumentation significantly increased compressive stiffness compared with the intact condition and the interbody spacer alone (P ≤ 0.001). The WaveD alone significantly reduced ROM during flexion-extension while maintaining the axial compressive stiffness. CSR, PSR, and CSR/PSR hybrid constructs were all effective in augmenting the expandable interbody spacer system and improving its stability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All

  3. Temporary Clusters and Knowledge Creation

    Maskell, Peter; Bathelt, Harald; Malmberg, Anders

    2004-01-01

    or participating in such events are means toidentify the current market frontier, take stock of relative competitive positions and formfuture plans. These events exhibit many of the characteristics ascribed to permanentclusters, albeit in a temporary, periodic and intensified form. The temporary clusters...... arehotspots of intense knowledge exchange, network building and idea generation.In investigating the extent and nature of these phenomena, the present paper explores anumber of issues. First, it shows that international trade fairs and other professionalgatherings are events which enable firms to compare...... their own products with others whichare available to the world market. Comparisons to and interactions with other firmsstimulate processes of knowledge creation. Second, it demonstrates how trade fairs areimportant for firms when selecting partners with whom to develop global pipelines,enabling access...

  4. Temporary Residences: a becoming project

    Luisa Ingaramo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the experimental actions fostered so far by the Compagnia di San Paolo through its Housing Program, committed in handling the complex and fragmented housing discomfort issue, the Temporary Dwellings initiative represents a unique and innovative experience, as it actually offers the chance to activate a proper managerial direction around and about the real estate development processes. In particular, the Temporary Dwellings action is marked by two key aspects: a structured co-planning vision and projects selected through a requests for proposal system. The process in the whole aims on the one hand at reaching an high transparent level of decision making , while, on the other hand, at developing a continuous and mutual monitoring and matching activity between the Housing Program and the group of cross-curricular experts teamed up in the project: technicians, designers, managers, psychologists, contractors, and the other local stakeholders.

  5. Large capacity temporary visual memory

    Endress, Ansgar D.; Potter, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (WM) capacity is thought to be limited to three or four items. However, many cognitive activities seem to require larger temporary memory stores. Here, we provide evidence for a temporary memory store with much larger capacity than past WM capacity estimates. Further, based on previous WM research, we show that a single factor — proactive interference — is sufficient to bring capacity estimates down to the range of previous WM capacity estimates. Participants saw a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of 5 to 21 pictures of familiar objects or words presented at rates of 4/s or 8/s, respectively, and thus too fast for strategies such as rehearsal. Recognition memory was tested with a single probe item. When new items were used on all trials, no fixed memory capacities were observed, with estimates of up to 9.1 retained pictures for 21-item lists, and up to 30.0 retained pictures for 100-item lists, and no clear upper bound to how many items could be retained. Further, memory items were not stored in a temporally stable form of memory, but decayed almost completely after a few minutes. In contrast, when, as in most WM experiments, a small set of items was reused across all trials, thus creating proactive interference among items, capacity remained in the range reported in previous WM experiments. These results show that humans have a large-capacity temporary memory store in the absence of proactive interference, and raise the question of whether temporary memory in everyday cognitive processing is severely limited as in WM experiments, or has the much larger capacity found in the present experiments. PMID:23937181

  6. Transcending Organization in Temporary Systems

    Stjerne, Iben Sandal

    in temporary systems that lack stability and formal order. It advances our understanding of transcending organization in creative industries by adopting a practice based perspective. Empirically, the dissertation presents an in-depth study of the Danish film industry, which is an extreme case of a project...... film workers with different functional roles and six months of ethnographic study of film projects in the Danish film industry, in particular delving into the film project Antboy and its sequels....

  7. Temporary air-raid shelters

    Jokela, J.; Olin, J.; Koukkari, H.

    1983-05-01

    This report deals with materials and structures of temporary air-raid shelters. At first, the weapon effects against which the temporary shelters can protect are described. These are, primarily, the fragmentation and blast pressure caused by conventional weapons and those effects of the nuclear weapons which exist outside the total disaster and fire areas. Temporary shelters built into existing buildings can give protection either from radioactive fallout or from fallout and collapse of the building above. For fallout protection heavy materials are needed, which simultaneously protect from fragmentation. In the research report, the methods and materials used for the contruction of a fallout shelter into an apartment house and a small house are introduced. The collapse loads acting on a basement ceiling and the design of additional timber supports are also presented. The use of various materials in the construction of shelters outside the buildings are introduced. Separate shelters can be built either under the ground or on the ground. The same materials can be used in both cases, but the underground shelters have a better level of protection. (author)

  8. Comparative studies of 111In-labeled monoclonal antibody using spacer-containing and non-spacer bifunctional chelates. 2

    Sun, Baofu

    1994-01-01

    Indium-111-labeled A7 monoclonal antibodies using two spacer-containing chelates, succinimido-EGS-DTPA (EGS-DTPA: diester spacer) and maleimido-C10-Bz-EDTA (C10-Bz-EDTA: hydrocarbon spacer) were investigated in human LS180 colon tumor bearing nude mice and were compared with two non-spacer chelates, cyclic DTPA dianhydride (cDTPAA) and isothiocyanatobenzyl-EDTA (SCN-Bz-EDTA). Compared with immunoconjugates using non-spacer chelates, immunoconjugates using spacer-containing chelates, especially C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 showed lower 111 In activity in normal organs. The radioactivity in the liver for C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 decreased continuously till 96 hrs postinjection, however, this liver radioactivity for EGS-DTPA-A7 showed little change after 24 hrs. Moreover, in liver subcellular distribution study, EGS-DTPA-A7 showed a higher activity retention in mitochondrial fraction which contained lysosome, a place for metabolizing and storing of 111 In labeled antibody, than that of C10-Bz-EDTA-A7. The C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 conjugate demonstrated more preferable tumor-to-non tumor contrast on the scintigrams than that found with other three immunoconjugates. Up to 96 hrs postinjection, tumor bearing nude mice injecting with immunoconjugates using spacer-containing chelates exreted twice radioactivity from whole body than that excreted by using non-spacer chelates. Interestingly, different from other three chelates, C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 were mainly excreted via feces. We conclude that the decrease of radioactivity in normal tissues in the case of EGS-DTPA-A7 was due to the rapid decrease of activity in the blood, while in the case of C10-Bz-EDTA-A7 it was due to the quickly excreted small metabolite through faces. 111 In labeled C10-Bz-EDTA conjugate is superior, at least when conjugated with A7, to other three chelate conjugates used in this study. (author)

  9. Shelf life of pie caps with biodegradable films as spacers

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly pie caps at market use polyethylene films as spacers between them. This paper studies the conventional spacers replacement with edible and biodegradable films made with whey protein isolate (WPI and potassium sorbate as a preservative. Besides facilitating the separation of pie caps, with this application is intended to increase their shelf life. The films made by the compression molding method were used as spacers in pie caps without preservative in their formula (A and with preservative (B and they were compared with conventional polyethylene spacers (C. During four months, monthly sensory, microbiological and physicochemical (humidity evaluations were done on the pie caps, together with humidity and solubility evaluations of the films. None of the samples showed microbiological or sensory deterioration. The sensory attributes showed no or slight difference in study time. Between samples the differences were minor: the best scores were for sample A in color, sample C in flavor, and samples B and C in texture and overall liking. The edible films have an interesting potential for this application, although studies in disguise the flavor of serum should be done.

  10. Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and internal ...

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... in some East Asian countries such as China, Korea and. *Corresponding author. E-mail: soonkwan@kangwon.ac.kr. Tel: +82 33 250 6476. Fax: +82 33 250 6470. Abbreviations: nrDNA, Nuclear ribosomal DNA; ITS, internal transcribed spacer; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; BLAST, basic local alignment ...

  11. Deformation behavior of cell spring of an irradiated spacer grid

    Jin, Y. G.; Baek, S. J.; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Kim, D. S.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B.; Choo, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of a space grid of a fuel assembly are of great importance for fuel operation reliability in extended fuel burnup and duration of fuel life. The spacer grid with inner and outer straps has cell spring and dimples, which are in contact with the fuel rod. The spacer grids supporting the fuel rods absorb vibration impacts due to the reactor coolant flow and also grid spring force is decreasing under irradiation. This reduction of contact force might cause the grid to rod fretting wear. The fretting failure of the fuel rod is one of the significant issues recently in the nuclear industry from an economical as well as a safety concern. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics of cell spring behavior for an irradiated spacer grid. In the present study, the stiffness test and dimensional measurement of cell springs were conducted to investigate the deformation behavior of cell springs of an irradiated spacer grid in a hot cell at IMEF (irradiated materials examination facility) of KAERI

  12. Hot fuel examination facility element spacer wire-wrap machine

    Tobias, D.A.; Sherman, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    Nondestructive examinations of irradiated experimental fuel elements conducted in the Argonne National Laboratory Hot Fuel Examination Facility/North (HFEF/N) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory include laser and contact profilometry (element diameter measurements), electrical eddy-current testing for cladding and thermal bond defects, bow and length measurements, neutron radiography, gamma scanning, remote visual exam, and photography. Profilometry was previously restricted to spiral profilometry of the element to prevent interference with the element spacer wire wrapped in a helix about the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II)-type fuel element from end to end. By removing the spacer wire prior to conducting profilometry examination, axial profilometry techniques may be used, which are considerably faster than spiral techniques and often result in data acquisition more important to experiment sponsors. Because the element must often be reinserted into the nuclear reactor (EBR-II) for additional irradiation, however, the spacer wire must be reinstalled on the highly irradiated fuel element by remote means after profilometry of the wireless elements. The element spacer wire-wrap machine developed at HFEF is capable of helically wrapping fuel elements with diameters up to 1.68 cm (0.660 in.) and 2.44-m (96-in.) lengths. The machine can accommodate almost any desired wire pitch length by simply inserting a new wrapper gear module

  13. Knowledge of spacer device, peak flow meter and inhaler technique ...

    Background: Metered dose inhalers are cornerstone in effective management of bronchial asthma when correctly used. Most studies hitherto have focused on assessing patient's knowledge of inhaler technique. We sought to assess the knowledge of inhaler technique, spacer device and peak flow meter among doctors and ...

  14. On the impact analysis of a PWR spacer grid

    Song, Kee Nam; Lee, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    A spacer grid, which is an interconnected array of slotted grid straps and is welded at the intersections to form an egg crate structure, is one of the most important structural components in a PWR fuel assembly. From a structural point of view, the spacer grid is required to have sufficient crush strength under lateral loads so that nuclear fuel rods are maintained in a cool able geometry, and that control rods can be inserted. The capacity of a spacer grid to resist lateral loads is usually characterized in terms of its crush strength, and it was reported that the lateral crush strength of the spacer grid is closely related with welding quality of the spacer grid. Microstructures in the weld zone, including a heat affected zone (HAZ), are different from that in a parent material. Consequently, the mechanical properties in the weld zone are different from those in the parent material to some extent. When a welded structure is loaded, the mechanical behavior of the welded structure might be different from the case of a structure with homogeneous mechanical properties. Nonetheless, mechanical properties in the welded structure have been neglected in many structural analyses of the spacer grid due to a lack of mechanical properties in the weld zone. When the weld zone is very narrow and the interfaces are not clear, it is difficult to take tensile test specimens in the weld zone. The reason for this is that the mechanical properties in the parent material are usually used in the structural analyses in the welded structure. As an aside, it has been recently determined that the ball indentation technique has the potential to be an excellent substitute for a standard tensile test, particularly in the case of small specimens or property gradient materials such as welds. In this study, to investigate the effect on the mechanical behavior of the spacer grid when using weld mechanical properties, strength analyses considering the weld mechanical properties recently obtained

  15. 3-D flow analyses for design of nuclear fuel spacer

    Karouta, Z. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Windsor, CT (United States); GU, Chun-Yuan [ABB Corporate Research, Vaesteras (Sweden); Schoelin, B. [ABB Atom AB, Vaesteras (Sweden)

    1995-09-01

    The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code, CFDS-FLOW3D, was used to develop improved fuel designs for PWR cores. It was used primarily to understand the fluid dynamics of grid spacers, the mass transfer between subchannels caused by spacers and in the long term to develop two-phase models which enable prediction of critical heat flux in PWR fuel. A single subchannel of one grid span was modeled. In this model different spacer designs with mixing devices were analyzed. A special treatment of the boundary condition was developed making use of flow symmetry to model the mass transfer between different subchannels and minimize the size of the computational model. This reduced the computational model to a fraction of a subchannel using traditional periodic boundary conditions. The Navier-Stokes equation was solved for the liquid and the flow turbulence was modeled by k-{xi} turbulence model. The spacer and mixing device were treated as infinite thin surfaces in the model and a zero velocity condition and turbulent wall function were applied on each side of the thin surfaces. This approach simulated the swirl from the mixing devices well, but had the drawback of not predicting pressure drop accurately since the wake behind the plates and the acceleration effect of the spacers were ignored. CFDS-FLOW3D models with mixing devices were applied in the single-phase flow regime. Velocity profiles from the CFDS-FLOW3D models were compared to Laser Doppler Velocimeter measurements taken from the flow field downstream of spaces in a full scale, cold water test loop. The predicted axial and lateral velocity profiles were in good agreement with the measurements. The evaluation of the performance of different spacer devices was made by comparing the swirl ratio downstream of the grid spacers. It is planned to evaluate heat transfer coefficient downstream of the spaces, to implement two-phase flow models, and to model the superheated boundary layer on the surface of the fuel rod.

  16. Implementation of spacer therapy for acute asthma in children.

    Vandeleur, M

    2009-09-01

    The aim was to develop and implement an evidence based guideline for the treatment of acute asthma using a metered dose inhaler and spacer combination. Children admitted to Cork University Hospital Paediatric Department with acute asthma were identified during two identical 2 month seasonal periods before (2005) and after (2006) implementation of the new guidelines in September 2006. Pre-intervention and post-intervention audits by case note review were performed to determine the impact of and compliance with this evidence-based guideline emphasising patient assessment, spacer delivered bronchodilator and specific discharge criteria. Patients had similar characteristics during the two study periods. There was a raised threshold for admission after guideline implementation with 11\\/52 patients having mild exacerbations in 2006, compared to 21\\/36 in 2005. Duration of admission was less in the post-implementation group for equivalent exacerbation severity e.g. for moderate severity; 28 hours in 2005, 23 hours in 2006. Duration of bronchodilator therapy was shorter in 2006 and more likely to be given by spacer device earlier for equivalent levels of severity e.g. for moderate exacerbations, in 2006 the average length of salbutamol therapy was 18 hours with 12 hours by spacer device, in 2005 the average length of therapy was 25 hours with 3 hours by spacer. There was earlier initiation of oral corticosteroids; the average time to administration was 56 minutes in 2006 and 227 minutes in 2005. There was an improved documentation of asthma education in 2006 e.g. inhaler technique was reviewed in 37\\/52 in 2006, 21\\/35 in 2005 and better use of written action plans.

  17. Effect of spacer grids on CHF in tube bundles

    Jayanti, Sreenivas; Valette, Michel

    2004-01-01

    Spacers grids are used to support tube bundles in steam generators and in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies. These grids interface with the flow and heat transfer in a number of ways and their effect has been studied by a number of researchers. It is known that generally they have a beneficial effect on critical heat flux (CHF) in typical nuclear reactor assemblies. However, the enhancement obtained depends on the geometric characteristics of the spacer grids as well as on the parameter range in terms of pressure, local mass velocity and quality. In the present study, the problem is approached in the context of a one-dimensional three-field model. Unlike in previous approaches, no specific modeling of the constitutive laws is made to account for spacer effects and only the geometric details such as the reduction in the cross-sectional area and the hydraulic diameter are included in the calculation which is otherwise the same as that for flow through a single tube. It is shown by comparison with literature data that this approach leads to satisfactory prediction of the thermal-hydraulic effects of spacers and that the beneficial effects of spacers on dry out can be manifested only when the entrainment rate is neither too high nor too low. Their effect on reducing the post-dry out wall temperature is also limited to certain cases. The present work has been performed as part of the EDF-CEA Neptune project also supported by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN, France) and FRAMATOME-ANP. NEPTUNE is a new set of two phase thermalhydraulic computer codes devoted to safety analysis of nuclear power plants. (author)

  18. Biofouling Control in Spiral-Wound Membrane Systems: Impact of Feed Spacer Modification and Biocides

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-01-01

    was developed. The combination of modeling and experimental testing of 3D printed spacers is a promising strategy to develop advanced spacers aiming to reduce the impact of biofilm formation on membrane performance and to improve the cleanability of spiral

  19. Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control

    Araú jo, Paula A.; Miller, Daniel J.; Correia, Patrí cia B.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Kruithof, Joop C.; Freeman, Benny Dean; Paul, Donald; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2012-01-01

    surface modification agents expected to resist protein and bacterial adhesion, while copper feed spacer coatings and biocides infused in feed spacers are expected to restrict biological growth. Our studies showed that polydopamine and polydopamine-. g

  20. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems

    Siddiqui, Amber; Farhat, Nadia; Bucs, Szilard; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Picioreanu, Cristian; Kruithof, Joop C.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Kidwell, James; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    suggested that the impact of spacers on hydraulics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating

  1. Biofouling Control in Spiral-Wound Membrane Systems: Impact of Feed Spacer Modification and Biocides

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-12-01

    High-quality drinking water can be produced with membrane-based filtration processes like reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. One of the major problems in these membrane systems is biofouling that reduces the membrane performance, increasing operational costs. Current biofouling control strategies such as pre-treatment, membrane modification, and chemical cleaning are not sufficient in all cases. Feed spacers are thin (0.8 mm), complex geometry meshes that separate membranes in a module. The main objective of this research was to evaluate whether feed spacer modification is a suitable strategy to control biofouling. Membrane fouling simulator studies with six feed spacers showed differences in biofouled spacer performance, concluding that (i) spacer geometry influences biofouling impact and (ii) biofouling studies are essential for evaluation of spacer biofouling impact. Computed tomography (CT) was found as a suitable technique to obtain three-dimensional (3D) measurements of spacers, enabling more representative mathematical modeling of hydraulic behavior of spacers in membrane systems. A strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of spacers by numerical modeling, 3D printing of spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator studies was developed. The combination of modeling and experimental testing of 3D printed spacers is a promising strategy to develop advanced spacers aiming to reduce the impact of biofilm formation on membrane performance and to improve the cleanability of spiral-wound membrane systems.

  2. Temporary employment in Russia: why mostly men?

    Tatiana Karabchuk

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with temporary employment in the Russian labour market. The main focus is the gender difference regarding determinants of temporary employment. Unlike most European countries, where women are more likely to have temporary work, in Russia men predominantly have this status, comparable to the situation in many developing countries. This paper seeks to understand why this is the case. The household survey of NOBUS (held in 2003 by State Statistical Centre with World Bank participation is used to answer this question: the results suggest that gender differences in temporary employment do exist, and that the main factors that explain these differences are education, and marital status.

  3. INTERSPINOUS SPACER IN PERSISTENT DISCOGENIC PAIN: PERCUTANEOUS APPROACH OR OPEN TECHNIQUE

    José Antonio Cruz Ricardez

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the postoperative clinical course of placement of interspinous spacer with open technique (ISO with percutaneous interspinous spacer (PIS. Methods: Quasi-experimental, longitudinal study of 42 patients with discogenic pain uncontrolled with analgesics, aged 35-55 years old, 21 women, and 21 men. Clinical history, location of pain, VAS scale before and after surgery, Oswestry Disability Index and Macnab modified scale at 6 months were used. Results: When performing quantitative analysis statistical significance (p = 0.0478, 0.0466, 0.0399 was demonstrated with Student's t test between the results according to VAS scale; in the qualitative analysis with the Oswestry index and Macnab modified scale it was demonstrated the hypothesis that the results is dependent of the surgical technique. Conclusions: According to the results, we can conclude that there is a statistically significant difference depending on the surgical technique used with respect to the rate of disability and functionality in daily life as well as in the improvement of pain symptoms.

  4. An insulating grid spacer for large-area MICROMEGAS chambers

    Bernard, D.; Delagrange, H.; D'Enterria, D.G.; Guay, M.L.M. Le; Martinez, G.; Mora, M.J.; Pichot, P.; Roy, D.; Schutz, Y.; Gandi, A.; Oliveira, R. de

    2002-01-01

    We present a novel design for large-area gaseous detectors based on the MICROMEGAS technology. This technology incorporates an insulating grid, sandwiched between the micro-mesh and the anode-pad plane, which provides a uniform 200 μm amplification gap. The uniformity of the amplification gap thickness has been verified. The gain performances of the detector are presented and compared to the values obtained with detectors using cylindrical micro spacers. The new design presents several technical and financial advantages

  5. Successful implementation of spacer treatment guideline for acute asthma

    Powell, C; Maskell, G; Marks, M; South, M; Robertson, C; LENNEY, W.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To develop and implement an evidence based guideline for the treatment of acute asthma using a metered dose inhaler and spacer combination.
METHODS—Defined strategies were used for the development and implementation of a guideline, assessed by a prospective, descriptive, study using notes review, and patient, nursing, and medical staff telephone contact. The setting was a tertiary referral hospital in Victoria, Australia with 25 000 yearly admissions, and asthma acco...

  6. Device for a nuclear reactor. [Fuel element spacers

    Foulds, R B; Kasberg, A H; Puechl, K H; Bleiberg, M L

    1972-03-08

    A spacer design for fuel element clusters for PWR type reactors is described. It consists of a frame supporting an egg-carton like grid each sector of which is provided with springs which grip the fuel pins. The spring design is such as to prevent fuel pin vibrations and at same time accommodate fuel pin deformations. Formulae for the calculation of natural frequencies, spring stiffness and friction loads are presented.

  7. Bimetallic spacer means for a nuclear fuel assembly

    Anthony, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A bimetallic spacer means designed to be cooperatively associated with a nuclear fuel assembly and operative to resist the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assembly. The subject bimetallic spacer means in accord with one embodiment of the invention includes a member formed, at least principally, of Zircaloy to which are attached a plurality of stainless steel strips. The latter stainless steel strips are located on the external surface of the Zircaloy member and with the major axis of each of the plurality of stainless steel strips extending substantially perpendicular to the major axis of the Zircaloy member. In accord with another embodiment of the invention, the subject bimetallic spacer means includes a member formed at least principally of Zircaloy to which a plurality of stainless steel strips are attached so as to be positioned thereon externally thereof and with the major axis of each of the plurality of stainless steel strips extending substantially parallel to the major axis of the Zircaloy member. In accord with a further embodiment of the invention, the stainless steel strips are attached to preselected members, each embodying at least a cladding of Zircaloy, which are located in the rows of fuel rods that define the perimeter of the fuel matrix of the nuclear fuel assembly. In each of the embodiments, the stainless steel strips during power production expand outwardly to a greater extent than do the members to which the stainless steel strips are attached, thereby forming stiff springs which abut against like bimetallic spacer means with which the other nuclear fuel assemblies are provided in a given nuclear reactor core to thus prevent the occurrence of in-reactor bowing of the nuclear fuel assemblies. Namely, the stainless steel strips expand laterally relative to the fuel assembly and thereby occupy the space adjacent to the external surface of the fuel assembly

  8. Impact of feed spacer and membrane modification by hydrophilic, bactericidal and biocidal coating on biofouling control

    Araújo, Paula A.

    2012-06-01

    The influence of polydopamine- and polydopamine-. graft-poly(ethylene glycol)-coated feed spacers and membranes, copper-coated feed spacers, and commercially-available biostatic feed spacers on biofouling has been studied in membrane fouling simulators. Feed spacers and membranes applied in practical membrane filtration systems were used; biofouling development was monitored by feed channel pressure drop increase and biomass accumulation. Polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG are hydrophilic surface modification agents expected to resist protein and bacterial adhesion, while copper feed spacer coatings and biocides infused in feed spacers are expected to restrict biological growth. Our studies showed that polydopamine and polydopamine-. g-PEG coatings on feed spacers and membranes, copper coatings on feed spacers, and a commercial biostatic feed spacer did not have a significant impact on feed channel pressure drop increase and biofilm accumulation as measured by ATP and TOC content. The studied spacer and membrane modifications were not effective for biofouling control; it is doubtful that feed spacer and membrane modification, in general, may be effective for biofouling control regardless of the type of applied coating. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Preliminary analysis of the effect of the grid spacers on the reflood heat transfer

    Sugimoto, Jun; Murao, Yoshio

    1982-02-01

    The results are described about the preliminary analysis of the effect of the grid spacers on the heat transfer during reflood phase of a PWR LOCA. Experiments at JAERI and other facilities showed substantial heat transfer enhancement near the grid spacers. The heat transfer enhancement decreases with the distance from the grid spacers in the downstream region of the grid spacers. Several mechanisms are discussed about the heat transfer enhancement near the grid spacers. A model of a coalescence of the water droplets downstream the spacers is proposed based on the review of the experimental data. The heat transfer correlation for the saturated film boiling is utilized to quantify the heat transfer augmentation by the grid spacers. (author)

  10. Eddy current monitoring of spacers in coolant channel assemblies of nuclear reactor

    Bhole, V.M.; Rastogi, P.K.; Kulkarni, P.G.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1993-01-01

    An eddy current testing method has been standardised for monitoring spacer springs which are used in coolant channel assemblies of pressurised heavy water nuclear reactors (PHWRs). The standard bobbin coil probe used for monitoring the spacer spring detects only the location but does not monitor the tilt orientation and tilt angle of a tilted spacer spring. The knowledge of location along with the tilt orientation of the spacer spring greatly improves the performance of repositioning methods. A modified probe with angular windings has been developed in laboratory tests for monitoring the location as well as the tilt orientation of the spacer springs. Experimental results are presented showing excellent performance of the modified probe in monitoring the exact location as well as tilt orientation of a spacer spring. The modified probe has also been used successfully in the field during repositioning of spacer springs in PHWRs before commissioning. (Author)

  11. Outcome of total knee replacement following explantation and cemented spacer therapy

    Ghanem, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infection after total knee replacement (TKR is one of the serious complications which must be pursued with a very effective therapeutic concept. In most cases this means revision arthroplasty, in which one-setting and two-setting procedures are distinguished. Healing of infection is the conditio sine qua non for re-implantation. This retrospective work presents an assessment of the success rate after a two-setting revision arthroplasty of the knee following periprosthetic infection. It further considers drawing conclusions concerning the optimal timing of re-implantation.Patients and methods: A total of 34 patients have been enclosed in this study from September 2005 to December 2013. 35 re-implantations were carried out following explantation of total knee and implantation of cemented spacer. The patient’s group comprised of 53% (18 males and 47% (16 females. The average age at re-implantation time was 72.2 years (ranging from 54 to 85 years. We particularly evaluated the microbial spectrum, the interval between explantation and re-implantation, the number of surgeries that were necessary prior to re-implantation as well as the postoperative course. Results: We reported 31.4% (11 reinfections following re-implantation surgeries. The number of the reinfections declined with increasing time interval between explantation and re-implantation. Patients who developed reinfections were operated on (re-implantation after an average of 4.47 months. Those patients with uncomplicated course were operated on (re-implantation after an average of 6.79 months. Nevertheless, we noticed no essential differences in outcome with regard to the number of surgeries carried out prior to re-implantation. Mobile spacers proved better outcome than temporary arthrodesis with intramedullary fixation.Conclusion: No uniform strategy of treatment exists after peri-prosthetic infections. In particular, no optimal timing can be stated concerning re

  12. Outcome of total knee replacement following explantation and cemented spacer therapy.

    Ghanem, Mohamed; Zajonz, Dirk; Bollmann, Juliane; Geissler, Vanessa; Prietzel, Torsten; Moche, Michael; Roth, Andreas; Heyde, Christoph-E; Josten, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Infection after total knee replacement (TKR) is one of the serious complications which must be pursued with a very effective therapeutic concept. In most cases this means revision arthroplasty, in which one-setting and two-setting procedures are distinguished. Healing of infection is the conditio sine qua non for re-implantation. This retrospective work presents an assessment of the success rate after a two-setting revision arthroplasty of the knee following periprosthetic infection. It further considers drawing conclusions concerning the optimal timing of re-implantation. A total of 34 patients have been enclosed in this study from September 2005 to December 2013. 35 re-implantations were carried out following explantation of total knee and implantation of cemented spacer. The patient's group comprised of 53% (18) males and 47% (16) females. The average age at re-implantation time was 72.2 years (ranging from 54 to 85 years). We particularly evaluated the microbial spectrum, the interval between explantation and re-implantation, the number of surgeries that were necessary prior to re-implantation as well as the postoperative course. We reported 31.4% (11) reinfections following re-implantation surgeries. The number of the reinfections declined with increasing time interval between explantation and re-implantation. Patients who developed reinfections were operated on (re-implantation) after an average of 4.47 months. Those patients with uncomplicated course were operated on (re-implantation) after an average of 6.79 months. Nevertheless, we noticed no essential differences in outcome with regard to the number of surgeries carried out prior to re-implantation. Mobile spacers proved better outcome than temporary arthrodesis with intramedullary fixation. No uniform strategy of treatment exists after peri-prosthetic infections. In particular, no optimal timing can be stated concerning re-implantation. Our data point out to the fact that a longer time interval between

  13. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-01-02

    Feed spacers are important for the impact of biofouling on the performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems. The objective of this study was to propose a strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of feed spacers by numerical modeling, three-dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies. The results of numerical modeling on the hydraulic behavior of various feed spacer geometries suggested that the impact of spacers on hydraulics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating that modeling can serve as first step in spacer characterization. An experimental comparison study of a feed spacer currently applied in practice and a 3D printed feed spacer with the same geometry showed (i) similar hydraulic behavior, (ii) similar pressure drop development with time and (iii) similar biomass accumulation during MFS biofouling studies, indicating that 3D printing technology is an alternative strategy for development of thin feed spacers with a complex geometry. Based on the numerical modeling results, a modified feed spacer with low pressure drop was selected for 3D printing. The comparison study of the feed spacer from practice and the modified geometry 3D printed feed spacer established that the 3D printed spacer had (i) a lower pressure drop during hydraulic testing, (ii) a lower pressure drop increase in time with the same accumulated biomass amount, indicating that modifying feed spacer geometries can reduce the impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance. The combination of numerical modeling of feed spacers and experimental testing of 3D printed feed spacers is a promising strategy (rapid, low cost and representative) to develop advanced feed spacers aiming to reduce the impact of biofilm formation on

  14. Diversity patterns of temporary wetland macroinvertebrate ...

    Although macroinvertebrates are potentially useful for assessing the condition of temporary wetlands, little is yet known about them. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were assessed in 138 temporary wetlands in the south-western Cape, recording 126 taxa. However, predicted richness estimates were all higher than the ...

  15. Lessons learnt from experimental temporary octopus fishing ...

    This paper presents evidence of the fisheries effect of experimental temporary fishing closures for Octopus in the then-emergent Velondriake Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA) in south-west Madagascar during 2004–2006. We present an analysis of the O. cyanea catch data for the first two years of temporary closures ...

  16. 36 CFR 13.166 - Temporary facilities.

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary facilities. 13.166... facilities. A temporary facility or structure directly and necessarily related to the taking of subsistence... facilities which shall be published annually in accordance with § 1.7 of this chapter. ...

  17. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses...

  18. An insulating grid spacer for large-area MICROMEGAS chambers

    Bernard, D; D'Enterria, D G; Le Guay, M; Martínez, G; Mora, M J; Pichot, P; Roy, D; Schutz, Y; Gandi, A; De Oliveira, R

    2002-01-01

    We present an original design for large area gaseous detectors based on the MICROMEGAS technology. This technology incorporates an insulating grid, sandwiched between the micro-mesh and the anode-pad plane, which provides an uniform 200 $\\mu$m amplification gap. The uniformity of the amplification gap thickness has been verified under several experimental conditions. The gain performances of the detector are presented and compared to the values obtained with detectors using cylindrical micro spacers. The new design presents several technical and financial advantages.

  19. Spacer grid with mixing blades for nuclear fuel assembly

    Noailly, J.

    1986-01-01

    The spacer grid for nuclear fuel assembly has two sets of intersecting metal plates provided with blades and defining cells. The plates are fitted only with half-blades associated with a single grid opening. The half-blades of adjacent cells are arranged at 90deg C to each other and each plate has at most one half-blade at each corner of a cell. The invention concerns fuel assemblies of pressurized water reactors. The blades arranged on a single side of the plate provide a good hydraulic uniformity. The invention provides a uniform distribution of blades (and thus of absorbing material in each hydraulic cell) [fr

  20. Tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle

    Scheidl, H.

    1976-01-01

    A tube spacer grid for a heat-exchanger tube bundle is formed by an annular grid frame having a groove formed in its inner surface in which the interspaced grid bars have their ends positioned and held in interspaced relationship by short sections of tubes passed through holes axially formed in the grid frame so that the tubes are positioned between the ends of the grid bars in the grooves. The tube sections may be cut from the same tubes used to form the tube bundle. 5 claims, 3 drawing figures

  1. Temporary closure of the tunnel

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    Owing to major maintenance work, the tunnel linking the various parts of the CERN site will be closed from Monday 4 July to Sunday 24 July 2005 The Host State authorities have given authorisation for persons employed by CERN or the Institutes to travel and for goods belonging to these entities to be transported between the various parts of the site via Gate E (Charles de Gaulle) while this work is being carried out, subject to strict compliance with the Rules for the Use of the Tunnel (see http://dsu.web.cern.ch/dsu/dsum/hsr/DOCUMENTS/8200980415.pdf). Gate E will thus be open between 7.00 a.m. and 7.00 p.m. from Monday to Friday during the period concerned. The rules governing the use of Gate E to enter the Meyrin site between 7.30 a.m. and 9.00 a.m. or to leave the site between 5.00 p.m. and 6.30 p.m. (see http://dsu.web.cern.ch/dsu/dsum/hsr/DOCUMENTS/12222_041027.pdf)) will remain unaffected by this temporary authorisation. Relations with the Host States Service and TS-FM Group

  2. In vitro microbiologic evaluation of PTFE and cotton as spacer materials.

    Paranjpe, Avina; Jain, Sumita; Alibhai, Karim J; Wadhwani, Chandur P; Darveau, Richard P; Johnson, James D

    2012-09-01

    To microbiologically evaluate the efficacy of cotton and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tape used as spacer materials. Twenty-six extracted human molars were restored using either cotton or PTFE tape as spacers under a standardized provisional restorative material (Cavit). The teeth were incubated for 7 days in a culture of Streptococcus gordonii or in liquid media alone. The spacers were removed and tested for bacterial contamination. The access cavities were also evaluated for bacterial contamination. Nine of 10 teeth with cotton spacers and one of 10 teeth with PTFE spacers were positive for S gordonii growth. The nine teeth in the cotton group also showed contamination of the access cavities. Even under optimal conditions, cotton spacers may cause leakage into the access cavities. Cotton fibers may serve as a route for bacterial contamination of the access cavities and root canal space. In contrast, PTFE tape did not provide an avenue for bacterial contamination.

  3. A technical report on the evaluation of the integrity for the TIG welded spacer grid

    Song, Kee Nam; Yoo, Ho Sik; Lww, Chang Woo

    1994-07-01

    The spacer grid, which supports fuel rods, guide thimble and instrumentation tube, is classified into two types according to their strap material,.ie. inconel and zircaloy spacer grid. KOFA fuel of 14 x 14 and 17 x 17 type has seven and eight spacer grid respectively. Zircaloy spacer grid is assembled by straps whose cross points are welded by TIG welding method. This technical report provides to give some information about structure and function of the spacer grid and the basis and characteristic of the TIG welding method. A series of test which is conducted to evaluate the integrity of TIG welded zircaloy spacer grid and their results have been also studied. (Author) 18 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs

  4. A technical report on the evaluation of the integrity for the TIG welded spacer grid

    Song, Kee Nam; Yoo, Ho Sik; Lww, Chang Woo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-01

    The spacer grid, which supports fuel rods, guide thimble and instrumentation tube, is classified into two types according to their strap material,.ie. inconel and zircaloy spacer grid. KOFA fuel of 14 x 14 and 17 x 17 type has seven and eight spacer grid respectively. Zircaloy spacer grid is assembled by straps whose cross points are welded by TIG welding method. This technical report provides to give some information about structure and function of the spacer grid and the basis and characteristic of the TIG welding method. A series of test which is conducted to evaluate the integrity of TIG welded zircaloy spacer grid and their results have been also studied. (Author) 18 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Transcriptional regulator-mediated activation of adaptation genes triggers CRISPR de novo spacer acquisition

    Liu, Tao; Li, Yingjun; Wang, Xiaodi

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of de novo spacer sequences confers CRISPR-Cas with a memory to defend against invading genetic elements. However, the mechanism of regulation of CRISPR spacer acquisition remains unknown. Here we examine the transcriptional regulation of the conserved spacer acquisition genes in Type I......, it was demonstrated that the transcription level of csa1, cas1, cas2 and cas4 was significantly enhanced in a csa3a-overexpression strain and, moreover, the Csa1 and Cas1 protein levels were increased in this strain. Furthermore, we demonstrated the hyperactive uptake of unique spacers within both CRISPR loci...... in the presence of the csa3a overexpression vector. The spacer acquisition process is dependent on the CCN PAM sequence and protospacer selection is random and non-directional. These results suggested a regulation mechanism of CRISPR spacer acquisition where a single transcriptional regulator senses the presence...

  6. The use of interlocking prostheses for both temporary and definitive management of infected periprosthetic femoral fractures.

    Konan, Sujith; Rayan, Faizal; Manketelow, Andrew R J; Haddad, Fares S

    2011-12-01

    Infected periprosthetic fractures around total hip arthroplasties are an extremely challenging problem. We describe our experience of managing infected periprosthetic femoral fractures using interlocking long-stem femoral prostheses either as temporary functional spacers or as definitive implants. The Cannulock (Orthodesign, Christchurch, United Kingdom) uncoated stem was used in 12 cases, and the Kent hip prosthesis (Biomet Merck, Bridgend, United Kingdom), in 5 cases. Satisfactory outcome was noted in all cases, and in 11 cases, revision to a definitive stem has been undertaken after successful control of infection and fracture union. The use of interlocking stems offers a relatively appealing solution for a complex problem and avoids the complications that would be associated with resection of the entire femur or the use of large quantities of bone cement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Environment - Borrow Area for Temporary Levee

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — This data represents the location of a borrow site for construction materials used in temporary levee building during flood events. The footprint of these areas have...

  8. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E.; Hamby, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison's six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met

  9. Temporary Authorizations at Permitted Waste Management Facilities

    This rule under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) provides EPA with the authority to grant a permittee temporary authorization, without prior public notice and comment, to conduct activities necessary to respond promptly to changing conditions.

  10. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamby, P.N. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison`s six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met.

  11. Influence of the spacer dielectric processes on PMOS junction properties

    Morin, Pierre; Wacquant, Francois; Juhel, Marc; Laviron, Cyrille; Lenoble, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the interaction observed in PMOS transistor between the boron lightly doped drain (LDD) extensions and the spacer oxide and nitride dielectrics have been studied, with a simple experimental methodology. Low thermal budget oxide obtained by sub-atmospheric chemical vapor deposition (SACVD) and nitride deposited by plasma process have been evaluated as spacer layers. The influence of the oxide liner hydrogen content is shown to be critical for the p type shallow junction. Indeed, during the activation anneal, hydrogen content increases the boron out diffusion from the extension into the oxide liner and yield to a significant dose loss in this area. Nitride porosity has also been studied. A lower boron dose loss is observed with a porous layer because hydrogen can degas out significantly from the oxide, during anneal, through the porous nitride film. These results confirm the model of boron out diffusion based on oxide hydrogen content proposed by Kohli. Finally, a boron diffusion mechanism driven by chemistry and enhanced by hydrogen defects is proposed

  12. Single-electron transistors fabricated with sidewall spacer patterning

    Park, Byung-Gook; Kim, Dae Hwan; Kim, Kyung Rok; Song, Ki-Whan; Lee, Jong Duk

    2003-09-01

    We have implemented a sidewall spacer patterning method for novel dual-gate single-electron transistor (DGSET) and metal-oxide-semiconductor-based SET (MOSET) based on the uniform SOI wire, using conventional lithography and processing technology. A 30 nm wide silicon quantum wire is defined by a sidewall spacer patterning method, and depletion gates for two tunnel junctions of the DGSET are formed by the doped polycrystalline silicon sidewall. The fabricated DGSET and MOSET show clear single-electron tunneling phenomena at liquid nitrogen temperature and insensitivity of the Coulomb oscillation period to gate bias conditions. On the basis of the phase control capability of the sidewall depletion gates, we have proposed a complementary self-biasing method, which enables the SET/CMOS hybrid multi-valued logic (MVL) to operate perfectly well at high temperature, where the peak-to-valley current ratio of Coulomb oscillation severely decreases. The suggested scheme is evaluated by SPICE simulation with an analytical DGSET model, and it is confirmed that even DGSETs with a large Si island can be utilized efficiently in the multi-valued logic.

  13. Packaging design criteria modified fuel spacer burial box. Revision 1

    Stevens, P.F.

    1994-01-01

    Various Hanford facilities must transfer large radioactively contaminated items to burial/storage. Presently, there are eighteen Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (FSBBs) available on the Hanford Site for transport of such items. Previously, the FSBBS were transported from a rail car to the burial trench via a drag-off operation. To allow for the lifting of the boxes into the burial trench, it will be necessary to improve the packagings lifting attachments and provide structural reinforcement. Additional safety improvements to the packaging system will be provided by the addition of a positive closure system and package ventilation. FSBBs that are modified in such a manner are referred to as Modified Fuel Spacer Burial Boxes (MFSBs). The criteria provided by this PDC will be used to demonstrate that the transfer of the MFSB will provide an equivalent degree of safety as would be provided by a package meeting offsite transportation requirements. This fulfills the onsite transportation safety requirements implemented in WHC-CM-2-14, Hazardous Material Packaging and Shipping. A Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) will be prepared to evaluate the safety of the transfer operation. Approval of the SARP is required to authorize transfer. Criteria are also established to ensure burial requirements are met

  14. A Study on Structural Strength of Irradiated Spacer Grid for PWR Fuel

    Jin, Y. G.; Baek, S. J.; Kim, D. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. I.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, J. J. [KEPCO NF, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A fuel assembly consists of an array of fuel rods, spacer grids, guide thimbles, instrumentation tubes, and top and bottom nozzles. In PWR (Pressurized light Water Reactor) fuel assemblies, the spacer grids support the fuel rods by the friction forces between the fuel rods and springs/dimples. Under irradiation, the spacer grids supporting the fuel rods absorb vibration impacts due to the reactor coolant flow, and also bear static and dynamic loads during operation inside the nuclear reactor and transportation for spent fuel storage. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics of deformation behavior and the change in structural strength of an irradiated spacer grid.. In the present study, the static compression test of a spacer grid was conducted to investigate the structural strength of the irradiated spacer grid in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. To evaluate the structural strength of an irradiated spacer grid, hot cell tests were carried out at IMEF of KAERI. The fuel assembly was dismantled and the irradiated spacer grid was obtained for the compression test. The apparatus for measuring the compression strength of the irradiated spacer grid was developed and installed successfully in the hot cell.

  15. Nanoparticle-Based Brachytherapy Spacers for Delivery of Localized Combined Chemoradiation Therapy

    Kumar, Rajiv, E-mail: r.kumar@neu.edu [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Belz, Jodi [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Markovic, Stacey [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jadhav, Tej; Fowle, William [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Niedre, Mark [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Cormack, Robert; Makrigiorgos, Mike G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sridhar, Srinivas [Nanomedicine Science and Technology Center, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy (RT), brachytherapy-inert source spacers are commonly used in clinical practice to achieve high spatial accuracy. These implanted devices are critical technical components of precise radiation delivery but provide no direct therapeutic benefits. Methods and Materials: Here we have fabricated implantable nanoplatforms or chemoradiation therapy (INCeRT) spacers loaded with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) conjugated containing a drug, to act as a slow-release drug depot for simultaneous localized chemoradiation therapy. The spacers are made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) as matrix and are physically identical in size to the commercially available brachytherapy spacers (5 mm × 0.8 mm). The silica nanoparticles, 250 nm in diameter, were conjugated with near infrared fluorophore Cy7.5 as a model drug, and the INCeRT spacers were characterized in terms of size, morphology, and composition using different instrumentation techniques. The spacers were further doped with an anticancer drug, docetaxel. We evaluated the in vivo stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of these spacers in live mouse tissues. Results: The electron microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles were distributed throughout the spacers. These INCeRT spacers remained stable and can be tracked by the use of optical fluorescence. In vivo optical imaging studies showed a slow diffusion of nanoparticles from the spacer to the adjacent tissue in contrast to the control Cy7.5-PLGA spacer, which showed rapid disintegration in a few days with a burst release of Cy7.5. The docetaxel spacers showed suppression of tumor growth in contrast to control mice over 16 days. Conclusions: The imaging with the Cy7.5 spacer and therapeutic efficacy with docetaxel spacers supports the hypothesis that INCeRT spacers can be used for delivering the drugs in a slow, sustained manner in conjunction with brachytherapy, in contrast to the rapid clearance of the drugs when

  16. Research report on development of spacer grid strap for AFA 3G fuel assembly

    Ye Yuandong

    2004-11-01

    The current development and tendency for fuel assemblies being of low leakage, high burn-up and long cycle fuel reload in the world are presented, and the necessity and feasibility to develop the spacer grid for high burn-up fuel assembly are elaborated. Considering all the activities in implementing of spacer grid and the technical difficulties in machining of tools, the major technological processes are introduced; the research program and the approaches to develop the spacer grid while research targets and overall schedule are defined and some key technical points and applicable practices are discussed. Finally the requirements and the conditions necessary for developing of spacer grid are proposed. (authors)

  17. Nanoparticle-Based Brachytherapy Spacers for Delivery of Localized Combined Chemoradiation Therapy

    Kumar, Rajiv; Belz, Jodi; Markovic, Stacey; Jadhav, Tej; Fowle, William; Niedre, Mark; Cormack, Robert; Makrigiorgos, Mike G.; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In radiation therapy (RT), brachytherapy-inert source spacers are commonly used in clinical practice to achieve high spatial accuracy. These implanted devices are critical technical components of precise radiation delivery but provide no direct therapeutic benefits. Methods and Materials: Here we have fabricated implantable nanoplatforms or chemoradiation therapy (INCeRT) spacers loaded with silica nanoparticles (SNPs) conjugated containing a drug, to act as a slow-release drug depot for simultaneous localized chemoradiation therapy. The spacers are made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) as matrix and are physically identical in size to the commercially available brachytherapy spacers (5 mm × 0.8 mm). The silica nanoparticles, 250 nm in diameter, were conjugated with near infrared fluorophore Cy7.5 as a model drug, and the INCeRT spacers were characterized in terms of size, morphology, and composition using different instrumentation techniques. The spacers were further doped with an anticancer drug, docetaxel. We evaluated the in vivo stability, biocompatibility, and biodegradation of these spacers in live mouse tissues. Results: The electron microscopy studies showed that nanoparticles were distributed throughout the spacers. These INCeRT spacers remained stable and can be tracked by the use of optical fluorescence. In vivo optical imaging studies showed a slow diffusion of nanoparticles from the spacer to the adjacent tissue in contrast to the control Cy7.5-PLGA spacer, which showed rapid disintegration in a few days with a burst release of Cy7.5. The docetaxel spacers showed suppression of tumor growth in contrast to control mice over 16 days. Conclusions: The imaging with the Cy7.5 spacer and therapeutic efficacy with docetaxel spacers supports the hypothesis that INCeRT spacers can be used for delivering the drugs in a slow, sustained manner in conjunction with brachytherapy, in contrast to the rapid clearance of the drugs when

  18. Cervical interfacet spacers and maintenance of cervical lordosis.

    Tan, Lee A; Straus, David C; Traynelis, Vincent C

    2015-05-01

    OBJECT The cervical interfacet spacer (CIS) is a relatively new technology that can increase foraminal height and area by facet distraction. These offer the potential to provide indirect neuroforaminal decompression while simultaneously enhancing fusion potential due to the relatively large osteoconductive surface area and compressive forces exerted on the grafts. These potential benefits, along with the relative ease of implantation during posterior cervical fusion procedures, make the CIS an attractive adjuvant in the management of cervical pathology. One concern with the use of interfacet spacers is the theoretical risk of inducing iatrogenic kyphosis. This work tests the hypothesis that interfacet spacers are associated with loss of cervical lordosis. METHODS Records from patients undergoing posterior cervical fusion at Rush University Medical Center between March 2011 and December 2012 were reviewed. The FacetLift CISs were used in all patients. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic data were reviewed and the Ishihara indices and cervical lordotic angles were measured and recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA software. RESULTS A total of 64 patients were identified in whom 154 cervical levels were implanted with machined allograft interfacet spacers. Of these, 15 patients underwent anterior-posterior fusions, 4 underwent anterior-posterior-anterior fusions, and the remaining 45 patients underwent posterior-only fusions. In the 45 patients with posterior-only fusions, a total of 110 levels were treated with spacers. There were 14 patients (31%) with a single level treated, 16 patients (36%) with two levels treated, 5 patients (11%) with three levels treated, 5 patients (11%) with four levels treated, 1 patient (2%) with five levels treated, and 4 patients (9%) with six levels treated. Complete radiographic data were available in 38 of 45 patients (84%). On average, radiographic follow-up was obtained at 256.9 days (range 48-524 days

  19. Measurement and CFD calculation of spacer loss coefficient for a tight-lattice fuel bundle

    In, Wang Kee; Shin, Chang Hwan; Kwack, Young Kyun; Lee, Chi Young

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiment and CFD analysis evaluated the pressure drop in a spacer grid. • The measurement and CFD errors for the spacer loss coefficient were estimated. • The spacer loss coefficient for the dual-cooled annular fuel bundle was determined. • The CFD prediction agrees with the measured spacer loss coefficient within 8%. - Abstract: An experiment and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis were performed to evaluate the pressure drop in a spacer grid for a dual-cooled annular fuel (DCAF) bundle. The DCAF bundle for the Korean optimum power reactor (OPR1000) is a 12 × 12 tight-lattice rod array with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.08 owing to a larger outer diameter of the annular fuel rod. An experiment was conducted to measure the pressure drop in spacer grid for the DCAF bundle. The test bundle is a full-size 12 × 12 rod bundle with 11 spacer grid. The test condition covers a Reynolds number range of 2 × 10 4 –2 × 10 5 by changing the temperature and flow rate of water. A CFD analysis was also performed to predict the pressure drop through a spacer grid using the full-size and partial bundle models. The pressure drop and loss coefficient of a spacer grid were predicted and compared with the experimental results. The CFD predictions of spacer pressure drop and loss coefficient agree with the measured values within 8%. The spacer loss coefficient for the DCAF bundle is estimated to be approximately 1.50 at a nominal operating condition of OPR1000, i.e., Re = 4 × 10 5

  20. Numerical investigation on practicability of reducing MCST by using grid spacer in a tight rod bundle

    Zhu, Xiaojing; Morooka, Shinichi; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Standard grid spacer design causes decreased heat transfer in a tight rod bundle. • Heat transfer is greatly enhanced by flow-enhancing features. • Swirling flow adversely affects the heat transfer downstream of grid spacer. • Enhanced heat transfer by existing grid spacer is limited in a short region. • Improved grid spacer can effectively reduce MCST. - Abstract: The numerical investigation was carried out to reveal the practicability of reducing the maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) within the inner sub-channel of a tight, hexagon rod bundle using commercial CFD code STAR CCM+ 6.04. The special heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics caused by four existing grid spacer designs were discussed in detail by analyzing the effects of grid strap length, different flow enhancing features and different Reynolds numbers. It was found that the local heat transfer within the grid strap is greatly enhanced due to the raised flow velocity. Both the standard grid spacer and the grid spacer with split-vanes cause decreased heat transfer in the downstream region. The friction drag is very influential in the tight rod bundle and can eliminate the positive effect of flow blockage on the heat transfer performance. The grid spacer with flow blockage discs induces relatively good heat transfer performance and higher pressure drop within sub-channels, indicating a tradeoff between the heat transfer augmentation and the pressure drop. The combination of multiple existing grid spacers can reduce the MCST to a certain level, but the corresponding disadvantages cannot be ignored. The improved grid spacer design was proposed based on the overall considerations of heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics and has been proved more suitable to widely reduce MCST for SCWR than any other grid spacer designs involved in present study

  1. 32 CFR 147.32 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for...

    2010-07-01

    ... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.32 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret and SCI levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is not the...

  2. 32 CFR 147.30 - Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility...

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and temporary eligibility for âLâ access authorization. 147.30 Section 147.30... Temporary Access § 147.30 Temporary eligibility for access at the confidential and secret levels and...

  3. The influence of the preliminary garter spring spacer simulator clamping force in the pressure tube spacer -calandria tube hook-up simulator aging behaviour

    Gyongyosi, T.; Deloreanu, G.; Puiu, D.; Corbescu, B.; Anghel, N.; Dinu, E.

    2016-01-01

    The garter spring spacer is a specially constructed torsion spring used to fit-out the CANDU 6 fuel channel. The pressure tube ageing decreases the gap to the calandria tube. Continuous gap decrease directly affects the garter spring spacers behavior during fuel channel assembly operation. The preliminary clamping force value of the garter spring spacer assembly is important for its ageing behavior. This paper briefly describes the experimental technological facilities used for conducted the experiments and highlights some of the important moments during an experiment carried out in laboratory conditions, without using pressurized boiled water and irradiation working conditions. The results analysis and some conclusions are outlined at the end, pointing out that a garter spring spacer preliminary clamping force increase reduces the vibration response signal amplitude, and does not lead to its relaxation. The paper is dedicated to specialists working in research and technological engineering. (authors)

  4. Magnetic decoupling of ferromagnetic metals through a graphene spacer

    Grimaldi, I.; Papagno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (CS), 87036 (Italy); Ferrari, L. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Roma I-00133 (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Sheverdyaeva, P.M.; Mahatha, S.K. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Pacilé, D., E-mail: daniela.pacile@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende (CS), 87036 (Italy); Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy); Carbone, C. [Istituto di Struttura della Materia, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Trieste (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    We study the magnetic coupling between different ferromagnetic metals (FMs) across a graphene (G) layer, and the role of graphene as a thin covalent spacer. Starting with G grown on a FM substrate (Ni or Co), we deposited on top at room temperature several FM metals (Fe, Ni, Co). By measuring the dichroic effect of 3p photoemission lines we detect the magnetization of the substrate and the sign of the exchange coupling in FM overlayer at room temperature. We show that the G layer magnetically decouples the FM metals. - Highlights: • The magnetic coupling between ferromagnets mediated by graphene is studied. • To this end, the linear dichroic effect in 3p photoemission lines is employed. • For selected junctions no magnetic coupling is attained through graphene. • Graphene inhibits the magnetic alignment that normally occurs between ferromagnets.

  5. Dark current of organic heterostructure devices with insulating spacer layers

    Yin, Sun; Nie, Wanyi; Mohite, Aditya D.; Saxena, Avadh; Smith, Darryl L.; Ruden, P. Paul

    2015-03-01

    The dark current density at fixed voltage bias in donor/acceptor organic planar heterostructure devices can either increase or decrease when an insulating spacer layer is added between the donor and acceptor layers. The dominant current flow process in these systems involves the formation and subsequent recombination of an interfacial exciplex state. If the exciplex formation rate limits current flow, the insulating interface layer can increase dark current whereas, if the exciplex recombination rate limits current flow, the insulating interface layer decreases dark current. We present a device model to describe this behavior and illustrate it experimentally for various donor/acceptor systems, e.g. P3HT/LiF/C60.

  6. Optimized spacer layer thickness for plasmonic-induced enhancement of photocurrent in a-Si:H

    Saleh, Z. M., E-mail: zaki.saleh@aauj.edu, E-mail: zakimsaleh@yahoo.com; Nasser, H.; Özkol, E.; Günöven, M.; Abak, K. [Middle East Technical University, Center for Solar Energy Research and Applications (GÜNAM) (Turkey); Canli, S. [Middle East Technical University, Central Laboratory (Turkey); Bek, A.; Turan, R. [Middle East Technical University, Center for Solar Energy Research and Applications (GÜNAM) (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    Plasmonic interfaces consisting of silver nanoparticles of different sizes (50–100 nm) have been processed by the self-assembled dewetting technique and integrated to hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) using SiNx spacer layers to investigate the dependence of optical trapping enhancement on spacer layer thickness through the enhancements in photocurrent. Samples illuminated from the a-Si:H side exhibit a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) that is red-shifted with the increasing particle size and broadened into the red with the increasing spacer layer thickness. The photocurrent measured in a-Si:H is not only consistent with the red-shift and broadening of the LSPR, but exhibits critical dependence on the spacer layer thickness also. The samples with plasmonic interfaces and a SiNx spacer layer exhibit appreciable enhancement of photocurrent compared with flat a-Si:H reference depending on the size of the Ag nanoparticle. Simulations conducted on one-dimensional square structures exhibit electric fields that are localized near the plasmonic structures but extend appreciably into the higher refractive index a-Si:H. These simulations produce a clear red-shift and broadening of extinction spectra for all spacer layer thicknesses and predict an enhancement in photocurrent in agreement with experimental results. The spectral dependence of photocurrent for six plasmonic interfaces with different Ag nanoparticle sizes and spacer layer thicknesses are correlated with the optical spectra and compared with the simulations to predict an optimal spacer layer thickness.

  7. Ertapenem Articulating Spacer for the Treatment of Polymicrobial Total Knee Arthroplasty Infection

    Dragan Radoicic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs are the primary cause of early failure of the total knee arthroplasty (TKA. Polymicrobial TKA infections are often associated with a higher risk of treatment failure. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of ertapenem loaded spacers in the treatment of polymicrobial PJI. Methods. There were 18 patients enrolled; nine patients with polymicrobial PJI treated with ertapenem loaded articulating spacers were compared to the group of 9 patients treated with vancomycin or ceftazidime loaded spacers. Results. Successful reimplantation with revision implants was possible in 66.67%. Ertapenem spacers were used in 6 cases in primary two-stage procedure and in 3 cases in secondary spacer exchange. Successful infection eradication was achieved in all cases; final reimplantation with revision knee arthroplasty implants was possible in 6 cases. Conclusion. Ertapenem can be successfully used as antimicrobial addition to the cement spacers in two-stage revision treatment of polymicrobial PJIs. However, this type of spacer may also be useful in the treatment of infections caused by monomicrobial extended spectrum beta-lactamases producing gram-negative bacilli. Further clinical studies are required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ertapenem spacers in the treatment of polymicrobial and monomicrobial PJIs.

  8. Boiling transition phenomenon in BWR fuel assemblies effect of fuel spacer shape on critical power

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Morooka, Shin-ichi; Mitsutake, Toru; Yokobori, Seiichi; Kimura, Jiro.

    1996-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal-hydraulic phenomena near fuel spacer is necessary for the accurate prediction of the critical power of BWR fuel assemblies, and is thus essential for effective developments of a new BWR fuel assembly. The main purpose of this study is to develop an accurate method for predicting the effect of spacer shapes on critical power. Tests have been conducted under actual BWR operating conditions, using an annulus flow channel consisting of a heated rod and circular-tube channel, and BWR simulated 4x4 rod bundles with heater rods unheated just upsteam of spacer. The effect of spacer shapes on critical power was predicted analytically based on the droplet deposition rate estimation. The droplet deposition rate for different spacer shapes was calculated using a single-phase flow model. The prediction results were compared with the test results for the annulus flow channel using ring-type spacers. Analytical results of critical power agreed with measured critical power from point of the effects of changes in the rod-spacer clearance and the spacer thickness on critical power. (author)

  9. Modeling the effect of spacers and biofouling on forward osmosis performance

    Mosqueira Santillá n, Marí a José

    2014-01-01

    and operational conditions. For this, a two dimensional numerical model for FO systems was developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This model allowed the evaluation of the impact of (i) spacers and (ii) biofilm, and (iii) the combined impact of spacers

  10. Solution-processed organic tandem solar cells with embedded optical spacers

    Hadipour, Afshin; de Boer, Bert; Blom, Paul W. M.

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate a solution-processed polymer tandem solar cell in which the two photoactive single cells are separated by an optical spacer. The use of an optical spacer allows for an independent optimization of both the electronic and optical properties of the tandem cell. The optical transmission

  11. Effect of plastic spacer handling on salbutamol lung deposition in asthmatic children

    Lipworth, Brian J; Lee, Daniel K C; Anhøj, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To study the effects of electrostatics in a plastic spacer on the lung deposition of salbutamol in asthmatic children. METHODS: Twenty-five children (5-12 years) with mild asthma were given salbutamol hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered dose inhaler 400 micro g via a 750 ml plastic spacer...

  12. The CRISPR Spacer Space Is Dominated by Sequences from Species-Specific Mobilomes.

    Shmakov, Sergey A; Sitnik, Vassilii; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Severinov, Konstantin V; Koonin, Eugene V

    2017-09-19

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR-Cas) systems store the memory of past encounters with foreign DNA in unique spacers that are inserted between direct repeats in CRISPR arrays. For only a small fraction of the spacers, homologous sequences, called protospacers, are detectable in viral, plasmid, and microbial genomes. The rest of the spacers remain the CRISPR "dark matter." We performed a comprehensive analysis of the spacers from all CRISPR- cas loci identified in bacterial and archaeal genomes, and we found that, depending on the CRISPR-Cas subtype and the prokaryotic phylum, protospacers were detectable for 1% to about 19% of the spacers (~7% global average). Among the detected protospacers, the majority, typically 80 to 90%, originated from viral genomes, including proviruses, and among the rest, the most common source was genes that are integrated into microbial chromosomes but are involved in plasmid conjugation or replication. Thus, almost all spacers with identifiable protospacers target mobile genetic elements (MGE). The GC content, as well as dinucleotide and tetranucleotide compositions, of microbial genomes, their spacer complements, and the cognate viral genomes showed a nearly perfect correlation and were almost identical. Given the near absence of self-targeting spacers, these findings are most compatible with the possibility that the spacers, including the dark matter, are derived almost completely from the species-specific microbial mobilomes. IMPORTANCE The principal function of CRISPR-Cas systems is thought to be protection of bacteria and archaea against viruses and other parasitic genetic elements. The CRISPR defense function is mediated by sequences from parasitic elements, known as spacers, that are inserted into CRISPR arrays and then transcribed and employed as guides to identify and inactivate the cognate parasitic genomes. However, only a small fraction of the CRISPR spacers

  13. [Temporary disability and its legal implications].

    Martin-Fumadó, Carles; Martí Amengual, Gabriel; Puig Bausili, Lluïsa; Arimany-Manso, Josep

    2014-03-01

    Temporary disability is the condition that workers face when, as the result of illness (common or professional) or accident (work-related or not), they are temporarily prevented from performing their work and require health care. The management of temporary disability is a medical act that involves (in addition to a complex clinical assessment) obvious social, occupational and financial connotations and requires continuing medical follow-up from doctors, as well as responses to medical-legal conflicts. The regulatory framework on the subject is extensive in the Spanish setting and highly diverse in the European setting. Beyond the regulatory framework, the repercussions of temporary disability are self-evident at all levels. Although determining temporary disability is a common medical act for practicing physicians, it is not exempt from risks or difficulties arising from the assessment itself and the characteristics of practicing medical care. Established medical-legal conflicts include the processing of health data and the requirements for transferring information related to workers' temporary disability to their company's medical services. The interest and usefulness demonstrated by the data obtained from forensic medicine for public health require the incorporation of these data into general healthcare information, as it could be essential to the surveillance of worker health. The recommendations established by medical societies, as good practice guidelines, are especially useful in this type of conflict. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Pros and cons of symmetrical dual-k spacer technology in hybrid FinFETs

    Pradhan, K. P.; Andrade, M. G. C.; Sahu, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    The symmetrical dual-k spacer technology in hybrid FinFETs has been widely explored for better electrostatic control of the fin-based devices in nanoscale region. Since, high-k tangible spacer materials are broadly became a matter of study due to their better immunity to the short channel effects (SCEs) in nano devices. However, the only cause that restricts the circuit designers from using high-k spacer is the unreasonable increasing fringing capacitances. This work quantitatively analyzed the benefits and drawbacks of considering two different dielectric spacer materials symmetrically in either sides of the channel for the hybrid device. From the demonstrated results, the inclusion of high-k spacer predicts an effective reduction in off-state leakage along with an improvement in drive current. However, these devices have paid the cost in terms of a high total gate-to-gate capacitance (Cgg) that consequently results poor cutoff frequency (fT) and delay.

  15. BWR fuel assembly with improved spacer and fuel bundle design for enhanced thermal-hydraulic performance

    Mildrum, C.M.; Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having a bundle of elongated fuel rods disposed in side-by-side relationship so as to form an array of spaced fuel rods, an outer tubular flow channel surrounding the fuel rods so as to direct flow of coolant/moderator fluid along the fuel rods, a hollow water cross extending centrally through and interconnected with the outer flow channel so as to divide the channel into separate compartments and the bundle of fuelrods into a plurality of mini-bundles thereof being disposed in the compartments, and spacers axially displaced along the fuel rods in each of the mini-bundles thereof. Each spacer is composed of inner and outer means which together define spacer cells at corner, side and interior locations of the spacer and have respective protrusions formed thereon which extend into cells so as to maintain the fuel rods received through the spacer cells in laterally spaced relationships. The improvement is described which comprises: (a) a generally uniform poison coating within at least a majority of the fuel rods; (b) a predetermined pattern of fuel enrichment with respect to the fuel rods of each mini-bundle thereof which together with the uniform poison coating within the fuel rods ensures that the packing powers of the fuel rods in the corner and side cells of the spacers are less than the peaking power of a leading one of the fuel rods in the interior cells of the spacers; and (c) each of the fuel rods being received through the cells of each spacer having a diametric size smaller than that of each of the fuel rods received through the side and interior cells of each spacer, the diametric sizes of each of the fuel rods received through the side and interior cells of each spacer being generally equal

  16. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Spacers for Anterior Cervical Fusion: A Retrospective Comparative Effectiveness Clinical Trial.

    Lemcke, Johannes; Al-Zain, Ferass; Meier, Ullrich; Suess, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) is the standard surgical treatment for radiculopathy and myelopathy. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has an elasticity similar to bone and thus appears well suited for use as the implant in ACDF procedures. The aim of this study is to examine the clinical and radiographic outcome of patients treated with standing alone PEEK spacers without bone morphogenic protein (BMP) or plating and to examine the influence of the different design of the two spacers on the rate of subsidence and dislocation. This retrospective comparative study reviewed 335 patients treated by ACDF in a specialized urban hospital for radiculopathy or myelopathy due to degenerative pathologies. The Intromed PEEK spacer was used in 181 patients from 3/2002 to 11/2004, and the AMT SHELL spacer was implanted in 154 patients from 4/2004 to 12/2007. The follow-up rate was 100% at three months post-op and 82.7% (277 patients) at one year. The patients were assessed with the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) questionnaire and radiographically. At the one-year follow-up there were 118/277 patients with an excellent clinical outcome on the JOA, 112/277 with a good outcome, 20/277 with a fair outcome, and 27/277 with a poor outcome. Subsidence was observed in 13.3% of patients with the Intromed spacer vs 8.4% of the patients with the AMT SHELL. Dislocation of the spacer was observed in 10 of the 181 patients with Intromed spacers but in none of the 154 patients with Shell spacers. The study demonstrates that ACDF with standing alone PEEK cages leads to excellent and good clinical outcomes. The differences we observed in the subsidence rate between the two spacers were not significant and cannot be related to a single design feature of the spacers.

  17. Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators

    Siddiqui, Amber; Lehmann, S.; Bucs, Szilard; Fresquet, M.; Fel, L.; Prest, E.I.E.C.; Ogier, J.; Schellenberg, C.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kruithof, J.C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems

  18. Temporary quadriplegia following continuous thoracic paravertebral block.

    Calenda, Emile; Baste, Jean Marc; Danielou, Eric; Michelin, Paul

    2012-05-01

    A case of temporary quadriplegia following a continuous thoracic paravertebral block in an adult patient scheduled for video-assisted thoracoscopy is presented. An 18-gauge Tuohy needle was inserted under direct vision by the surgeon but the tip of the catheter was not localized. Postoperatively, the patient developed temporary quadriplegia 90 minutes after the start of a continuous infusion of ropivacaine 0.2%. Imaging studies showed that the catheter was localized in the intrathecal space. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro performance of three combinations of spacers and pressurized metered dose inhalers for treatment in children

    Berg, E; Madsen, J; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    The performance of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and spacers in correct dose recommendations is important, but limited information on dose delivery and fine-particle dose from different combinations of spacers and pMDIs is available. In this study, three combinations of spacers and p...... and spacers, with the NebuChamber giving the highest dose, both as delivered dose and in droplets account for these differences....

  20. Evaluation of spacer grid spring characteristics by means of physical tests and numerical simulation

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos, E-mail: carlosschettino@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Among all fuel assemblies' components, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly due for its primary functional requirement, that is, to provide fuel rod support. The present work aims to evaluate the spring characteristics of a specific spacer grid design used in a PWR fuel assembly type 16 x 16. These spring characteristics comprises the load versus deflection capability and its spring rate, which are very important, and also mandatory, to be correctly established in order to preclude spacer grid spring and fuel rod cladding fretting during operation, as well as prevent an excessive fuel rod buckling. This study includes physical tests and numerical simulation. The tests were performed on an adapted load cell mechanical device, using as a specimen a single strap of the spacer grid. Three numerical models were prepared using the Finite Element Method, with the support of the commercial code ANSYS. One model was built to validate the simulation according to the performed physical test, the others were built inserting a gradient of temperature (Beginning Of Life hot condition) and to evaluate the spacer grid spring characteristics in End Of Life condition. The obtained results from physical test and numerical model have shown a good agreement between them, therefore validating the simulation. The obtained results from numerical models make available information regarding the spacer grid design purpose, such as the behavior of the fuel rod cladding support during operation. Therewith, these evaluations could be useful to improve the spacer grid design. (author)

  1. System for measuring spacer pin pitch in a nuclear fuel assembly

    Isono, Kenji; Tateishi, Yoshinori; Mano, Tadashi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To reduce the period for discriminating whether or not spacer pin pitch is satisfactory by simultaneously inserting a number of reference rods into a nuclear fuel assembly spacer ring element of a reactor and arranging them such that they can be simultaneously withdrawn to simplify the withdrawing operation. Structure: A spacer provided with a ring element which clamps a nuclear fuel element is supported on a spacer support with a rod secured to the support as a guide and is secured to the support by securing means. A vertically movable structure with a reference rod provided upright and thru-holes formed in two support plates provided in the same row as the spacer ring element is operated by a fluid pressure mechanism to simultaneously insert the reference rod into the spacer ring element. The reference rod is mounted in support plates via ball bearings such that it is slightly movable in the horizontal direction, and it is aligned with respect to the core of the ring element. The intercore distance of the reference rod is measured with the reference rod inserted in the ring element, thereby measuring the space pin pitch. From the results of measurement, discrimination as to whether the spacer is satisfactory or not is made. (Kamimura, M.)

  2. A Study on Cell Size of Irradiated Spacer Grid for PWR Fuel

    Jin, Y. G.; Kim, G. S.; Ryu, W. S. and others

    2014-01-01

    The spacer grids supporting the fuel rods absorb vibration impacts due to the reactor coolant flow, and grid spring force decreases under irradiation. This reduction of contact force might cause grid-to-rod fretting wear. The fretting failure of the fuel rod is one of the recent significant issues in the nuclear industry from an economical as well as a safety concern. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics of cell spring behavior and the change in size of grid cells for an irradiated spacer grid. In the present study, the dimensional measurement of a spacer grid was conducted to investigate the cell size of an irradiated spacer grid in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. To evaluate the fretting wear performance of an irradiated spacer grid, hot cell tests were carried out at IMEF of KAERI. Hot cell examinations include dimensional measurements for the irradiated spacer grid. The change of cell sizes was dependent on the direction of the spacer grids, leading to significant gap variations. It was found that the change in size of the cell springs due to irradiation-induced stress relaxation and creep during the fuel residency in the reactor core affect the contact behavior between the fuel rod and the cell spring

  3. Antibiotic-impregnated articulating cement spacer for infected total knee arthroplasty

    Parag Garg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Standard treatment of chronic infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a two-stage revision, the first step being placement of an antibiotic-impregnated cement spacer. Here we describe the results of a new technique (modification of the Goldstien′s technique for intraoperative manufacture of a customized articulating spacer at minimal cost and with relatively good conformity and longevity. Materials and Methods : Thirty-six infected knees underwent this procedure from June 2002 to May 2007. The technique consists of using the freshened femur and tibia interface as molds wrapped in a tin foil for manufacturing the two components of the spacer with antibiotic-impregnated methyl methycrylate cement. We used the spacer and the femoral component of the trial set of a TKA system to mold them to perfect articulation. We also reinforced the spacer with a K-wire scaffold to prevent fracture of the cement mantle in the last 21 cases. Results : All 36 knees showed excellent results in terms of infection control, mobility, and stability. There was significant improvement in the WOMAC and Knee Society Scores (20 and 39 points respectively. There were two fractures of the spacers in the initial 15 cases that did not have K-wire scaffolding but none in the last 21 that had reinforcement. Conclusion : This technique provides a more conforming spacer, with good range of motion and stability. The reinforcement helps in preventing the fracture of the cement mantle and is cost effective.

  4. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow through spacer grids in fuel rod bundles

    Caraghiaur, Diana; Anglart, Henryk; Frid, Wiktor

    2009-01-01

    This paper contains experimental data of pressure, velocity and turbulence intensity in a 24-rod fuel bundle with spacer grids. Detailed pressure measurements inside the spacer grid have been obtained by use of a sliding pressure-sensing rod. Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique was used to measure the local axial velocity and its fluctuating component upstream and downstream of the spacer grid in sub-channels with different blockage ratios. The measurements show a changing pattern in function of radial position in the cross-section of the fuel bundle. For sub-channels close to the box wall, the turbulence intensity suddenly increases just downstream of the spacer and then gradually decays. In inner sub-channels, however, the turbulence intensity downstream of the spacer decreases below its upstream value and then gradually increases until it reaches the maximum value at approximately two spacer heights. The present study reveals that spacer effects, such as local pressure distribution and turbulence intensity enhancement, not only depend exclusively on the local geometry details, but also on the location in the cross-section of the rod bundle.

  5. Experimental investigation of turbulent flow through spacer grids in fuel rod bundles

    Caraghiaur, Diana [Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Reactor Technology, Department of Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: dianac@kth.se; Anglart, Henryk [Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Reactor Technology, Department of Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Frid, Wiktor [Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Reactor Technology and Structural Integrity, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-10-15

    This paper contains experimental data of pressure, velocity and turbulence intensity in a 24-rod fuel bundle with spacer grids. Detailed pressure measurements inside the spacer grid have been obtained by use of a sliding pressure-sensing rod. Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique was used to measure the local axial velocity and its fluctuating component upstream and downstream of the spacer grid in sub-channels with different blockage ratios. The measurements show a changing pattern in function of radial position in the cross-section of the fuel bundle. For sub-channels close to the box wall, the turbulence intensity suddenly increases just downstream of the spacer and then gradually decays. In inner sub-channels, however, the turbulence intensity downstream of the spacer decreases below its upstream value and then gradually increases until it reaches the maximum value at approximately two spacer heights. The present study reveals that spacer effects, such as local pressure distribution and turbulence intensity enhancement, not only depend exclusively on the local geometry details, but also on the location in the cross-section of the rod bundle.

  6. Evaluation of spacer grid spring characteristics by means of physical tests and numerical simulation

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos

    2017-01-01

    Among all fuel assemblies' components, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly due for its primary functional requirement, that is, to provide fuel rod support. The present work aims to evaluate the spring characteristics of a specific spacer grid design used in a PWR fuel assembly type 16 x 16. These spring characteristics comprises the load versus deflection capability and its spring rate, which are very important, and also mandatory, to be correctly established in order to preclude spacer grid spring and fuel rod cladding fretting during operation, as well as prevent an excessive fuel rod buckling. This study includes physical tests and numerical simulation. The tests were performed on an adapted load cell mechanical device, using as a specimen a single strap of the spacer grid. Three numerical models were prepared using the Finite Element Method, with the support of the commercial code ANSYS. One model was built to validate the simulation according to the performed physical test, the others were built inserting a gradient of temperature (Beginning Of Life hot condition) and to evaluate the spacer grid spring characteristics in End Of Life condition. The obtained results from physical test and numerical model have shown a good agreement between them, therefore validating the simulation. The obtained results from numerical models make available information regarding the spacer grid design purpose, such as the behavior of the fuel rod cladding support during operation. Therewith, these evaluations could be useful to improve the spacer grid design. (author)

  7. Success of Two-Stage Reimplantation in Patients Requiring an Interim Spacer Exchange.

    George, Jaiben; Miller, Evan M; Curtis, Gannon L; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K; Mont, Michael A; Higuera, Carlos A

    2018-03-23

    Some patients undergoing a 2-stage revision for a periprosthetic joint infection require a repeat spacer in the interim (removal of existing spacer with insertion of a new spacer or spacer exchange) due to persistent infection. The objectives of this study are to (1) determine the factors associated with patients who receive a repeat spacer and (2) compare the infection-free survival (overall and stratified by joint type) of reimplantation in patients who did or did not receive a repeat spacer. From 2001 to 2014, 347 hip or knee 2-stage revisions that finally underwent reimplantation and had a minimum 2-year follow-up were identified. An interim spacer exchange was performed in 59 (17%) patients (exchange cohort). Patient-related and organism-related factors were compared between the exchange and non-exchange cohorts. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were performed to assess the success (absence of signs of infection, reoperation for infection, periprosthetic joint infection-related mortality) of both cohorts. Patients in the exchange group had higher comorbidity score (P = .020), prolonged time to reimplantation (P exchange cohort, and 78% (knee 77%, hip 78%) in the non-exchange cohort (P = .020). Patients requiring an interim spacer exchange were found to have more comorbidities, prolonged treatment period, and were more likely to be infected with a resistant organism. About one-third of such patients became reinfected within 5 years compared to only one-fifth of the patients without an interim spacer exchange. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of feed channel spacer performance using geometries obtained by X-ray computed tomography

    Haaksman, Viktor A.

    2016-09-09

    Spiral-wound membrane modules used in water treatment for water reuse and desalination make use of spacer meshes for keeping the membrane leaves apart and for enhancing the mass transfer. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has gained importance in the design of new spacers with optimized hydrodynamic characteristics, but this requires a precise description of the spacer geometry. This study developed a method to obtain accurate three-dimensional (3-D) geometry representations for any given spacer design from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. The method revealed that the filaments of industrial spacers have a highly variable cross-section size and shape, which impact the flow characteristics in the feed channel. The pressure drop and friction factors were calculated from numerical simulations on five commercially available feed spacers used in practice. Model solutions compared well to experimental data measured using a flow cell for average velocities up to 0.2 m/s, as used in industrial reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane operations. A newly-proposed spacer geometry with alternating strand thickness was tested, which was found to yield a lower pressure drop while being highly efficient in converting the pumping power into membrane shear. Numerical model solutions using CFD with geometries from CT scans were closer to measurements than those obtained using the traditional circular cross-section strand simplification, indicating that CT scans are very well suitable to approximate real feed spacer geometries. By providing detailed insight on the spacer filament shape, CT scans allow better quantification of local distribution of velocity and shear, possibly leading to more accurate estimations of fouling and concentration polarization. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Managing Conflict in Temporary Management Systems

    Wilemon, David L.

    1973-01-01

    As organizational tasks have grown more complex, several innovative temporary management systems such as matrix management have been developed. The Apollo space program has been an important contribution to the development of matrix management techniques. Discusses the role of conflict within the matrix, its determinants, and the process of…

  10. 78 FR 24239 - Temporary Mailing Promotion

    2013-04-24

    ... POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. R2013-6; Order No. 1702] Temporary Mailing Promotion... offering a Technology Credit Promotion. This notice informs the public of the Postal Service's filing and... changes associated with offering a Technology Credit Promotion.\\1\\ The promotion is planned to begin on...

  11. Ambiguous diagnosis, futile treatments and temporary recovery ...

    Ambiguous diagnosis, futile treatments and temporary recovery: Meanings of medical treatment among HIV/AIDS family caregivers providing care without ARVs. ... to understand unstable treatment outcomes; and policy makers should strengthen home-based care by developing policies that integrate palliative care into HIV ...

  12. Meaningful radiation worker training for temporary craftsmen

    Williams, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    The carefully organized Radiation Worker Training Program presented to permanently assigned personnel at a power reactor facility too often falls by the wayside when temporary craftsmen are brought in for an outage. Even though these temporary workers will frequently be assigned to outage jobs with high radiation and/or contamination exposures, their Radiation Worker Training is often squeezed into an already busy schedule, thus reducing its effectiveness. As an aid for evaluating the effectiveness of an existing Radiation Worker Training Program for temporary craftsmen or for setting up a new program, the following guides are presented and discussed in this paper: the training environment; the interest and meaningfulness of the presentation; the method or methods used for presentation of the training information; the use of demonstrations; trainee participation; and, measuring the amount and type of information retained by a trainee. Meaningful Radiation Worker Training for temporary craftsmen can pay big dividends. Craftsmen can be expected to make fewer mistakes, thus reducing radiation exposure and lessening the chance for the spread of contamination. The craftsmen will also benefit by being able to work longer and utility management will benefit by having lower outage costs

  13. 40 CFR 82.65 - Temporary exemptions.

    2010-07-01

    ...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Ban on Nonessential Products Containing Class I Substances and Ban on Nonessential Products Containing or Manufactured With Class II Substances § 82.65 Temporary exemptions. (a) Any... January 1, 1996. (e) Any person selling or distributing, or offering to sell or distribute, any product...

  14. Temporary tattoos: a novel OSCE assessment tool.

    Gormley, Gerry; Menary, Allison; Layard, Brooke; Hart, Nigel; McCourt, Collette

    2013-08-01

    There are many issues regarding the use of real patients in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). In dermatology OSCE stations, standardised patients (SPs) with clinical photographs are often used. Temporary transfer tattoos can potentially simulate skin lesions when applied to an SP. This study aims to appraise the use of temporary malignant melanoma tattoos within an OSCE framework. Within an 11-station OSCE, a temporary malignant melanoma tattoo was developed and applied to SPs in a 'skin lesion' OSCE station. A questionnaire captured the opinions of the candidate, SP and examiners, and the degree of perceived realism of each station was determined. Standard post hoc OSCE analysis determined the psychometric reliability of the stations. The response rates were 95.9 per cent of candidates and 100 per cent of the examiners and SPs. The 'skin lesion' station achieved the highest realism score compared with other stations: 89.0 per cent of candidates felt that the skin lesion appeared realistic; only 28 per cent of candidates had ever seen a melanoma before in training. The psychometric performance of the melanoma station was comparable with, and in many instances better than, other OSCE stations. Transfer tattoo technology facilitates a realistic dermatology OSCE station encounter. Temporary tattoos, alongside trained SPs, provide an authentic, standardised and reliable experience, allowing the assessment of integrated dermatology clinical skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Closing a temporary ileostomy within two weeks

    Hindenburg, Tommy; Rosenberg, J.

    2010-01-01

    Temporary ileostomy is frequently constructed to relieve a rectal anastomosis and avoid peritonitis if the anastomosis is leaking. Ostomy is a burden for both the patient and society and early closure is therefore desirable to counteract increased morbidity. Several prospective studies and a single...

  16. Temporary/portable nuclear fallout shelter

    Hampel, V E

    1991-01-15

    The design and invention of a temporary/portable fallout shelter has been described in context of schematic and representative embodiments. Tent structures are described which include disposable, exterior, semi-transparent plastic and/or fabric shield membranes covering a tent composed of stretched, tightly woven, rip-resistant fabric panels supported by tensile rods/wands. 16 figs.

  17. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  18. APPLICATIONS OF SPACERS MADE WITH DOUBLE BAR RASCHEL MACHINE

    DÍAZ-GARCÍA Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, textile technologies develop to adapt their different techniques for creating new products for the different sectors of application every day. Particularly, warp knitted fabrics and warp-knitting technology have applications in all different groups of technical textiles. It could be the most applied technique, the most versatile technology to develop new textile products for the new textile market. Warp knitted fabrics play the most important role among the technical textile fabrics. This technology is used in different product groups such as mobile textiles (car seat covers, dashboard cover, industrial textiles (composites, medical textiles (anti-decubitus blankets, sports textiles and foundation garments (bra cups, pads for swimwear. This study presents some examples of the application of this technology in some markets Within the market of technical textile, medical textile has an increasing relevance and knitted fabrics and knitting technology, at the same time, play a very important role in the fields of technical and medical textiles. Studies have demonstrated that knitted structures possess excellent mechanical properties and can promote more effective regenerative medicine, tissue repair, ligament, tendon cartilage, reconstruction, etc. The aim of this paper is to present different possibilities of textiles developed with this kind of structures, to present different alternatives, different examples of products obtained with this kind of textile structure combined with the correct kind of textile fiber. In this kind of technology, double-bar Raschel machines used for producing three-dimensional textiles, spacers, play an important role.

  19. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  20. 21 CFR 872.3770 - Temporary crown and bridge resin.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary crown and bridge resin. 872.3770 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3770 Temporary crown and bridge resin. (a) Identification. A temporary crown and bridge resin is a device composed of a material, such as...

  1. 30 CFR 47.44 - Temporary, portable containers.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary, portable containers. 47.44 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.44 Temporary, portable containers. (a) The operator does not have to label a temporary, portable container if he or she...

  2. 19 CFR 210.52 - Motions for temporary relief.

    2010-04-01

    ....52 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.52 Motions for temporary relief... issuance of temporary relief, the Commission will be guided by practice under Rule 65 of the Federal Rules...

  3. 77 FR 15650 - Fisher House and Other Temporary Lodging

    2012-03-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 60 RIN 2900-AN79 Fisher House and Other Temporary... Affairs (VA) proposes to amend its regulations concerning Fisher House and other temporary lodging... assistance and clarify the distinctions between Fisher House and other temporary lodging provided by VA. The...

  4. 46 CFR 112.01-15 - Temporary emergency power source.

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY LIGHTING AND POWER SYSTEMS Definitions of Emergency Lighting and Power Systems § 112.01-15 Temporary emergency power source. A temporary emergency power source is one of limited capacity that carries... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary emergency power source. 112.01-15 Section 112...

  5. Articulating spacers used in two-stage revision of infected hip and knee prostheses abrade with time.

    Fink, Bernd; Rechtenbach, Annett; Büchner, Hubert; Vogt, Sebastian; Hahn, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Articulating spacers used in two-stage revision surgery of infected prostheses have the potential to abrade and subsequently induce third-body wear of the new prosthesis. We asked whether particulate material abraded from spacers could be detected in the synovial membrane 6 weeks after implantation when the spacers were removed for the second stage of the revision. Sixteen hip spacers (cemented prosthesis stem articulating with a cement cup) and four knee spacers (customized mobile cement spacers) were explanted 6 weeks after implantation and the synovial membranes were removed at the same time. The membranes were examined by xray fluorescence spectroscopy, xray diffraction for the presence of abraded particles originating from the spacer material, and analyzed in a semiquantitative manner by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Histologic analyses also were performed. We found zirconium dioxide in substantial amounts in all samples, and in the specimens of the hip synovial lining, we detected particles that originated from the metal heads of the spacers. Histologically, zirconium oxide particles were seen in the synovial membrane of every spacer and bone cement particles in one knee and two hip spacers. The observations suggest cement spacers do abrade within 6 weeks. Given the presence of abrasion debris, we recommend total synovectomy and extensive lavage during the second-stage reimplantation surgery to minimize the number of abraded particles and any retained bacteria.

  6. Effects of grid spacer with mixing vane on entrainments and depositions in two-phase annular flows

    Akimaro Kawahara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mixing vanes (MVs attached to a grid spacer on the characteristics of air–water annular flows were experimentally investigated. To know the effects, a grid spacer with or without MV was inserted in a vertical circular pipe of 16-mm internal diameter. For three cases (i.e., no spacer, spacer without MV, and spacer with MV, the liquid film thickness, liquid entrainment fraction, and deposition rate were measured by the constant current method, single liquid film extraction method, and double liquid film extraction method, respectively. The MVs significantly promote the re-deposition of liquid droplets in the gas core flow into the liquid film on the channel walls. The deposition mass transfer coefficient is three times higher for the spacer with MV than for the spacer without MV, even for cases 0.3-m downstream from the spacer. The liquid film thickness becomes thicker upstream and downstream for the spacer with MV, compared with the thickness for the spacer without MV and for the case with no spacer.

  7. A simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection for predictive and interpretative purposes

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, H. K.; Yoon, K. H.

    1994-01-01

    The in-reactor fuel rod support conditions against the fretting wear-induced damage can be evaluated by spacer grid residual spring deflection. In order to predict the spacer grid residual spring deflection as a function of burnup for various spring designs, a simulation methodology of spacer grid residual spring deflection has been developed and implemented in the GRIDFORCE program. The simulation methodology takes into account cladding creep rate, initial spring deflection, initial spring force, and spring force relaxation rate as the key parameters affecting the residual spring deflection. The simulation methodology developed in this study can be utilized as an effective tool in evaluating the capability of a newly designed spacer grid spring to prevent the fretting wear-induced damage

  8. The independent loss model with ordered insertions for the evolution of CRISPR spacers.

    Baumdicker, F; Huebner, A M I; Pfaffelhuber, P

    2018-02-01

    Today, the CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) region within bacterial and archaeal genomes is known to encode an adaptive immune system. We rely on previous results on the evolution of the CRISPR arrays, which led to the ordered independent loss model, introduced by Kupczok and Bollback (2013). When focusing on the spacers (between the repeats), new elements enter a CRISPR array at rate θ at the leader end of the array, while all spacers present are lost at rate ρ along the phylogeny relating the sample. Within this model, we compute the distribution of distances of spacers which are present in all arrays in a sample of size n. We use these results to estimate the loss rate ρ from spacer array data for n=2 and n=3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of endoskeleton on antibiotic impregnated cement spacer for treating deep hip infection

    Hsu Wei-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds A two-stage revision arthroplasty was suggested optimal treatment for deep infections in hip joint. The effect of endoskeleton of cement spacers on the interim function and infection control remains unclear. Methods From Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2007, we collected a prospective cohort of consecutive 34 patients who treated with two-stage revision total hip arthroplasty for deep infection of hip joint. In group 1, fifteen patients were treated by a novel design augmented with hip compression screw while nineteen patients were treated by traditional design in group 2. Results No fracture of cement spacer occurred in group 1 while 6 cases developed spacer failure in group 2. (p Conclusions Patients being treated for deep infection of hip joint using cement spacer augmented with stronger endoskeleton have lower pain levels and better joint function between stages.

  10. Biofouling patterns in spacer filled channels: High resolution imaging for characterization of heterogeneous biofilms

    Staal, Marc; Siddiqui, Amber; van Loosdrecht, Mark; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2017-01-01

    reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane filtration systems used for desalination and wastewater reuse to produce high quality (drinking) water. These spiral wound membrane modules contain mesh-like spacer structures used to create

  11. A Facile Technique to Make Articulating Spacers for Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Yu-Ping Su

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: Treating infected total knee arthroplasty with these self-made articulating spacers eradicates infection effectively, improves the life quality before reimplantation and provides good final results without significant complications.

  12. Reentrainment of droplet from grid spacer in mist flow portion of LOCA reflood of PWR

    Lee, S.L.; Cho, S.K.; Sheen, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation is made on the influence of a quenched grid spacer on the greatly enhanced heat transfer from heated fuel rods during the mist flow phase of emergency reflood of loss of coolant accident (LOCA) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The situation for the case of a dry grid spacer before its quenching has not been covered in this study. The experimental technique used is a relatively simple optical scheme which combines the reference-mode laser-Doppler anemometry making use of the scattering of a light beam from a droplet. The results reveal that the large droplets in the mist flow, which are intercepted by the grid spacer, are responsible for the creation of a large number of smaller droplets. These small droplets, due to their large surface area to mass ratios, can serve as superb evaporative cooling agents to heat transfer downstream of the grid spacer

  13. Non linear fe analysis on the static buckling behavior of the spacer grid structures

    Song, K.N.; Yoon, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    In this study considered is the static buckling behavior of spacer grids in the fuel assembly, which are required to have a sufficient strength against an accident like earthquake. Special attention is given to the finite element modeling of the spot-welding and the constraints between the spacer strips assembled together: it is found that a proper treatment of the constraints is critical for accurate assessment of the buckling behavior including strain localization at the point of spot welding. The buckling strength of the 17 x 17 spacer grid, which is difficult to analyze due to a large number of degrees of freedom, is estimated from analysis for the smaller models 3 x 3, 5 x 5, 7 x 7, and 9 x 9 spacer grids. (authors)

  14. Spacer geometry and particle deposition in spiral wound membrane feed channels

    Radu, A.I.

    2014-11-01

    Deposition of microspheres mimicking bacterial cells was studied experimentally and with a numerical model in feed spacer membrane channels, as used in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In-situ microscopic observations in membrane fouling simulators revealed formation of specific particle deposition patterns for different diamond and ladder feed spacer orientations. A three-dimensional numerical model combining fluid flow with a Lagrangian approach for particle trajectory calculations could describe very well the in-situ observations on particle deposition in flow cells. Feed spacer geometry, positioning and cross-flow velocity sensitively influenced the particle transport and deposition patterns. The deposition patterns were not influenced by permeate production. This combined experimental-modeling approach could be used for feed spacer geometry optimization studies for reduced (bio)fouling. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Computer-Aided Design Method of Warp-Knitted Jacquard Spacer Fabrics

    Li Xinxin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a further study on knitting and jacquard principles, this paper presents a mathematical design model to make computer-aided design of warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics more efficient. The mathematical model with matrix method employs three essential elements of chain notation, threading and Jacquard designing. With this model, the processing to design warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics with CAD software is also introduced. In this study, the sports shoes which have separated functional areas according to the feet structure and characteristics of movement are analysed. The results show the different patterns on Jacquard spacer fabrics that are seamlessly stitched with jacquard technics. The computer-aided design method of warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics is efficient and simple.

  16. Spacer geometry and particle deposition in spiral wound membrane feed channels

    Radu, A.I.; van Steen, M.S.H.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; van Loosdrecht, Mark C.M.; Picioreanu, C.

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of microspheres mimicking bacterial cells was studied experimentally and with a numerical model in feed spacer membrane channels, as used in spiral wound nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. In-situ microscopic

  17. CRISPR Spacer Arrays for Detection of Viral Signatures from Acidic Hot Springs

    Snyder, J. C.; Bateson, M. M.; Suciu, D.; Young, M. J.

    2010-04-01

    Viruses are the most abundant life-like entities on the planet Earth. Using CRISPR spacer sequences, we have developed a microarray-based approach to detecting viral signatures in the acidic hot springs of Yellowstone.

  18. Suppression of subthreshold characteristics variation for junctionless multigate transistors using high-k spacers

    Lou, Haijun; Zhang, Baili; Li, Dan; Lin, Xinnan; He, Jin; Chan, Mansun

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the high-k spacer is proposed to suppress the subthreshold characteristics variation of junctionless multigate transistor (JMT) with non-ideal sidewall angle for the first time. It is demonstrated that the variation of subthreshold characteristics induced by the changing sidewall angle is efficiently suppressed by high-k spacers due to the enhanced corner effect through the fringe capacitance, and the electrostatic integrity of JMTs is also improved at sub-22 nm gate length. Two key parameters of high-k spacer, the thickness and length, have been optimized in terms of the suppression of subthreshold characteristics variation. Then their optimal values are proposed. The benefit of high-k spacer makes JMTs more scalable. (paper)

  19. Effect of plastic spacer handling on salbutamol lung deposition in asthmatic children

    Lipworth, Brian J; Lee, Daniel K C; Anhøj, Jacob

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: To study the effects of electrostatics in a plastic spacer on the lung deposition of salbutamol in asthmatic children. METHODS: Twenty-five children (5-12 years) with mild asthma were given salbutamol hydrofluoroalkane pressurized metered dose inhaler 400 micro g via a 750 ml plastic spacer...... on separate days. Blood samples were taken for plasma salbutamol at 5, 10, 15 and 20 min after inhalation to measure lung bioavailability as a surrogate for relative lung dose. With immediate inhalation following actuation, a new rinsed spacer (NewRinsed ) was compared with a used spacer after repeated daily...... log transformed and expressed as geometric mean fold difference for the average plasma salbutamol concentration (Cav) over 20 min. RESULTS: There were significant differences (P NewRinsed 1.92 fold (95% CI 1.15, 3...

  20. Impact of a Protective Vest and Spacer Garment on Exercise-Heat Strain

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Montain, Scott J; Sawka, Michael N

    2008-01-01

    ...). Volunteers wore the US Army battle dress uniform (trial B), B + protective vest (trial P), and B + P + spacer garment (trial S). Biophysical clothing properties were determined and found similar to many law enforcement, industry, and sports ensembles...

  1. A study on the characteristics of the spacer spring by finite element method

    Park, Sung Keun; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Kyu Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-01

    The mechanical integrity of spacer springs in KOFA was certified through the mechanical tests by KWU. In this report, the spacer spring characteristics were obtained by using a commercial FEM code ANSYS, and the calculated results were compared with the mechanical test results. It has been found that the analytical results from ANSYS were in good agreement with the test results in the actual working range of the spacer springs even though some errors occurred in the range of initial spring deflection. The errors were thought to occur due to the simplified boundary conditions and the nominal dimensions which are used in calculations rather than the as-fabricated dimensions. Though the results from ANSYS are not fully satisfied, the analytical method in this report has been verified to be used as a method for investigating the characteristic of spacer springs roughly before conducting mechanical tests. 8 tabs., 25 figs (Author) .new.

  2. Biofouling patterns in spacer filled channels: High resolution imaging for characterization of heterogeneous biofilms

    Staal, Marc

    2017-08-15

    Biofilms develop in heterogeneous patterns at a µm scale up to a cm scale, and patterns become more pronounced when biofilms develop under complex hydrodynamic flow regimes. Spatially heterogeneous biofilms are especially known in spiral wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane filtration systems used for desalination and wastewater reuse to produce high quality (drinking) water. These spiral wound membrane modules contain mesh-like spacer structures used to create an intermembrane space and improve water mixing. Spacers create inhomogeneous water flow patterns resulting in zones favouring biofilm growth, possibly leading to biofouling thus hampering water production. Oxygen sensing planar optodes were used to visualize variations in oxygen decrease rates (ODR). ODR is an indication of biofilm activity. In this study, ODR images of multiple repetitive spacer areas in a membrane fouling simulator were averaged to produce high resolution, low noise ODR images. Averaging 40 individual spacer areas improved the ODR distribution image significantly and allowed comparison of biofilm patterning over a spacer structure at different positions in an RO filter. This method clearly showed that most active biofilm accumulated on and in direct vicinity of the spacer. The averaging method was also used to calculate the deviation of ODR patterning from individual spacer areas to the average ODR pattern, proposing a new approach to determine biofilm spatial heterogeneity. This study showed that the averaging method can be applied and that the improved, averaged ODR images can be used as an analytical, in-situ, non-destructive method to assess and quantify the effect of membrane installation operational parameters or different spacer geometries on biofilm development in spiral wound membrane systems characterized by complex hydrodynamic conditions.

  3. Feasibility Study of Interactive Game Technologies to Improve Experience with Inhaler Spacer Devices in Young Children

    Aslam, Tariq; Shakir, Savana; Murray, Clare

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionThe correct use of inhaler devices with facemasks and spacers in young children can be difficult for both children and parents, resulting in distress for both, poor adherence and ineffective drug delivery. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the utility and impact of an interactive electronic game designed to improve the experience of spacer devices in young asthmatic children.MethodsThe Respiratory Aid For Inhaler (RAFIhaler) technology consists of a smartphone mounte...

  4. Technology of electron beam welding for Zr-4 alloy spacer grid

    Pei Qiusheng; Wu Xueyi; Yang Qishun

    1989-10-01

    The welding technology for Zr-4 alloy spacer grid by using vacuum electron beam was studied. Through a series of welding technological experiments, metallographic examinations of seam structure and detecting tests for welding defect by X-ray defectoscopy, a good welding technology was selected to meet the requirements. The experimental results indicated that the Zr-4 alloy spacer grid welded by vacuum electron beam welding is feasible

  5. 77 FR 71825 - Notice of Temporary Restriction of Vehicle Use and Temporary Closure to Tree Cutting and Wood...

    2012-12-04

    ... to Tree Cutting and Wood Harvesting on Public Land in Douglas County, NV AGENCY: Bureau of Land... a temporary closure to wood harvesting and/or tree cutting on public land within the Topaz Ranch... temporary restriction of cross-country vehicle travel and a temporary closure to tree cutting and wood...

  6. 5 X 5 rod bundle flow field measurements downstream a PWR spacer grid

    Castro, Higor F.P.; Silva, Vitor V A.; Santos, André A.C.; Veloso, Maria A.F., E-mail: higorfabiano@gmail.com, E-mail: mdora@nuclear.ufmg.br, E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The spacer grids are structures present in nuclear fuel assembly of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). They play an important structural role and also assist in heat removal through the assembly by promoting increased turbulence of the flow. Understanding the flow dynamics downstream the spacer grid is paramount for fuel element design and analysis. This paper presents water flow velocity profiles measurements downstream a spacer grid in a 5 x 5 rod bundle test rig with the objective of highlighting important fluid dynamic behavior near the grid and supplying data for CFD simulation validation. These velocity profiles were obtained at two different heights downstream the spacer grid using a LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) through the top of test rig. The turbulence intensities and patterns of the swirl and cross flow were evaluated. The tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.8 x 10{sup 4} to 5.4 x 10{sup 4}. This experimental research was carried out in thermo-hydraulics laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Center – CDTN. Results show great repeatability and low uncertainties (< 1.24 %). Details of the flow field show how the mixture and turbulence induced by the spacer grid quickly decays downstream the spacer grid. It is shown that the developed methodology can supply high resolution low uncertainty results that can be used for validation of CFD simulations. (author)

  7. 5 X 5 rod bundle flow field measurements downstream a PWR spacer grid

    Castro, Higor F.P.; Silva, Vitor V A.; Santos, André A.C.; Veloso, Maria A.F.

    2017-01-01

    The spacer grids are structures present in nuclear fuel assembly of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR). They play an important structural role and also assist in heat removal through the assembly by promoting increased turbulence of the flow. Understanding the flow dynamics downstream the spacer grid is paramount for fuel element design and analysis. This paper presents water flow velocity profiles measurements downstream a spacer grid in a 5 x 5 rod bundle test rig with the objective of highlighting important fluid dynamic behavior near the grid and supplying data for CFD simulation validation. These velocity profiles were obtained at two different heights downstream the spacer grid using a LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) through the top of test rig. The turbulence intensities and patterns of the swirl and cross flow were evaluated. The tests were conducted for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.8 x 10"4 to 5.4 x 10"4. This experimental research was carried out in thermo-hydraulics laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Center – CDTN. Results show great repeatability and low uncertainties (< 1.24 %). Details of the flow field show how the mixture and turbulence induced by the spacer grid quickly decays downstream the spacer grid. It is shown that the developed methodology can supply high resolution low uncertainty results that can be used for validation of CFD simulations. (author)

  8. A study on improvement of analytical prediction model for spacer grid pressure loss coefficients

    Lim, Jonh Seon

    2002-02-01

    Nuclear fuel assemblies used in the nuclear power plants consist of the nuclear fuel rods, the control rod guide tubes, an instrument guide tube, spacer grids,a bottom nozzle, a top nozzle. The spacer grid is the most important component of the fuel assembly components for thermal hydraulic and mechanical design and analyses. The spacer grids fixed with the guide tubes support the fuel rods and have the very important role to activate thermal energy transfer by the coolant mixing caused to the turbulent flow and crossflow in the subchannels. In this paper, the analytical spacer grid pressure loss prediction model has been studied and improved by considering the test section wall to spacer grid gap pressure loss independently and applying the appropriate friction drag coefficient to predict pressure loss more accurately at the low Reynolds number region. The improved analytical model has been verified based on the hydraulic pressure drop test results for the spacer grids of three types with 5x5, 16x16, 17x17 arrays, respectively. The pressure loss coefficients predicted by the improved analytical model are coincident with those test results within ±12%. This result shows that the improved analytical model can be used for research and design change of the nuclear fuel assembly

  9. Numerical simulation of bubble motion about a grid spacer in a rod bundle

    Zhang, Zheng; Hosokawa, Shigeo; Hayashi, Kosuke; Tomiyama, Akio

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulations based on a three-dimensional two-way bubble tracking method are carried out to predict bubble motions in a square duct with an obstacle and in a two-by-three rod bundle with a grid spacer. Comparisons between measured and predicted bubble motions demonstrate that the two-way bubble tracking method gives good predictions for trajectories of small bubbles in the upstream side of the grid spacer in the rod bundle geometry. The predicted bubble trajectories clearly show that bubbles are apt to migrate toward the rod surface in the vicinity of the bottom of the grid spacer. Analysis of forces acting on the bubbles confirms that pressure gradient force induced by the presence of the spacer is the main cause of the bubble lateral migration toward the rod surface. Motions of steam bubbles at a nominal operating condition of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are also predicted by using the bubble tracking method, which indicates that steam bubbles also migrate toward the rod surface at the upstream side of the spacer due to the spacer-induced pressure gradient force. (author)

  10. Manipulation of recombination zone by utilizing the donor of electroplex as a spacer

    Lü, Zhaoyue, E-mail: lvzhaoyue@ecust.edu.cn [Department of Physics, School of Science, East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Yin, Yuehong [Department of Applied Physics, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan Province 454000 (China); Xiao, Jing [Physics and Electronic Engineering College, Taishan University, Shandong Province 271021,China (China)

    2016-11-15

    The emission of electroplex is varied with applied voltages, leading to poor color stability of devices. In this work, the recombination region was investigated in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the electroplex between N,N’-diphenyl-N,N’-bis(1-naphthyl-phenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine(NPB) and 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (PBD). Color stability was manipulated by introducing the donor of electroplex as a spacer, which plays an important role of recombination zone for electroplex-based OLEDs. The 5-nm-spacer-device brought out a tolerable chromaticity coordinate shift of less than 0.01 for both x- and y-value. White light emission with CIE coordinates of (0.37,0.28) and (0.33,0.26) at 12 V was achieved when the thickness of spacer was 7 and 10 nm, respectively. The 7-nm-spacer-device exhibited better color stability than the 10-nm-spacer-device. This proves that adjusting spacer thickness is a simple and efficient method to control recombination region and can be useful for fulfilling color-stable electroplex-based white emission.

  11. Manipulation of recombination zone by utilizing the donor of electroplex as a spacer

    Lü, Zhaoyue; Yin, Yuehong; Xiao, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The emission of electroplex is varied with applied voltages, leading to poor color stability of devices. In this work, the recombination region was investigated in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the electroplex between N,N’-diphenyl-N,N’-bis(1-naphthyl-phenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine(NPB) and 2-(4-biphenylyl)-5-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (PBD). Color stability was manipulated by introducing the donor of electroplex as a spacer, which plays an important role of recombination zone for electroplex-based OLEDs. The 5-nm-spacer-device brought out a tolerable chromaticity coordinate shift of less than 0.01 for both x- and y-value. White light emission with CIE coordinates of (0.37,0.28) and (0.33,0.26) at 12 V was achieved when the thickness of spacer was 7 and 10 nm, respectively. The 7-nm-spacer-device exhibited better color stability than the 10-nm-spacer-device. This proves that adjusting spacer thickness is a simple and efficient method to control recombination region and can be useful for fulfilling color-stable electroplex-based white emission.

  12. BWR fuel assembly having fuel rod spacers axially positioned by exterior springs

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having spaced fuel rods, an outer hollow tubular flow channel surrounding the fuel rods so as to direct flow of coolant/moderator fluid there-along, and at least one spacer being disposed along the channel and about the fuel rods so as to maintain them in side-by-side spaced relationship, an arrangement for disposing the spacer in a desired axial position along the fuel rods is described comprising: yieldably resilient springs disposed between an interior side of the outer channel and an exterior side of the spacer. The springs have an inherent spring bias directed away from the exterior sides of the spacers and toward the interior side of the channel such that by contact with the channel and spacer the springs assume states in which they are deflected away from the channel interior side so as to exert sufficient compressive contacting force thereon to maintain the spacer substantially stationary in the desired axial position along the fuel rods

  13. Temporary Blindness after Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block.

    Barodiya, Animesh; Thukral, Rishi; Agrawal, Shaila Mahendra; Rai, Anshul; Singh, Siddharth

    2017-03-01

    Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block (IANB) anaesthesia is one of the common procedures in dental clinic. This procedure is safe, but complications may still occur. Ocular complications such as diplopia, loss of vision, or ophthalmoplegia are extremely rare. This case report explains an event where due to individual anatomic variation of the sympathetic vasoconstrictor nerve and maxillary and middle meningeal arteries, intravascular administration of anaesthetic agent caused unusual ocular signs and symptoms such as temporary blindness.

  14. Time spans and spacers : Molecular phylogenetic explorations in the Cladophora complex (Chlorophyta) from the perspective of rDNA gene and spacer sequences

    Bakker, Frederik Theodoor

    1995-01-01

    In this study, phylogenetic relationships among genera, species and biogeographic representatives of single Cladophora species within the Cladophorales were analyzed using rDNA gene and spacer sequences. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences, the Cladophora complex is shown to be

  15. Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-12-22

    Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biofouling potential of two commercially available reference feed spacers and four modified feed spacers. The spacers were compared on hydraulic characterization and in biofouling studies with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs). The virgin feed spacer was characterized hydraulically by their resistance, measured in terms of feed channel pressure drop, performed by operating MFSs at varying feed water flow rates. Short-term (9 days) biofouling studies were carried out with nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water to accelerate the biofouling rate. Long-term (96 days) biofouling studies were done without nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water. Feed channel pressure drop was monitored and accumulation of active biomass was quantified by adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) determination. The six feed spacers were ranked on pressure drop (hydraulic characterization) and on biofouling impact (biofouling studies). Significantly different trends in hydraulic resistance and biofouling impact for the six feed spacers were observed. The same ranking for biofouling impact on the feed spacers was found for the (i) short-term biofouling study with nutrient dosage and the (ii) long-term biofouling study without nutrient dosage. The ranking for hydraulic resistance for six virgin feed spacers differed significantly from the ranking of the biofouling impact, indicating that hydraulic resistance of clean feed spacers does not predict the hydraulic resistance of biofouled feed spacers. Better geometric design of feed spacers can be a suitable approach to minimize impact of biofouling in spiral wound membrane systems.

  16. Experimental investigations of turbulent flows in rod bundles with and without spacer grids

    Trippe, G.

    1979-07-01

    In the thermofluiddynamic design of liquid metal cooled reactor fuel elements the lack of experimentally confirmed knowledge of the three-dimensional flow events in rod bundles provided with spacer grids has appeared as a significant problem. To close this gap of knowledge, detailed measurements of the local velocities were made on a 19-rod bundle model. The Pitot method of differential pressure measurements was used as the measuring system. In the first part of the work the fully developed flow regime not influenced by spacers was investigated. A simple relation was derived for distributing the mass flow among the subchannels of a rod bundle; it is but slightly dependent on the Reynolds number. This relation allows a quick, coarse calculation of the distribution of the undisturbed, fully developed mass flow in bundles with similar geometries. By evaluation of further experiments known from the literature, empirical relationships were found for the local velocity distribution within the subchannels of such bundles. In the second part the effect of grid shaped spacers was investigated. The three-dimensional flow events caused by the spacers were completely recorded and interpreted physically. The deeper understanding of these flow processes can now serve to improve the model concept used in the present design computer programs. Single results of the investigations which take primary importance are the quantitative relations existing between the changes of mass flow in the bundle boundary zone, caused by a spacer, and the geometry of this spacer. The transferability to other bundle geometries was discussed and delimited. Moreover, it was shown that the mass flow in the bundle boundary zone can be successively reduced by spacers placed one behind the other in the bundle. A noticeable dependence of flow events on the Reynolds number was not found for the range relevant in practical application (30.000 [de

  17. A functional analysis of the spacer of V(DJ recombination signal sequences.

    Alfred Ian Lee

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available During lymphocyte development, V(DJ recombination assembles antigen receptor genes from component V, D, and J gene segments. These gene segments are flanked by a recombination signal sequence (RSS, which serves as the binding site for the recombination machinery. The murine Jbeta2.6 gene segment is a recombinationally inactive pseudogene, but examination of its RSS reveals no obvious reason for its failure to recombine. Mutagenesis of the Jbeta2.6 RSS demonstrates that the sequences of the heptamer, nonamer, and spacer are all important. Strikingly, changes solely in the spacer sequence can result in dramatic differences in the level of recombination. The subsequent analysis of a library of more than 4,000 spacer variants revealed that spacer residues of particular functional importance are correlated with their degree of conservation. Biochemical assays indicate distinct cooperation between the spacer and heptamer/nonamer along each step of the reaction pathway. The results suggest that the spacer serves not only to ensure the appropriate distance between the heptamer and nonamer but also regulates RSS activity by providing additional RAG:RSS interaction surfaces. We conclude that while RSSs are defined by a "digital" requirement for absolutely conserved nucleotides, the quality of RSS function is determined in an "analog" manner by numerous complex interactions between the RAG proteins and the less-well conserved nucleotides in the heptamer, the nonamer, and, importantly, the spacer. Those modulatory effects are accurately predicted by a new computational algorithm for "RSS information content." The interplay between such binary and multiplicative modes of interactions provides a general model for analyzing protein-DNA interactions in various biological systems.

  18. A functional analysis of the spacer of V(D)J recombination signal sequences.

    Lee, Alfred Ian; Fugmann, Sebastian D; Cowell, Lindsay G; Ptaszek, Leon M; Kelsoe, Garnett; Schatz, David G

    2003-10-01

    During lymphocyte development, V(D)J recombination assembles antigen receptor genes from component V, D, and J gene segments. These gene segments are flanked by a recombination signal sequence (RSS), which serves as the binding site for the recombination machinery. The murine Jbeta2.6 gene segment is a recombinationally inactive pseudogene, but examination of its RSS reveals no obvious reason for its failure to recombine. Mutagenesis of the Jbeta2.6 RSS demonstrates that the sequences of the heptamer, nonamer, and spacer are all important. Strikingly, changes solely in the spacer sequence can result in dramatic differences in the level of recombination. The subsequent analysis of a library of more than 4,000 spacer variants revealed that spacer residues of particular functional importance are correlated with their degree of conservation. Biochemical assays indicate distinct cooperation between the spacer and heptamer/nonamer along each step of the reaction pathway. The results suggest that the spacer serves not only to ensure the appropriate distance between the heptamer and nonamer but also regulates RSS activity by providing additional RAG:RSS interaction surfaces. We conclude that while RSSs are defined by a "digital" requirement for absolutely conserved nucleotides, the quality of RSS function is determined in an "analog" manner by numerous complex interactions between the RAG proteins and the less-well conserved nucleotides in the heptamer, the nonamer, and, importantly, the spacer. Those modulatory effects are accurately predicted by a new computational algorithm for "RSS information content." The interplay between such binary and multiplicative modes of interactions provides a general model for analyzing protein-DNA interactions in various biological systems.

  19. Knitting Technologies And Tensile Properties Of A Novel Curved Flat-Knitted Three-Dimensional Spacer Fabrics

    Li Xiaoying

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a knitting technique for making innovative curved three-dimensional (3D spacer fabrics by the computer flat-knitting machine. During manufacturing, a number of reinforcement yarns made of aramid fibres are inserted into 3D spacer fabrics along the weft direction to enhance the fabric tensile properties. Curved, flat-knitted 3D spacer fabrics with different angles (in the warp direction were also developed. Tensile tests were carried out in the weft and warp directions for the two spacer fabrics (with and without reinforcement yarns, and their stress–strain curves were compared. The results showed that the reinforcement yarns can reduce the fabric deformation and improve tensile stress and dimensional stability of 3D spacer fabrics. This research can help the further study of 3D spacer fabric when applied to composites.

  20. Ion therapy of prostate cancer: daily rectal dose reduction by application of spacer gel

    Rucinski, Antoni; Brons, Stephan; Richter, Daniel; Habl, Gregor; Debus, Jürgen; Bert, Christoph; Haberer, Thomas; Jäkel, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ion beam therapy represents a promising approach to treat prostate cancer, mainly due to its high conformity and radiobiological effectiveness. However, the presence of prostate motion, patient positioning and range uncertainties may deteriorate target dose and increase exposure of organs at risk. Spacer gel injected between prostate and rectum may increase the safety of prostate cancer (PC) radiation therapy by separating the rectum from the target dose field. The dosimetric impact of the application of spacer gel for scanned carbon ion therapy of PC has been analyzed at Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). The robustness of ion therapy treatment plans was investigated by comparison of two data sets of patients treated with and without spacer gel. A research treatment planning system for ion therapy was used for treatment plan optimization and calculation of daily dose distributions on 2 to 9 Computed Tomography (CT) studies available for each of the 19 patients. Planning and daily dose distributions were analyzed with respect to target coverage, maximal dose to the rectum (excluding 1 ml of the greatest dose; Dmax-1 ml) and the rectal volume receiving dose greater than 90% of prescribed target dose (V90 Rectum ), respectively. The application of spacer gel did substantially diminish rectum dose. Dmax-1 ml on the treatment planning CT was on average reduced from 100.0 ± 1.0% to 90.2 ± 4.8%, when spacer gel was applied. The robustness analysis performed with daily CT studies demonstrated for all analyzed patient cases that application of spacer gel results in a decrease of the daily V90 Rectum index, which calculated over all patient cases and CT studies was 10.2 ± 10.4 [ml] and 1.1 ± 2.1 [ml] for patients without and with spacer gel, respectively. The dosimetric benefit of increasing the distance between prostate and rectum using spacer gel for PC treatment with carbon ion beams has been quantified. Application of spacer gel substantially reduced rectal

  1. In Silico Study of Spacer Arm Length Influence on Drug Vectorization by Fullerene C60

    Haifa Khemir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies theoretically the effect of spacer arm lengths on the characteristics of a fullerene C60-based nanovector. The spacer arm is constituted of a carbon chain including a variable number of methylene groups (n = 2–11. To improve the ability of the fullerene carriage, two arms are presented simultaneously through a malonyl bridge. Then the evolution of selected physicochemical parameters is monitored as a function of the spacer arm length and the angle between the two arms. We show here that while the studied characteristics are almost independent of the spacer arm length or vary monotonically with it, the dipole moment and its orientation vary periodically with the parity of the number of carbon atoms. This periodicity is related to both modules and orientations of dipole moments of the spacer arms. In the field of chemical synthesis, these results highlight the importance of theoretical calculations for the optimization of operating conditions. In the field of drug discovery, they show that theoretical calculations of the chemical properties of a drug candidate can help predict its in vivo behaviour, notably its bioavailability and biodistribution, which are known to be tightly dependent of its polarity.

  2. Air-water flooding in multirod channels: effects of spacer grids and blockages

    Cha, Jong Hee; Jun, Hyung Gil

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental results on flooding of countercurrent flow in vertical multirod channels, which consists of falling water film and upward air flow. In particular, the effects of spacer grids, with and without mixing vane, and of blockage in the multirod bundle on the behaviour of flooding were investigated. The 5 x 5 zircaloy tube bundle was used for the test section. The comparison of previous analytical models and empirical correlations with present data on flooding showed that the existing models and correlations predict much higher flooding curves. The spacer grid causes the lower flooding air flow rate to compare with the bare rod bundle. However, the mixing spacer grids need a higher flooding air flow rate for a constant liquid flow rate than the spacer grids without mixing vanes. The bundle containing blockages has the highest flooding air flow rate among the bundles with spacer grids and blokages. Empirical flooding correlations for the three types of test section have been made. (Author)

  3. Effect of different commercial feed spacers on biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane systems: A numerical study

    Bucs, Szilard; Radu, Andrea I.; Lavric, Vasile; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Feed spacers and hydrodynamics have been found relevant for the impact of biofouling on performance in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems.The objectives of this study on biofouling development were to determine the impact of (i) linear flow velocity and bacterial cell load, (ii) biomass location and (iii) various feed spacer geometries as applied in practice as well as a modified geometry spacer.A three-dimensional mathematical model for biofouling of feed spacer channels including hydrodynamics, solute mass transport and biofilm formation was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB software.Results of this study indicate that the feed channel pressure drop increase caused by biofilm formation can be reduced by using thicker and/or modified feed spacer geometry and/or a lower flow rate in the feed channel. The increase of feed channel pressure drop by biomass accumulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the location of biomass. Results of numerical simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, indicating that this micro-scale mechanistic model is representative for practice. The developed model can help to understand better the biofouling process of spiral-wound RO and NF membrane systems and to develop strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Effect of different commercial feed spacers on biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane systems: A numerical study

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-06-01

    Feed spacers and hydrodynamics have been found relevant for the impact of biofouling on performance in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems.The objectives of this study on biofouling development were to determine the impact of (i) linear flow velocity and bacterial cell load, (ii) biomass location and (iii) various feed spacer geometries as applied in practice as well as a modified geometry spacer.A three-dimensional mathematical model for biofouling of feed spacer channels including hydrodynamics, solute mass transport and biofilm formation was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB software.Results of this study indicate that the feed channel pressure drop increase caused by biofilm formation can be reduced by using thicker and/or modified feed spacer geometry and/or a lower flow rate in the feed channel. The increase of feed channel pressure drop by biomass accumulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the location of biomass. Results of numerical simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, indicating that this micro-scale mechanistic model is representative for practice. The developed model can help to understand better the biofouling process of spiral-wound RO and NF membrane systems and to develop strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Simulation study of transfer characteristics for spacer-filled membrane distillation desalination modules

    Chang, Hsuan; Hsu, Jian-An; Chang, Cheng-Liang; Ho, Chii-Dong; Cheng, Tung-Wen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A 3D CFD model takes in transmembrane heat and mass transfer developed. • DCMD modules using spacer-filled and empty channels for desalination simulated. • Fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transfer profiles revealed. • Correlations of friction factor and Nusselt number developed. - Abstract: Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging and promising membrane separation process, which can directly utilize renewable thermal energy or low-grade waste heat, for applications in water or wastewater treatment and food industry. However, a major drawback of MD process is its low energy efficiency. Spacer is the most suggested and studied eddy promoter to enhance the heat and mass transfer, which further improves both the separation and the energy utilization performance, of MD processes. This paper presents the results of a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of DCMD (direct contact membrane distillation) modules using channels with and without spacers for desalination application. The model employs permeable wall boundary condition to take into account the transmembrane heat and mass transfer and simulates the entire module length. The simulation reveals similar fluctuating distributions of temperature polarization coefficient, transmembrane heat and mass fluxes as well as the shear stress on the membrane surface along the entire module length. Correlations have been developed for friction factor and average Nusselt number. These correlations are useful for the analysis and design of DCMD modules. The extent of heat transfer enhancement by spacers depends on the geometry of spacers and the Reynolds number of fluid.

  6. Using cathode spacers to minimize reactor size in air cathode microbial fuel cells

    Yang, Qiao

    2012-04-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) will require more compact reactor designs. Spacers can be used to minimize the reactor size without adversely affecting performance. A single 1.5mm expanded plastic spacer (S1.5) produced a maximum power density (973±26mWm -2) that was similar to that of an MFC with the cathode exposed directly to air (no spacer). However, a very thin spacer (1.3mm) reduced power by 33%. Completely covering the air cathode with a solid plate did not eliminate power generation, indicating oxygen leakage into the reactor. The S1.5 spacer slightly increased columbic efficiencies (from 20% to 24%) as a result of reduced oxygen transfer into the system. Based on operating conditions (1000ς, CE=20%), it was estimated that 0.9Lh -1 of air would be needed for 1m 2 of cathode area suggesting active air flow may be needed for larger scale MFCs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Tocopherol in irradiation of temporary hypoxic tumours

    Kaagerud, A.; Lund, N.; Peterson, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of tocopherol on the effect of local irradiation under induced ischaemia by temporary tourniquet of two rat tumours transplanted intramuscularly into one hindleg was evaluated. An impaired retardation of growth rate occurred in tumours irradiated under ischaemia. This effect was eliminated by pretreatment of animals with tocopherol. In separate experiments the method of inducing ischaemia was investigated by MDO-electrode measurements of tumour tissue oxygen pressure. A significant tumour hypoxia was found under tourniquet of the tumour-bearing leg of the animals. Pretreatment with tocopherol did not influence the tumour pO 2 . (Auth.)

  8. Temporary effects of alcohol on color vision

    Geniusz, Maciej K.; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Marta; Przeździecka-Dołyk, Joanna

    2017-09-01

    The color vision has been described as one to be very sensitive to the intake of several chemicals. The present research reviews the published literature that is concerned with color vision impairment due to alcohol. Most of this research considers people under long-term effects of alcohol. However, there is little information about temporary effects of alcohol on color vision. A group of ten volunteers aged 18-40 was studied. During the study levels of alcohol in the body were tested with a standard breathalyzer while color vision were studied using Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Color Vision Tests. Keywords: Col

  9. Temporary new opening hours for Gate C

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note the new temporary opening hours for the gate C as from 22 September 2010 until 29 October 2010 (working days): Morning: between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. Lunch: between 12:00 and 2:00 p.m. Evening: between 5:00 pm and 7:00 p.m. Traffic flow will be permitted in both directions during this period. Please minimize your speed accordingly and respect all road signs. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  10. Temporary provision against Kernkraftwerk Biblis dismissed

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    With its decision of November 19, 1979 - VIII IG 13/79 -, the Administrative Court of Hesse has refused the complaint of a Darmstadt resident whose application for a temporary provision interdicting further operation of the power plant units Biblis A and B had been refused by the Darmstadt Administrative Court. The costs of the procedure, including the extra-judicial costs of the witnesses heard, are to be paid by the plaintiff. The value in litigation was raised to DM 10 000,-. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 CKA [de

  11. Microbiologic Evaluation of Cotton and Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Tape as Endodontic Spacer Materials in Primary Molars An in Vivo Study.

    Prabhakar, Attiguppe Ramasetty; Dixit, Kratika; Raju, O S

    PTFE tape, which is commonly used as plumber's tape is an inorganic, non-fibrous, ribbon like material. The aim of this study was to evaluate PTFE tape as endodontic spacer material and to compare it with commonly used spacer material that is cotton, in primary teeth. Seventeen children undergoing pulpectomy of lower second primary molar bilaterally were included in the study. Cotton and PTFE tape were placed as spacers on each side randomly. Samples were taken from the access cavity at baseline and after seven days to check for microbial leakage. Spacer materials were also checked for microbial contamination. The results revealed that there was a significant increase in the bacterial colony count after seven days in cotton group. The access cavities were also positive for microbial leakage in the cotton group where the spacers showed positive growth. In PTFE group only two samples showed microbial contamination of spacer and out of two only one sample showed contamination of access cavity along with spacer. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that PTFE tape performed better than cotton as endodontic spacer material. Thus, PTFE tape can be recommended as an endodontic spacer material as an alternative to cotton in primary teeth.

  12. Local hypertrichosis: A rare complication of a temporary henna tattoo.

    Akpolat, Nebahat Demet; Aras, Arzu

    2016-01-01

    Temporary henna tattoos have become increasingly widespread among children and young people, especially in holiday spots in recent years. Although reactions to henna tattoo are becoming progressively more common, only few cases of a henna pseudo-tattoo resulting in temporary hypertrichosis have been reported so far. Here, we have reported a 5-year-old girl who developed allergic contact dermatitis and localized hypertrichosis on her right arm after application of temporary henna tattoo during summer holiday.

  13. Morbidity with temporary disability in Kozloduy NPP workers

    Dobreva, B.; Novkirishki, V.

    1993-01-01

    Changes with time in indicators of disease incidence with temporary disability in Kozloduy NPP personnel have been studied for the period 1974-1991. The data were compared with those for 'Sofia-Iztok' TPP. The causes contributing to formation of the indicators of frequency, severity, and average duration were examined. No temporary disability because of radiation exposure has been recorded. As a whole, less temporary disability has been found at NPP than at TPP. (author)

  14. Spacer Facial Artery Musculomucosal Flap: Simultaneous Closure of Oronasal Fistulas and Palatal Lengthening.

    Lee, Jonathan Y; Alizadeh, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    In this series, the authors describe a modification of the facial artery musculomucosal flap for oronasal fistula repair. The spacer facial artery musculomucosal flap technique is characterized by a pedicle inset into the retromolar trigone and palate, obviating a second operative stage. This was performed in 14 patients with a 5.2-cm mean fistula size. Average follow-up was 4.3 years, with one partial flap necrosis but no recurrent oronasal fistula. There was a mean decrease of 18 percent in the distance between the velum and the posterior pharyngeal wall. The spacer facial artery musculomucosal flap provides a single-stage reconstruction of oronasal fistula while lengthening the palate through a pushback mechanism. Although further study of velopharyngeal function is needed, the spacer facial artery musculomucosal flap may be beneficial for patients with a short velum and an oronasal fistula. Therapeutic, IV.

  15. [Cervical adaptation of complete cast crowns of various metal alloys, with and without die spacers].

    Stephano, C B; Roselino, R F; Roselino, R B; Campos, G M

    1989-01-01

    A metallic replica from a dental preparation for crown was used to make 8 class-IV stone dies. The wax patterns for the casting of the crowns were obtained in two conditions: a) from the stone die with no spacer; and b) from the stone die with an acrylic spacer. Thus, 64 metallic crowns were casted, using 4 different alloys: DURACAST (Cu-Al), NICROCAST (Ni-Cr) and DURABOND (Ni-Cr), and gold. The casted crowns were fitted in the metallic replica and measured as to the cervical discrepance of fitting. The results showed that the use of die spacers decreases the clinical discrepancies of fitting of the casted crowns (in a statistically significant level), no matter the metallic alloy employed.

  16. A high-performance channel engineered charge-plasma-based MOSFET with high-κ spacer

    Shan, Chan; Wang, Ying; Luo, Xin; Bao, Meng-tian; Yu, Cheng-hao; Cao, Fei

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the performance of graded channel double-gate MOSFET (GC-DGFET) that utilizes the charge-plasma concept and a high-κ spacer is investigated through 2-D device simulations. The results demonstrate that GC-DGFET with high-κ spacer can effectively improve the ON-state driving current (ION) and reduce the OFF-leakage current (IOFF). We find that reduction of the initial energy barrier between the source and channel is the origin of this ION enhancement. The reason for the IOFF reduction is identified to be the extension of the effective channel length owing to the fringing field via high-κ spacers. Consequently, these devices offer enhanced performance by reducing the total gate-to-gate capacitance (Cgg) and decreasing the intrinsic delay (τ).

  17. Staged Custom, Intramedullary Antibiotic Spacers for Severe Segmental Bone Loss in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Atul F. Kamath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Total hip arthroplasty (THA infections with severe bone loss pose significant reconstructive challenges. We present our experience with two-stage hip reimplantation using an intramedullary, antibiotic-impregnated nail. Methods. Three patients with infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss (Mallory type IIIB or greater were treated using a custom antibiotic spacer. Clinical outcomes and any complications were recorded. Average followup was 49 months from final reimplantation. Results. Mean age at spacer placement (stage 1 was 53 years. The mean Harris Hip Score at final followup was 80. Two patients had asymptomatic heterotopic ossification, and one patient had a 2 cm leg-length discrepancy. Conclusions. A custom intramedullary nail antibiotic spacer is a reliable option in the staged management of the infected THA with severe proximal femoral bone loss. Benefits of this technique include limb salvage with maintenance of leg length, soft tissue tension, and functional status.

  18. Measurement of droplet dynamics across grid spacer in mist cooling of subchannel of PWR

    Lee, S.L.; Sheen, H.J.; Cho, S.K.; Issapour, I.

    1984-01-01

    An experiment was conducted of the dynamics and heat transfer of a droplet-vapor mist flow across a test grid spacer in a flow channel of 2 x 2 electrically heated simulation fuel rods. Embedded thermocouples were used to measure the rod cladding temperature and an unshielded Chromel-Alumel thermocouple was transversed in the center of the subchannel to measure the temperature of the water and steam coolant phases at various axial locations. Thermocouples were also embedded in the test grid spacer. Optical measurements of the size and velocity distributions of droplets and the velocity distribution of the superheated steam were made by special laser-Doppler anemometry techniques through quartz glass windows immediately upstream and downstream of the test grid spacer. Experiments over a range of steam and injected water flow rates and rod heat flux have been performed and some representative results and discussions are presented

  19. Measurement of grid spacer's enhanced droplet cooling under reflood condition in a PWR by LDA

    Lee, S.L.; Sheen, H.J.; Cho, S.K.; Issapour, I.; Hua, S.Q.

    1984-01-01

    Reported is an experiment designed for the measurements of grid spacer's enhanced droplet cooling under reflood condition at elevated temperatures in a steam environment. The flow channel consists of a simulated 1.60m-long pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel rod bundle of 2 x 2 electrically heated rods. Embedded thermocouples are used to measure the rod cladding temperature at various axial levels and an unshielded Chromel-Alumel thermocouple sheathed by a small Inconel tube is traversed in the center of the subchannel to measure the temperatures of the water and steam coolant phases at various levels. The droplet dynamics across the grid spacer is directly obtained by a special laser-Doppler anemometry technique for the in situ simultaneous measurement of velocity and size of droplets through two observation windows on the test channel, one immediately before and one immediately after the grid spacer. Some results are presented and analyzed

  20. Investigation on effect of methylene spacer in holographic grating formation in eosin containing polymethacrylates

    Manickasundaram, S. [Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Sardar Vallabai Patel Road, Chennai 600025 (India); Kannan, P. [Department of Chemistry, Anna University, Sardar Vallabai Patel Road, Chennai 600025 (India)]. E-mail: pakannan@annauniv.edu; Deepa, S. [Centre for Laser Technology, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India); Palanisamy, P.K. [Centre for Laser Technology, Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600025 (India)

    2007-01-15

    A new series of eosin dye based poly(alkyloxymethacrylate)s was synthesized with an even number of side-chain methylene spacers by a free radical addition polymerization method for holographic optical data storage applications. These polymers were characterized by UV, IR and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the polymers were investigated by DSC and TGA, respectively. As the spacer length increases in the side-chain, Tg, Tm and thermal stability of the polymers decrease, while a reverse trend was observed with film forming ability of the polymers. The optical characterization of the polymers was investigated by forming holographic grating using an Argon ion laser. The grating diffraction efficiency was found to depend not only on the concentration of polymeric film but also on the spacer length of the polymers.

  1. Investigation on effect of methylene spacer in holographic grating formation in eosin containing polymethacrylates

    Manickasundaram, S.; Kannan, P.; Deepa, S.; Palanisamy, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    A new series of eosin dye based poly(alkyloxymethacrylate)s was synthesized with an even number of side-chain methylene spacers by a free radical addition polymerization method for holographic optical data storage applications. These polymers were characterized by UV, IR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The glass transition temperature and thermal stability of the polymers were investigated by DSC and TGA, respectively. As the spacer length increases in the side-chain, Tg, Tm and thermal stability of the polymers decrease, while a reverse trend was observed with film forming ability of the polymers. The optical characterization of the polymers was investigated by forming holographic grating using an Argon ion laser. The grating diffraction efficiency was found to depend not only on the concentration of polymeric film but also on the spacer length of the polymers

  2. Effect of Weld Properties on the Crush Strength of the PWR Spacer Grid

    Kee-nam Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties in a weld zone are different from those in the base material because of different microstructures. A spacer grid in PWR fuel is a structural component with an interconnected and welded array of slotted grid straps. Previous research on the strength analyses of the spacer grid was performed using base material properties owing to a lack of mechanical properties in the weld zone. In this study, based on the mechanical properties in the weld zone of the spacer grid recently obtained by an instrumented indentation technique, the strength analyses considering the mechanical properties in the weld zone were performed, and the analysis results were compared with the previous research.

  3. AA stacking, tribological and electronic properties of double-layer graphene with krypton spacer.

    Popov, Andrey M; Lebedeva, Irina V; Knizhnik, Andrey A; Lozovik, Yurii E; Potapkin, Boris V; Poklonski, Nikolai A; Siahlo, Andrei I; Vyrko, Sergey A

    2013-10-21

    Structural, energetic, and tribological characteristics of double-layer graphene with commensurate and incommensurate krypton spacers of nearly monolayer coverage are studied within the van der Waals-corrected density functional theory. It is shown that when the spacer is in the commensurate phase, the graphene layers have the AA stacking. For this phase, the barriers to relative in-plane translational and rotational motion and the shear mode frequency of the graphene layers are calculated. For the incommensurate phase, both of the barriers are found to be negligibly small. A considerable change of tunneling conductance between the graphene layers separated by the commensurate krypton spacer at their relative subangstrom displacement is revealed by the use of the Bardeen method. The possibility of nanoelectromechanical systems based on the studied tribological and electronic properties of the considered heterostructures is discussed.

  4. Geometric effects of spacer grid in an annulus flow channel during reflooding period

    Cho, S.; Chun, S. Y.; Kim, B. D.; Park, J. K.; Yun, Y. J.; Baek, W. P.

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies on the reflooding phase were actively carried out from the early 70's due to its importance for the safety of the nuclear reactor. (Martini et al., 1973; Henry, 1974; Chung, 1978;) However, few studies have presented the spacer grid effect during the reflooding period. Since the grid is an obstruction in the flow passage, it causes an increased pressure drop due to form and skin friction losses. On the other hand, the spacer grid tends to increase the local wall heat transfer. The present work has been performed in a vertical annulus flow channel with various flow conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of a swirl-vane spacer grid on the rewetting phenomena during the reflooding phase

  5. Application of a hydrogel spacer for postoperative salvage radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Pinkawa, Michael; Schubert, Carolin; Escobar-Corral, Nuria; Holy, Richard; Eble, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to primary radiotherapy, no reports are available for a hydrogel spacer application in postoperative salvage radiotherapy for prostate cancer. A 77-year-old patient presented 20 years after radical prostatectomy with a digitally palpable local recurrence at the urethrovesical anastomosis (PSA 5.5 ng/ml). The hydrogel spacer (10 ml, SpaceOAR trademark) was injected between the local recurrence and rectal wall under transrectal ultrasound guidance. Treatment planning was performed with an intensity-modulated technique up to a total dose of 76 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. The same planning was performed based on computed tomography before spacer injection for comparison. The local recurrence, initially directly on the rectal wall, could be displaced more than 1 cm from the rectal wall after hydrogel injection. With a mean total dose of 76 Gy to the planning target volume, rectal wall volumes included in the 70 Gy, 60 Gy, 50 Gy isodoses were 0 cm 3 , 0 cm 3 , and 0.4 cm 3 with a spacer and 2.9 cm 3 , 4.5 cm 3 , and 6.2 cm 3 without a spacer, respectively. The patient reported rectal urgency during radiotherapy, completely resolving after the end of treatment. The PSA level was 5.4 ng/ml a week before the end of radiotherapy and dropped to 0.9 ng/ml 5 months after radiotherapy. A hydrogel spacer was successfully applied for dose-escalated radiotherapy in a patient with macroscopic local prostate cancer recurrence at the urethrovesical anastomosis to decrease the dose at the rectal wall. This option can be considered in specifically selected patients. (orig.) [de

  6. Time spans and spacers: Molecular phylogenetic explorations in the Cladophora complex (Chlorophyta) from the perspective of rDNA gene and spacer sequences

    Bakker, Frederik Theodoor

    1995-01-01

    In this study, phylogenetic relationships among genera, species and biogeographic representatives of single Cladophora species within the Cladophorales were analyzed using rDNA gene and spacer sequences. Based on phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences, the Cladophora complex is shown to be paraphyletic with respect to Cladophora species and includes several genera shich werde traditionally ascribed to the Siphonocladales (Chapter 3). ... Zie: Summary/Samenvatting

  7. Microbial fuel cells with an integrated spacer and separate anode and cathode modules

    He, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    A new type of scalable MFC was developed based on using alternating graphite fiber brush array anode modules and dual cathode modules in order to simplify construction, operation, and maintenance of the electrodes. The modular MFC design was tested with a single (two-sided) cathode module with a specific surface area of 29 m2 m−3 based on a total liquid volume (1.4 L; 20 m2 m−3 using the total reactor volume of 2 L), and two brush anode modules. Three different types of spacers were used in the cathode module to provide structural stability, and enhance air flow relative to previous cassette (combined anode–cathode) designs: a low-profile wire spacer; a rigid polycarbonate column spacer; and a flexible plastic mesh spacer. The best performance was obtained using the wire spacer that produced a maximum power density of 1100 ± 10 mW m−2 of cathode (32 ± 0.3 W m−3 based on liquid volume) with an acetate-amended wastewater (COD = 1010 ± 30 mg L−1), compared to 1010 ± 10 mW m−2 for the column and 650 ± 20 mW m−2 for the mesh spacers. Anode potentials were unaffected by the different types of spacers. Raw domestic wastewater produced a maximum of 400 ± 8 mW m−2 under fed batch conditions (wire-spacers), which is one of the highest power densities for this fuel. Over time the maximum power was reduced to 300 ± 10 mW m−2 and 275 ± 7 mW m−2 for the two anode compartments, with only slightly less power of 250 ± 20 mW m−2 obtained under continuous flow conditions. In fixed-resistance tests, the average COD removal was 57 ± 5% at a hydraulic retention time of 8 h. These results show that this modular MFC design can both simplify reactor construction and enable relatively high power generation from even relatively dilute wastewater.

  8. Heterogeneous Diversity of Spacers within CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)

    He, Jiankui; Deem, Michael W.

    2010-09-01

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in bacterial and archaeal DNA have recently been shown to be a new type of antiviral immune system in these organisms. We here study the diversity of spacers in CRISPR under selective pressure. We propose a population dynamics model that explains the biological observation that the leader-proximal end of CRISPR is more diversified and the leader-distal end of CRISPR is more conserved. This result is shown to be in agreement with recent experiments. Our results show that the CRISPR spacer structure is influenced by and provides a record of the viral challenges that bacteria face.

  9. Organic light-emitting diodes with a spacer enhanced exciplex emission

    Yan, Fei; Chen, Rui; Sun, Handong; Wei Sun, Xiao

    2014-04-01

    By introducing a spacer molecule into the blended exciplex emissive layer, the performance of the bulk heterojunction exciplex organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was improved dramatically; the maximum luminous efficiency was enhanced by about 22% from 7.9 cd/A to 9.7 cd/A, and the luminous efficiency drop was reduced by 28% at 400 mA/cm2. Besides the suppressed annihilation of exciton, the time-resolved photoluminescence measurements indicated that the spacer enhanced the delayed fluorescence through increasing the backward intersystem crossing rate from the triplet to singlet exciplex state. This method is useful for developing high performance exciplex OLEDs.

  10. Comparison of velocity and temperature fields for two types of spacers in an annular channel

    Lávička David

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with measurement of flow field using a modern laser method (PIV in an annular channel of very small dimension - a fuel cell model. The velocity field was measured in several positions and plains around the spacer. The measurement was extended also to record temperatures by thermocouples soldered into stainless-steel tube wall. The measurement was focused on cooling process of the preheated fuel cell tube model, where the tube was very slowly flooded with water. Main result of the paper is comparison of two spacer's designs with respect to measured velocity and temperature fields.

  11. Nutrient mitigation in a temporary river basin.

    Tzoraki, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Cooper, David; Kassotaki, Elissavet

    2014-04-01

    We estimate the nutrient budget in a temporary Mediterranean river basin. We use field monitoring and modelling tools to estimate nutrient sources and transfer in both high and low flow conditions. Inverse modelling by the help of PHREEQC model validated the hypothesis of a losing stream during the dry period. Soil and Water Assessment Tool model captured the water quality of the basin. The 'total daily maximum load' approach is used to estimate the nutrient flux status by flow class, indicating that almost 60% of the river network fails to meet nitrogen criteria and 50% phosphate criteria. We recommend that existing well-documented remediation measures such as reforestation of the riparian area or composting of food process biosolids should be implemented to achieve load reduction in close conjunction with social needs.

  12. Temporary Immersion System for Date Palm Micropropagation.

    Othmani, Ahmed; Bayoudh, Chokri; Sellemi, Amel; Drira, Noureddine

    2017-01-01

    The temporary immersion system (TIS) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. TIS usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. The latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. These systems are providing the most satisfactory conditions for date palm regeneration via shoot organogenesis and allow a significant increase of multiplication rate (5.5-fold in comparison with that regenerated on agar-solidified medium) and plant material quality, thereby reducing production cost.

  13. Temporary fire sealing of penetrations on TFTR

    Hondorp, H.L.

    1981-02-01

    The radiation shielding provided for TFTR for D-D and D-T operation will be penetrated by numerous electrical and mechanical services. Eventually, these penetrations will have to be sealed to provide the required fire resistance, tritium sealability, pressure integrity and radiation attenuation. For the initial hydrogen operation, however, fire sealing of the penetrations in the walls and floor is the primary concern. This report provides a discussion of the required and desirable properties of a temporary seal which can be used to seal these penetrations for the hydrogen operation and then subsequently be removed and replaced as required for the D-D and D-T operations. Several candidate designs are discussed and evaluated and recommendations are made for specific applications

  14. Experimental and numerical characterization of the water flow in spacer-filled channels of spiral-wound membranes

    Bucs, Szilard; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Marston, Jeremy O.; Radu, Andrea I.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Micro-scale flow distribution in spacer-filled flow channels of spiral-wound membrane modules was determined with a particle image velocimetry system (PIV), aiming to elucidate the flow behaviour in spacer-filled flow channels. Two-dimensional water

  15. Development of an Efficient G-Quadruplex-Stabilised Thrombin-Binding Aptamer Containing a Three-Carbon Spacer Molecule

    Aaldering, Lukas J.; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Langkjær, Niels

    2017-01-01

    The thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA), which shows anticoagulant properties, is one of the most studied G-quadruplex-forming aptamers. In this study, we investigated the impact of different chemical modifications such as a three-carbon spacer (spacer-C3), unlocked nucleic acid (UNA) and 3′-amino-mod...

  16. The use of ZnO as optical spacer in polymer solar cells : theoretical and experimental study

    Gilot, J.; Barbu, I.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    For org. solar cells, insertion of an optical spacer between the active layer and the reflective electrode results in a redistribution of the optical elec. field. In this paper, theor. calcns. using optical modeling are compared with exptl. results for devices with ZnO as optical spacer. An

  17. 26 CFR 20.2032-1T - Alternate valuation (temporary).

    2010-04-01

    ...) the value of the property as of the alternate valuation date. For example, assume that the decedent... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternate valuation (temporary). 20.2032-1T...-1T Alternate valuation (temporary). (a) through (e) [Reserved] For further guidance, see § 20.2032-1...

  18. 19 CFR 210.77 - Temporary emergency action.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary emergency action. 210.77 Section 210.77 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Enforcement Procedures and Advisory Opinions § 210.77 Temporary...

  19. 19 CFR 210.68 - Complainant's temporary relief bond.

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 210.68 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.68 Complainant's temporary... by Individual Surety United States International Trade Commission Affidavit by Individual Surety 19...

  20. 20 CFR 416.1167 - Temporary absences and deeming rules.

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Income Deeming of Income § 416.1167 Temporary absences and deeming..., we consider your absence to be temporary through the date of discharge. (b) Child away at school. If you are an eligible child who is away at school but comes home on some weekends or lengthy holidays...

  1. 40 CFR 310.10 - What are temporary emergency measures?

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are temporary emergency measures... RESPONSE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES Provisions What Can Be Reimbursed? § 310.10 What are temporary... security; (2) Controlling the source of contamination; (3) Containing the release to prevent spreading; (4...

  2. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25.277 Section 25.277 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations...

  3. Impact of a temporary stoma on patients' everyday lives

    Danielsen, Anne K; Soerensen, Erik E; Burcharth, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine patients' experiences of impact of a temporary stoma on their everyday life. Furthermore, we wanted to generate new knowledge and comprehension of learning how to live with a temporary stoma. BACKGROUND: There are many aspects, largely unexplored, that may influenc...

  4. Temporary and Travelling Exhibitions. Museums and Monuments, X.

    Daifuku, Hiroshi; And Others

    The permanent exhibition, the most typical form of museum exhibition, has failed to attract repeated visitation, since visitors quickly become familiar with the objects shown. The temporary exhibition evolved as a result for the need of repeated visitation. The temporary exhibition, set up for a period of one to six months, introduces fresh…

  5. 29 CFR 1926.154 - Temporary heating devices.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary heating devices. 1926.154 Section 1926.154 Labor... Temporary heating devices. (a) Ventilation. (1) Fresh air shall be supplied in sufficient quantities to... heating devices shall be installed to provide clearance to combustible material not less than the amount...

  6. 26 CFR 1.846-4T - Effective dates (temporary).

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates (temporary). 1.846-4T Section 1.846-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.846-4T Effective dates (temporary). (a) [Reserved...

  7. 17 CFR 256.136 - Temporary cash investments.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary cash investments... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 3. Current and Accrued Assets § 256.136 Temporary cash investments. This account shall include the cost of investments, such as demand and time loans, bankers' acceptances...

  8. Factors affecting closure of a temporary stoma.

    Taylor, Claire; Varma, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine time to reversal of a temporary ostomy, reasons for delayed closure, and patient satisfaction with the scheduling of their closure and related hospital care. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The target population comprised patients who underwent creation of a temporary ostomy and reversal surgery within one National Health System Hospital Trust in the United Kingdom. The population served by this Trust are ethnically and socioeconomically diverse, predominantly living in urban areas around Greater London. Sixty-one persons who met inclusion criteria were identified. A two-step analytical process was undertaken. First, a literature review examining incidence and causes of delayed stoma closure was undertaken. Second, a postal survey of all patients who had had their stoma closed in 2009 was conducted. Respondents were allowed 2 weeks to complete and return the questionnaire. The survey instrument was developed locally and subjected to content validation using ostomy patients, surgical and nursing colleagues. It consisted of 9 questions querying time from original surgery to closure, reasons for delaying closure surgery beyond 12 weeks, and satisfaction with care. Twenty-seven patients returned their questionnaires, indicating they consented to participate; a response rate of 44%. Half of the respondents (n = 14 [52%]) underwent closure surgery within 6 months of stoma formation; the remaining 48% waited more than 6 months (median: 6.5 months, range: 1.5-26 months). Thirteen patients (48%) reported a delay in receiving their stoma closure; the main reason cited was the need for a course of adjuvant postoperative chemotherapy. Three quarters of respondents (22 [74%]) were satisfied with the overall care they received. Findings from this study suggest that stoma closure may be associated with fewest complications if performed before 12 weeks.

  9. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Temporary Placement of 4-Fluoroisobutyryl Fentanyl into Schedule I. Temporary scheduling order.

    2017-05-03

    The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule the synthetic opioid, N-(4-fluorophenyl)-N-(1-phenethylpiperidin-4-yl)isobutyramide (4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl or para-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl), and its isomers, esters, ethers, salts and salts of isomers, esters, and ethers, into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act. This action is based on a finding by the Administrator that the placement of 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl into schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act is necessary to avoid an imminent hazard to the public safety. As a result of this order, the regulatory controls and administrative, civil, and criminal sanctions applicable to schedule I controlled substances will be imposed on persons who handle (manufacture, distribute, reverse distribute, import, export, engage in research, conduct instructional activities or chemical analysis, or possess), or propose to handle, 4-fluoroisobutyryl fentanyl.

  10. 32 CFR 147.31 - Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for “Q...

    2010-07-01

    ... Guidelines for Temporary Access § 147.31 Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary eligibility for access at the top secret levels and temporary eligibility for âQâ access authorization: For someone who is the subject of a...

  11. Temporary Employment and the Future Labor Market Status

    Tomas Berglund

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe and explain the development of temporary employment in Sweden between 1992 and 2010, and to investigate the effect of temporary employment for individuals’ future career on the labor market. The article analyzes temporary employees’ status transitions on the labor market using Swedish Labour Force Survey (LFS data for the period 1992–2010. Each cohort consists of 2-year panels and focuses on changes between the first and last measuring points. The findings indicate that the specific type of temporary employment is crucial as regards whether or not it constitutes a stepping-stone toward permanent employment. The chances are greater in the case of, for example, substitutes, but are considerably less in the case of on-call employment. Certain types of temporary employment thus seem to be used by the employer to screen the employability of the employee, while others are used for achieving flexibility

  12. An examination of the influence of spacers on burnout in an annulus cooled by the upflow of Freon-12

    Ilic, V.

    1975-04-01

    To evaluate the spacer influence on burnout, tests were carried out in Freon-12 at 1.04 MPa (abs.) test section inlet pressure with an internally heated annulus 2743 mm long by 14.4 mm heater diameter, the outer tube (shroud) having a bore of 22.1 mm. The inner rod (heater) was located centrally to the shroud by spacers and their configuration was changed for each test. Comparison of the results with those obtained with a test section having no spacers indicated that spacers can increase burnout power up to 75 per cent, decrease it, or show no effect at all, depending on the combination of the inlet temperature and mass velocity. If the spacers were streamlined, removed from the upstream portion of the heater or relocated farther upstream from the downstream end of the heater, there was a considerably reduced effect on the test section performance. (author)

  13. A numerical approach to the simulation of one-phase and two phase reactor coolant flow around nuclear fuel spacers

    Stosic, Z.V.; Stevanovic, V.D.

    2001-01-01

    A methodology for the simulation and analysis of one-phase and two-phase coolant flows around one or a row of spacers is presented. It is based on the multidimensional two-fluid mass, momentum and energy balance equations and application of adequate turbulence models. Necessary closure laws for interfacial transfer processes are presented. The stated general approach enables simulation and analyses of reactor coolant flow around spacers on different scale levels of the rod bundle geometry: detailed modelling of coolant flow around spacers and investigation of the influence of spacer's geometry on the coolant thermal-hydraulics, as well as prediction of global thermal-hydraulic parameters within the whole rod bundle with the investigation of the influence of rows of spacers on the bulk thermal-hydraulic processes. Sample problems are included illustrating these different modelling approaches. (author)

  14. Mechanical Properties Of 3D-Structure Composites Based On Warp-Knitted Spacer Fabrics

    Chen Si

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the mechanical properties (compression and impact behaviours of three-dimension structure (3D-structure composites based on warp-knitted spacer fabrics have been thoroughly investigated. In order to discuss the effect of fabric structural parameters on the mechanical performance of composites, six different types of warp-knitted spacer fabrics having different structural parameters (such as outer layer structure, diameter of spacer yarn, spacer yarn inclination angle and thickness were involved for comparison study. The 3D-structure composites were fabricated based on a flexible polyurethane foam. The produced composites were characterised for compression and impact properties. The findings obtained indicate that the fabric structural parameters have strong influence on the compression and impact responses of 3D-structure composites. Additionally, the impact test carried out on the 3D-structure composites shows that the impact loads do not affect the integrity of composite structure. All the results reveal that the product exhibits promising mechanical performance and its service life can be sustained.

  15. Aerosol delivery from spacers in wheezy infants: a daily life study

    H.M. Janssens (Hettie); E.M. Heijnen; V.M. de Jong; W.C.J. Hop (Wim); W.P. Holland (Wim); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); H.A.W.M. Tiddens (Harm)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractThe aims of this study were to assess and compare dose delivery and dose variability of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI)/spacers in wheezy infants in daily life and to investigate factors influencing aerosol delivery. In an open randomized

  16. Using cathode spacers to minimize reactor size in air cathode microbial fuel cells

    Yang, Qiao; Feng, Yujie; Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    generation, indicating oxygen leakage into the reactor. The S1.5 spacer slightly increased columbic efficiencies (from 20% to 24%) as a result of reduced oxygen transfer into the system. Based on operating conditions (1000ς, CE=20%), it was estimated that 0

  17. Response of an annular electrostatic probe for a right cylindrical spacer

    Johansson, Torben; MacAllister, I. W.

    2002-01-01

    The response of an annular electrostatic probe mounted in an electrode is examined with reference to a right cylindrical spacer. The study involves using the probe λ function to derive characteristic parameters. These parameters enable the response of the probe to different charge distributions...

  18. Characterization of feed channel spacer performance using geometries obtained by X-ray computed tomography

    Haaksman, Viktor A.; Siddiqui, Amber; Schellenberg, Carsten; Kidwell, James; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    design from X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans. The method revealed that the filaments of industrial spacers have a highly variable cross-section size and shape, which impact the flow characteristics in the feed channel. The pressure drop and friction

  19. The sequence of spacers between the consensus sequences modulates the strength of procaryotic promoters

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    A library of synthetic promoters for Lactococcus lactis was constructed, in which the known consensus sequences were kept constant while the sequences of the separating spacers were randomized. The library consists of 38 promoters which differ in strength from 0.3 relative units, and up to more t......-reactors and cell factories....

  20. Exploring backbone-cation alkyl spacers for multi-cation side chain anion exchange membranes

    Zhu, Liang; Yu, Xuedi; Hickner, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    In order to systematically study how the arrangement of cations on the side chain and length of alkyl spacers between cations impact the performance of multi-cation AEMs for alkaline fuel cells, a series of polyphenylene oxide (PPO)-based AEMs with different cationic side chains were synthesized. This work resulted in samples with two or three cations in a side chain pendant to the PPO backbone. More importantly, the length of the spacer between cations varied from 3 methylene (-CH2-) (C3) groups to 8 methylene (C8) groups. The highest conductivity, up to 99 mS/cm in liquid water at room temperature, was observed for the triple-cation side chain AEM with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) spacers. The multi-cation AEMs were found to have decreased water uptake and ionic conductivity when the spacer chains between cations were lengthened from pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) to octyl (C8) linking groups. The triple-cation membranes with pentyl (C5) or hexyl (C6) groups between cations showed greatest stability after immersion in 1 M NaOH at 80 °C for 500 h.

  1. Peri-Prosthetic Knee Infection Management: Spacers Loaded with Two or Three Antibiotic Agents.

    Ortola, David Joaquin; Fenga, Domenico; Marcellino, Sandra; Rosi, Massimiliano; Centofanti, Francesco; Rosa, Michele Attilio

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare pre-made antibiotic-loaded spacers with two commercially available antibiotic agents and custom-made cements with three antibiotic agents added. We evaluated: (a) the validity of our procedures, (b) the control of the rate of infection in the long term, (c) complications, and (d) quality of life and patient satisfaction. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 112 consecutively treated patients between January 2010 and December 2013; 56 patients were treated with a pre-formed cement spacer (clindamycin + gentamicin), and 56 patients were treated with a spacer loaded with three antibiotic agents (clindamycin + gentamicin + vancomycin). Demographic data were collected: Classification of infection according to criteria of Cierny-Mader; microbiologic results; number of previous operations; and years of disease. Infection control or relapse after at least 18 months of follow-up was evaluated. Complications were recorded. Every patient completed the SF-36 test and Oxford Knee Score. With a follow-up of 32.87 months (standard deviation 12.04), at the end of treatment, amputation occurred in three of 112 patients because of recurrence of infection, and one patient died from other causes not related to the infection. The study population presented a rate of recurrence of infection of 2.70%. Our results suggest that a two stage re-implant with three antibiotic agents added to the spacer should be considered to avoid rescue procedures, especially in patients with multi-resistant micro-organism infections.

  2. Prediction of droplet deposition around BWR fuel spacer by FEM flow analysis

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Morooka, Shinichi

    1997-01-01

    The critical power of the BWR fuel assembly has been remarkably increased. That increase mainly depends on the improvement of the spacer which keeps fixed gaps between fuel rods. So far, these improvements have been carried out on the basis of what developers consider to be appropriate and the results of mockup tests of the BWR fuel assembly. However, continued reliance on these approaches for the development of a higher performance fuel assembly will prove time-consuming and costly. Therefore, it is hoped that the spacer effects for the critical power can be investigated by computer simulation, and it is significantly important to develop the critical power prediction method. Direct calculation of the two-phase flow in a BWR fuel channel s still difficult. Accordingly, a new method for predicting the critical power was proposed. Our method consists of CFD (computer fluid dynamics) code based on the single-phase flow analysis method and the subchannel analysis code. To verify our method, the critical power predictions for various spacer geometries were performed. The predicted results of the critical power were compared with the experimental data. The result of the comparison showed a good agreement and the applicability of our method for various spacer geometries. (author)

  3. Phylogenetic relationships of the genus Phanerochaete inferred from the internal transcribed spacer region

    Theodorus H. de Koker; Karen K. Nakasone; Jacques Haarhof; Harold H. Burdsall; Bernard J.H. Janse

    2003-01-01

    Phanerochaete is a genus of resupinate homobasidiomycetes that are saprophytic on woody debris and logs. Morphological studies in the past indicated that Phanerochaete is a heterogeneous assemblage of species. In this study the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA was used to test the monophyly of the genus Phanerochaete and to infer...

  4. How type II CRISPR-Cas establish immunity through Cas1-Cas2-mediated spacer integration.

    Xiao, Yibei; Ng, Sherwin; Nam, Ki Hyun; Ke, Ailong

    2017-10-05

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and the nearby Cas (CRISPR-associated) operon establish an RNA-based adaptive immunity system in prokaryotes. Molecular memory is created when a short foreign DNA-derived prespacer is integrated into the CRISPR array as a new spacer. Whereas the RNA-guided CRISPR interference mechanism varies widely among CRISPR-Cas systems, the spacer integration mechanism is essentially identical. The conserved Cas1 and Cas2 proteins form an integrase complex consisting of two distal Cas1 dimers bridged by a Cas2 dimer. The prespacer is bound by Cas1-Cas2 as a dual-forked DNA, and the terminal 3'-OH of each 3' overhang serves as an attacking nucleophile during integration. The prespacer is preferentially integrated into the leader-proximal region of the CRISPR array, guided by the leader sequence and a pair of inverted repeats inside the CRISPR repeat. Spacer integration in the well-studied Escherichia coli type I-E CRISPR system also relies on the bacterial integration host factor. In type II-A CRISPR, however, Cas1-Cas2 alone integrates spacers efficiently in vitro; other Cas proteins (such as Cas9 and Csn2) have accessory roles in the biogenesis phase of prespacers. Here we present four structural snapshots from the type II-A system of Enterococcus faecalis Cas1 and Cas2 during spacer integration. Enterococcus faecalis Cas1-Cas2 selectively binds to a splayed 30-base-pair prespacer bearing 4-nucleotide 3' overhangs. Three molecular events take place upon encountering a target: first, the Cas1-Cas2-prespacer complex searches for half-sites stochastically, then it preferentially interacts with the leader-side CRISPR repeat, and finally, it catalyses a nucleophilic attack that connects one strand of the leader-proximal repeat to the prespacer 3' overhang. Recognition of the spacer half-site requires DNA bending and leads to full integration. We derive a mechanistic framework to explain the stepwise spacer

  5. Modeling the effect of spacers and biofouling on forward osmosis performance

    Mosqueira Santillán, María José

    2014-11-01

    Currently, the most utilized desalination technology is reverse osmosis (RO), where a membrane is used as a physical barrier to separate the salts from the seawater, using high hydraulic pressure as driving force. A major problem in RO systems is biofouling, caused by severe growth of bacterial biofilms. Both, the need of an external energy input, as well as biofouling, impose a high cost on RO operation. Forward osmosis (FO) is an alternative membrane process that uses an osmotic pressure difference as driving force. FO uses a concentrated draw solution to generate high osmotic pressure, which extracts water across a semi permeable membrane from a feed solution. One of the main advantages of FO is the limited amount of external energy required to extract water from the feed solution. The objective of this research is the assessment of the impact of spacers, separating the membrane sheets, and biofouling on the FO system performance. This type of studies allow the optimization of membrane devices and operational conditions. For this, a two dimensional numerical model for FO systems was developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This model allowed the evaluation of the impact of (i) spacers and (ii) biofilm, and (iii) the combined impact of spacers and biofilm on the performance of FO systems. The results obtained showed that the presence of spacers improved the performance of FO systems. Cavity configuration spacer gave the higher water flux across the membrane in clean systems; whereas for biofouled systems, the submerged configuration showed a better performance. In absence of spacers, the thickness or amount of biofilm is inversely proportional with the water flux. Furthermore, membrane surface coverage of the biofilm is more important than the amount of biofilm in terms of the impact on the performance. The numerical model can be adapted with other parameters (e.g. membrane and spacer thickness, feed and draw solution, solution concentration, etc.) to

  6. Barriers and supports to implementation of MDI/spacer use in nine Canadian pediatric emergency departments: a qualitative study

    Graham Ian D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recent research supporting the use of metered dose inhalers with spacer devices (MDI/spacers in pediatric emergency departments (PEDs for acute exacerbations of asthma, uptake of this practice has been slow. The objectives of this study were to determine the barriers and supports to implementing MDI/spacer research and to identify factors associated with early and late adoption of MDI/spacers in Canadian PEDs. Methods Using a comparative case study design, we classified nine tertiary care pediatric hospital PEDs based on their stage of implementation. Data were collected using focus group interviews with physicians, registered nurses (RNs, and respiratory therapists (RTs, and individual interviews with both patient care and medical directors at each site. Initial coding was based on the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU categories of elements known to influence the uptake of innovations. Results One hundred and fifty healthcare professionals from nine different healthcare institutions participated in this study. Lack of leadership in the form of a research champion, a lack of consensus about the benefits of MDI/spacers among staff, perceived resistance from patients/parents, and perceived increased cost and workload associated with MDI/spacer use were the most prevalent barriers to the adoption of the MDI/spacer. Common strategies used by early-adopting sites included the active participation of all professional groups in the adoption process in addition to a well-planned and executed educational component for staff, patients, and families. Early adopter sites were also more likely to have the MDI/spacer included in a clinical protocol/pathway. Conclusion Potential barriers and supports to implementation have been identified that will help EDs adopt MDI/spacer use. Future interventions intended to increase MDI/spacer use in PEDs will need to be sensitive to the barriers identified in this study.

  7. 78 FR 44965 - Notice of Temporary Closure and Temporary Restrictions of Specific Uses on Public Lands for the...

    2013-07-25

    ... individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, to leave a... provide law enforcement officers to work at the event. The temporary closure and temporary restrictions...) Weapon means a firearm, compressed gas or spring powered pistol or rifle, bow and arrow, cross bow...

  8. 76 FR 37147 - Notice of Temporary Closures and Temporary Restrictions on Specific Uses of Public Lands in...

    2011-06-24

    ... days a week, to leave a message or question with the above individual. You will receive a reply during... provide additional law enforcement officers to work at the event. These temporary closures and temporary... authorized officer. 4. Definitions: (a) Weapon means a firearm, compressed gas or spring powered pistol or...

  9. 77 FR 63835 - Office of the Chief Information Officer; Submission for OMB Review; Temporary Contractor...

    2012-10-17

    ... of the Chief Information Officer; Submission for OMB Review; Temporary Contractor Information... information collection requirement regarding temporary contractor information worksheet. A notice was... for temporary contractors as a result of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public...

  10. Hydrogel Spacer Prospective Multicenter Randomized Controlled Pivotal Trial: Dosimetric and Clinical Effects of Perirectal Spacer Application in Men Undergoing Prostate Image Guided Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Mariados, Neil, E-mail: nmariados@ampofny.com [Associated Medical Professionals of New York, Syracuse, New York (United States); Sylvester, John [21st Century Oncology, East Bradenton, Florida (United States); Shah, Dhiren [Western New York Urology Associates, Cancer Care of WNY, Cheektowaga, New York (United States); Karsh, Lawrence [The Urology Center of Colorado, Denver, Colorado (United States); Hudes, Richard [Chesapeake Urology Research Associates, The Prostate Center, Owings Mills, Maryland (United States); Beyer, David [Arizona Oncology Services Foundation, Phoenix, Arizona (United States); Kurtzman, Steven [Urological Surgeons of Northern California, Campbell, California (United States); Bogart, Jeffrey [The Research Foundation of State University of New York, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York (United States); Hsi, R. Alex [Peninsula Cancer Center, Poulsbo, Washington (United States); Kos, Michael [Urology Nevada, Reno, Nevada (United States); Ellis, Rodney [University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Logsdon, Mark [Sutter Health Sacramento Sierra Region, Sutter Institute for Medical Research, Sacramento, California (United States); Zimberg, Shawn [Advanced Radiation Centers of New York, Lake Success, New York (United States); Forsythe, Kevin [Oregon Urology Institute, Springfield, Oregon (United States); Zhang, Hong [University of Rochester, Rochester, New York (United States); Soffen, Edward [CentraState Medical Center, Freehold, New Jersey (United States); Francke, Patrick [Carolina Regional Cancer Center, 21st Century Oncology, Myrtle Beach, South Carolina (United States); Mantz, Constantine [21st Century Oncology, Fort Meyers, Florida (United States); Rossi, Peter [Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); DeWeese, Theodore [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); and others

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: Perirectal spacing, whereby biomaterials are placed between the prostate and rectum, shows promise in reducing rectal dose during prostate cancer radiation therapy. A prospective multicenter randomized controlled pivotal trial was performed to assess outcomes following absorbable spacer (SpaceOAR system) implantation. Methods and Materials: Overall, 222 patients with clinical stage T1 or T2 prostate cancer underwent computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for treatment planning, followed with fiducial marker placement, and were randomized to receive spacer injection or no injection (control). Patients received postprocedure CT and MRI planning scans and underwent image guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (79.2 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). Spacer safety and impact on rectal irradiation, toxicity, and quality of life were assessed throughout 15 months. Results: Spacer application was rated as “easy” or “very easy” 98.7% of the time, with a 99% hydrogel placement success rate. Perirectal spaces were 12.6 ± 3.9 mm and 1.6 ± 2.0 mm in the spacer and control groups, respectively. There were no device-related adverse events, rectal perforations, serious bleeding, or infections within either group. Pre-to postspacer plans had a significant reduction in mean rectal V70 (12.4% to 3.3%, P<.0001). Overall acute rectal adverse event rates were similar between groups, with fewer spacer patients experiencing rectal pain (P=.02). A significant reduction in late (3-15 months) rectal toxicity severity in the spacer group was observed (P=.04), with a 2.0% and 7.0% late rectal toxicity incidence in the spacer and control groups, respectively. There was no late rectal toxicity greater than grade 1 in the spacer group. At 15 months 11.6% and 21.4% of spacer and control patients, respectively, experienced 10-point declines in bowel quality of life. MRI scans at 12 months verified spacer absorption. Conclusions: Spacer

  11. Influence of an interpositional spacer on the behaviour of the tibiofemoral joint: a finite element study.

    Checa, S; Taylor, M; New, A

    2008-10-01

    Interpositional arthroplasty is considered by many surgeons for the treatment of isolated medial compartment osteoarthritis of the knee. In this procedure, an interpositional spacer is inserted into the medial compartment of the joint with no bone resection and no mechanical fixation. Major problems such as implant dislocation, severe pain or need for revision have been reported post-operatively. In this study, the kinematics of a knee implanted with an interpositional spacer made of either polyurethane or cobalt-chrome during walking, stair ascent and squatting cycles have been predicted and compared to the normal knee using finite element analysis. In addition, articular cartilage stress histories have been examined to obtain distributions of cumulative stress, a measure of the likelihood of articular cartilage degeneration. The insertion of a polyurethane interpositional spacer in the medial side of the knee did not affect knee kinematics as compared to the normal knee, but caused an increase of articular cartilage cumulative contact stress exposures in the medial compartment of the joint. The knee implanted with the Co-Cr spacer exhibited similar trends in knee kinematics, however significantly different ranges of motion were observed during some periods of the activity cycles, specifically during the first half of the walking cycle where lower ranges of motion were predicted. In addition, higher articular cartilage cumulative contact stress exposures were observed in both compartments of the knee. In both cases, cumulative contact stress exposures of the tibial articular cartilage were more affected than those of the femoral articular cartilage. These results suggest implant material as an important parameter in the design phase of interpositional spacers.

  12. Study on natural convection in core barrel. Experimental and numerical results for band type spacer pads

    Hayashi, Kenji; Kawamata, Nobuhiro; Kamide, Hideki

    2003-03-01

    In a fast reactor an Inter-Wrapper Flow (IWF) is one of significant phenomena for decay heat removal under natural circulation condition, when a direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS) is adopted for decay heat removal system. Cold coolant provided by dipped heat exchangers (DHX) of DRACS can penetrate into the core barrel (region between the subassemblies) and it makes natural convection int he core barrel. Such IWF will depend on a spacer pad geometry of subassemblies. Water experiment, TRIF (Test Rig for Inter-wrapper Flow), was carried out for IWF in a reactor core. The test section modeled a 1/12th sector of the core and upper plenum of reactor vessel. Experimental parameters were the spacer pad geometry and flow path geometries connecting the upper plenum and core barrel. Numerical simulation using AQUA code was also performed to confirm applicability of a simulation method. An experimental series using a button type spacer pad had been carried out. Here a band type spacer pad was examined. Temperatures at subassembly wall were measured with parameter of the flow path geometries; one was a connection pipe between the upper plenum and core barrel and the other was flow hole in core former plates between the outermost subassemblies and the core barrel. It was found that these flow paths were effective to remove heat in the core in case of the band type spacer pad. A general purpose three dimensional analysis code, AQUA, was applied to the experimental analysis. Each subassembly and inter wrapper gap region were modeled by slab mesh geometry. Pressure loss coefficient at the pacer pad was set based on the geometry. The numerical simulation results were in good agreement with measured temperature profiles in the core. (author)

  13. Permanent and temporary pacemaker implantation after orthotopic heart transplantation

    Bacal Fernando

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE:To determine the indication for and incidence and evolution of temporary and permanent pacemaker implantation in cardiac transplant recipients. METHODS: A retrospective review of 114 patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplantation InCor (Heart Institute USP BR between March 1985 and May 1993. We studied the incidence of and indication for temporary pacing, the relationship between pacing and rejection, the need for pemanent pacing and the clinical follow-up. RESULTS: Fourteen of 114 (12%heart transplant recipients required temporary pacing and 4 of 114 (3.5% patients required permanent pacing. The indication for temporary pacing was sinus node dysfunction in 11 patients (78.5% and atrioventricular (AV block in 3 patients (21.4%. The indication for permanent pacemaker implantation was sinus node dysfunction in 3 patients (75% and atrioventricular (AV block in 1 patient (25%. We observed rejection in 3 patients (21.4% who required temporary pacing and in 2 patients (50% who required permanent pacing. The previous use of amiodarone was observed in 10 patients (71.4% with temporary pacing. Seven of the 14 patients (50% died during follow-up. CONCLUSION: Sinus node dysfunction was the principal indication for temporary and permanent pacemaker implantation in cardiac transplant recipients. The need for pacing was related to worse prognosis after cardiac transplantation.

  14. Return to Work After Temporary Disability Pension in Finland.

    Laaksonen, Mikko; Gould, Raija

    2015-09-01

    When it is possible that the employee's work ability can be restored through treatment or rehabilitation, disability pension in Finland is granted for a fixed period. We examined which factors are associated with return to work (RTW) after such temporary disability pension. The study included all Finnish residents whose temporary disability pension from the earnings-related pension system started in 2008 (N = 10,269). Competing risks regression analysis was applied to examine register-based determinants for RTW after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal diseases, other diseases, and injury over a 4-year follow-up period. The overall cumulative incidence of RTW was 25%. RTW was more probable after temporary disability pension due to injury and musculoskeletal diseases and less probable after temporary disability pension due to mental disorders. Younger age and higher education increased RTW but differences between genders, private and public sector employees, and occupational classes were relatively small. The probability of RTW was higher among those who were employed before their temporary disability pension (subhazard ratio in multivariate analysis 2.41 (95% CI 2.13-2.72) and among the 9% who participated in vocational rehabilitation during their pension [SHR 2.10 (95% CI 1.90-2.31)]. With some exceptions, the results were fairly similar for all diagnostic causes of temporary disability pension. Return to work after temporary disability pension was relatively uncommon. Nevertheless, in all diagnostic groups RTW continued for the whole follow-up period. The low educated and those not employed before temporary disability pension need more support in their RTW. The strong association between vocational rehabilitation and RTW suggests that increasing rehabilitation among those with impaired work ability may promote RTW.

  15. Measurement and model development of the droplet diameter in rod bundles with spacer grids in the reactor core

    No, Hee Cheon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoo, Seung Hun; Jin, Hyung Gon; Kim, In Hun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    To understand and to predict the heat transfer between superheated steam and droplets properly during reflood phase of LBLOCA of APR1400, it is very important to measure broken droplet sizes by spacer grids. A study, therefore, has been performed to investigate droplet size in rod bundles with spacer grids and to develop a spacer grid droplet size model for safety analysis codes. Experiments were conducted with liquid droplets (SMD of 300{approx}700 {mu}m) impacting on various spacer grids at air superficial velocity of 10 and 20 m/s based on FLECHT SEASET. The test channel and the grids were heated to 150 .deg. C to prevent the formation of liquid film during tests. The spacer grids were designed refer to the Korean fuel rod bundles (Korean Standard Fuel, Plus 7) of APR1400 with various blockage area ratio and grid geometries (strap thickness, mixing vane) and about 15,000 droplets were measured at upstream and downstream of the grids in 16 tests. As a result, the measurement of broken droplet size by spacer grids with photography method is presented and the droplet size model related to spacer grids as a function of blockage area ratio is suggested in this report

  16. Effects of spacer orientations on the cake formation during membrane fouling: Quantitative analysis based on 3D OCT imaging.

    Liu, Xin; Li, Weiyi; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Fane, Anthony G

    2017-03-01

    Spacer design plays an important role in improving the performance of membrane processes for water/wastewater treatment. This work focused on a fundamental issue of spacer design, i.e., investigating the effects of spacer orientations on the fouling behavior during a membrane process. A series of fouling experiments with different spacer orientation were carried out to in situ characterize the formation of a cake layer in a spacer unit cell via 3D optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The cake layers formed at different times were digitalized for quantitatively analyzing the variation in the cake morphology as a function of time. In particular, the local deposition rates were evaluated to determine the active regions where the instantaneous changes in deposit thickness were significant. The characterization results indicate that varying the spacer orientation could substantially change the evolution of membrane fouling by particulate foulants and thereby result in a cake layer with various morphologies; the competition between growth and erosion at different locations would instantaneously respond to the micro-hydrodynamic environment that might change with time. This work confirms that the OCT-based characterization method is a powerful tool for exploring novel spacer design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporary tattoo for wireless human pulse measurement

    Pepłowski, Andrzej; Janczak, Daniel; Krzemińska, Patrycja; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2016-09-01

    Screen-printed sensor for measuring human pulse was designed and first tests using a demonstrator device were conducted. Various materials and sensors' set ups were compared and the results are presented as the starting point for fabrication of fully functional device. As a screen printing substrate, commercially available temporary tattoo paper was used. Using previously developed nanomaterials-based pastes design of a pressure sensor was printed on the paper and attached to the epidermis. Measurements were aimed at determining sensors impedance constant component and its variability due to pressure wave caused by the human pulse. The constant component was ranging from 2kΩ to 6kΩ and the variations of the impedance were ranging from +/-200Ω to +/-2.5kΩ, depending on the materials used and the sensor's configuration. Calculated signal-to-noise ratio was 3.56:1 for the configuration yielding the highest signal level. As the device's net impedance influences the effectiveness of the wireless communication, the results presented allow for proper design of the sensor for future health-monitoring devices.

  18. Ultraconformable Temporary Tattoo Electrodes for Electrophysiology

    Ferrari, Laura M.; Sudha, Sudha; Tarantino, Sergio; Esposti, Roberto; Bolzoni, Francesco; Cavallari, Paolo; Cipriani, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Electrically interfacing the skin for monitoring personal health condition is the basis of skin‐contact electrophysiology. In the clinical practice the use of stiff and bulky pregelled or dry electrodes, in contrast to the soft body tissues, imposes severe restrictions to user comfort and mobility while limiting clinical applications. Here, in this work dry, unperceivable temporary tattoo electrodes are presented. Customized single or multielectrode arrays are readily fabricated by inkjet printing of conducting polymer onto commercial decal transfer paper, which allows for easy transfer on the user's skin. Conformal adhesion to the skin is provided thanks to their ultralow thickness (Tattoo electrode–skin contact impedance is characterized on short‐ (1 h) and long‐term (48 h) and compared with standard pregelled and dry electrodes. The viability in electrophysiology is validated by surface electromyography and electrocardiography recordings on various locations on limbs and face. A novel concept of tattoo as perforable skin‐contact electrode, through which hairs can grow, is demonstrated, thus permitting to envision very long‐term recordings on areas with high hair density. The proposed materials and patterning strategy make this technology amenable for large‐scale production of low‐cost sensing devices. PMID:29593975

  19. Temporary intestinal ischemia for radiation protection

    Lote, K.

    1983-01-01

    The most important determinant of cellular radiosensivity is the tissue oxygen content at the time of irradiation. The purpose of the present experimental work was to assess a new iscemia-inducing method in order to reduce normal tissue radiation damage during radiotherapy. Temporary ischemia was induced in a cat small intestine by degraded starch microspheres. Regional arterial and tissue blod flow immediately fell by 85% with subsequent normalization within 26 minutes after microsphere injection. No tendency of small vessel thrombosis caused by starch sphere embolization in combination with previous or current intestinal irradiation was detected. Starch sphere remenants were rapidly engulfed by, and persisted within tissue macrophages for 14 days without causing intestinal inflammatory reactions. In vitro studies showed that human platelets neither adhered to nor were aggregated by starch microspheres. The new method, wich occlude arteriolar vessels distal to the mesentric arterial arcades and thus largely excludes collateral blood flow, seems suited to provide effictive and selective feline small intestinal hypoxic radiation protection. This conclusion may also be valid in man

  20. ESDRED Temporary Sealing Technology Final Technical Report

    Alonso, J.; Garcia-Sineriz, J. L.; Barcena, I.; Alonso, M. C.; Fernandez Luco, L.; Garcia, J. L.; Fries, T.; Pettersson, S.; Boden, A.; Salo, J. P.

    2009-07-01

    The work in the ESDRED In te grated Project Module 4, Temporary Sealing (using low pH cement) Technology, consisted first of designing a low pH cement formulation and then of preparing several concrete designs suitable for the construction of sealing plugs and for rock support using shot crete techniques. Regarding sealing plugs, a short plug was constructed at Aspo in Sweden and it was very quickly loaded to failure i.e. slippage by applying water pressure to one face. A second, full scale plug was subsequently constructed at Grimsel test site in Switzerland. It was loaded using the swelling pressure created by bentonite blocks which were artificially hydrated. At time of writing the targeted pressure on the plug was not reached. As the saturation of the bentonite is taking longer than expected the partners involved agreed to continue with the saturation of the bentonite blocks and the related data monitoring beyond the ESDRED Project. The studies on low-pH shot crete for rock sup port were based on available recipes of low-pH concrete mixtures for use in a repository. Pilot and full scale tests were carried out in Sweden and in Switzerland. (Author) 5 refs.

  1. Enhancement of nuclear heat transfer in a typical pressurized water reactor by new spacer grids

    Nazifi, M.; Nematollahi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The fuel element geometry typically used in nuclear reactor is rod bundle whose rod-to-rod clearance is maintained by grid spacer. The heat generated in the rod by nuclear reaction is removed by coolant, usually in turbulent flow. The coolant moves axially through the subchannels. Fuel spacer grid affects the coolant flow distribution in a fuel rod bundle, and so spacer geometry has a strong influence on a bundle's thermal-hydraulic characteristics such as critical heat flux and pressure drop. An understanding of the detailed structure of the turbulent flow and heat transfer in the rod bundle, used especially as nuclear fuel elements, is of major interest to the nuclear power industry for their safe and reliable operation. The flow mixing devices on grid spacer would enhance the mixing rate between sub-channels and promote the turbulence in subchannel. The present study evaluates the effects of mixing vane shape on flow structure and heat transfer downstream of mixing vane in a sub-channel of fuel assembly, by obtaining velocity and pressure fields, turbulent intensity, flow mixing factors, heat transfer coefficient and friction factor using three-dimensional RANS analysis. Six new shapes mixing vane designed by the authors, are simulated numerically to evaluate the performance in enhancing the heat transfer, in comparison with commercialized split vane. Standard K-epsilon model are used as a turbulence closure model and periodic and symmetry condition are set as boundary conditions. The capability of the model to predict the coolant flow distribution inside rod bundles is shown and discussed on the base of comparison with experimental data for a variety of geometrical and Reynolds number conditions. It is conformed that the turbulence in the sub-channel was significantly promoted by spacer and mixing devices but rapidly decreased to a fully developed level approximately 10 time of hydraulic diameter downstream of the top of spacer. Ring type mixer showed a high

  2. Influence of spacer length on heparin coupling efficiency and fibrinogen adsorption of modified titanium surfaces

    Gbureck Uwe

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical bonding of the drug onto surfaces by means of spacer molecules is accompanied with a reduction of the biological activity of the drug due to a constricted mobility since normally only short spacer molecule like aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APMS are used for drug coupling. This work aimed to study covalent attachment of heparin to titanium(oxide surfaces by varying the length of the silane coupling agent, which should affect the biological potency of the drug due to a higher mobility with longer spacer chains. Methods Covalent attachment of heparin to titanium metal and TiO2 powder was carried out using the coupling agents 3-(Trimethoxysilyl-propylamine (APMS, N- [3-(Trimethoxysilylpropyl]ethylenediamine (Diamino-APMS and N1- [3-(Trimethoxy-silyl-propyl]diethylenetriamine (Triamino-APMS. The amount of bound coupling agent and heparin was quantified photometrically by the ninhydrin reaction and the tolidine-blue test. The biological potency of heparin was determined photometrically by the chromogenic substrate Chromozym TH and fibrinogen adsorption to the modified surfaces was researched using the QCM-D (Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring technique. Results Zeta-potential measurements confirmed the successful coupling reaction; the potential of the unmodified anatase surface (approx. -26 mV shifted into the positive range (> + 40 mV after silanisation. Binding of heparin results in a strongly negatively charged surface with zeta-potentials of approx. -39 mV. The retaining biological activity of heparin was highest for the spacer molecule Triamino-APMS. QCM-D measurements showed a lower viscosity for adsorbed fibrinogen films on heparinised surfaces by means of Triamino-APMS. Conclusion The remaining activity of heparin was found to be highest for the covalent attachment with Triamino-APMS as coupling agent due to the long chain of this spacer molecule and therefore the highest mobility of the drug

  3. On the Origin of Reverse Transcriptase-Using CRISPR-Cas Systems and Their Hyperdiverse, Enigmatic Spacer Repertoires

    Sukrit Silas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cas1 integrase is the key enzyme of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR-Cas adaptation module that mediates acquisition of spacers derived from foreign DNA by CRISPR arrays. In diverse bacteria, the cas1 gene is fused (or adjacent to a gene encoding a reverse transcriptase (RT related to group II intron RTs. An RT-Cas1 fusion protein has been recently shown to enable acquisition of CRISPR spacers from RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the CRISPR-associated RTs demonstrates monophyly of the RT-Cas1 fusion, and coevolution of the RT and Cas1 domains. Nearly all such RTs are present within type III CRISPR-Cas loci, but their phylogeny does not parallel the CRISPR-Cas type classification, indicating that RT-Cas1 is an autonomous functional module that is disseminated by horizontal gene transfer and can function with diverse type III systems. To compare the sequence pools sampled by RT-Cas1-associated and RT-lacking CRISPR-Cas systems, we obtained samples of a commercially grown cyanobacterium—Arthrospira platensis. Sequencing of the CRISPR arrays uncovered a highly diverse population of spacers. Spacer diversity was particularly striking for the RT-Cas1-containing type III-B system, where no saturation was evident even with millions of sequences analyzed. In contrast, analysis of the RT-lacking type III-D system yielded a highly diverse pool but reached a point where fewer novel spacers were recovered as sequencing depth was increased. Matches could be identified for a small fraction of the non-RT-Cas1-associated spacers, and for only a single RT-Cas1-associated spacer. Thus, the principal source(s of the spacers, particularly the hypervariable spacer repertoire of the RT-associated arrays, remains unknown.

  4. Similar Results in Children with Asthma for Steady State Pharmacokinetic Parameters of Ciclesonide Inhaled with or without Spacer

    H. Boss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Ciclesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid administered by a metered dose inhaler (MDI to treat bronchial asthma. After inhalation, the inactive ciclesonide is converted by esterases in the airways to active metabolite desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC. Aim To compare the pharmacokinetic (PK parameters of des-CIC in children after administration of therapeutic dose of ciclesonide with and without spacer (AeroChamber Plus™. Methods Open-label, 3 period, cross over, repeated dose, PK study in 37 children with mild to moderate stable asthma (age: 6–11 y; body weight: 20–53 kg. During each 7-day treatment period, ciclesonide was inhaled once in the morning: A 160 μg MDI with spacer, B 80 μg MDI with spacer, and C 160 μg MDI without spacer. Serum PK parameters of ciclesonide and des-CIC were determined on Day 7 of each period. The primary PK parameters were the AUC τ and C max for des-CIC. Results Inhaling ciclesonide with spacer led to a dose proportional systemic exposure (AUC τ of des-CIC (0.316 μg*h/L for 80 μg and 0.663 μg*h/L for 160 μg. The dose-normalized systemic exposure for des-CIC (based on AUC τ was 27% higher after inhalation of ciclesonide 80 μg or 160 μg with spacer than without spacer; the corresponding C max values for des-CIC were, respectively, 63% and 55% higher with spacer. No clinically relevant abnormalities or adverse drug reactions were observed. Conclusions Inhalation of therapeutic ciclesonide dose with spacer led to a slight increase in the systemic exposure of des-CIC, which does not warrant dose adjustment.

  5. CFD analysis of pressure drop across grid spacers in rod bundles compared to correlations and heavy liquid metal experimental data

    Batta, A., E-mail: batta@kit.edu; Class, A.G., E-mail: class@kit.edu

    2017-02-15

    Early studies of the flow in rod bundles with spacer grids suggest that the pressure drop can be decomposed in contributions due to flow area variations by spacer grids and frictional losses along the rods. For these shape and frictional losses simple correlations based on theoretical and experimental data have been proposed. In the OECD benchmark study LACANES it was observed that correlations could well describe the flow behavior of the heavy liquid metal loop including a rod bundle with the exception of the core region, where different experts chose different pressure-loss correlations for the losses due to spacer grids. Here, RANS–CFD simulations provided very good data compared to the experimental data. It was observed that the most commonly applied Rehme correlation underestimated the shape losses. The available correlations relate the pressure drop across a grid spacer to the relative plugging of the spacer i.e. solidity e{sub max}. More sophisticated correlations distinct between spacer grids with round or sharp leading edge shape. The purpose of this study is to (i) show that CFD is suitable to predict pressure drop across spacer grids and (ii) to access the generality of pressure drop correlations. By verification and validation of CFD results against experimental data obtained in KALLA we show (i). The generality (ii) is challenged by considering three cases which yield identical pressure drop in the correlations. First we test the effect of surface roughness, a parameter not present in the correlations. Here we compare a simulation assuming a typical surface roughness representing the experimental situation to a perfectly smooth spacer surface. Second we reverse the flow direction for the spacer grid employed in the experiments which is asymmetric. The flow direction reversal is chosen for convenience, since an asymmetric spacer grid with given blockage ratio, may result in different flow situations depending on flow direction. Obviously blockage

  6. Temporary loop ileostomy: prospective study of indications and complication

    Rajput, A.; Samad, A.; Khanzada, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    To asses the indications and complications of temporary loop ileostomy. This was a prospective cohort study conducted at Isra University Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan between February 2003 and August 2006. All patients who had temporary loop ileostomy during that period were included in this study. The indications and various postoperative complications were noted during postoperative hospital stay and subsequently during follow up till stoma were closed. Fifty six patients fulfilled the selection criteria during the study period. Typhoid (enteric) perforation was the most common indication of loop ileostomy accounting for about two thirds of all cases. Other indications were iatrogenic, covering ileostomy for rectal cancers, following resection anastomosis, tuberculosis, blunt abdominal trauma, anastomosis leak and rectovaginal fistula. Post operative skin excoriation was the most common complication while poor siting, transient edema, retraction and high output were other less common complications. Temporary loop ileostomy is the stoma of choice for temporary faecal diversion as most of its complications are manageable conservatively. (author)

  7. 20 CFR 655.21 - Supporting evidence for temporary need.

    2010-04-01

    ... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United... containing the following: (1) A description of the employer's business history and activities (i.e., primary...

  8. 29 CFR 1601.23 - Preliminary or temporary relief.

    2010-07-01

    ..., or political subdivision. (b) In a case involving a government, governmental agency, or political... private individuals from exercising their rights to seek temporary or preliminary relief on their own...

  9. Indications, management, and complications of temporary inferior vena cava filters

    Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Rieger, Johannes; Schenk, Franz; Rock, Clemens; Mangel, Eugen; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the results of a preliminary prospective study using different recently developed temporary and retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters.Methods: Fifty temporary IVC filters (Guenther, Guenther Tulip, Antheor) were inserted in 47 patients when the required period of protection against pulmonary embolism (PE) was estimated to be less than 2 weeks. The indications were documented deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and temporary contraindications for anticoagulation, a high risk for PE, and PE despite DVT prophylaxis.Results: Filters were removed 1-12 days after placement and nine (18%) had captured thrombi. Complications were one PE during and after removal of a filter, two minor filter migrations, and one IVC thrombosis.Conclusion: Temporary filters are effective in trapping clots and protecting against PE, and the complication rate does not exceed that of permanent filters. They are an alternative when protection from PE is required temporarily, and should be considered in patients with a normal life expectancy.

  10. Transcriptome changes in STSV2-infected Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A undergoing continuous CRISPR spacer acquisition

    León-Sobrino, Carlos; Kot, Witold P; Garrett, Roger A

    2016-01-01

    A transcriptome study was performed on Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A actively undergoing CRISPR spacer acquisition from the crenarchaeal monocaudavirus STSV2 in rich and basal media over a 6 day period. Spacer acquisition preceded strong host growth retardation, altered transcriptional activity...... of four different CRISPR-Cas modules and changes in viral copy numbers, and with significant differences in the two media. Transcript levels of proteins involved in the cell cycle were reduced, while those of DNA replication, DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, and some antitoxin-toxin pairs...... and transposases were unchanged or enhanced. Antisense RNAs were implicated in the transcriptional regulation of adaptation and interference modules of the type I-A CRISPR-Cas system and evidence was found for the occurrence of functional coordination between the single CRISPR-Cas adaptation module...

  11. Numerical Simulation for Flow Distribution in ACE7 Fuel Assemblies affected by a Spacer Grid Deformation

    Park, Jongpil; Jeong, Ji Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In spite of various efforts to understand hydraulic phenomena in a rod bundle containing deformed rods due to swelling and/or ballooning of clad, the studies for flow blockage due to spacer grid deformation have been limited. In the present work, 3D CFD analysis for flow blockage was performed to evaluate coolant flow within ACE7 fuel assemblies (FAs) containing a FA affected by a spacer grid deformation. The real geometry except for inner grids was used in the simulation and the region including inner grid was replaced by porous media. In the present work, the numerical simulation was performed to predict coolant flow within ACE7 FAs affected by a Mid grid deformation. The 3D CFD result shows that approximately 60 subchannel hydraulic diameter is required to fully recover coolant flow under normal operating condition.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Studies of New Linear Thermally Stable Schiff Base Polymers with Flexible Spacers.

    Qureshi, Farah; Khuhawar, Muhammad Yar; Jahangir, Taj Muhammad; Channar, Abdul Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Five new linear Schiff base polymers having azomethine structures, ether linkages and extended aliphatic chain lengths with flexible spacers were synthesized by polycondensation of dialdehyde (monomer) with aliphatic and aromatic diamines. The formation yields of monomer and polymers were obtained within 75-92%. The polymers with flexible spacers of n-hexane were somewhat soluble in acetone, chloroform, THF, DMF and DMSO on heating. The monomer and polymers were characterized by melting point, elemental microanalysis, FT-IR, (1)HNMR, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA), fluorescence emission, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and viscosities and thermodynamic parameters measurements of their dilute solutions. The studies supported formation of the monomer and polymers and on the basis of these studies their structures have been assigned. The synthesized polymers were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  13. Spacer layer effect and microstructure on multi-layer [NdFeB/Nb]n films

    Tsai, J.-L.; Yao, Y.-D.; Chin, T.-S.; Kronmueller, H.

    2002-01-01

    Spacer layer effect on multi-layer [NdFeB/Nb] n films has been investigated from the variation of magnetic properties and microstructure of the films. From a HRTEM cross-section view observation, the average grain size of [NdFeB/Nb] n multi-layers was controlled by both annealing temperature and thickness of NdFeB layer. Selected area diffraction pattern indicated that the structure of Nb spacer layer was amorphous. The grain size and coercivity of [NdFeB x /Nb] n films change from 50 nm and 16.7 kOe to 167 nm and 9 kOe for films with x=40 nm, n=10 and x=200 nm, n=2, respectively

  14. Effect of spacer layer on the magnetization dynamics of permalloy/rare-earth/permalloy trilayers

    Luo, Chen; Yin, Yuli; Zhang, Dong; Jiang, Sheng; Yue, Jinjin; Zhai, Ya; Du, Jun; Zhai, Hongru

    2015-01-01

    The permalloy/rare-earth/permalloy trilayers with different types (Gd and Nd) and thicknesses of spacer layer are investigated using frequency dependence of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements at room temperature, which shows different behaviors with different rare earth spacer layers. By fitting the frequency dependence of the FMR resonance field and linewidth, we find that the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy retains its value for all samples, the perpendicular anisotropy remains almost unchanged for different thickness of Gd layer but the values are tailored by different thicknesses of Nd layer. The Gilbert damping is almost unchanged with different thicknesses of Gd; however, the Gilbert damping is significantly enhanced from 8.4×10 −3 to 20.1×10 −3 with 6 nm of Nd and then flatten out when the Nd thickness rises above 6 nm

  15. Disturbance Elimination for Partial Discharge Detection in the Spacer of Gas-Insulated Switchgears

    Guoming Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing demand for precise condition monitoring and diagnosis of gas-insulated switchgears (GISs, it has become a challenge to improve the detection sensitivity of partial discharge (PD induced in the GIS spacer. This paper deals with the elimination of the capacitive component from the phase-resolved partial discharge (PRPD signal generated in GIS spacers based on discrete wavelet transform (WT. Three types of typical insulation defects were simulated using PD cells. The single PD pulses were detected and were further used to determine the optimal mother wavelet. As a result, the bior6.8 was selected to decompose the PD signal into 8 levels and the signal energy at each level was calculated. The decomposed components related with capacitive disturbance were discarded, whereas those associated with PD were de-noised by a threshold and a thresholding function. Finally, the PRPD signals were reconstructed using the de-noised components.

  16. Research on the relationship between viscoelasticity and shock isolation performance of warp knitted spacer fabrics

    Jin JIANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Warp-knitted spacer fabric which is commonly used in impact protection is selected as test materials to study the relationship between viscoelasticity and the performance of shock isolation. A damping test platform is built to test different specifications of warp-knitted spacer fabric including compression elastic modulus, damping ratio and the residual impact load under different impact speed. Experimental results show that there is no clear correlation between the shock isolation performance and the viscidity or the elasticity. Accordingly, viscosity-to-elasticity ratio is proposed to characterize the relationship between viscoelasticity and shock isolation performance, and it is found that appropriate viscosity-to-elasticity ratio within a certain range can help to achieve better shock isolation performance.

  17. Nuclear reactor fuel element assembly spacer grid and method of making

    Chetter, J.

    1975-01-01

    A cellular fuel element assembly spacer grid is described which provides for resilient bracing of fuel pins in the cells of the grid by bow spring locating members projecting inside the cells of the grid to hold the fuel pins against opposed rigid stops also projecting inside the cells of the grid. The grid comprises two tiers each formed from intersecting strip members defining cells which are penetrated by the fuel pins and arranged parallel to one another but spaced apart. The bow spring locating members extend longitudinally between the two tiers and have end ferrules which are a sliding fit on locating members which extend longitudinally from the facing inner edges of the strip members forming the two tiers. The grid tiers are fabricated individually by heat bonding the intersecting strip members prior to assembling the tiers into the spacer grid. (U.S.)

  18. Effect of spacer grid mixing vanes on coolant outlet temperature distribution

    Raemae, Tommi; Lahtinen, Tuukka; Brandt, Tellervo; Toppila, Timo [Fortum Power and Heat, Fortum (Finland). Nuclear Competence Center

    2012-08-15

    In Loviisa VVER-440-type NPP the coolant outlet temperature of the hot subchannel is constantly monitored during the operation. According to the authority requirement the maximum subchannel outlet temperature must not exceed the saturation temperature. Coolant temperature distribution inside the fuel assembly is affected by the efficiency of the coolant mixing. In order to enhance the coolant mixing the fuel manufacturer is introducing the additional mixing vanes on the fuel bundle spacer grids. In the paper the effect of the different mixing vane modifications is studied with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. Goal of the modelling is to find vane modifications with which sufficient mixing is reached with acceptable increase in the spacer grid pressure loss. The results of the studies are discussed in the paper. (orig.)

  19. Drying firewood in a temporary solar kiln: a case study.

    George R. Sampson; Anthony F. Gasbarro

    1986-01-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to determine drying rates for small diameter, unsplit paper birch firewood that was dried: (1) in a conventional top-covered pile; (2) in a simple, temporary solar kiln; and (3) in tree length. Drying rates were the same for firewood piles whether they were in the temporary solar kilns or only covered on top to keep rain or snow from...

  20. 26 CFR 1.181-5T - Examples (temporary).

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examples (temporary). 1.181-5T Section 1.181-5T...) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.181-5T Examples (temporary). The following examples illustrate the application of §§ 1.181-1T through 1.181-4T: Example 1. X...

  1. The mechanical measurement for reactor grid spacers by the laser speckle photography methd

    Yang Guoping; Chen Shitong.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the process of displacement, which was measured by laser speckle photography method, of reactor grid spacers during the vertical loading time. (from starting loading up to buckling). The internal forces and critical stresses were calculated by measured displacement. The effect of initial processed eccentric was considered by adding an internal force. The value of theoretical buckling load was in good agreement with the experimental result

  2. Silver-graphene oxide based plasmonic spacer for surface plasmon-coupled fluorescence emission enhancements

    Badiya, Pradeep Kumar; Srinivasan, Venkatesh; Sathish Ramamurthy, Sai

    2017-06-01

    We report the application of single layered graphene oxide (SLGO) and silver decorated SLGO (Ag-SLGO) as plasmonic spacer material for obtaining enhanced fluorescence from a Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) radiating dipole in a surface plasmon-coupled emission platform. To this end, we have decorated SLGO with biphasic silver nanoparticles using an in situ deposition technique to achieve 112-fold fluorescence enhancements.

  3. Photo-induced antiferromagnetic interlayer coupling in Fe superlattices with iron silicide spacers

    Mattson, J.E.; Fullerton, E.E.; Kumar, S.; Lee, S.R.; Sowers, C.H.; Grimsditch, M.; Bader, S.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Parker, F.T. [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States). Center for Magnetic Recording Research

    1993-09-01

    Sputtered Fe/FeSi films possessing antiferromagnetic (AF) interlayer coupling at room temperature develop ferromagnetic remanence when cooled below 100K, but the AF coupling can be restored at low temperature by exposure to visible light of sufficient intensity (>10 mW/mm{sup 2}). We attribute these effects to charge carriers in the FeSi spacer layer which, when thermally or photo-generated, are capable of communicating spin information between the Fe layers.

  4. Experimental benchmark data for PWR rod bundle with spacer-grids

    Dominguez-Ontiveros, Elvis E.; Hassan, Yassin A.; Conner, Michael E.; Karoutas, Zeses

    2012-01-01

    In numerical simulations of fuel rod bundle flow fields, the unsteady Navier–Stokes equations have to be solved in order to determine the time (phase) dependent characteristics of the flow. In order to validate the simulations results, detailed comparison with experimental data must be done. Experiments investigating complex flows in rod bundles with spacer grids that have mixing devices (such as flow mixing vanes) have mostly been performed using single-point measurements. In order to obtain more details and insight on the discrepancies between experimental and numerical data as well as to obtain a global understanding of the causes of these discrepancies, comparisons of the distributions of complete phase-averaged velocity and turbulence fields for various locations near spacer-grids should be performed. The experimental technique Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is capable of providing such benchmark data. This paper describes an experimental database obtained using two-dimensional Time Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements within a 5 × 5 PWR rod bundle with spacer-grids that have flow mixing vanes. One of the unique characteristic of this set-up is the use of the Matched Index of Refraction technique employed in this investigation to allow complete optical access to the rod bundle. This unique feature allows flow visualization and measurement within the bundle without rod obstruction. This approach also allows the use of high temporal and spatial non-intrusive dynamic measurement techniques namely TR-PIV to investigate the flow evolution below and immediately above the spacer. The experimental data presented in this paper includes explanation of the various cases tested such as test rig dimensions, measurement zones, the test equipment and the boundary conditions in order to provide appropriate data for comparison with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Turbulence parameters of the obtained data are presented in order to gain

  5. Operation of Temporary Radioactive waste stoprage facility

    Kinseem, A A; Abulfaraj, W H; Sohsah, M A; Kamal, S M; Mamoon, A M [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdelazizi University jeddah-21413, Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    Radionuclides of various half lives have been in use for several years years at different Departments of king Abdulaziz university, the university hospital, and research center. The use of unsealed radionuclides in many laboratories, resulted in considerable amounts of solid and liquid radwaste, mainly radiopharmaceuticals. To avoid accumulation of radwastes in working areas, a temporary radioactive waste storage facility was built. Segregation of radwastes according to type was carried out, followed by collection into appropriate containers and transfer to the storage facility. Average radiation dose rate inside the store was maintained at about 75 {mu} h{sup -1} through use of appropriate shielding. The dose rates at points one meter outside the store walls were maintained at about 15-20 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}. Utilization of radioisotopes during the period of 1991-1995 resulted in a volume of about 1.8 m{sup 3} of solid radwaste and about 200 L of liquid radwaste. Records of the store inventory are maintained in a computer database, listing dates, types, activities and packaging data pertinent to the radwastes delivered to the store. Quality assurance procedures are implemented during the different stages of the radwaste collection, transportation, and storage. Construction and operation of the storage facility comply with radiation safety requirements for the workers handling the radwastes, the public and the environment. The capacity of the storage facility is such that it will accommodate storage of generated radwastes of long half life up to year 2016. Permanent disposal of such radwastes may be indicated afterwards. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Procedure for vibration test of the fuel rod supported by spacer grids

    Choi, Myoung Hwan; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam

    2002-07-01

    One of the methods that are used to compare and verify the supporting performance of the spacer grids developed is the vibration characteristic test. In this report there are two aims. One is of the understand of the experimental method and procedure performing the modal testing using I-DEAS TDAS module. The other is the investigation of the vibration behaviors of a dummy fuel rod supported by 8 optimized H type spacer grids. This report describes the method and procedure of modal testing to obtain the vibration characteristics such as amplitudes, natural frequencies and mode shapes of the fuel rod using a shaker, a non-contact gap sensor and an accelerometer. This report provides a test procedure in detail so that anyone can be easily understood and use the I-DEAS TDAS program. The I-DEAS TDAS program related to the modal testing has several tasks including the Modal analysis, Signal Processing et al.. This report includes model preparation to prepare the geometrical model, Signal Processing (Sine/Standard measurement) to acquire the signal, Modal analysis to obtain the frequencies and mode shapes, Correlation to analyze the relation between the test and FE analysis and Post Processing tasks. In addition, this report contains the actual test and analysis data of a dummy fuel rod in length 3847mm supported by 8 optimized H type spacer grids

  7. Design, Synthesis and Hydrolytic Behavior of Mutual Prodrugs of NSAIDs with Gabapentin Using Glycol Spacers

    Hiba Najeh Alsaad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The free –COOH present in NSAIDs is thought to be responsible for the GI irritation associated with all traditional NSAIDs. Exploitation of mutual prodrugs is an approach wherein the NSAID is covalently bounded to a second pharmacologically active carrier/drug with the ultimate aim of reducing the gastric irritation. In this study some NSAIDs were conjugated with gabapentin via ester bonds using glycol spacers with the expectation of reducing gastric adverse effects and obtaining synergistic analgesic effects. The kinetics of ester hydrolysis were studied in two different non enzymatic buffer solutions at pH 1.2 and 7.4, as well as in 80% human plasma using HPLC with chloroform -methanol as mobile phase. Compounds 9a–c with ethylene glycol spacers showed significant stability at buffer solutions with half lives ranging from about 8–25 h, while the underwent a reasonable plasma hydrolysis (49%–88% in 2 h. Compound 9d with a propylene glycol spacer shows a higher rate of enzymatic hydrolysis than the corresponding ethylene glycol compound 9c. The result of compounds 9a-c indicate that these compounds may be stable during their passage through the GIT until reaching the blood circulation.

  8. Finite element analysis of the contact between fuel rod and spacer grid

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Young Koon; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Song, Kee Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    For the research on the fretting failure problem of nuclear fuel, the contact length and normal stress field are evaluated for the contact between fuel rod and spacer grid by using the Finite Element Method (FEM). An assumption of semi-infiniteness is necessary for applying the Contact Mechanics which is based on the classical theory of elasticity to the present problem. For the contact problem of fuel fretting, the contact mechanical solutions could be utilized well with sufficient accuracy if the contact bodies (i.e., the cladding tube and the spacer grid) can be assumed as semi-infinite bodies. To this end, the contact length evaluated by FEM is discussed together with the relevant research which concerned the effect of dimension for the validity of the assumption of semi-infiniteness. Normal stress profile on the contact is also studied through comparing the theoretical and the FE results. For the analysis of contact problem by FEM, ANSYS code (Version 5.3) is utilized and the geometry is chosen to be the Hertzian (cylinder-to-cylinder), the strip-to-cylinder and the fuel rod/spacer grid contact (strip-to-tube). Present research will be utilized for accessing the fuel fretting problem by FEM together with the theoretical (i.e., contact mechanical) analysis which has been published as KAERI/TR-1113/98. (author). 15 refs., 44 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Insufficient sensitivity of joint aspiration during the two-stage exchange of the hip with spacers.

    Boelch, Sebastian Philipp; Weissenberger, Manuel; Spohn, Frederik; Rudert, Maximilian; Luedemann, Martin

    2018-01-10

    Evaluation of infection persistence during the two-stage exchange of the hip is challenging. Joint aspiration before reconstruction is supposed to rule out infection persistence. Sensitivity and specificity of synovial fluid culture and synovial leucocyte count for detecting infection persistence during the two-stage exchange of the hip were evaluated. Ninety-two aspirations before planned joint reconstruction during the two-stage exchange with spacers of the hip were retrospectively analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of synovial fluid culture was 4.6 and 94.3%. The sensitivity and specificity of synovial leucocyte count at a cut-off value of 2000 cells/μl was 25.0 and 96.9%. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) values were significantly higher before prosthesis removal and reconstruction or spacer exchange (p = 0.00; p = 0.013 and p = 0.039; p = 0.002) in the infection persistence group. Receiver operating characteristic area under the curve values before prosthesis removal and reconstruction or spacer exchange for ESR were lower (0.516 and 0.635) than for CRP (0.720 and 0.671). Synovial fluid culture and leucocyte count cannot rule out infection persistence during the two-stage exchange of the hip.

  10. Eddy current detection of spacers in the fuel channels of CANDU nuclear reactors

    Krause, T.W.; Schankula, J.; Sullivan, S.P.

    2002-01-01

    Garter Spring (GS) spacers in the fuel channels of CANDU nuclear reactors maintain separation between the hot pressure tube and surrounding moderator cooled calandria tube. Eddy current detection of the four GSs provides assurance that spacers are at or close to design positions and are performing their intended function of maintaining a non-zero gap between pressure tube and calandria tube. Pressure tube constrictions, resulting from relatively less diametral creep at end-of-fuel bundle locations, also produce large eddy current signals. Large constrictions, present in higher service pressure tubes, can produce signals that are 10 times larger than GS signals, reducing GS detectability to 30% in standard GS-detect probes. The introduction of field-focussing elements into the design of the standard GS detection eddy current probe has been used to recover the detectability of GS spacers by increasing the signal amplitude obtained from GSs relative to that from constrictions by a factor of 10. The work presented here compares laboratory, modelling and in-reactor measurements of GS and constriction signals obtained from the standard probe with that obtained from field-focussed eddy current probe designs. (author)

  11. FIVPET Flow-Induced Vibration Test Report (1) - Candidate Spacer Grid Type I (Optimized H Type)

    Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Heung Seok; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Song, Kee Nam; Kim, Jae Yong

    2006-03-15

    The flow-induced vibration (FIV) test using a 5x5 partial fuel assembly was performed to evaluate mechanical/structural performance of the candidate spacer grid type I (Optimized H shape). From the measured vibration response of the test bundle and the flow parameters, design features of the spacer strap can be analyzed in the point of vibration and hydraulic aspect, and also compared with other spacer strap in simple comparative manner. Furthermore, the FIV test will contributes to understand behaviors of nuclear fuel in operating reactor. The FIV test results will be used to verify the theoretical model of fuel rod and assembly vibration. The aim of this report is to present the results of the FIV test of partial fuel assembly and to introduce the detailed test methodology and analysis procedure. In chapter 2, the overall configuration of test bundle and instrumented tube is remarked and chapter 3 will introduce the test facility (FIVPET) and test section. Chapter 4 deals with overall test condition and procedure, measurement and data acquisition devices, instrumentation equipment and calibration, and error analysis. Finally, test result of vibration and pressure fluctuation is presented and discussed in chapter 5.

  12. Optical absorption enhancement by inserting ZnO optical spacer in plasmonic organic solar cells

    N'Konou, Kekeli; Torchio, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Optical absorption enhancement (AE) using coupled optical spacer and plasmonic effects in standard and inverted organic solar cells (OSCs) are demonstrated using the finite-difference time-domain numerical method. The influence of an added zinc oxide (ZnO) optical spacer layer inserted below the active layer in standard architecture is first theoretically investigated while the influence of varying the ZnO cathodic buffer layer thickness in inverted design is studied on AE. Then, the embedding of a square periodic array of core-shell silver-silica nanospheres (Ag@SiO2 NSs) at different positions in standard and inverted OSCs is performed while AE and short-circuit current density (Jsc) are calculated. As a result of previous combined effects, the optimized standard plasmonic OSCs present 15% and 79.45% enhancement in J over the reference with and without ZnO optical spacer layer, respectively, and a 16% increase of AE when Ag@SiO2 NSs are placed on top of the PEDOT:PSS layer. Compared to the inverted OSC reference, the plasmonic OSCs present 26% and 27% enhancement in J and AE, respectively, when the Ag@SiO2 NSs are located on top of the ZnO layer. Furthermore, the spatial position of these NSs in such OSCs is a key parameter for increasing light absorption via enhanced electromagnetic field distribution.

  13. [Identification of medicinal plant Dendrobium based on the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacer].

    Yao, Hui; Yang, Pei; Zhou, Hong; Ma, Shuang-jiao; Song, Jing-yuan; Chen, Shi-lin

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacers of 18 species of Dendrobium and their adulterants were amplified and sequenced, and then the sequence characteristics were analyzed. The sequence lengths of chloroplast psbK-psbI regions of Dendrobium ranged from 474 to 513 bp and the GC contents were 25.4%-27.6%. The variable sites were 71 while the informative sites were 46. The inter-specific genetic distances calculated by Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) of Dendrobium were 0.006 1-0.058 1, with an average of 0.028 4. The K2P genetic distances between Dendrobium species and Bulbophyllum odoratissimum were 0.093 2-0.120 4. The NJ tree showed that the Dendrobium species can be easily differentiated from each other and 6 samples of the inspected Dendrobium species were identified successfully through sequencing the psbK-psbI intergenic spacer. Therefore, the chloroplast psbK-psbI intergenic spacer can be used as a candidate marker to identify Dendrobium species and its adulterants.

  14. Interaction between zircaloy tube and inconel spacer grid at high temperature

    Nagase, Fumihisa; Otomo, Takashi; Uetsuka, Hiroshi; Furuta, Teruo

    1990-09-01

    In order to investigate the interaction between fuel cladding and spacer grid of the pressurized water reactor during a severe accident, isothermal reaction tests were performed at the temperature range from 1248 to 1673K. A specimen consisted of a short Zircaloy-4 cladding tube and a piece of spacer grid of Inconel-718. In the tests in an argon atmosphere, eutectic reaction between Zircaloy and Inconel was observed at the contact points at 1248K. Rapid reaction was observed at higher test temperatures. For example, in the test at 1373K for 300s, Zircaloy reacted with Inconel over the entire thickness (0.62mm) of the tube in the vicinity of the contact point. In the present tests, Zircaloy which has higher melting point than Inconel was dissolved preferentially due to eutectic formation. In the tests in an oxygen atmosphere, no eutectic reaction was observed at temperatures below 1437K. A trace of interaction was found at the contact point of specimen heated at 1573 and 1623K. However, decrease in Zircaloy thickness was not measured. The possibility of eutectic reaction between Zircaloy cladding and Inconel spacer grid seems to be quite limited when sufficient oxygen is supplied. (author)

  15. 21 CFR 870.3680 - Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker... § 870.3680 Cardiovascular permanent or temporary pacemaker electrode. (a) Temporary pacemaker electrode—(1) Identification. A temporary pacemaker electrode is a device consisting of flexible insulated...

  16. 48 CFR 37.112 - Government use of private sector temporaries.

    2010-10-01

    ... use of private sector temporaries. Contracting officers may enter into contracts with temporary help service firms for the brief or intermittent use of the skills of private sector temporaries. Services... part 300, subpart E, Use of Private Sector Temporaries, and agency procedures. [56 FR 55380, Oct. 25...

  17. Effect of electrostatic charge in plastic spacers on the lung delivery of HFA-salbutamol in children

    Anhøj, J; Bisgaard, H; Lipworth, B J

    1999-01-01

    delivered a significantly (Pplastic spacers reduces lung dose in children by more than two-fold. This is clinically significant and the use of potentially electrostatically charged......AIMS: The effect of the electrostatic charge in plastic spacers in vivo on drug delivery to the lung of hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) salbutamol spray was studied in children. METHODS: Five children, aged 7-12 years, were included in a 3-way crossover randomised single-blind trial. Salbutamol HFA spray...... was delivered on 3 different study days from plastic spacers with mouthpiece. Pre-treatment of the spacers differed between study days: (a) Non-electrostatic 350 ml Babyhaler (coated with benzalkonium chloride) (b) New 350 ml Babyhaler (rinsed in water), and (c) New 145 ml AeroChamber (rinsed in water). Plasma...

  18. Visible light dynamical diffraction in a 1-D photonic crystal-based interferometer with an extremely thin spacer layer

    Prudnikov, I.R.

    2016-01-01

    Properties of light diffraction in a Fabry–Pérot-like interferometer composed of two 1-D photonic crystals and a nanometer-thick spacer layer are analytically investigated. It is shown that the resonant enhancement of light wave intensity in such a layer is possible because of light dynamical diffraction from the photonic crystals of the interferometer. Numerical simulations of (i) light reflectivity and transmittance curves of the interferometer having an ultra-thin spacer layer (its thickness changes from less than 1 nm to about 10 nm) and (ii) the resonant distribution of the light wave intensity in the vicinity of the layer are performed. Based on the numerical simulations, potentialities for the determination of the structural parameters (e.g., thicknesses and refraction indexes) of ultra-thin spacer films are discussed. A difference is found to appear in resonant intensity enhancements inside the ultra-thin spacer layers between s- and p-polarized light waves.

  19. Review and Comparison of simulation software for additive manufacturing process: the practical case of dipole End-Spacers

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2271732

    2017-01-01

    Project was made to compare and benchmark simulation software for additive manufacturing. Simulations for End-spacers and HOM crab cavity were made to compare simulation results with 3D scanned data for these parts.

  20. Porosity of spacer-filled channels in spiral-wound membrane systems: Quantification methods and impact on hydraulic characterization

    Siddiqui, Amber; Lehmann, S.; Haaksman, V.; Ogier, J.; Schellenberg, C.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kruithof, J.C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2017-01-01

    The porosity of spacer-filled feed channels influences the hydrodynamics of spiral-wound membrane systems and impacts the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an exact measurement and a detailed understanding of the impact of the feed

  1. Spacer Thickness-Dependent Electron Transport Performance of Titanium Dioxide Thick Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Reda E. El-Shater

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A titanium dioxide (P25 film was deposited by cast coating as conductive photoelectrode and subsequently immersed in dye solution (N719 to fabricate the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A plastic spacer was used as a separation and sealant layer between the photoanode and the counter electrode. The effect of the thickness of this spacer on the transfer of electrons in the liquid electrolyte of the DSSCs was studied by means of both IV curves and electrochemical impedance. Using a spacer thickness range of 20 μm to 50 μm, efficiency ranges from 3.73% to 7.22%. The highest efficiency of 7.22% was obtained with an optimal spacer thickness of 40 μm.

  2. MO-AB-BRA-02: Modeling Nanoparticle-Eluting Spacer Degradation During Brachytherapy Application with in Situ Dose-Painting

    Boateng, F [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Ngwa, W [University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, Massachusetts (United States); Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy application with in situ dose-painting using gold nanoparticles (GNP) released from GNP-loaded brachytherapy spacers has been proposed as an innovative approach to increase therapeutic efficacy during brachytherapy. This work investigates the dosimetric impact of slow versus burst release of GNP from next generation biodegradable spacers. Methods: Mathematical models were developed based on experimental data to study the release of GNP from a spacer designed with FDA approved poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer. The diffusion controlled released process and PLGA polymer degradation kinetics was incorporated in the calculations for the first time. An in vivo determined diffusion coefficient was used for determining the concentration profiles and corresponding dose enhancement based on initial GNP-loading concentrations of 7 mg/g. Results: The results showed that there is significant delay before the concentration profile of GNP diffusion in the tumor is similar to that when burst release is assumed as in previous studies. For example, in the case of burst release after spacer administration, it took up to 25 days for all the GNP to be released from the spacer using diffusion controlled release process only. However, it took up to 45 days when a combined model for both diffusion and polymer degradation processes was used. Based on the tumor concentration profiles, a significant dose enhancement factor (DEF >20%), could be attained at a tumor distances of 5 mm from a spacer loaded with 10 nm GNP sizes. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to take the slow release of GNP from spacers and factors such as biodegradation of polymers into account in research development of GNP-eluting spacers for brachytherapy applications with in-situ dose-painting using gold nanoparticles. The findings suggest that I-125 may be the more appropriate for such applications given the relatively longer half-live compared to other radioisotopes like Pd-103

  3. Heat Transfer Enhancement Studies in a Circular Tube Fitted with Right-Left Helical Inserts with Spacer

    P. K. Nagarajan; P. Sivashanmugam

    2011-01-01

    Experimental investigation of heat transfer and friction factor characteristics of circular tube fitted with 300 right-left helical screw inserts with 100 mm spacer of different twist ratio has been presented for laminar and turbulent flow.. The experimental data obtained were compared with those obtained from plain tube published data. The heat transfer coefficient enhancement for 300 RL inserts with 100 mm spacer is quite comparable with for 300 R-L inserts. Performance evalu...

  4. Distribution of CRISPR spacer matches in viruses and plasmids of crenarchaeal acidothermophiles and implications for their inhibitory mechanism

    Shah, Shiraz Ali; Hansen, Niels R; Garrett, Roger A

    2009-01-01

    Transcripts from spacer sequences within chromosomal repeat clusters [CRISPRs (clusters of regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)] from archaea have been implicated in inhibiting or regulating the propagation of archaeal viruses and plasmids. For the crenarchaeal thermoacidophiles, the chromo......Transcripts from spacer sequences within chromosomal repeat clusters [CRISPRs (clusters of regularly interspaced palindromic repeats)] from archaea have been implicated in inhibiting or regulating the propagation of archaeal viruses and plasmids. For the crenarchaeal thermoacidophiles...

  5. Diagnosis Of Persistent Infection In Prosthetic Two-Stage Exchange: PCR analysis of Sonication fluid From Bone Cement Spacers.

    Mariaux, Sandrine; Tafin, Ulrika Furustrand; Borens, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: When treating periprosthetic joint infections with a two-stage procedure, antibiotic-impregnated spacers are used in the interval between removal of prosthesis and reimplantation. According to our experience, cultures of sonicated spacers are most often negative. The objective of our study was to investigate whether PCR analysis would improve the detection of bacteria in the spacer sonication fluid. Methods: A prospective monocentric study was performed from September 2014 to January 2016. Inclusion criteria were two-stage procedure for prosthetic infection and agreement of the patient to participate in the study. Beside tissues samples and sonication, broad range bacterial PCRs, specific S. aureus PCRs and Unyvero-multiplex PCRs were performed on the sonicated spacer fluid. Results: 30 patients were identified (15 hip, 14 knee and 1 ankle replacements). At reimplantation, cultures of tissue samples and spacer sonication fluid were all negative. Broad range PCRs were all negative. Specific S. aureus PCRs were positive in 5 cases. We had two persistent infections and four cases of infection recurrence were observed, with bacteria different than for the initial infection in three cases. Conclusion: The three different types of PCRs did not detect any bacteria in spacer sonication fluid that was culture-negative. In our study, PCR did not improve the bacterial detection and did not help to predict whether the patient will present a persistent or recurrent infection. Prosthetic 2-stage exchange with short interval and antibiotic-impregnated spacer is an efficient treatment to eradicate infection as both culture- and molecular-based methods were unable to detect bacteria in spacer sonication fluid after reimplantation.

  6. Dansyl-naphthalimide dyads as molecular probes: effect of spacer group on metal ion binding properties.

    Shankar, Balaraman H; Ramaiah, Danaboyina

    2011-11-17

    Interaction of a few dansyl-naphthalimide conjugates 1a-e linked through polymethylene spacer groups with various metal ions was investigated through absorption, fluorescence, NMR, isothermal calorimetric (ITC), and laser flash photolysis techniques. The characteristic feature of these dyads is that they exhibit competing singlet-singlet energy transfer (SSET) and photoinduced electron transfer (PET) processes, both of which decrease with the increase in spacer length. Depending on the spacer group, these dyads interact selectively with divalent Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions, as compared to other mono- and divalent metal ions. Jobs plot analysis showed that these dyads form 2:3 complexes with Cu(2+) ions, while 1:1 complexes were observed with Zn(2+) ions. The association constants for the Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) complexes were determined and are found to be in the order 10(3)-10(5) M(-1). Irrespective of the length of the spacer group, these dyads interestingly act as fluorescence ratiometric molecular probes for Cu(2+) ions by altering the emission intensity of both dansyl and naphthalimide chromophores. In contrast, only the fluorescence intensity of the naphthalimide chromophore of the lower homologues (n = 1-3) was altered by Zn(2+) ions. (1)H NMR and ITC measurements confirmed the involvement of both sulfonamide and dimethylamine groups in the complexation with Cu(2+) ions, while only the latter group was involved with Zn(2+) ions. Laser excitation of the dyads 1a-e showed formation of a transient absorption which can be attributed to the radical cation of the naphthalimide chromophore, whereas only the triplet excited state of the dyads 1a-e was observed in the presence of Cu(2+) ions. Uniquely, the complexation of 1a-e with Cu(2+) ions affects both PET and SSET processes, while only the PET process was partially inhibited by Zn(2+) ions in the lower homologues (n = 1-3) and the higher homologues exhibited negligible changes in their emission properties. Our results

  7. Spacer length impacts the efficacy of targeted docetaxel conjugates in prostate-specific membrane antigen expressing prostate cancer.

    Peng, Zheng-Hong; Sima, Monika; Salama, Mohamed E; Kopečková, Pavla; Kopeček, Jindřich

    2013-12-01

    Combination of targeted delivery and controlled release is a powerful technique for cancer treatment. In this paper, we describe the design, synthesis, structure validation and biological properties of targeted and non-targeted N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer-docetaxel conjugates. Docetaxel (DTX) was conjugated to HPMA copolymer via a tetrapeptide spacer (-GFLG-). 3-(1,3-dicarboxypropyl)-ureido]pentanedioic acid (DUPA) was used as the targeting moiety to actively deliver DTX for treatment of Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) expressing prostate cancer. Short and long spacer DUPA monomers were prepared, and four HPMA copolymer--DTX conjugates (non-targeted, two targeted with short spacer of different molecular weight and targeted with long spacer) were prepared via Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer (RAFT) copolymerization. Following confirmation of PSMA expression on C4-2 cell line, the DTX conjugates' in vitro cytotoxicity was tested against C4-2 tumor cells and their anticancer efficacies were assessed in nude mice bearing s.c. human prostate adenocarcinoma C4-2 xenografts. The in vivo results show that the spacer length between targeting moieties and HPMA copolymer backbone can significantly affect the treatment efficacy of DTX conjugates against C4-2 tumor bearing nu/nu mice. Moreover, histological analysis indicated that the DUPA-targeted DTX conjugate with longer spacer had no toxicity in major organs of treated mice.

  8. Temporary jobs and the severity of workplace accidents.

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan C

    2017-06-01

    From the point of view of workplace safety, it is important to know whether having a temporary job has an effect on the severity of workplace accidents. We present an empirical analysis on the severity of workplace accidents by type of contract. We used microdata collected by the Italian national institute managing the mandatory insurance against work related accidents. We estimated linear models for a measure of the severity of the workplace accident. We controlled for time-invariant fixed effects at worker and firm levels to disentangle the impact of the type of contract from the spurious one induced by unobservables at worker and firm levels. Workers with a temporary contract, if subject to a workplace accident, were more likely to be confronted with severe injuries than permanent workers. When correcting the statistical analysis for injury under-reporting of temporary workers, we found that most of, but not all, the effect is driven by the under-reporting bias. The effect of temporary contracts on the injury severity survived the inclusion of worker and firm fixed effects and the correction for temporary workers' injury under-reporting. This, however, does not exclude the possibility that, within firms, the nature of the work may vary between different categories of workers. For example, temporary workers might be more likely to be assigned dangerous tasks because they might have less bargaining power. The findings will help in designing public policy effective in increasing temporary workers' safety at work and limiting their injury under-reporting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Temporary Cementitious Sealers in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Butcher, T.; Brothers, L.; Bour, D.

    2011-12-31

    Unlike conventional hydrothennal geothermal technology that utilizes hot water as the energy conversion resources tapped from natural hydrothermal reservoir located at {approx}10 km below the ground surface, Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) must create a hydrothermal reservoir in a hot rock stratum at temperatures {ge}200 C, present in {approx}5 km deep underground by employing hydraulic fracturing. This is the process of initiating and propagating a fracture as well as opening pre-existing fractures in a rock layer. In this operation, a considerable attention is paid to the pre-existing fractures and pressure-generated ones made in the underground foundation during drilling and logging. These fractures in terms of lost circulation zones often cause the wastage of a substantial amount of the circulated water-based drilling fluid or mud. Thus, such lost circulation zones must be plugged by sealing materials, so that the drilling operation can resume and continue. Next, one important consideration is the fact that the sealers must be disintegrated by highly pressured water to reopen the plugged fractures and to promote the propagation of reopened fractures. In response to this need, the objective of this phase I project in FYs 2009-2011 was to develop temporary cementitious fracture sealing materials possessing self-degradable properties generating when {ge} 200 C-heated scalers came in contact with water. At BNL, we formulated two types of non-Portland cementitious systems using inexpensive industrial by-products with pozzolanic properties, such as granulated blast-furnace slag from the steel industries, and fly ashes from coal-combustion power plants. These byproducts were activated by sodium silicate to initiate their pozzolanic reactions, and to create a cemetitious structure. One developed system was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class C fly ash (AASC); the other was sodium silicate alkali-activated slag/Class F fly ash (AASF) as the binder of temper

  10. WE-FG-BRA-02: Docetaxel Eluting Brachytherapy Spacers for Local Chemo-Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Belz, J [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Kumar, R; Sridhar, S [Northeastern University & Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Makrigiorgos, G; Nguyen, P [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); D’Amico, A [Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cormack, R [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We propose an innovative combinatorial treatment strategy of Local ChemoRadiation Therapy (LCRT) using a sustained drug delivery platform in the form of a spacer to locally radio-sensitize the prostate with Docetaxel (DTX) enabling a synergistic cure with the use of lower radiation doses. These biodegradable spacers are physically similar to the inert spacers routinely used in prostate brachytherapy but are now loaded with formulations of DTX. Methods: Spacers were loaded with ∼500µg Docetaxel (DTX) for prostate cancer studies. The implants were characterized in vitro using SEM and HPLC. The release kinetic studies were carried out in buffer (pH 6.0) at 37°C. Subcutaneous PC3 tumors were xenografted in nude mice. Prostate cancer studies were done with and without radiation using SARRP at 5Gy, 10Gy, and 15Gy. Drug-loaded implants were injected once intratumorally using an 18G brachytherapy needle. Results: The release study in vitro showed a highly sustained release for multiple weeks at therapeutically relevant doses. The monotherapy with local DTX spacer showed sustained tumor inhibition compared to empty implants and an equivalent DTX dose given systemically. At 40 days, 89% survival was observed for mice treated with DTX implants compared with 0% in all other treatment groups. The combined treatment with local DTX spacer and radiation (10Gy) showed the highest degree of tumor suppression (significant tumor growth inhibition by day 90). The control mice showed continuous tumor growth and were scarified by day 56. Groups of mice treated with DTX-spacer or radiation alone showed initial tumor suppression but growth continued after day 60. A larger experiment is ongoing. Conclusion: This approach provides localized delivery of the chemotherapeutic sensitizer directly to the tumor and avoids the toxicities associated with both brachytherapy and current systemic delivery of docetaxel. Sustained release of DTX is an effective chemotherapy option alone or

  11. Computational model for turbulent flow around a grid spacer with mixing vane

    Tsutomu Ikeno; Takeo Kajishima

    2005-01-01

    Turbulent mixing coefficient and pressure drop are important factors in subchannel analysis to predict onset of DNB. However, universal correlations are difficult since these factors are significantly affected by the geometry of subchannel and a grid spacer with mixing vane. Therefore, we propose a computational model to estimate these factors. Computational model: To represent the effect of geometry of grid spacer in computational model, we applied a large eddy simulation (LES) technique in couple with an improved immersed-boundary method. In our previous work (Ikeno, et al., NURETH-10), detailed properties of turbulence in subchannel were successfully investigated by developing the immersed boundary method in LES. In this study, additional improvements are given: new one-equation dynamic sub-grid scale (SGS) model is introduced to account for the complex geometry without any artificial modification; the higher order accuracy is maintained by consistent treatment for boundary conditions for velocity and pressure. NUMERICAL TEST AND DISCUSSION: Turbulent mixing coefficient and pressure drop are affected strongly by the arrangement and inclination of mixing vane. Therefore, computations are carried out for each of convolute and periodic arrangements, and for each of 30 degree and 20 degree inclinations. The difference in turbulent mixing coefficient due to these factors is reasonably predicted by our method. (An example of this numerical test is shown in Fig. 1.) Turbulent flow of the problem includes unsteady separation behind the mixing vane and vortex shedding in downstream. Anisotropic distribution of turbulent stress is also appeared in rod gap. Therefore, our computational model has advantage for assessing the influence of arrangement and inclination of mixing vane. By coarser computational mesh, one can screen several candidates for spacer design. Then, by finer mesh, more quantitative analysis is possible. By such a scheme, we believe this method is useful

  12. Diversity in a Polymicrobial Community Revealed by Analysis of Viromes, Endolysins and CRISPR Spacers.

    Michelle Davison

    Full Text Available The polymicrobial biofilm communities in Mushroom and Octopus Spring in Yellowstone National Park (YNP are well characterized, yet little is known about the phage populations. Dominant species, Synechococcus sp. JA-2-3B'a(2-13, Synechococcus sp. JA-3-3Ab, Chloroflexus sp. Y-400-fl, and Roseiflexus sp. RS-1, contain multiple CRISPR-Cas arrays, suggesting complex interactions with phage predators. To analyze phage populations from Octopus Spring biofilms, we sequenced a viral enriched fraction. To assemble and analyze phage metagenomic data, we developed a custom module, VIRITAS, implemented within the MetAMOS framework. This module bins contigs into groups based on tetranucleotide frequencies and CRISPR spacer-protospacer matching and ORF calling. Using this pipeline we were able to assemble phage sequences into contigs and bin them into three clusters that corroborated with their potential host range. The virome contained 52,348 predicted ORFs; some were clearly phage-like; 9319 ORFs had a recognizable Pfam domain while the rest were hypothetical. Of the recognized domains with CRISPR spacer matches, was the phage endolysin used by lytic phage to disrupt cells. Analysis of the endolysins present in the thermophilic cyanophage contigs revealed a subset of characterized endolysins as well as a Glyco_hydro_108 (PF05838 domain not previously associated with sequenced cyanophages. A search for CRISPR spacer matches to all identified phage endolysins demonstrated that a majority of endolysin domains were targets. This strategy provides a general way to link host and phage as endolysins are known to be widely distributed in bacteriophage. Endolysins can also provide information about host cell wall composition and have the additional potential to be used as targets for novel therapeutics.

  13. PairWise Neighbours database: overlaps and spacers among prokaryote genomes

    Garcia-Vallvé Santiago

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although prokaryotes live in a variety of habitats and possess different metabolic and genomic complexity, they have several genomic architectural features in common. The overlapping genes are a common feature of the prokaryote genomes. The overlapping lengths tend to be short because as the overlaps become longer they have more risk of deleterious mutations. The spacers between genes tend to be short too because of the tendency to reduce the non coding DNA among prokaryotes. However they must be long enough to maintain essential regulatory signals such as the Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence, which is responsible of an efficient translation. Description PairWise Neighbours is an interactive and intuitive database used for retrieving information about the spacers and overlapping genes among bacterial and archaeal genomes. It contains 1,956,294 gene pairs from 678 fully sequenced prokaryote genomes and is freely available at the URL http://genomes.urv.cat/pwneigh. This database provides information about the overlaps and their conservation across species. Furthermore, it allows the wide analysis of the intergenic regions providing useful information such as the location and strength of the SD sequence. Conclusion There are experiments and bioinformatic analysis that rely on correct annotations of the initiation site. Therefore, a database that studies the overlaps and spacers among prokaryotes appears to be desirable. PairWise Neighbours database permits the reliability analysis of the overlapping structures and the study of the SD presence and location among the adjacent genes, which may help to check the annotation of the initiation sites.

  14. The CRISPRdb database and tools to display CRISPRs and to generate dictionaries of spacers and repeats

    Vergnaud Gilles

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Archeae and Bacteria, the repeated elements called CRISPRs for "clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats" are believed to participate in the defence against viruses. Short sequences called spacers are stored in-between repeated elements. In the current model, motifs comprising spacers and repeats may target an invading DNA and lead to its degradation through a proposed mechanism similar to RNA interference. Analysis of intra-species polymorphism shows that new motifs (one spacer and one repeated element are added in a polarised fashion. Although their principal characteristics have been described, a lot remains to be discovered on the way CRISPRs are created and evolve. As new genome sequences become available it appears necessary to develop automated scanning tools to make available CRISPRs related information and to facilitate additional investigations. Description We have produced a program, CRISPRFinder, which identifies CRISPRs and extracts the repeated and unique sequences. Using this software, a database is constructed which is automatically updated monthly from newly released genome sequences. Additional tools were created to allow the alignment of flanking sequences in search for similarities between different loci and to build dictionaries of unique sequences. To date, almost six hundred CRISPRs have been identified in 475 published genomes. Two Archeae out of thirty-seven and about half of Bacteria do not possess a CRISPR. Fine analysis of repeated sequences strongly supports the current view that new motifs are added at one end of the CRISPR adjacent to the putative promoter. Conclusion It is hoped that availability of a public database, regularly updated and which can be queried on the web will help in further dissecting and understanding CRISPR structure and flanking sequences evolution. Subsequent analyses of the intra-species CRISPR polymorphism will be facilitated by CRISPRFinder and the

  15. Temporary brittle bone disease: fractures in medical care.

    Paterson, Colin R

    2009-12-01

    Temporary brittle bone disease is the name given to a syndrome first reported in 1990, in which fractures occur in infants in the first year of life. The fractures include rib fractures and metaphyseal fractures which are mostly asymptomatic. The radiological features of this disorder mimic those often ascribed to typical non-accidental injury. The subject has been controversial, some authors suggesting that the disorder does not exist. This study reports five infants with typical features of temporary brittle bone disease in whom all or most of the fractures took place while in hospital. A non-accidental cause can be eliminated with some confidence, and these cases provide evidence in support of the existence of temporary brittle bone disease.

  16. Transforming knowledge across domains in the temporary development spaces

    Brønnum, Louise

    This paper addresses transformation of knowledge across different knowledge domains and competencies in the Front End of Innovation (FEI) [Koen 2002].We examine the temporary spaces [Clausen, Yoshinaka 2007] that emerge when different knowledge domains are brought into play (implicit or explicit......) in staging innovative concept development. FEI appears as temporary spaces for innovative processes; and studies have pointed out the limited uptake of user knowledge (Elgaard Jensen 2012). This paper will discuss the possibilities and barriers for uptake of user knowledge in FEI in relation...... to the constitutions of these temporary spaces. There seems to be a limited understanding of: how knowledge is transferred and transformed into design objects facilitating a process where knowledge enables innovative thinking across knowledge boundaries. The paper is based on empirical data primarily from case studies...

  17. Influence of the boundary conditions on heat and mass transfer in spacer-filled channels

    Ciofalo, M.; La Cerva, M. F.; Di Liberto, M.; Tamburini, A.

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to discuss some problems which arise in heat or mass transfer in complex channels, with special reference to the spacer-filled channels adopted in membrane processes. Among the issues addressed are the consistent definition of local and mean heat or mass transfer coefficients; the influence of the wall boundary conditions; the influence of one-side versus two-side heat/mass transfer. Most of the results discussed were obtained by finite volume CFD simulations concerning heat transfer in Membrane Distillation or mass transfer in Electrodialysis and Reverse Electrodialysis, but many of the conclusions apply also to different processes involving geometrically complex channels

  18. Hydrodynamics around a spacer of a VVER-440 fuel rod bundle

    Mayer, G.; Hazi, G.; Kavran, P.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, an intensive research has been started in our institute, focusing on the hydrodynamics of fuel rod bundles. Numerical computations have been planed to be carried out in a three level bottom-up hierarchy, using direct numerical simulation, large eddy simulation and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes approach. Here, we give a description of the numerical method applied for direct numerical and large eddy simulation. We present some preliminary results obtained by the simulation of the flow around a spacer of a VVER-440 fuel rod bundle. (author)

  19. Modal properties of the flexural vibrating package of rods linked by spacer grids

    Zeman V.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the modelling and modal analysis of the large package of identical parallel rods linked by transverse springs (spacer grids placed on several level spacings. The rod discretization by finite element method is based on Rayleigh beam theory. For the cyclic and central symmetric package of rods (such as fuel rods in nuclear fuel assembly the system decomposition on the identical revolved rod segments was applied. A modal synthesis method with condensation is used for modelling of the whole system. The presented method is the first step for modelling the nuclear fuel assembly vibration caused by excitation determined by the support plate motion of the reactor core.

  20. Deploying temporary networks for upscaling of sparse network stations

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Kelly, Victoria; Hall, Mark; Palecki, Michael A.; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-10-01

    Soil observations networks at the national scale play an integral role in hydrologic modeling, drought assessment, agricultural decision support, and our ability to understand climate change. Understanding soil moisture variability is necessary to apply these measurements to model calibration, business and consumer applications, or even human health issues. The installation of soil moisture sensors as sparse, national networks is necessitated by limited financial resources. However, this results in the incomplete sampling of the local heterogeneity of soil type, vegetation cover, topography, and the fine spatial distribution of precipitation events. To this end, temporary networks can be installed in the areas surrounding a permanent installation within a sparse network. The temporary networks deployed in this study provide a more representative average at the 3 km and 9 km scales, localized about the permanent gauge. The value of such temporary networks is demonstrated at test sites in Millbrook, New York and Crossville, Tennessee. The capacity of a single U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) sensor set to approximate the average of a temporary network at the 3 km and 9 km scales using a simple linear scaling function is tested. The capacity of a temporary network to provide reliable estimates with diminishing numbers of sensors, the temporal stability of those networks, and ultimately, the relationship of the variability of those networks to soil moisture conditions at the permanent sensor are investigated. In this manner, this work demonstrates the single-season installation of a temporary network as a mechanism to characterize the soil moisture variability at a permanent gauge within a sparse network.

  1. Temporary sharing prompts unrestrained disclosures that leave lasting negative impressions.

    Hofstetter, Reto; Rüppell, Roland; John, Leslie K

    2017-11-07

    With the advent of social media, the impressions people make on others are based increasingly on their digital disclosures. However, digital disclosures can come back to haunt, making it challenging for people to manage the impressions they make. In field and online experiments in which participants take, share, and evaluate self-photographs ("selfies"), we show that, paradoxically, these challenges can be exacerbated by temporary-sharing media-technologies that prevent content from being stored permanently. Relative to permanent sharing, temporary sharing affects both whether and what people reveal. Specifically, temporary sharing increases compliance with the request to take a selfie (study 1) and induces greater disclosure risks (i.e., people exhibit greater disinhibition in their selfies, studies 1 and 2). This increased disclosure is driven by reduced privacy concerns (study 2). However, observers' impressions of sharers are insensitive to permanence (i.e., whether the selfie was shared temporarily versus permanently) and are instead driven by the disinhibition exhibited in the selfie (studies 4-7). As a result, induced by the promise of temporary sharing, sharers of uninhibited selfies come across as having worse judgment than those who share relatively discreet selfies (studies 1, 2, and 4-7)-an attributional pattern that is unanticipated by sharers (study 3), that persists days after the selfie has disappeared (study 5), is robust to personal experience with temporary sharing (studies 6A and 6B), and holds even among friends (studies 7A and 7B). Temporary sharing may bring back forgetting, but not without introducing new (self-presentational) challenges. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. Temporary hyperthyroidism (hypertriiodothyroninemia) to be evoked by stress

    Ehni, A.; Kampmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    From patients of intensive care unit suffering from acute myocardial infarction, decompensated hypertension with left heart insufficiency, severe coronary heart disease, pulmonary infarction, cerebral ischemia 102 were selected with suspicion of hyperthyroidism because of clinical signs. 12 patients fulfilled the criteria of temporary hyperthyroidism, 6 patients revealed persistent hyperthyroidism. Excluding other causes for evoked hyperthyroidism as common etiological factor psychogenic stress is discussed. It is concluded, that increased thyroid hormone concentration in patients of intensive care units should be controlled within a short time in order to delineate temporary hyperthyroidism against permanent hyperthyroidism. (orig.) [de

  3. Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) caused by a temporary henna tattoo

    Celegen, Mehmet; Karkıner, Canan Sule Unsal; Günay, Ilker; Diniz, Güllden; Can, Demet

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells’ syndrome) is an uncommon condition of unknown etiology. Wells’ syndrome is usually seen in adulthood but very rare in childhood. Although pathogenesis of the disease is not very clear, it is a hypersensitivity reaction developing against a variety of exogenous and endogenous antigenic stimuli. Paraphenylenediamine is a strong allergen frequently used as a temporary henna tattoo, which makes the color darker. Here, a 9-year-old male patient with Wells’ syndrome is presented, which developed following a temporary henna tattoo and shown by the patch test sensitivity to paraphenylenediamine. PMID:25395929

  4. Multiple Institutional Logics in Inter-Institutional Temporary Organizations

    Pemsel, Sofia; Söderlund, Jonas

    for the planning and construction of a new super hospital in the capital of Sweden. Our empirical data demonstrates the important role institutional logics contribute with in understanding logics behind actions as well as emerging conflicts in practice throughout the project process. The paper identifies four......The idea of multiple institutional logics currently draws more and more attention as many organizational actors are forced to operate in ever more complex, temporary and vivid collaborations. We draw on findings from a unique case study of a temporary organization that carried the responsibility...

  5. Temporary emergency pacing-an orphan in district hospitals

    Gjesdal, Knut; Johansen, Jens Brock; Gadler, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    This editorial discusses a report on the 1 year experience with temporary pacing, especially in the emergency setting, in several Norwegian district hospitals. The vast majority of the patients received transvenous temporary pacing, and the majority of leads were placed by noncardiologists....... The procedure times were long and complications were frequent. The organization of emergency pacing is discussed, and we suggest that unless qualified physicians can establish transvenous pacing, the patients who need that should be transferred with transcutaneous pacing as back-up during transport...

  6. Incidental Detection of Temporary Focal FDG Retention in the Spleen

    Park, Youn Joon; Lee, Jai Hyuen; Jee, Keum Nahn; Namgung, Hwan [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is a valuable tool in discriminating malignancy from benign lesion. But because various false positive results reduce the diagnostic specificity, nuclear medicine physicians should be familiar with possible false positive cases. Although many cases of high FDG uptake mimicking malignancy have been reported, temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen has not been reported previously. We report herein a phenomenon of temporary intense focal FDG uptake of normal spleen without evidence of metastasis in a 46 year old woman with a history of anal cancer.

  7. Temporary hyperthyroidism (hypertriiodothyroninemia) to be evoked by stress

    Ehni, A.; Kampmann, H.

    1982-10-01

    From patients of intensive care unit suffering from acute myocardial infarction, decompensated hypertension with left heart insufficiency, severe coronary heart disease, pulmonary infarction, cerebral ischemia 102 were selected with suspicion of hyperthyroidism because of clinical signs. 12 patients fulfilled the criteria of temporary hyperthyroidism, 6 patients revealed persistent hyperthyroidism. Excluding other causes for evoked hyperthyroidism as common etiological factor psychogenic stress is discussed. It is concluded, that increased thyroid hormone concentration in patients of intensive care units should be controlled within a short time in order to delineate temporary hyperthyroidism against permanent hyperthyroidism.

  8. Exits from Temporary Jobs in Europe: A Competing Risks Analysis

    D'Addio, Anna Christina; Rosholm, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different specificat......We study transitions out of temporary jobs using the waves 1994-1999 of the European Community Household Panel applying a discrete time duration model. Specifically, we use a multinomial logitmodel distinguishing between exits into permanent employment and non-employment. Two different...

  9. Preclinical investigations towards the first spacer gel application in prostate cancer treatment during particle therapy at HIT

    Ruciński, Antoni; Parodi, Katia; Jäkel, Oliver; Haberer, Thomas; Bauer, Julia; Campbell, Patrick; Brons, Stephan; Unholtz, Daniel; Habl, Gregor; Herfarth, Klaus; Debus, Jürgen; Bert, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The application of spacer gel represents a promising approach to reliably spare the rectal frontal wall during particle therapy (IJROBP 76:1251-1258, 2010). In order to qualify the spacer gel for the clinical use in particle therapy, a variety of measurements were performed in order to ensure the biological compatibility of the gel, its physical stability during and after the irradiation, and a proper definition of the gel in terms of the Hounsfield Unit (HU) values for the treatment planning system. The potential for the use of the spacer gel for particle therapy monitoring with off-line Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was also investigated. The spacer gel implanted to the prostate patient in direct neighbourhood to the clinical target volume does not interfere with the particle therapy treatment planning procedure applied at Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Centre (HIT). The performed measurements show that Bragg-peak position of the particles can be properly predicted on the basis of computed tomography imaging with the treatment planning system used at HIT (measured water equivalent path length of 1.011 ±0.011 (2σ), measured Hounsfield Unit of 28.9 ±6.1 (2σ)). The spacer gel samples remain physically unchanged after irradiation with a dose exceeding the therapeutic dose level. The independently measured Bragg-Peak position does not change within the time interval of 10 weeks. As a result of the presented experiments, the first clinical application of spacer gel implant during prostate cancer treatment with carbon ions and protons was possible at HIT in 2012. The reported pre-clinical investigations demonstrate that use of spacer gel is safe in particle therapy in presence of therapy target motion and patient positioning induced particle range variations. The spacer gel injected between prostate and rectum enlarge the distance between both organs, which is expected to clinically significantly decrease the undesirable exposure of the most critical organ at risk

  10. Single-Stage Treatment of Osteomyelitis for Digital Salvage by Using an Antibiotic-Eluting, Methylmethacrylate Joint-Spanning Spacer.

    Aimé, Victoria L; Kidwell, John T; Webb, Leland H

    2017-06-01

    Osteomyelitis of the digit is a challenging problem that can result in amputation. We describe 13 cases of osteomyelitis involving bones of the hand managed with a novel technique. We reviewed records of 12 patients (13 digits) who had joint-spanning, antibiotic-eluting (tobramycin or vancomycin), methylmethacrylate spacers placed as definitive, single-stage treatment for digital osteomyelitis. The primary outcome was digit salvage. Secondary outcomes were infection eradication (no recurrence at 3 months) and spacer removal. Patients were followed up until the infection resolved (ie, no cutaneous signs of infection, including pain, erythema, or swelling). At a mean of 24 months, 10 of 13 infections had successful one-stage treatment. One patient required a second operation to revise a soft tissue flap but the spacer remained in place. Two spacers were removed because of malalignment. An antibiotic-eluting methylmethacrylate spacer is an innovative treatment for digital osteomyelitis. In 12 consecutive patients (13 digits), we successfully salvaged the digit. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Construction of Chimeric T-Cell Receptor with Spacer Base of Modeling Study of VHH and MUC1 Interaction

    Nazanin Pirooznia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive cell immunotherapy with the use of chimeric receptors leads to the best and most specific response against tumors. Chimeric receptors consist of a signaling fragment, extracellular spacer, costimulating domain, and an antibody. Antibodies cause immunogenicity; therefore, VHH is a good replacement for ScFv in chimeric receptors. Since peptide sequences have an influence on chimeric receptors, the effect of peptide domains on each other's conformation were investigated. CD3Zeta, CD28, VHH and CD8α, and FcgIIα are used as signaling moieties, costimulating domain, antibody, and spacers, respectively. To investigate the influence of the ligation of spacers on the conformational structure of VHH, models of VHH were constructed. Molecular dynamics simulation was run to study the influence of the presence of spacers on the conformational changes in the binding sites of VHH. Root mean square deviation and root mean square fluctuation of critical segments in the binding site showed no noticeable differences with those in the native VHH. Results from molecular docking revealed that the presence of spacer FcgIIα causes an increasing effect on VHH with MUC1 interaction. Each of the constructs was transformed into the Jurkat E6.1. Expression analysis and evaluation of their functions were examined. The results showed good expression and function.

  12. Comparative study of the contribution of various PWR spacer grid components to hydrodynamic and wall pressure characteristics

    Bhattacharjee, Saptarshi, E-mail: saptarshi.bhattacharjee@outlook.com [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) – Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LHC, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mécanique, Modélisation et Procédés Propres (M2P2), UMR7340 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Centrale Marseille, 13451 Marseille Cedex (France); Ricciardi, Guillaume [Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) – Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LHC, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Viazzo, Stéphane [Laboratoire de Mécanique, Modélisation et Procédés Propres (M2P2), UMR7340 CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Centrale Marseille, 13451 Marseille Cedex (France)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Complex geometry inside a PWR fuel assembly is simulated using simplified 3D models. • Structured meshes are generated as far as possible. • Fluctuating hydrodynamic and wall pressure field are analyzed using LES. • Comparative studies between square spacer grid, circular spacer grid and mixing vanes are presented. • Simulations are compared with experimental data. - Abstract: Flow-induced vibrations in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core can cause fretting wear in fuel rods. These vibrations can compromise safety of a nuclear reactor. So, it is necessary to know the random fluctuating forces acting on the rods which cause these vibrations. In this paper, simplified 3D models like square spacer grid, circular spacer grid and symmetric mixing vanes have been used inside an annular pipe. Hydrodynamic and wall pressure characteristics are evaluated using large eddy simulations (LES). Structured meshes are generated as far as possible. Simulations are compared with an experiment. Results show that the grid and vanes have a combined effect: grid accelerates the flow whereas the vanes contribute to the swirl structures. Spectral analysis of the simulations illustrate vortex shedding phenomenon in the wake of spacer grids. This initial study opens up interesting perspectives towards improving the modeling strategy and understanding the complex phenomenon inside a PWR core.

  13. Comparative study of the contribution of various PWR spacer grid components to hydrodynamic and wall pressure characteristics

    Bhattacharjee, Saptarshi; Ricciardi, Guillaume; Viazzo, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Complex geometry inside a PWR fuel assembly is simulated using simplified 3D models. • Structured meshes are generated as far as possible. • Fluctuating hydrodynamic and wall pressure field are analyzed using LES. • Comparative studies between square spacer grid, circular spacer grid and mixing vanes are presented. • Simulations are compared with experimental data. - Abstract: Flow-induced vibrations in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core can cause fretting wear in fuel rods. These vibrations can compromise safety of a nuclear reactor. So, it is necessary to know the random fluctuating forces acting on the rods which cause these vibrations. In this paper, simplified 3D models like square spacer grid, circular spacer grid and symmetric mixing vanes have been used inside an annular pipe. Hydrodynamic and wall pressure characteristics are evaluated using large eddy simulations (LES). Structured meshes are generated as far as possible. Simulations are compared with an experiment. Results show that the grid and vanes have a combined effect: grid accelerates the flow whereas the vanes contribute to the swirl structures. Spectral analysis of the simulations illustrate vortex shedding phenomenon in the wake of spacer grids. This initial study opens up interesting perspectives towards improving the modeling strategy and understanding the complex phenomenon inside a PWR core.

  14. Custom-made hinged spacers in revision knee surgery for patients with infection, bone loss and instability.

    Macmull, S; Bartlett, W; Miles, J; Blunn, G W; Pollock, R C; Carrington, R W J; Skinner, J A; Cannon, S R; Briggs, T W R

    2010-12-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate spacers are commonly used during staged revision knee arthroplasty for infection. In cases with extensive bone loss and ligament instability, such spacers may not preserve limb length, joint stability and motion. We report a retrospective case series of 19 consecutive patients using a custom-made cobalt chrome hinged spacer with antibiotic-loaded cement. The "SMILES spacer" was used at first-stage revision knee arthroplasty for chronic infection associated with a significant bone loss due to failed revision total knee replacement in 11 patients (58%), tumour endoprosthesis in four patients (21%), primary knee replacement in two patients (11%) and infected metalwork following fracture or osteotomy in a further two patients (11%). Mean follow-up was 38 months (range 24-70). In 12 (63%) patients, infection was eradicated, three patients (16%) had persistent infection and four (21%) developed further infection after initially successful second-stage surgery. Above knee amputation for persistent infection was performed in two patients. In this particularly difficult to treat population, the SMILES spacer two-stage technique has demonstrated encouraging results and presents an attractive alternative to arthrodesis or amputation. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CFD analysis on mixing effects of spacer grids with different dimples and sizes for advanced fuel assemblies

    Yang, B.W.; Zhang, H.; Han, B.; Zha, Y.D.; Shan, J.Q. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ. (China). School of Nuclear Science and Technology

    2016-07-15

    The thermal hydraulic characteristics of a mixing vane grid are largely dependent on the structure of key components, such as strip, spring, dimple, weld nugget, as well as the mixing vane configuration. In this paper, several types of spacer grids with different dimple shapes are modeled under subcooled boiling conditions. Prior to the application of CFD on the dimple shape analysis, the mixing effects of spacer grids were studied. After the dimple shape analysis, the side channel effect is discussed by comparing the simulation results of a 3 x 3 and a 5 x 5 spacer grid. The two phase flow CFD models in this study are validated through simple geometry showing that the calculated void fraction is in good agreement with the experimental data. The dimple comparison result shows that varying dimple structures can result in different temperatures, lateral velocities and void fraction distributions downstream of the spacer grids. Comparison of two sizes of spacer grids demonstrate that the side channel generates different flow distribution pattern in the center channel.

  16. Highly Efficient White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Ultrathin Emissive Layers and a Spacer-Free Structure

    Wu, Shengfan; Li, Sihua; Sun, Qi; Huang, Chenchao; Fung, Man-Keung

    2016-05-01

    Ultrathin emissive layers (UEMLs) of phosphorescent materials with a layer thickness of less than 0.3 nm were introduced for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). All the UEMLs for white OLEDs can be prepared without the use of interlayers or spacers. Compared with devices fabricated with interlayers inserted in-between the UEMLs, our spacer-free structure not only significantly improves device efficiency, but also simplifies the fabrication process, thus it has a great potential in lowering the cost of OLED panels. In addition, its spacer-free structure decreases the number of interfaces which often introduce unnecessary energy barriers in these devices. In the present work, UEMLs of red, green and blue-emitting phosphorescent materials and yellow and blue phosphorescent emitters are utilized for the demonstration of spacer-free white OLEDs. Upon optimization of the device structure, we demonstrated spacer-free and simple-structured white-emitting OLEDs with a good device performance. The current and power efficiencies of our white-emitting devices are as high as 56.0 cd/A and 55.5 lm/W, respectively. These efficiencies are the highest ever reported for OLEDs fabricated with the UEML approach.

  17. The Liminality of Temporary Agency Work: Exploring the Dimensions of Danish Temporary Agency Workers’ Liminal Experience

    Ingo Winkler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of liminality refers to the experience to be betwixt-and-between social structures and the associated positions, statuses, and roles. We advance the original use of the concept by introducing the various meanings that the experience of being in a liminal state can take. Drawing on political anthropology we identify the dimensions of ‘types of subjects,’ ‘time,’ ‘space,’ and ‘scale’ in order to analytically unlock the liminal experience. Exemplifying our concept we present the findings from an own study of temporary agency workers in Denmark. Exploring the workers’ interpretations allows us to illustrate to what extent their employment situation constitutes a multi-dimensional liminal experience between established social structures and employment categories. The article emphasizes the complexity of the liminal experience. Theoretically and empirically, we show the many meanings along which liminality can unfold in organizational and work-related contexts. We argue that future studies should explore the various dimensions in other contexts of passages from one relatively stable state to another. In doing so, similarities and differences between various liminal experiences and the role the various dimensions play could be identified.

  18. Impact analysis of the spacer grid assembly and shape optimization of the attached spring

    Park, K. J.; Lee, Z. N. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    Spacer grids support fuel rods and maintain geometry from external impact loads. A simulation is performed for the strength of a spacer grid under the impact load. The critical impact load that leads to plastic deformation is identified by a free-fall test. A finite element model is established for the nonlinear simulation of the impact process. The simulation model is tuned based on the free-fall test. The model considers the aspects of welding and the contacts between components. Nonlinear finite element analysis is carried out using a software system called ABAQUS/EXPLICIT. The results are discussed from a design viewpoint. Design requirements are defined and a design process is established. The design process includes mathematical optimization as well as practical design method. The shape of the grid spring is designed to maintain its function during the lifetime of the fuel assembly. A structural optimization method is employed for the shape design. A good design is found. Commercial codes are utilized for structural analysis and optimization. 18 refs., 61 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  19. Vibration characteristics of a PWR fuel rod supported by optimized H type spacer grids

    Choi, M. H.; Kang, H. S.; Yoon, K. H.; Kim, H. K.; Song, K. N.

    2002-01-01

    The spacer grids are one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, which supports and protects the fuel rods from the external loads by seismic and coolant flow. In this study, a modal test and a FE vibration analysis using ABAQUS are performed on a PWR dummy fuel rod of 3.847 m which is continuously supported by eight Optimized H type spacer grids. The experimental results agree with previous works that the natural frequencies decrease, while the amplitudes increase, with the increase of the excitation force. The force levels showing the maximum displacement of 0.2 mm are in the range from 0.2 N to 0.3 N, and at the same force range the fundamental frequencies are measured around 42.0 Hz, at which the relatively big displacements are observed at the 7th span. The results from the modal tests and the FE analyses are compared by both Modal Assurance Criteria (MAC) values and mode shapes. The MAC values at 2nd, 4th, and 7th mode are below 50%. It is believed that the reason of the low MACs at those modes is that the vibration amplitudes of the modes are more distorted by the excitation force than those of the other modes

  20. Effect of GFRP spacer on local deformation of large superconductor in coil pack

    Nishimura, Arata; Tamura, Hitoshi; Mito, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Junya

    1994-01-01

    Design and construction of the Large Helical Device (LHD) are in progress at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) in Japan. The LHD has superconducting poloidal and helical coils, and many efforts have been undertaken to develop these large superconductors. When designing a large superconducting magnet, the mechanical behavior of the wound structure becomes a very important factor since the apparent rigidity affects the design of a coil support structure and the superconducting coil needs to endure the large electro-magnetic force it creates. Also, non-linear mechanical behavior should yield the instability of the magnet. In this paper, local deformation in a large conductor caused by GFRP spacers and epoxy adhesives was investigated after compressive rigidity testing. The epoxy adhesive used for attaching the GFRP spacers to the superconductor changed shape from an almost square sheet into a lens-like sheet during deformation, and a dent appeared on the surface of the superconductor. Three-dimensional FEM analysis showed that a compressive stress in the vertical direction of the loading axis existed in the adhesive plane. This stress component makes the adhesive lens-like and it results in the dent created during the compressive testing. This local deformation should yield a part of the permanent deformation observed after the compressive load cycle at 4.2 K

  1. Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer from serofluid dish, a traditional Chinese fermented food

    Peng Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Serofluid dish (or Jiangshui, in Chinese, a traditional food in the Chinese culture for thousands of years, is made from vegetables by fermentation. In this work, microorganism community of the fermented serofluid dish was investigated by the culture-independent method. The metagenomic data in this article contains the sequences of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS regions of rRNA genes from 12 different serofluid dish samples. The metagenome comprised of 50,865 average raw reads with an average of 8,958,220 bp and G + C content is 45.62%. This is the first report on metagenomic data of fungal ITS from serofluid dish employing Illumina platform to profile the fungal communities of this little known fermented food from Gansu Province, China. The Metagenomic data of fungal internal transcribed spacer can be accessed at NCBI, SRA database accession no. SRP067411. Keywords: Serofluid dish, Jiangshui, Fungal ITS, Cultivation-independent, Microbial diversity

  2. Intra-Genomic Internal Transcribed Spacer Region Sequence Heterogeneity and Molecular Diagnosis in Clinical Microbiology.

    Zhao, Ying; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Xiao, Meng; Cheng, Jingwei; Xu, Yingchun; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2015-10-22

    Internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequencing is the most extensively used technology for accurate molecular identification of fungal pathogens in clinical microbiology laboratories. Intra-genomic ITS sequence heterogeneity, which makes fungal identification based on direct sequencing of PCR products difficult, has rarely been reported in pathogenic fungi. During the process of performing ITS sequencing on 71 yeast strains isolated from various clinical specimens, direct sequencing of the PCR products showed ambiguous sequences in six of them. After cloning the PCR products into plasmids for sequencing, interpretable sequencing electropherograms could be obtained. For each of the six isolates, 10-49 clones were selected for sequencing and two to seven intra-genomic ITS copies were detected. The identities of these six isolates were confirmed to be Candida glabrata (n=2), Pichia (Candida) norvegensis (n=2), Candida tropicalis (n=1) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (n=1). Multiple sequence alignment revealed that one to four intra-genomic ITS polymorphic sites were present in the six isolates, and all these polymorphic sites were located in the ITS1 and/or ITS2 regions. We report and describe the first evidence of intra-genomic ITS sequence heterogeneity in four different pathogenic yeasts, which occurred exclusively in the ITS1 and ITS2 spacer regions for the six isolates in this study.

  3. Spacer engineered Trigate SOI TFET: An investigation towards harsh temperature environment applications

    Mallikarjunarao; Ranjan, Rajeev; Pradhan, K. P.; Artola, L.; Sahu, P. K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a novel N-channel Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (TFET) i.e., Trigate Silicon-ON-Insulator (SOI) N-TFET with high-k spacer is proposed for better Sub-threshold swing (SS) and OFF-state current (IOFF) by keeping in mind the sensitivity towards temperature. The proposed model can achieve a Sub-threshold swing less than 35 mV/decade at various temperatures, which is desirable for designing low power CTFET for digital circuit applications. In N-TFET source doping has a significant effect on the ON-state current (ION) level; therefore more electrons will tunnel from source to channel region. High-k Spacer i.e., HfO2 is used to enhance the device performance and also it avoids overlapping of transistors in an integrated circuits (IC's). We have designed a reliable device by performing the temperature analysis on Transfer characteristics, Drain characteristics and also on various performance metrics like ON-state current (ION), OFF-state current (IOFF), ION/IOFF, Trans-conductance (gm), Trans-conductance Generation Factor (TGF), Sub-threshold Swing (SS) to observe the applications towards harsh temperature environment.

  4. Thermal Performance Testing of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation with Silk Net Spacers

    Johnson, W L; Frank, D J; Nast, T C; Fesmire, J E

    2015-01-01

    Early comprehensive testing of cryogenic multilayer insulation focused on the use of silk netting as a spacer material. Silk netting was used for multiple test campaigns that were designed to provide baseline thermal performance estimates for cryogenic insulation systems. As more focus was put on larger systems, the cost of silk netting became a deterrent and most aerospace insulation firms were using Dacron (or polyester) netting spacers by the early 1970s. In the midst of the switch away from silk netting there was no attempt to understand the difference between silk and polyester netting, though it was widely believed that the silk netting provided slightly better performance. Without any better reference for thermal performance data, the silk netting performance correlations continued to be used. In order to attempt to quantify the difference between the silk netting and polyester netting, a brief test program was developed. The silk netting material was obtained from Lockheed Martin and was tested on the Cryostat-100 instrument in three different configurations, 20 layers with both single and double netting and 10 layers with single netting only. The data show agreement within 15 - 30% with the historical silk netting based correlations and show a substantial performance improvement when compared to previous testing performed using polyester netting and aluminum foil/fiberglass paper multilayer insulation. Additionally, the data further reinforce a recently observed trend that the heat flux is not directly proportional to the number of layers installed on a system. (paper)

  5. Process development for the manufacturing of state-of-the-art spacer grids

    Schebitz, Florian; Dietrich, Matthias [Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH, Karlstein (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    At the beginning it was questioned if 'time to market' is really important for the nuclear industry. The clear answer is YES. Even if the development times might be longer compared to projects in other industries it is still beneficial to use concurrent engineering. In the world wide network of manufacturing sites, Advanced Nuclear Fuels GmbH in Karlstein is quite often involved when the development of new processes is necessary. As ANF Karlstein is delivering products around the world the experience with different customer requirements supports an optimized solution in order to fulfill these principle requirements and to deliver state-of-the-art products like spacer grids. Continues feedback from process development already improves the first prototypes. In the meantime ANF Karlstein manufactured the components for both new fuel assembly designs which are introduced as a first set of Lead Fuel Assemblies. For the manufacturing of the next sets of spacer grids (for tests and next series of Lead Fuel Assemblies) the described processes will be used and further improved, so that an industrialized solution is available. (orig.)

  6. Two-stage revision of septic knee prosthesis with articulating knee spacers yields better infection eradication rate than one-stage or two-stage revision with static spacers.

    Romanò, C L; Gala, L; Logoluso, N; Romanò, D; Drago, L

    2012-12-01

    The best method for treating chronic periprosthetic knee infection remains controversial. Randomized, comparative studies on treatment modalities are lacking. This systematic review of the literature compares the infection eradication rate after two-stage versus one-stage revision and static versus articulating spacers in two-stage procedures. We reviewed full-text papers and those with an abstract in English published from 1966 through 2011 that reported the success rate of infection eradication after one-stage or two-stage revision with two different types of spacers. In all, 6 original articles reporting the results after one-stage knee exchange arthoplasty (n = 204) and 38 papers reporting on two-stage revision (n = 1,421) were reviewed. The average success rate in the eradication of infection was 89.8% after a two-stage revision and 81.9% after a one-stage procedure at a mean follow-up of 44.7 and 40.7 months, respectively. The average infection eradication rate after a two-stage procedure was slightly, although significantly, higher when an articulating spacer rather than a static spacer was used (91.2 versus 87%). The methodological limitations of this study and the heterogeneous material in the studies reviewed notwithstanding, this systematic review shows that, on average, a two-stage procedure is associated with a higher rate of eradication of infection than one-stage revision for septic knee prosthesis and that articulating spacers are associated with a lower recurrence of infection than static spacers at a comparable mean duration of follow-up. IV.

  7. Flow resistance of orifices and spacers of BWR thermal-hydraulic and neutronic coupling loop

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Asaka, Hideaki; Nakamura, Hideo

    2002-03-01

    Authors are performing THYNC experiments to study thermal-hydraulic instability under neutronic and thermal-hydraulic coupling. In THYNC experiments, the orifices are installed at the exit of the test section and the spacers are installed in the test section, in order to properly simulate in-core thermal-hydraulics in the reactor core. It is necessary to know the flow resistance of the orifices and spacers for the analysis of THYNC experimental results. Consequently, authors measured the flow resistance of orifice and spacer under single-phase and two-phase flows. Using the experimental results, authors investigated the dependency of the flow resistances on the parameters, such as pressure, mass flux, an geometries. Furthermore, authors investigated the applicability of the basic two-phase flow models, for example the separate flow model, to the two-phase flow multiplier. As the result of the investigation on the single-phase flow experiment, it was found (1) that the effects of pressure and mass flux flow resistance are described by a function of Reynolds number, and (2) that flow resistances of the orifice and the spacer are calculated with the previous prediction methods. However, it was necessary to introduce an empirical coefficient, since it was difficult to predict accurately the flow resistance only with the previous prediction method due to the complicated geometry dependency, for example a flow area blockage ratio. On the other hand, according to the investigation on two-phase flow experiment, the followings were found. (1) Relation between the two-phase flow multiplier and the quality is regarded to be linear under pressure of 2MPa - 7MPa. The relation is dependent on pressure and geometry, and is little dependent on mass flux. (2) Relation between the two-phase flow multiplier and void fraction is little dependent on pressure, mass flux, and geometry under pressure of 0.2MPa - 7MPa and void fraction less than 0.6. The relation is less dependent on

  8. 76 FR 35909 - Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway

    2011-06-20

    ... accommodations, food and beverage, retail sales, boat rentals, and other services at Crabtree Falls, Price Lake... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-CONC-0511-7182; 2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for Blue Ridge Parkway AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  9. Fate and monitoring of hazardous substances in temporary rivers

    Ademollo, N.; Capri, S.; Froebrich, J.; Patrolecco, L.; Polesello, S.; Puddu, A.; Rusconi, M.; Valsecchi, S.

    2011-01-01

    Under climate-change conditions, temporary rivers will be the dominant surface-water bodies of the Mediterranean region. In order to manage this kind of water body appropriately, it is necessary to understand the chemical and ecological processes that involve hazardous substances in these

  10. Characterizing temporary hydrological regimes at a European scale

    Kirkby, M.J.; Gallart, F.; Kjeldsen, T.R.; Irvine, B.J.; Froebrich, J.; Porto, Lo A.

    2011-01-01

    Monthly duration curves have been constructed from climate data across Europe to help address the relative frequency of ecologically critical low flow stages in temporary rivers, when flow persists only in disconnected pools in the river bed. The hydrological model is 5 based on a partitioning of

  11. Temporary worker in the nuclear power industry: an equity analysis

    Melville, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    There are clear indications based both on the statistical data and on empirical evidence that the employment of large numbers of temporary workers has become a permanent and growing characteristic of the industry. It appears that the size of that work force has been seriously underestimated and that it receives a disproportionate share of the occupational radiation. In order to stay within the limits governing individual exposure in the workplace, the risk has been spread among a larger segment of the population. These facts raise important and ongoing issues of societal and employer responsibility. By the reckonings of this study, the total number of workers employed on a temporary basis by the nuclear power industry is eighteen times greater than those much more narrowly defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as transient workers: individuals hired and terminating employment with two or more employers in one quarter. It is estimated that the whole temporary work force numbered about 23,520 in 1976, over a third (35%) of the industry total, and absorbed 47.5% of the total occupational radiation dose. The problems, then, are not inconsiderable: they affect thousands of individuals, a significant segment of the nuclear power industry's work force, members of society who are subjected to a disproportionate burden of radiation risk. Among the conclusions is that it may be necessary to establish special standards, limitations, and records for temporary workers to ensure adequate health protection, follow-up, and care

  12. Understanding the development of temporary agency work in Europe

    B.A.S. Koene (Bas); J. Paauwe (Jaap); J.P.M. Groenewegen (John)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis article develops an explanatory framework for understanding the growth and development of temporary agency work (TAW) and the related industry. The analysis shows that explanations based on economic logic are helpful in understanding the choice of TAW in general. These explanations,

  13. 26 CFR 1.897-5T - Corporate distributions (temporary).

    2010-04-01

    ... also subject to the tax avoidance rules of § 1.897-6T(c). (b) Distributions by domestic corporations—(1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.897-5T Corporate distributions (temporary...) Any U.S. tax paid by or on behalf of the distributee with respect to the distribution. (2...

  14. Managing temporary workers: work identity, diversity and operational HR choices

    Koene, Bas; van Riemsdijk, Maarten

    2005-01-01

    Strategic HRM theory argues that organisations should distinguish different types of employees according to their value and availability. We argue that this has resulted in an underestimation of the importance of specific HRM practices in relation to temporary employees. Building on theoretical work

  15. 41 CFR 101-1.103 - FPMR temporary regulations.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true FPMR temporary regulations. 101-1.103 Section 101-1.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101...

  16. 41 CFR 115-1.103 - Temporary-type FPMR.

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary-type FPMR. 115-1.103 Section 115-1.103 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 115-1...

  17. 20 CFR 655.34 - Validity of temporary labor certifications.

    2010-04-01

    ... Attestations for Temporary Employment in Occupations Other Than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United... minor changes in the period of employment, only when a written request is submitted to the CO and... to make the labor certification determination required under § 655.32. (4) The CO may change the date...

  18. Temporary and long-term consequences of bereavement on happiness

    Moor, J.A.; de Graaf, P.M.

    In this article, we examine the temporary and long-term consequences of the death of a parent or child on happiness. According to set-point theory external conditions are expected to only have a short-term or limited influence on happiness. This directly contradicts the basic assumption of affective

  19. 30 CFR 816.131 - Cessation of operations: Temporary.

    2010-07-01

    ..., revegetation, environmental monitoring, and water treatment activities that will continue during the temporary... Section 816.131 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING...

  20. Language, Employment, and Settlement: Temporary Meat Workers in Australia

    Piller, Ingrid; Lising, Loy

    2014-01-01

    Australia is one of the world's largest beef exporters. However, meat processing jobs are widely considered undesirable and are increasingly filled with employer-sponsored migrant workers on temporary long-stay visas. Against this background, our paper explores the role of language in the employment and migration trajectories of a group of meat…

  1. Temporary over voltages in the high voltage networks

    Vukelja, Petar; Naumov, Radomir; Mrvic, Jovan; Minovski, Risto

    2001-01-01

    The paper treats the temporary over voltages that may arise in the high voltage networks as a result of: ground faults, loss of load, loss of one or two phases and switching operation. Based on the analysis, the measures for their limitation are proposed. (Original)

  2. 5 CFR 351.608 - Permissive temporary exceptions.

    2010-01-01

    .... This does not preclude the employee from receiving or accepting a job offer in the same competitive... date beyond the effective date of the reduction in force when the temporary retention of a lower... retention will end; and (2) List opposite the employee's name on the retention register the reasons for the...

  3. Temporary Agency Work as a Means of Achieving Flexicurity?

    Kristina Håkansson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available After decades of debate about flexibility, flexicurity has become a new buzzword in working life. Flexicurity refers to both the employer’s demand for flexibility and the employee’s demand for security. Thus, the idea is to solve the flexibility–security trade-off. There is also a discussion that mentions temporary agency work as one way of creating a flexicurity system. The flexibility potential is not called into question—numerical flexibility is a quite common motive for using temporary agency workers. However, the security dimension has to be scrutinized. The aim of this article is to analyze the temporary work agency industry’s potential for providing the security dimensions of the flexicurity model in a Swedish context. The study is based on a survey of whitecollar temporary agency workers in Sweden (n = 533. Overall, the vast majority do not perceive security. Our most important result is that both the work agency and the user firm have a dual impact on the agency workers’ perception of security.

  4. Umbilical site for temporary colostomy in anorectal malformations: is ...

    Umbilical site for temporary colostomy in anorectal malformations: is it cosmetically preferable? Taha Alkhatrawi, Radi Elsherbini and Djamal Ouslimane. Purpose In an attempt to minimize the scars and improve the cosmetic outcome in children, the umbilical site has been chosen for colostomy formation in patients with.

  5. Early closure of temporary ileostomy--the EASY trial

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Correa-Marinez, Adiela; Angenete, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Reversal of a temporary ileostomy is generally associated with a low morbidity and mortality. However, ostomy reversal may cause complications requiring reoperation with subsequent major complications, in ranges from 0% to 7-9% and minor complications varying from 4-5% to 30%. Based on studies exploring...

  6. 36 CFR 223.37 - Revegetation of temporary roads.

    2010-07-01

    ... roads. 223.37 Section 223.37 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions § 223.37 Revegetation of temporary roads. Timber sale contracts, permits and other documents... roads constructed or used thereunder so as to permit the reestablishment by artificial or natural means...

  7. 75 FR 63184 - Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances

    2010-10-14

    ... GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION [Docket 2010-0009, Sequence 4] Temporary Duty (TDY) Travel Allowances AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of... agency travel programs, save money on travel costs, better protect the environment, and conserve natural...

  8. Mutations in Cas9 Enhance the Rate of Acquisition of Viral Spacer Sequences during the CRISPR-Cas Immune Response.

    Heler, Robert; Wright, Addison V; Vucelja, Marija; Bikard, David; Doudna, Jennifer A; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2017-01-05

    CRISPR loci and their associated (Cas) proteins encode a prokaryotic immune system that protects against viruses and plasmids. Upon infection, a low fraction of cells acquire short DNA sequences from the invader. These sequences (spacers) are integrated in between the repeats of the CRISPR locus and immunize the host against the matching invader. Spacers specify the targets of the CRISPR immune response through transcription into short RNA guides that direct Cas nucleases to the invading DNA molecules. Here we performed random mutagenesis of the RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease to look for variants that provide enhanced immunity against viral infection. We identified a mutation, I473F, that increases the rate of spacer acquisition by more than two orders of magnitude. Our results highlight the role of Cas9 during CRISPR immunization and provide a useful tool to study this rare process and develop it as a biotechnological application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Invariance of the magnetic behavior and AMI in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers

    Silva, E.F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Gamino, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife, PE (Brazil); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Andrade, A.M.H. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande de Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vázquez, M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil); Bohn, F., E-mail: felipebohn@fisica.ufrn.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-900 Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the quasi-static magnetic, magnetotransport, and dynamic magnetic properties in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacer layers. We observe that the nature of the non-magnetic metallic spacer material does not have significant influence on the overall biphase magnetic behavior, and, consequently, on the magnetotransport and dynamic magnetic responses. We focus on the magnetoimpedance effect and verify that the films present asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect. Moreover, we explore the possibility of tuning the linear region of the magnetoimpedance curves around zero magnetic field by varying the probe current frequency in order to achieve higher sensitivity values. The invariance of the magnetic behavior and the asymmetric magnetoimpedance effect in ferromagnetic biphase films with distinct non-magnetic metallic spacers place them as promising candidates for probe element and open possibilities to the development of lower-cost high sensitivity linear magnetic field sensor devices.

  10. Steady-state, local temperature fields with turbulent liquid sodium flow in nominal and disturbed bundle geometries with spacer grids

    Moeller, R.; Tschoeke, H.

    1980-01-01

    The operating reliability of nuclear reactors calls for a reliable strength analysis of the highly loaded core elements, one of its prerequisites being the reliable determination of the three-dimensional velocity and temperature fields. To verify thermohydraulics computer programs, extensive local temperature measurements in the rod claddings of the critical bundle zone were performed on a heated 19-rod bundle model with sodium flow and provided with spacer grids (P/D = 1.30; W/D = 1.19). The essential results are: - Outside the spacer grids, the azimuthal temperature variations of the side and corner rods are approximately 10-fold those of rods in the central bundle zone. - The spacer grids investigated give rise to great local temperature peaks and correspondingly great temperature gradients in the axial and azimuthal directions immediately around the support points. - Continuous reduction of a subchannel by rod bowing results in substantial rises of temperature which, however, are limited to adjacent cladding tubes. (orig.)

  11. Vibrational modes and strain in GaN/AlN quantum dot stacks: dependence on spacer thickness

    Fresneda, J.; Cros, A.; Llorens, J.M.; Garcia-Cristobal, A.; Cantarero, A. [Institut de Ciencia del Materials, Universitat de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Amstatt, B.; Bellet-Amalric, E.; Daudin, B. [CEA-CNRS Group, Nanophysique et Semiconducteurs, DRFMC/SP2M/PSC, CEA-Grenoble, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2007-06-15

    We have investigated the influence of spacer thickness on the vibrational and strain characteristics of GaN/AlN quantum dot multilayers (QD). The Raman shift corresponding to the E{sub 2h} vibrational mode related to the QDs has been analyzed for AlN thicknesses ranging from 4.4 nm to 13 nm, while the amount of GaN deposited in each layer remained constant from sample to sample. It is shown that there is a rapid blue shift of the GaN vibrational mode with spacer thickness when its value is smaller than 7 nm while it remains almost constant for thicker spacers. A rapid increase of the Raman line-width in the thicker samples is also observed. The experimental behavior is discussed in comparison with the results of a theoretical model for the strain in the QDs. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Development of a laser multi-layer cladding technology for damage mitigation of fuel spacers in Hanaro reactor

    Kim, J. S.; Lee, D. H.; Hwang, S. S.; Suh, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    A laser multi-layer cladding technology was developed to mitigate the fretting wear damages occurred at fuel spacers in Hanaro reactor. The detailed experimental results are as follows. 1) Analyses of fretting wear damages and fabrication process of fuel spacers 2) Development and analysis of spherical Al 6061 T-6 alloy powders for the laser cladding 3) Analysis of parameter effects on laser cladding process for clad bids, and optimization of laser cladding process 4) Analysis on the changes of cladding layers due to overlapping factor change 5) Microstructural observation and phase analysis 6) Characterization of materials properties (hardness and wear tests) 7) Manufacture of prototype fuel spacers 8) Development of a vision system and revision of its related softwares

  13. Multi-Scaled Modeling the Mechanical Properties of Tubular Composites Reinforced with Innovated 3D Weft Knitted Spacer Fabrics

    Omrani, Elahe; Hasani, Hossein; Dibajian, Sayed Houssain

    2018-02-01

    Textile composites of 3D integrated spacer configurations have been recently focused by several researchers all over the world. In the present study, newly-designed tubular composites reinforced with 3D spacer weft knitted fabrics were considered and the effects of their structural parameters on some applicable mechanical properties were investigated. For this purpose, two different samples of 3D spacer weft knitted textile types in tubular form were produced on an electronic flat knitting machine, using glass/nylon hybrid yarns. Thermoset tubular-shaped composite parts were manufactured via vacuum infusion molding process using epoxy resin. The mechanical properties of the produced knitted composites in term of external static and internal hydrostatic pressures were evaluated. Resistance of the produced composites against the external static and internal hydrostatic pressures was numerically simulated using multi-scale modeling method. The finding revealed that there is acceptable correlation between experimental and theoretical results.

  14. A comparison of pre-dropout and temporary rupture sessions in psychotherapy.

    Gülüm, I Volkan; Soygüt, Gonca; Safran, Jeremy D

    2016-11-15

    Although numerous studies have investigated the relationship between the therapeutic alliance and dropout, most have focused on the relationship between alliance quality and psychotherapy outcomes. To compare sessions with therapeutic alliance ruptures and two sessions prior to treatment dropout (pre-dropout) in terms of rupture subtypes, psychotherapists' behavior, attitudes, and session content. We implemented quantitative methods to select the sessions and qualitative methods to analyze them. We analyzed 16 temporary rupture sessions from 12 therapist-patient dyads and 16 pre-dropout sessions from 8 different therapist-patient dyads. The sessions originate from clinical psychology Master's or Doctoral students under supervision in either cognitive behavioral or schema therapy. Pre-dropout sessions were considered unrepaired rupture sessions while rupture sessions were subsequently repaired. Results revealed apparent differences and similarities between the session types in positive and negative psychotherapist behaviors, content intensity, and the type and frequency of ruptures. We explored three new rupture subtypes: attributing positive developments to other sources, indirect speech, and sarcastic hostility. A striking implication is that the frequency of positive and negative psychotherapist behaviors, ruptures, and session content is more likely to decrease in the pre-dropout sessions than in the temporary rupture sessions.

  15. Temporary work and depressive symptoms: a propensity score analysis.

    Quesnel-Vallée, Amélie; DeHaney, Suzanne; Ciampi, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Recent decades have seen a tremendous increase in the complexity of work arrangements, through job sharing, flexible hours, career breaks, compressed work weeks, shift work, reduced job security, and part-time, contract and temporary work. In this study, we focus on one specific group of workers that arguably most embodies non-standard employment, namely temporary workers, and estimate the effect of this type of employment on depressive symptom severity. Accounting for the possibility of mental health selection into temporary work through propensity score analysis, we isolate the direct effects of temporary work on depressive symptoms with varying lags of time since exposure. We use prospective data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79), which has followed, longitudinally, from 1979 to the present, a nationally representative cohort of American men and women between 14 and 22 years of age in 1979. Three propensity score models were estimated, to capture the effect of different time lags (immediately following exposure, and 2 and 4 years post exposure) between the period of exposure to the outcome. The only significant effects were found among those who had been exposed to temporary work in the two years preceding the outcome measurement. These workers report 1.803 additional depressive symptoms from having experienced this work status (than if they had not been exposed). Moreover, this difference is both statistically and substantively significant, as it represents a 50% increase from the average level of depressive symptoms in this population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Communities of belonging in the temporariness of the Danish Asylum System: Shalini’s anchoring points

    Verdasco, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Refugees often find themselves in a protracted situation of temporariness, as applications for asylum are processed, deportations negotiated and possible extensions of temporary protection status considered within the context of increasingly restrictive governmental policies across Europe. Through...

  17. A diatom functional-based approach to assess changing environmental conditions in temporary depressional wetlands

    Riato, L

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available is limited although important for the development of temporary wetland biological assessments. We assessed how diatom life-form and ecological guilds responded to a seasonal hydrological and hydrochemical gradient in three least human-disturbed, temporary...

  18. Physical performance deterioration of temporary housing residents after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Takeaki Ishii

    2015-01-01

    We revealed that standing stability was impaired among elderly temporary housing residents 1.5 years after the disaster. Disaster responders should take into account the health risks associated with living in temporary housing.

  19. Working conditions, work life and quality of life of the temporary ...

    Working conditions, work life and quality of life of the temporary support staff ... and expectations of the temporary support staff with regard to their working ... conditions mainly as unpleasant, but that they adapted because of the team spirit.

  20. 5 CFR 890.1105 - Initial election of temporary continuation of coverage; application time limitations and...

    2010-01-01

    ... (ii) The date of the divorce or annulment. (e) If an individual who is eligible for temporary... determines that an eligible individual was unable, for cause beyond his or her control, to elect temporary...

  1. 78 FR 46339 - Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of Temporary Moratoria...

    2013-07-31

    ...] Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of Temporary Moratoria on... combat fraud, waste, and abuse in Medicare, Medicaid, and the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP... Health Insurance Programs; Additional Screening Requirements, Application Fees, Temporary Enrollment...

  2. Diatom-based models for inferring water chemistry and hydrology in temporary depressional wetlands

    Riato, L

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Information on the response of temporary depressional wetland diatoms to human-induced disturbances is a limited and important component for the development of temporary wetland biological assessments in human-modified landscapes. Establishing a...

  3. Spacer stability and prostate position variability during radiotherapy for prostate cancer applying a hydrogel to protect the rectal wall

    Pinkawa, Michael; Piroth, Marc D.; Holy, Richard; Escobar-Corral, Nuria; Caffaro, Mariana; Djukic, Victoria; Klotz, Jens; Eble, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: The aim was to evaluate the spacer dimensions and prostate position variability during the course of radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: CT scans were performed in a group of 15 patients (G1) after the 10 ml injection of a hydrogel spacer (SpaceOAR™) and 30 patients without a spacer (G2) before the beginning of treatment (CT1) and in the last treatment week, 10–12 weeks following spacer implantation (CT2). Spacer dimensions and displacements were determined and prostate displacements compared. Results: Mean volume of the hydrogel increased slightly (17%; p 2 cm 3 . The average displacement of the hydrogel center of mass was 0.6 mm (87% ⩽ 2.2 mm), −0.6 mm (100% ⩽ 2.2 mm) and 1.4 mm (87% ⩽ 4.3 mm) in the x-, y- and z-axes (not significant). The average distance between prostate and anterior rectal wall before/at the end of radiotherapy was 1.6 cm/1.5 cm, 1.2 cm/1.3 cm and 1.0 cm/1.1 cm at the level of the base, middle and apex (G1). Prostate position variations were similar comparing G1 and G2, but significant systematic posterior displacements were only found in G2. Conclusions: A stable distance between the prostate and anterior rectal wall results during the radiotherapy course after injection of the spacer before treatment planning. Larger posterior prostate displacements could be reduced

  4. Bronchodilator Effect of Tiotropium via Respimat®Administered with a Spacer in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

    Ogasawara, Takashi; Sakata, Jun; Aoshima, Yoichiro; Tanaka, Kazuki; Yano, Toshiaki; Kasamatsu, Norio

    2017-09-15

    Objective Among elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there are some patients who cannot inhale tiotropium via Respimat ® due to poor hand-lung coordination. This study aimed to examine whether or not tiotropium inhalation therapy using Respimat ® with a spacer increased the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) in patients with COPD. Methods A randomized, crossover, single-center study was conducted in 18 patients with stable COPD. Tiotropium (5 μg) via Respimat ® with or without a spacer (AeroChamber ® ) was administered for 2 weeks. Following a 2-week washout period using a transdermal tulobuterol patch (2 mg per day), participants were then crossed over to the other inhalation therapy with respect to spacer use. The trough FEV 1 was measured at every visit using a spirometer. A questionnaire regarding inhalation therapy was administered to patients at the final visit. Results The administration of tiotropium via Respimat ® both with and without a spacer significantly increased the trough FEV 1 from baseline during each treatment period, with mean differences of 115.0±169.6 mL and 92.8±128.1 mL, respectively. There was no significant difference in the change in the trough FEV 1 between the 2 procedures (p=0.66). A total of 86% of patients reported that inhalation using a spacer was not difficult, and more than half also rated both the usage and maintenance of the AeroChamber ® as easy. Conclusion Tiotropium inhalation therapy administered via Respimat ® using a spacer exerted a bronchodilatory effect similar to that observed with tiotropium Respimat ® alone.

  5. Patella tendon injuries secondary to cement spacers used at first-stage revision of infected total knee replacement

    Wasim S Khan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a series of three patients who sustained patella tendon injuries in infected TKAs following the use of a static cement spacer at first-stage knee revision. The patella tendon injuries resulted in significant compromise to wound healing and knee stability requiring multiple surgeries. The mid-term function was poor with an Oxford score at 24 months ranging from 12-20. Based on our experience, we advise caution in the use of static cement spacer blocks. If they are to be used, we recommend that they should be keyed in the bone to prevent patella tendon injuries.

  6. Porosity of spacer-filled channels in spiral-wound membrane systems: Quantification methods and impact on hydraulic characterization

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2017-04-13

    The porosity of spacer-filled feed channels influences the hydrodynamics of spiral-wound membrane systems and impacts the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an exact measurement and a detailed understanding of the impact of the feed channel porosity is required to understand and improve the hydrodynamics of spiral-wound membrane systems applied for desalination and wastewater reuse. The objectives of this study were to assess the accuracy of porosity measurement techniques for feed spacers differing in geometry and thickness and the consequences of using an inaccurate method on hydrodynamic predictions, which may affect permeate production. Six techniques were applied to measure the porosity namely, three volumetric calculations based on spacer strand count together with cuboidal (SC), cylindrical (VCC) and ellipsoidal volume calculation (VCE) and three independent techniques based on volume displacement (VD), weight and density (WD) and computed tomography scanning (CT). The CT method was introduced as an alternative for the other five already existing and applied methods in practice.Six feed spacers used for the porosity measurement differed in filament thickness, angle between the filaments and mesh-size. The results of the studies showed differences between the porosities, measured by the six methods. The results of the microscopic techniques SC, VCC and VCE deviated significantly from measurements by VD, WD and CT, which showed similar porosity values for all spacer types.Depending on the maximum deviation of the porosity measurement techniques from –6% to +6%, (i) the linear velocity deviations were −5.6% and +6.4% respectively and (ii) the pressure drop deviations were –31% and +43% respectively, illustrating the importance of an accurate porosity measurement. Because of the accuracy and standard deviation, the VD and WD method should be applied for the porosity determination of spacer-filled channels, while the CT method is recommended for

  7. Experimental studies of the effect of functional spacers to annular flow in subchannels of a BWR fuel element

    Damsohn, M., E-mail: damsohn@lke.mavt.ethz.c [ETH Zurich, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Prasser, H.-M. [ETH Zurich, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    For the prediction of dryout in fuel elements of boiling water reactors, the dynamic behavior of the water film covering the fuel rod has to be understood. This paper provides high resolved experimental data of the liquid film and gives insight into the dynamic film behavior. The experiments of this work were conducted in a vertical channel representing a pair of neighboring subchannels of a BWR fuel rod bundle. Air and water at ambient pressure and temperature are used as model fluids, creating an annular flow in the test section. The influence of different functional spacer shapes on the liquid film has been studied. The heart of the instrumentation is a liquid film sensor (LFS), which measures the film thickness distribution around a half cylinder with a matrix of 64 x 16 measuring points with a time resolution of 10,000 frames per second and a spatial resolution of 2 mm x 2 mm. The high resolution allows for a visualization of the dynamic liquid film as a movie animation. Principals of the dynamic behavior of the liquid film are observed. The time-averaged film thickness distributions show that the spacers structure the liquid film significantly. The gaseous phase is accelerated due to the cross-section blockage caused by the spacer. This leads to a local thinning of the liquid film downstream of the spacer. Two statistical evaluation methods are presented to determine different dynamic wave properties: The wave velocity as function of the wave height, the traveling path of the waves and the location of wave separation and merge events. The first evaluation method shows that big waves move generally faster than small waves. The analysis further shows wave acceleration in close proximity of the spacer with subsequent deceleration further downstream. Analyzing the wave as a two-dimensional entity it can be seen that the wave paths are clearly structured by the spacer and hence do not travel circumferentially around the fuel rod. Wave separation and merge has a

  8. Experimental studies of the effect of functional spacers to annular flow in subchannels of a BWR fuel element

    Damsohn, M.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2010-01-01

    For the prediction of dryout in fuel elements of boiling water reactors, the dynamic behavior of the water film covering the fuel rod has to be understood. This paper provides high resolved experimental data of the liquid film and gives insight into the dynamic film behavior. The experiments of this work were conducted in a vertical channel representing a pair of neighboring subchannels of a BWR fuel rod bundle. Air and water at ambient pressure and temperature are used as model fluids, creating an annular flow in the test section. The influence of different functional spacer shapes on the liquid film has been studied. The heart of the instrumentation is a liquid film sensor (LFS), which measures the film thickness distribution around a half cylinder with a matrix of 64 x 16 measuring points with a time resolution of 10,000 frames per second and a spatial resolution of 2 mm x 2 mm. The high resolution allows for a visualization of the dynamic liquid film as a movie animation. Principals of the dynamic behavior of the liquid film are observed. The time-averaged film thickness distributions show that the spacers structure the liquid film significantly. The gaseous phase is accelerated due to the cross-section blockage caused by the spacer. This leads to a local thinning of the liquid film downstream of the spacer. Two statistical evaluation methods are presented to determine different dynamic wave properties: The wave velocity as function of the wave height, the traveling path of the waves and the location of wave separation and merge events. The first evaluation method shows that big waves move generally faster than small waves. The analysis further shows wave acceleration in close proximity of the spacer with subsequent deceleration further downstream. Analyzing the wave as a two-dimensional entity it can be seen that the wave paths are clearly structured by the spacer and hence do not travel circumferentially around the fuel rod. Wave separation and merge has a

  9. Minimally invasive treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis with a novel interspinous spacer

    Shabat S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Shay Shabat1, Larry E Miller2,3, Jon E Block3, Reuven Gepstein11Spinal Care Unit, Sapir Medical Center, Kfar Saba, Israel; 2Miller Scientific Consulting, Inc, Biltmore Lake, NC, USA; 3Jon E Block, PhD, Inc, San Francisco, CA, USAPurpose: To assess the safety and effectiveness of a novel, minimally invasive interspinous spacer in patients with moderate lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS.Methods: A total of 53 patients (mean age, 70 ± 11 years; 45% female with intermittent neurogenic claudication secondary to moderate LSS, confirmed on imaging studies, were treated with the Superion® Interspinous Spacer (VertiFlex, Inc, San Clemente, CA and returned for follow-up visits at 6 weeks, 1 year, and 2 years. Study endpoints included axial and extremity pain severity with an 11-point numeric scale, Zurich Claudication Questionnaire (ZCQ, back function with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, health-related quality of life with the Physical Component Summary (PCS and Mental Component Summary (MCS scores from the SF-12, and adverse events.Results: Axial and extremity pain each decreased 54% (both P < 0.001 over the 2-year follow-up period. ZCQ symptom severity scores improved 43% (P < 0.001 and ZCQ physical function improved 44% (P < 0.001 from pre-treatment to 2 years post-treatment. A statistically significant 50% improvement (P < 0.001 also was noted in back function. PCS and MCS each improved 40% (both P < 0.001 from pre-treatment to 2 years. Clinical success rates at 2 years were 83%–89% for ZCQ subscores, 75% for ODI, 78% for PCS, and 80% for MCS. No device infection, implant breakage, migration, or pull-out was observed, although two (3.8% patients underwent explant with subsequent laminectomy.Conclusion: Moderate LSS can be effectively treated with a minimally invasive interspinous spacer. This device is appropriate for select patients who have failed nonoperative treatment measures for LSS and meet strict anatomical criteria.Keywords: Superion, axial

  10. Role of methylene spacer in the excitation energy transfer in europium 1- and 2- naphthylcarboxylates

    Zhuravlev, K. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Tsaryuk, V., E-mail: vit225@ire216.msk.s [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Kudryashova, V.; Pekareva, I. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation); Sokolnicki, J. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of WrocLaw, 14 F. Joliot-Curie str., WrocLaw 50-383 (Poland); Yakovlev, Yu. [V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of RAS, 1 Vvedenskii sq., Fryazino Moscow reg. 141190 (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-15

    A series of compounds Ln(RCOO){sub 3}.Phen (Ln=Eu, Gd, Tb; RCOO{sup -}-1- and 2-naphthoate, 1- and 2-naphthylacetate, 1- and 2-naphthoxyacetate anions, Phen-1,10-phenanthroline) was investigated by methods of optical spectroscopy. Compounds of composition Ln(RCOO){sub 3}.nH{sub 2}O with the same carboxylate ligands are also considered. Results of studies of the effects of methylene spacer decoupling the {pi}-{pi}- or p-{pi}-conjugation in the naphthylcarboxylate ligand on the structure of Eu{sup 3+} coordination centre, on the lifetime of {sup 5}D{sub 0} (Eu{sup 3+}) state, and on processes of the excitation energy transfer to Eu{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} ions are presented. Introduction of the methylene bridge in the ligand weakens the influence of the steric hindrances in forming of a crystal lattice and results in lowering the distortion of the Eu{sup 3+} luminescence centre, and in elongation of the observed {sup 5}D{sub 0} lifetime {tau}{sub obs}. The latter is caused by decrease in contribution of the radiative processes rate 1/{tau}{sub r}. This is confirmed by the correlation between the lifetimes {tau}{sub obs} and the quantities '{tau}{sub r}.const' inversely proportional to the total integral intensities of Eu(RCOO){sub 3}.Phen luminescence spectra. The methylene spacer performs a role of regulator of sensitization of the Ln{sup 3+} luminescence efficiency by means of an influence on mutual location of lowest triplet states of the ligands, the ligand-metal charge transfer (LMCT) states, and the emitting states of Ln{sup 3+} ions. The lowest triplet state in lanthanide naphthylcarboxylate adducts with Phen is related to carboxylate anion. A presence of the methylene spacer in naphthylcarboxylate ligand increases the triplet state energy. At the same time, the energy of 'carboxylic group-Eu{sup 3+} ion' charge transfer states falls, which can promote the degradation of excitation energy. In naphthylcarboxylates investigated a range of the

  11. Effects of spacers on blockage of coolant channels in clad melting accidents

    Eggen, D. T.; Scale, T.; Hsieh, S. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). The Technological Inst.

    1977-07-01

    The elements and configuration of these assemblies are representative of the current design for a GCFR. The fuel elements are stainless-steel clad, mixed-oxide spaced by a grid structure on 250 mm centers with a pitch of 9.5 mm, diameter, 7.2 mm, and cladding thickness, 0.5 m. Three series of experiments have been conducted to study the flow and disposition of molten cladding metal into a lower powered blanket region of the reactor following a loss of flow situation. The first two series used a simulant fuel-element bundle to simplify the experimental procedure and make visual observation possible. The 'fuel' was simulated by mullite rods 6.4 mm in diameter and 610 mm long. These were clad with a 50 Pb/50 Sn alloy tubing which was drawn onto the 'fuel'. The first series used cast spacers with webs of about 0.5-0.55 mm thickness placed 175 and 425 mm from the top end of the assembly. The second series used grid spacers fabricated of 0.25 mm alloy strips. This provided a more accurate representation of the hydraulic diameter. The bundle was encased in a hexagonal glass tube. The bundle was at 22/sup 0/C and the molten alloy was poured at a temperature of 260/sup 0/C (35/sup 0/C superheat). Motion pictures recorded the experiments and the bundle was sectioned for observation. The third set of experiments was done with a stainless steel bundle of 37 elements fabricated of mullite rods, 7.14 mm diameter. The stainless steel cladding had an O.D. of 8.41 mm. The element pitch was 11.1 mm. The grid spacers were prototypic. The experiment was conducted in an inert-gas tube furnace. The 'core fuel' cladding was melted in an induction furnace and the molten liquid flowed through the center seven element channels. X-ray pictures were taken after the tests and the bundle was sectioned for further study.

  12. 33 CFR 74.01-15 - Charges for placement of temporary aids.

    2010-07-01

    ... temporary aids. 74.01-15 Section 74.01-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION CHARGES FOR COAST GUARD AIDS TO NAVIGATION WORK Charges to the Public § 74.01-15 Charges for placement of temporary aids. Charges for placement of temporary aids will be...

  13. 76 FR 34080 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Temporary...

    2011-06-10

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Temporary Marketing... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Temporary Marketing Permit Applications--21 CFR 130.17... submitted recent requests for temporary marketing permits. Based on this information, we estimate that there...

  14. Temporary Contracts: Effect on Job Satisfaction and Personal Lives of Recent Phd Graduates

    Waaijer, Cathelijn J. F.; Belder, Rosalie; Sonneveld, Hans; van Bochove, Cornelis A.; van der Weijden, Inge C. M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we assess the effects of temporary employment on job satisfaction and the personal lives of recent PhD graduates. Temporary employment is becoming increasingly prevalent in many sectors, but has been relatively common in academia, especially for early career scientists. Labor market theory shows temporary employment to have a…

  15. 29 CFR 4.176 - Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time employees.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Payment of fringe benefits to temporary and part-time... to temporary and part-time employees. (a) As set forth in § 4.165(a)(2), the Act makes no distinction, with respect to its compensation provisions, between temporary, part-time, and full-time employees...

  16. The Temporary Help Industry: A Response to the Dual Internal Labor Market.

    Mangum, Garth; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study of the rapidly growing temporary help industry draws on Commerce Department data and the results of the authors' national mail survey of employers. The authors also conducted interviews in the San Francisco area with employers of temporary help and with representatives of temporary help agencies and labor unions. (Author/CT)

  17. 75 FR 11627 - Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

    2010-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities... Department of the Treasury (Treasury) is granting temporary exemptions from certain Government Securities Act...).pdf. \\8\\ 75 FR 4626, January 28, 2010 Order Granting a Temporary Exemption from Certain Government...

  18. Nasal inhalation of budesonide from a spacer in children with perennial rhinitis and asthma

    Pedersen, W; Hjuler, Inga Merete; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    and asthma inhaled budesonide through the nose from a pressurized aerosol, attached to a spacer device, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Compared with placebo, budesonide treatment resulted in a significant reduction of nasal symptoms (Pasthma symptoms (P...The standard treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma consists of topical corticosteroids administered intranasally and inhaled through the mouth. Although this therapy is highly effective, and side-effects are few and mild, it may be possible further to improve the therapeutic index and patient...... compliance with the treatment. In the present study, we evaluated a nasal inhalation system used for the simultaneous treatment of rhinitis and asthma. In principle, it results in an airway deposition of the corticosteroid similar to that of inhaled allergens. Twenty-four children with perennial rhinitis...

  19. Clinical observation on the reconstruction of large areas lower eyelid defect with Medpor spacer graft

    Hai-Yan Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the effects of porous polyethylene(Medporas a spacer graft in the reconstruction of large areas eyelid defect after the operation of malignant tumors of lower eyelids.METHODS: Nineteen cases(19 eyesof malignant tumors of lower eyelid underwent the eyelid reconstruction were selected. Medpor lower eyelid inserts implantation were used to replace tarsal joint sliding conjunctival flap and pedicle flap, and repaired full-thickness lower eyelid defects then underwent eyelid reconstruction. RESULTS: Appearance of eyelids and functional improvements were satisfactory with no stimulation on the eyeball and no effect on the visual function. Implants is with no absorption, shift, exclusion or infection and no tumor recurrence in all cases during the follow up for 6-36mo.CONCLUSION: Medpor lower eyelid inserts implantation can instead tarsal plate for the reconstruction of medium to large areas lower eyelid defect, which is easy performing with rare complications. It is an ideal alternatives of tarsal plate.

  20. Differences in the second internal transcribed spacer of four species of Nematodirus (Nematoda: Molineidae).

    Newton, L A; Chilton, N B; Beveridge, I; Gasser, R B

    1998-02-01

    Genetic differences among Nematodirus spathiger, Nematodirus filicollis, Nematodirus helvetianus and Nematodirus battus in the nucleotide sequence of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) of ribosomal DNA ranged from 3.9 to 24.7%. Pairwise comparisons of their ITS-2 sequences indicated that the most genetically similar species were N. spathiger and N. helvetianus. N. battus was the most genetically distinct species, with differences ranging from 22.8 to 24.7% with respect to the other three species. Some of the nucleotide differences among species provided different endonuclease restriction sites that could be used in restriction fragment length polymorphism studies. The ITS-2 sequence data may prove useful in studies of the systematics of molineid nematodes.

  1. Vibration analysis of a dummy fuel rod continuously supported by spacer grids

    Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Kang, Heung-Seok; Yoon, Kyung-Ho; Song, Kee-Nam; Jung, Youn-Ho

    2003-01-01

    A modal testing and a finite element (FE) analysis using ABAQUS on a dummy fuel rod continuously supported by Optimized H type (OHT) and New Doublet (ND) spacer grids are performed to obtain the vibration characteristics such as natural frequencies and mode shapes and to verify the FE model used. The results from the test and the FE analysis are compared according to modal assurance criteria values. The natural frequency differences between the two methods as well as the mode comparison results for the rod with OHT SG are better than those with ND SG. That is, in the case of the ND grid model using beam-spring elements, there was a large discrepancy between the two methods. Thus, we tried to modify the FE model for ND SG considering the contact phenomena between the fuel rod and the SG. The results of the new model showed good agreement with the experiment compared with those of a beam-spring model

  2. Fine-tuning the CAR spacer improves T-cell potency

    Watanabe, Norihiro; Bajgain, Pradip; Sukumaran, Sujita; Ansari, Salma; Heslop, Helen E.; Rooney, Cliona M.; Brenner, Malcolm K.; Leen, Ann M.; Vera, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The adoptive transfer of genetically engineered T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has emerged as a transformative cancer therapy with curative potential, precipitating a wave of preclinical and clinical studies in academic centers and the private sector. Indeed, significant effort has been devoted to improving clinical benefit by incorporating accessory genes/CAR endodomains designed to enhance cellular migration, promote in vivo expansion/persistence or enhance safety by genetic programming to enable the recognition of a tumor signature. However, our efforts centered on exploring whether CAR T-cell potency could be enhanced by modifying pre-existing CAR components. We now demonstrate how molecular refinements to the CAR spacer can impact multiple biological processes including tonic signaling, cell aging, tumor localization, and antigen recognition, culminating in superior in vivo antitumor activity. PMID:28180032

  3. Comparison of the effect of broncodiatory albotrol from spacer and nebulazor foe freatment of Astma patients

    sasan tavana

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Tavana S1, Nadi E1, Ansari M2, zeraati F3, Hashemi H1, Mani Kashani Kh4, Mavallat M5 1. Assistant professor, Department of internal, Faculty of medicine, Hamedan University of medical sciences 2. Associate professor, Department of internal, Faculty of medicine, Hamedan University of medical sciences 3. Associate professor, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of medicine, Hamedan University of medical sciences 4. Instructor, Department of social medicine, Faculty of medicine, Hamedan University of medical sciences 5. General practitioner, Tuberculosis and lung research group, Faculty of medicine, Hamedan University of medical sciences Abstract Background: Asthma is an inflammatory and chronic disorder of trachobronchial tree that is associated with increased response to allergens. Treatment of acute attack of asthma is short acting b 2 agonist such as Albuterol that is used via a nebulizer or Metered-dose inhaler (MDI with and attached spacer. Object of this study was evaluation of therapeutic effects of Albuterol via a nebulizer or MDI with an attached holding chamber in patients that had been referred to Emergency departement of Mobasher Hospital in Hamadan. Materials and methods: The present study was a clinical trial (before and after in 60 patients that were suffered from acute attack asthma. Inclusion criterias were 16-65 years old age patients, FEV1, below 60% of predicted value, and cooperation for spirometry performance. Exclusion criterias were COPD, cardiovascular disorders, pneumonia, preumothorex, or their systemic or pulmonary disorders,severe respiratory failure with cyanosis or confusion, pregnancy and smoking. On arrival to the ED, all patients underwent spirometery and all of patients received oxygen and a single dose of 8 mg intravenous dexamethasone. Immediately thereafter patients were randomized to two groups.The study was designed as double blind trial. The first group patients received four puffs Albuterol attached to

  4. CFD prediction of flow and phase distribution in fuel assemblies with spacers

    Anglart, H.; Nylund, O. [ABB Atom AB, Vasteras (Switzerland); Kurul, N. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the modeling and computation of multi-dimensional two-phase flows in BWR fuel assemblies. The modeling principles are presented based on using a two-fluid model in which lateral interfacial effects are accounted for. This model has been used to evaluate the velocity fields of both vapor and liquid phases, as well as phase distribution, between fuel elements in geometries similar to BWR fuel bundles. Furthermore, this model has been used to predict, in a detailed mechanistic manner, the effects of spacers on flow and phase distribution between, and pressure drop along, fuel elements. The related numerical simulations have been performed using a CFD computer code, CFDS-FLOW3D.

  5. A Numerical Analysis on the Local Deformation of a Spacer Grid Structure for Nuclear Fuel Cells

    Jang, Myung-Geun; Na, Geum Ju; Kim, Jong-Bong; Shin, Hyunho

    2016-01-01

    The result of a preliminary numerical investigation on local deformation characteristics of a multi-layered spacer-grid structure with five guide tubes is reported based on implicit finite element analysis. For the numerical analysis, displacements of top and bottom cross sections of each guide tube in a single-layer model were constrained while a lateral displacement was imposed on the single layer. Unlike the impact hammer test that is generally employed to characterize the deformation characteristics of the space-grid structure, the buckling phenomenon occurs locally in this study; it takes place at the inner grids around each tube and the degree of bucking is more apparent for tubes near the lateral surface where the lateral displacement was imposed. (paper)

  6. Optimisation of automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis for the estimation of microbial diversity in fynbos soil

    Karin Jacobs

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA has become a commonly used molecular technique for the study of microbial populations in environmental samples. The reproducibility and accuracy of ARISA, with and without the polymerase chain reaction (PCR are important aspects that influence the results and effectiveness of these techniques. We used the primer set ITS4/ITS5 for ARISA to assess the fungal community composition of two sites situated in the Sand Fynbos. The primer set proved to deliver reproducible ARISA profiles of the fungal community composition with little variation observed between ARISA-PCRs. Variation that occurred in a sample due to repeated DNA extraction is expected for ecological studies. This reproducibility made ARISA a useful tool for the assessment and comparison of diversity in ecological samples. In this paper, we also offered particular suggestions concerning the binning strategy for the analysis of ARISA profiles.

  7. Amino propynyl benzoic acid building block in rigid spacers of divalent ligands binding to the Syk SH2 domains with equally high affinity as the natural ligand

    Dekker, Frank J; de Mol, Nico J; Fischer, Marcel J E; Liskamp, Rob M J; Dekker, Frank

    2003-01-01

    The construction of rigid spacers composed of amino propynyl benzoic acid building blocks is described. These spacers were used to link two phosphopeptide ligand sites towards obtaining divalent ligands with a high affinity for Syk tandem SH2 domains, which are important in signal transduction. The

  8. Controlling the Biomimetic Implant Interface: Modulating Antimicrobial Activity by Spacer Design

    Wisdom, Cate; Vanoosten, Sarah Kay; Boone, Kyle W.; Khvostenko, Dmytro; Arnold, Paul M.; Snead, Malcolm L.; Tamerler, Candan

    2016-08-01

    Surgical site infection is a common cause of post-operative morbidity, often leading to implant loosening, ultimately requiring revision surgery, increased costs and worse surgical outcomes. Since implant failure starts at the implant surface, creating and controlling the bio-material interface will play a critical role in reducing infection while improving host cell-to-implant interaction. Here, we engineered a biomimetic interface based upon a chimeric peptide that incorporates a titanium binding peptide (TiBP) with an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) into a single molecule to direct binding to the implant surface and deliver an antimicrobial activity against S. mutans and S. epidermidis, two bacteria which are linked with clinical implant infections. To optimize antimicrobial activity, we investigated the design of the spacer domain separating the two functional domains of the chimeric peptide. Lengthening and changing the amino acid composition of the spacer resulted in an improvement of minimum inhibitory concentration by a three-fold against S. mutans. Surfaces coated with the chimeric peptide reduced dramatically the number of bacteria, with up to a nine-fold reduction for S. mutans and a 48-fold reduction for S. epidermidis. Ab initio predictions of antimicrobial activity based on structural features were confirmed. Host cell attachment and viability at the biomimetic interface were also improved compared to the untreated implant surface. Biomimetic interfaces formed with this chimeric peptide offer interminable potential by coupling antimicrobial and improved host cell responses to implantable titanium materials, and this peptide based approach can be extended to various biomaterials surfaces.

  9. Preparation of the spacer for narrow electrode gap configuration in ionization-based gas sensor

    Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Burhanudin, Zainal Arif

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have started to be developed as the sensing element for ionization-based gas sensors due to the demand for improved sensitivity, selectivity, stability and other sensing properties beyond what can be offered by the conventional ones. Although these limitations have been overcome, the problems still remain with the conventional ionization-based gas sensors in that they are bulky and operating with large breakdown voltage and high temperature. Recent studies have shown that the breakdown voltage can be reduced by using nanostructured electrodes and narrow electrode gap. Nanostructured electrode in the form of aligned CNTs array with evenly distributed nanotips can enhance the linear electric field significantly. The later is attributed to the shorter conductivity path through narrow electrode gap. The paper presents the study on the design consideration in order to realize ionization based gas sensor using aligned carbon nanotubes array in an optimum sensor configuration with narrow electrode gap. Several deposition techniques were studied to deposit the spacer, the key component that can control the electrode gap. Plasma spray deposition, electron beam deposition and dry oxidation method were employed to obtain minimum film thickness around 32 μm. For plasma spray method, sand blasting process is required in order to produce rough surface for strong bonding of the deposited film onto the surface. Film thickness, typically about 39 μm can be obtained. For the electron beam deposition and dry oxidation, the film thickness is in the range of nanometers and thus unsuitable to produce the spacer. The deposited multilayer film consisting of copper, alumina and ferum on which CNTs array will be grown was found to be removed during the etching process. This is attributed to the high etching rate on the thin film which can be prevented by reducing the rate and having a thicker conductive copper film.

  10. Preparation of the spacer for narrow electrode gap configuration in ionization-based gas sensor

    Saheed, Mohamed Shuaib Mohamed; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Burhanudin, Zainal Arif [Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak. (Malaysia); Fundamental and Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak. (Malaysia); Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Tronoh, Perak. (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have started to be developed as the sensing element for ionization-based gas sensors due to the demand for improved sensitivity, selectivity, stability and other sensing properties beyond what can be offered by the conventional ones. Although these limitations have been overcome, the problems still remain with the conventional ionization-based gas sensors in that they are bulky and operating with large breakdown voltage and high temperature. Recent studies have shown that the breakdown voltage can be reduced by using nanostructured electrodes and narrow electrode gap. Nanostructured electrode in the form of aligned CNTs array with evenly distributed nanotips can enhance the linear electric field significantly. The later is attributed to the shorter conductivity path through narrow electrode gap. The paper presents the study on the design consideration in order to realize ionization based gas sensor using aligned carbon nanotubes array in an optimum sensor configuration with narrow electrode gap. Several deposition techniques were studied to deposit the spacer, the key component that can control the electrode gap. Plasma spray deposition, electron beam deposition and dry oxidation method were employed to obtain minimum film thickness around 32 {mu}m. For plasma spray method, sand blasting process is required in order to produce rough surface for strong bonding of the deposited film onto the surface. Film thickness, typically about 39 {mu}m can be obtained. For the electron beam deposition and dry oxidation, the film thickness is in the range of nanometers and thus unsuitable to produce the spacer. The deposited multilayer film consisting of copper, alumina and ferum on which CNTs array will be grown was found to be removed during the etching process. This is attributed to the high etching rate on the thin film which can be prevented by reducing the rate and having a thicker conductive copper film.

  11. Effect of spacers on the thermal performance of an annular multi-layer insulation

    Haim, Y.; Weiss, Y.; Letan, R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study presents a model and is experimentally conducted in a system of 40 stainless steel coaxial foils, of nitrogen gas, entrapped between the foils, and of spacers, which are zirconia, spherical, 50 μm in size particles, widely dispersed in the gaps between the foils. The model, experimentally verified, relates to radiation between the foils, unobstructed by particles, to conduction in the nitrogen gas, and to conduction across the particles. The study was, in particular, aimed to measure the effective thermal conductivity of the particles and to assess its effect upon the array. At vacuum of 0.092 Pa, the effective thermal conductivity of the particles was 2.13 × 10 −4  W/m K, while the effective thermal conductivity of the array was 4.74 × 10 −4  W/m K. Thus, the low contribution of the particles conduction at vacuum conditions improves the insulation. It reaches 45% of the heat transfer rate. At atmospheric pressure, the effective thermal conductivity of the array reaches 4.5 × 10 −2  W/m K. There, the spacers contribution is negligible. - Highlights: •The multi-layer insulation of cylinder consists of foils separated by particles. •The particles are widely spaced in gaps. •Particles heat transfer rate is almost half of the total in vacuum. •At higher pressures the particles contribution is negligible. •The predicted thermal performance agrees with experimental results

  12. The effect of anterior proton beams in the setting of a prostate-rectum spacer

    Christodouleas, John P., E-mail: christojo@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tang, Shikui [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Susil, Robert C.; McNutt, Todd R.; Song, Danny Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiation Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Lu, Hsiao-Ming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Both, Stefan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Studies suggest that anterior beams with in vivo range verification would improve rectal dosimetry in proton therapy for prostate cancer. We investigated whether prostate-rectum spacers would enhance or diminish the benefits of anterior proton beams in these treatments. Twenty milliliters of hydrogel was injected between the prostate and rectum of a cadaver using a transperineal approach. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images were used to generate 7 uniform scanning (US) and 7 single-field uniform dose pencil-beam scanning (PBS) plans with different beam arrangements. Pearson correlations were calculated between rectal, bladder, and femoral head dosimetric outcomes and beam arrangement anterior scores, which characterize the degree to which dose is delivered anteriorly. The overall quality of each plan was compared using a virtual dose-escalation study. For US plans, rectal mean dose was inversely correlated with anterior score, but for PBS plans there was no association between rectal mean dose and anterior score. For both US and PBS plans, full bladder and empty bladder mean doses were correlated with anterior scores. For both US and PBS plans, femoral head mean doses were inversely correlated with anterior score. For US plans and a full bladder, 4 beam arrangements that included an anterior beam tied for the highest maximum prescription dose (MPD). For US plans and an empty bladder, the arrangement with 1 anterior and 2 anterior oblique beams achieved the highest MPD in the virtual dose-escalation study. The dose-escalation study did not differentiate beam arrangements for PBS. All arrangements in the dose-escalation study were limited by bladder constraints except for the arrangement with 2 posterior oblique beams. The benefits of anterior proton beams in the setting of prostate-rectum spacers appear to be proton modality dependent and may not extend to PBS.

  13. The effect of anterior proton beams in the setting of a prostate-rectum spacer

    Christodouleas, John P.; Tang, Shikui; Susil, Robert C.; McNutt, Todd R.; Song, Danny Y.; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Lu, Hsiao-Ming; Both, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Studies suggest that anterior beams with in vivo range verification would improve rectal dosimetry in proton therapy for prostate cancer. We investigated whether prostate-rectum spacers would enhance or diminish the benefits of anterior proton beams in these treatments. Twenty milliliters of hydrogel was injected between the prostate and rectum of a cadaver using a transperineal approach. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images were used to generate 7 uniform scanning (US) and 7 single-field uniform dose pencil-beam scanning (PBS) plans with different beam arrangements. Pearson correlations were calculated between rectal, bladder, and femoral head dosimetric outcomes and beam arrangement anterior scores, which characterize the degree to which dose is delivered anteriorly. The overall quality of each plan was compared using a virtual dose-escalation study. For US plans, rectal mean dose was inversely correlated with anterior score, but for PBS plans there was no association between rectal mean dose and anterior score. For both US and PBS plans, full bladder and empty bladder mean doses were correlated with anterior scores. For both US and PBS plans, femoral head mean doses were inversely correlated with anterior score. For US plans and a full bladder, 4 beam arrangements that included an anterior beam tied for the highest maximum prescription dose (MPD). For US plans and an empty bladder, the arrangement with 1 anterior and 2 anterior oblique beams achieved the highest MPD in the virtual dose-escalation study. The dose-escalation study did not differentiate beam arrangements for PBS. All arrangements in the dose-escalation study were limited by bladder constraints except for the arrangement with 2 posterior oblique beams. The benefits of anterior proton beams in the setting of prostate-rectum spacers appear to be proton modality dependent and may not extend to PBS. PMID:23578497

  14. AGENCY CONTRIBUTION IN ACHIEVING TEMPORARY AGENCY WORKERS’ ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: A STUDY IN ABC (PVT LTD

    T.G.T.N Perera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Temporary agency workers are coming under non-standard employments, who have temporary attachment to the working organization. With dynamic business environment and flexible work arrangements, temporary agency employments are also emerged in Sri Lanka. Temporary agency workers are dual committed employees. However, with this dual commitment, organizations face issues in achieving temporary agency workers’ commitment due to low attention of agencies to temporary agency workers. Even though the Client organization provides due attention to temporary agency workers, they fail to receive due commitment due to the lack of attention from agency to temporary agency workers. This study was conducted to identify the agency related factors affecting temporary agency workers’ commitment. This was carried out as a cross sectional field study with a sample of 93 workers from temporary agency works in the ABC (pvt ltd. 93 temporary agency workers were selected as sample. Data were collected via a standard questionnaire that met accepted standards of validity and reliability. Descriptive statistics, Simple ranking, Factor analysis, ANOVA and Independent Sample T-Test technique were performed to analyze data. No of Temporary workers to supervisor (temp to consult ratio is the most influencing factor of temporary agency workers’ commitment in agency context. Job satisfaction, agency support, side bets, interactional justice, lack of alternative employments, procedural justice, distributive justice, reciprocity norm acceptance, socialization, breach of psychological contract, lack of skill transferability are the other factors, which are ordered from most influencing factor to less affecting factor to workers’ organizational commitment . Findings revealed that eleven out of thirteen factors are job related factors, other two are organization related and person related factors. Most client companies provide their attention, while agencies fail to provide

  15. Employing 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to reveal intragenomic divergence in the internal transcribed spacer rDNA region in fungi

    Daniel L. Lindner; Tor Carlsen; Henrik Nilsson; Marie Davey; Trond Schumacher; Havard. Kauserud

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region has been accepted as a DNA barcoding marker for fungi and is widely used in phylogenetic studies; however, intragenomic ITS variability has been observed in a broad range of taxa, including prokaryotes, plants, animals, and fungi, and this variability has the potential to inflate species richness estimates in molecular...

  16. Factors affecting the efficiency of aerosolized salbutamol delivery via a metered dose inhaler and equine spacer device.

    Pirie, R S; McGorum, B C; Owen, C; Carr, O; Oakley, H; McLachlan, G

    2017-06-01

    Despite frequent use of metered dose inhalers (MDIs) and spacers in equine practice, limited information exists on the efficiency of aerosol delivery using such devices. We determined the particle size distribution within an MDI-generated salbutamol aerosol delivered via an equine spacer using 'best practice' delivery technique and assessed the effect of variations in MDI use technique (shaking prior to each actuation, rapid repetitive actuations, and MDI angulation) on aerosol delivery efficiency. Under optimal conditions, only 53(±18) μg salbutamol per 100 μg actuation was delivered beyond the spacer. Although this aerosol had a high [89.6% (±2.4)] fine particle (aerodynamic diameter [2.52 (±0.29) μm], and particle size variability [geometric SD - 1.66 (±0.16) μm], within all particle size fractions, there was a high coefficient of variance (31-79%) of the percentage salbutamol delivered between experimental runs, thus impeding any effort to predict drug delivery to the patient during equine inhalation therapy. Despite observable trends and with the exception of minor statistically significant changes in the least abundant particle sizes, none of the deviations from a 'best practice' delivery technique significantly altered the relative salbutamol delivery beyond the spacer, a finding which has potential relevance with regard to maintaining user compliance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Saprolegniaceae identified on amphibian eggs throughout the Pacific Northwest, USA, by internal transcribed spacer sequences and phylogenetic analysis

    Jill E. Petrisko; Christopher A. Pearl; David S. Pilliod; Peter P. Sheridan; Charles F. Williams; Charles R. Peterson; R. Bruce Bury

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the diversity and phylogeny of Saprolegniaceae on amphibian eggs from the Pacific Northwest, with particular focus on Saprolegnia ferax, a species implicated in high egg mortality. We identified isolates from eggs of six amphibians with the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5.8S gene regions and BLAST of the GenBank database. We...

  18. The effect of spacer grid critical component on pressure drop under both single and two phase flow conditions

    Han, B.; Yang, B.W.; Zhang, H.; Mao, H.; Zha, Y.

    2016-01-01

    As pressure drop is one of the most critical thermal hydraulic parameters for spacer grids the accurate estimation of it is the key to the design and development of spacer grids. Most of the available correlations for pressure drop do not contain any real geometrical parameters that characterize the grid effect. The main functions for spacer grid are structural support and flow mixing. Once the boundary sublayer near the rod bundle is disturbed, the liquid forms swirls or flow separation that affect pressure drop. However, under two phase flow conditions, due to the existence of steam bubble, the complexity for spacer grid are multiplied and pressure drop calculation becomes much more challenging. The influence of the dimple location, distance of mixing vane to the nearest strip, and the effect of inter-subchannel mixing among neighboring subchannels on pressure drop and downstream flow fields are analyzed in this paper. Based on this study, more detailed space grid geometry parameters are recommended for adding into the correlation when predicting pressure drop.

  19. Effect of the spacer group nature on the optical and electrical properties of confined poly( p-phenylene vinylene) derivatives

    Benzarti-Ghédira, Maha; Zahou, Imen; Hrichi, Haikel; Jaballah, Nejmeddine; Ben Chaâbane, Rafik; Majdoub, Mustapha; Ben Ouada, Hafedh

    2015-09-01

    This study is an investigation about the effect of chemical modification on the morphological, optical and electrical properties of semiconducting organic thin films. Two confined poly( p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV)-type polymers containing different spacer groups were studied: P1 has an isopropylidene spacer group and P2 with hexafluoroisopropylidene spacer. The UV-Vis absorption and PL analysis showed a stronger π- π interaction in the P1 film; in P2, the π-stacking is limited by the introduction of a bulky trifluoromethyl (CF3) groups on the spacer units. The P2 exhibits a better film quality as illustrated by the atomic force microscopy. The HOMO and LUMO energy levels and electrochemical band gap of the polymers were determinate by the cyclic voltammetry. The electrical properties of ITO/PPV derivative/Al diodes were investigated by means of current-voltage and show a space-charge-limited current conduction mechanism with higher mobility in the P2 thin layer. The impedance spectra of the devices can be discussed in terms of an equivalent circuit model designed as a parallel resistance ( R p) and capacitance ( C p) network in series with a resistance.

  20. An improved PCR method for direct identification of Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) using conchocelis based on a RUBISCO intergenic spacer

    Wang, Chao; Dong, Dong; Wang, Guangce; Zhang, Baoyu; Peng, Guang; Xu, Pu; Tang, Xiaorong

    2009-09-01

    An improved method of PCR in which the small segment of conchocelis is amplified directly without DNA extraction was used to amplify a RUBISCO intergenic spacer DNA fragment from nine species of red algal genus Porphyra (Bangiales, Rhodophyta), including Porphyra yezoensis (Jiangsu, China), P. haitanensis (Fujian, China), P. oligospermatangia (Qingdao, China), P. katadai (Qingdao, China), P. tenera (Qingdao, China), P. suborboculata (Fujian, China), P. pseudolinearis (Kogendo, Korea), P. linearis (Devon, England), and P. fallax (Seattle, USA). Standard PCR and the method developed here were both conducted using primers specific for the RUBISCO spacer region, after which the two PCR products were sequenced. The sequencing data of the amplicons obtained using both methods were identical, suggesting that the improved PCR method was functional. These findings indicate that the method developed here may be useful for the rapid identification of species of Porphyra in a germplasm bank. In addition, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using the RUBISCO spacer and partial rbcS sequence, and the results were in concordant with possible alternative phylogenies based on traditional morphological taxonomic characteristics, indicating that the RUBISCO spacer is a useful region for phylogenetic studies.

  1. A simulation study on the variation of virtual NMR signals by winding, bobbin, spacer error of HTS magnet

    Kim, Jun Seong; Lee, Woo Seung; Kim, Jin Sub; Song, Seung Hyun; Nam, Seok Ho; Jeon, Hae Ryong; Beak, Geon Woo; Ko, Tae Kuk [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Recently, production technique and property of the High-Temperature Superconductor (HTS) tape have been improved. Thus, the study on applying an HTS magnet to the high magnetic field application is rapidly increased. A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometer requires high magnitude and homogeneous of central magnetic field. However, the HTS magnet has fabrication errors because shape of HTS is tape and HTS magnet is manufactured by winding HTS tape to the bobbin. The fabrication errors are winding error, bobbin diameter error, spacer thickness error and so on. The winding error occurs when HTS tape is departed from the arranged position on the bobbin. The bobbin diameter and spacer thickness error occur since the diameter of bobbin and spacer are inaccurate. These errors lead magnitude and homogeneity of central magnetic field to be different from its ideal design. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of winding error, bobbin diameter error and spacer thickness error on the central field and field homogeneity of HTS magnet using the virtual NMR signals in MATLAB simulation.

  2. Efficient and colour-stable hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes utilizing electron-hole balanced spacers

    Leem, Dong-Seok; Kim, Ji Whan; Kim, Jang-Joo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, and OLED Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sung Ouk; Kim, Seul-Ong; Kwon, Soon-Ki [School of Materials Science and Engineering, and Engineering Research Institute (ERI), Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hoon; Kim, Kee Young [Dongwoo Fine-Chem Co., Ltd, Pyeongtaek 451-822 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yun-Hi, E-mail: jjkim@snu.ac.k, E-mail: skwon@gnu.ac.k [Department of Chemistry and RINS, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-13

    High-efficiency two-colour white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) comprising a newly synthesized iridium complex orange phosphor ((impy){sub 2}Ir(acac)) and a blue fluorophor (BD012) have been realized by placing several kinds of thin spacers between two emitters. Hybrid WOLEDs with a spacer composed of a hole-transporting N,N-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) and an electron-transporting 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) exhibit a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 8.4% and a negligible colour change (the colour coordinate of (0.39, 0.41) at 1000 cd m{sup -2}) with increasing brightness, whereas the device using a hole-transporting mCP spacer shows a relatively low EQE of 6.2% and a large shift of emitting colour with increasing brightness. Device performance is further characterized based on the charge transport behaviour of the spacers inserted between the two emitters.

  3. Efficient and colour-stable hybrid white organic light-emitting diodes utilizing electron-hole balanced spacers

    Leem, Dong-Seok; Kim, Ji Whan; Kim, Jang-Joo; Jung, Sung Ouk; Kim, Seul-Ong; Kwon, Soon-Ki; Kim, Se Hoon; Kim, Kee Young; Kim, Yun-Hi

    2010-01-01

    High-efficiency two-colour white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) comprising a newly synthesized iridium complex orange phosphor ((impy) 2 Ir(acac)) and a blue fluorophor (BD012) have been realized by placing several kinds of thin spacers between two emitters. Hybrid WOLEDs with a spacer composed of a hole-transporting N,N-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene (mCP) and an electron-transporting 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen) exhibit a high external quantum efficiency (EQE) of up to 8.4% and a negligible colour change (the colour coordinate of (0.39, 0.41) at 1000 cd m -2 ) with increasing brightness, whereas the device using a hole-transporting mCP spacer shows a relatively low EQE of 6.2% and a large shift of emitting colour with increasing brightness. Device performance is further characterized based on the charge transport behaviour of the spacers inserted between the two emitters.

  4. CTF/STAR-CD off-line coupling for simulation of crossflow caused by mixing vane spacers in rod bundles

    Avramova, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the impact of the spacer grids on the reactor core thermal-hydraulics involves experimental mockup tests, numerical simulations, and development of reliable empirical or semi-empirical models. The state-of-the-art in modeling spacer effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the flow in Light Water Reactor (LWR) rod bundles employs numerical experiments by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations. The capabilities of the CFD codes are usually being validated against mock-up tests. Once validated, the CFD predictions can be used for improvement and development of more sophisticated models of the subchannel codes. Because of the involved computational cost, CFD codes can not be yet efficiently utilized for full bundle predictions, while advanced subchannel codes are a powerful tool for LWR safety and design analyses. Subchannel analyses are used for whole LWR core evaluations with relatively short CPU times and reasonable computer resources. The objectives of the presented work were to develop, implement, and qualify an innovative spacer grid model utilizing the Computational Fluid Dynamics within a framework of an efficient subchannel analysis tool. A methodology was developed for off-line coupling between the CFD code STAR-CD and the subchannel code CTF. The developed coupling scheme is flexible in axial mesh overlays. It was developed to be easily adapted to any pair of a CFD and a subchannel code. Separate modeling of the spacer grid effects on the diffusive and on the convective processes was implemented and successfully validated against experimental data. (author)

  5. Preliminary Investigation on Turbulent Flow in Tight-lattice Rod Bundle with Twist-mixing Vane Spacer Grid

    Lee, Chiyoung; Kwack, Youngkyun; Park, Juyong; Shin, Changhwan; In, Wangkee

    2013-01-01

    Our research group has investigated the effect of P/D difference on the behavior of turbulent rod bundle flow without the mixing vane spacer grid, using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and MIR (Matching Index of Refraction) techniques for tight lattice fuel rod bundle application. In this work, using the tight-lattice rod bundle with a twist-mixing vane spacer grid, the turbulent rod bundle flow is preliminarily examined to validate the PIV measurement and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation. The turbulent flow in the tight-lattice rod bundle with a twist-mixing vane spacer grid was preliminarily examined to validate the PIV measurement and CFD simulation. Both were in agreement with each other within a reasonable degree of accuracy. Using PIV measurement and CFD simulation tested in this work, the detailed investigations on the behavior of turbulent rod bundle flow with the twist-mixing vane spacer grid will be performed at various conditions, and reported in the near future

  6. Temporary Life Changes and the Timing of Divorce.

    Fallesen, Peter; Breen, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Marriage is a risky undertaking that people enter with incomplete information about their partner and their future life circumstances. A large literature has shown how new information gained from unforeseen but long-lasting or permanent changes in life circumstances may trigger a divorce. We extend this literature by considering how information gained from a temporary change in life circumstances-in our case, a couple having a child with infantile colic-may affect divorce behavior. Although persistent life changes are known to induce divorce, we argue that a temporary stressful situation allows couples more quickly to discern the quality of their relationship, in some cases leading them to divorce sooner than they otherwise would have. We formalize this argument in a model of Bayesian updating and test it using data from Denmark. We find that the incidence of infantile colic shortens the time to divorce or disruption among couples who would have split up anyway.

  7. Plant experience with temporary reverse osmosis makeup water systems

    Polidoroff, C.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG and E) Company's Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP), which is located on California's central coast, has access to three sources of raw water: creek water, well water, and seawater. Creek and well water are DCPP's primary sources of raw water; however, because their supply is limited, these sources are supplemented with seawater. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the temporary, rental, reverse osmosis systems used by PG and E to process DCPP's raw water into water suitable for plant makeup. This paper addresses the following issues: the selection of reverse osmosis over alternative water processing technologies; the decision to use vendor-operated temporary, rental, reverse osmosis equipment versus permanent PG and E-owned and -operated equipment; the performance of DCPP's rental reverse osmosis systems; and, the lessons learned from DCPP's reverse osmosis system rental experience that might be useful to other plants considering renting similar equipment

  8. Need for relevant timescales when crediting temporary carbon storage

    Jørgensen, Susanne Vedel; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2013-01-01

    carbon storage in carbon footprinting. Methods: Implications of using a 100-year accounting period is evaluated via a literature review study of the global carbon cycle, as well as by analysing the crediting approaches that are exemplified by the PAS 2050 scheme for crediting temporary carbon storage......-term climatic benefits is considered to require storage of carbon for at least thousand years. However, it has been proposed that there may exist tipping points for the atmospheric CO2 concentration beyond which irreversible climate changes occur. To reduce the risk of passing such tipping points, fast...... mitigation of the rise in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentration is required and in this perspective, shorter storage times may still provide climatic benefits. Conclusions: Both short- and long-term perspectives should be considered when crediting temporary carbon storage, addressing both acute effects...

  9. Mapping the temporary and perennial character of whole river networks

    González-Ferreras, A. M.; Barquín, J.

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the spatial distribution of temporary and perennial river channels in a whole catchment is important for effective integrated basin management and river biodiversity conservation. However, this information is usually not available or is incomplete. In this study, we present a statistically based methodology to classify river segments from a whole river network (Deva-Cares catchment, Northern Spain) as temporary or perennial. This method is based on an a priori classification of a subset of river segments as temporary or perennial, using field surveys and aerial images, and then running Random Forest models to predict classification membership for the rest of the river network. The independent variables and the river network were derived following a computer-based geospatial simulation of riverine landscapes. The model results show high values of overall accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the evaluation of the fitted model to the training and testing data set (≥0.9). The most important independent variables were catchment area, area occupied by broadleaf forest, minimum monthly precipitation in August, and average catchment elevation. The final map shows 7525 temporary river segments (1012.5 km) and 3731 perennial river segments (662.5 km). A subsequent validation of the mapping results using River Habitat Survey data and expert knowledge supported the validity of the proposed maps. We conclude that the proposed methodology is a valid method for mapping the limits of flow permanence that could substantially increase our understanding of the spatial links between terrestrial and aquatic interfaces, improving the research, management, and conservation of river biodiversity and functioning.

  10. How Does Temporary Agency Work Impact German Agency Workers?

    Spermann, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The enormous speed of change in the working world is associated with greater job insecurity. As a dynamic external flexibilization instrument, temporary agency work is characterized by high labor turnover rates. As a result, agency workers might perceive more job insecurity than permanent staff. This paper surveys German empirical studies on outcome variables such as job satisfaction, commitment, health, employability, social participation and effects on personal life for agency workers. It i...

  11. Evaluation of color stability of different temporary restorative materials

    José Vitor Quinelli Mazaro

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroductionTemporary restorative materials are widely used, however, little is know about their color stability.Objectiveto evaluate the color stability of the following temporary restorative materials: acrylic and bis-acrylic resins after immersion in pigmenting solutions for different periods of storage.Material and methodFour materials were tested (Dêncor/Clássico, Protemp 4/3M ESPE; Structur 2 SC/Voco; Luxatemp AM Plus/DMG and 30 test specimens (15 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick per material were fabricated. They were divided according to the storage medium (artificial saliva, saliva + cola type soda, and saliva + coffee and storage time intervals (2, 5, 7 and 15 days. Color measurements were made before and after immersions, with use of a spectrophotometer, by means of the CIE L*a*b* system. The data were analyzed by the analysis of variance and the Tukey Test, at a level of significance of 5%.ResultAcrylic resin presented greater color stability in comparison with bis-acrylic resins (p<0.001. When bis-acrylic resins were compared no significant difference was observed between the resins Structur and Luxatemp (p=0.767. As regards solutions tested, coffee showed the highest color change values (p<0.001, and the longer the storage time interval, the greater was the color change in all the temporary restorative materials analyzed (p<0.001.ConclusionAcrylic resin presented greater color stability in comparison with bis-acrylic resins (p<0.001. Coffee caused the greatest color change, and immersion time was determinant in color stability of the temporary materials analyzed.

  12. On the Origin of Reverse Transcriptase-Using CRISPR-Cas Systems and Their Hyperdiverse, Enigmatic Spacer Repertoires.

    Silas, Sukrit; Makarova, Kira S; Shmakov, Sergey; Páez-Espino, David; Mohr, Georg; Liu, Yi; Davison, Michelle; Roux, Simon; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth R; Fu, Becky Xu Hua; Hansen, Loren L; Wang, David; Sullivan, Matthew B; Millard, Andrew; Clokie, Martha R; Bhaya, Devaki; Lambowitz, Alan M; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Koonin, Eugene V; Fire, Andrew Z

    2017-07-11

    Cas1 integrase is the key enzyme of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas adaptation module that mediates acquisition of spacers derived from foreign DNA by CRISPR arrays. In diverse bacteria, the cas1 gene is fused (or adjacent) to a gene encoding a reverse transcriptase (RT) related to group II intron RTs. An RT-Cas1 fusion protein has been recently shown to enable acquisition of CRISPR spacers from RNA. Phylogenetic analysis of the CRISPR-associated RTs demonstrates monophyly of the RT-Cas1 fusion, and coevolution of the RT and Cas1 domains. Nearly all such RTs are present within type III CRISPR-Cas loci, but their phylogeny does not parallel the CRISPR-Cas type classification, indicating that RT-Cas1 is an autonomous functional module that is disseminated by horizontal gene transfer and can function with diverse type III systems. To compare the sequence pools sampled by RT-Cas1-associated and RT-lacking CRISPR-Cas systems, we obtained samples of a commercially grown cyanobacterium- Arthrospira platensis Sequencing of the CRISPR arrays uncovered a highly diverse population of spacers. Spacer diversity was particularly striking for the RT-Cas1-containing type III-B system, where no saturation was evident even with millions of sequences analyzed. In contrast, analysis of the RT-lacking type III-D system yielded a highly diverse pool but reached a point where fewer novel spacers were recovered as sequencing depth was increased. Matches could be identified for a small fraction of the non-RT-Cas1-associated spacers, and for only a single RT-Cas1-associated spacer. Thus, the principal source(s) of the spacers, particularly the hypervariable spacer repertoire of the RT-associated arrays, remains unknown. IMPORTANCE While the majority of CRISPR-Cas immune systems adapt to foreign genetic elements by capturing segments of invasive DNA, some systems carry reverse transcriptases (RTs) that enable adaptation to RNA molecules. From

  13. Carbon Reduction Measures-Based LCA of Prefabricated Temporary Housing with Renewable Energy Systems

    Ling Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Temporary housing plays an important role in providing secure, hygienic, private, and comfortable shelter in the aftermath of disaster (such as flood, fire, earthquake, etc.. Additionally, temporary housing can also be used as a sustainable form of on-site residences for construction workers. While most of the building components used in temporary housing can be manufactured in a plant, prefabrication technology improves the production efficiency of temporary housing; furthermore, integrated renewable energy systems, for example, solar photovoltaic (PV system, offer benefits for temporary housing operations. In order to assess the environmental impacts of prefabricated temporary housing equipped with renewable energy systems, this study first divides the life cycle of temporary housing into six stages, and then establishes a life cycle assessment (LCA model for each stage. Furthermore, with the aim of reducing the environmental impacts, life cycle carbon reduction measures are proposed for each stage of temporary housing. The proposed methodology is demonstrated using a case study in China. Based on the proposed carbon reduction measures, the LCA of a prefabricated temporary housing case study building equipped with renewable energy systems indicates a carbon emissions intensity of 35.7 kg/m2·per year, as well as a reduction in material embodied emissions of 18%, assembly emissions of 17.5%, and operational emissions of 91.5%. This research proposes a carbon reduction-driven LCA of temporary housing and contributes to promoting sustainable development of prefabricated temporary housing equipped with renewable energy systems.

  14. Inference about density and temporary emigration in unmarked populations

    Chandler, Richard B.; Royle, J. Andrew; King, David I.

    2011-01-01

    Few species are distributed uniformly in space, and populations of mobile organisms are rarely closed with respect to movement, yet many models of density rely upon these assumptions. We present a hierarchical model allowing inference about the density of unmarked populations subject to temporary emigration and imperfect detection. The model can be fit to data collected using a variety of standard survey methods such as repeated point counts in which removal sampling, double-observer sampling, or distance sampling is used during each count. Simulation studies demonstrated that parameter estimators are unbiased when temporary emigration is either "completely random" or is determined by the size and location of home ranges relative to survey points. We also applied the model to repeated removal sampling data collected on Chestnut-sided Warblers (Dendroica pensylvancia) in the White Mountain National Forest, USA. The density estimate from our model, 1.09 birds/ha, was similar to an estimate of 1.11 birds/ha produced by an intensive spot-mapping effort. Our model is also applicable when processes other than temporary emigration affect the probability of being available for detection, such as in studies using cue counts. Functions to implement the model have been added to the R package unmarked.

  15. The Diaspora and Temporary Migrant Workers: Basic Concepts

    Marija Krstić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the phenomenon of migrant workers who emigrated to Western European countries after World War II. The labor demands created by the economic reconstruction of these countries, most notably Great Britain, West Germany, France, Switzerland, the Benelux countries, Sweden and Austria, coupled with low birth rates and high death rates, made it necessary for them to hire immigrant workers. On the other hand, poor economic conditions, few employment opportunities and a yearning for a higher standard of living drove workers from Italy, Spain, Portugal, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Greece, Ireland, Finland and North Africa to seek work abroad. These temporary migrant workers represent a link between their countries of origin and their host countries, and, as a group of people maintaining links with their native countries, they can also be considered their countries’ diaspora. However, considering the temporary nature of their residence abroad, it is questionable whether they actually are a diaspora. It is for this reason that the paper juxtaposes the phenomena of the diaspora and temporary migrant workers in order to analyze the question of whether, when and how these workers become a diaspora. In particular, it focuses on migrant workers from Yugoslavia, usually referred to as “gastarbajteri” (gastarbeiter, who in the 1960s and 1970s migrated mostly to West Germany, Austria, Australia, France and Switzerland, and on their political treatment by the Yugoslav state.

  16. Temporary vs. Permanent Sub-slab Ports: A Comparative ...

    Vapor intrusion (VI) is the migration of subsurface vapors, including radon and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), from the subsurface to indoor air. The VI exposure pathway extends from the contaminant source, which can be impacted soil, non-aqueous phase liquid, or contaminated groundwater, to indoor air-exposure points. Therefore, contaminated matrices may include groundwater, soil, soil gas, and indoor air. VOC contaminants of concern typically include halogenated solvents such as trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and chloroform, as well as petroleum hydrocarbons, such as the aromatic VOCs benzene, toluene, and xylenes. Radon is a colorless radioactive gas that is released by radioactive decay of radionuclides in rock and soil that migrate into homes through VI in a similar fashion to VOCs. This project focused on the performance of permanent versus temporary sub-slab sampling ports for the determination of VI of halogenated VOCs and radon into an unoccupied house. VOC and radon concentrations measured simultaneously in soil gas using collocated temporary and permanent ports appeared to be independent of the type of port. The variability between collocated temporary and permanent ports was much less than the spatial variability between different locations within a single residential duplex. The agreement of the majority of VOC and radon concentrations, 0–36% relative percent difference, and 2–19% relative standard deviation respectively, of each sub-sl

  17. Experimental and numerical characterization of the water flow in spacer-filled channels of spiral-wound membranes

    Bucs, Szilard

    2015-09-25

    Micro-scale flow distribution in spacer-filled flow channels of spiral-wound membrane modules was determined with a particle image velocimetry system (PIV), aiming to elucidate the flow behaviour in spacer-filled flow channels. Two-dimensional water velocity fields were measured in a flow cell (representing the feed spacer-filled flow channel of a spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane module without permeate production) at several planes throughout the channel height. At linear flow velocities (volumetric flow rate per cross-section of the flow channel considering the channel porosity, also described as crossflow velocities) used in practice (0.074 and 0.163 m∙s-1) the recorded flow was laminar with only slight unsteadiness in the upper velocity limit. At higher linear flow velocity (0.3 m∙s-1) the flow was observed to be unsteady and with recirculation zones. Measurements made at different locations in the flow cell exhibited very similar flow patterns within all feed spacer mesh elements, thus revealing the same hydrodynamic conditions along the length of the flow channel. Three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed using the same geometries and flow parameters as the experiments, based on steady laminar flow assumption. The numerical results were in good agreement (0.85-0.95 Bray-Curtis similarity) with the measured flow fields at linear velocities of 0.074 and 0.163 m∙s-1, thus supporting the use of model-based studies in the optimization of feed spacer geometries and operational conditions of spiral wound membrane systems.

  18. Experimental and numerical characterization of the water flow in spacer-filled channels of spiral-wound membranes.

    Bucs, Szilard S; Linares, Rodrigo Valladares; Marston, Jeremy O; Radu, Andrea I; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2015-12-15

    Micro-scale flow distribution in spacer-filled flow channels of spiral-wound membrane modules was determined with a particle image velocimetry system (PIV), aiming to elucidate the flow behaviour in spacer-filled flow channels. Two-dimensional water velocity fields were measured in a flow cell (representing the feed spacer-filled flow channel of a spiral wound reverse osmosis membrane module without permeate production) at several planes throughout the channel height. At linear flow velocities (volumetric flow rate per cross-section of the flow channel considering the channel porosity, also described as crossflow velocities) used in practice (0.074 and 0.163 m·s(-1)) the recorded flow was laminar with only slight unsteadiness in the upper velocity limit. At higher linear flow velocity (0.3 m·s(-1)) the flow was observed to be unsteady and with recirculation zones. Measurements made at different locations in the flow cell exhibited very similar flow patterns within all feed spacer mesh elements, thus revealing the same hydrodynamic conditions along the length of the flow channel. Three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed using the same geometries and flow parameters as the experiments, based on steady laminar flow assumption. The numerical results were in good agreement (0.85-0.95 Bray-Curtis similarity) with the measured flow fields at linear velocities of 0.074 and 0.163 m·s(-1), thus supporting the use of model-based studies in the optimization of feed spacer geometries and operational conditions of spiral wound membrane systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intensity Modulated Proton and Photon Therapy for Early Prostate Cancer With or Without Transperineal Injection of a Polyethylen Glycol Spacer: A Treatment Planning Comparison Study

    Weber, Damien C., E-mail: damien.weber@unige.ch [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Zilli, Thomas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Vallee, Jean Paul [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Rouzaud, Michel; Miralbell, Raymond [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva (Switzerland); Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Rectal toxicity is a serious adverse effect in early-stage prostate cancer patients treated with curative radiation therapy (RT). Injecting a spacer between Denonvilliers' fascia increases the distance between the prostate and the anterior rectal wall and may thus decrease the rectal radiation-induced toxicity. We assessed the dosimetric impact of this spacer with advanced delivery RT techniques, including intensity modulated RT (IMRT), volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), and intensity modulated proton beam RT (IMPT). Methods and Materials: Eight prostate cancer patients were simulated for RT with or without spacer. Plans were computed for IMRT, VMAT, and IMPT using the Eclipse treatment planning system using both computed tomography spacer+ and spacer- data sets. Prostate {+-} seminal vesicle planning target volume [PTV] and organs at risk (OARs) dose-volume histograms were calculated. The results were analyzed using dose and volume metrics for comparative planning. Results: Regardless of the radiation technique, spacer injection decreased significantly the rectal dose in the 60- to 70-Gy range. Mean V{sub 70Gy} and V{sub 60Gy} with IMRT, VMAT, and IMPT planning were 5.3 {+-} 3.3%/13.9 {+-} 10.0%, 3.9 {+-} 3.2%/9.7 {+-} 5.7%, and 5.0 {+-} 3.5%/9.5 {+-} 4.7% after spacer injection. Before spacer administration, the corresponding values were 9.8 {+-} 5.4% (P=.012)/24.8 {+-} 7.8% (P=.012), 10.1 {+-} 3.0% (P=.002)/17.9 {+-} 3.9% (P=.003), and 9.7 {+-} 2.6% (P=.003)/14.7% {+-} 2.7% (P=.003). Importantly, spacer injection usually improved the PTV coverage for IMRT. With this technique, mean V{sub 70.2Gy} (P=.07) and V{sub 74.1Gy} (P=0.03) were 100 {+-} 0% to 99.8 {+-} 0.2% and 99.1 {+-} 1.2% to 95.8 {+-} 4.6% with and without Spacer, respectively. As a result of spacer injection, bladder doses were usually higher but not significantly so. Only IMPT managed to decrease the rectal dose after spacer injection for all dose levels, generally with no

  20. 26 CFR 1.267(a)-2T - Temporary regulations; questions and answers arising under the Tax Reform Act of 1984 (temporary).

    2010-04-01

    ... Act of 1984 (temporary). (a) Introduction—(1) Scope. This section prescribes temporary question and... the person to whom the payment is to be made properly uses the completed contract method of accounting... amount is owed to a related person under whose method of accounting such amount is not includible in...