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Sample records for spacelab d1 mission

  1. D-1 report: The first German spacelab mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Introduction of a new popular magazine on the DI mission, the first West German Space mission. The DI project office publishes the magazine. The German sponsored astronauts are to study the gravitational effects of reduced gravity on the human generated processes of the environment. Other areas of concern are boundary surface and transport phenomena, physical chemisty and process engineering, metals and composite materials, and single crystals.

  2. Effects of rectilinear acceleration, caloric and optokinetic stimulation of human subjects in the Spacelab D-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzig, J.; von Baumgarten, R.

    A set of vestibular experiments was performed during the course of the German Spacelab D-1 mission from 30 October to 6 November 1985 by a consortium of experimenters from various european countries. Similar to the Spacelab SL-1 mission all of the scientific crew members were theoretically and practically trained for the experiments. Baseline measurements for all tests were collected 113, 86, 44, 30 and 18 days prior to the mission and compared with data taken inflight, on the landing day and the consecutive 7 to 14 days. The hardware comprised mainly a motordriven accelerating platform, the SPACE SLED, and the vestibular helmet, a multi-purpose instrument in support of a variety of vestibular experiments including air-calorisation of the ears, optokinetic stimulation pattern presentation and optical and nystagmographic recording of eye movements. Measurements of the threshold for the perception of detection of whole body movement did not reveal any dramatic changes in the 2 measured axes inflight when compared to preflight values. Early postflight values show a significantly elevated threshold for all axes in 3 out of 4 subjects. The caloric nystagmus, already found during the SL-1 mission, was confirmed on all three tested subjects during the D-1 mission. It's amplitude and in some instances it's direction were influenced by horizontal acceleration on the SLED. The amplitude of optokinetic nystagmus increased when subjects were allowed to free-float over that seen when subjects were fixed. Stimulation of the neck receptors by roll movements of the body against the fixated head resulted in illusory object motion to the contralateral side. Torsional movements of the eyes during such neck receptor stimulation was present inflight and postflight, while it had not been observed preflight. Most results point to a reduction of otolithic effects in favour of visual and proprioceptive influences for spatial orientation.

  3. Spacelab 3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.

    1990-01-01

    Spacelab-3 (SL-3) was the first microgravity mission of extended duration involving crew interaction with animal experiments. This interaction involved sharing the Spacelab environmental system, changing animal food, and changing animal waste trays by the crew. Extensive microbial testing was conducted on the animal specimens and crew and on their ground and flight facilities during all phases of the mission to determine the potential for cross contamination. Macroparticulate sampling was attempted but was unsuccessful due to the unforseen particulate contamination occurring during the flight. Particulate debris of varying size (250 micron to several inches) and composition was recovered post flight from the Spacelab floor, end cones, overhead areas, avionics fan filter, cabin fan filters, tunnel adaptor, and from the crew module. These data are discussed along with solutions, which were implemented, for particulate and microbial containment for future flight facilities.

  4. A review of Spacelab mission management approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Spacelab development program is a joint undertaking of the NASA and ESA. The paper addresses the initial concept of Spacelab payload mission management, the lessons learned, and modifications made as a result of the actual implementation of Spacelab Mission 1. The discussion covers mission management responsibilities, program control, science management, payload definition and interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. After 3.5 years the outlined overall mission manager approach has proven to be most successful. The approach does allow the mission manager to maintain the lowest overall mission cost.

  5. Spacelab Mission Implementation Cost Assessment (SMICA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guynes, B. V.

    1984-01-01

    A total savings of approximately 20 percent is attainable if: (1) mission management and ground processing schedules are compressed; (2) the equipping, staffing, and operating of the Payload Operations Control Center is revised, and (3) methods of working with experiment developers are changed. The development of a new mission implementation technique, which includes mission definition, experiment development, and mission integration/operations, is examined. The Payload Operations Control Center is to relocate and utilize new computer equipment to produce cost savings. Methods of reducing costs by minimizing the Spacelab and payload processing time during pre- and post-mission operation at KSC are analyzed. The changes required to reduce costs in the analytical integration process are studied. The influence of time, requirements accountability, and risk on costs is discussed. Recommendation for cost reductions developed by the Spacelab Mission Implementation Cost Assessment study are listed.

  6. Spacelab life sciences 2 post mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckey, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Jay C. Buckey, M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas served as an alternate payload specialist astronaut for the Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Space Shuttle Mission from January 1992 through December 1993. This report summarizes his opinions on the mission and offers suggestions in the areas of selection, training, simulations, baseline data collection and mission operations. The report recognizes the contributions of the commander, payload commander and mission management team to the success of the mission. Dr. Buckey's main accomplishments during the mission are listed.

  7. Approach to Spacelab Payload mission management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, H. G.; Lester, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The nucleus of the approach to Spacelab Payload mission management is the establishment of a single point of authority for the entire payload on a given mission. This single point mission manager will serve as a 'broker' between the individual experiments and the STS, negotiating agreements by two-part interaction. The payload mission manager, along with a small support team, will represent the users in negotiating use of STS accommodations. He will provide the support needed by each individual experimenter to meet the scientific, technological, and applications objectives of the mission with minimum cost and maximum efficiency. The investigator will assume complete responsibility for his experiment hardware definition and development and will take an active role in the integration and operation of his experiment.

  8. Spacelab Life Science-1 Mission Onboard Photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Spacelab Life Science -1 (SLS-1) was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones, and cells. This photograph shows astronaut Rhea Seddon conducting an inflight study of the Cardiovascular Deconditioning experiment by breathing into the cardiovascular rebreathing unit. This experiment focused on the deconditioning of the heart and lungs and changes in cardiopulmonary function that occur upon return to Earth. By using noninvasive techniques of prolonged expiration and rebreathing, investigators can determine the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (cardiac output), the ease with which blood flows through all the vessels (total peripheral resistance), oxygen used and carbon dioxide released by the body, and lung function and volume changes. SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.

  9. A coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmore, A.P.; Skinner, G.K.; Eyles, C.J.; Ramsey, B.

    1984-01-01

    A dual coded mask telescope for the Spacelab 2 mission is now in the final stages of preparation at Birmingham University. It is due for launch in late 1984/early 1985 and will be by far the largest and most sophisticated such instrument to be flown in this time-frame. The design and capabilities of the telescope will be described. (orig.)

  10. Holography on the Spacelab 3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robert B.; Kroes, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Spacelab 3's Fluid Experiment System, in which triglycine sulfate crystals were produced by a low temperature solution-growth technique, employs holography as its primary data-gathering system. This use of holography allows optical techniques which would be difficult to apply in orbit to be used after the holographic data is returned to ground laboratories, using an analysis of the reconstructed holographic image. The system used allows both single- and double-exposure holograms to be obtained in two separate orthogonal configurations.

  11. For Earth into space: The German Spacelab Mission D-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahm, P. R.; Keller, M. H.; Schiewe, B.

    The Spacelab Mission D-2 successfully lifted off from Kennedy Space Center on April 26, 1993. With 88 experiments on board covering eleven different research disciplines it was a very ambitious mission. Besides materials and life science subjects, the mission also encompassed astronomy, earth observation, radiation physics and biology, telecommunication, automation and robotics. Notable results were obtained in almost all cases. To give some examples of the scientific output, building upon results obtained in previous missions (FSLP, D1) diffusion in melts was broadly represented delivering most precise data on the atomic mobility within various liquids, and crystal growth experiments (the largest gallium arsenide crystal grown by the floating zone technique, so far obtained anywhere, was one of the results), biological cell growth experiments were continued (for example, beer yeast cultures, continuing their growth on earth, delivered a qualitatively superior brewery result), the human physiology miniclinic configuration ANTHRORACK gave novel insights concerning cardiovascular, pulmonary, and renal (fluid volume determining) factors. Astronomical experiments yielded insights into our own galaxy within the ultra violet spectrum, earth observation experiments delivered the most precise resolution data superimposed by thematic mapping of many areas of the Earth, and the robotics experiment brought a remarkable feature in that a flying object was caught by the space robot, which was only achieved through several innovative advances during the time of experiment preparation. The eight years of preparation were also beneficial in another sense. Several discoveries have been made, and various technology transfers into ground-based processes were verified. To name the outstanding ones, in the materials science a novel bearing materials production process was developped, a patent granted for an improved high temperature heating chamber; with life sciences a new hormone

  12. A critical review of the life sciences project management at Ames Research Center for the Spacelab Mission development test 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Wilhelm, J. M.; Tanner, T. A.; Sieber, J. E.; Burgenbauch, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    A management study was initiated by ARC (Ames Research Center) to specify Spacelab Mission Development Test 3 activities and problems. This report documents the problems encountered and provides conclusions and recommendations to project management for current and future ARC life sciences projects. An executive summary of the conclusions and recommendations is provided. The report also addresses broader issues relevant to the conduct of future scientific missions under the constraints imposed by the space environment.

  13. Spacelab Life Sciences-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Jahns, Gary; Meylor, John; Hawes, Nikki; Fast, Tom N.; Zarow, Greg

    1995-01-01

    This report provides an historical overview of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission along with the resultant biomaintenance data and investigators' findings. Only the nonhuman elements, developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) researchers, are addressed herein. The STS-40 flight of SLS-1, in June 1991, was the first spacelab flown after 'return to orbit', it was also the first spacelab mission specifically designated as a Life Sciences Spacelab. The experiments performed provided baseline data for both hardware and rodents used in succeeding missions.

  14. Communication network for decentralized remote tele-science during the Spacelab mission IML-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Uwe; Schulz, Klaus-Juergen; Incollingo, Marco

    1994-01-01

    The ESA communication network for decentralized remote telescience during the Spacelab mission IML-2, called Interconnection Ground Subnetwork (IGS), provided data, voice conferencing, video distribution/conferencing and high rate data services to 5 remote user centers in Europe. The combination of services allowed the experimenters to interact with their experiments as they would normally do from the Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at MSFC. In addition, to enhance their science results, they were able to make use of reference facilities and computing resources in their home laboratory, which typically are not available in the POCC. Characteristics of the IML-2 communications implementation were the adaptation to the different user needs based on modular service capabilities of IGS and the cost optimization for the connectivity. This was achieved by using a combination of traditional leased lines, satellite based VSAT connectivity and N-ISDN according to the simulation and mission schedule for each remote site. The central management system of IGS allows minimization of staffing and the involvement of communications personnel at the remote sites. The successful operation of IGS for IML-2 as a precursor network for the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF) has proven the concept for communications to support the operation of the COF decentralized scenario.

  15. Spacelab Life Sciences Research Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzman, Frank; Young, Laurence R.; Seddon, Rhea; Ross, Muriel; Baldwin, Kenneth; Frey, Mary Anne; Hughes, Rod

    2000-01-01

    This document describes some of the life sciences research that was conducted on Spacelab missions. Dr. Larry Young, Director of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, provides an overview of the Life Sciences Spacelabs.

  16. The Evolution of Spacelab Ultraviolet Astronomy Missions from OSS-3 through -7 to Astro-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, Theodore

    2018-01-01

    In the 1960s and 1970s, NASA was building towards a robust program in space astronomy. An evolutionary step from ground-based astronomy to space astronomy was human operation of space telescopes as astronomy in general evolved from astronomers directly at the telescope to application of computers and long distance communications to control to operate remote telescopes. Today ground-based telescopes and space observatories from cubesats to the Hubble Space Telescope and soon the James Webb Space Telescope are routinely operated remotely.In response to the Spacelab Announcement of Opportunity in the early 1980s, three ultraviolet experiments – the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope, the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope and the Wisconsin Ultraviolet PhotoPolarimetry Experiment -- all instruments derived from multiple sounding rocket flights--were selected to fly as an integrated payload attached to a space shuttle. The justification for professional astronomers, both as Mission Specialists from the astronaut cadre and Payload Specialists from the instrument teams, was built to ensure key technical skills both of the science and the instruments. Bundled together as OSS-3 through -7 flights focused on Comet Halley, the experiments went through many changes and delays as a pathfinder for an anticipated series of attached astronomy payloads.By 1986, the five-flight mission had evolved into two missions, Astro-1 dedicated primarily to observe Halley’s Comet in early March 1986 and Astro-2 to fly about one year later. Due to the Challenger disaster 35 days before scheduled launch of Astro-1, the mission went through an initial cancellation and then re-scheduling once the instrument complement of Astro-1 was expanded to include Broad Band X-ray Telescope with emphasis on studying SN1987A. Ultimately Astro-1 flew in December 1990 partnered with an X-ray experiment focused on SN1987A.The nine-day mission was mostly successful despite multiple technical issues overcome by the NASA

  17. Gaseous environment of the Shuttle early in the Spacelab 2 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Jolene S.; Murphy, Gerald B.; Kurth, William S.

    1988-01-01

    A cold-cathode ionization gage was flown on Space Shuttle flight STS-5IF as part of the Spacelab 2 payload. Neutral pressure data that were taken in the payload bay during the first few hours on orbit are presented. These data show that when the payload bay is oriented such that the atmospheric gases are ramming into it, the pressure rises to a peak of 4 x 10 to the -6th Torr. Pressure is also slightly higher during the sunlit portion of each orbit. Outgassing of the payload bay causes the pressure to be elevated to a few times 10 to the -6th Torr early in the mission. In addition, several effects on pressure have been identified that are due to chemical releases. Substantial increases (50-150 percent) are seen during another experiment's gas purge. Orbiter chemical-release effects include: pressure increases of 200 percent up to 7 x 10 to the -6th Torr due to Orbital Maneuvering System burns, minor perturbations in pressure due to vernier thruster firings and little or no increase in pressure due to water dumps. In the case of vernier thruster firings, effects are seen only from down-firing thrusters in the back of the Orbiter, which are probably due to reflection of thruster gases off Orbiter surfaces.

  18. Monitoring Of The Middle Atmosphere: Grille Spectrometer Experiment Results On Board SPACELAB 1 And Scientific Program Of ATLAS 1 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papineau, N.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Ackerman, Marcel E.

    1989-10-01

    Measurements of atmospheric trace gases have been performed during the first Spacelab mission on board the Space Shuttle. The principle of the observations is infrared absorption spectroscopy using the solar occultation technique. Infrared absorption spectra of NO, CO, CO2, NO2, N20, CH4 and H2O have been recorded using the Grille spectrometer developped by ONERA and IASB. From the observed spectra, vertical profiles for these molecules have been derived. The present paper summarizes the main results and compares them with computed vertical profiles from a zonally averaged model of the middle atmosphere. The scientific objectives of the second mission, Atlas 1, planned for 1990 are also presented.

  19. Critical review of Ames Life Science participation in Spacelab Mission Development Test 3: The SMD 3 management study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, R.; Wilhelm, J.; Tanner, T. A.; Sieber, J. E.; Burgenbauch, S.

    1978-01-01

    A management study was conducted to specify activities and problems encountered during the development of procedures for documentation and crew training on experiments, as well as during the design, integration, and delivery of a life sciences experiment payload to Johnson Space Center for a 7 day simulation of a Spacelab mission. Conclusions and recommendations to project management for current and future Ames' life sciences projects are included. Broader issues relevant to the conduct of future scientific missions under the constraints imposed by the environment of space are also addressed.

  20. Scientific management and implementation of the geophysical fluid flow cell for Spacelab missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, J.; Toomre, J.

    1980-01-01

    Scientific support for the spherical convection experiment to be flown on Spacelab 3 was developed. This experiment takes advantage of the zero gravity environment of the orbiting space laboratory to conduct fundamental fluid flow studies concerned with thermally driven motions inside a rotating spherical shell with radial gravity. Such a system is a laboratory analog of large scale atmospheric and solar circulations. The radial body force necessary to model gravity correctly is obtained by using dielectric polarization forces in a radially varying electric field to produce radial accelerations proportional to temperature. This experiment will answer fundamental questions concerned with establishing the preferred modes of large scale motion in planetary and stellar atmospheres.

  1. Spacelab shaping space operations planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, F. R.; Reinhold, C.

    1976-01-01

    An up-to-date picture is presented of the organizational structure, the key management personnel, and management relationships of the Spacelab program. Attention is also given to Spacelab's development status and plans for its operations. A number of charts are provided to illustrate the organizational relations. It is pointed out that the parties involved in Spacelab activities must yet resolve questions about ownership of transportation-system elements, payloads, ground support facilities, and data obtained from space missions.

  2. Low power CAMAC and NIM modular systems for spaceflight use on Shuttle and Spacelab missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trainor, J.H.; Kaminski, T.J.; Ehrmann, C.H.

    1977-02-01

    The advent of the Shuttle launch vehicle and Spacelab have resulted in adequate weight and volume such that experiment electronics can be implemented at relatively low cost using spaceflight versions of CAMAC and NIM modules. Studies of 10 modules by manufacturers have shown that power reduction overall by a factor of approximately 3 can be accomplished. This is adequate both from the point of view of consumption and temperature rise in vacuum. Our studies have shown that a stock of approximately 45 module types is required and a listing is given. The changes required in these modules in order to produce spaceflight versions are described. And finally, the further studies, prototyping and testing leading to eventual flight qualification are described.

  3. Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory, a spacelab mission payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL) task flow is shown. Current progress is identified. The requirements generated in task 1 have been used to formulate an initial ACPL baseline design concept. ACPL design/functional features are illustrated. A timetable is presented of the routines for ACPL integration with the spacelab system.

  4. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  5. Spacelab Science Results Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, R. J.; Lundquist, C. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Horwitz, J. L.; Germany, G. A.; Cruise, J. F.; Lewis, M. L.; Murphy, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with OSTA-1 in November 1981 and ending with Neurolab in March 1998, a total of 36 Shuttle missions carried various Spacelab components such as the Spacelab module, pallet, instrument pointing system, or mission peculiar experiment support structure. The experiments carried out during these flights included astrophysics, solar physics, plasma physics, atmospheric science, Earth observations, and a wide range of microgravity experiments in life sciences, biotechnology, materials science, and fluid physics which includes combustion and critical point phenomena. In all, some 764 experiments were conducted by investigators from the U.S., Europe, and Japan. The purpose of this Spacelab Science Results Study is to document the contributions made in each of the major research areas by giving a brief synopsis of the more significant experiments and an extensive list of the publications that were produced. We have also endeavored to show how these results impacted the existing body of knowledge, where they have spawned new fields, and if appropriate, where the knowledge they produced has been applied.

  6. More Life-Science Experiments For Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. D., Jr.; Dalton, B.; Hogan, R.; Leon, H.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes experiments done as part of Spacelab Life Sciences 2 mission (SLS-2). Research planned on cardiovascular, vestibular, metabolic, and thermal responses of animals in weightlessness. Expected to shed light on effects of prolonged weightlessness on humans.

  7. Spacelab ready for transport to Washington, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Spacelab is wrapped and ready for transport to the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, DC. Spacelab was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the Space Shuttle program and first flew on STS-9 in November 1983. Its final flight was the STS-90 Neurolab mission in April 1998. A sister module will travel home and be placed on display in Europe. The Spacelab concept of modular experiment racks in a pressurized shirt-sleeve environment made it highly user-friendly and accessible. Numerous experiments conceived by hundreds of scientists on the ground were conducted by flight crews in orbit. Spacelab modules served as on-orbit homes for everything from squirrel monkeys to plant seeds. They supported astronomical as well as Earth observations, for servicing the Hubble Space Telescope and for research preparatory to the International Space Station. One of the greatest benefits afforded by the Spacelab missions was the opportunity to fly a mission more than once, with the second or third flight building on the experiences and data gathered from its predecessors.

  8. Phase B: Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL): A spacelab mission payload. Final review (DR-MA-03)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, O. W.

    1976-01-01

    Systems design for an initial atmospheric cloud physics laboratory to study microphysical processes in zero gravity is presented. Included are descriptions of the fluid, thermal, mechanical, control and data, and electrical distribution interfaces with Spacelab. Schedule and cost analysis are discussed.

  9. Spacelab operations planning. [ground handling, launch, flight and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA planning in the fields of ground, launch and flight operations and experiment integration to effectively operate Spacelab. Payload mission planning is discussed taking consideration of orbital analysis and the mission of a multiuser payload which may be either single or multidiscipline. Payload analytical integration - as active process of analyses to ensure that the experiment payload is compatible to the mission objectives and profile ground and flight operations and that the resource demands upon Spacelab can be satisfied - is considered. Software integration is touched upon and the major integration levels in ground operational processing of Spacelab and its experimental payloads are examined. Flight operations, encompassing the operation of the Space Transportation System and the payload, are discussed as are the initial Spacelab missions. Charts and diagrams are presented illustrating the various planning areas.

  10. Spacelab Users Guide: A Short Introduction to Spacelab and Its Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Spacelab is an orbital facility that provides a pressurized, 'shirt-sleeve' laboratory (the module) and an unpressurized platform (the pallet), together with certain standard services. It is a reusable system, which is transported to and from orbit in the cargo bay of the space shuttle orbiter and remains there throughout the flight. Spacelab extends the shuttle capability, and the Orbiter/Spacelab combination can be regarded as a short-stay space station which can remain in orbit for up to 30 days (the nominal mission duration is 7 days). In orbit, the experiments carried by Spacelab are operated by a team of up to four payload specialists who normally work in the laboratory, but spend their off-duty time in the orbiter cabin. The purpose of Spacelab is to provide a ready access to space for a broad spectrum of experimenters in many fields and from many nations. Low-cost techniques are envisaged for experiment development, integration and operation. The aim of this document is to provide a brief summary of Spacelab design characteristics and its use potential for experimenters wishing to take advantage of the unique opportunities offered for space experimentation.

  11. Spacelab experiment computer study. Volume 1: Executive summary (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.; Hodges, B. C.; Christy, J. O.

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative cost for various Spacelab flight hardware configurations is provided along with varied software development options. A cost analysis of Spacelab computer hardware and software is presented. The cost study is discussed based on utilization of a central experiment computer with optional auxillary equipment. Groundrules and assumptions used in deriving the costing methods for all options in the Spacelab experiment study are presented. The groundrules and assumptions, are analysed and the options along with their cost considerations, are discussed. It is concluded that Spacelab program cost for software development and maintenance is independent of experimental hardware and software options, that distributed standard computer concept simplifies software integration without a significant increase in cost, and that decisions on flight computer hardware configurations should not be made until payload selection for a given mission and a detailed analysis of the mission requirements are completed.

  12. Animal experimentation in Spacelab - Present and future U.S. plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, W. E.; Dant, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Current development of life-sciences hardware and experiments for the fourth Spacelab mission in the Life Sciences Flight Experiments Program at NASA Ames is reviewed. The research-animal holding facility, the general-purpose work station, and the life sciences laboratory equipment are characterized, and the 14 Ames projects accepted for the mission are listed and discussed. Several hardware systems and experimental procedures will be verified on the Spacelab-3 mission scheduled for late 1984.

  13. Spacelab-3 (STS-51B) Onboard Photograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Spacelab-3 mission was to conduct materials science experiments in a stable low-gravity environment. In addition, the crew performed research in life sciences, fluid mechanics, atmospheric science, and astronomy. Spacelab-3 was equipped with several new minilabs, special facilities that would be used repeatedly on future flights. Two elaborate crystal growth furnaces, a life support and housing facility for small animals, and two types of apparatus for the study of fluids were evaluated on their inaugural flight. In this photograph, astronaut Don Lind observes the mercuric iodide growth experiment through a microscope at the vapor crystal growth furnace. The goals of this investigation were to grow near-perfect single crystals of mercuric iodide and to gain improved understanding of crystal growth by a vapor process. Mercuric iodide crystals have practical use as sensitive x-ray and gamma-ray detectors, and in portable detector devices for nuclear power plant monitoring, natural resource prospecting, biomedical applications in diagnosis and therapy, and in astronomical instruments. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, Spacelab-3 (STS-51B) was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Challenger on April 29, 1985.

  14. Tiangong-1, the First Manned Spacelab of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coue, P.

    This paper presents an overview of Tiangong-1, the first Chinese space station officially dubbed Spacelab by Beijing authorities. Tiangong programme also demonstrates the actual progress level of China in the field of manned space activities. This new spacecraft will allow China to practice many tasks, to help prepare for the next step: the permanently occupied space station. Open sources have been only used to write this paper. For example, Chinese media revealed numerous information describing the Spacelab during the first docking operation between Tiangong-1 and Shenzhou-8. All aspects of this programme will be listed comprising the old stories and the new one: major technical characteristics, accommodation, mission, future prospects, etc.

  15. Animal studies on Spacelab-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatte, C.; Grindeland, R.; Callahan, P.; Berry, W.; Funk, G.; Lencki, W.

    1987-01-01

    The flight of two squirrel monkeys and 24 rats on Spacelab-3 was the first mission to provide hands-on maintenance on animals in a laboratory environment. With few exceptions, the animals grew and behaved normally, were free of chronic stress, and differed from ground controls only for gravity dependent parameters. One of the monkeys exhibited symptoms of space sickness similar to those observed in humans, which suggests squirrel monkeys may be good models for studying the space adaptation syndrome. Among the wide variety of parameters measured in the rats, most notable was the dramatic loss of muscle mass and increased fragility of long bones. Other interesting rat findings were those of suppressed interferom production by spleen cells, defective release of growth hormone by somatrophs, possible dissociation of circadian pacemakers, changes in hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, and hypersensitivity of marrow cells to erythropoietin. These results portend a strong role for animals in identifying and elucidating the physiological and anatomical responses of mammals to microgravity.

  16. The gravitational plant physiology facility-Description of equipment developed for biological research in spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.; Lewis, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    In January 1992, the NASA Suttle mission STS 42 carried a facility designed to perform experiments on plant gravi- and photo-tropic responses. This equipment, the Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) was made up of a number of interconnected units mounted within a Spacelab double rack. The details of these units and the plant growth containers designed for use in GPPF are described. The equipment functioned well during the mission and returned a substantial body of time-lapse video data on plant responses to tropistic stimuli under conditions of orbital microgravity. GPPF is maintained by NASA Ames Research Center, and is flight qualifiable for future spacelab missions.

  17. Spacelab - Ten years of international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignier, M.; Harrington, J. C.; Sander, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The history, current status, and future plans of the Spacelab program are reviewed, with a focus on the cooperative relationship between ESA and NASA. The initial decision to undertake the program and the three agreements signed to begin its implementation are examined, and the division of responsibilities and financial contributions is discussed insofar as it affected the management structure. Consideration is given to the major facilities, the 50-mission operational cycle, communications, the currently scheduled activities (through 1985), the prospective later uses, and the ten dedicated discipline laboratories. The importance of continuous mutual support during the planning and development phases is stressed. The program so far is considered a success, in terms of the goals set by the participants and in terms of the resolution of the problems inherent in international technological endeavors.

  18. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC) during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  19. Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Gravity Plant Physiology Facility (GPPF) team in the SL POCC during the IML-1 mission.

  20. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  1. Mechanical and thermal design of an experiment aboard the space shuttle: the Spacelab spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, J.

    1985-01-01

    The spectrometer designed by ONERA and IASB (Belgium Space Aeronomy Institute) to measure atmospheric trace constituents was flown aboard Spacelab 1 during the 9 th mission of the American Space Shuttle from November 28 to December 8, 1983. After a brief summary of the history of the project related to Spacelab, the mechanical and thermal design of the spectrometer is described. Some methods, calculations and characteristic tests are detailed as examples. The behaviour of the experiment during the mission and the results of the post-flight tests are shortly analyzed in order to prepare the qualification for a reflight [fr

  2. Results of dosimetric measurements in space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Heilmann, C.; Kopp, J.; Leicher, M.; Strauch, K.

    Detector packages consisting of plastic nuclear track detectors, nuclear emulsions, and thermoluminescence detectors were exposed at different locations inside the space laboratory Spacelab and at the astronauts' body and in different sections of the MIR space station. Total dose, particle fluence rate and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of heavy ions, number of nuclear disintegrations and fast neutron fluence rates were determined of each exposure. The dose equivalent received by the Payload specialists (PSs) were calculated from the measurements, they range from 190 muSv d^-1 to 770 muSv d^-1. Finally, a preliminary investigation of results from a particle telescope of two silicon detectors, first used in the last BIORACK mission on STS 76, is reported.

  3. Contemporary achievements in astronautics: Salyut-7, the Vega Project and Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubasov, V. N.; Balebanov, V. M.; Goldovskiy, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The latest achievements in Soviet aeronautics are described; the new stage in the space program to study Venus using Soviet automated space probes, and the next space mission by cosmonauts to the Salyut-7 station. Information is also presented on the flight of the Spacelab orbiting laboratory created by Western European specialists.

  4. The design and development of an oil-free compressor for Spacelab Refrigerator/Freezer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye, A.

    1984-01-01

    Design features and test results of an oil-free compressor developed for Spacelab Mission-4 Refrigerator/Freezer are detailed. The compressor has four identical pistons activated by a common eccentric shaft, operated by a brushless dc motor at 1300 rpm. The stroke of each piston is 0.28 cm, with the piston ends connected to the shaft by means of sealed needle bearings, eliminating the ned for oil. The mass flow rates produced by the compressor are by over 100 percent higher compared to the original Amfridge unit. Test results show that the compressor can meet the Spacelab refrigerator/freezer requirements.

  5. European X-ray spectroscopy and polarimetry payload for Spacelab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, R D; Whitcomb, G [European Space Research and Technology Centre, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Brinkman, A C [Space Research Laboratory, Utrecht, The Netherlands; Beuermann, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Garching/Muenchen (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Extraterrestrische Physik; Culhane, J L [University Coll., London (UK). Mullard Space Science Lab.; Griffiths, R [Leicester Univ. (UK); Manno, V [ESA Headquarters, Paris, France; Rocchia, R [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1976-08-01

    A group of instruments for X-ray spectroscopy and polarimetry studies of a number of cosmic X-ray sources is being designed for possible use on Spacelab. Large area Bragg spectrometers and polarimeters for photon energies above 2 keV are described. For the energy range below 2 keV, both dispersive and non-dispersive spectrometers are employed at the common focus of a nested array of paraboloids. Following a brief outline of the scientific background to the mission, the properties of the individual instruments are discussed.

  6. Preliminary results of the Spacelab 2 superfluid helium experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, P.V.; Collins, D.J.; Elleman, D.D.; Jackson, H.W.; Wang, T.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment to investigate the properties of superfluid helium in a microgravity environment flew on the Shuttle on the Spacelab 2 mission in July and August of 1985. This paper summarizes the flight experiment and describes some preliminary results. The experiment comprised an investigation of long-wavelength third-sound waves in micron-thick films, a study of the motions of superfluid helium under milli-g and micro-g accelerations, and measurements of the fluctuations in temperature associated with the small motions of the bulk helium. An additional objective was to qualify and characterize a reflyable, space-compatible cryostat

  7. The Spacelab IPS Star Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Francis C., III

    The cost of doing business in space is very high. If errors occur while in orbit the costs grow and desired scientific data may be corrupted or even lost. The Spacelab Instrument Pointing System (IPS) Star Simulator is a unique test bed that allows star trackers to interface with simulated stars in a laboratory before going into orbit. This hardware-in-the loop testing of equipment on earth increases the probability of success while in space. The IPS Star Simulator provides three fields of view 2.55 x 2.55 degrees each for input into star trackers. The fields of view are produced on three separate monitors. Each monitor has 4096 x 4096 addressable points and can display 50 stars (pixels) maximum at a given time. The pixel refresh rate is 1000 Hz. The spectral output is approximately 550 nm. The available relative visual magnitude range is 2 to 8 visual magnitudes. The star size is less than 100 arc seconds. The minimum star movement is less than 5 arc seconds and the relative position accuracy is approximately 40 arc seconds. The purpose of this paper is to describe the LPS Star Simulator design and to provide an operational scenario so others may gain from the approach and possible use of the system.

  8. Life science payloads planning study. [for space shuttle orbiters and spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, W. G.; Wells, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Preferred approaches and procedures were defined for integrating the space shuttle life sciences payload from experiment solicitation through final data dissemination at mission completion. The payloads operations plan was refined and expended to include current information. The NASA-JSC facility accommodations were assessed, and modifications recommended to improve payload processing capability. Standard format worksheets were developed to permit rapid location of experiment requirements and a Spacelab mission handbook was developed to assist potential life sciences investigators at academic, industrial, health research, and NASA centers. Practical, cost effective methods were determined for accommodating various categories of live specimens during all mission phases.

  9. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  10. Hematological measurements in rats flown on Spacelab shuttle SL-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, R.D.; Andrews, R.B.; Gibson, L.A.; Congdon, C.C.; Wright, P.; Dunn, C.D.R.; Jones, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a decrease in red cell mass occurs in astronauts, and some studies indicate a leukocytosis occurs. A life science module housing young and mature rats was flown on shuttle mission Spacelab 3 (SL-3), and the results of hematology studies of flight and control rats are presented. Statistically significant increases in the hematocrit, red blood cell counts, and hemoglobin determinations, together with a mild neutrophilia and lymphopenia, were found in flight animals. No significant changes were found in bone marrow and spleen cell differentials or erythropoietin determinations. Clonal assays demonstrated an increased erythroid colony formation of flight animal bone marrow cells at erythropoietin doses of 0.02 and 1.0 U/ml but not 0.20 U/ml. These results agree with some but vary from other previously published studies. Erythropoietin assays performed by radioimmunoassay and clonal studies were performed for the first time

  11. Research and technology, 1993. Salute to Skylab and Spacelab: Two decades of discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    A summary description of Skylab and Spacelab is presented. The section on Advanced Studies includes projects in space science, space systems, commercial use of space, and transportation systems. Within the Research Programs area, programs are listed under earth systems science, space physics, astrophysics, and microgravity science and applications. Technology Programs include avionics, materials and manufacturing processes, mission operations, propellant and fluid management, structures and dynamics, and systems analysis and integration. Technology transfer opportunities and success are briefly described. A glossary of abbreviations and acronyms is appended as is a list of contract personnel within the program areas.

  12. Protection Spacelab from Meteoroid and Orbital Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shigui; Yan, Jun; Han, Zengyao

    2013-08-01

    As the first long-term on-orbit spacelab of China, TianGong-1 will stay aloft for 2 years. Its failure risk subjected to Meteoroid and Orbital Debris(M/OD) is hundreds of times higher than the risk of Shenzhou-5, Shenzhou-6 or Shenzhou-7, so the special M/OD protection designs have been applied. In order to reduce the penetration risk of radiator tube, the design of radiator has been modified by placing the tube at the side of radiator plate, and the new design does not affect the thermal control system without adding the mass. Secondly, Whipple structure is adopted in the two sides and front of spacecraft against M/OD impact.

  13. Evaluation of biological models using Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollinger, D.; Williams, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    Biological models of hypogravity effects are described, including the cardiovascular-fluid shift, musculoskeletal, embryological and space sickness models. These models predict such effects as loss of extracellular fluid and electrolytes, decrease in red blood cell mass, and the loss of muscle and bone mass in weight-bearing portions of the body. Experimentation in Spacelab by the use of implanted electromagnetic flow probes, by fertilizing frog eggs in hypogravity and fixing the eggs at various stages of early development and by assessing the role of the vestibulocular reflex arc in space sickness is suggested. It is concluded that the use of small animals eliminates the uncertainties caused by corrective or preventive measures employed with human subjects.

  14. Man in space - A time for perspective. [crew performance on Space Shuttle-Spacelab program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Factors affecting crew performances in long-term space flights are examined with emphasis on the Space Shuttle-Spacelab program. Biomedical investigations carried out during four Skylab missions indicate that initially rapid changes in certain physiological parameters, notably in cardiovascular response and red-blood-cell levels, lead to an adapted condition. Calcium loss remains a potential problem. Space Shuttle environmental control and life-support systems are described together with technology facilitating performance of mission objectives in a weightless environment. It is concluded that crew requirements are within the physical and psychological capability of astronauts, but the extent to which nonastronaut personnel will be able to participate without extensive training and pre-conditioning remains to be determined.

  15. The Spacelab-Mir-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, G. E.; Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V. N.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.

    1996-01-01

    The Spacelab-Mir-1 (SLM-1) mission is the first docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-71) with the Orbital Station Mir in June 1995. The SLM-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment will utilize the Russian-Bulgarian-developed plant growth unit (Svet). "Greenhouse-2" will include two plantings (1) designed to test the capability of Svet to grow a crop of Superdwarf wheat from seed to seed, and (2) to provide green plant material for post-flight analysis. Protocols, procedures, and equipment for the experiment have been developed by the US-Russian science team. "Greenhouse-2" will also provide the first orbital test of a new Svet Instrumentation System (SIS) developed by Utah State University to provide near real time data on plant environmental parameters and gas-exchange rates. SIS supplements the Svet control and monitoring system with additional sensors for substrate moisture, air temperature, IR leaf temperature, light, oxygen, pressure, humidity, and carbon-dioxide. SIS provides the capability to monitor canopy transpiration and net assimilation of the plants growing in each vegetation unit (root zone) by enclosing the canopy in separate, retractable, ventilated leaf chambers. Six times during the seed-to-seed experiment, plant samples will be collected, leaf area measured, and plant parts fixed and/or dried for ground analysis. A second planting initiated 30 days before the arrival of a U.S. Shuttle [originally planned to be STS-71] is designed to provide green material at the vegetative development stage for ground analysis. [As this paper is being edited, the experiment has been delayed until after the arrival of STS-71.].

  16. The astronomy spacelab payloads study: executive volume. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The progress of the Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is reported. Astronomical research in space, using the Spacelab in conjunction with the Space Shuttle, is described. The various fields of solar astronomy or solar physics, ultraviolet and optical astronomy, and high energy astrophysics are among the topics discussed. These fields include scientific studies of the Sun and its dynamical processes, of the stars in wavelength regions not accessible to ground based observations, and the exciting new fields of X-ray, gamma ray, and particle astronomy

  17. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  18. Geodesics in (Rn, d1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KILIÇ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The notion of geodesic, which may be regarded as an extension of the line segment in Euclidean geometry to the space we study in, has an important place in many branches of geometry, such as Riemannian geometry, Metric geometry, to name but a few. In this article, the concept of geodesic in a metric space will be introduced, then geodesics in the space (Rn, d1 will be characterized. Furthermore, some examples will be presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the main result.

  19. International aerospace engineering: NASA shuttle and European Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilstein, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    NASA negotiations and contractual arrangements involving European space research organizations' participation in manned space operations and efforts in building Spacelab for the U.S. Reusable Space Shuttle are discussed. Some of the diplomatic and technical collaboration involved in the international effort is reviewed.

  20. EMGWS, D1 projectile tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creighton, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the 90 mm EMGWS D1 Projectile which is an unguided projectile that is designed for launch from an Electromagnetic gun to achieve significant armor penetration. It is being developed under the broader program called Electromagnetic Gun Weapon System (EMGWS) which is sponsored by DARPA, DNA, and the U.S. Army. The 90 mm D1 Type II 'workhorse' Projectile is used to prove out material strength, fabrication techniques, and projectile structural integrity. The type II flight projectile is designed to allow maximum stress levels of 100-ksi when launched at 100-kilogees peak acceleration. The total weight of the projectile is 2.0 kg to attain a muzzle velocity of 3.0 km/s from a 9-Megajoule EM Gun. The Type II projectile configuration employs a tungsten nosetip plus 12 segmented tungsten penetrators, a two-piece aluminum discarding sabot, an aluminum pusher plate, and a nylon obturator. The pusher plate can incorporate either a solid or plasma armature

  1. Crew portrait during 51-B mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Crew portrait during 51-B mission. Note the gold T-shirts of 'gold' team members Robert F. Overmyer (bottom left), Don L. Lind (behind Overmyer), William E. Thornton (bottom right) and Taylor G. Wang (behind Thornton). Posing 'upside down' are 'silver team members (l.-r.) Frederick D. Gregory, Norman E. Thagard and Lodewijk van den Berg. The seven are in the long science module for Spacelab 3 in the cargo bay of the Shuttle Challenger.

  2. Dedicated data recording video system for Spacelab experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Toshiyuki; Tanaka, Shoji; Fujiwara, Shinji; Onozuka, Kuniharu

    1984-04-01

    A feasibility study of video tape recorder (VTR) modification to add the capability of data recording etc. was conducted. This system is an on-broad system to support Spacelab experiments as a dedicated video system and a dedicated data recording system to operate independently of the normal operation of the Orbiter, Spacelab and the other experiments. It continuously records the video image signals with the acquired data, status and operator's voice at the same time on one cassette video tape. Such things, the crews' actions, animals' behavior, microscopic views and melting materials in furnace, etc. are recorded. So, it is expected that experimenters can make a very easy and convenient analysis of the synchronized video, voice and data signals in their post flight analysis.

  3. Space platforms - A cost effective evolution of Spacelab operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofan, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The capabilities added to the Shuttle/Spacelab configuration by the addition of the Power Extension Package (PEP), the Power System (PS), and the Science and Applications Space Platforms (SASP) are reviewed with an emphasis on SASP. SASP are intended for placement in orbit by the Shuttle to test new instruments and systems, for clustering of instrumentation, and for servicing, refurbishment, repair, or augmentation by the Shuttle. The PEP permits extended stays in orbit (30 days), and the PS is an orbital solar array and energy storage system acting as a free flying spacecraft. The Shuttle can deliver payloads to the PS or attach to it for extension of the Spacelab operations. Applications of SASP for long term space-based biological experiments are outlined, and the fact that SASP do not increase the required Shuttle in-orbit time is stressed.

  4. Design features of selected mechanisms developed for use in Spacelab. [mechanical ground support equipment and environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inden, W.

    1979-01-01

    Selected mechanisms developed for the Spacelab program are discussed. These include: (1) the roller rail used to install/remove the Spacelab floor loaded with racks carrying experiments; (2) the foot restraint; and (3) the lithium hydroxide used for decontamination.

  5. Interim Report of the Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Study. Volume 2; Ultraviolet and Optical Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle will comprise NASA's primary transportation system into near-earth orbit during the 1980s. The Shuttle will provide the astronomical community with a major new capability to send a wide variety of instrumentation into orbit, to utilize it there under manned or automatic control for periods from seven to thirty days, and to return it to the ground. To this end the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) is developing Spacelab, an array of interchangeable components -pressurized manned modules, unpressurized pallets and related support systems - to be mounted in the Shuttle payload bay. Spacelab will offer important opportunities to carry out astronomical research with instruments optimized for specific objectives. With a high flight frequency and with the ability to modify or interchange telescopes and instruments between flights, one will not need to make rigid long-term commitments to specific and compromised telescope/instrument/ detector combinations as is the case for automated satellites. Observational techniques demanding the physical return of data and equipment - in particular the use of photographic film, instruments requiring tight calibration controls, cryogens, high-risk detectors and degradeable optical coatings -will open research areas not readily addressed by automated satellites. Although Shuttle flight duration will be limited to periods from seven to thirty days, substantial data can be obtained with a single instrument on short missions, if targets are carefully selected and prioritized, and a large number of instruments can be accommodated on a single flight. Important astronomical data are regularly obtained on sounding rocket flights of five minutes duration. Spacelab will provide far longer observing periods for large and small telescopes, with resources greatly exceeding those of sounding rockets, while retaining much of the sounding rocket philosophy in terms of instrument flexibility, simplicity, reliability

  6. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  7. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tucci, S. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Muglia, V.F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Medicina Interna (Centro de Ciência da Imagem), Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Reis, R.B. Dos [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Divisão de Urologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Divisão de Urologia, Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, G.E.B. [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Departamento de Patologia, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brasil, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-05-09

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness.

  8. Cyclin D1 expression in prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.A.; Ravinal, R.C.; Costa, R.S.; Lima, M.S.; Tucci, S.; Muglia, V.F.; Reis, R.B. Dos; Silva, G.E.B.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cyclin D1 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with prostate carcinoma. We assessed cyclin D1 expression by conventional immunohistochemistry in 85 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma and 10 normal prostate tissue samples retrieved from autopsies. We measured nuclear immunostaining in the entire tumor area and based the results on the percentage of positive tumor cells. The preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 8.68±5.16 ng/mL (mean±SD). Cyclin D1 staining was positive (cyclin D1 expression in >5% of tumor cells) in 64 cases (75.4%) and negative (cyclin D1 expression in ≤5% of tumor cells) in 21 cases (including 15 cases with no immunostaining). Normal prostate tissues were negative for cyclin D1. Among patients with a high-grade Gleason score (≥7), 86% of patients demonstrated cyclin D1 immunostaining of >5% (P<0.05). In the crude analysis of cyclin D1 expression, the high-grade Gleason score group showed a mean expression of 39.6%, compared to 26.9% in the low-grade Gleason score group (P<0.05). Perineural invasion tended to be associated with cyclin D1 expression (P=0.07), whereas cyclin D1 expression was not associated with PSA levels or other parameters. Our results suggest that high cyclin D1 expression could be a potential marker for tumor aggressiveness

  9. Spacelab 1 hematology experiment (INS103): Influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Chen, J. P.; Crosby, W.; Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.; Larkin, E.; Tavassoli, M.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment conducted on the 10-day Spacelab 1 mission aboard the ninth Space Shuttle flight in November to December 1983 was designed to measure factors involved in the control of erythrocyte turnover that might be altered during weightlessness. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the flight. Immediately after landing, red cell mass showed a mean decrease of 9.3 percent in the four astronauts. Neither hyperoxia nor an increase in blood phosphate was a cause of the decrease. Red cell survival time and iron incorporation postflight were not significantly different from their preflight levels. Serum haptoglobin did not decrease, indicating that intravascular hemolysis was not a major cause of red cell mass change. An increase in serum ferritin after the second day of flight may have been caused by red cell breakdown early in flight. Erythropoietin levels decreased during and after flight, but preflight levels were high and the decrease was not significant. The space flight-induced decrease in red cell mass may result from a failure of erythropoiesis to replace cells destroyed by the spleen soon after weightlessness is attained.

  10. Hematology and biochemical findings of Spacelab 1 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Chen, J. P.; Crosby, W.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.; Larkin, E.; Tavassoli, M.

    1988-01-01

    The changes in erythropoiesis in astronauts caused by weightlessness was experimentally studied during the Spacelab 1 flight. Immediately after landing showed a mean decrease of 9,3 percent in the four astronauts. Neither hyperoxia nor an increase in blood phosphate caused the decrease. Red cell survival time and iron incorporation postflight were not significantly different from their preflight levels. Serum haptoglobin did not decrease, indicating that intravascular hemolysis was not a major cause of red cell mass change. An increase in serum ferritin after the second day of flight may have been caused by red cell breakdown early in flight. The space flight-induced decrease in red cell mass may result from a failure of erythropoesis to replace cells destroyed by the spleen soon after weightlessness is attained.

  11. Definition of Life Sciences laboratories for shuttle/Spacelab. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Research requirements and the laboratories needed to support a Life Sciences research program during the shuttle/Spacelab era were investigated. A common operational research equipment inventory was developed to support a comprehensive but flexible Life Sciences program. Candidate laboratories and operational schedules were defined and evaluated in terms of accomodation with the Spacelab and overall program planning. Results provide a firm foundation for the initiation of a life science program for the shuttle era.

  12. D=1 supergravity and spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.W. van.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper I review the multiplet calculus of N-1, D=1 local supersymmetry with applications to the construction of models for spinning particles in background fields, and models with space-time supersymmetry. New features include a non-linear realization of the local supersymmetry algebra and the coupling to anti-symmetric tensor fields of both odd and even rank. The non-linear realization allows the construction of a D=1 cosmological-constant term, which provides a mass term in the equations of motion. (orig.)

  13. Cyclin d1 expression in odontogenic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Nasim; Modabbernia, Shirin; Akbarzadeh, Alireza; Sajjadi, Samad

    2013-01-01

    In the present study expression of cyclin D1 in the epithelial lining of odontogenic keratocyst, radicular cyst, dentigerous cyst and glandular odontogenic cyst was investigated to compare proliferative activity in these lesions. Immunohistochemical staining of cyclin D1 on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of odontogenic keratocysts (n=23), dentigerous cysts (n=20), radicular cysts (n=20) and glandular odontogenic cysts (n=5) was performed by standard EnVision method. Then, slides were studied to evaluate the following parameters in epithelial lining of cysts: expression, expression pattern, staining intensity and localization of expression. The data analysis showed statistically significant difference in cyclin D1 expression in studied groups (p keratocysts, but difference was not statistically significant among groups respectively (p=0.204, 0.469). Considering expression localization, cyclin D1 positive cells in odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts were frequently confined in parabasal layer, different from radicular cysts and glandular odontogenic cysts. The difference was statistically significant (p keratocyst and the entire cystic epithelium of glandular odontogenic cysts comparing to dentigerous cysts and radicular cysts, implying the possible role of G1-S cell cycle phase disturbances in the aggressiveness of odontogenic keratocyst and glandular odontogenic cyst.

  14. 42 CFR 52d.1 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.1 Applicability. The regulations in this part apply to grants under the Clinical Cancer Education Program authorized by section 404(a)(4) of the Public Health Service Act, to... neoplastic disease and the preventive measures and diagnostic and therapeutic skills necessary to the...

  15. STS-40 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The STS-40 patch makes a contemporary statement focusing on human beings living and working in space. Against a background of the universe, seven silver stars, interspersed about the orbital path of Columbia, represent the seven crew members. The orbiter's flight path forms a double-helix, designed to represent the DNA molecule common to all living creatures. In the words of a crew spokesman, ...(the helix) affirms the ceaseless expansion of human life and American involvement in space while simultaneously emphasizing the medical and biological studies to which this flight is dedicated. Above Columbia, the phrase Spacelab Life Sciences 1 defines both the Shuttle mission and its payload. Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man, silhouetted against the blue darkness of the heavens, is in the upper center portion of the patch. With one foot on Earth and arms extended to touch Shuttle's orbit, the crew feels, he serves as a powerful embodiment of the extension of human inquiry from the boundaries of Earth to the limitless laboratory of space. Sturdily poised amid the stars, he serves to link scentists on Earth to the scientists in space asserting the harmony of efforts which produce meaningful scientific spaceflight missions. A brilliant red and yellow Earth limb (center) links Earth to space as it radiates from a native American symbol for the sun. At the frontier of space, the traditional symbol for the sun vividly links America's past to America's future, the crew states. Beneath the orbiting Shuttle, darkness of night rests peacefully over the United States. Drawn by artist Sean Collins, the STS 40 Space Shuttle patch was designed by the crewmembers for the flight.

  16. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  17. Research on lettuce growth technology onboard Chinese Tiangong II Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yunze; Guo, Shuangsheng; Zhao, Pisheng; Wang, Longji; Wang, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Bian, Qiang

    2018-03-01

    Lettuce was grown in a space vegetable cultivation facility onboard the Tiangong Ⅱ Spacelab during October 18 to November 15, 2016, in order to testify the key cultivating technology in CELSS under spaceflight microgravity condition. Potable water was used for irrigation of rooting substrate and the SRF (slowly released fertilizer) offered mineral nutrition for plant growth. Water content and electric conductivity in rooting substrate were measured based on FDR(frequency domain reflectometry) principle applied first in spaceflight. Lettuce germinated with comparative growth vigor as the ground control, showing that the plants appeared to be not stressed by the spaceflight environment. Under microgravity, lettuce grew taller and showed deeper green color than the ground control. In addition, the phototropism of the on-orbit plants was more remarkable. The nearly 30-d spaceflight test verified the seed fixation technology and water& nutrition management technology, which manifests the feasibility of FDR being used for measuring moisture content and electric conductivity in rooting zone under microgravity. Furthermore, the edibility of the space-grown vegetable was proved, providing theoretical support for astronaut to consume the space vegetable in future manned spaceflight.

  18. STS-40 Spacelab Life Science 1 (SLS-1) module in OV-102's payload bay (PLB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 Spacelab Life Science 1 (SLS-1) module is documented in the payload bay (PLB) of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102. Included in the view are: the spacelab (SL) transfer tunnel joggle section and support struts; SLS-1 module forward end cone with the European Space Agency (ESA) SL insignia, SLS-1 payload insignia, and the upper feed through plate (center); the orbiter maneuvering system (OMS) pods; and the vertical stabilizer with the Detailed Test Objective (DTO) 901 Shuttle Infrared Leeside Temperature Sensing (SILTS) at the top 24 inches. The vertical stabilizer points to the Earth's limb and the cloud-covered surface of the Earth below.

  19. Plasma diagnostics package. Volume 2: Spacelab 2 section, part A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Jolene S. (Compiler); Frank, L. A. (Compiler); Kurth, W. S. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    This volume (2), which consists of two parts (A and B), of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) Final Science Report contains a summary of all of the data reduction and scientific analyses which were performed using PDP data obtained on STS-51F as a part of the Spacelab 2 (SL-2) payload. This work was performed during the period of launch, July 29, l985, through June 30, l988. During this period the primary data reduction effort consisted of processing summary plots of the data received by 12 of the 14 instruments located on the PDP and submitting these data to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The scientific analyses during the performance period consisted of follow-up studies of shuttle orbiter environment and orbiter/ionosphere interactions and various plasma particle and wave studies which dealt with data taken when the PDP was on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm and when the PDP was in free flight. Of particular interest during the RMS operations and free flight were the orbiter wake studies and joint studies of beam/plasma interactions with the SL-2 Fast Pulse Electron Generator (FPEG) of the Vehicle Charging and Potential Investigation (VCAP). Internal reports, published papers and presentations which involve PDP/SL-2 data are listed in Sections 3 and 4. A PDP/SL-2 scientific results meeting was held at the University of Iowa on June 10, l986. This meeting was attended by most of the PDP and VCAP investigators and provided a forum for discussing and comparing the various results, particularly with regard to the PDP free flight.

  20. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  1. Diabetes tipo II e resolvinas D1

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Isabel Alexandra Marques Batista da

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação para obtenção do grau de Mestre no Instituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas Moniz A diabetes é um problema de saúde pública crescente com o envelhecimento da população, os maus hábitos alimentares e o sedentarismo. A obesidade poderá ser causa ou consequência da diabetes tipo II, sendo também um problema crescente de saúde pública. Esta monografia tem como objetivo estudar, com base no conhecimento atual, se as resolvinas D1 são uma alternativa viável na terapêutica da diab...

  2. Characteristics of stably expressed human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors: atypical behavior of the dopamine D1b receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, U B; Norby, B; Jensen, Anders A.

    1994-01-01

    Human dopamine D1a and D1b receptors were stably expressed in Baby Hamster Kidney (BHK) or Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]SCH23390 saturation experiments indicated the presence of only a single binding site in the D1a expressing cell line with a Kd of 0.5 nM. In D1b expressing cell lines...

  3. STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Jemison conducts AFTE in SLJ module on OV-105

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, wearing autogenic feedback training system 2 suit, conducts the Autogenic Feedback Training Experiment (AFTE) in Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. AFTE's objective is to teach astronauts to use biofeedback rather than drugs to combat nausea and other effects of space motion sickness. Jemison's physical responses are monitored by sensors attached to the suit.

  4. Irradiance Observations of SMM, Spacelab 1, UARS, and ATLAS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Detection of intrinsic solar variability on the total flux level was made using results from the first active Radiometer Irradiance Monitor (ACRIM) experiment, launched on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM)in early 1980.

  5. Spacelab Level 4 Programmatic Implementation Assessment Study. Volume 2: Ground Processing requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Alternate ground processing options are summarized, including installation and test requirements for payloads, space processing, combined astronomy, and life sciences. The level 4 integration resource requirements are also reviewed for: personnel, temporary relocation, transportation, ground support equipment, and Spacelab flight hardware.

  6. Testing the FPS approach in d=1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.; Krivonos, S.; Sutulin, A.

    2015-01-01

    We apply the approach of S. Ferrara, M. Porrati and A. Sagnotti http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)065 to the one dimensional system described by the N=2,d=1 supersymmetric action for two particles in which one of N=1 supersymmetries is spontaneously broken. Using the nonlinear realization approach we reconsider the system in the basis where only one superfield has the Goldstone nature while the second superfield can be treated as the matter one, being invariant under transformations of the spontaneously broken N=1 supersymmetry. We establish the transformations relating the two selected FPS-like cases with our more general one, and find the field redefinitions which relate these two cases. Thus we demonstrate, at least in one dimension, that the only difference between two FPS cases lies in the different choice of the actions, while the supermultiplets specified by the FPS-like constraints are really the same. Going further with the nonlinear realization approach, we construct the most general action for the system of two N=1 superfields possessing one additional hidden spontaneously broken N=1 supersymmetry. The constructed action contains two arbitrary functions and reduces to the FPS actions upon specification of these functions. Unfortunately, the exact form of these functions corresponding to FPS actions is not very informative and gives no explanation on why the FPS cases are selected.

  7. [The mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Moreno, J; Blanch Mon, A

    2000-01-01

    After having made a historical review of the concept of mission statement, of evaluating its importance (See Part I), of describing the bases to create a mission statement from a strategic perspective and of analyzing the advantages of this concept, probably more important as a business policy (See Parts I and II), the authors proceed to analyze the mission statement in health organizations. Due to the fact that a mission statement is lacking in the majority of health organizations, the strategy of health organizations are not exactly favored; as a consequence, neither are its competitive advantage nor the development of its essential competencies. After presenting a series of mission statements corresponding to Anglo-Saxon health organizations, the authors highlight two mission statements corresponding to our social context. The article finishes by suggesting an adequate sequence for developing a mission statement in those health organizations having a strategic sense.

  8. The Neurolab mission and biomedical engineering: a partnership for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskowsky, D. R.; Frey, M. A.; Sulzman, F. M.; White, R. J.; Likowsky, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last five years, with the advent of flights of U.S. Shuttle/Spacelab missions dedicated entirely to life sciences research, the opportunities for conducting serious studies that use a fully outfitted space laboratory to better understand basic biological processes have increased. The last of this series of Shuttle/Spacelab missions, currently scheduled for 1998, is dedicated entirely to neuroscience and behavioral research. The mission, named Neurolab, includes a broad range of experiments that build on previous research efforts, as well as studies related to less mature areas of space neuroscience. The Neurolab mission provides the global scientific community with the opportunity to use the space environment for investigations that exploit microgravity to increase our understanding of basic processes in neuroscience. The results from this premier mission should lead to a significant advancement in the field as a whole and to the opening of new lines of investigation for future research. Experiments under development for this mission will utilize human subjects as well as a variety of other species. The capacity to carry out detailed experiments on both human and animal subjects in space allows a diverse complement of studies that investigate functional changes and their underlying molecular, cellular, and physiological mechanisms. In order to conduct these experiments, a wide array of biomedical instrumentation will be used, including some instruments and devices being developed especially for the mission.

  9. [Myanmar mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfandari, B; Persichetti, P; Pelissier, P; Martin, D; Baudet, J

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the accomplishment of humanitarian missions in plastic surgery performed by a small team in town practice in Yangon, about their 3 years experience in Myanmar with 300 consultations and 120 surgery cases. They underline the interest of this type of mission and provide us their reflexion about team training, the type of relation with the country where the mission is conducted and the type of right team.

  10. The design, fabrication and installation of cable routing mockups in support of Spacelab 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    From flight and mockup drawings of Spacelab 2 (SL 2) experiments and hardware, shop ready mockup drawings were produced. Floor panels were the first items considered for fabrication. Cold plate and orthogrid mockups were designed and fabricated. Experiment and other hardware mockups were fabricated of aluminum or plywood, depending on size and configuration. Eighty-three cable routing bracket mockups were fabricated of aluminum and delivered for painting.

  11. Payload/orbiter contamination control requirement study: Preliminary contamination mission support plan. [a management analysis of project planning of spacecraft sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareiss, L. E.; Hooper, V. W.; Ress, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on the mission support plan and those support activities envisioned to be applicable and necessary during premission and postmission phases of the Spacelab program. The purpose, role, and requirements of the contamination control operations for the first two missions of the Spacelab equipped Space Transportation System are discussed. The organization of the contamination control operation and its relationship to and interfaces with other mission support functions is also discussed. Some specific areas of contamination to be investigated are treated. They are: (1) windows and viewports, (2) experiment equipment, (3) thermal control surfaces, (4) the contaminant induced atmosphere (as differentiated from the normal ambient atmosphere at the orbit altitude), and (5) optical navigation instruments.

  12. Nucleic acid sequences encoding D1 and D1/D2 domains of human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, Paul I.

    2010-04-06

    The invention provides recombinant human CAR (coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor) polypeptides which bind adenovirus. Specifically, polypeptides corresponding to adenovirus binding domain D1 and the entire extracellular domain of human CAR protein comprising D1 and D2 are provided. In another aspect, the invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding these domains and expression vectors for producing the domains and bacterial cells containing such vectors. The invention also includes an isolated fusion protein comprised of the D1 polypeptide fused to a polypeptide which facilitates folding of D1 when expressed in bacteria. The functional D1 domain finds application in a therapeutic method for treating a patient infected with a CAR D1-binding virus, and also in a method for identifying an antiviral compound which interferes with viral attachment. The invention also provides a method for specifically targeting a cell for infection by a virus which binds to D1.

  13. 26 CFR 1.678(d)-1 - Renunciation of power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.678(d)-1 Renunciation of power. Section 678(a) does not apply to a power which has been renounced or disclaimed within a reasonable time... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renunciation of power. 1.678(d)-1 Section 1.678...

  14. The D1 parameter for the equatorial F1 region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeniyi, J.O.; Radicella, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the effort at improving the representation of the F1 equatorial ionospheric region in the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model. The D1 parameter has been proposed for describing the F1 layer. We have therefore produced a maiden table of D1 parameter for an equatorial station. Diurnal and seasonal effects were considered. (author)

  15. Waiting time distribution in M/D/1 queueing systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk; Staalhagen, Lars

    1999-01-01

    The well-known formula for the waiting time distribution of M/D/1 queueing systems is numerically unsuitable when the load is close to 1.0 and/or the results for a large waiting time are required. An algorithm for any load and waiting time is presented, based on the state probabilities of M/D/1...

  16. Development of specific dopamine D-1 agonists and antagonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakolchai, S.

    1987-01-01

    To develop potentially selective dopamine D-1 agonists and to investigate on the structural requirement for D-1 activity, the derivatives of dibenzocycloheptadiene are synthesized and pharmacologically evaluated. The target compounds are 5-aminomethyl-10,11-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxy-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cycloheptene hydrobromide 10 and 9,10-dihydroxy-1,2,3,7,8,12b-hexahydrobenzo[1,2]cyclohepta[3,4,5d,e]isoquinoline hydrobromide 11. In a dopamine-sensitive rat retinal adenylate cyclase assay, a model for D-1 activity, compound 10 is essentially inert for both agonist and antagonist activity. In contrast, compound 11 is approximately equipotent to dopamine in activation of the D-1 receptor. Based on radioligand and binding data, IC 50 of compound 11 for displacement of 3 H-SCH 23390, a D-1 ligand, is about 7 fold less than that for displacement of 3 H-spiperone, a D-2 ligand. These data indicate that compound 11 is a potent selective dopamine D-1 agonist. This study provides a new structural class of dopamine D-1 acting agent: dihydroxy-benzocycloheptadiene analog which can serve as a lead compound for further drug development and as a probe for investigation on the nature of dopamine D-1 receptor

  17. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fent, Karl [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gründenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich), Department of Environmental System Sciences, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollution Dynamics, CH-8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Smital, Tvrtko, E-mail: smital@irb.hr [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2014-10-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  18. Interaction of environmental contaminants with zebrafish organic anion transporting polypeptide, Oatp1d1 (Slco1d1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, Marta; Zaja, Roko; Fent, Karl; Smital, Tvrtko

    2014-01-01

    Polyspecific transporters from the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP/Oatp) superfamily mediate the uptake of a wide range of compounds. In zebrafish, Oatp1d1 transports conjugated steroid hormones and cortisol. It is predominantly expressed in the liver, brain and testes. In this study we have characterized the transport of xenobiotics by the zebrafish Oatp1d1 transporter. We developed a novel assay for assessing Oatp1d1 interactors using the fluorescent probe Lucifer yellow and transient transfection in HEK293 cells. Our data showed that numerous environmental contaminants interact with zebrafish Oatp1d1. Oatp1d1 mediated the transport of diclofenac with very high affinity, followed by high affinity towards perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), nonylphenol, gemfibrozil and 17α-ethinylestradiol; moderate affinity towards carbaryl, diazinon and caffeine; and low affinity towards metolachlor. Importantly, many environmental chemicals acted as strong inhibitors of Oatp1d1. A strong inhibition of Oatp1d1 transport activity was found by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), chlorpyrifos-methyl, estrone (E1) and 17β-estradiol (E2), followed by moderate to low inhibition by diethyl phthalate, bisphenol A, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4 tetrahydronapthalene and clofibrate. In this study we identified Oatp1d1 as a first Solute Carrier (SLC) transporter involved in the transport of a wide range of xenobiotics in fish. Considering that Oatps in zebrafish have not been characterized before, our work on zebrafish Oatp1d1 offers important new insights on the understanding of uptake processes of environmental contaminants, and contributes to the better characterization of zebrafish as a model species. - Highlights: • We optimized a novel assay for determination of Oatp1d1 interactors • Oatp1d1 is the first SLC characterized fish xenobiotic transporter • PFOS, nonylphenol, diclofenac, EE2, caffeine are high affinity Oatp1d1substrates • PFOA, chlorpyrifos

  19. Stronger Dopamine D1 Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission in Dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Daniel; Muñoz, Ana; Moreno, Estefanía; Reyes-Resina, Irene; Canet-Pons, Júlia; Dopeso-Reyes, Iria G; Rico, Alberto J; Lluís, Carme; Mallol, Josefa; Navarro, Gemma; Canela, Enric I; Cortés, Antonio; Labandeira-García, José L; Casadó, Vicent; Lanciego, José L; Franco, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Radioligand binding assays to rat striatal dopamine D1 receptors showed that brain lateralization of the dopaminergic system were not due to changes in expression but in agonist affinity. D1 receptor-mediated striatal imbalance resulted from a significantly higher agonist affinity in the left striatum. D1 receptors heteromerize with dopamine D3 receptors, which are considered therapeutic targets for dyskinesia in parkinsonian patients. Expression of both D3 and D1-D3 receptor heteromers were increased in samples from 6-hydroxy-dopamine-hemilesioned rats rendered dyskinetic by treatment with 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (L-DOPA). Similar findings were obtained using striatal samples from primates. Radioligand binding studies in the presence of a D3 agonist led in dyskinetic, but not in lesioned or L-DOPA-treated rats, to a higher dopamine sensitivity. Upon D3-receptor activation, the affinity of agonists for binding to the right striatal D1 receptor increased. Excess dopamine coming from L-DOPA medication likely activates D3 receptors thus making right and left striatal D1 receptors equally responsive to dopamine. These results show that dyskinesia occurs concurrently with a right/left striatal balance in D1 receptor-mediated neurotransmission.

  20. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 1: Executive summary. [carry-on laboratory for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The definition and integration tasks involved in the development of design concepts for a carry-on laboratory (COL), to be compatible with Spacelab operations, were divided into the following study areas: (1) identification of research and equipment requirements of the COL; (2) development of a number of conceptual layouts for COL based on the defined research of final conceptual designs; and (4) development of COL planning information for definition of COL/Spacelab interface data, cost data, and program cost schedules, including design drawings of a selected COL to permit fabrication of a functional breadboard.

  1. AMPS sciences objectives and philosophy. [Atmospheric, Magnetospheric and Plasmas-in-Space project on Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmerling, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle will open a new era in the exploration of earth's near-space environment, where the weight and power capabilities of Spacelab and the ability to use man in real time add important new features. The Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas-in-Space project (AMPS) is conceived of as a facility where flexible core instruments can be flown repeatedly to perform different observations and experiments. The twin thrusts of remote sensing of the atmosphere below 120 km and active experiments on the space plasma are the major themes. They have broader implications in increasing our understanding of plasma physics and of energy conversion processes elsewhere in the universe.

  2. Correlation lifetimes of quiet and magnetic granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Topka, K.; Acton, L.; Duncan, D.; Ferguson, S.; Finch, M.; Frank, Z.; Kelly, G.; Lindgren, R.; Morrill, M.; Pope, T.; Reeves, R.; Rehse, R.; Shine, R.; Simon, G.; Harvey, J.; Leibacher, J.; Livingston, W.; November, L.; Zirker, J.

    The time sequences of diffraction limited granulation images obtained by the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter on Spacelab 2 are presented. The uncorrection autocorrelation limetime in magnetic regions is dominated by the 5-min oscillation. The removal of this oscillation causes the autocorrelation lifetime to increase by more than a factor of 2. The results suggest that a significant fraction of granule lifetimes are terminated by nearby explosions. Horizontal displacements and transverse velocities in the intensity field are measured. Lower limits to the lifetime in the quiet and magnetic sun are set at 440 s and 950 s, respectively.

  3. Development of a prototype interactive learning system using multi-media technology for mission independent training program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Jack E.

    1992-01-01

    The Spacelab Mission Independent Training Program provides an overview of payload operations. Most of the training material is currently presented in workbook form with some lecture sessions to supplement selected topics. The goal of this project was to develop a prototype interactive learning system for one of the Mission Independent Training topics to demonstrate how the learning process can be improved by incorporating multi-media technology into an interactive system. This report documents the development process and some of the problems encountered during the analysis, design, and production phases of this system.

  4. Dopamine D1 signaling organizes network dynamics underlying working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffman, Joshua L; Tanner, Alexandra S; Eryilmaz, Hamdi; Rodriguez-Thompson, Anais; Silverstein, Noah J; Ho, New Fei; Nitenson, Adam Z; Chonde, Daniel B; Greve, Douglas N; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Buckner, Randy L; Manoach, Dara S; Rosen, Bruce R; Hooker, Jacob M; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-06-01

    Local prefrontal dopamine signaling supports working memory by tuning pyramidal neurons to task-relevant stimuli. Enabled by simultaneous positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging (PET-MRI), we determined whether neuromodulatory effects of dopamine scale to the level of cortical networks and coordinate their interplay during working memory. Among network territories, mean cortical D1 receptor densities differed substantially but were strongly interrelated, suggesting cross-network regulation. Indeed, mean cortical D1 density predicted working memory-emergent decoupling of the frontoparietal and default networks, which respectively manage task-related and internal stimuli. In contrast, striatal D1 predicted opposing effects within these two networks but no between-network effects. These findings specifically link cortical dopamine signaling to network crosstalk that redirects cognitive resources to working memory, echoing neuromodulatory effects of D1 signaling on the level of cortical microcircuits.

  5. The pathophysiological functions mediated by D-1 dopamine receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, M.; Kuga, S.; Meller, E.; SHimizu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter describes some behavioral responses which might be mediated by D 1 and D 2 DA receptors, and the authors discuss their clinical relevance. It was of considerable interest to determine whether a selective D 1 DA antagonist, such as SCH 23390, will induce catalepsy and whether this behavior is mediated by D 1 , or by both D 1 and D 2 DA receptors. Rats were used in the experiments. The authors examined whether the addition of the S 2 antagonist ketanserin affects the displacement of 3 H-Spi by SCH 23390. Induction of self-mutilating biting (SMB) behavior in monkeys with unilateral ventromedial tegmental (VMT) lesions by DA agonists and its prevention by DA antagonists is examined. The authors also discuss the possible relationships between abnormal guanine nucleotide metabolism and dopaminergic neuronal function through the implications in LeschNyhan syndrome and in some mental disorders

  6. Concentrations of ethane (C2H6) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere and acetylene (C2H2) in the upper troposphere deduced from Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy/Spacelab 3 spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Zander, R.; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the spectroscopic analysis of C2H6 and C2H2 absorption spectra obtained by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument flown on the Shuttle as part of the Spacelab 3 mission. The spectra were recorded during sunset occultations occurring between 25 deg N and 31 deg N latitudes, yielding volume-mixing ratio profiles of C2H6 in the lower stratosphere and the upper troposphere, and an upper tropospheric profile of C2H2. These results compare well with previous in situ and remote sounding data obtained at similar latitudes and with model calculations. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the ATMOS instrument to sound the lower atmosphere from space.

  7. 26 CFR 1.1402(d)-1 - Employee and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee and wages. 1.1402(d)-1 Section 1.1402... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(d)-1 Employee and wages. For the purpose of the tax on self-employment income, the term “employee” and the term “wages” shall have the same...

  8. Underground storage tank 291-D1U1: Closure plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S.; Giuntoli, N.

    1993-09-01

    The 291-D1U1 tank system was installed in 1983 on the north side of Building 291. It supplies diesel fuel to the Building 291 emergency generator and air compressor. The emergency generator and air compressor are located southwest and southeast, respectively, of the tank (see Appendix B, Figure 2). The tank system consists of a single-walled, 2,000- gallon, fiberglass tank and a fuel pump system, fill pipe, vent pipe, electrical conduit, and fuel supply and return piping. The area to be excavated is paved with asphalt and concrete. It is not known whether a concrete anchor pad is associated with this tank. Additionally, this closure plan assumes that the diesel tank is below the fill pad. The emergency generator and air compressor for Building 291 and its associated UST, 291-D1U1, are currently in use. The generator and air compressor will be supplied by a temporary above-ground fuel tank prior to the removal of 291-D1U1. An above-ground fuel tank will be installed as a permanent replacement for 291-D1U1. The system was registered with the State Water Resources Control Board on June 27, 1984, as 291-41D and has subsequently been renamed 291-D1U1. Figure 1 (see Appendix B) shows the location of the 291-D1U1 tank system in relation to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Figure 2 (see Appendix B) shows the 291-D1U1 tank system in relation to Building 291. Figure 3 (see Appendix B) shows a plan view of the 291-D1U1 tank system.

  9. Phase B: Final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL), a spacelab mission payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary identification of the Supporting Research and Technology (SR&T) necessary during the planned evolution of atmospheric cloud physics is discussed. All requirements are for subsequent flights over its expected ten year lifetime. Those components identified as requiring some SR&T work prior to inclusion are listed. A data sheet is included for each item, briefly justifying the need, giving general objectives for the proposed development effort and identifying approximate schedule requirements on the program.

  10. Cyclin D1, Id1 and EMT in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, Nicholas P; Sims, Andrew H; Lundgren, Katja L; Lehn, Sophie; Landberg, Göran

    2011-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is a well-characterised cell cycle regulator with established oncogenic capabilities. Despite these properties, studies report contrasting links to tumour aggressiveness. It has previously been shown that silencing cyclin D1 increases the migratory capacity of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with concomitant increase in 'inhibitor of differentiation 1' (ID1) gene expression. Id1 is known to be associated with more invasive features of cancer and with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we sought to determine if the increase in cell motility following cyclin D1 silencing was mediated by Id1 and enhanced EMT-features. To further substantiate these findings we aimed to delineate the link between CCND1, ID1 and EMT, as well as clinical properties in primary breast cancer. Protein and gene expression of ID1, CCND1 and EMT markers were determined in MDA-MB-231 and ZR75 cells by western blot and qPCR. Cell migration and promoter occupancy were monitored by transwell and ChIP assays, respectively. Gene expression was analysed from publicly available datasets. The increase in cell migration following cyclin D1 silencing in MDA-MB-231 cells was abolished by Id1 siRNA treatment and we observed cyclin D1 occupancy of the Id1 promoter region. Moreover, ID1 and SNAI2 gene expression was increased following cyclin D1 knock-down, an effect reversed with Id1 siRNA treatment. Similar migratory and SNAI2 increases were noted for the ER-positive ZR75-1 cell line, but in an Id1-independent manner. In a meta-analysis of 1107 breast cancer samples, CCND1 low /ID1 high tumours displayed increased expression of EMT markers and were associated with reduced recurrence free survival. Finally, a greater percentage of CCND1 low /ID1 high tumours were found in the EMT-like 'claudin-low' subtype of breast cancer than in other subtypes. These results indicate that increased migration of MDA-MB-231 cells following cyclin D1 silencing can be mediated by Id

  11. Data Management Coordinators Monitor STS-78 Mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Launched on June 20, 1996, the STS-78 mission's primary payload was the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), which was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). During the 17 day space flight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations. In a manner very similar to future International Space Station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment. Five space agencies (NASA/USA, European Space Agency/Europe (ESA), French Space Agency/France, Canadian Space Agency /Canada, and Italian Space Agency/Italy) along with research scientists from 10 countries worked together on the design, development and construction of the LMS. This photo represents Data Management Coordinators monitoring the progress of the mission at the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at MSFC. Pictured are assistant mission scientist Dr. Dalle Kornfeld, Rick McConnel, and Ann Bathew.

  12. 26 CFR 25.2522(d)-1 - Additional cross references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2522(d)-1 Additional...) for provisions relating to the claim and allowance of the value of certain easements as a gift under... Housing and Urban Development Act (42 U.S.C. 3535), as added by section 905 of Pub. L. 91-609 (84 Stat...

  13. 26 CFR 25.2523(d)-1 - Joint interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2523(d)-1 Joint interests. Section..., if the donor purchased real property in the name of the donor and the donor's spouse as tenants by...

  14. D1.5 WEKIT Framework and Training Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limbu, Bibeg

    2017-01-01

    The document reports on the status of the WEKIT framework. Building up on the methodologies described in D1.3, it outlines the work done and progress made so far in the Task 1.3. The WEKIT framework was drafted to guide and support the development and implementation of the project. It aims to

  15. Image motion compensation on the Spacelab 2 Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter /SL2 SOUP/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbell, T. D.; Duncan, D. W.; Finch, M. L.; Spence, G.

    1981-01-01

    The SOUP experiment on Spacelab 2 includes a 30 cm visible light telescope and focal plane package mounted on the Instrument Pointing System (IPS). Scientific goals of the experiment dictate pointing stability requirements of less than 0.05 arcsecond jitter over periods of 5-20 seconds. Quantitative derivations of these requirements from two different aspects are presented: (1) avoidance of motion blurring of diffraction-limited images; (2) precise coalignment of consecutive frames to allow measurement of small image differences. To achieve this stability, a fine guider system capable of removing residual jitter of the IPS and image motions generated on the IPS cruciform instrument support structure has been constructed. This system uses solar limb detectors in the prime focal plane to derive an error signal. Image motion due to pointing errors is compensated by the agile secondary mirror mounted on piezoelectric transducers, controlled by a closed-loop servo system.

  16. Plasma diagnostics package. Volume 2: Spacelab 2 section. Part B: Thesis projects. Final science report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.S.; Frank, L.A.; Kurth, W.S.

    1988-06-01

    This volume (2), which consists of two parts (A and B), of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) Final Science Report contains a summary of all of the data reduction and scientific analyses which were performed using PDP data obtained on STS-51F as a part of the Spacelab 2 (SL-2) payload. This work was performed during the period of launch, July 29, 1985, through June 30, 1988. During this period the primary data reduction effort consisted of processing summary plots of the data received by 12 of the 14 instruments located on the PDP and submitting these data to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Three Master's and three Ph.D. theses were written using PDP instrumentation data. These theses are listed in Volume 2, Part B

  17. Plasma diagnostics package. Volume 2: Spacelab 2 section. Part B: Thesis projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Jolene S. (Compiler); Frank, L. A. (Compiler); Kurth, W. S. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    This volume (2), which consists of two parts (A and B), of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) Final Science Report contains a summary of all of the data reduction and scientific analyses which were performed using PDP data obtained on STS-51F as a part of the Spacelab 2 (SL-2) payload. This work was performed during the period of launch, July 29, 1985, through June 30, 1988. During this period the primary data reduction effort consisted of processing summary plots of the data received by 12 of the 14 instruments located on the PDP and submitting these data to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Three Master's and three Ph.D. theses were written using PDP instrumentation data. These theses are listed in Volume 2, Part B.

  18. Importance of temperature control for HEFLEX, a biological experiment for Spacelab 1. [plant gravitational physiology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, D. K.; Brown, A. H.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of temperature control to HEFLEX, a Spacelab experiment designed to measure kinetic properties of Helianthis nutation in a low-g environment, is discussed. It is argued that the development of the HEFLEX experiment has been severely hampered by the inadequate control of ambient air temperature provided by the spacecraft module design. A worst case calculation shows that delivery of only 69% of the maximum yield of useful data from the HEFLEX system is guaranteed; significant data losses from inadequate temperature control are expected. The magnitude of the expected data losses indicates that the cost reductions associated with imprecise temperature controls may prove to be a false economy in the long term.

  19. Man/terminal interaction evaluation of computer operating system command and control service concepts. [in Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, D. W.; Shields, N. L., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The Experiment Computer Operating System (ECOS) of the Spacelab will allow the onboard Payload Specialist to command experiment devices and display information relative to the performance of experiments. Three candidate ECOS command and control service concepts were reviewed and laboratory data on operator performance was taken for each concept. The command and control service concepts evaluated included a dedicated operator's menu display from which all command inputs were issued, a dedicated command key concept with which command inputs could be issued from any display, and a multi-display concept in which command inputs were issued from several dedicated function displays. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed in terms of training, operational errors, task performance time, and subjective comments of system operators.

  20. Underground storage tank 431-D1U1, Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancieri, S.

    1993-09-01

    This document contains information about the decommissioning of Tank 431-D1U1. This tank was installed in 1965 for diesel fuel storage. This tank will remain in active usage until closure procedures begin. Soils and ground water around the tank will be sampled to check for leakage. Appendices include; proof of proper training for workers, health and safety briefing record, task hazard analysis summary, and emergency plans.

  1. A nonperturbative solution of D=1 string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.J.; Miljkovic, N.

    1990-01-01

    We derive a nonperturbative solution of D=1 string theory, based on a double scaling limit of the one dimensional random matrix model. We derive an exact expression for the partition function in terms of the string coupling constant. The weak coupling expansion suffers from infrared divergences, which we attribute to massless tadpoles. The continuum limit seems to be well defined, however, in a strong coupling expansion. This could correspond to a different stable nonperturbative vacuum. (orig.)

  2. An interactive computer approach to performing resource analysis for a multi-resource/multi-project problem. [Spacelab inventory procurement planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    New planning techniques and supporting computer tools are needed for the optimization of resources and costs for space transportation and payload systems. Heavy emphasis on cost effective utilization of resources has caused NASA program planners to look at the impact of various independent variables that affect procurement buying. A description is presented of a category of resource planning which deals with Spacelab inventory procurement analysis. Spacelab is a joint payload project between NASA and the European Space Agency and will be flown aboard the Space Shuttle starting in 1980. In order to respond rapidly to the various procurement planning exercises, a system was built that could perform resource analysis in a quick and efficient manner. This system is known as the Interactive Resource Utilization Program (IRUP). Attention is given to aspects of problem definition, an IRUP system description, questions of data base entry, the approach used for project scheduling, and problems of resource allocation.

  3. Evaluation of D-1 tape and cassette characteristics: Moisture content of Sony and Ampex D-1 tapes when delivered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Gary

    Commercial D-1 cassette tapes and their associated recorders were designed to operate in broadcast studios and record in accordance with the International Radio Consultative Committee (CCIR) 607 digital video standards. The D-1 recorder resulted in the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) standards 224 to 228 and is the first digital video recorder to be standardized for the broadcast industry. The D-1 cassette and associated media are currently marketed for broadcast use. The recorder was redesigned for data applications and is in the early stages of being evaluated. The digital data formats used are specified in MIL-STD-2179 and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) X3.175-190 standard. In early 1990, the National Media Laboratory (NML) was asked to study the effects of time, temperature, and relative humidity on commercial D-1 cassettes. The environmental range to be studied was the one selected for the Advanced Tactical Air Reconnaissance System (ATARS) program. Several discussions between NML personnel, ATARS representatives, recorder contractors, and other interested parties were held to decide upon the experimental plan to be implemented. Review meetings were held periodically during the course of the experiment. The experiments were designed to determine the dimensional stability of the media and cassette since this is one of the major limiting factors of helical recorders when the media or recorders are subjected to non-broadcasting environments. Measurements were also made to characterize each sample of cassettes to give preliminary information on which purchase specifications could be developed. The actual tests performed on the cassettes and media before and after aging fall into the general categories listed.

  4. D1/D5 systems in N=4 string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gava, Edi; Hammou, Amine B.; Morales, Jose F.; Narain, Kumar S.

    2001-01-01

    We propose CFT descriptions of the D1/D5 system in a class of freely acting Z 2 orbifolds/orientifolds of type IIB theory, with sixteen unbroken supercharges. The CFTs describing D1/D5 systems involve N=(4,4) or N=(4,0) sigma models on (R 3 xS 1 xT 4 x(T 4 ) N /S N )/Z 2 , where the action of Z 2 is diagonal and its precise nature depends on the model. We also discuss D1(D5)-brane states carrying non-trivial Kaluza-Klein charges, which correspond to excitations of two-dimensional CFTs of the type (R 3 xS 1 xT 4 ) N /S N xZ 2 N . The resulting multiplicities for two-charge bound states are shown to agree with the predictions of U-duality. We raise a puzzle concerning the multiplicities of three-charge systems, which is generically present in all vacuum configurations with sixteen unbroken supercharges studied so far, including the more familiar type IIB on K3 case: the constraints put on BPS counting formulae by U-duality are apparently in contradiction with any CFT interpretation. We argue that the presence of RR backgrounds appearing in the symmetric product CFT may provide a resolution of this puzzle. Finally, we show that the whole tower of D-instanton corrections to certain 'BPS saturated couplings' in the low energy effective actions match with the corresponding one-loop threshold corrections on the dual fundamental string side

  5. Mutation at the Human D1S80 Minisatellite Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppareddi Balamurugan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the general biology of minisatellites. The purpose of this study is to examine repeat mutations from the D1S80 minisatellite locus by sequence analysis to elucidate the mutational process at this locus. This is a highly polymorphic minisatellite locus, located in the subtelomeric region of chromosome 1. We have analyzed 90,000 human germline transmission events and found seven (7 mutations at this locus. The D1S80 alleles of the parentage trio, the child, mother, and the alleged father were sequenced and the origin of the mutation was determined. Using American Association of Blood Banks (AABB guidelines, we found a male mutation rate of 1.04×10-4 and a female mutation rate of 5.18×10-5 with an overall mutation rate of approximately 7.77×10-5. Also, in this study, we found that the identified mutations are in close proximity to the center of the repeat array rather than at the ends of the repeat array. Several studies have examined the mutational mechanisms of the minisatellites according to infinite allele model (IAM and the one-step stepwise mutation model (SMM. In this study, we found that this locus fits into the one-step mutation model (SMM mechanism in six out of seven instances similar to STR loci.

  6. ECRH launching scenario in FFHR-d1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Kota; Kubo, Shin; Shimozuma, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Igami, Hiroe; Takahashi, Hiromi; Tsujimura, Tohru; Makino, Ryohhei

    2016-10-01

    ECRH is promising as a principal heating system in a prototype helical reactor FFHR-d1 where the heating power of 80 MW is required to bring the plasma parameter to break even condition. To generate the plasma and bring it to ignition condition in FFHR-d1, it is effective to heat the under/over-dense plasma with normal ECRH or Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW). Normal ECRH is well established but heating via EBW need sophisticated injection control. EBW can be excited via the O(ordinary)-X(extraordinary)-B(EBW) mode conversion process by launching the ordinary wave from the low field side to plasma cut-off layer with optimum injection angle, and the range of injection angle to get high OXB mode conversion rate is called OXB mode conversion window. Since the window position can change as the plasma parameter, it is necessary to optimize the injection angle so as to aim the window in response to the plasma parameters. Candidates of antenna positions are determined by optimum injection points on the plasma facing wall calculated by the injection angle. Given such picked up area, detailed analysis using ray-tracing calculations and engineering antenna design will be performed.

  7. Salivary gland ultrastructure and cyclic AMP-dependent reactions in Spacelab 3 rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mednieks, M.I.; Hand, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Environmental stimuli influencing catecholamine levels induce changes in cyclic AMP-dependent reactions and cell morphology in the rat parotid. Responses of salivary glands to spaceflight were determined by measurement of cyclic AMP-mediated reactions in fresh-frozen salivary glands and by microscopic evaluation of ultrastructure in fixed parotid glands. Decreased cell-free protein phosphorylation, determined by autoradiography, occurred in parotid glands in three of five flight animals. Protein kinase activity ratios were decreased in the soluble and increased in the particulate fractions of Spacelab 3 (SL-3) rat sublingual glands, compared with ground controls. Biochemical analyses show that effects of space flight on salivary glands are similar to those induced experimentally by physiological manipulation or alteration of catecholamine levels. Morphological evaluation of three SL-3 rat parotid glands showed increased numbers of lysosomes, autophagic vacuoles containing degenerating secretory product, and accumulation of lipid droplets. Since these animals lost weight, consistent with disruption of food and water consumption, morphological changes may in part be due to decreased masticatory stimulation, as occurs with reduced food intake or a liquid diet. The observed changes may reflect physiological responses of the gastrointestinal and autonomic systems to effects of spaceflight

  8. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-01-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution

  9. Statistical properties of solar granulation from the SOUP instrument on Spacelab 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topka, K.; Title, A.; Tarbell, T.; Ferguson, S.; Shine, R.

    1988-11-01

    The Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) on Spacelab 2 collected movies of solar granulation completely free from atmospheric blurring, and are not degraded by pointint jitter (the pointing stability was 0.003 sec root mean square). The movies illustrate that the solar five minute oscillation has a major role in the appearance of solar granulation and that exploding granules are a common feature of the granule evolution. Using 3-D Fourier filtering techniques the oscillations were removed and it was demonstrated that the autocorrelation lifetime of granulation is a factor of two greater in magnetic field regions than in field-free quiet sun. Horizontal velocities were measured and flow patterns were observed on the scale of meso- and super granulation. In quiet regions the mean flow velocity is 370 m/s while in the magnetic regions it is about 125 m/s. It was also found that the root mean square (RMS) fluctuating horizonal velocity field is substantially greater in quiet sun than in strong magnetic field regions. By superimposing the location of exploding granules on the average flow maps it was found that they appear almost exclusively in the center of mesogranulation size flow cells. Because of the nonuniformity of the distribution of exploding granules, the evolution of the granulation pattern in mesogranule cell centers and boundaries differs fundamentally. It is clear from this study there is neither a typical granule nor a typical granule evolution.

  10. 4d N=1 from 6d (1,0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razamat, Shlomo S. [Physics Department, Technion,Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Vafa, Cumrun [Jefferson Physical Laboratory, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Zafrir, Gabi [Physics Department, Technion,Haifa, 32000 (Israel); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, the University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2017-04-11

    We study the geometry of 4d N=1 SCFT’s arising from compactification of 6d (1,0) SCFT’s on a Riemann surface. We show that the conformal manifold of the resulting theory is characterized, in addition to moduli of complex structure of the Riemann surface, by the choice of a connection for a vector bundle on the surface arising from flavor symmetries in 6d. We exemplify this by considering the case of 4d N=1 SCFT’s arising from M5 branes probing ℤ{sub k} singularity compactified on a Riemann surface. In particular, we study in detail the four dimensional theories arising in the case of two M5 branes on ℤ{sub 2} singularity. We compute the conformal anomalies and indices of such theories in 4d and find that they are consistent with expectations based on anomaly and the moduli structure derived from the 6 dimensional perspective.

  11. Interactions and scattering in d = 1 string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, A.M.; Mandal, G.; Wadia, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses two results: the authors calculate the two-point function of the density fluctuations to o(g st 2 ) in the fermionic formulation of the d = 1 string theory and compare with the o(g st 2 ) result from the candidate collective field Hamiltonian. The latter result is divergent, showing the inequivalence of the two theories. The authors find out the corrections to the collective field Hamiltonian (both in the form of infinite counterterms and additional finite pieces) needed to match with the fermion theory. The authors study tree-level scattering processes between bosons due to the localized interaction near the boundary (in a region of order √ α'). The reflection problem at the boundary is treated by an analytic continuation of the time-of-flight variable

  12. Local conservation laws for principle chiral fields (d=1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherednik, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    The Beklund transformation for chiral fields in the two-dimensional Minkovski space is found. As a result an infinite series of conservation laws for principle chiral Osub(n) fields (d=1) has been built. It is shown that these laws are local, the infinite series of global invariants which do not depend on xi, eta, and which is rather rapidly decrease along xi (or along eta) solutions being connected with these laws (xi, eta - coordinates of the light cone). It is noted that with the help of the construction proposed it is possible to obtain conservation laws of principle chiral G fields, including G in the suitable ortogonal groups. Symmetry permits to exchange xi and eta. The construction of conservation laws may be carried out without supposition that lambda has a multiplicity equal to 1, however the proof of the locality applied does not transfer on the laws obtained

  13. The multiplicity of the D-1 dopamine receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailman, R.B.; Klits, C.D.; Lewis, M.H.; Rollema, H.; Schulz, D.W.; Wyrick, S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have sought to address two questions of some neuropharmacological importance in this chapter. First, they examine the nature of mechanisms by which dopamine initiates many psychopharmacological effects and, second, they study the possibility of designing highly specific drugs targeted only at a selected subpopulation of dopamine receptors. Effects of SCH23390 and haloperidol on concentrations of dopamine, DOPAC, and HVA in various rat brain regions are shown. In addition, the effects of SCH23390 on the in vivo binding of dipropyl-5, 6-ADTN are shown. Differential distribution of a dopamine sensitive adenylate cyclase and ( 3 H)-SCH23390 binding sites are examined. A model is presented of D 1 dopamine receptors in membrane, illustrating the lack of identity of some of the ( 3 H)-SCH23390 binding sites with the dopamine receptor linked to stimulation of cAMP synthesis

  14. Protein crystal growth results from the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucas, Lawrence J.; Moore, K. M.; Vanderwoerd, M.; Bray, T. L.; Smith, C.; Carson, M.; Narayana, S. V. L.; Rosenblum, W. M.; Carter, D.; Clark, A. D, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Protein crystal growth experiments have been performed by this laboratory on 18 Space Shuttle missions since April, 1985. In addition, a number of microgravity experiments also have been performed and reported by other investigators. These Space Shuttle missions have been used to grow crystals of a variety of proteins using vapor diffusion, liquid diffusion, and temperature-induced crystallization techniques. The United States Microgravity Laboratory - 1 mission (USML-1, June 25 - July 9, 1992) was a Spacelab mission dedicated to experiments involved in materials processing. New protein crystal growth hardware was developed to allow in orbit examination of initial crystal growth results, the knowledge from which was used on subsequent days to prepare new crystal growth experiments. In addition, new seeding hardware and techniques were tested as well as techniques that would prepare crystals for analysis by x-ray diffraction, a capability projected for the planned Space Station. Hardware that was specifically developed for the USML-1 mission will be discussed along with the experimental results from this mission.

  15. Development of user guidelines for ECAS display design. Volume 2: Tasks 9 and 10. [educating the public to the benefits of spacelab and the space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathurst, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Lay-oriented speakers aids, articles, a booklet, and a press kit were developed to inform the press and the general public with background information on the space transportation system, Spacelab, and Spacelab 1 experiments. Educational materials relating to solar-terrestrial physics and its potential benefits to mankind were also written. A basic network for distributing audiovisual and printed materials to regional secondary schools and universities was developed. Suggested scripts to be used with visual aids describing materials science and technology and astronomy and solar physics are presented.

  16. A Decade of Life Sciences Experiment Unique Equipment Development for Spacelab and Space Station, 1990-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Paul D.; Connolly, J. P.; Navarro, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    Ames Research Center's Life Sciences Division has developed and flown an extensive array of spaceflight experiment unique equipment (EUE) during the last decade of the twentieth century. Over this ten year span, the EUE developed at ARC supported a vital gravitational biology flight research program executed on several different platforms, including the Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and Space Station Mir. This paper highlights some of the key EUE elements developed at ARC and flown during the period 1990-1999. Resulting lessons learned will be presented that can be applied to the development of similar equipment for the International Space Station.

  17. Write-up for the diffractometer D1 at Risoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundgaard, J.; Krebs Larsen, F.; Lebech, B.; Nielsen, M.H.; Skaarup, P.

    1982-05-01

    Manual for the crystallographic program system used to control the 4-circle neutron diffractometer D1/TASII at DR3, Risoe. The mechanical part of the diffractometer consists of a monochromator part which allows an easy change of incident neutron wavelenght and a four-circle HUBER goniostate consisting of an Euler cradle (HUBER 512) and two horizontal goniometers (HUBER 440 and HUBER 430). The goniostate is computer controlled by a PDP-11/34 interfaced via CAMAC modules. The PDP-11/34 computer has a 128 k byte memory, two hard magnetic disc stations, a fast DEC-writer terminal and a screen terminal. The diffractometer can be operated remotely via modem and telephone line connections from remote stations such as the University of Aarhus and ILL, Grenoble. Minor parts of the software used to control the diffractometer were developed at Risoe while the major parts were a generous gift to Risoe from College 5, the diffraction group, at the Institute Laue-Langevin, Grenoble, France. (editors)

  18. Giant magnons in the D1-D5 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.; Sahoo, Bindusar

    2008-01-01

    We study giant magnons in the the D1-D5 system from both the boundary CFT and as classical solutions of the string sigma model in AdS 3 x S 3 x T 4 . Re-examining earlier studies of the symmetric product conformal field theory we argue that giant magnons in the symmetric product are BPS states in a centrally extended SU(1|1) x SU(1|1) superalgebra with two more additional central charges. The magnons carry these additional central charges locally but globally they vanish. Using a spin chain description of these magnons and the extended superalgebra we show that these magnons obey a dispersion relation which is periodic in momentum. We then identify these states on the string theory side and show that here too they are BPS in the same centrally extended algebra and obey the same dispersion relation which is periodic in momentum. This dispersion relation arises as the BPS condition for the extended algebra and is similar to that of magnons in N = 4 Yang-Mills

  19. Intelligent Mission Controller Node

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perme, David

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the Intelligent Mission Controller Node (IMCN) project was to improve the process of translating mission taskings between real-world Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and Intelligence (C41...

  20. Critical Robotic Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.

  1. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouklik, I [NPP Dukovany (Czech Republic)

    1997-12-31

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future.

  2. Dukovany ASSET mission preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouklik, I.

    1996-01-01

    We are in the final stages of the Dukovany ASSET mission 1996 preparation. I would like to present some of our recent experiences. Maybe they would be helpful to other plants, that host ASSET missions in future

  3. Mission operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  4. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  5. 26 CFR 1.860D-1 - Definition of a REMIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of a REMIC. 1.860D-1 Section 1.860D-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860D-1 Definition of a REMIC. (a) In general. A real...

  6. 26 CFR 1.167(d)-1 - Agreement as to useful life and rates of depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation. 1.167(d)-1 Section 1.167(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... and Corporations § 1.167(d)-1 Agreement as to useful life and rates of depreciation. After August 16... respect to the estimated useful life, method and rate of depreciation and treatment of salvage of any...

  7. 26 CFR 1.45D-1 - New markets tax credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true New markets tax credit. 1.45D-1 Section 1.45D-1... Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.45D-1 New markets tax credit. (a) Table... of new markets tax credit (B) Recapture event (ii) CDE reporting requirements to Secretary (iii...

  8. 26 CFR 1.411(d)-1 - Coordination of vesting and discrimination requirements. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of vesting and discrimination requirements. [Reserved] 1.411(d)-1 Section 1.411(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Plans, Etc. § 1.411(d)-1 Coordination of vesting and discrimination requirements. [Reserved] ...

  9. In the footsteps of Columbus European missions to the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, John

    2016-01-01

    The European Space Agency has a long history of cooperating with NASA in human spaceflight, having developed the Spacelab module for carrying in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. This book tells of the development of ESA’s Columbus microgravity science laboratory of the International Space Station and the European astronauts who work in it. From the beginning, ESA has been in close collaboration on the ISS, making a significant contribution to the station hardware. Special focus is given to Columbus and Copula as well as station resupply using the ATV. Each mission is also examined individually, creating a comprehensive picture of ESA's crucial involvement over the years. Extensive use of color photographs from NASA and ESA to depict the experiments carried out, the phases of the ISS construction, and the personal stories of the astronauts in space highlights the crucial European work on human spaceflight.

  10. The STEREO Mission

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.

  11. VEGA Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    VEGA (mission) is a combined spacecraft mission to VENUS and COMET HALLEY. It was launched in the USSR at the end of 1984. The mission consisted of two identical spacecraft VEGA 1 and VEGA 2. VEGA is an acronym built from the words `Venus' and `Halley' (`Galley' in Russian spelling). The basic design of the spacecraft was the same as has been used many times to deliver Soviet landers and orbiter...

  12. Speeding through cell cycle roadblocks: Nuclear cyclin D1-dependent kinase and neoplastic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diehl J Alan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mitogenic induction of cyclin D1, the allosteric regulator of CDK4/6, is a key regulatory event contributing to G1 phase progression. Following the G1/S transition, cyclin D1 activation is antagonized by GSK3β-dependent threonine-286 (Thr-286 phosphorylation, triggering nuclear export and subsequent cytoplasmic degradation mediated by the SCFFbx4-αBcrystallin E3 ubiquitin ligase. Although cyclin D1 overexpression occurs in numerous malignancies, overexpression of cyclin D1 alone is insufficient to drive transformation. In contrast, cyclin D1 mutants refractory to phosphorylation-dependent nuclear export and degradation are acutely transforming. This raises the question of whether overexpression of cyclin D1 is a significant contributor to tumorigenesis or an effect of neoplastic transformation. Significantly, recent work strongly supports a model wherein nuclear accumulation of cyclin D1-dependent kinase during S-phase is a critical event with regard to transformation. The identification of mutations within SCFFbx4-αBcrystallin ligase in primary tumors provides mechanistic insight into cyclin D1 accumulation in human cancer. Furthermore, analysis of mouse models expressing cyclin D1 mutants refractory to degradation indicate that nuclear cyclin D1/CDK4 kinase triggers DNA re-replication and genomic instability. Collectively, these new findings provide a mechanism whereby aberrations in post-translational regulation of cyclin D1 establish a cellular environment conducive to mutations that favor neoplastic growth.

  13. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U.; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A m 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A m 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. PMID:26476691

  14. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A (m) 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A (m) 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Mission of Mercy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humenik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Some dentists prefer solo charity work, but there is much to be said for collaboration within the profession in reaching out to those who are dentally underserved. Mission of Mercy (MOM) programs are regularly organized across the country for this purpose. This article describes the structure, reach, and personal satisfaction to be gained from such missions.

  16. Use of a FORTH-based PROLOG for real-time expert systems. 1: Spacelab life sciences experiment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.; Odette, Louis L.; Krever, Alfred J.; West, Allison K.

    1987-01-01

    A real-time expert system is being developed to serve as the astronaut interface for a series of Spacelab vestibular experiments. This expert system is written in a version of Prolog that is itself written in Forth. The Prolog contains a predicate that can be used to execute Forth definitions; thus, the Forth becomes an embedded real-time operating system within the Prolog programming environment. The expert system consists of a data base containing detailed operational instructions for each experiment, a rule base containing Prolog clauses used to determine the next step in an experiment sequence, and a procedure base containing Prolog goals formed from real-time routines coded in Forth. In this paper, we demonstrate and describe the techniques and considerations used to develop this real-time expert system, and we conclude that Forth-based Prolog provides a viable implementation vehicle for this and similar applications.

  17. Resolvin D1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kang-Hyun; Park, Tai Sun; Kim, You-Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do; Lee, Sei Won

    2016-01-01

    Emphysema is an irreversible disease that is characterized by destruction of lung tissue as a result of inflammation caused by smoking. Resolvin D1 (RvD1), derived from docosahexaenoic acid, is a novel lipid that resolves inflammation. The present study tested whether RvD1 prevents smoking-induced emphysema and promotes lung tissue regeneration. C57BL/6 mice, 8 weeks of age, were randomly divided into four groups: control, RvD1 only, smoking only, and smoking with RvD1 administration. Four different protocols were used to induce emphysema and administer RvD1: mice were exposed to smoking for 4 weeks with poly(I:C) or to smoking only for 24 weeks, and RvD1 was injected within the smoking exposure period to prevent regeneration or after completion of smoking exposure to assess regeneration. The mean linear intercept and inflammation scores were measured in the lung tissue, and inflammatory cells and cytokines were measured in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Measurements of mean linear intercept showed that RvD1 significantly attenuated smoking-induced lung destruction in all emphysema models. RvD1 also reduced smoking-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, which causes the structural derangements observed in emphysema. In the 4-week prevention model, RvD1 reduced the smoking-induced increase in eosinophils and interleukin-6 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In the 24-week prevention model, RvD1 also reduced the increased neutrophils and total cell counts induced by smoking. RvD1 attenuated smoking-induced emphysema in vivo by reducing inflammation and promoting tissue regeneration. This result suggests that RvD1 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of emphysema.

  18. Cocaine Disrupts Histamine H3 Receptor Modulation of Dopamine D1 Receptor Signaling: σ1-D1-H3 Receptor Complexes as Key Targets for Reducing Cocaine's Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Estefanía; Moreno-Delgado, David; Navarro, Gemma; Hoffmann, Hanne M.; Fuentes, Silvia; Rosell-Vilar, Santi; Gasperini, Paola; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Mar; Medrano, Mireia; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Lluís, Carme; Ferré, Sergi; Ortiz, Jordi; Canela, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The general effects of cocaine are not well understood at the molecular level. What is known is that the dopamine D1 receptor plays an important role. Here we show that a key mechanism may be cocaine's blockade of the histamine H3 receptor-mediated inhibition of D1 receptor function. This blockade requires the σ1 receptor and occurs upon cocaine binding to σ1-D1-H3 receptor complexes. The cocaine-mediated disruption leaves an uninhibited D1 receptor that activates Gs, freely recruits β-arrestin, increases p-ERK 1/2 levels, and induces cell death when over activated. Using in vitro assays with transfected cells and in ex vivo experiments using both rats acutely treated or self-administered with cocaine along with mice depleted of σ1 receptor, we show that blockade of σ1 receptor by an antagonist restores the protective H3 receptor-mediated brake on D1 receptor signaling and prevents the cell death from elevated D1 receptor signaling. These findings suggest that a combination therapy of σ1R antagonists with H3 receptor agonists could serve to reduce some effects of cocaine. PMID:24599455

  19. Mission operations for unmanned nuclear electric propulsion outer planet exploration with a thermionic reactor spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, R. J.; Prickett, W. Z.; Garate, J. A.; Firth, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration NEP spacecraft employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference missions are the Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. The characteristics of the baseline multi-mission NEP spacecraft are presented and its performance in other outer planet missions, such as Saturn and Uranus orbiters and a Neptune flyby, are discussed. Candidate mission operations are defined from spacecraft assembly to mission completion. Pre-launch operations are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur D-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and the heliocentric mission phases. The sequence and type of operations are basically identical for all missions investigated.

  20. Relationship between cyclin D1 expression and poor radioresponse of murine carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milas, Luka; Akimoto, Tetsuo; Hunter, Nancy R.; Mason, Kathyrn A.; Buchmiller, Lara; Yamakawa, Michitaka; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Ang, K. Kian

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We recently reported that overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) positively correlated with radioresistance of murine carcinomas. Because cyclin D1 is a downstream sensor of EGFR activation, the present study investigated whether a relationship exists between the extent of cyclin D1 expression and in vivo radiocurability of murine tumors. We further investigated the influence of radiation on cyclin D1 expression and the expression of p27, an inhibitor of the cyclin D1 downstream pathway, as well as the relationship of these molecular determinants to cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in tumors exposed to radiation. Methods and Materials: Cyclin D1 expression was assayed in nine carcinomas syngeneic to C3Hf/Kam mice using Western blot analysis. These tumors greatly differed in their radioresponse as assessed by TCD 50 . The expression of cyclin D1 and p27 proteins was determined by Western blotting. Cell proliferative activity in tumors was determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunochemistry. The effect of irradiation on the expression of cyclin D1 or p27 proteins and on PCNA positivity was determined in the radiosensitive OCa-I and in the radioresistant SCC-VII tumors. Results: Cyclin D1 expression varied among tumors by 40-fold, and its magnitude positively correlated with poorer tumor radioresponse (higher TCD 50 values). The level of cyclin D1 expression paralleled that of EGFR. A 15-Gy dose reduced constitutive expression of cyclin D1 in the radiosensitive OCa-I tumors, but had no influence on expression of cyclin D1 in the radioresistant SCC-VII tumors. In contrast, 15 Gy increased the expression of p27 in radiosensitive tumors and reduced it in radioresistant tumors. Radiation induced no significant apoptosis or change in the percentage of PCNA-positive (proliferating) cells in SCC-VII tumors with high cyclin D1 levels, but it induced significant apoptosis and a decrease in the percentage of proliferating

  1. Cyclin D1 and mammary carcinoma: new insights from transgenic mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, Robert L; Musgrove, Elizabeth A

    2002-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is one of the most commonly overexpressed oncogenes in breast cancer, with 45–50% of primary ductal carcinomas overexpressing this oncoprotein. Targeted deletion of the gene encoding cyclin D1 demonstrates an essential role in normal mammary gland development while transgenic studies provide evidence that cyclin D1 is a weak oncogene in mammary epithelium. In a recent exciting development, Yu et al. demonstrate that cyclin D1-deficient mice are resistant to mammary carcinomas induced by c-neu and v-Ha-ras, but not those induced by c-myc or Wnt-1. These findings define a pivotal role for cyclin D1 in a subset of mammary cancers in mice and imply a functional role for cyclin D1 overexpression in human breast cancer

  2. Efficient source for the production of ultradense deuterium D(-1) for laser-induced fusion (ICF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Patrik U.; Loenn, Benny; Holmlid, Leif

    2011-01-01

    A novel source which simplifies the study of ultradense deuterium D(-1) is now described. This means one step further toward deuterium fusion energy production. The source uses internal gas feed and D(-1) can now be studied without time-of-flight spectral overlap from the related dense phase D(1). The main aim here is to understand the material production parameters, and thus a relatively weak laser with focused intensity ≤10 12 W cm -2 is employed for analyzing the D(-1) material. The properties of the D(-1) material at the source are studied as a function of laser focus position outside the emitter, deuterium gas feed, laser pulse repetition frequency and laser power, and temperature of the source. These parameters influence the D(-1) cluster size, the ionization mode, and the laser fragmentation patterns.

  3. Efficient source for the production of ultradense deuterium D(-1) for laser-induced fusion (ICF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Patrik U.; Lönn, Benny; Holmlid, Leif

    2011-01-01

    A novel source which simplifies the study of ultradense deuterium D(-1) is now described. This means one step further toward deuterium fusion energy production. The source uses internal gas feed and D(-1) can now be studied without time-of-flight spectral overlap from the related dense phase D(1). The main aim here is to understand the material production parameters, and thus a relatively weak laser with focused intensity ≤1012 W cm-2 is employed for analyzing the D(-1) material. The properties of the D(-1) material at the source are studied as a function of laser focus position outside the emitter, deuterium gas feed, laser pulse repetition frequency and laser power, and temperature of the source. These parameters influence the D(-1) cluster size, the ionization mode, and the laser fragmentation patterns.

  4. Dopamine D(1) receptor deletion strongly reduces neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ares-Santos, S; Granado, N; Oliva, I; O'Shea, E; Martin, E D; Colado, M I; Moratalla, R

    2012-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a potent, highly addictive psychostimulant consumed worldwide. In humans and experimental animals, repeated exposure to this drug induces persistent neurodegenerative changes. Damage occurs primarily to dopaminergic neurons, accompanied by gliosis. The toxic effects of METH involve excessive dopamine (DA) release, thus DA receptors are highly likely to play a role in this process. To define the role of D(1) receptors in the neurotoxic effects of METH we used D(1) receptor knock-out mice (D(1)R(-/-)) and their WT littermates. Inactivation of D(1)R prevented METH-induced dopamine fibre loss and hyperthermia, and increases in gliosis and pro-inflammatory molecules such as iNOS in the striatum. In addition, D(1)R inactivation prevented METH-induced loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. To explore the relationship between hyperthermia and neurotoxicity, METH was given at high ambient temperature (29 °C). In this condition, D(1)R(-/-) mice developed hyperthermia following drug delivery and the neuroprotection provided by D(1)R inactivation at 23 °C was no longer observed. However, reserpine, which empties vesicular dopamine stores, blocked hyperthermia and strongly potentiated dopamine toxicity in D(1)R(-/-) mice, suggesting that the protection afforded by D(1)R inactivation is due to both hypothermia and higher stored vesicular dopamine. Moreover, electrical stimulation evoked higher DA overflow in D(1)R(-/-) mice as demonstrated by fast scan cyclic voltammetry despite their lower basal DA content, suggesting higher vesicular DA content in D(1)R(-/-) than in WT mice. Altogether, these results indicate that the D(1)R plays a significant role in METH-induced neurotoxicity by mediating drug-induced hyperthermia and increasing the releasable cytosolic DA pool. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Contraction regulates site-specific phosphorylation of TBC1D1 in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichaiwong, Kanokwan; Purohit, Suneet; An, Ding; Toyoda, Taro; Jessen, Niels; Hirshman, Michael F; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2010-10-15

    TBC1D1 (tre-2/USP6, BUB2, cdc16 domain family member 1) is a Rab-GAP (GTPase-activating protein) that is highly expressed in skeletal muscle, but little is known about TBC1D1 regulation and function. We studied TBC1D1 phosphorylation on three predicted AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) phosphorylation sites (Ser231, Ser660 and Ser700) and one predicted Akt phosphorylation site (Thr590) in control mice, AMPKα2 inactive transgenic mice (AMPKα2i TG) and Akt2-knockout mice (Akt2 KO). Muscle contraction significantly increased TBC1D1 phosphorylation on Ser231 and Ser660, tended to increase Ser700 phosphorylation, but had no effect on Thr590. AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxyamide ribonucleoside) also increased phosphorylation on Ser231, Ser660 and Ser700, but not Thr590, whereas insulin only increased Thr590 phosphorylation. Basal and contraction-stimulated TBC1D1 Ser231, Ser660 and Ser700 phosphorylation were greatly reduced in AMPKα2i TG mice, although contraction still elicited a small increase in phosphorylation. Akt2 KO mice had blunted insulin-stimulated TBC1D1 Thr590 phosphorylation. Contraction-stimulated TBC1D1 Ser231 and Ser660 phosphorylation were normal in high-fat-fed mice. Glucose uptake in vivo was significantly decreased in tibialis anterior muscles overexpressing TBC1D1 mutated on four predicted AMPK phosphorylation sites. In conclusion, contraction causes site-specific phosphorylation of TBC1D1 in skeletal muscle, and TBC1D1 phosphorylation on AMPK sites regulates contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. AMPK and Akt regulate TBC1D1 phosphorylation, but there must be additional upstream kinases that mediate TBC1D1 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.

  6. Cyclin K and cyclin D1b are oncogenic in myeloma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renoir Jack-Michel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant expression of cyclin D1 is a common feature in multiple myeloma (MM and always associated with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL. CCND1 gene is alternatively spliced to produce two cyclin D1 mRNA isoforms which are translated in two proteins: cyclin D1a and cyclin D1b. Both isoforms are present in MM cell lines and primary cells but their relative role in the tumorigenic process is still elusive. Results To test the tumorigenic potential of cyclin D1b in vivo, we generated cell clones derived from the non-CCND1 expressing MM LP-1 cell line, synthesizing either cyclin D1b or cyclin K, a structural homolog and viral oncogenic form of cyclin D1a. Immunocompromised mice injected s.c. with LP-1K or LP-1D1b cells develop tumors at the site of injection. Genome-wide analysis of LP-1-derived cells indicated that several cellular processes were altered by cyclin D1b and/or cyclin K expression such as cell metabolism, signal transduction, regulation of transcription and translation. Importantly, cyclin K and cyclin D1b have no major action on cell cycle or apoptosis regulatory genes. Moreover, they impact differently cell functions. Cyclin K-expressing cells have lost their migration properties and display enhanced clonogenic capacities. Cyclin D1b promotes tumorigenesis through the stimulation of angiogenesis. Conclusions Our study indicates that cyclin D1b participates into MM pathogenesis via previously unrevealed actions.

  7. EUCLID mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Oswald; Ergenzinger, Klaus; Tuttle, Sean; Vaillon, L.; Johann, Ulrich

    2017-11-01

    EUCLID, a medium-class mission candidate of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Program, currently in Definition Phase (Phase A/B1), shall map the geometry of the Dark Universe by investigating dark matter distributions, the distance-redshift relationship, and the evolution of cosmic structures. EUCLID consists of a 1.2 m telescope and two scientific instruments for ellipticity and redshift measurements in the visible and nearinfrared wavelength regime. We present a design concept of the EUCLID mission which is fully compliant with the mission requirements. Preliminary concepts of the spacecraft and of the payload including the scientific instruments are discussed.

  8. Regulation of dopamine D1 receptor dynamics within the postsynaptic density of hippocampal glutamate synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Ladepeche

    Full Text Available Dopamine receptor potently modulates glutamate signalling, synaptic plasticity and neuronal network adaptations in various pathophysiological processes. Although key intracellular signalling cascades have been identified, the cellular mechanism by which dopamine and glutamate receptor-mediated signalling interplay at glutamate synapse remain poorly understood. Among the cellular mechanisms proposed to aggregate D1R in glutamate synapses, the direct interaction between D1R and the scaffold protein PSD95 or the direct interaction with the glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR have been proposed. To tackle this question we here used high-resolution single nanoparticle imaging since it provides a powerful way to investigate at the sub-micron resolution the dynamic interaction between these partners in live synapses. We demonstrate in hippocampal neuronal networks that dopamine D1 receptors (D1R laterally diffuse within glutamate synapses, in which their diffusion is reduced. Disrupting the interaction between D1R and PSD95, through genetical manipulation and competing peptide, did not affect D1R dynamics in glutamatergic synapses. However, preventing the physical interaction between D1R and the GluN1 subunit of NMDAR abolished the synaptic stabilization of diffusing D1R. Together, these data provide direct evidence that the interaction between D1R and NMDAR in synapses participate in the building of the dopamine-receptor-mediated signalling, and most likely to the glutamate-dopamine cross-talk.

  9. Dopamine D1 receptor activation maintains motor coordination and balance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Luna, Alberto; Gálvez-Rosas, Arturo; Durand-Rivera, Alfredo; Ramos-Languren, Laura-Elisa; Ríos, Camilo; Arias-Montaño, José-Antonio; Bueno-Nava, Antonio

    2018-02-01

    Dopamine (DA) modulates motor coordination, and its depletion, as in Parkinson's disease, produces motor impairment. The basal ganglia, cerebellum and cerebral cortex are interconnected, have functional roles in motor coordination, and possess dopamine D 1 receptors (D 1 Rs), which are expressed at a particularly high density in the basal ganglia. In this study, we examined whether the activation of D 1 Rs modulates motor coordination and balance in the rat using a beam-walking test that has previously been used to detect motor coordination deficits. The systemic administration of the D 1 R agonist SKF-38393 at 2, 3, or 4 mg/kg did not alter the beam-walking scores, but the subsequent administration of the D 1 R antagonist SCH-23390 at 1 mg/kg did produce deficits in motor coordination, which were reversed by the full agonist SKF-82958. The co-administration of SKF-38393 and SCH-23390 did not alter the beam-walking scores compared with the control group, but significantly prevented the increase in beam-walking scores induced by SCH-23390. The effect of the D 1 R agonist to prevent and reverse the effect of the D 1 R antagonist in beam-walking scores is an indicator that the function of D 1 Rs is necessary to maintain motor coordination and balance in rats. Our results support that D 1 Rs mediate the SCH-23390-induced deficit in motor coordination.

  10. PLA Missions Beyond Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Marc

    2008-01-01

    KEY INSIGHTS: *The PLA is being assigned and training for an increasing variety of missions, including nontraditional battlefields such as outer space and cyber space, as well as nontraditional functions...

  11. MeCP2 Expression and Promoter Methylation of Cyclin D1 Gene Are Associated with Cyclin D1 Expression in Developing Rat Epididymal Duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwanto, Agus; Kitazawa, Riko; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kondo, Takeshi; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2008-01-01

    Hypermethylation-dependent silencing of the gene is achieved by recruiting methyl-CpG binding proteins (MeCPs). Among the MeCPs, MeCP2 is the most abundantly and ubiquitously expressed in various types of cells. We first screened the distribution and expression pattern of MeCP2 in adult and developing rat tissues and found strong MeCP2 expression, albeit rather ubiquitously among normal tissues, in ganglion cells and intestinal epithelium in the small intestine, in Purkinje cells and neurons in the brain, in spermatogonia and in epithelial cells in the epididymal duct of the testis. We then assessed the expression and the methylation pattern of the promoter region of cyclin D1 by immunohistochemistry and sodium bisulfite mapping, and found that cyclin D1 expression in the epididymal duct decreased rapidly during rat development: strong in newborn rats and very weak or almost negative in 7-day-old rats. Mirroring the decrease of cyclin D1 expression, methylated cytosine at both CpG and non-CpG loci in the cyclin D1 promoter was frequently observed in the epididymal duct of 7-day-old rats but not in that of newborn rats. Interestingly, MeCP2 expression also increased concomitant with the increase of methylation. Cyclin D1 expression in the epididymal duct may be efficiently regulated by the epigenetic mechanism of the cooperative increase of MeCP2 expression and promoter methylation

  12. Exercise increases TBC1D1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Niels; An, Ding; Lihn, Aina S.; Nygren, Jonas; Hirshman, Michael F.; Thorell, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Exercise and weight loss are cornerstones in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes, and both interventions function to increase insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. Studies in rodents demonstrate that the underlying mechanism for glucose uptake in muscle involves site-specific phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 (TBC1D4) and TBC1D1. Multiple kinases, including Akt and AMPK, phosphorylate TBC1D1 and AS160 on distinct residues, regulating their activity and allowing for GLUT4 translocation. In contrast to extensive rodent-based studies, the regulation of AS160 and TBC1D1 in human skeletal muscle is not well understood. In this study, we determined the effects of dietary intervention and a single bout of exercise on TBC1D1 and AS160 site-specific phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle. Ten obese (BMI 33.4 ± 2.4, M-value 4.3 ± 0.5) subjects were studied at baseline and after a 2-wk dietary intervention. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the subjects in the resting (basal) state and immediately following a 30-min exercise bout (70% V̇o2 max). Muscle lysates were analyzed for AMPK activity and Akt phosphorylation and for TBC1D1 and AS160 phosphorylation on known or putative AMPK and Akt sites as follows: AS160 Ser711 (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser231 (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser660 (AMPK), TBC1D1 Ser700 (AMPK), and TBC1D1 Thr590 (Akt). The diet intervention that consisted of a major shift in the macronutrient composition resulted in a 4.2 ± 0.4 kg weight loss (P < 0.001) and a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (M value 5.6 ± 0.6), but surprisingly, there was no effect on expression or phosphorylation of any of the muscle-signaling proteins. Exercise increased muscle AMPKα2 activity but did not increase Akt phosphorylation. Exercise increased phosphorylation on AS160 Ser711, TBC1D1 Ser231, and TBC1D1 Ser660 but had no effect on TBC1D1 Ser700. Exercise did not increase TBC1D1 Thr590 phosphorylation or TBC1D1/AS160 PAS

  13. Cyclin D1 represses p300 transactivation through a cyclin-dependent kinase-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Maofu; Wang, Chenguang; Rao, Mahadev; Wu, Xiaofang; Bouras, Toula; Zhang, Xueping; Li, Zhiping; Jiao, Xuanmao; Yang, Jianguo; Li, Anping; Perkins, Neil D; Thimmapaya, Bayar; Kung, Andrew L; Munoz, Alberto; Giordano, Antonio; Lisanti, Michael P; Pestell, Richard G

    2005-08-19

    Cyclin D1 encodes a regulatory subunit, which with its cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-binding partner forms a holoenzyme that phosphorylates and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein. In addition to its Cdk binding-dependent functions, cyclin D1 regulates cellular differentiation in part by modifying several transcription factors and nuclear receptors. The molecular mechanism through which cyclin D1 regulates the function of transcription factors involved in cellular differentiation remains to be clarified. The histone acetyltransferase protein p300 is a co-integrator required for regulation of multiple transcription factors. Here we show that cyclin D1 physically interacts with p300 and represses p300 transactivation. We demonstrated further that the interaction of the two proteins occurs at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-responsive element of the lipoprotein lipase promoter in the context of the local chromatin structure. We have mapped the domains in p300 and cyclin D1 involved in this interaction. The bromo domain and cysteine- and histidine-rich domains of p300 were required for repression by cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 repression of p300 was independent of the Cdk- and retinoblastoma protein-binding domains of cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 inhibits histone acetyltransferase activity of p300 in vitro. Microarray analysis identified a signature of genes repressed by cyclin D1 and induced by p300 that promotes cellular differentiation and induces cell cycle arrest. Together, our results suggest that cyclin D1 plays an important role in cellular proliferation and differentiation through regulation of p300.

  14. Human exploration mission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  15. Missions to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, D. V.; Baines, K. H.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Chassefiere, E.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Esposito, L. W.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Lellouch, E.; Moroz, V. I.; Nagy, A. F.; Owen, T. C.; Oyama, K.-I.; Russell, C. T.; Taylor, F. W.; Young, R. E.

    2002-10-01

    Venus has always been a fascinating objective for planetary studies. At the beginning of the space era Venus became one of the first targets for spacecraft missions. Our neighbour in the solar system and, in size, the twin sister of Earth, Venus was expected to be very similar to our planet. However, the first phase of Venus spacecraft exploration in 1962-1992 by the family of Soviet Venera and Vega spacecraft and US Mariner, Pioneer Venus, and Magellan missions discovered an entirely different, exotic world hidden behind a curtain of dense clouds. These studies gave us a basic knowledge of the conditions on the planet, but generated many more questions concerning the atmospheric composition, chemistry, structure, dynamics, surface-atmosphere interactions, atmospheric and geological evolution, and the plasma environment. Despite all of this exploration by more than 20 spacecraft, the "morning star" still remains a mysterious world. But for more than a decade Venus has been a "forgotten" planet with no new missions featuring in the plans of the world space agencies. Now we are witnessing the revival of interest in this planet: the Venus Orbiter mission is approved in Japan, Venus Express - a European orbiter mission - has successfully passed the selection procedure in ESA, and several Venus Discovery proposals are knocking at the doors of NASA. The paper presents an exciting story of Venus spacecraft exploration, summarizes open scientific problems, and builds a bridge to the future missions.

  16. Phase B-final definition and preliminary design study for the initial Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory (ACPL). A spacelab mission payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Progress in the development of the Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory is outlined. The fluid subsystem, aerosol generator, expansion chamber, optical system, control systems, and software are included.

  17. Novel SNPs polymorphism of bovine CACNA2D1 gene and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the bovine CACNA2D1 gene was taken as a candidate gene for mastitis resistance. The objective of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine CACNA2D1 gene and evaluate the association of these SNPs with mastitis in cattle. Through DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP ...

  18. Discovery, evaluation and distribution of haplotypes of the wheat Ppd-D1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiai; Song, Yanxia; Zhou, Ronghua; Ren, Zhenglong; Jia, Jizeng

    2010-02-01

    Ppd-D1 is one of the most potent genes affecting the photoperiod response of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Only two alleles, insensitive Ppd-D1a and sensitive Ppd-D1b, were known previously, and these did not adequately explain the broad adaptation of wheat to photoperiod variation. In this study, five diagnostic molecular markers were employed to identify Ppd-D1 haplotypes in 492 wheat varieties from diverse geographic locations and 55 accessions of Aegilops tauschii, the D genome donor species of wheat. Six Ppd-D1 haplotypes, designated I-VI, were identified. Types II, V and VI were considered to be more ancient and types I, III and IV were considered to be derived from type II. The transcript abundances of the Ppd-D1 haplotypes showed continuous variation, being highest for haplotype I, lowest for haplotype III, and correlating negatively with varietal differences in heading time. These haplotypes also significantly affected other agronomic traits. The distribution frequency of Ppd-D1 haplotypes showed partial correlations with both latitudes and altitudes of wheat cultivation regions. The evolution, expression and distribution of Ppd-D1 haplotypes were consistent evidentially with each other. What was regarded as a pair of alleles in the past can now be considered a series of alleles leading to continuous variation.

  19. 17 CFR 240.17d-1 - Examination for compliance with applicable financial responsibility rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... cooperation and coordination among self-regulatory organizations, and the development of a national market... with applicable financial responsibility rules. 240.17d-1 Section 240.17d-1 Commodity and Securities... financial responsibility rules. (a) Where a member of SIPC is a member of more than one self-regulatory...

  20. Immunohistochemical comparison of cyclin D1 and P16 in odontogenic keratocyst and unicystic ameloblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Cyclin D1 did show a higher staining intensity in UAs compared to the keratocysts, although the expression of P16 was similar in the studied groups. The invasive growth of OKC might be related to the state of expression of cyclin D1 and P16 in the epithelium of this cyst.

  1. Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) of the delta family (GluD1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Zahid Khan

    2016-10-20

    Oct 20, 2016 ... GluD1 knockout mice (GluD1 KO) have normal learning in the Morris water maze .... could bind and activate the receptor.5,6 D-Ser and glycine have now been identified as .... English editing of this manuscript. References. 1.

  2. 26 CFR 1.430(d)-1 - Determination of target normal cost and funding target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of target normal cost and funding target. 1.430(d)-1 Section 1.430(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... of target normal cost and funding target. (a) In general—(1) Overview. This section sets forth rules...

  3. Livrable D1.2 of the PERSEE project : Perceptual-Modelling-Definition-of-the-Models

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Junle; Bosc , Emilie; Li , Jing; Ricordel , Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Livrable D1.2 du projet ANR PERSEE; Ce rapport a été réalisé dans le cadre du projet ANR PERSEE (n° ANR-09-BLAN-0170). Exactement il correspond au livrable D1.2 du projet. Son titre : Perceptual-Modelling-Definition-of-the-Models

  4. Elevated dopamine D1 receptor availability in striatum of Göttingen minipigs after electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landau, Anne M; Alstrup, Aage Ko; Audrain, Helene

    2018-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), a direct form of brain stimulation, is an effective antidepressant. We hypothesized that the beneficial effects of ECT are mediated by increased dopaminergic neurotransmission, in which the baseline activity of D1 receptors may predict the response to ECT. We esta......, the baseline binding capacity of D1 receptors predicts the magnitude of increased binding, up to a maximum binding capacity....

  5. Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) of the delta family (GluD1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... such as Neurexin1. This review presents current knowledge regarding the expression, structure and function of Glu delta receptors (GluD1, GluD2) in brain, focusing on synapse formation, function and dysfunction. Keywords: iGluRs; GluD1; GluD2; Synaptogenesis; Autism spectrum disorder (ASD); Schizophrenia (SCZ) ...

  6. Effect of postharvest storage on the expression of the apple allergen Mal d 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sancho, Ana I.; Foxall, Robert; Browne, Tom; dey, Rickmer; Zuidmeer, Laurian; Marzban, Gorji; Waldron, Keith W.; van Ree, Ronald; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Laimer, Margit; Mills, E. N. Clare

    2006-01-01

    Consumption of fresh apples can cause allergy in susceptible individuals. A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed to determine Mal d 1 levels in apple pulp using a monoclonal antibody (BIP-1). The ELISA was able to rank ten cultivars according to their Mal d 1

  7. Dissociable Hippocampal and Amygdalar D1-like receptor contribution to Discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Ryals, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning is an elementary form of reward-related behavioral adaptation. The mesolimbic dopamine system is widely considered to mediate critical aspects of reward-related learning. For example, initial acquisition of positively-reinforced operant behavior requires dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) activation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the ventral subiculum (vSUB). However, the role of D1R activation in these areas on appetitive, non-drug-related, Pavlovian learning is not currently known. In separate experiments, microinfusions of the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (3.0 nmol/0.5 μL per side) into the amygdala and subiculum preceded discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach (dPCA) training sessions. D1-like antagonism in all three structures impaired the acquisition of discriminated approach, but had no effect on performance after conditioning was asymptotic. Moreover, dissociable effects of D1-like antagonism in the three structures on components of discriminated responding were obtained. Lastly, the lack of latent inhibition in drug-treated groups may elucidate the role of D1-like in reward-related Pavlovian conditioning. The present data suggest a role for the D1 receptors in the amygdala and hippocampus in learning the significance of conditional stimuli, but not in the expression of conditional responses. PMID:26632336

  8. The organic anion transport polypeptide 1d1 (Oatp1d1) mediates hepatocellular uptake of phalloidin and microcystin into skate liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Abt, F; Hammann-Hänni, A; Stieger, B; Ballatori, N; Boyer, J L

    2007-02-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (rodent Oatp; human OATP) mediate cellular uptake of numerous organic compounds including xenobiotic toxins into mammalian hepatocytes. In the little skate Leucoraja erinacea a liver-specific Oatp (Oatp1d1, also called sOatp) has been identified and suggested to represent an evolutionarily ancient precursor of the mammalian liver OATP1B1 (human), Oatp1b2 (rat), and OATP1B3 (human). The present study tested whether Oatp1d1 shares functional transport activity of the xenobiotic oligopeptide toxins phalloidin and microcystin with the mammalian liver Oatps/OATPs. The phalloidin analogue [(3)H]-demethylphalloin was taken up into skate hepatocytes with high affinity (Km approximately 0.4 microM), and uptake could be inhibited by phalloidin and a variety of typical Oatp/OATP substrates such as bromosulfophthalein, bile salts, estrone-3-sulfate, cyclosporine A and high concentrations of microcystin-LR (Ki approximately 150 microM). When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes Oatp1d1 increased uptake of demethylphalloin (Km approximately 2.2 microM) and microcystin-LR (Km approximately 27 microM) 2- to 3-fold over water-injected oocytes, whereas the alternative skate liver organic anion transporter, the dimeric Ostalpha/beta, exhibited no phalloidin and only minor microcystin-LR transport. Also, the closest mammalian Oatp1d1 orthologue, the human brain and testis OATP1C1, did not show any phalloidin transport activity. These results demonstrate that the evolutionarily ancient Oatp1d1 is able to mediate uptake of cyclic oligopeptide toxins into skate liver. The findings support the notion that Oatp1d1 is a precursor of the liver-specific mammalian Oatps/OATPs and that its transport properties are closely associated with certain forms of toxic liver injury such as for example protein phosphatase inhibition by the water-borne toxin microcystin.

  9. The organic anion transport polypeptide 1d1 (Oatp1d1) mediates hepatocellular uptake of phalloidin and microcystin into skate liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier-Abt, F.; Hammann-Haenni, A.; Stieger, B.; Ballatori, N.; Boyer, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Organic anion transporting polypeptides (rodent Oatp; human OATP) mediate cellular uptake of numerous organic compounds including xenobiotic toxins into mammalian hepatocytes. In the little skate Leucoraja erinacea a liver-specific Oatp (Oatp1d1, also called sOatp) has been identified and suggested to represent an evolutionarily ancient precursor of the mammalian liver OATP1B1 (human), Oatp1b2 (rat), and OATP1B3 (human). The present study tested whether Oatp1d1 shares functional transport activity of the xenobiotic oligopeptide toxins phalloidin and microcystin with the mammalian liver Oatps/OATPs. The phalloidin analogue [ 3 H]-demethylphalloin was taken up into skate hepatocytes with high affinity (Km ∼ 0.4 μM), and uptake could be inhibited by phalloidin and a variety of typical Oatp/OATP substrates such as bromosulfophthalein, bile salts, estrone-3-sulfate, cyclosporine A and high concentrations of microcystin-LR (Ki ∼ 150 μM). When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes Oatp1d1 increased uptake of demethylphalloin (Km ∼ 2.2 μM) and microcystin-LR (Km ∼ 27 μM) 2- to 3-fold over water-injected oocytes, whereas the alternative skate liver organic anion transporter, the dimeric Ostα/β, exhibited no phalloidin and only minor microcystin-LR transport. Also, the closest mammalian Oatp1d1 orthologue, the human brain and testis OATP1C1, did not show any phalloidin transport activity. These results demonstrate that the evolutionarily ancient Oatp1d1 is able to mediate uptake of cyclic oligopeptide toxins into skate liver. The findings support the notion that Oatp1d1 is a precursor of the liver-specific mammalian Oatps/OATPs and that its transport properties are closely associated with certain forms of toxic liver injury such as for example protein phosphatase inhibition by the water-borne toxin microcystin

  10. Direct demonstration of D1 dopamine receptors in the bovine parathyroid gland using the D1 selective antagonist [125I]-SCH 23982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monsma, F.J. Jr.; Sibley, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The presence of D1 dopamine receptors in the parathyroid gland has been proposed based on the demonstration of dopaminergic regulation of adenylate cyclase activity and parathyroid hormone release in dispersed bovine parathyroid cells. Using a radioiodinated D1 selective antagonist [125I]-SCH 23982, we have now directly labeled and characterized the D1 dopamine receptors in bovine parathyroid gland membranes. [125I]-SCH 23982 binds in a saturable manner with high affinity and low nonspecific binding to membranes prepared from bovine parathyroid glands. D1 dopamine receptors are present in this preparation at a concentration of approximately 130 fMoles/mg protein and [125I]-SCH 23982 binding increases with increasing protein concentration in a linear fashion. Determination of the Kd using the association (k1) and dissociation (k-1) rate constants revealed good agreement with the Kd determined by saturation analysis (390 pM vs. 682 pM, respectively). Inhibition of 0.3 nM [125I]-SCH 23982 binding by a series of dopaminergic antagonists verified the D1 nature of this binding site, exhibiting appropriate affinities and rank order of potency. The competition curves of all antagonists exhibited Hill coefficients that were not significantly different from 1. Inhibition of [125I]-SCH 23982 binding by dopamine and other dopaminergic agonists revealed the presence of high and low affinity agonist binding sites. Addition of 200 microM GppNHp effected a complete conversion of high affinity dopamine binding sites to a homogeneous population of low affinity dopamine sites. The D1 receptors identified in the parathyroid gland with [125I]-SCH 23982 appear to be pharmacologically identical with those previously characterized in the central nervous system

  11. Cyclin D1 overexpression, cell cycle progression and radiosensitivity in MBP cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lijun; Yu Zengliang

    2000-11-01

    Clones that exhibited a minimum of 7-8 fold cyclin D1 level above the parent cell lines or the vector control were obtained after transfected with the entire coding sequence of human 1.1 kb cyclin D1 cDNA. Studies showed that there was no significant difference in Radiosensitivity between over-expressing cyclin D1 and control cultures from either mouse or human origin. Using flow cytometry to access cell cycle distribution in the exponentially growth cultures of MCF10F-D1-21 and MCF10F-V-3, it was found that there was a 50 percent increase in the proportion of G2/M phase cells and 5.3 percent decrease in the proportion of G0/G1 phase cells in MCF10F-D1-21 comparing with MCF10F-V-3, though they were with the same proportion of cells in S phase

  12. NeuroD1: developmental expression and regulated genes in the rodent pineal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Estela M; Bailey, Michael J; Rath, Martin F

    2007-01-01

    NeuroD1/BETA2, a member of the bHLH transcription factor family, is known to influence the fate of specific neuronal, endocrine and retinal cells. We report here that NeuroD1 mRNA is highly abundant in the developing and adult rat pineal gland. Pineal expression begins in the 17-day embryo at which...... time it is also detectable in other brain regions. Expression in the pineal gland increases during the embryonic period and is maintained thereafter at levels equivalent to those found in the cerebellum and retina. In contrast, NeuroD1 mRNA decreases markedly in non-cerebellar brain regions during...... development. Pineal NeuroD1 levels are similar during the day and night, and do not appear to be influenced by sympathetic neural input. Gene expression analysis of the pineal glands from neonatal NeuroD1 knockout mice identifies 127 transcripts that are down-regulated (>twofold, p

  13. Role of NeuroD1 on the negative regulation of Pomc expression by glucocorticoid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Parvin

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the negative regulation of proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc by glucocorticoids (Gcs is still unclear in many points. Here, we demonstrated the involvement of neurogenic differentiation factor 1 (NeuroD1 in the Gc-mediated negative regulation of Pomc. Murine pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH producing corticotroph tumor-derived AtT20 cells were treated with dexamethasone (DEX (1-100 nM and cultured for 24 hrs. Thereafter, Pomc mRNA expression was studied by quantitative real-time PCR and rat Pomc promoter (-703/+58 activity was examined by luciferase assay. Both Pomc mRNA expression and Pomc promoter activity were inhibited by DEX in a dose-dependent manner. Deletion and point mutant analyses of Pomc promoter suggested that the DEX-mediated transcriptional repression was mediated via E-box that exists at -376/-371 in the promoter. Since NeuroD1 is known to bind to and activate E-box of the Pomc promoter, we next examined the effect of DEX on NeuroD1 expression. Interestingly, DEX dose-dependently inhibited NeuroD1 mRNA expression, mouse NeuroD1 promoter (-2.2-kb activity, and NeuroD1 protein expression in AtT20 cells. In addition, we confirmed the inhibitory effect of DEX on the interaction of NeuroD1 and E-box on Pomc promoter by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. Finally, overexpression of mouse NeuroD1 could rescue the DEX-mediated inhibition of Pomc mRNA expression and Pomc promoter activity. Taken together, it is suggested that the suppression of NeuroD1 expression and the inhibition of NeuroD1/E-box interaction may play an important role in the Gc-mediated negative regulation of Pomc.

  14. Galectin-3 and cyclin D1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołecki Marcin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Lung cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Galectin-3 is multifunctional protein, which is involved in regulation of cell growth, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Cyclin D1 together with other cyclin plays an important role in cell cycle control. Cyclin D1 regulates the G1-to-S phase transition. The aim of this study was the evaluation of correlations between clinicopathological findings and cyclin D1 and galectin-3 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. We wanted also to analyze the prognostic value of cyclin D1 and galectin-3 expression. Moreover we tried to evaluate the correlations between galectin-3 and cyclin D1 expression in tumor tissue. Materials and methods We used the immunochemistry method to investigate the expression of galectin-3 and cyclin D1 in the paraffin-embedded tumor tissue of 47 patients (32 men and 15 women; mean age 59.34 ± 8.90. years. We used monoclonal antibodies to cyclin D1 (NCL-L-cyclin D1-GM clone P2D11F11 NOVO CASTRA and to galectin-3 (mouse monoclonal antibody NCL-GAL3 NOVO CASTRA. Results Galectin-3 expression was positive in 18 cases (38.29% and cyclin D1 in 39 (82.97%. We showed only weak trend, that galectin-3 expression was lower in patients without lymph node involvement (p = 0.07 and cyclin D1 expression was higher in this group (p = 0.080. We didn't reveal differences in cyclin D1 and galectin-3 expression in SCC and adenocarcinoma patients. We didn't demonstrated also differences in galectin-3 and cyclin D1 expression depending on disease stage. Moreover we analyzed the prognostic value of cyclin D1 expression and galectin-3 in all examinated patients and separately in SCC and in adenocarcinoma and in all stages, but we didn't find any statistical differences. We demonstrated that in galectin-3 positive tumors cyclin D1 expression was higher (96.55% vs 61.11%, Chi2 Yatesa 7.53, p = 0.0061 and we revealed negative

  15. Mission operations technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsi, Giulio

    In the last decade, the operation of a spacecraft after launch has emerged as a major component of the total cost of the mission. This trend is sustained by the increasing complexity, flexibility, and data gathering capability of the space assets and by their greater reliability and consequent longevity. The trend can, however, be moderated by the progressive transfer of selected functions from the ground to the spacecraft and by application, on the ground, of new technology. Advances in ground operations derive from the introduction in the mission operations environment of advanced microprocessor-based workstations in the class of a few million instructions per second and from the selective application of artificial intelligence technology. In the last few years a number of these applications have been developed, tested in operational settings and successfully demonstrated to users. Some are now being integrated in mission operations facilities. An analysis of mission operations indicates that the key areas are: concurrent control of multiple missions; automated/interactive production of command sequences of high integrity at low cost; automated monitoring of spacecraft health and automated aides for fault diagnosis; automated allocation of resources; automated processing of science data; and high-fidelity, high-speed spacecraft simulation. Examples of major advances in selected areas are described.

  16. Mission to the comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.

    1980-01-01

    The plans of space agencies in the United States and Europe for an exploratory comet mission including a one year rendezvous with comet Temple-2 and a fast fly-by of comet Halley are discussed. The mission provides an opportunity to make comparative measurements on the two different types of comets and also satisfies the three major scientific objectives of cometary missions namely: (1) To determine the chemical nature and the physical structure of cometary nuclei, and the changes that occur with time and orbital position. (2) To study the chemical and physical nature of the atmospheres and ionospheres of comets, the processes that occur in them, and their development with time and orbital position. (3) To determine the nature of the tails of comets and the processes by which they are formed, and to characterise the interaction of comets with solar wind. (UK)

  17. Country programming mission. Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Government of Namibia conveyed in a letter dated 29 November 1990 IAEA provided a multi-disciplinary Programming Mission which visited Namibia from 15 - 19 July 1991. The terms of reference of the Mission were: 1. To assess the possibilities and benefits of nuclear energy applications in Namibia's development; 2. To advise on the infrastructure required for nuclear energy projects; 3. To assist in the formulation of project proposals which could be submitted for Agency assistance. This report is based on the findings of the Mission and falls into 3 sections with 8 appendices. The first section is a country profile providing background information, the second section deals with sectorial needs and institutional review of the sectors of agriculture including animal production, life sciences (nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and radiation protection. The third section includes possible future technical co-operation activities

  18. The development of 99mTc-d, 1-HM-PAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Lanqin; Huang Jinjie; Fan Li; Bai Suzhen; Li Guoli; Jing Hui; Xiao Lun

    1991-12-01

    The 99m Tc-d,1-HM-PAO is an ideal radiopharmaceutical for regional cerebral blood perfusion imaging. The improvement of synthesis and separation of diastereoisomers leads to obtain high purity (>99%) of d, 1-HM-PAO and meso-HM-PAO. During separation H NMR spectroscopy was used to monitor the relative composition of these two diastereoisomers that can ensure the purity of pligand of d,1-HM-PAO. The intravenous injection of 99m Tc-d,1-HM-PAO was formed by adding fresh 99m Tc washing liquor into a sterile. Pyrogen-free and freeze-dried vial. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99m Tc-d,1-HM-PAO was greater than 80%. From the experiments of 99m Tc-d,1-HM-PAO in mice, after two minutes of intravenously (I>V>) administration about 2.24% of injected dose (I.D.)appeared in the brain, and after 24 hours about 72% of radioactivity of injected dose still left in the brain. But for the 99m Tc-meso-HM-PAO after two minutes of i.v. administration, about 1.93% of I.D. appeared in the brain, and 24 hours later, 25% of radioactivity of I.D. was in the brain. This result shows that in the brain the radioactivity of 99m Tc-meso-HM-PAO declines faster than that of 99m Td-d,1-HM-PAO

  19. Cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 associated with cell cycle withdrawal of neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumrejkanchanakij, Piyamas; Eto, Kazuhiro; Ikeda, Masa-Aki

    2006-01-01

    The regulation of D-type cyclin-dependent kinase activity is critical for neuronal differentiation and apoptosis. We recently showed that cyclin D1 is sequestered in the cytoplasm and that its nuclear localization induces apoptosis in postmitotic primary neurons. Here, we further investigated the role of the subcellular localization of cyclin D1 in cell cycle withdrawal during the differentiation of N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells. We show that cyclin D1 became predominantly cytoplasmic after differentiation. Targeting cyclin D1 expression to the nucleus induced phosphorylation of Rb and cdk2 kinase activity. Furthermore, cyclin D1 nuclear localization promoted differentiated N1E-115 cells to reenter the cell cycle, a process that was inhibited by p16 INK4a , a specific inhibitor of D-type cyclin activity. These results indicate that cytoplasmic sequestration of cyclin D1 plays a role in neuronal cell cycle withdrawal, and suggests that the abrogation of machinery involved in monitoring aberrant nuclear cyclin D1 activity contributes to neuronal tumorigenesis

  20. Prognostic significance of cyclin D1 protein expression and gene amplification in invasive breast carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Ortiz

    Full Text Available The oncogenic capacity of cyclin D1 has long been established in breast cancer. CCND1 amplification has been identified in a subset of patients with poor prognosis, but there are conflicting data regarding the predictive value of cyclin D1 protein overexpression. This study was designed to analyze the expression of cyclin D1 and its correlation with CCND1 amplification and their prognostic implications in invasive breast cancer. By using the tissue microarray technique, we performed an immunohistochemical study of ER, PR, HER2, p53, cyclin D1, Ki67 and p16 in 179 invasive breast carcinoma cases. The FISH method was performed to detect HER2/Neu and CCND1 amplification. High cyclin D1 expression was identified in 94/179 (52% of invasive breast cancers. Cyclin D1 overexpression and CCND1 amplification were significantly associated (p = 0.010. Overexpression of cyclin D1 correlated with ER expression, PR expression and Luminal subtypes (p<0.001, with a favorable impact on overall survival in the whole series. However, in the Luminal A group, high expression of cyclin D1 correlated with shorter disease-free survival, suggesting that the prognostic role of cyclin D1 depends on the molecular subtype. CCND1 gene amplification was detected in 17 cases (9% and correlated significantly with high tumor grade (p = 0.038, high Ki-67 protein expression (p = 0.002, and the Luminal B subtype (p = 0.002. Patients with tumors with high amplification of CCND1 had an increased risk of recurrence (HR = 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9, p = 0.01. These findings suggest that CCND1 amplification could be useful for predicting recurrence in invasive breast cancer.

  1. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta

    1997-01-01

    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions.......Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  2. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  3. The OICETS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jono, Takashi; Arai, Katsuyoshi

    2017-11-01

    The Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS) was successfully launched on 23th August 2005 and thrown into a circular orbit at the altitude of 610 km. The main mission is to demonstrate the free-space inter satellite laser communications with the cooperation of the Advanced Relay and Technology Mission (ARTEMIS) geostationary satellite developed by the European Space Agency. This paper presents the overview of the OICETS and laser terminal, a history of international cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and ESA and typical results of the inter-orbit laser communication experiment carried out with ARTEMIS.

  4. The Role of Cyclin D1 in the Chemoresistance of Mantle Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0297 TITLE: The Role of Cyclin D1 in the Chemoresistance of Mantle Cell Lymphoma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Vu Ngo...AND SUBTITLE The Role of Cyclin D1 in the Chemoresistance of Mantle Cell Lymphoma 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER The Role of Cyclin D1 in the Chemoresistance of...Mantle Cell Lymphoma 5b. GRANT NUMBER GRANT1173 9905 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Vu Ngo 5e. TASK NUMBER E

  5. The present situation of D-1 fracture zone investigation in Tsuruga Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kimiya; Iriya, Takeshi; Dozaki, Koji; Hoshino, Tomokiko

    2013-01-01

    Shatter zone called 'D-1' lies under the reactor building of Tsuruga Power Station (Tsuruga PS) Unit. 2. The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) has been investigating the D-1 shatter zone in several waves (Overlying Strata Analysis Method, Tephra Analysis Method etc.) and evaluating that the D-1 shatter zone would not be an active fault which should be taken into account in the seismic design, so far. Additionally, JAPC have numerically analyzed how the shatter zones would be affected in case of the Urasoko fault moves using elasticity theory of dislocation method and Two Dimensional Finite Element Method. (author)

  6. Mantle cell lymphoma pathogenesis: another turn of the screw to cyclin D1 overexpression

    OpenAIRE

    Albero Gallego, Robert

    2017-01-01

    [eng] Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive lymphoid neoplasm derived from mature B cells characterized by the presence of the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation that leads to the overexpression of Cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 plays a well-established role in G1/S progression, although other functions including transcription or DNA damage response (DDR) can be regulated by this cyclin. Therefore, the main goal of this thesis is the characterization of the cyclin D1 non-canonical function in MCL a...

  7. Mantle cell lymphoma pathogenesis: another turn of the screw to cyclin D1 overexpression

    OpenAIRE

    Albero Gallego, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive lymphoid neoplasm derived from mature B cells characterized by the presence of the t(11;14)(q13;q32) translocation that leads to the overexpression of Cyclin D1. Cyclin D1 plays a well-established role in G1/S progression, although other functions including transcription or DNA damage response (DDR) can be regulated by this cyclin. Therefore, the main goal of this thesis is the characterization of the cyclin D1 non-canonical function in MCL and lymp...

  8. The Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter - POLAR onboard the China’s Spacelab “Tiangong-2”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianchao; BAO, T. W.; BATSCH, T.; BRITVITCH, I.; CADOUX, F.; DONG, Y. W.; GAUVIN, N.; HAJDAS, W.; KOLE, M.; LECHANOINE-LELUC, C.; LI, L.; MARCINKOWSKI, R.; ORSI, S.; POHL, M.; PRODUIT, N.; RAPIN, D.; RUTCZYNSKA, A.; RYBKA, D.; SZABELSKI, J.; WANG, R. J.; WU, B. B.; XIAO, H. L.; ZHANG, S. N.; ZHANG, Y. J.; ZWOLINSKA, A.

    2015-08-01

    POLAR is a novel compact space-borne Compton polarimeter conceived for a precise measurement of hard X-ray/Gamma-ray polarization and optimized for the detection of the prompt emission of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) in the energy range 50 - 500 keV. The future detailed measurement of the polarization of GRB will lead to a better understanding of its radiation region geometry and emission mechanisms. Thanks to its remarkable properties on large effective area, field of view (4.14 sr or 1/3 of the visible sky) and obvious modulation factor, POLAR will be able to reach a minimum detectable polarization (1-σ level) of about 3% for several GRB measurements per year. POLAR consists of 25 detector modular units (DMU). Each DMU is composed of 64 low-Z plastic scintillator bars, read out by a flat-panel multi-anode photomultipliers and ASIC front-end electronics. The incoming photons undergo Compton scattering in the bars and produce a modulation pattern. Simulations and hard X-ray synchrotron radiation experiments have shown that the polarization degree and angle can be retrieved from this pattern with the accuracy necessary for pinning down the GRB mechanisms. A full flight model of POLAR has been constructed, in view of a flight on the Chinese spacelab TG-2 expected in 2016. The design of POLAR, Monte-Carlo simulation analysis as well as the performance test results will be all addressed in details in this talk.

  9. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  10. Robust UAV mission planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  11. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  12. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a

  13. The Lobster Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  14. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...... on a shared mission aiming at value creation (in the broadest interpretation). One important aspect of choosing value as the cornerstone of the mission of universities is to stress that the outcome is measured by external stakeholders and by their standards. Most of the paper is devoted to discussing value...... it possible to lead through processes that engage and excite while creating transparency and accountability. The paper will be illustrated with examples from Denmark and the Helios initiative taken by the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV) under the headline “The value creating university – courage...

  15. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armano, M; Audley, H; Born, M; Danzmann, K; Diepholz, I; Auger, G; Binetruy, P; Baird, J; Bortoluzzi, D; Brandt, N; Fitzsimons, E; Bursi, A; Caleno, M; Cavalleri, A; Cesarini, A; Dolesi, R; Ferroni, V; Cruise, M; Dunbar, N; Ferraioli, L

    2015-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter.The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper (paper)

  17. The Gaia mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by

  18. The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 regulates skeletal muscle glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szekeres, Ferenc; Chadt, Alexandra; Tom, Robby Z

    2012-01-01

    The Rab-GTPase-activating protein TBC1D1 has emerged as a novel candidate involved in metabolic regulation. Our aim was to determine whether TBC1D1 is involved in insulin as well as energy-sensing signals controlling skeletal muscle metabolism. TBC1D1-deficient congenic B6.SJL-Nob1.10 (Nob1.10(SJL...... be explained partly by a 50% reduction in GLUT4 protein, since proximal signaling at the level of Akt, AMPK, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) was unaltered. Paradoxically, in vivo insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake was increased in EDL and tibialis anterior muscle from TBC1D1-deficient mice......)) and wild-type littermates were studied. Glucose and insulin tolerance, glucose utilization, hepatic glucose production, and tissue-specific insulin-mediated glucose uptake were determined. The effect of insulin, AICAR, or contraction on glucose transport was studied in isolated skeletal muscle. Glucose...

  19. Microstates of D1–D5(-P black holes, as interacting D-branes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Morita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In our previous study (Morita et al., 2014 [1], we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary p-branes (the p-soup proposal. We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1–D5 and D1–D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves. It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black p-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the p-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1–D5(-P black holes in superstring theory.

  20. Microstates of D1–D5(-P) black holes, as interacting D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Takeshi; Shiba, Shotaro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study (Morita et al., 2014 [1]), we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary p-branes (the p-soup proposal). We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1–D5 and D1–D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves). It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black p-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the p-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1–D5(-P) black holes in superstring theory

  1. Microstates of D1–D5(-P) black holes, as interacting D-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Takeshi, E-mail: morita.takeshi@shizuoka.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Shiba, Shotaro, E-mail: sshiba@cc.kyoto-su.ac.jp [Maskawa Institute for Science and Culture, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo-Motoyama, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2015-07-30

    In our previous study (Morita et al., 2014 [1]), we figured out that the thermodynamics of the near extremal black p-branes can be explained as the collective motions of gravitationally interacting elementary p-branes (the p-soup proposal). We test this proposal in the near-extremal D1–D5 and D1–D5-P black holes and show that their thermodynamics also can be explained in a similar fashion, i.e. via the collective motions of the interacting elementary D1-branes and D5-branes (and waves). It may imply that the microscopic origins of these intersecting black branes and the black p-brane are explained in the unified picture. We also argue the relation between the p-soup proposal and the conformal field theory calculations of the D1–D5(-P) black holes in superstring theory.

  2. Experimental Conditions: SE24_S1_M1_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rometry with 13C‑Labeling for Chemical Assignment of Sulfur-Containing Metabolites ...SE24_S1_M1_D1 SE24 Combination of Liquid Chromatography-Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance-Mass Spect

  3. Critical behavior in dome D = 1 large-N matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.R.; Dhar, A.; Sengupta, A.M.; Wadia, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors study the critical behavior in D = 1 large-N matrix models. The authors also look at the subleading terms in susceptibility in order to find out the dimensions of some of the operators in the theory

  4. The new powder diffractometer D1B of the Institut Laue Langevin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente Orench, I.; Clergeau, J. F.; Martínez, S.; Olmos, M.; Fabelo, O.; Campo, J.

    2014-11-01

    D1B is a medium resolution high flux powder diffractometer located at the Institut Laue Langevin, ILL. D1B a suitable instrument for studying a large variety of polycrystalline materials. D1B runs since 1998 as a CRG (collaborating research group) instrument, being exploited by the CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France) and CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Spain). In 2008 the Spanish CRG started an updating program which included a new detector and a radial oscillating collimator (ROC). The detector, which has a sensitive height of 100mm, covers an angular range of 128°. Its 1280 gold wires provide a neutron detection point every 0.1°. The ROC is made of 198 gadolinium- based absorbing collimation blades, regular placed every 0.67°. Here the present characteristics of D1B are reviewed and the different experimental performances will be presented.

  5. On the partition function of d+1 dimensional kink-bearing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radosz, A.; Salejda, W.

    1987-01-01

    It is suggested that the problem of finding a partition function of d+1 dimensional kink-bearing system in the classical approximation may be formulated as an eigenvalue problem of an appropriate d dimensional quantum

  6. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  7. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  8. Export of Cytochrome P450 105D1 to the Periplasmic Space of Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Kaderbhai, Mustak A.; Ugochukwu, Cynthia C.; Kelly, Steven L.; Lamb, David C.

    2001-01-01

    CYP105D1, a cytochrome P450 from Streptomyces griseus, was appended at its amino terminus to the secretory signal of Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase and placed under the transcriptional control of the native phoA promoter. Heterologous expression in E. coli phosphate-limited medium resulted in abundant synthesis of recombinant CYP105D1 that was translocated across the bacterial inner membrane and processed to yield authentic, heme-incorporated P450 within the periplasmic space. Cell ext...

  9. D1 dopamine receptor is involved in shell formation in larvae of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Lingling; Yan, Yunchen; Zheng, Yan; Ge, Wenjing; Li, Meijia; Wang, Weilin; Song, Xiaorui; Song, Linsheng

    2018-07-01

    Dopamine (DA), a significant member of catecholamines, is reported to induce biomineralization of calcium carbonate vaterite microspheres via dopamine receptor (DR) in bivalves, implying the modulation of dopaminergic system on shell formation during larval development. In this research, a homologue of D1 type DR (CgD1DR-1) was identified from oyster Crassostrea gigas, whose full length cDNA was 1197 bp. It was widely expressed in various tissues of C. gigas, with the significantly higher levels in hepatopancreas, mantle, muscle and gill. During developmental stages, the mRNA transcripts of CgD1DR-1 in D-shape larvae were obviously higher (p < 0.05) than those in trochophore and umbo larvae, and CO 2 exposure could inhibit the synthesis of DA and mRNA expression of CgD1DR-1. After cell transfection and DA treatment, intracellular cAMP in cells with the expression of CgD1DR-1 increased significantly (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the incubation with SCH 23390 for the blockage of CgD1DR-1 significantly restrained the expressions of six shell formation-related genes including CgTyrosinase-1, CgTyrosinase-3, CgChitinaseLP, CgAMC, CgBMP and CgBMPR in trochophore and D-shape larvae. These results jointly suggested that DA together with its receptor CgD1DR-1 might be involved in shell formation during oyster larval development from trochophore to D-shape larvae, and CO 2 -induced ocean acidification (OA) might influence marine bivalves by inhibiting the DA-D1DR pathway to prohibit their shell formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Role for D1 Dopamine Receptors in Striatal Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Friend, Danielle M.; Keefe, Kristen A.

    2013-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) exposure results in long-term damage to the dopamine system in both human METH abusers and animal models. One factor that has been heavily implicated in this METH-induced damage to the dopaminergic system is the activation of D1 Dopamine (DA) receptors. However, a significant caveat to the studies investigating the role of the receptor in such toxicity is that genetic and pharmacological manipulations of the D1 DA receptor also mitigate METH-induced hyperthermia. Import...

  11. A novel role for the cell cycle regulatory complex cyclin D1-CDK4 in gluconeogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Hosooka, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Wataru

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of gluconeogenesis is a key pathological feature of type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of gluconeogenesis remain unclear. Bhalla et?al. recently reported that cyclin D1 suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis through CDK4?dependent phosphorylation of PGC1alpha and consequent inhibition of its activity. The cyclin D1?CDK4 might thus serve as an important link between the cell cycle and control of energy metabolism through modulation of PGC1alp...

  12. Experimental investigations on the fluid flow through an asymmetric rod bundle (P/D = 1.148, W/D = 1.045)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, K.

    1983-11-01

    Measurements of the distributions of the mean velocity, the wall shear stresses and the turbulence were performed in a wall subchannel of a rod bundle of four parallel rods arranged asymmetrically in a rectangular channel (P/D = 1.148, W/D = 1.045). The Reynolds number of this investigations was Re = 5.88 x 10 4 . The experimental results show that the momentum transport is highly anisotropic especially in the gaps of the rod bundle. Influences of secondary flow cannot be detected in the distribution of the time-mean velocity. The comparison between experimental wall shear stress distributions and those calculated with the VELASCO-code shows discrepancies both in the gap between the rod and channel walls and in the gap between the rods caused by the high momentum transport between the two subchannels. (orig.) [de

  13. Experimental investigations on the fluid flow through an asymmetric rod bundle (P/D = 1.148, W/D = 1.074)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, K.

    1984-12-01

    Measurements of the distributions of the mean velocity, the wall shear stresses and the turbulence were performed in a wall subchannel of a rod bundle of four prallel rods arranged asymmetrically in a rectangular (P/D = 1.148, W/D = 1.074). The Reynolds number of this investigations was Re = 7.89 x 10 4 . The results obtained by a fully automated rig are compared with those from manual operation. The experimental results show that the momentum transport is highly anisotropyc especially in the gaps of the rod bundle. Influences of secondary flow cannot be detected in the distribution of the time-mean velocity. The comparison between experimental wall shear stress distributions and those calculated with the VELASCO-code shows discrepancies both in the gap between the rod and channel walls and in the gap between the rods caused by the high momentum transport between the two subchannels. (orig.) [de

  14. Experimental investigations on the fluid flow through a wall subchannel of a rod bundle (P/D = 1.036, W/D = 1.072)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehme, K.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements of the distributions of the mean velocity, the wall shear stresses and the turbulence were performed in a wall subchannel of a rod bundle of four parallel rods arranged symmetrically in a rectangular channel (P/D = 1.036, W/D = 1.072). The Reynolds number of this investigation was Re = 7.60 x 10 4 . The experimental results show that the momentum transport is highly anisotropic especially in the gaps of the rod bundle. Influences of secondary flow cannot be detected in the distribution of the time-mean velocity, however, such influences are found in the distributions of the turbulence intensities and the kinetic energy of turbulence. Very high turbulence intensities were observed in the gap between the rods. The comparison between experimental wall shear stress distributions and those calculated with the VELASCO-code shows discrepancies especially in the gap between the rods. (orig.) [de

  15. β-D-(1→4), β-D-(1→3) 'mixed linkage' xylans from red seaweeds of the order Nemaliales and Palmariales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Adriano G; Noseda, Miguel D; Gonçalves, Alan G; Duarte, Maria Eugênia R; Yokoya, Nair; Matulewicz, Maria C; Cerezo, Alberto S

    2011-06-01

    Xylans from five seaweeds belonging to the order Nemaliales (Galaxaura marginata, Galaxaura obtusata, Tricleocarpacylindrica, Tricleocarpa fragilis, and Scinaia halliae) and one of the order Palmariales (Palmaria palmata) collected on the Brazilian coasts were extracted with hot water and purified from acid xylomannans and/or xylogalactans through Cetavlon precipitation of the acid polysaccharides. The β-D-(1→4), β-D-(1→3) 'mixed linkage' structures were determined using methylation analysis and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. The presence of large sequences of β-(1→4)-linked units suggests transient aggregates of ribbon- or helical-ordered structures that would explain the low optical rotations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cyclin D1 Expression and Its Correlation with Histopathological Differentiation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Saawarn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cyclin D1 regulates the G1 to S transition of cell cycle. Its deregulation or overexpression may lead to disturbance in the normal cell cycle control and tumour formation. Overexpression of cyclin D1 has been reported in various tumors of diverse histogenesis. This case control retrospective study was carried out to study the immunohistochemical reactivity and expression of cyclin D1 and its association with site, clinical staging, and histopathological differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Methods. Forty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of biopsy specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma were immunohistochemically evaluated for expression of cyclin D1. Results. Cyclin D1 expression was seen in 45% cases of OSCC. It did not correlate with site and clinical staging. Highest expression was seen in well-differentiated, followed by moderately differentiated, and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, with a statistically significant correlation. Conclusion. Cyclin D1 expression significantly increases with increase in differentiation.

  17. Collagen Accumulation in Osteosarcoma Cells lacking GLT25D1 Collagen Galactosyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Stephan; Hennet, Thierry

    2016-08-26

    Collagen is post-translationally modified by prolyl and lysyl hydroxylation and subsequently by glycosylation of hydroxylysine. Despite the widespread occurrence of the glycan structure Glc(α1-2)Gal linked to hydroxylysine in animals, the functional significance of collagen glycosylation remains elusive. To address the role of glycosylation in collagen expression, folding, and secretion, we used the CRISPR/Cas9 system to inactivate the collagen galactosyltransferase GLT25D1 and GLT25D2 genes in osteosarcoma cells. Loss of GLT25D1 led to increased expression and intracellular accumulation of collagen type I, whereas loss of GLT25D2 had no effect on collagen secretion. Inactivation of the GLT25D1 gene resulted in a compensatory induction of GLT25D2 expression. Loss of GLT25D1 decreased collagen glycosylation by up to 60% but did not alter collagen folding and thermal stability. Whereas cells harboring individually inactivated GLT25D1 and GLT25D2 genes could be recovered and maintained in culture, cell clones with simultaneously inactive GLT25D1 and GLT25D2 genes could be not grown and studied, suggesting that a complete loss of collagen glycosylation impairs osteosarcoma cell proliferation and viability. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. A role for D1 dopamine receptors in striatal methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Danielle M; Keefe, Kristen A

    2013-10-25

    Methamphetamine (METH) exposure results in long-term damage to the dopamine system in both human METH abusers and animal models. One factor that has been heavily implicated in this METH-induced damage to the dopaminergic system is the activation of D1 dopamine (DA) receptors. However, a significant caveat to the studies investigating the role of the receptor in such toxicity is that genetic and pharmacological manipulations of the D1 DA receptor also mitigate METH-induced hyperthermia. Importantly, METH-induced hyperthermia is tightly associated with the neurotoxicity, such that simply cooling animals during METH exposure protects against the neurotoxicity. Therefore, it is difficult to determine whether D1 DA receptors per se play an important role in METH-induced neurotoxicity or whether the protection observed simply resulted from a mitigation of METH-induced hyperthermia. To answer this important question, the current study infused a D1 DA receptor antagonist into striatum during METH exposure while controlling for METH-induced hyperthermia. Here we found that even when METH-induced hyperthermia is maintained, the coadministration of a D1 DA receptor antagonist protects against METH-induced neurotoxicity, strongly suggesting that D1 DA receptors play an important role in METH-induced neurotoxicity apart from the mitigation of METH-induced hyperthermia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cyclin D1 and Ewing's sarcoma/PNET: A microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagone, Paolo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Salvatorelli, Lucia; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Magro, Gaetano

    2015-10-01

    Recent immunohistochemical analyses have showed that cyclin D1 is expressed in soft tissue Ewing's sarcoma/peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) of childhood and adolescents, while it is undetectable in both embryonal and alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. In the present paper, microarray analysis provided evidence of a significant upregulation of cyclin D1 in Ewing's sarcoma as compared to normal tissues. In addition, we confirmed our previous findings of a significant over-expression of cyclin D1 in Ewing sarcoma as compared to rhabdomyosarcoma. Bioinformatic analysis also allowed to identify some other genes, strongly correlated to cyclin D1, which, although not previously studied in pediatric tumors, could represent novel markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of Ewing's sarcoma/PNET. The data herein provided support not only the use of cyclin D1 as a diagnostic marker of Ewing sarcoma/PNET but also the possibility of using drugs targeting cyclin D1 as potential therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. B plant mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ''System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.'' The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline

  1. Test-retest measurements of dopamine D_1-type receptors using simultaneous PET/MRI imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaller, Simon; Patt, Marianne; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Luthardt, Julia; Meyer, Philipp M.; Werner, Peter; Barthel, Henryk; Bresch, Anke; Sabri, Osama; Rullmann, Michael; Girbardt, Johanna; Fritz, Thomas H.; Hesse, Swen

    2017-01-01

    The role of dopamine D_1-type receptor (D_1R)-expressing neurons in the regulation of motivated behavior and reward prediction has not yet been fully established. As a prerequisite for future research assessing D_1-mediated neuronal network regulation using simultaneous PET/MRI and D_1R-selective ["1"1C]SCH23390, this study investigated the stability of central D_1R measurements between two independent PET/MRI sessions under baseline conditions. Thirteen healthy volunteers (7 female, age 33 ± 13 yrs) underwent 90-min emission scans, each after 90-s bolus injection of 486 ± 16 MBq ["1"1C]SCH23390, on two separate days within 2-4 weeks using a PET/MRI system. Parametric images of D_1R distribution volume ratio (DVR) and binding potential (BP_N_D) were generated by a multi-linear reference tissue model with two parameters and the cerebellar cortex as receptor-free reference region. Volume-of-interest (VOI) analysis was performed with manual VOIs drawn on consecutive transverse MRI slices for brain regions with high and low D_1R density. The DVR varied from 2.5 ± 0.3 to 2.9 ± 0.5 in regions with high D_1R density (e.g. the head of the caudate) and from 1.2 ± 0.1 to 1.6 ± 0.2 in regions with low D_1R density (e.g. the prefrontal cortex). The absolute variability of the DVR ranged from 2.4% ± 1.3% to 5.1% ± 5.3%, while Bland-Altman analyses revealed very low differences in mean DVR (e.g. 0.013 ± 0.17 for the nucleus accumbens). Intraclass correlation (one-way, random) indicated very high agreement (0.93 in average) for both DVR and BP_N_D values. Accordingly, the absolute variability of BP_N_D ranged from 7.0% ± 4.7% to 12.5% ± 10.6%; however, there were regions with very low D_1R content, such as the occipital cortex, with higher mean variability. The test-retest reliability of D_1R measurements in this study was very high. This was the case not only for D_1R-rich brain areas, but also for regions with low D_1R density. These results will provide a solid base

  2. The THEMIS Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, J. L

    2009-01-01

    The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.

  3. Rational design of hypoallergens applied to the major cat allergen Fel d 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarne, T; Kaiser, L; Grönlund, H; Rasool, O; Gafvelin, G; van Hage-Hamsten, M

    2005-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only treatment for allergic disease providing long-lasting symptom relief. Currently, it is mainly based on the use of crude allergen extracts. The treatment may be improved by the use of genetically engineered allergens, hypoallergens, aiming at a more effective and safer therapy. The aim of this study was to provide a rational design of hypoallergen candidates for immunotherapy by using structural information and knowledge of B and T cell epitopes of an allergen. The three-dimensional structure of the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was systematically altered by duplication of selected T cell epitopes and disruption of disulphide bonds. Seven Fel d 1 derivatives were generated and screened for allergenic reactivity in comparison with recombinant Fel d 1 in competition-ELISA. The allergenicity was further evaluated in basophil activation experiments and T cell reactivity was assessed in a lymphoproliferation assay. Three out of seven Fel d 1 derivatives, with two duplicated T cell epitopes and one or two disulphide bonds disrupted, were carefully evaluated. The three derivatives displayed a strong reduction in allergenicity with 400-900 times lower IgE-binding capacity than recombinant Fel d 1. In addition, they induced a lower degree of basophil activation and similar or stronger T cell proliferation than recombinant Fel d 1. By a rational approach, we have constructed three Fel d 1 hypoallergens with reduced IgE-binding capacities and retained T cell reactivities. This strategy may be applied to any well-characterized allergen to improve immunotherapy for allergic patients.

  4. BRCA1-IRIS regulates cyclin D1 expression in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakuci, Enkeleda; Mahner, Sven; DiRenzo, James; ElShamy, Wael M.

    2006-01-01

    The regulator of cell cycle progression, cyclin D1, is up-regulated in breast cancer cells; its expression is, in part, dependent on ERα signaling. However, many ERα-negative tumors and tumor cell lines (e.g., SKBR3) also show over-expression of cyclin D1. This suggests that, in addition to ERα signaling, cyclin D1 expression is under the control of other signaling pathways; these pathways may even be over-expressed in the ERα-negative cells. We previously noticed that both ERα-positive and -negative cell lines over-express BRCA1-IRIS mRNA and protein. Furthermore, the level of over-expression of BRCA1-IRIS in ERα-negative cell lines even exceeded its over-expression level in ERα-positive cell lines. In this study, we show that: (1) BRCA1-IRIS forms complex with two of the nuclear receptor co-activators, namely, SRC1 and SRC3 (AIB1) in an ERα-independent manner. (2) BRCA1-IRIS alone, or in connection with co-activators, is recruited to the cyclin D1 promoter through its binding to c-Jun/AP1 complex; this binding activates the cyclin D1 expression. (3) Over-expression of BRCA1-IRIS in breast cells over-activates JNK/c-Jun; this leads to the induction of cyclin D1 expression and cellular proliferation. (4) BRCA1-IRIS activation of JNK/c-Jun/AP1 appears to account for this, because in cells that were depleted from BRCA1-IRIS, JNK remained inactive. However, depletion of SRC1 or SRC3 instead reduced c-Jun expression. Our data suggest that this novel signaling pathway links BRCA1-IRIS to cellular proliferation through c-Jun/AP1 nuclear pathway; finally, this culminates in the increased expression of the cyclin D1 gene

  5. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-18

    leak paths”) and determine if firewalls and router access control lists are violating network policy. Visualization tools are provided to help analysts...with which a supply agent may not be familiar. In this environment, errors in requisition are easy to make, and they are costly : an incomplete cyber...establishing an email network and recommend a firewall and additional laptops. YMAL would also match mission details like the deployment location with

  6. A Somalia mission experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  7. The money mission matrix

    OpenAIRE

    Cuperus, Mirthe

    2017-01-01

    Social entrepreneurship is popular in current academics and other media. This thesis adds to this literature by discovering what the drivers are for sustainable social entrepreneurship. Several stakeholders were identified, creating profiles of the key players in social entrepreneurship. These stakeholders uncovered key factors that represent the drivers for sustainable social entrepreneurship. Key factors were then aligned along the two dimensions: Money and Mission. This crea...

  8. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  9. The Gaia mission

    OpenAIRE

    Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.

    2016-01-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia wa...

  10. Nanosatellite missions - the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudelka, O.; Kuschnig, R.; Wenger, M.; Romano, P.

    2017-09-01

    In the beginning, nanosatellite projects were focused on educational aspects. In the meantime, the technology matured and now allows to test, demonstrate and validate new systems, operational procedures and services in space at low cost and within much shorter timescales than traditional space endeavors. The number of spacecraft developed and launched has been increasing exponentially in the last years. The constellation of BRITE nanosatellites is demonstrating impressively that demanding scientific requirements can be met with small, low-cost satellites. Industry and space agencies are now embracing small satellite technology. Particularly in the USA, companies have been established to provide commercial services based on CubeSats. The approach is in general different from traditional space projects with their strict product/quality assurance and documentation requirements. The paper gives an overview of nanosatellite missions in different areas of application. Based on lessons learnt from the BRITE mission and recent developments at TU Graz (in particular the implementation of the OPS-SAT nanosatellite for ESA), enhanced technical possibilities for a future astronomy mission after BRITE will be discussed. Powerful on-board computers will allow on-board data pre-processing. A state-of-the-art telemetry system with high data rates would facilitate interference-free operations and increase science data return.

  11. Dawn Mission Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, M. V.; Russell, C. T.; Coradini, A.; Christensen, U.; de Sanctis, M. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Jaumann, R.; Keller, U.; Konopliv, A. S.; McCord, T. B.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Mottola, S.; Neukum, G.; Pieters, C. M.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Smith, D. E.; Williams, B. G.; Wise, J.; Zuber, M. T.

    2004-11-01

    Dawn, the ninth Discovery mission, will be the first spacecraft to rendezvous with two solar system bodies, the main belt asteroids Vesta and Ceres. This is made possible by utilizing ion propulsion to reach its targets and to maneuver into (and depart) orbits about these bodies. Vesta and Ceres are two terrestrial protoplanets that have survived since the earliest epoch of the solar system and will provide important insights into planet building processes and their evolution under very different circumstances, with and without water. Dawn carries a double framing camera, a visible and infrared mapping spectrometer, and a gamma ray and neutron detector. At Vesta our studies will include the volcanic emplacement of basalts, its differentiation, the possible exposure of its interior near the south pole. At Ceres our studies will include the role of water in its evolution, hydration processes on its surface, and the possible existence of a subsurface ocean. The mission has passed its critical design review and is scheduled to be launched in June 2006 with arrival at Vesta in 2011 and Ceres in 2015. Operation strategies will be presented. Groundbased observations of Vesta, Ceres, and Vesta family members over broad wavelengths, periods and phases will play an important role in detailed mission planning.

  12. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  13. The Spartan 1 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruddace, Raymond G.; Fritz, G. G.; Shrewsberry, D. J.; Brandenstein, D. J.; Creighton, D. C.; Gutschewski, G.; Lucid, S. W.; Nagel, J. M.; Fabian, J. M.; Zimmerman, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first Spartan mission is documented. The Spartan program, an outgrowth of a joint Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) development effort, was instituted by NASA for launching autonomous, recoverable payloads from the space shuttle. These payloads have a precise pointing system and are intended to support a wide range of space-science observations and experiments. The first Spartan, carrying an NRL X-ray astronomy instrument, was launched by the orbiter Discovery (STS51G) on June 20, 1985 and recovered successfully 45 h later, on June 22. During this period, Spartan 1 conducted a preprogrammed series of observations of two X-ray sources: the Perseus cluster of galaxies and the center of our galaxy. The mission was successful from both on engineering and a scientific viewpoint. Only one problem was encountered, the attitude control system (ACS) shut down earlier than planned because of high attitude control system gas consumption. A preplanned emergency mode then placed Spartan 1 into a stable, safe condition and allowed a safe recovery. The events are described of the mission and presents X-ray maps of the two observed sources, which were produced from the flight data.

  14. SPICE for ESA Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M.

    2018-04-01

    The ESA SPICE Service leads the SPICE operations for ESA missions and is responsible for the generation of the SPICE Kernel Dataset for ESA missions. This contribution will describe the status of these datasets and outline the future developments.

  15. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  16. Two distinct promoters drive transcription of the human D1A dopamine receptor gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S H; Minowa, M T; Mouradian, M M

    1996-10-11

    The human D1A dopamine receptor gene has a GC-rich, TATA-less promoter located upstream of a small, noncoding exon 1, which is separated from the coding exon 2 by a 116-base pair (bp)-long intron. Serial 3'-deletions of the 5'-noncoding region of this gene, including the intron and 5'-end of exon 2, resulted in 80 and 40% decrease in transcriptional activity of the upstream promoter in two D1A-expressing neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-MC and NS20Y, respectively. To investigate the function of this region, the intron and 245 bp at the 5'-end of exon 2 were investigated. Transient expression analyses using various chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs showed that the transcriptional activity of the intron is higher than that of the upstream promoter by 12-fold in SK-N-MC cells and by 5.5-fold in NS20Y cells in an orientation-dependent manner, indicating that the D1A intron is a strong promoter. Primer extension and ribonuclease protection assays revealed that transcription driven by the intron promoter is initiated at the junction of intron and exon 2 and at a cluster of nucleotides located 50 bp downstream from this junction. The same transcription start sites are utilized by the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs employed in transfections as well as by the D1A gene expressed within the human caudate. The relative abundance of D1A transcripts originating from the upstream promoter compared with those transcribed from the intron promoter is 1.5-2.9 times in SK-N-MC cells and 2 times in the human caudate. Transcript stability studies in SK-N-MC cells revealed that longer D1A mRNA molecules containing exon 1 are degraded 1.8 times faster than shorter transcripts lacking exon 1. Although gel mobility shift assay could not detect DNA-protein interaction at the D1A intron, competitive co-transfection using the intron as competitor confirmed the presence of trans-acting factors at the intron. These data taken together indicate that the human D1A gene has

  17. Resolvin D1 promotes corneal epithelial wound healing and restoration of mechanical sensation in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenzhen; Hu, Xiaoli; Qi, Xia; Di, Guohu; Zhang, Yangyang; Wang, Qian; Zhou, Qingjun

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effect and mechanism of proresolving lipid mediator resolvin D1 (RvD1) on the corneal epithelium and the restoration of mechanical sensation in diabetic mice. Type 1 diabetes was induced in mice with intraperitoneal streptozocin injections. The healthy and diabetic mice underwent removal of the central corneal epithelium, and then 100 ng/ml RvD1 or its formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) antagonist WRW4 was used to treat the diabetic mice. Regeneration of the corneal epithelium and nerves was observed with sodium fluorescein staining and whole-mount anti-β3-tubulin fluorescence staining. The inflammatory response level was measured with hematoxylin and eosin staining (inflammatory cell infiltration), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta content), myeloperoxidase activity, and fluorescence staining (macrophage content). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels were examined with incubation with fluorescent probes, and oxidative stress-related protein expression levels were evaluated with fluorescence staining and western blotting. Topical application of RvD1 promoted regeneration of the corneal epithelium in diabetic mice, accompanied by the reactivation of signaling and inflammation resolution related to regeneration of the epithelium. Furthermore, RvD1 directly attenuated the accumulation of ROS and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 2/4 expression, while RvD1 enhanced GSH synthesis and reactivated the Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway that was impaired in the corneal epithelium in the diabetic mice. More interestingly, topical application of RvD1 promoted regeneration of corneal nerves and completely restored impaired mechanical sensitivity of the cornea in diabetic mice. In addition, the promotion of corneal epithelial wound healing by RvD1 in diabetic mice was abolished by its FPR2 antagonist WRW4. Topical application of RvD1 promotes corneal epithelial wound

  18. Chitosan porous 3D scaffolds embedded with resolvin D1 to improve in vivo bone healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Daniela P; Costa, Madalena; Neves, Nuno; Teixeira, José H; Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Santos, Susana G; Águas, Artur P; Barbosa, Mário A; Barbosa, Judite N

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect chitosan (Ch) porous 3D scaffolds embedded with resolvin D1 (RvD1), an endogenous pro-resolving lipid mediator, on bone tissue healing. These scaffolds previous developed by us have demonstrated to have immunomodulatory properties namely in the modulation of the macrophage inflammatory phenotypic profile in an in vivo model of inflammation. Herein, results obtained in an in vivo rat femoral defect model demonstrated that two months after Ch + RvD1 scaffolds implantation, an increase in new bone formation, in bone trabecular thickness, and in collagen type I and Coll I/Coll III ratio were observed. These results suggest that Ch scaffolds embedded with RvD1 were able to lead to the formation of new bone with improvement of trabecular thickness. This study shows that the presence of RvD1 in the acute phase of the inflammatory response to the implanted biomaterial had a positive role in the subsequent bone tissue repair, thus demonstrating the importance of innovative approaches for the control of immune responses to biomedical implants in the design of advanced strategies for regenerative medicine. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 1626-1633, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Six1 promotes proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells via upregulation of cyclin D1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoming Li

    Full Text Available Six1 is one of the transcription factors that act as master regulators of development and are frequently dysregulated in cancers. However, the role of Six1 in pancreatic cancer is not clear. Here we show that the relative expression of Six1 mRNA is increased in pancreatic cancer and correlated with advanced tumor stage. In vitro functional assays demonstrate that forced overexpression of Six1 significantly enhances the growth rate and proliferation ability of pancreatic cancer cells. Knockdown of endogenous Six1 decreases the proliferation of these cells dramatically. Furthermore, Six1 promotes the growth of pancreatic cancer cells in a xenograft assay. We also show that the gene encoding cyclin D1 is a direct transcriptional target of Six1 in pancreatic cancer cells. Overexpression of Six1 upregulates cyclin D1 mRNA and protein, and significantly enhances the activity of the cyclin D1 promoter in PANC-1 cells. We demonstrate that Six1 promotes cell cycle progression and proliferation by upregulation of cyclin D1. These data suggest that Six1 is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer and may contribute to the increased cell proliferation through upregulation of cyclin D1.

  20. The D1-D2 region of the large subunit ribosomal DNA as barcode for ciliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeck, T; Przybos, E; Dunthorn, M

    2014-05-01

    Ciliates are a major evolutionary lineage within the alveolates, which are distributed in nearly all habitats on our planet and are an essential component for ecosystem function, processes and stability. Accurate identification of these unicellular eukaryotes through, for example, microscopy or mating type reactions is reserved to few specialists. To satisfy the demand for a DNA barcode for ciliates, which meets the standard criteria for DNA barcodes defined by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL), we here evaluated the D1-D2 region of the ribosomal DNA large subunit (LSU-rDNA). Primer universality for the phylum Ciliophora was tested in silico with available database sequences as well as in the laboratory with 73 ciliate species, which represented nine of 12 ciliate classes. Primers tested in this study were successful for all tested classes. To test the ability of the D1-D2 region to resolve conspecific and congeneric sequence divergence, 63 Paramecium strains were sampled from 24 mating species. The average conspecific D1-D2 variation was 0.18%, whereas congeneric sequence divergence averaged 4.83%. In pairwise genetic distance analyses, we identified a D1-D2 sequence divergence of DNA amplification of single cells and voucher deposition. In conclusion, the presented data pinpoint the D1-D2 region as an excellent candidate for an official CBOL barcode for ciliated protists. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 suppresses gene expression of cyclin D1 in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasmin, Tania; Takahashi-Yanaga, Fumi; Mori, Jun; Miwa, Yoshikazu; Hirata, Masato; Watanabe, Yutaka; Morimoto, Sachio; Sasaguri, Toshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    To determine the mechanism by which differentiation-inducing factor-1 (DIF-1), a morphogen of Dictyostelium discoideum, inhibits tumor cell proliferation, we examined the effect of DIF-1 on the gene expression of cyclin D1. DIF-1 strongly reduced the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and correspondingly decreased the amount of β-catenin in HeLa cells and squamous cell carcinoma cells. DIF-1 activated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and inhibition of GSK-3β attenuated the DIF-1-induced β-catenin degradation, indicating the involvement of GSK-3β in this effect. Moreover, DIF-1 reduced the activities of T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) reporter plasmid and a reporter gene driven by the human cyclin D1 promoter. Eliminating the TCF/LEF consensus site from the cyclin D1 promoter diminished the effect of DIF-1. These results suggest that DIF-1 inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling, resulting in the suppression of cyclin D1 promoter activity

  2. Characterization of D1 dopamine receptors in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest an association of central nervous system dopaminergic systems in the etiology of the schizophrenia. Interest in the role of D 1 dopamine receptors has revived with the advent of selective drugs for this dopamine receptor, particularly the D 1 dopamine receptor antagonists, SCH23390. [ 3 H]SCH23390 represents a superior radioligand for labeling the two-state striatal D 1 dopamine receptor in that its high percent specific binding makes it especially suitable for detailed mechanistic studies of this receptor. Striatal D 1 dopamine receptors have been shown to mediate the stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity via a guanine nucleotide regulatory subunit. Forskolin acts in a synergistic manner with dopamine agonists, guanine nucleotides or sodium fluoride to potentiate the stimulation of rat striatal adenylate cyclase activity mediated by these reagents. By using the aforementioned reagents and the irreversible receptor modifying reagent N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2,-dihydroquinoline, we demonstrated that the D 1 dopamine receptor population in rat striatum is not a stoichiometrically-limiting factor in agonist stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity

  3. Cyclin D1 in ASM Cells from Asthmatics Is Insensitive to Corticosteroid Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jodi C; Seidel, Petra; Schlosser, Tobias; Ramsay, Emma E; Ge, Qi; Ammit, Alaina J

    2012-01-01

    Hyperplasia of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is a feature of the remodelled airway in asthmatics. We examined the antiproliferative effectiveness of the corticosteroid dexamethasone on expression of the key regulator of G(1) cell cycle progression-cyclin D1-in ASM cells from nonasthmatics and asthmatics stimulated with the mitogen platelet-derived growth factor BB. While cyclin D1 mRNA and protein expression were repressed in cells from nonasthmatics in contrast, cyclin D1 expression in asthmatics was resistant to inhibition by dexamethasone. This was independent of a repressive effect on glucocorticoid receptor translocation. Our results corroborate evidence demonstrating that corticosteroids inhibit mitogen-induced proliferation only in ASM cells from subjects without asthma and suggest that there are corticosteroid-insensitive proliferative pathways in asthmatics.

  4. The panel of egg allergens, Gal d 1-Gal d 5: Their improved purification and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.; Have, T. T.

    2008-01-01

    Egg proteins represent one of the most important sources evoking food allergic reactions. In order to improve allergy diagnosis, purified and well-characterized proteins are needed. Although the egg white allergens Gal d 1, 2, 3 and 4 (ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and lysozyme......) are commercially available, these preparations contain impurities, which affect exact in vitro diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to set up further purification protocols and to extend the characterization of the physicochemical and immunological properties of the final batches. The egg white allergens...... Gal d 1-4 were purified from commercial preparations, whereas Gal d 5 (a-livetin) was purified from egg yolk. The final batches of Gal d 1-5 consisted of a range of isoforms with defined tertiary structure. In addition, the IgE binding capacity of the purified egg allergens was tested using allergic...

  5. Production of the excited charm mesons D1 and D*2 at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, H.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.

    2012-08-01

    The production of the excited charm mesons D 1 (2420) and D * 2 (2460) in ep collisions has been measured with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 373 pb -1 . The masses of the neutral and charged states, the widths of the neutral states, and the helicity parameter of D 1 (2420) 0 were determined and compared with other measurements and with theoretical expectations. The measured helicity parameter of the D 0 1 allows for some mixing of S- and D-waves in its decay to D *± π -+ . The result is also consistent with a pure D-wave decay. Ratios of branching fractions of the two decay modes of the D * 2 (2460) 0 and D * 2 (2460) ± states were measured and compared with previous measurements. The fractions of charm quarks hadronising into D 1 and D * 2 were measured and are consistent with those obtained in e + e - annihilations.

  6. Renal imaging with a new agent sup(99m)Tc-d1-DMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, A.

    1980-01-01

    By using sup(99m)-Tc-d1 DMS labeled with 99 m-Tc using stannous chloride and prepared with freeze-dried d1-DMS containing a 3:1 molar ratio of DMS and Sn +2 the effect of stereochemical factor of DMS on kidney affinity, renal images, blood clearance, urinary excretion was studied in experimental animals and two normal volunteers and 75 patients. The comparation revealed a quite similar formation of complex II from d1-DMS to that from the meso-form, judge from its absorption spectra and absorption behavior into the gel. The stereochemical difference of DMS is not a critical factor for the formation of the sup(99m)-Tc-DMS complex with high affinity for the kidney, although it is believed that the renal accumulation of Tc-complex will depend greatly on chemical configuration of the complex. (APR)

  7. The Deuteron Spin-dependent Structure Function $g^{d}_1$ and its First Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Becker, M.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Brona, G.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.P.; Bytchkov, V.N.; Chapiro, A.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Colavita, A.A.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.L.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Demchenko, D.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Diaz, V.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Dorofeev, V.A.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Efremov, A.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Fauland, P.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.M.; Grajek, O.A.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.H.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Horn, I.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.I.; Ivanchin, I.; Ivanov, O.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N.I.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Komissarov, E.V.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korentchenko, A.S.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Koutchinski, N.A.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kowalik, K.; Kramer, D.; Kravchuk, N.P.; Krivokhizhin, G.V.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kubart, J.; Kuhn, R.; Kukhtin, V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.E.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.M.; Leberig, M.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Masek, L.; Massmann, F.; Matsuda, T.; Matthia, D.; Maximov, A.N.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Moinester, M.A.; Nagel, T.; Nahle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Neyret, D.P.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nikolaev, K.; Nozdrin, A.A.; Obraztsov, V.F.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pontecorvo, G.; Popov, A.A.; Pretz, J.; Procureur, S.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Reicherz, G.; Rondio, E.; Rozhdestvensky, A.M.; Ryabchikov, D.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Santos, H.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Savin, I.A.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmitt, L.; Schroeder, W.; Seeharsch, D.; Seimetz, M.; Setter, D.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Siebert, H.W.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sugonyaev, V.P.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Tchalishev, V.V.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Trippel, S.; Venugopal, G.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Zhao, J.; Zvyagin, A.

    2007-01-01

    We present a measurement of the deuteron spin-dependent structure function g^d_1 based on the data collected by the COMPASS experiment at CERN during the years 2002-2004. The data provide an accurate evaluation for \\Gamma^d_1, the first moment of g^d_1(x), and for the matrix element of the singlet axial current, a_0. The results of QCD fits in the next to leading order (NLO) on all g1 deep inelastic scattering data are also presented. They provide two solutions with the gluon spin distribution function \\Delta_G positive or negative, which describe the data equally well. In both cases, at Q^2 = 3(GeV/c)^2 the first moment of \\Delta G is found to be of the order of 0:2 - 0:3 in absolute value.

  8. UGT74D1 is a novel auxin glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Hui Jin

    Full Text Available Auxin is one type of phytohormones that plays important roles in nearly all aspects of plant growth and developmental processes. The glycosylation of auxins is considered to be an essential mechanism to control the level of active auxins. Thus, the identification of auxin glycosyltransferases is of great significance for further understanding the auxin regulation. In this study, we biochemically screened the group L of Arabidopsis thaliana glycosyltransferase superfamily for enzymatic activity toward auxins. UGT74D1 was identified to be a novel auxin glycosyltransferase. Through HPLC and LC-MS analysis of reaction products in vitro by testing eight substrates including auxins and other compounds, we found that UGT74D1 had a strong glucosylating activity toward indole-3-butyric acid [IBA], indole-3-propionic acid [IPA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and naphthaleneacetic acid [NAA], catalyzing them to form corresponding glucose esters. Biochemical characterization showed that this enzyme had a maximum activity in HEPES buffer at pH 6.0 and 37°C. In addition, the enzymatic activity analysis of crude protein and the IBA metabolite analysis from transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing UGT74D1 gene were also carried out. Experimental results indicated that over-production of the UGT74D1 in plants indeed led to increased level of the glucose conjugate of IBA. Moreover, UGT74D1 overexpression lines displayed curling leaf phenotype, suggesting a physiological role of UGT74D1 in affecting the activity of auxins. Our current data provide a new target gene for further genetic studies to understand the auxin regulation by glycosylation in plants.

  9. D1 receptors regulate dendritic morphology in normal and stressed prelimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grant L; Borders, Candace B; Lundewall, Leslie J; Wellman, Cara L

    2015-01-01

    Both stress and dysfunction of prefrontal cortex are linked to psychological disorders, and structure and function of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are altered by stress. Chronic restraint stress causes dendritic retraction in the prelimbic region (PL) of mPFC in rats. Dopamine release in mPFC increases during stress, and chronic administration of dopaminergic agonists results in dendritic remodeling. Thus, stress-induced alterations in dopaminergic transmission in PL may contribute to dendritic remodeling. We examined the effects of dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) blockade in PL during daily restraint stress on dendritic morphology in PL. Rats either underwent daily restraint stress (3h/day, 10 days) or remained unstressed. In each group, rats received daily infusions of either the D1R antagonist SCH23390 or vehicle into PL prior to restraint; unstressed and stressed rats that had not undergone surgery were also examined. On the final day of restraint, rats were euthanized and brains were processed for Golgi histology. Pyramidal neurons in PL were reconstructed and dendritic morphology was quantified. Vehicle-infused stressed rats demonstrated dendritic retraction compared to unstressed rats, and D1R blockade in PL prevented this effect. Moreover, in unstressed rats, D1R blockade produced dendritic retraction. These effects were not due to attenuation of the HPA axis response to acute stress: plasma corticosterone levels in a separate group of rats that underwent acute restraint stress with or without D1R blockade were not significantly different. These findings indicate that dopaminergic transmission in mPFC during stress contributes directly to the stress-induced retraction of apical dendrites, while dopamine transmission in the absence of stress is important in maintaining normal dendritic morphology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Alternative splicing variants of human Fbx4 disturb cyclin D1 proteolysis in human cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Jie; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tu, Jing [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Sun, Shiqin [College of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University-Daqing, Daqing, Heilongjiang 163319 (China); Chen, Xiangmei, E-mail: xm_chen6176@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China); Lu, Fengmin [Department of Microbiology and Infectious Disease Center, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-04-25

    Highlights: • The expression of Fbx4 was significantly lower in HCC tissues. • Novel splicing variants of Fbx4 were identified. • These novel variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cells. • The novel Fbx4 isoforms could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. • These isoforms showed less capability for cyclin D1 binding and degradation. - Abstract: Fbx4 is a specific substrate recognition component of SCF ubiquitin ligases that catalyzes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cyclin D1 and Trx1. Two isoforms of human Fbx4 protein, the full length Fbx4α and the C-terminal truncated Fbx4β have been identified, but their functions remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that the mRNA level of Fbx4 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues. More importantly, we identified three novel splicing variants of Fbx4: Fbx4γ (missing 168–245nt of exon1), Fbx4δ (missing exon6) and a N-terminal reading frame shift variant (missing exon2). Using cloning sequencing and RT-PCR, we demonstrated these novel splice variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cell lines than that in normal tissues. When expressed in Sk-Hep1 and NIH3T3 cell lines, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ and Fbx4δ could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Concordantly, these isoforms could disrupt cyclin D1 degradation and therefore increase cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, unlike the full-length isoform Fbx4α that mainly exists in cytoplasm, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ, and Fbx4δ locate in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Since cyclin D1 degradation takes place in cytoplasm, the nuclear distribution of these Fbx4 isoforms may not be involved in the down-regulation of cytoplasmic cyclin D1. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Fbx4 function, and suggest that the attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by these novel Fbx4 isoforms provides a new insight for aberrant

  11. Cyclin D1 in well differentiated thyroid tumour of uncertain malignant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba Saini, Monika; Weynand, Birgit; Rahier, Jacques; Mourad, Michel; Hamoir, Marc; Marbaix, Etienne

    2015-04-18

    Encapsulated follicular tumours with equivocal papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) type nuclear features continue to remain a challenge despite the recent attempts to classify these borderline lesions. The term 'well differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP)' was introduced to classify these tumours. The present study aimed to evaluate the role of a cell cycle regulator like cyclin D1 in these tumours along with assessment of other well established PTC markers like galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19. Thirteen cases of metastatic PTC, papillary microcarcinoma and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC) were identified from a histological review of 510 cases. In addition, 13 cases of a subset of follicular adenomatoid nodules with focal areas showing nuclear features characteristic of PTC, identified as WDT-UMP, were also analyzed. Immunohistochemical analysis of galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19 and the proliferation markers Ki67 and cyclin D1 was performed. Lesions were analyzed for cyclin D1 gene amplification by fluorescent in-situ hybridization. All WDT-UMP lesions showed immunolabelling of cyclin D1, Ki67; 11/ 13 cases showed immunolabelling of CK19; 10/13 cases showed immunolabelling of HBME-1 and 4/13 cases showed immunolabelling of galectin-3. Surrounding benign adenomatoid areas showed no to faint focal staining in all thirteen cases of cyclin D1, HBME-1 and galectin-3. A low rate of cyclin D1 gene amplification was identified in a significant proportion of cells in the WDT-UMP lesions as compared to surrounding benign adenomatoid areas. Increased expression of cyclin D1 and amplification of its gene along with immunolabelling of HBME-1 in WDT-UMP lesions showing cytological features of papillary thyroid carcinoma within follicular adenomatoid nodules suggest that these areas could correspond to a precursor lesion of follicular variant of PTC. Overexpression of cyclin D1, associated with the amplification of the gene suggests that these WDT-UMP lesions are an

  12. Alternative splicing variants of human Fbx4 disturb cyclin D1 proteolysis in human cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Xiufeng; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Jie; Li, Meng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Tu, Jing; Sun, Shiqin; Chen, Xiangmei; Lu, Fengmin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The expression of Fbx4 was significantly lower in HCC tissues. • Novel splicing variants of Fbx4 were identified. • These novel variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cells. • The novel Fbx4 isoforms could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. • These isoforms showed less capability for cyclin D1 binding and degradation. - Abstract: Fbx4 is a specific substrate recognition component of SCF ubiquitin ligases that catalyzes the ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of cyclin D1 and Trx1. Two isoforms of human Fbx4 protein, the full length Fbx4α and the C-terminal truncated Fbx4β have been identified, but their functions remain elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that the mRNA level of Fbx4 was significantly lower in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues than that in the corresponding non-tumor tissues. More importantly, we identified three novel splicing variants of Fbx4: Fbx4γ (missing 168–245nt of exon1), Fbx4δ (missing exon6) and a N-terminal reading frame shift variant (missing exon2). Using cloning sequencing and RT-PCR, we demonstrated these novel splice variants are much more abundant in human cancer tissues and cell lines than that in normal tissues. When expressed in Sk-Hep1 and NIH3T3 cell lines, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ and Fbx4δ could promote cell proliferation and migration in vitro. Concordantly, these isoforms could disrupt cyclin D1 degradation and therefore increase cyclin D1 expression. Moreover, unlike the full-length isoform Fbx4α that mainly exists in cytoplasm, Fbx4β, Fbx4γ, and Fbx4δ locate in both cytoplasm and nucleus. Since cyclin D1 degradation takes place in cytoplasm, the nuclear distribution of these Fbx4 isoforms may not be involved in the down-regulation of cytoplasmic cyclin D1. These results define the impact of alternative splicing on Fbx4 function, and suggest that the attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by these novel Fbx4 isoforms provides a new insight for aberrant

  13. Mission to Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  14. The ARTEMIS mission

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis

    2014-01-01

    The ARTEMIS mission was initiated by skillfully moving the two outermost Earth-orbiting THEMIS spacecraft into lunar orbit to conduct unprecedented dual spacecraft observations of the lunar environment. ARTEMIS stands for Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun. Indeed, this volume discusses initial findings related to the Moon’s magnetic and plasma environments and the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior. This work is aimed at researchers and graduate students in both heliophysics and planetary physics. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol. 165/1-4, 2011.

  15. The solar probe mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, W.C.; Anderson, J.; Bohlin, J.D.; Burlaga, L.F.; Farquhar, R.; Gloeckler, G.; Goldstein, B.E.; Harvey, J.W.; Holzer, T.E.; Jones, W.V.; Kellogg, P.J.; Krimigis, S.M.; Kundu, M.R.; Lazarus, A.J.; Mellott, M.M.; Parker, E.N.; Rosner, R.; Rottman, G.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Suess, S.T.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Woo, R.T.; Zwickl, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Solar Probe will deliver a 133.5 kg science payload into a 4 R s perihelion solar polar orbit (with the first perihelion passage in 2004) to explore in situ one of the last frontiers in the solar system---the solar corona. This mission is both affordable and technologically feasible. Using a payload of 12 (predominantly particles and fields) scientific experiments, it will be possible to answer many long-standing, fundamental problems concerning the structure and dynamics of the outer solar atmosphere, including the acceleration, storage, and transport of energetic particles near the Sun and in the inner ( s ) heliosphere

  16. Mission to Planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.S.; Backlund, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. 8 refs

  17. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibits EGF-induced cell transformation via reduction of cyclin D1 mRNA stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jingjie; Ouyang, Weiming; Li, Jingxia; Zhang, Dongyun; Yu, Yonghui; Wang, York; Li, Xuejun; Huang, Chuanshu

    2012-01-01

    Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) inhibiting cancer cell growth has been associated with its downregulation of cyclin D1 protein expression at transcription level or translation level. Here, we have demonstrated that SAHA inhibited EGF-induced Cl41 cell transformation via the decrease of cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. We found that SAHA treatment resulted in the dramatic inhibition of EGF-induced cell transformation, cyclin D1 protein expression and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest. Further studies showed that SAHA downregulation of cyclin D1 was only observed with endogenous cyclin D1, but not with reconstitutionally expressed cyclin D1 in the same cells, excluding the possibility of SAHA regulating cyclin D1 at level of protein degradation. Moreover, SAHA inhibited EGF-induced cyclin d1 mRNA level, whereas it did not show any inhibitory effect on cyclin D1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter activity under the same experimental conditions, suggesting that SAHA may decrease cyclin D1 mRNA stability. This notion was supported by the results that treatment of cells with SAHA decreased the half-life of cyclin D1 mRNA from 6.95 h to 2.57 h. Consistent with downregulation of cyclin D1 mRNA stability, SAHA treatment also attenuated HuR expression, which has been well-characterized as a positive regulator of cyclin D1 mRNA stability. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism responsible for SAHA inhibiting cell transformation via decreasing cyclin D1 mRNA stability and induction of G0/G1 growth arrest in Cl41 cells. -- Highlights: ► SAHA inhibits cell transformation in Cl41 cells. ► SAHA suppresses Cyclin D1 protein expression. ► SAHA decreases cyclin D1 mRNA stability.

  18. STS-61 mission director's post-mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    To ensure the success of the complex Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, STS-61, NASA established a number of independent review groups to assess management, design, planning, and preparation for the mission. One of the resulting recommendations for mission success was that an overall Mission Director be appointed to coordinate management activities of the Space Shuttle and Hubble programs and to consolidate results of the team reviews and expedite responses to recommendations. This report presents pre-mission events important to the experience base of mission management, with related Mission Director's recommendations following the event(s) to which they apply. All Mission Director's recommendations are presented collectively in an appendix. Other appendixes contain recommendations from the various review groups, including Payload Officers, the JSC Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Section, JSC EVA Management Office, JSC Crew and Thermal Systems Division, and the STS-61 crew itself. This report also lists mission events in chronological order and includes as an appendix a post-mission summary by the lead Payload Deployment and Retrieval System Officer. Recommendations range from those pertaining to specific component use or operating techniques to those for improved management, review, planning, and safety procedures.

  19. Solar maximum mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.

    1981-01-01

    By understanding the sun, astrophysicists hope to expand this knowledge to understanding other stars. To study the sun, NASA launched a satellite on February 14, 1980. The project is named the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM). The satellite conducted detailed observations of the sun in collaboration with other satellites and ground-based optical and radio observations until its failure 10 months into the mission. The main objective of the SMM was to investigate one aspect of solar activity: solar flares. A brief description of the flare mechanism is given. The SMM satellite was valuable in providing information on where and how a solar flare occurs. A sequence of photographs of a solar flare taken from SMM satellite shows how a solar flare develops in a particular layer of the solar atmosphere. Two flares especially suitable for detailed observations by a joint effort occurred on April 30 and May 21 of 1980. These flares and observations of the flares are discussed. Also discussed are significant discoveries made by individual experiments

  20. The Euclid mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racca, Giuseppe D.; Laureijs, René; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Lorenzo Alvarez, José; Saavedra Criado, Gonzalo; Gaspar Venancio, Luis; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Bönke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jérôme; Berthé, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the scientific objectives. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. All sensor data are downlinked using K-band transmission and processed by a dedicated ground segment for science data processing. The Euclid data and catalogues will be made available to the public at the ESA Science Data Centre.

  1. EU Universities’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Arcimaviciene

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 10 years, a highly productive space of metaphor analysis has been established in the discourse studies of media, politics, business, and education. In the theoretical framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis, the restored metaphorical patterns are especially valued for their implied ideological value as realized both conceptually and linguistically. By using the analytical framework of Critical Metaphor Analysis and procedurally employing Pragglejaz Group’s Metaphor Identification Procedure, this study aims at analyzing the implied value of the evoked metaphors in the mission statements of the first 20 European Universities, according to the Webometrics ranking. In this article, it is proposed that Universities’ mission statements are based on the positive evaluation of the COMMERCE metaphor, which does not fully correlate with the ideological framework of sustainability education but is rather oriented toward consumerism in both education and society. Despite this overall trend, there are some traceable features of the conceptualization reflecting the sustainability approach to higher education, as related to freedom of speech, tolerance, and environmental concerns. Nonetheless, these are suppressed by the metaphoric usages evoking traditional dogmas of the conservative ideology grounded in the concepts of the transactional approach to relationship, competitiveness for superiority, the importance of self-interest and strength, and quantifiable quality.

  2. OMV mission simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cok, Keith E.

    1989-01-01

    The Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) will be remotely piloted during rendezvous, docking, or proximity operations with target spacecraft from a ground control console (GCC). The real-time mission simulator and graphics being used to design a console pilot-machine interface are discussed. A real-time orbital dynamics simulator drives the visual displays. The dynamics simulator includes a J2 oblate earth gravity model and a generalized 1962 rotating atmospheric and drag model. The simulator also provides a variable-length communication delay to represent use of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) and NASA Communications (NASCOM). Input parameter files determine the graphics display. This feature allows rapid prototyping since displays can be easily modified from pilot recommendations. A series of pilot reviews are being held to determine an effective pilot-machine interface. Pilots fly missions with nominal to 3-sigma dispersions in translational or rotational axes. Console dimensions, switch type and layout, hand controllers, and graphic interfaces are evaluated by the pilots and the GCC simulator is modified for subsequent runs. Initial results indicate a pilot preference for analog versus digital displays and for two 3-degree-of-freedom hand controllers.

  3. STS-78 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation

  4. 26 CFR 1.149(d)-1A - Limitations on advance refundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... savings test. If any separate issue in a multipurpose issue increases the aggregate present value debt service savings on the entire multipurpose issue or reduces the present value debt service losses on that... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on advance refundings. 1.149(d)-1A...

  5. Siim Nestor soovitab : D1 Recordingsi turnee Eestis. Matthew Herbert / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Iiri techno-firma D1 Recordingsi esindajate kontsertidest 4. märtsil üritusel "Kõigem ruudus" Von Krahlis Tallinnas ja 5. märtsil Ranna klubis Sillamäel. Matthew Herbert Big Band'i ja soome elktroonilise muusika ansambli Uusi Fantaasia kontserdist 5. märtsil Sakala keskuses Tallinnas üritusel "Jazz'n'Motion"

  6. Transcriptional analysis of genetic region RvD1 of Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Tibatá R.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis, shares 99.9% of genomic identity with M. tuberculosis, M. africanum and M. microti. Within this 0.1 % of difference, there are two genetic regions characteristics of M. bovis that are deleted in M. tuberculo­sis H37Rv: RvD1 and RvD2. According to bioinformatic analysis, these regions contain Open Reading Frames (ORFs. With the purpose of determining if the RvD1 region transcribes the ORFs predicted by bioinformatics (ORF1, ORF2 and Rv2024; total RNA was extracted from a culture of M. bovis BCG Pasteur, at different time points along the growth curve. The RNA samples were analyzed by Real Time Reverse Transcription - Poly-merase Chain Reaction (RTq-PCR. The findings show that ORF1, ORF2 and Rv2024, were transcribed consti-tutively, something that has not been reported previously. These results are a first step in order to determine the function of M. bovis RvD1 region, its possible role in pathogenesis and its interaction with both cattle and humans. Key words: Mycobacterium bovis, BCG, RNA, Real Time, RT-PCR, RvD1

  7. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1B26D-1AUPA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1B26D-1AUPA 1B26 1AUP D A ------------------SLYEMAVEQFN----RA----...ine> GLU CA 284 LEU CA 369 1AUP A 1AUPA DPEGITTEEKINY ALA CA 419 ALA CA 500 1AUP... A 1AUPA RYGLGYNLVAGA

  8. Challenging metastatic breast cancer with the natural defensin PvD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Tiago N; Oliveira, Filipa D; Almeida, Inês; Mello, Érica O; Gomes, Valdirene M; Castanho, Miguel A R B; Gaspar, Diana

    2017-11-09

    Metastatic breast cancer is a very serious life threatening condition that poses many challenges for the pharmaceutical development of effective chemotherapeutics. As the therapeutics targeted to the localized masses in breast improve, metastatic lesions in the brain slowly increase in their incidence compromising successful treatment outcomes overall. The blood-brain-barrier (BBB) is one important obstacle for the management of breast cancer brain metastases. New therapeutic approaches are in demand for overcoming the BBB's breaching by breast tumor cells. In this work we demonstrate the potential dual role of a natural antimicrobial plant defensin, PvD 1 : it interferes with the formation of solid tumors in the breast and concomitantly controls adhesion of breast cancer cells to human brain endothelial cells. We have used a combination of techniques that probe PvD 1 's effect at the single cell level and reveal that this peptide can effectively damage breast tumor cells, leaving healthy breast and brain cells unaffected. Results suggest that PvD1 quickly internalizes in cancer cells but remains located in the membrane of normal cells with no significant damage to its structure and biomechanical properties. These interactions in turn modulate cell adhesiveness between tumor and BBB cells. PvD 1 is a potential template for the design of innovative pharmacological approaches for metastatic breast cancer treatment: the manipulation of the biomechanical properties of tumor cells that ultimately prevent their attachment to the BBB.

  9. 26 CFR 1.672(d)-1 - Power subject to condition precedent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.672(d)-1 Power..., the grantor will nevertheless not be treated as an owner by reason of the power if its exercise can..., if the power were a reversionary interest, he would not be treated as an owner under section 673. See...

  10. 26 CFR 7.57(d)-1 - Election with respect to straight line recovery of intangibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election with respect to straight line recovery... ACT OF 1976 § 7.57(d)-1 Election with respect to straight line recovery of intangibles. (a) Purpose... Tax Reform Act of 1976. Under this election taxpayers may use cost depletion to compute straight line...

  11. Novel vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase gene mutations in a Chinese ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... known as vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase deficiency or pseu- dovitamin D ... amplicons of the 378 bp were digested with restriction enzyme PvuI and ... have no enzymatic activity; a missense mutation c.473T>C. (p.L158P) in the ...

  12. D1+ Simulator: A cost and risk optimized approach to nuclear power plant simulator modernization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wischert, W.

    2006-01-01

    D1-Simulator is operated by Kraftwerks-Simulator-Gesellschaft (KSG) and Gesellschaft f?r Simulatorschulung (GfS) at the Simulator Centre in Essen since 1977. The full-scope control room training simulator, used for Kernkraftwerk Biblis (KWB) is based on a PDP-11 hardware platform and is mainly programmed in ASSEMBLER language. The Simulator has reached a continuous high availability of operation throughout the years due to specialized hardware and software support from KSG maintenance team. Nevertheless, D1-Simulator largely reveals limitations with respect to computer capacity and spares and suffers progressively from the non-availability of hardware replacement materials. In order to ensure long term maintainability within the framework of the consensus on nuclear energy, a 2-years refurbishing program has been launched by KWB focusing on quality and budgetary aspects. The so-called D1+ Simulator project is based on the re-use of validated data from existing simulators. Allowing for flexible project management methods, the project outlines a cost and risk optimized approach to Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Simulator modernization. D1+ Simulator is being built by KSG/GfS in close collaboration with KWB and the simulator vendor THALES by re-using a modern hardware and software development environment from D56-Simulator, used by Kernkraftwerk Obrigheim (KWO) before its decommissioning in 2005. The Simulator project, launched in 2004, is expected to be completed by end of 2006. (author)

  13. Write-up for the Diffractometer D1 at Risø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Jørgen; Krebs Larsen, F.; Lebech, Bente

    Manual for the crystallographic program system used to control the 4-circle neutron diffractometer D1/TASII at DR3, Risø. The mechanical part of the diffractometer consists of a monochromator part which allows an easy change of incident neutron wavelength and a four-circle HUBER goniostate consis...

  14. Insulin stimulation regulates AS160 and TBC1D1 phosphorylation sites in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelbeek, R J W; Chambers, M A; Tantiwong, P

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are typically insulin resistant, exhibiting impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake. Animal and cell culture experiments have shown that site-specific phosphorylation of the Rab-GTPase-activating proteins AS160 and TBC1D1 is critical for GLUT4 tr...

  15. The Roles of Dopamine D1 Receptor on the Social Hierarchy of Rodents and Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshie; Lee, Young-A; Kato, Akemi; Goto, Yukiori

    2017-04-01

    Although dopamine has been suggested to play a role in mediating social behaviors of individual animals, it is not clear whether such dopamine signaling contributes to attributes of social groups such as social hierarchy. In this study, the effects of the pharmacological manipulation of dopamine D1 receptor function on the social hierarchy and behavior of group-housed mice and macaques were investigated using a battery of behavioral tests. D1 receptor blockade facilitated social dominance in mice at the middle, but not high or low, social rank in the groups without altering social preference among mates. In contrast, the administration of a D1 receptor antagonist in a macaque did not affect social dominance of the drug-treated animal; however, relative social dominance relationships between the drug-treated and nontreated subjects were altered indirectly through alterations of social affiliative relationships within the social group. These results suggest that dopamine D1 receptor signaling may be involved in social hierarchy and social relationships within a group, which may differ between rodents and primates. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  16. Solvability in D1,2(Ω) of the equation -Δu+c=Keu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Minh Duc.

    1989-06-01

    We establish the Sobolev inequality for a limiting case. Using this result, the Ekeland variational principle and our generalized critical values results we get the existence, nonexistence and nonuniqueness of solutions in D 1,2 (Ω) of the equation -Δu+c=Ke u . (author). 18 refs

  17. Ligand-independent recruitment of steroid receptor coactivators to estrogen receptor by cyclin D1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, R.M.L.; Buckle, R.S.; Hijmans, E.M.; Loomans, C.J.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The estrogen receptor (ER) is an important regulator of growth and differentiation of breast epithelium. Transactivation by ER depends on a leucine-rich motif, which constitutes a ligand-regulated binding site for steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs). Cyclin D1 is frequently amplified in breast

  18. Excessive D1 Dopamine Receptor Activation in the Dorsal Striatum Promotes Autistic-Like Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunjin; Kim, Hannah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Choi, Juli; Lee, Jung-Eun; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2018-07-01

    The dopamine system has been characterized in motor function, goal-directed behaviors, and rewards. Recent studies recognize various dopamine system genes as being associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, how dopamine system dysfunction induces ASD pathophysiology remains unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that mice with increased dopamine functions in the dorsal striatum via the suppression of dopamine transporter expression in substantia nigra neurons or the optogenetic stimulation of the nigro-striatal circuitry exhibited sociability deficits and repetitive behaviors relevant to ASD pathology in animal models, while these behavioral changes were blocked by a D1 receptor antagonist. Pharmacological activation of D1 dopamine receptors in normal mice or the genetic knockout (KO) of D2 dopamine receptors also produced typical autistic-like behaviors. Moreover, the siRNA-mediated inhibition of D2 dopamine receptors in the dorsal striatum was sufficient to replicate autistic-like phenotypes in D2 KO mice. Intervention of D1 dopamine receptor functions or the signaling pathways-related D1 receptors in D2 KO mice produced anti-autistic effects. Together, our results indicate that increased dopamine function in the dorsal striatum promotes autistic-like behaviors and that the dorsal striatum is the neural correlate of ASD core symptoms.

  19. Frontal-subcortical circuits in obsessive-compulsive disorder: role of the dopamine D1 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olver, J.S.; Reutens, D.C.; Maruff, P.; Burrows, G.D.; Norman, T.R.; Ellen, S.R.; Pantelis, C.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Ackermann, U.; Stekelenberg, N.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder which is increasingly being recognised as a neurobiological disorder. While serotonergic mechanisms have been proposed, the major competing theory in the pathophysiology of OCD involves the neurotransmitter dopamine. The Dopamine D1 receptor is implicated in OCD following the finding of specific spatial working memory abnormalities in a series of neuropsychological studies. Spatial working memory is known to depend on the integrity of D1 receptor function in the Dorso-lateral Prefrontal Cortex (DLPFC) of primates. This study aims to examine the role of dopamine in patients with OCD and in particular to test the hypothesis that there is an upregulation of dopamine D1 receptors in the DLPFC which correlates with spatial working memory deficits in OCD. Three OCD patients and three normal controls underwent Positron Emission Tomography (PET) following intravenous injection of the D1 antagonist PET ligand SCH23390. Reconstructed PET images were co registered with subject Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) and regions of interest drawn manually. We will present the analysis of the Binding Potentials of SCH23390 in the regions of interest of the first three OCD patients and compare them with three normal control patients. In conclusion Dopamine-Serotonergic interactions are involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. Degradation and de novo synthesis of D1 protein and psbA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This shows that synthesis of D1 protein is not the only component involved in the recovery process. Our events, which ... transcript levels in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in ..... and Gaba V 1996 Accelerated degradation of the D2 ...

  1. Scattering theory for lattice phi4sub(D+1) theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garczynski, W.

    1983-01-01

    Feynman rules are derived for a lattice version of the phi 4 sub(D+1) theory. The lattice values are transcribed, via a quasicontinual representation, into a continuous, non-local in spatial variables field theory, which is then quantized by the path integral method. (orig.)

  2. 26 CFR 1.415(d)-1 - Cost-of-living adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)(A) dollar limitation pursuant to section 611(a)(1)(A) of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief... adjustments. (a) Defined benefit plans—(1) Dollar limitation—(i) Determination of adjusted limit. Under section 415(d)(1)(A), the dollar limitation described in section 415(b)(1)(A) applicable to defined...

  3. Memory, reconsolidation and extinction in Lymnaea require the soma of RPeD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Susan; Varshney, Nishi; Fras, Mary; Smyth, Kim; Rosenegger, David; Parvez, Kashif; Sadamoto, Hisayo; Lukowiak, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The central pattern generator (CPG) that drives aerial respiratory behaviour in Lymnaea consists of 3 neurons. One of these, RPeD1--the cell that initiates activity in the circuit, plays an absolutely necessary role as a site for memory formation, memory reconsolidation, and extinction. Using an operant conditioning training procedure that results in a long-term non-declarative memory (LTM), we decrease the occurrence of aerial respiratory behaviour. Since snails can still breathe cutaneously learning this procedure is not harmful. Concomitant with behavioural memory are changes in the spiking activity of RPeD1. Going beyond neural correlates of memory we directly show that RPeD1 is a necessary site for LTM formation. Expanding on this finding we show that this neuron is also a necessary site for memory reconsolidation and 'Pavlovian' extinction. As far as we can determine, this is the first time a single neuron has been shown to be a necessary site for these different aspects memory. RPeD1 is thus a key neuron mediating different hierarchical aspects of memory. We are now in a position to determine the necessary neuronal, molecular and proteomic events in this neuron that are causal to memory formation, reconsolidation and extinction.

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1A96D-1VDMG [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1A96D-1VDMG 1A96 1VDM D G -EKYIVTWDMLQIHARKLASRLMPSEQWKGIIAVSRGGL...VPGALLARELGIRHVDTVCISSY-------RELKVLKRAEGDGEG--FIVIDDLVDTGGTAVAIREMYP-----KAHFVTIFAKPAGRPLVDDYVVDIPQDTWIEQPWDMG...Chain>G 1VDMG IEEVKKLGAKEIKIA G 1VDMG LREYK-PDVI...pdbID> G 1VDMG YVFRT--EKWIV

  5. D1.1 Detailed requirements for GloNet use case and domain glossary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Korojelo, S.; Sargolzaei, M.; Thamburaj, V.; Madhavan, V.; Camarinha-Matos, L.

    2012-01-01

    D1.1 is one of the first deliverables of the project, which sets the base for research in all other WPs in GloNet. The findings reported in this deliverable are resulted through direct involvement of the two energy related industries within the GloNet consortium (iPLON and Prolon), as well as the

  6. VHL-mediated hypoxia regulation of cyclin D1 in renal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Ranjit S; Vasselli, James R; Stearman, Robert; Linehan, W Marston; Klausner, Richard D

    2002-06-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is associated with mutation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene. Cell lines derived from these tumors cannot exit the cell cycle when deprived of growth factors, and the ability to exit the cell cycle can be restored by the reintroduction of wild-type protein VHL (pVHL). Here, we report that cyclin D1 is overexpressed and remains inappropriately high in during contact inhibition in pVHL-deficient cell lines. In addition, hypoxia increased the expression of cyclin D1 specifically in pVHL-negative cell lines into which pVHL expression was restored. Hypoxic-induction of cyclin D1 was not observed in other pVHL-positive cell lines. This suggests a model whereby in some kidney cell types, pVHL may regulate a proliferative response to hypoxia, whereas the loss of pVHL leads to constitutively elevated cyclin D1 and abnormal proliferation under normal growth conditions.

  7. Epigenetically altered miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaukoniemi, Kirsi M; Rauhala, Hanna E; Scaravilli, Mauro; Latonen, Leena; Annala, Matti; Vessella, Robert L; Nykter, Matti; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Visakorpi, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    Micro-RNAs (miRNA) are important regulators of gene expression and often differentially expressed in cancer and other diseases. We have previously shown that miR-193b is hypermethylated in prostate cancer (PC) and suppresses cell growth. It has been suggested that miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in several malignancies. Here, our aim was to determine if miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in prostate cancer. Our data show that miR-193b is commonly methylated in PC samples compared to benign prostate hyperplasia. We found reduced miR-193b expression (P < 0.05) in stage pT3 tumors compared to pT2 tumors in a cohort of prostatectomy specimens. In 22Rv1 PC cells with low endogenous miR-193b expression, the overexpression of miR-193b reduced CCND1mRNA levels and cyclin D1 protein levels. In addition, the exogenous expression of miR-193b decreased the phosphorylation level of RB, a target of the cyclin D1-CDK4/6 pathway. Moreover, according to a reporter assay, miR-193b targeted the 3’UTR of CCND1 in PC cells and the CCND1 activity was rescued by expressing CCND1 lacking its 3’UTR. Immunohistochemical analysis of cyclin D1 showed that castration-resistant prostate cancers have significantly (P = 0.0237) higher expression of cyclin D1 compared to hormone-naïve cases. Furthermore, the PC cell lines 22Rv1 and VCaP, which express low levels of miR-193b and high levels of CCND1, showed significant growth retardation when treated with a CDK4/6 inhibitor. In contrast, the inhibitor had no effect on the growth of PC-3 and DU145 cells with high miR-193b and low CCND1 expression. Taken together, our data demonstrate that miR-193b targets cyclin D1 in prostate cancer

  8. Activation of D1 dopamine receptors induces emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Norman E.; Chemali, Jessica J.; Brown, Emery N.; Solt, Ken

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND A recent study showed that methylphenidate induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. Methylphenidate inhibits dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake transporters. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that selective dopamine receptor activation induces emergence from isoflurane anesthesia. METHODS In adult rats, we tested the effects of chloro-APB (D1 agonist) and quinpirole (D2 agonist) on time to emergence from isoflurane general anesthesia. We then performed a dose–response study to test for chloro-APB-induced restoration of righting during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. SCH-23390 (D1 antagonist) was used to confirm that the effects induced by chloro-APB are specifically mediated by D1 receptors. In a separate group of animals, spectral analysis was performed on surface electroencephalogram recordings to assess neurophysiological changes induced by chloro-APB and quinpirole during isoflurane general anesthesia. RESULTS Chloro-APB decreased median time to emergence from 330s to 50s. The median difference in time to emergence between the saline control group (n=6) and the chloro-APB group (n = 6) was 222s (95% CI: 77–534s, Mann-Whitney test). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0082). During continuous isoflurane anesthesia, chloro-APB dose-dependently restored righting (n = 6) and decreased electroencephalogram delta power (n = 4). These effects were inhibited by pretreatment with SCH-23390. Quinpirole did not restore righting (n = 6) and had no significant effect on the electroencephalogram (n = 4) during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS Activation of D1 receptors by chloro-APB decreases time to emergence from isoflurane anesthesia, and produces behavioral and neurophysiological evidence of arousal during continuous isoflurane anesthesia. These findings suggest that selective activation of a D1 receptor-mediated arousal mechanism is sufficient to induce emergence from isoflurane general

  9. Cellular characterization of cells from the Fanconi anemia complementation group, FA-D1/BRCA2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godthelp, Barbara C. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Buul, Paul P.W. van [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Jaspers, Nicolaas G.J. [Department of Cell Biology and Genetics, Erasmus University, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Elghalbzouri-Maghrani, Elhaam [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Duijn-Goedhart, Annemarie van [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands); Arwert, Fre [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, Free University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Joenje, Hans [Department of Clinical Genetics and Human Genetics, Free University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z. [Department of Toxicogenetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Building 2, Postzone S-6-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden (Netherlands) and Department of Molecular Cell Genetics, Collegium Medicum, N.Copernicus University, Bydgoszcz (Poland)]. E-mail: M.Z.Zdzienicka@LUMC.nl

    2006-10-10

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited cancer-susceptibility disorder, characterized by genomic instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. The discovery of biallelic BRCA2 mutations in the FA-D1 complementation group allows for the first time to study the characteristics of primary BRCA2-deficient human cells. FANCD1/BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts appeared hypersensitive to mitomycin C (MMC), slightly sensitive to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), and like cells derived from other FA complementation groups, not sensitive to X-ray irradiation. However, unlike other FA cells, FA-D1 cells were slightly sensitive to UV irradiation. Despite the observed lack of X-ray sensitivity in cell survival, significant radioresistant DNA synthesis (RDS) was observed in the BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts but also in the FANCA-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting an impaired S-phase checkpoint. FA-D1/BRCA2 cells displayed greatly enhanced levels of spontaneous as well as MMC-induced chromosomal aberrations (Canada), similar to cells deficient in homologous recombination (HR) and non-D1 FA cells. In contrast to Brca2-deficient rodent cells, FA-D1/BRCA2 cells showed normal sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels, both spontaneous as well as after MMC treatment. Hence, these data indicate that human cells with biallelic BRCA2 mutations display typical features of both FA- and HR-deficient cells, which suggests that FANCD1/BRCA2 is part of the integrated FA/BRCA DNA damage response pathway but also controls other functions outside the FA pathway.

  10. Cellular characterization of cells from the Fanconi anemia complementation group, FA-D1/BRCA2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godthelp, Barbara C.; Buul, Paul P.W. van; Jaspers, Nicolaas G.J.; Elghalbzouri-Maghrani, Elhaam; Duijn-Goedhart, Annemarie van; Arwert, Fre; Joenje, Hans; Zdzienicka, Malgorzata Z.

    2006-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited cancer-susceptibility disorder, characterized by genomic instability and hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents. The discovery of biallelic BRCA2 mutations in the FA-D1 complementation group allows for the first time to study the characteristics of primary BRCA2-deficient human cells. FANCD1/BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts appeared hypersensitive to mitomycin C (MMC), slightly sensitive to methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), and like cells derived from other FA complementation groups, not sensitive to X-ray irradiation. However, unlike other FA cells, FA-D1 cells were slightly sensitive to UV irradiation. Despite the observed lack of X-ray sensitivity in cell survival, significant radioresistant DNA synthesis (RDS) was observed in the BRCA2-deficient fibroblasts but also in the FANCA-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting an impaired S-phase checkpoint. FA-D1/BRCA2 cells displayed greatly enhanced levels of spontaneous as well as MMC-induced chromosomal aberrations (Canada), similar to cells deficient in homologous recombination (HR) and non-D1 FA cells. In contrast to Brca2-deficient rodent cells, FA-D1/BRCA2 cells showed normal sister chromatid exchange (SCE) levels, both spontaneous as well as after MMC treatment. Hence, these data indicate that human cells with biallelic BRCA2 mutations display typical features of both FA- and HR-deficient cells, which suggests that FANCD1/BRCA2 is part of the integrated FA/BRCA DNA damage response pathway but also controls other functions outside the FA pathway

  11. Sex differences in effects of dopamine D1 receptors on social withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, Katharine L; Greenberg, Gian D; Kapoor, Amita; Ziegler, Toni E; Trainor, Brian C

    2014-02-01

    Dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a critical role in the regulation of motivational states. Recent studies in male rodents show that social defeat stress increases the activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons projecting to the NAc, and that this increased activity is necessary for stress-induced social withdrawal. Domestic female mice are not similarly aggressive, which has hindered complementary studies in females. Using the monogamous California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), we found that social defeat increased total dopamine, DOPAC, and HVA content in the NAc in both males and females. These results are generally consistent with previous studies in Mus, and suggest defeat stress also increases NAc dopamine signaling in females. However, these results do not explain our previous observations that defeat stress induces social withdrawal in female but not male California mice. Pharmacological manipulations provided more insights. When 500 ng of the D1 agonist SKF38393 was infused in the NAc shell of females that were naïve to defeat, social interaction behavior was reduced. This same dose of SKF38393 had no effect in males, suggesting that D1 receptor activation is sufficient to induce social withdrawal in females but not males. Intra-accumbens infusion of the D1 antagonist SCH23390 increased social approach behavior in females exposed to defeat but not in females naïve to defeat. This result suggests that D1 receptors are necessary for defeat-induced social withdrawal. Overall, our results suggest that sex differences in molecular pathways that are regulated by D1 receptors contribute to sex differences in social withdrawal behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is dopamine D1 receptor availability related to social behavior? A positron emission tomography replication study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontus Plavén-Sigray

    Full Text Available Associations between dopamine receptor levels and pro- and antisocial behavior have previously been demonstrated in human subjects using positron emission tomography (PET and self-rated measures of personality traits. So far, only one study has focused on the dopamine D1-receptor (D1-R, finding a positive correlation with the trait social desirability, which is characterized by low dominant and high affiliative behavior, while physical aggression showed a negative correlation. The aim of the present study was to replicate these previous findings using a new independent sample of subjects.Twenty-six healthy males were examined with the radioligand [11C]SCH-23390, and completed the Swedish universities Scales of Personality (SSP which includes measures of social desirability and physical trait aggression. The simplified reference tissue model with cerebellum as reference region was used to calculate BPND values in the whole striatum and limbic striatum. The two regions were selected since they showed strong association between D1-R availability and personality scores in the previous study. Pearson's correlation coefficients and replication Bayes factors were then employed to assess the replicability and robustness of previous results.There were no significant correlations (all p values > 0.3 between regional BPND values and personality scale scores. Replication Bayes factors showed strong to moderate evidence in favor no relationship between D1-receptor availability and social desirability (striatum BF01 = 12.4; limbic striatum BF01 = 7.2 or physical aggression scale scores (limbic striatum BF01 = 3.3, compared to the original correlations.We could not replicate the previous findings of associations between D1-R availability and either pro- or antisocial behavior as measured using the SSP. Rather, there was evidence in favor of failed replications of associations between BPND and scale scores. Potential reasons for these results are restrictive

  13. IMP - INTEGRATED MISSION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauro, V. A.

    1994-01-01

    IMP is a simulation language that is used to model missions around the Earth, Moon, Mars, or other planets. It has been used to model missions for the Saturn Program, Apollo Program, Space Transportation System, Space Exploration Initiative, and Space Station Freedom. IMP allows a user to control the mission being simulated through a large event/maneuver menu. Up to three spacecraft may be used: a main, a target and an observer. The simulation may begin at liftoff, suborbital, or orbital. IMP incorporates a Fehlberg seventh order, thirteen evaluation Runge-Kutta integrator with error and step-size control to numerically integrate the equations of motion. The user may choose oblate or spherical gravity for the central body (Earth, Mars, Moon or other) while a spherical model is used for the gravity of an additional perturbing body. Sun gravity and pressure and Moon gravity effects are user-selectable. Earth/Mars atmospheric effects can be included. The optimum thrust guidance parameters are calculated automatically. Events/maneuvers may involve many velocity changes, and these velocity changes may be impulsive or of finite duration. Aerobraking to orbit is also an option. Other simulation options include line-of-sight communication guidelines, a choice of propulsion systems, a soft landing on the Earth or Mars, and rendezvous with a target vehicle. The input/output is in metric units, with the exception of thrust and weight which are in English units. Input is read from the user's input file to minimize real-time keyboard input. Output includes vehicle state, orbital and guide parameters, event and total velocity changes, and propellant usage. The main output is to the user defined print file, but during execution, part of the input/output is also displayed on the screen. An included FORTRAN program, TEKPLOT, will display plots on the VDT as well as generating a graphic file suitable for output on most laser printers. The code is double precision. IMP is written in

  14. The Waste Negotiator's mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Christian

    1993-01-01

    The mission of the Waste Negotiator is to seek out sites for deep underground laboratories to study their potential for disposal of high level radioactive waste. Although appointed by the government, he acts independently. In 1990, faced by severe public criticism at the way that the waste disposal was being handled, and under increasing pressure to find an acceptable solution, the government stopped the work being carried out by ANDRA (Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs) and initiated a full review of the issues involved. At the same time, parliament also started its own extensive investigation to find a way forward. These efforts finally led to the provision of a detailed framework for the management of long lived radioactive waste, including the construction of two laboratories to investigate possible repository sites. The Waste Negotiator was appointed to carry out a full consultative process in the communities which are considering accepting an underground laboratory. (Author)

  15. NASA CYGNSS Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, C. S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Gleason, S.; McKague, D. S.; O'Brien, A.

    2017-12-01

    The CYGNSS constellation of eight satellites was successfully launched on 15 December 2016 into a low inclination (tropical) Earth orbit. Each satellite carries a four-channel bi-static radar receiver that measures GPS signals scattered by the ocean, from which ocean surface roughness, near surface wind speed, and air-sea latent heat flux are estimated. The measurements are unique in several respects, most notably in their ability to penetrate through all levels of precipitation, made possible by the low frequency at which GPS operates, and in the frequent sampling of tropical cyclone intensification and of the diurnal cycle of winds, made possible by the large number of satellites. Engineering commissioning of the constellation was successfully completed in March 2017 and the mission is currently in the early phase of science operations. Level 2 science data products have been developed for near surface (10 m referenced) ocean wind speed, ocean surface roughness (mean square slope) and latent heat flux. Level 3 gridded versions of the L2 products have also been developed. A set of Level 4 products have also been developed specifically for direct tropical cyclone overpasses. These include the storm intensity (peak sustained winds) and size (radius of maximum winds), its extent (34, 50 and 64 knot wind radii), and its integrated kinetic energy. Assimilation of CYGNSS L2 wind speed data into the HWRF hurricane weather prediction model has also been developed. An overview and the current status of the mission will be presented, together with highlights of early on-orbit performance and scientific results.

  16. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, D. L

    2007-01-01

    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  17. Structural and functional analysis of cyclin D1 reveals p27 and substrate inhibitor binding requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Bolger, Joshua K; Kirkland, Lindsay O; Premnath, Padmavathy N; McInnes, Campbell

    2010-12-17

    An alternative strategy for inhibition of the cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) in antitumor drug discovery is afforded through the substrate recruitment site on the cyclin positive regulatory subunit. Critical CDK substrates such as the Rb and E2F families must undergo cyclin groove binding before phosphorylation, and hence inhibitors of this interaction also block substrate specific kinase activity. This approach offers the potential to generate highly selective and cell cycle specific CDK inhibitors and to reduce the inhibition of transcription mediated through CDK7 and 9, commonly observed with ATP competitive compounds. While highly potent peptide and small molecule inhibitors of CDK2/cyclin A, E substrate recruitment have been reported, little information has been generated on the determinants of inhibitor binding to the cyclin groove of the CDK4/cyclin D1 complex. CDK4/cyclin D is a validated anticancer drug target and continues to be widely pursued in the development of new therapeutics based on cell cycle blockade. We have therefore investigated the structural basis for peptide binding to its cyclin groove and have examined the features contributing to potency and selectivity of inhibitors. Peptidic inhibitors of CDK4/cyclin D of pRb phosphorylation have been synthesized, and their complexes with CDK4/cyclin D1 crystal structures have been generated. Based on available structural information, comparisons of the cyclin grooves of cyclin A2 and D1 are presented and provide insights into the determinants for peptide binding and the basis for differential binding and inhibition. In addition, a complex structure has been generated in order to model the interactions of the CDKI, p27(KIP)¹, with cyclin D1. This information has been used to shed light onto the endogenous inhibition of CDK4 and also to identify unique aspects of cyclin D1 that can be exploited in the design of cyclin groove based CDK inhibitors. Peptidic and nonpeptidic compounds have been

  18. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  19. IRIS Mission Operations Director's Colloquium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Robert; Mazmanian, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the Mysteries of the Sun: The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) Mission. Flight controllers from the IRIS mission will present their individual experiences on IRIS from development through the first year of flight. This will begin with a discussion of the unique nature of IRISs mission and science, and how it fits into NASA's fleet of solar observatories. Next will be a discussion of the critical roles Ames contributed in the mission including spacecraft and flight software development, ground system development, and training for launch. This will be followed by experiences from launch, early operations, ongoing operations, and unusual operations experiences. The presentation will close with IRIS science imagery and questions.

  20. Bomber Deterrence Missions: Criteria To Evaluate Mission Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    international security, the practice of general deterrence usually occurs when nations feel insecure , suspicious or even hostility towards them but...both a deterrence and assurance mission even though it was not planned or advertised as such. Since the intent of this mission was partly perceived

  1. Impairments of exploration and memory after systemic or prelimbic D1-receptor antagonism in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Bettina; Schachtman, Todd R.; Mark, Louise T.

    2011-01-01

    to examine the effects on memory: cross-maze and object recognition task. Systemic administration reduced spatial exploration in cross-maze as well as in an open field test, and also reduced object exploration. Spatial (hippocampus-dependent) short-term memory was inhibited in the cross-maze and non......-spatial short-term object retention was also impaired. In contrast to these systemic effects, bilateral injections of SCH23390 into the prelimbic cortices altered neither spatial nor object exploration, but did inhibit short-term memory in both cross-maze and object recognition task. Therefore, the inhibiting......D1-receptor antagonism is known to impair rodent memory but also inhibits spontaneous exploration of stimuli to be remembered. Hypo-exploration could contribute to impaired memory by influencing event processing. In order to explore this effect, the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390...

  2. Mixing between the 23S1 and 13D1 Ds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Ling; Chen Bing; Zhang Ailin

    2013-01-01

    Mixing between the 2 3 S 1 and 1 3 D 1 D s is studied within the 3 P 0 model. If mixing between these two 1 - states exists, D s1 * (2700)± and D sJ * (2860)± could be interpreted as the two orthogonal mixed states with mixing angle θ≈-80° in the case of a special β for each meson. However, in the case of a universal β for all mesons, D s1 * (2700)± could be interpreted as the mixed state of 2 3 S 1 and 1 3 D 1 with mixing angle 12° < θ < 21° but D s * J (2860) ± seems difficult to interpret as the orthogonal partner of D s1 * (2700) ± . (authors)

  3. D1A, a high resolution neutron powder diffractometer with a bank of mylar collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewat, A.W.; Bailey, I.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes a first attempt at following the design criteria set out earlier for a high resolution conventional powder diffractometer. An existing machine, D1A, has been modified using a bank of ten high pressure 3 He counters and almost perfect 10minutes of arc mylar foil collimators. The system is more successful than earlier multicollimator arrangements because each of the collimator/counters is virtually identical; this permits automatic addition of the intensities so that a single high resolution profile, up to X40 times as intense as on the original diffractometer, is obtained just as easily as on a single counter machine. A comparison is made with the other powder diffractometers, D1B and D2 at the ILL. (Auth.)

  4. Vertically integrated ZnO-Based 1D1R structure for resistive switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yang; Duan Ziqing; Li Rui; Ku, Chieh-Jen; Reyes, Pavel I; Ashrafi, Almamun; Zhong Jian; Lu Yicheng

    2013-01-01

    We report a ZnO-based 1D1R structure, which is formed by a vertical integration of a FeZnO/MgO switching resistor (1R) and an Ag/MgZnO Schottky diode (1D). The multifunctional ZnO and its compounds are grown through MOCVD with in situ doping. For the R element, the current ratio of the high-resistance state (HRS) over the low-resistance state (LRS) at 1 V is 2.4 × 10 6 . The conduction mechanisms of the HRS and LRS are Poole–Frenkel emission and resistive conduction, respectively. The D element shows the forward/reverse current ratio at ±1 V to be 2.4 × 10 7 . This 1D1R structure exhibits high R HRS /R LRS ratio, excellent rectifying characteristics and robust retention. (paper)

  5. Transformation of EIA to EIT by incoherent pumping of the 85Rb D1 line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hoon; Kim, Jung Dong; Jung, Tae Young; Kim, Jung Bog

    2012-10-01

    We have observed a transformation from electromagnetically-induced absorption (EIA) to electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in open systems of the 85Rb D1 line by adding an incoherent optical pumping laser. This result raises a new question about recent theoretical work which does not address the degree of open. The pump beam only plays a role in transferring atoms by a spontaneous transition into the interacting system for EIT observation, which is an incoherent process. The dependence of the absorption spectra on the intensity and the polarization of each laser beam were observed. We have found the same tendencies in all transitions except the F = 2 ↔ F' = 3 transition of the 85Rb D1 line, which is the system that almost satisfies conventional EIA conditions.

  6. Simulation of Mission Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  7. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  8. The Impact of Mission Duration on a Mars Orbital Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale; Earle, Kevin; Cirillo, Bill; Jones, Christopher; Klovstad, Jordan; Grande, Melanie; Stromgren, Chel

    2017-01-01

    Performance alone is insufficient to assess the total impact of changing mission parameters on a space mission concept, architecture, or campaign; the benefit, cost, and risk must also be understood. This paper examines the impact to benefit, cost, and risk of changing the total mission duration of a human Mars orbital mission. The changes in the sizing of the crew habitat, including consumables and spares, was assessed as a function of duration, including trades of different life support strategies; this was used to assess the impact on transportation system requirements. The impact to benefit is minimal, while the impact on cost is dominated by the increases in transportation costs to achieve shorter total durations. The risk is expected to be reduced by decreasing total mission duration; however, large uncertainty exists around the magnitude of that reduction.

  9. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  10. A critical role for FBXW8 and MAPK in cyclin D1 degradation and cancer cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Okabe

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclin D1 regulates G1 progression. Its transcriptional regulation is well understood. However, the mechanism underlying cyclin D1 ubiquitination and its subsequent degradation is not yet clear. We report that cyclin D1 undergoes increased degradation in the cytoplasm during S phase in a variety of cancer cells. This is mediated by phosphorylation at Thr286 through the activity of the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade and the F-box protein FBXW8, which is an E3 ligase. The majority of FBXW8 is expressed in the cytoplasm during G1 and S phase. In contrast, cyclin D1 accumulates in the nucleus during G1 phase and exits into the cytoplasm in S phase. Increased cyclin D1 degradation is linked to association with FBXW8 in the cytoplasm, and enhanced phosphorylation of cyclin D1 through sustained ERK1/2 signaling. Depletion of FBXW8 caused a significant accumulation of cyclin D1, as well as sequestration of CDK1 in the cytoplasm. This resulted in a severe reduction of cell proliferation. These effects could be rescued by constitutive nuclear expression of cyclin D1-T286A. Thus, FBXW8 plays an essential role in cancer cell proliferation through proteolysis of cyclin D1. It may present new opportunities to develop therapies targeting destruction of cyclin D1 or its regulator E3 ligase selectively.

  11. D1/D2 domain of large-subunit ribosomal DNA for differentiation of Orpinomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Mudgil, Priti; Singh, Rameshwar; Puniya, Anil K

    2011-09-01

    This study presents the suitability of D1/D2 domain of large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for differentiation of Orpinomyces joyonii and Orpinomyces intercalaris based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). A variation of G/T in O. intercalaris created an additional restriction site for AluI, which was used as an RFLP marker. The results demonstrate adequate heterogeneity in the LSU rDNA for species-level differentiation.

  12. CREB activity in dopamine D1 receptor expressing neurons regulates cocaine-induced behavioral effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Ainhoa; Rieker, Claus; Cannella, Nazzareno; Parlato, Rosanna; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Korostynski, Michal; Engblom, David; Przewlocki, Ryszard; Schütz, Günther; Spanagel, Rainer; Parkitna, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    It is suggested that striatal cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) regulates sensitivity to psychostimulants. To test the cell-specificity of this hypothesis we examined the effects of a dominant-negative CREB protein variant expressed in dopamine receptor D1 (D1R) neurons on cocaine-induced behaviors. A transgenic mouse strain was generated by pronuclear injection of a BAC-derived transgene harboring the A-CREB sequence under the control of the D1R gene promoter. Compared to wild-type, drug-naïve mutants showed moderate alterations in gene expression, especially a reduction in basal levels of activity-regulated transcripts such as Arc and Egr2. The behavioral responses to cocaine were elevated in mutant mice. Locomotor activity after acute treatment, psychomotor sensitization after intermittent drug injections and the conditioned locomotion after saline treatment were increased compared to wild-type littermates. Transgenic mice had significantly higher cocaine conditioned place preference, displayed normal extinction of the conditioned preference, but showed an augmented cocaine-seeking response following priming-induced reinstatement. This enhanced cocaine-seeking response was associated with increased levels of activity-regulated transcripts and prodynorphin. The primary reinforcing effects of cocaine were not altered in the mutant mice as they did not differ from wild-type in cocaine self-administration under a fixed ratio schedule at the training dose. Collectively, our data indicate that expression of a dominant-negative CREB variant exclusively in neurons expressing D1R is sufficient to recapitulate the previously reported behavioral phenotypes associated with virally expressed dominant-negative CREB. PMID:24966820

  13. Working memory span capacity improved by a D2 but not D1 receptor family agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, Isadore S; Sharp, Richard F; Geyer, Mark A; Meves, Jessica M; Young, Jared W

    2011-06-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit poor working memory (WM). Although several subcomponents of WM can be measured, evidence suggests the primary subcomponent affected in schizophrenia is span capacity (WMC). Indeed, the NIMH-funded MATRICS initiative recommended assaying the WMC when assessing the efficacy of a putative therapeutic for FDA approval. Although dopamine D1 receptor agonists improve delay-dependent memory in animals, evidence for improvements in WMC due to dopamine D1 receptor activation is limited. In contrast, the dopamine D2-family agonist bromocriptine improves WMC in humans. The radial arm maze (RAM) can be used to assess WMC, although complications due to ceiling effects or strategy confounds have limited its use. We describe a 12-arm RAM protocol designed to assess whether the dopamine D1-family agonist SKF 38393 (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) or bromocriptine (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) could improve WMC in C57BL/6N mice (n=12) in cross-over designs. WMC increased and strategy usage decreased with training. The dopamine D1 agonist SKF 38393 had no effect on WMC or long-term memory. Bromocriptine decreased WMC errors, without affecting long-term memory, consistent with human studies. These data confirm that WMC can be measured in mice and reveal drug effects that are consistent with reported effects in humans. Future research is warranted to identify the subtype of the D2-family of receptors responsible for the observed improvement in WMC. Finally, this RAM procedure may prove useful in developing animal models of deficient WMC to further assess putative treatments for the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Four results on ∅4 oscillons in D + 1 dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.A.; Tranberg, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present four results for oscillons in classical ? 4 theory in D + 1 space-time dimensions, based on numerical simulations. These include the oscillon lifetime and the dependence on D; evidence for the uniqueness of the oscillon; evidence for the existence of oscillons beyond D = 7; and a brief...... study of the spectrum of the radiation emitted from the oscillons before, during and after its ultimate demise. © 2012 SISSA, Trieste, Italy....

  15. Therapeutically targeting cyclin D1 in primary tumors arising from loss of Ini1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Melissa E.; Cimica, Velasco; Chinni, Srinivasa; Jana, Suman; Koba, Wade; Yang, Zhixia; Fine, Eugene; Zagzag, David; Montagna, Cristina; Kalpana, Ganjam V.

    2011-01-01

    Rhabdoid tumors (RTs) are rare, highly aggressive pediatric malignancies with poor prognosis and with no standard or effective treatment strategies. RTs are characterized by biallelic inactivation of the INI1 tumor suppressor gene. INI1 directly represses CCND1 and activates cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitors p16Ink4a and p21CIP. RTs are exquisitely dependent on cyclin D1 for genesis and survival. To facilitate translation of unique therapeutic strategies, we have used genetically engineered, Ini1+/− mice for therapeutic testing. We found that PET can be used to noninvasively and accurately detect primary tumors in Ini1+/− mice. In a PET-guided longitudinal study, we found that treating Ini1+/− mice bearing primary tumors with the pan-cdk inhibitor flavopiridol resulted in complete and stable regression of some tumors. Other tumors showed resistance to flavopiridol, and one of the resistant tumors overexpressed cyclin D1, more than flavopiridol-sensitive cells. The concentration of flavopiridol used was not sufficient to down-modulate the high level of cyclin D1 and failed to induce cell death in the resistant cells. Furthermore, FISH and PCR analyses indicated that there is aneuploidy and increased CCND1 copy number in resistant cells. These studies indicate that resistance to flavopiridol may be correlated to elevated cyclin D1 levels. Our studies also indicate that Ini1+/− mice are valuable tools for testing unique therapeutic strategies and for understanding mechanisms of drug resistance in tumors that arise owing to loss of Ini1, which is essential for developing effective treatment strategies against these aggressive tumors. PMID:21173237

  16. Pair production of Dirac particles in a d + 1-dimensional noncommutative space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ousmane Samary, Dine [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); University of Abomey-Calavi, International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair), Cotonou (Benin); N' Dolo, Emanonfi Elias; Hounkonnou, Mahouton Norbert [University of Abomey-Calavi, International Chair in Mathematical Physics and Applications (ICMPA-UNESCO Chair), Cotonou (Benin)

    2014-11-15

    This work addresses the computation of the probability of fermionic particle pair production in d + 1-dimensional noncommutative Moyal space. Using Seiberg-Witten maps, which establish relations between noncommutative and commutative field variables, up to the first order in the noncommutative parameter θ, we derive the probability density of vacuum-vacuum pair production of Dirac particles. The cases of constant electromagnetic, alternating time-dependent, and space-dependent electric fields are considered and discussed. (orig.)

  17. H2020 692819 SIMPATICO - D1.1: Project Management Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Forner, Pamela; Gerosa, Matteo; Folograna, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    This document is the deliverable “D1.1 – Project Management Plan” of the European project “SIMPATICO - SIMplifying the interaction with Public Administration Through Information technology for Citizens and cOmpanies” (hereinafter also referred to as “SIMPATICO”, project reference: 692819). The SIMPATICO Project Management Plan (PMP) is the main planning document and describes how major aspects of the project are managed, monitored and controlled. It is intended to provide gu...

  18. Functional Selectivity of Allosteric Interactions within G Protein–Coupled Receptor Oligomers: The Dopamine D1-D3 Receptor Heterotetramer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Xavier; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Yano, Hideaki; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Kumar-Barodia, Sandeep; Naidu, Yamini T.; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I.; Casadó, Vicent; McCormick, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor–D3 receptor (D1R-D3R) heteromer is being considered as a potential therapeutic target for neuropsychiatric disorders. Previous studies suggested that this heteromer could be involved in the ability of D3R agonists to potentiate locomotor activation induced by D1R agonists. It has also been postulated that its overexpression plays a role in L-dopa–induced dyskinesia and in drug addiction. However, little is known about its biochemical properties. By combining bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, bimolecular complementation techniques, and cell-signaling experiments in transfected cells, evidence was obtained for a tetrameric stoichiometry of the D1R–D3R heteromer, constituted by two interacting D1R and D3R homodimers coupled to Gs and Gi proteins, respectively. Coactivation of both receptors led to the canonical negative interaction at the level of adenylyl cyclase signaling, to a strong recruitment of β-arrestin-1, and to a positive cross talk of D1R and D3R agonists at the level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Furthermore, D1R or D3R antagonists counteracted β-arrestin-1 recruitment and MAPK activation induced by D3R and D1R agonists, respectively (cross-antagonism). Positive cross talk and cross-antagonism at the MAPK level were counteracted by specific synthetic peptides with amino acid sequences corresponding to D1R transmembrane (TM) domains TM5 and TM6, which also selectively modified the quaternary structure of the D1R-D3R heteromer, as demonstrated by complementation of hemiproteins of yellow fluorescence protein fused to D1R and D3R. These results demonstrate functional selectivity of allosteric modulations within the D1R-D3R heteromer, which can be involved with the reported behavioral synergism of D1R and D3R agonists. PMID:25097189

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A induces ubiquitin-dependent cyclin D1 degradation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Coombes R

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclin D1 is an important regulator of G1-S phase cell cycle transition and has been shown to be important for breast cancer development. GSK3β phosphorylates cyclin D1 on Thr-286, resulting in enhanced ubiquitylation, nuclear export and degradation of the cyclin in the cytoplasm. Recent findings suggest that the development of small-molecule cyclin D1 ablative agents is of clinical relevance. We have previously shown that the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA induces the rapid ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells prior to repression of cyclin D1 gene (CCND1 transcription. TSA treatment also resulted in accumulation of polyubiquitylated GFP-cyclin D1 species and reduced levels of the recombinant protein within the nucleus. Results Here we provide further evidence for TSA-induced ubiquitin-dependent degradation of cyclin D1 and demonstrate that GSK3β-mediated nuclear export facilitates this activity. Our observations suggest that TSA treatment results in enhanced cyclin D1 degradation via the GSK3β/CRM1-dependent nuclear export/26S proteasomal degradation pathway in MCF-7 cells. Conclusion We have demonstrated that rapid TSA-induced cyclin D1 degradation in MCF-7 cells requires GSK3β-mediated Thr-286 phosphorylation and the ubiquitin-dependent 26S proteasome pathway. Drug induced cyclin D1 repression contributes to the inhibition of breast cancer cell proliferation and can sensitize cells to CDK and Akt inhibitors. In addition, anti-cyclin D1 therapy may be highly specific for treating human breast cancer. The development of potent and effective cyclin D1 ablative agents is therefore of clinical relevance. Our findings suggest that HDAC inhibitors may have therapeutic potential as small-molecule cyclin D1 ablative agents.

  20. Bogoliubov coefficients for the twist operator in the D1D5 CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaq Carson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The D1D5 CFT is a holographic dual of a near-extremal black hole in string theory. The interaction in this theory involves a twist operator which joins together different copies of a free CFT. Given a large number of D1 and D5 branes, the effective length of the circle on which the CFT lives is very large. We develop a technique to study the effect of the twist operator in the limit where the wavelengths of excitations are short compared to this effective length, which we call the ‘continuum limit’. The method uses Bogoliubov coefficients to compute the effect of the twist operator in this limit. For bosonic fields, we use the method to reproduce recent results describing the effect of the twist operator when it links together CFT copies with windings M and N, producing a copy of winding M+N. We also comment on possible generalizations of our results. The methods developed here may help in understanding the twist interaction at higher orders. This in turn should provide insight into the thermalization process in the D1D5 CFT, which gives a holographic description of black hole formation.

  1. Msx homeobox genes inhibit differentiation through upregulation of cyclin D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, G; Lee, H; Price, S M; Shen, M M; Abate-Shen, C

    2001-06-01

    During development, patterning and morphogenesis of tissues are intimately coordinated through control of cellular proliferation and differentiation. We describe a mechanism by which vertebrate Msx homeobox genes inhibit cellular differentiation by regulation of the cell cycle. We show that misexpression of Msx1 via retroviral gene transfer inhibits differentiation of multiple mesenchymal and epithelial progenitor cell types in culture. This activity of Msx1 is associated with its ability to upregulate cyclin D1 expression and Cdk4 activity, while Msx1 has minimal effects on cellular proliferation. Transgenic mice that express Msx1 under the control of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat (MMTV LTR) display impaired differentiation of the mammary epithelium during pregnancy, which is accompanied by elevated levels of cyclin D1 expression. We propose that Msx1 gene expression maintains cyclin D1 expression and prevents exit from the cell cycle, thereby inhibiting terminal differentiation of progenitor cells. Our model provides a framework for reconciling the mutant phenotypes of Msx and other homeobox genes with their functions as regulators of cellular proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis.

  2. Cyclin D1 and p22ack1 play opposite roles in plant growth and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jeong Woo; Park, Sun Chung; Shin, Eun Ah; Kim, Chong Ki; Han, Woong; Sohn, Soo-In; Song, Pill Soon; Wang, Myeong Hyeon

    2004-01-01

    The plant cell division cycle, a highly coordinated process, is continually regulated during the growth and development of plants. In this report, we demonstrate how two cell-cycle regulators act together to control cell proliferation in transgenic Arabidopsis. To identify potential cyclin dependent kinase regulators from Arabidopsis, we employed an two-hybrid screening system to isolate genes encoding G1 specific cyclin-interacting proteins. One of these, p22 ack1 , which encodes a novel 22 kDa protein, binds to cyclin D1. Overexpression of p22 ack1 in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in growth retardation due to a strong inhibition of cell division in the leaf primordial and meristematic tissue. The leaf shape of p22 ack1 transgenic Arabidopsis was altered from oval in wild-type to dentate. Wild-type phenotype was successfully restored in F1 hybrids by cross-hybridizing the p22 ackl Arabidopsis mutants with cyclin D1. Taken together, these results suggest that p22 ack1 and cyclin D1, which act antagonistically, are major rate-limiting factors for cell division in the leaf meristem

  3. The D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR, potentiates hind leg grooming behavior in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitmon, E; Stephens, G; Parkhurst, S J; Wolf, F W; Kehne, G; Taylor, M; Lebestky, T

    2016-03-01

    Drosophila groom away debris and pathogens from the body using their legs in a stereotyped sequence of innate motor behaviors. Here, we investigated one aspect of the grooming repertoire by characterizing the D1 family dopamine receptor, DopR. Removal of DopR results in decreased hind leg grooming, as substantiated by quantitation of dye remaining on mutant and RNAi animals vs. controls and direct scoring of behavioral events. These data are also supported by pharmacological results that D1 receptor agonists fail to potentiate grooming behaviors in headless DopR flies. DopR protein is broadly expressed in the neuropil of the thoracic ganglion and overlaps with TH-positive dopaminergic neurons. Broad neuronal expression of dopamine receptor in mutant animals restored normal grooming behaviors. These data provide evidence for the role of DopR in potentiating hind leg grooming behaviors in the thoracic ganglion of adult Drosophila. This is a remarkable juxtaposition to the considerable role of D1 family dopamine receptors in rodent grooming, and future investigations of evolutionary relationships of circuitry may be warranted. © 2016 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Synthesis of flavonol 3-O-glycoside by UGT78D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guangxiang; Hou, Jingli; Fang, Qinghong; Sun, Hong; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Lianwen; Wang, Peng George

    2012-08-01

    Glycosylation is an important method for the structural modification of various flavonols, resulting in the glycosides with increased solubility, stability and bioavailability compared with the corresponding aglycone. From the physiological point of view, glycosylation of plant flavonoids is of importance and interest. However, it is notoriously complicated that flavonols such as quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, are glucosylated regioselectively at the specific position by chemical method. Compared to the chemical method, enzymatic synthesis present several advantages, such as mild reaction condition, high stereo or region selectivity, no protection/deprotection and high yield. UGT78D1 is a flavonol-specific glycosyltransferase, responsible for transferring rhamnose or glucose to the 3-OH position in vitro. In this study, the activity of UGT78D1 was tested against 28 flavonoids acceptors using UDP-glucose as donor nucleoside in vitro, and 5 acceptors, quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, fisetin and isorhamnetin, were discovered to be glucosylated at 3-OH position. Herein, the small-scale 3-O-glucosylated quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin were synthesized by UGT78D1 and their chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS).

  5. Molecular hijacking of siroheme for the synthesis of heme and d1 heme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Shilpa; Lawrence, Andrew D; Lobo, Susana A; Saraiva, Lígia M; Golding, Bernard T; Palmer, David J; Howard, Mark J; Ferguson, Stuart J; Warren, Martin J

    2011-11-08

    Modified tetrapyrroles such as chlorophyll, heme, siroheme, vitamin B(12), coenzyme F(430), and heme d(1) underpin a wide range of essential biological functions in all domains of life, and it is therefore surprising that the syntheses of many of these life pigments remain poorly understood. It is known that the construction of the central molecular framework of modified tetrapyrroles is mediated via a common, core pathway. Herein a further branch of the modified tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway is described in denitrifying and sulfate-reducing bacteria as well as the Archaea. This process entails the hijacking of siroheme, the prosthetic group of sulfite and nitrite reductase, and its processing into heme and d(1) heme. The initial step in these transformations involves the decarboxylation of siroheme to give didecarboxysiroheme. For d(1) heme synthesis this intermediate has to undergo the replacement of two propionate side chains with oxygen functionalities and the introduction of a double bond into a further peripheral side chain. For heme synthesis didecarboxysiroheme is converted into Fe-coproporphyrin by oxidative loss of two acetic acid side chains. Fe-coproporphyrin is then transformed into heme by the oxidative decarboxylation of two propionate side chains. The mechanisms of these reactions are discussed and the evolutionary significance of another role for siroheme is examined.

  6. Dopamine D1 receptors are responsible for stress-induced emotional memory deficit in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongfu; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Bi; Li, Chaocui; Cai, Jing-Xia

    2012-03-01

    It is established that stress impairs spatial learning and memory via the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. Dopamine D1 receptors were also shown to be responsible for a stress-induced deficit of working memory. However, whether stress affects the subsequent emotional learning and memory is not elucidated yet. Here, we employed the well-established one-trial step-through task to study the effect of an acute psychological stress (induced by tail hanging for 5, 10, or 20 min) on emotional learning and memory, and the possible mechanisms as well. We demonstrated that tail hanging induced an obvious stress response. Either an acute tail-hanging stress or a single dose of intraperitoneally injected dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390) significantly decreased the step-through latency in the one-trial step-through task. However, SCH23390 prevented the acute tail-hanging stress-induced decrease in the step-through latency. In addition, the effects of tail-hanging stress and/or SCH23390 on the changes in step-through latency were not through non-memory factors such as nociceptive perception and motor function. Our data indicate that the hyperactivation of dopamine D1 receptors mediated the stress-induced deficit of emotional learning and memory. This study may have clinical significance given that psychological stress is considered to play a role in susceptibility to some mental diseases such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.

  7. THE QUIET SOLAR ATMOSPHERE OBSERVED AND SIMULATED IN Na I D1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenaarts, J.; Rutten, R. J.; Carlsson, M.; Hansteen, V.; Reardon, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Na I D 1 line in the solar spectrum is sometimes attributed to the solar chromosphere. We study its formation in quiet-Sun network and internetwork. We first present high-resolution profile-resolved images taken in this line with the imaging spectrometer Interferometric Bidimensional Spectrometer at the Dunn Solar Telescope and compare these to simultaneous chromospheric images taken in Ca II 8542 A and Hα. We then model Na I D 1 formation by performing three-dimensional (3D) non-local thermodynamic equilibrium profile synthesis for a snapshot from a 3D radiation-magnetohydrodynamics simulation. We find that most Na I D 1 brightness is not chromospheric but samples the magnetic concentrations that make up the quiet-Sun network in the photosphere, well below the height where they merge into chromospheric canopies, with aureoles from 3D resonance scattering. The line core is sensitive to magneto-acoustic shocks in and near magnetic concentrations, where shocks occur deeper than elsewhere, and may provide evidence of heating deep within magnetic concentrations.

  8. Simultaneous Multiple MS Binding Assays Addressing D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Marion; Höfner, Georg; Wanner, Klaus T

    2017-10-09

    MS Binding Assays are a label-free alternative to radioligand binding assays. They provide basically the same capabilities as the latter, but use a non-labeled reporter ligand instead of a radioligand. In contrast to radioligand binding assays, MS Binding Assays offer-owing to the selectivity of mass spectrometric detection-the opportunity to monitor the binding of different reporter ligands at different targets simultaneously. The present study shows a proof of concept for this strategy as exemplified for MS Binding Assays selectively addressing D 1 and D 2 dopamine receptors in a single binding experiment. A highly sensitive, rapid and robust LC-ESI-MS/MS quantification method capable of quantifying both SCH23390 and raclopride, selectively addressing D 1 and D 2 receptors, respectively, was established and validated for this purpose. Based thereon, simultaneous saturation and competition experiments with SCH23390 and raclopride in the presence of both D 1 and D 2 receptors were performed and analyzed by LC-MS/MS within a single chromatographic cycle. The present study thus demonstrates the feasibility of this strategy and the high versatility of MS Binding Assays that appears to surpass that common for conventional radioligand binding assays. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. The AGILE Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Tavani, M.; Argan, A.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P.W.; Chen, A.W.; Cocco, V.; Costa, E.; D'Ammando, F.; Del Monte, E.; De Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; Di Persio, G.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorini, M.; Fornari, F.; Fuschino, F.; Froysland, T.; Frutti, M.; Galli, M.; Gianotti, F.; Giuliani, A.; Labanti, C.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Liello, F.; Lipari, P.; Longo, F.; Mattaini, E.; Marisaldi, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Mauri, A.; Mauri, F.; Mereghetti, S.; Morelli, E.; Morselli, A.; Pacciani, L.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Piano, G.; Picozza, P.; Pontoni, C.; Porrovecchio, G.; Prest, M.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rappoldi, A.; Rossi, E.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.; Traci, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.; Vittorini, V.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Pittori, C.; Preger, B.; Santolamazza, P.; Verrecchia, F.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Antonelli, A.; Cutini, S.; Gasparrini, D.; Stellato, S.; Fanari, G.; Primavera, R.; Tamburelli, F.; Viola, F.; Guarrera, G.; Salotti, L.; D'Amico, F.; Marchetti, E.; Crisconio, M.; Sabatini, P.; Annoni, G.; Alia, S.; Longoni, A.; Sanquerin, R.; Battilana, M.; Concari, P.; Dessimone, E.; Grossi, R.; Parise, A.; Monzani, F.; Artina, E.; Pavesi, R.; Marseguerra, G.; Nicolini, L.; Scandelli, L.; Soli, L.; Vettorello, V.; Zardetto, E.; Bonati, A.; Maltecca, L.; D'Alba, E.; Patane, M.; Babini, G.; Onorati, F.; Acquaroli, L.; Angelucci, M.; Morelli, B.; Agostara, C.; Cerone, M.; Michetti, A.; Tempesta, P.; D'Eramo, S.; Rocca, F.; Giannini, F.; Borghi, G.; Garavelli, B.; Conte, M.; Balasini, M.; Ferrario, I.; Vanotti, M.; Collavo, E.; Giacomazzo, M.

    2008-01-01

    AGILE is an Italian Space Agency mission dedicated to the observation of the gamma-ray Universe. The AGILE very innovative instrumentation combines for the first time a gamma-ray imager (sensitive in the energy range 30 MeV - 50 GeV), a hard X-ray imager (sensitive in the range 18-60 keV) together with a Calorimeter (sensitive in the range 300 keV - 100 MeV) and an anticoincidence system. AGILE was successfully launched on April 23, 2007 from the Indian base of Sriharikota and was inserted in an equatorial orbit with a very low particle background. AGILE provides crucial data for the study of Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, pulsars, unidentified gamma-ray sources, Galactic compact objects, supernova remnants, TeV sources, and fundamental physics by microsecond timing. An optimal angular resolution (reaching 0.1-0.2 degrees in gamma-rays, 1-2 arcminutes in hard X-rays) and very large fields of view (2.5 sr and 1 sr, respectively) are obtained by the use of Silicon detectors integrated in a very compa...

  10. STS-68 Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This STS-68 patch was designed by artist Sean Collins. Exploration of Earth from space is the focus of the design of the insignia, the second flight of the Space Radar Laboratory (SRL-2). SRL-2 was part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) project. The world's land masses and oceans dominate the center field, with the Space Shuttle Endeavour circling the globe. The SRL-2 letters span the width and breadth of planet Earth, symbolizing worldwide coverage of the two prime experiments of STS-68: The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) instruments; and the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) sensor. The red, blue, and black colors of the insignia represent the three operating wavelengths of SIR-C/X-SAR, and the gold band surrounding the globe symbolizes the atmospheric envelope examined by MAPS. The flags of international partners Germany and Italy are shown opposite Endeavour. The relationship of the Orbiter to Earth highlights the usefulness of human space flights in understanding Earth's environment, and the monitoring of its changing surface and atmosphere. In the words of the crew members, the soaring Orbiter also typifies the excellence of the NASA team in exploring our own world, using the tools which the Space Program developed to explore the other planets in the solar system.

  11. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  12. NASA's interstellar probe mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewer, P.C.; Ayon, J.A.; Wallace, R.A.; Mewaldt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Interstellar Probe will be the first spacecraft designed to explore the nearby interstellar medium and its interaction with our solar system. As envisioned by NASA's Interstellar Probe Science and Technology Definition Team, the spacecraft will be propelled by a solar sail to reach >200 AU in 15 years. Interstellar Probe will investigate how the Sun interacts with its environment and will directly measure the properties and composition of the dust, neutrals and plasma of the local interstellar material which surrounds the solar system. In the mission concept developed in the spring of 1999, a 400-m diameter solar sail accelerates the spacecraft to ∼15 AU/year, roughly 5 times the speed of Voyager 1 and 2. The sail is used to first bring the spacecraft to ∼0.25 AU to increase the radiation pressure before heading out in the interstellar upwind direction. After jettisoning the sail at ∼5 AU, the spacecraft coasts to 200-400 AU, exploring the Kuiper Belt, the boundaries of the heliosphere, and the nearby interstellar medium

  13. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs

  14. Assessment of allelic diversity in intron-containing Mal d 1 genes and their association to apple allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolhaar Suzanne THP

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mal d 1 is a major apple allergen causing food allergic symptoms of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS in birch-pollen sensitised patients. The Mal d 1 gene family is known to have at least 7 intron-containing and 11 intronless members that have been mapped in clusters on three linkage groups. In this study, the allelic diversity of the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes was assessed among a set of apple cultivars by sequencing or indirectly through pedigree genotyping. Protein variant constitutions were subsequently compared with Skin Prick Test (SPT responses to study the association of deduced protein variants with allergenicity in a set of 14 cultivars. Results From the seven intron-containing Mal d 1 genes investigated, Mal d 1.01 and Mal d 1.02 were highly conserved, as nine out of ten cultivars coded for the same protein variant, while only one cultivar coded for a second variant. Mal d 1.04, Mal d 1.05 and Mal d 1.06 A, B and C were more variable, coding for three to six different protein variants. Comparison of Mal d 1 allelic composition between the high-allergenic cultivar Golden Delicious and the low-allergenic cultivars Santana and Priscilla, which are linked in pedigree, showed an association between the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A genes (both located on linkage group 16 with allergenicity. This association was confirmed in 10 other cultivars. In addition, Mal d 1.06A allele dosage effects associated with the degree of allergenicity based on prick to prick testing. Conversely, no associations were observed for the protein variants coded by the Mal d 1.01 (on linkage group 13, -1.02, -1.06B, -1.06C genes (all on linkage group 16, nor by the Mal d 1.05 gene (on linkage group 6. Conclusion Protein variant compositions of Mal d 1.04 and -1.06A and, in case of Mal d 1.06A, allele doses are associated with the differences in allergenicity among fourteen apple cultivars. This information

  15. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ''capstone'' team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan

  16. STS-51J Mission Insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The 51-J mission insignia, designed by Atlantis's first crew, pays tribute to the Statue of Liberty and the ideas it symbolizes. The historical gateway figure bears additional significance for Astronauts Karol J. Bobko, mission commander; and Ronald J. Grabe, pilot, both New Your Natives.

  17. Prevalence and clinical implications of cyclin D1 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with immunochemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ok, Chi Young; Xu-Monette, Zijun Y; Tzankov, Alexandar

    2014-01-01

    oncogene E3 ubiquitin protein ligase (MDM2), MDM4, and tumor protein 53 (TP53) were rare or absent. Gene expression profiling did not reveal any striking differences with respect to cyclin D1 in DLBCL. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with patients who had cyclin D1-negative DLBCL, men were more commonly affected......1-positive according to immunohistochemistry were also assessed for rearrangements of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Gene expression profiling was performed to compare patients who had DLBCL with and without cyclin D1 expression. RESULTS: In total, 30 patients...... (2.1%) who had DLBCL that expressed cyclin D1 and lacked CCND1 gene rearrangements were identified. Patients with cyclin D1-positive DLBCL had a median age of 57 years (range, 16.0-82.6 years). There were 23 males and 7 females. Twelve patients (40%) had bulky disease. None of them expressed CD5. Two...

  18. GRACE Status at Mission End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapley, B. D.; Flechtner, F. M.; Watkins, M. M.; Bettadpur, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The twin satellites of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) were launched on March 17, 2002 and have operated for nearly 16 years. The mission objectives are to observe the spatial and temporal variations of the Earth's mass through its effects on the gravity field at the GRACE satellite altitude. The mass changes observed are related to both the changes within the solid earth and the change within and between the Erath system components. A significant cause of the time varying mass is water motion and the GRACE mission has provided a continuous decade long measurement sequence which characterizes the seasonal cycle of mass transport between the oceans, land, cryosphere and atmosphere; its inter-annual variability; and the climate driven secular, or long period, mass transport signals. The fifth reanalysis on the mission data set, the RL05 data, were released in mid-2013. With the planned launch of GRACE Follow-On in early 2018, plans are underway for a reanalysis that will be consistent with the GRACE FO processing standards. The mission is entering the final phases of its operation life with mission end expected to occur in early 2018. The current mission operations strategy emphasizes extending the mission lifetime to obtain an overlap with the GRACE FO. This presentation will review the mission status and the projections for mission lifetime, describe the current operations philosophy and its impact on the science data, discuss the issues related to achieving the GRACE and GRACE FO connection and discuss issues related to science data products during this phase of the mission period.

  19. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, James

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in November 2014, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere, particularly along its dayside boundary with the solar wind and the neutral sheet in the magnetic tail. Among the important questions about reconnection that will be addressed are the following: Under what conditions can magnetic-field energy be converted to plasma energy by the annihilation of magnetic field through reconnection? How does reconnection vary with time, and what factors influence its temporal behavior? What microscale processes are responsible for reconnection? What determines the rate of reconnection? In order to accomplish its goals the MMS spacecraft must probe both those regions in which the magnetic fields are very nearly antiparallel and regions where a significant guide field exists. From previous missions we know the approximate speeds with which reconnection layers move through space to be from tens to hundreds of km/s. For electron skin depths of 5 to 10 km, the full 3D electron population (10 eV to above 20 keV) has to be sampled at rates greater than 10/s. The MMS Fast-Plasma Instrument (FPI) will sample electrons at greater than 30/s. Because the ion skin depth is larger, FPI will make full ion measurements at rates of greater than 6/s. 3D E-field measurements will be made by MMS once every ms. MMS will use an Active Spacecraft Potential Control device (ASPOC), which emits indium ions to neutralize the photoelectron current and keep the spacecraft from charging to more than +4 V. Because ion dynamics in Hall reconnection depend sensitively on ion mass, MMS includes a new-generation Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) that corrects problems with high proton fluxes that have prevented accurate ion-composition measurements near the dayside magnetospheric boundary. Finally, Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) measurements of electrons and

  20. The SCOPE Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, M.; Tsuda, Y.; Saito, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Takashima, T.; Matsuoka, A.; Kojima, H.; Kasaba, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In order to reach the new horizon of the space physics research, the Plasma Universe, via in-situ measurements in the Earth's magnetosphere, SCOPE will perform formation flying observations combined with high-time resolution electron measurements. The simultaneous multi-scale observations by SCOPE of various plasma dynamical phenomena will enable data-based study of the key space plasma processes from the cross-scale coupling point of view. Key physical processes to be studied are magnetic reconnection under various boundary conditions, shocks in space plasma, collisionless plasma mixing at the boundaries, and physics of current sheets embedded in complex magnetic geometries. The SCOPE formation is made up of 5 spacecraft and is put into the equatorial orbit with the apogee at 30 Re (Re: earth radius). One of the spacecraft is a large mother ship which is equipped with a full suite of particle detectors including ultra-high time resolution electron detector. Among other 4 small spacecraft, one remains near (∼10 km) the mother ship and the spacecraft-pair will focus on the electron-scale physics. Others at the distance of 100∼3000 km(electron∼ion spatial scales) from the mother ship will monitor plasma dynamics surrounding the mother-daughter pair. There is lively on-going discussion on Japan-Europe international collaboration (ESA's Cross-Scale), which would certainly make better the coverage over the scales of interest and thus make the success of the mission, i.e., clarifying the multi-scale nature of the Plasma Universe, to be attained at an even higher level.

  1. Neurobiology of D-1 dopamine receptors after neonatal-6-OHDA treatment: Relevance to Lesch-Nyhan disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breese, G.R.; Duncan, G.E.; Mueller, R.A.; Napier, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    In the present work, experiments with neonatally and adult-6-OHDA-lesioned rats are described which examine the pharmacology of agonists and antagonists with specificity for D 1 and D 2 dopamine receptors. This work permits conclusions concerning the role of D 1 -dopamine receptors in behavior, about the interaction of D 1 receptors with D 2 -dopamine receptors, and about the importance of D 1 -dopamine receptors for the self-mutilation behavior (SMB) observed in rats treated neonatally with 6-OHDA when challenged with dopamine agonists as adults. The relationship of these findings to Lesch-Nyhan disease are also discussed

  2. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 2: Requirements, design, and planning studies for the carry-on laboratories. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The task phase concerned with the requirements, design, and planning studies for the carry-on laboratory (COL) began with a definition of biomedical research areas and candidate research equipment, and then went on to develop conceptual layouts for COL which were each evaluated in order to arrive at a final conceptual design. Each step in this design/evaluation process concerned itself with man/systems integration research and hardware, and life support and protective systems research and equipment selection. COL integration studies were also conducted and include attention to electrical power and data management requirements, operational considerations, and shuttle/Spacelab interface specifications. A COL program schedule was compiled, and a cost analysis was finalized which takes into account work breakdown, annual funding, and cost reduction guidelines.

  3. Spacelab Life Sciences flight experiments: an integrated approach to the study of cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, F. A.

    1987-01-01

    The microgravity environment of spaceflight produces rapid cardiovascular changes which are adaptive and appropriate in that setting, but are associated with significant deconditioning and orthostatic hypotension on return to Earth's gravity. The rapidity with which these space flight induced changes appear and disappear provides an ideal model for studying the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of deconditioning and orthostatic hypotension, regardless of etiology. Since significant deconditioning is seen after flights of very short duration, muscle atrophy due to inactivity plays, at most, a small role. These changes in circulatory control associated with cephalad fluid shifts, rather than inactivity per se, are probably more important factors. In order to test this hypothesis in a systematic way, a multidisciplinary approach which defines and integrates inputs and responses from a wide variety of circulatory sub-systems is required. The cardiovascular experiments selected for Spacelab Life Sciences flights 1 and 2 provide such an approach. Both human and animal models will be utilized. Pre- and post-flight characterization of the payload crew includes determination of maximal exercise capacity (bicycle ergometry), orthostatic tolerance (lower body negative pressure), alpha and beta adrenergic sensitivity (isoproterenol and phenylephrine infusions), baroreflex sensitivity (ECG-gated, stepwise changes in carotid artery transmural pressure with a pneumatic neck collar), and responses to a 24 h period of 5 deg head-down tilt. Measurements of cardiac output (CO2 and C2H2 rebreathing), cardiac chamber dimensions (phased-array 2-dimensional echocardiography), direct central venous pressure, leg volume (Thornton sock), limb blood flow and venous compliance (occlusion plethysmography), blood and plasma volumes, renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rates, and various hormonal levels including catecholamines and atrial natriuretic factor will also be obtained

  4. Sexual behavior modulates contextual fear memory through dopamine D1/D5 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hua-Yi; Cao, Jun; Liu, Na; Xu, Lin; Luo, Jian-Hong

    2009-03-01

    Traumatic events always lead to aversive emotional memory, i.e., fear memory. In contrast, positive events in daily life such as sex experiences seem to reduce aversive memory after aversive events. Thus, we hypothesized that post-traumatic pleasurable experiences, especially instinctive behaviors such as sex, might modulate traumatic memory through a memory competition mechanism. Here, we first report that male rats persistently expressed much lower fear responses when exposed to females, but not when exposed to males, for 24 h immediately after contextual fear conditioning. Remarkably, this effect of sexual behavior was blocked by either systemic or intrahippocampal injection of the dopamine D1/D5 receptor antagonist R(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine hydrochloride (SCH23390) and was mimicked by systemic but not intrahippocampal injection of the D1/D5 receptor agonist R(+)-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine-7,8-diol hydrochloride (SKF39393). Furthermore, as a candidate mechanism underlying contextual fear memory, the impaired induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) elicited by conditioned fear was rescued in male rats immediately exposed to female but not male rats for 24 h. Systemic injection of the dopamine D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 or agonist SKF38393 prevented or mimicked the effect of sexual behavior on the impaired induction of hippocampal LTP. Thus, our finding suggests that dopaminergic functions may, at least partially, govern competition between contextual fear and enjoyable memories through the modulation of hippocampal LTP.

  5. Pharmacological and biochemical characterization of the D-1 dopamine receptor mediating acetylcholine release in rabbit retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensler, J.G.; Cotterell, D.J.; Dubocovich, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Superfusion with dopamine (0.1 microM-10 mM) evokes calcium-dependent [ 3 H]acetylcholine release from rabbit retina labeled in vitro with [ 3 H]choline. This effect is antagonized by the D-1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Activation or blockade of D-2 dopamine, alpha-2 or beta receptors did not stimulate or attenuate the release of [ 3 H]acetylcholine from rabbit retina. Dopamine receptor agonists evoke the release of [ 3 H]acetylcholine with the following order of potency: apomorphine ≤ SKF(R)82526 3 H]acetylcholine: SCH 23390 (IC50 = 1 nM) 3 H]acetylcholine release is characteristic of the D-1 dopamine receptor. These potencies were correlated with the potencies of dopamine receptor agonists and antagonists at the D-1 dopamine receptor in rabbit retina as labeled by [ 3 H]SCH 23390, or as determined by adenylate cyclase activity. [ 3 H]SCH 23390 binding in rabbit retinal membranes was stable, saturable and reversible. Scatchard analysis of [ 3 H]SCH 23390 saturation data revealed a single high affinity binding site (Kd = 0.175 +/- 0.002 nM) with a maximum binding of 482 +/- 12 fmol/mg of protein. The potencies of dopamine receptor agonists to stimulate [ 3 H]acetylcholine release were correlated with their potencies to stimulate adenylate cyclase (r = 0.784, P less than .05, n = 7) and with their affinities at [ 3 H]SCH 23390 binding sites (r = 0.755, P < .05, n = 8)

  6. Predissociation of the D 1PIsub(u) state of H2 near threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borondo, F.; Eguiagaray, L.R.; Riera, A.

    1982-01-01

    A recent calculation of Komarov and Ostrovsky (J. Phys. B.; 12:2485 (1979)) seemed to have settled a controversy regarding the different experimental values of the H(2s)/H(2p) sharing ratio in the predissociation of the D 1 PIsub(u) state of H 2 near threshold. This calculation was based on a correct physical picture of the dissociation process, but the dynamical treatment rests on invalid assumptions. In the present work, a more rigorous quantum mechanical treatment is presented, and a branching ratio of 0.70 is obtained. (author)

  7. 5-Isopropylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C7H6S5, contains a 5-ylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-d][1,3]dithiole-2-thione framework, which is an important synthetic precursor of multi-dimensional organic superconductors and conductors. The molecular framework is planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.012 Å for the non-H atoms. In the crystal structure, molecules are linked by short intermolecular S...S interactions [3.501 (5 and 3.581 (4 Å], constructing a zigzag molecular tape network along the c axis.

  8. Neutronics Design of Helical Type DEMO Reactor FFHR-d1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, T.; Sagara, A.; Goto, T.; Yanagi, N.; Masuzaki, S.; Tamura, H.; Miyazawa, J.; Muroga, T., E-mail: teru@nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Neutronics design study has been performed in a newly started conceptual design activity for a helical type DEMO reactor FFHR-d1. Features of the FFHR-d1 design are enlargement of the basic configurations of reactor components and extrapolation of plasma parameters from those of the helical type plasma experimental machine Large Helical Device (LHD) to achieve the highest feasibility. From the neutronics point of view, a blanket space of FFHR-d1 is severely limited at the inboard of the torus. This is due to the core plasma position shifting to the inboard side under the confinement condition extrapolated from LHD. The first step of the neutronics investigation using the MCNP code has been performed with a simple torus model simulating thin inboard blanket space. A Flibe+Be/Ferritic steel breeding blanket showed preferable performances for both tritium breeding and shielding, and has been adapted as a reference blanket system for FFHR-d1. The investigations indicate that a combination of a 15 cm thick breeding blanket, 55 cm thick WC+B4C shield, i.e., the blanket space of 70 cm, could suppress the fast neutron flux and nuclear heating in the helical coils to the design targets for the neutron wall loading of 1.5 MW/m{sup 2}. Since the outboard side can provide a large space for a 60 cm thick breeding blanket, a fully-covered tritium breeding ratio (TBR) of 1.31 has been obtained in the simple torus model. The neutronics design study has proceeded to the second step using a 3-D helical reactor model. The most important issue in the 3-D neutronics design is a compatibility with the helical divertor design. To achieve a higher TBR and shielding performance, the core plasma has to be covered by the breeding blanket layers as possible. However, the dimensions of the blanket layers are limited by magnetic field lines connecting an edge of the core plasma and divertor pumping ports. After repeating modification of the blanket configuration, the global TBR of 1

  9. Dopamine and dopamine receptor D1 associated with decreased social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Shi, Jieyun; Lin, Rongfei; Wen, Tieqiao

    2017-05-01

    Deficits in social interaction are hallmarks of neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, its underlying mechanism is still unclear. Here, we show that the loss of dendritic cell factor 1 (Dcf1) in the nervous system of mice induces social interaction deficiency, autism-like behaviour, and influences social interaction via the dopamine system. Dopamine receptor D1 agonist rescues this social cognition phenotype, and improves short-term plasticity. Together, this study presents a new genetic mechanism that affects social interaction and may provide a new way to improve positive social interaction and treat autism spectrum disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of phasic dopamine by D1 and D2 striatal medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Cedric; Nair, Anu G; Clement, Lorna; Castro, Liliana R; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette; Vincent, Pierre

    2017-12-15

    Brief dopamine events are critical actors of reward-mediated learning in the striatum; the intracellular cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) response of striatal medium spiny neurons to such events was studied dynamically using a combination of biosensor imaging in mouse brain slices and in silico simulations. Both D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons can sense brief dopamine transients in the sub-micromolar range. While dopamine transients profoundly change cAMP levels in both types of medium spiny neurons, the PKA-dependent phosphorylation level remains unaffected in D2 neurons. At the level of PKA-dependent phosphorylation, D2 unresponsiveness depends on protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibition by DARPP-32. Simulations suggest that D2 medium spiny neurons could detect transient dips in dopamine level. The phasic release of dopamine in the striatum determines various aspects of reward and action selection, but the dynamics of the dopamine effect on intracellular signalling remains poorly understood. We used genetically encoded FRET biosensors in striatal brain slices to quantify the effect of transient dopamine on cAMP or PKA-dependent phosphorylation levels, and computational modelling to further explore the dynamics of this signalling pathway. Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express either D 1 or D 2 dopamine receptors, responded to dopamine by an increase or a decrease in cAMP, respectively. Transient dopamine showed similar sub-micromolar efficacies on cAMP in both D1 and D2 MSNs, thus challenging the commonly accepted notion that dopamine efficacy is much higher on D 2 than on D 1 receptors. However, in D2 MSNs, the large decrease in cAMP level triggered by transient dopamine did not translate to a decrease in PKA-dependent phosphorylation level, owing to the efficient inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by DARPP-32. Simulations further suggested that D2 MSNs can also operate in a 'tone-sensing' mode, allowing them to detect transient dips in basal dopamine

  11. Investigation of associations between NR1D1, RORA and RORB genes and bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin-Chieh Lai

    Full Text Available Several genes that are involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms are implicated in the susceptibility to bipolar disorder (BD. The current study aimed to investigate the relationships between genetic variants in NR1D1 RORA, and RORB genes and BD in the Han Chinese population. We conducted a case-control genetic association study with two samples of BD patients and healthy controls. Sample I consisted of 280 BD patients and 200 controls. Sample II consisted of 448 BD patients and 1770 healthy controls. 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NR1D1, RORA, and RORB genes were genotyped using GoldenGate VeraCode assays in sample I, and 492 markers in the three genes were genotyped using Affymetrix Genome-Wide CHB Array in sample II. Single marker and gene-based association analyses were performed using PLINK. A combined p-value for the joining effects of all markers within a gene was calculated using the rank truncated product method. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method was also applied to test gene-gene interactions in sample I. All markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.001. In sample I, the associations with BD were observed for rs4774388 in RORA (OR = 1.53, empirical p-value, P = 0.024, and rs1327836 in RORB (OR = 1.75, P = 0.003. In Sample II, there were 45 SNPs showed associations with BD, and the most significant marker in RORA was rs11639084 (OR = 0.69, P = 0.002, and in RORB was rs17611535 (OR = 3.15, P = 0.027. A combined p-value of 1.6×10-6, 0.7, and 1.0 was obtained for RORA, RORB and NR1D1, respectively, indicting a strong association for RORA with the risk of developing BD. A four way interaction was found among markers in NR1D1, RORA, and RORB with the testing accuracy 53.25% and a cross-validation consistency of 8 out of 10. In sample II, 45 markers had empirical p-values less than 0.05. The most significant markers in RORA and RORB genes were rs11639084 (OR = 0.69, P = 0.002, and rs17611535 (OR = 3

  12. Executive Summary - Our mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    On September 1 st 2003, the Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow joined the Polish Academy of Sciences. The Polish Academy of Sciences (PAN), founded in 1952, is a state-sponsored scientific institution acting through an elected corporation of leading scholars, their research organizations and through numerous scientific establishments. PAN is a major national scientific advisory body acting via its scientific committees which represent all disciplines of science. There are currently 79 PAN research establishments (institutes and research centers, research stations, botanical gardens and other research units) and a number of auxiliary scientific units (such as archives, libraries, museums, and PAN stations abroad). Our Institute is currently one of the largest research institutions of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The research activity of the Academy is financed mainly from the State budget via the Ministry of Scientific Research and Information Technology. The mission of the Institute of Nuclear Physics, IFJ is stated in its Charter. According to Paragraphs 5, 6, and 7 of the 2004 Charter, the Institute's duty is to carry out research activities in the following areas:1. High energy and elementary particle physics (including astrophysics), 2. Nuclear physics and physics of mechanisms of nuclear interaction, 3. Condensed matter physics, 4. Interdisciplinary research, and in particular: in radiation and environmental biology, environmental physics, medical physics, dosimetry, nuclear geophysics, radiochemistry and material engineering. The main tasks of the Institute are: 1. To perform research in the above disciplines, 2. To promote the development of scientists and of specialists qualified to carry out research in these disciplines, 3. To organize a Post-Doctoral Study Course, 4. To permit, through agreements with national and foreign research institutions, external scholars to train and gain academic qualifications in the Institute

  13. The Ulysses mission: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    On 30 September 1995, Ulysses completed its initial, highly successful, survey of the polar regions of the heliosphere in both southern and northern hemispheres, thereby fulfilling its prime mission. The results obtained to date are leading to a revision of many earlier ideas concerning the solar wind and the heliosphere. Now embarking on the second phase of the mission, Ulysses will continue along its out-of-ecliptic flight path for another complete orbit of the Sun. In contrast to the high-latitude phase of the prime mission, which occurred near solar minimum, the next polar passes (in 2000 and 2001) will take place when the Sun is at its most active

  14. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiao; Shetty, Sreerama; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin; Wang, Shuxia; Li, Zhenyu; Fu, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia

  15. [Clarification of Rht8 and Ppd-D1 gene linkage on the 2D chromosome of winter bread wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebotar, H O; Chebotar, S V; Motsnyĭ, I I; Syvolap, Iu M

    2013-01-01

    In the south part of Ukraine the haplotype of Rht8c and Ppd-D1a genes is highly distributed among modern bread wheat varieties. During the time of breeding program it has been selected as one of the most important adaptive complex for plants of this region. Genetic distance between Rht8c and Ppd-D1a was clarified.

  16. D1S80 (pMCT118) allele frequencies in a Malay population sample from Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, C L; Lim, M E; Ng, H S; Sam, C K

    1997-01-01

    The D1S80 allele frequencies in 124 unrelated Malays from the Malaysian population were determined and 51 genotypes and 19 alleles were encountered. The D1S80 frequency distribution met Hardy-Weinberg expectations. The observed heterozygosity was 0.80 and the power of discrimination was 0.96.

  17. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiao [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shetty, Sreerama [Center for Biomedical Research, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75708 (United States); Zhang, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Shuxia [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Li, Zhenyu [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Fu, Jian, E-mail: jian.fu@uky.edu [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia.

  18. Link between D1 and D2 dopamine receptors is reduced in schizophrenia and Huntington diseased brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, P.; Niznik, H.B.; Guan, H.C.; Booth, G.; Ulpian, C.

    1989-01-01

    Dopamine receptor types D 1 and D 2 can oppose enhance each other's actions for electrical, biochemical, and psychomotor effects. The authors report a D 1 -D 2 interaction in homogenized tissue as revealed by ligand binding. D 2 agonists lowered the binding of [ 3 H]raclopride to D 2 receptors in striatal and anterior pituitary tissues. Pretreating the tissue with the D 1 -selective antagonist SCH 23390 prevented the agonist-induced decrease in [ 3 H]raclopride binding to D 2 sites in the striatum but not in the anterior pituitary, which has no D 1 receptors. Conversely, a dopamine-induced reduction in the binding of [ 3 H]SCH 23390 to D 1 receptors could be prevented by the D 2 -selective antagonist eticlopride. Receptor photolabeling experiments confirmed both these D 1 -D 2 interactions. The blocking effect by SCH 23390 was similar to that produced by a nonhydrolyzable guanine nucleotide analogue, and SCH 23390 reduced the number of agonist-labeled D 2 receptors in the high-affinity state. Thus, the D 1 -D 2 link may be mediated by guanine nucleotide-binding protein components. The link may underlie D 1 -D 2 interactions influencing behavior, since the link was missing in over half the postmortem striata from patients with schizophrenia and Huntington disease (both diseases that show some hyperdopamine signs) but was present in human control, Alzheimer, and Parkinson striata

  19. External corrosion of tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackey, D.B.; Westerman, R.E.

    1995-05-01

    Tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at the West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS) site, West Valley, New York, rest on layers of perlite brick contained within steel pans. The pans tend to collect water, which can contact the tanks directly and which also can be ''wicked'' to the external surfaces of the tank through the perlite brick. The presence of air in the tank vault is conducive to the formation of oxygen concentration cells, which can promote localized corrosion of the carbon steel tank wall. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted an experiment to estimate the extent to which the external surfaces of the tanks could have corroded in the 30 years since their construction. Specimens of carbon steel, similar to that used in the tank construction, were partially embedded in an upright position in particulate perlite in closed containers. The water line in the containers.was maintained at two levels: above the perlite level (high water level tests) and below the bottoms of the specimens (low water level tests). The water used in the tests was obtained from the pan of tank 8D-1. The containers were maintained in an aerated condition. Specimens were examined after 3-, 6-, 12-, 18-, 24-, and 30-month exposures

  20. Thermodynamics of (d+1)-dimensional NUT-charged AdS spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, R.; Fatibene, L.; Mann, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the thermodynamic properties of (d+1)-dimensional spacetimes with NUT charges. Such spacetimes are asymptotically locally anti-de Sitter (or flat), with non-trivial topology in their spatial sections, and can have fixed point sets of the Euclidean time symmetry that are either (d-1)-dimensional (called 'bolts') or of lower dimensionality (pure 'NUTs'). We compute the free energy, conserved mass, and entropy for 4, 6, 8 and 10 dimensions for each, using both Noether charge methods and the AdS/CFT-inspired counterterm approach. We then generalize these results to arbitrary dimensionality. We find in 4k+2 dimensions that there are no regions in parameter space in the pure NUT case for which the entropy and specific heat are both positive, and so all such spacetimes are thermodynamically unstable. For the pure NUT case in 4k dimensions a region of stability exists in parameter space that decreases in size with increasing dimensionality. All bolt cases have some region of parameter space for which thermodynamic stability can be realized

  1. Second-order Raman spectra of LiHxD1-x crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plekhanov, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution Raman spectra of LiH x D 1-x cubic crystals were measured for the first time in a wide concentration range (0≤x≤1) at room temperature. The results agree well with data on inelastic neutron scattering and direct calculations of the lattice dynamics for LiH and LiD crystals. This allows one to assign the observed spectral features to the phonon excitations in X-, W-, L-, and K-points of the Brillouin zone. Spectra of LiD exhibit the high-frequency maximum with a pronounced doubled structure. This fact and the dependence of the maximum intensity on the excitation laser frequency provide clear evidence that the maximum is due to excitation of LO(Γ)-phonons in pure or mixed crystals. In the x approx-lt 0.4 range, the LO-phonons manifest themselves in the spectra of both pure LiD and mixed LiH x D 1-x crystals, which demonstrates for the first time their two-mode character in this concentration range. This conclusion is in contradiction with predictions of the coherent potential model. In this paper, causes of this conflict are briefly discussed. 36 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  2. NMDA receptor antagonists inhibit catalepsy induced by either dopamine D1 or D2 receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, N A; Blackman, A; Awere, S; Leander, J D

    1993-06-11

    In the present study, we investigated the ability of NMDA receptor antagonists to inhibit catalepsy induced by haloperidol, or SCH23390 and clebopride, selective dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists respectively. Catalepsy was measured by recording the time the animal remained with its forepaws placed over a rod 6 cm above the bench. Pretreatment with either the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, MK-801 (0.25-0.5 mg/kg i.p.) or the competitive antagonist, LY274614 (10-20 mg/kg i.p.) reduced the cataleptic response produced by haloperidol (10 mg/kg), SCH23390 (2.5-10 mg/kp i.p.) or clebopride (5-20 mg/kg i.p.). This demonstrates that NMDA receptor antagonists will reduce both dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonist-induced catalepsy. Muscle relaxant doses of chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg i.p.) failed to reduce the catalepsy induced by haloperidol, suggesting that the anticataleptic effect of the NMDA receptor antagonists was not due to a non-specific action. These results support the hypothesis that NMDA receptor antagonists may have beneficial effects in disorders involving reduced dopaminergic function, such as Parkinson's disease.

  3. Quantitative analysis of d,1-HMPAO and its freeze-dried kit with HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Suzhen

    1993-05-01

    A quantitative analysis method, which uses RP-HPLC (reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography), has been established to determine the stereoisomeric purity of HMPAO and d,1-HMPAO content for d,l-HMPAO freeze-dried kit. An opitmal mobile phase is selected for obtaining chromatographic parameters that are better than those published in the references. The theoretical tray height is less than 0.06 mm. At the flowrate of 1 ml/min the total separation time is 5.5. The resolution is greater than 5. The detectable limits of meso-HMPAO and d,l-HMPAO are 1 x 10 -8 g and 5 x 10 -7 g respectively. The precision is 5% and the additional recovery is 94% ∼ 107%. This method has many advantages such as accuracy, simplicity, rapidity and stability, and it is suitable for routine inspection. It has been successfully used to determine the HMPAO stereoisomer and d,1-HMPAO of freeze-dried kit produced by China Institute of Atomic Energy and same products imported from Amersham Company of United Kingdom

  4. Thirteen pump-probe resonances of the sodium D1 line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Vincent; Boyd, Robert W.; Stroud, C. R. Jr.; Bennink, Ryan S.; Marino, Alberto M.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a pump-probe laser spectroscopic investigation of the Doppler-broadened sodium D1 resonance line. We find 13 resonances in the resulting spectra. These observations are well described by the numerical predictions of a four-level atomic model of the hyperfine structure of the sodium D1 line. We also find that many, but not all, of these features can be understood in terms of processes originating in a two-level or three-level subset of the full four-level model. The processes we observed include forward near-degenerate four-wave mixing and saturation in a two-level system, difference-frequency crossing and nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a three-level V system, electromagnetically induced transparency and optical pumping in a three-level lambda system, cross-transition resonance in a four-level double-lambda system, and conventional optical pumping. Most of these processes lead to sub-Doppler or even subnatural linewidths. The dependence of these resonances on the pump intensity and pump detuning from atomic resonance are also studied

  5. International partnership in lunar missions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference. .... flight. The studies in India suggest that an 'aerobic' space transportation vehicle can indeed have a ... space from Earth at very, very low cost first before.

  6. Telepresence for Deep Space Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Incorporating telepresence technologies into deep space mission operations can give the crew and ground personnel the impression that they are in a location at time...

  7. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  8. Green Propellant Infusion Mission Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The mission is architected as a collaboration of NASA, Industry, and Air Force partners with the objective to advance the technology for propulsion components using...

  9. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina

    2002-01-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  10. KEPLER Mission: development and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borucki, William J

    2016-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170 000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many ‘blind alleys’ before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170 000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth. (review article)

  11. TRISTAN - mission complete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The high energy physics mission of the TRISTAN electron-positron collider at the Japanese KEK Laboratory ended in May. TRISTAN was the first accelerator in Japan at the high energy frontier, and its success owes a great deal to help and encouragement from the world high energy physics community. Its success also marks the first step toward the KEKB project now underway and the subsequent Linear Collider scheme. TRISTAN began operation in November 1986 with a collision energy of 50 GeV, the world's highest electron-positron collision energy at that time. With the addition of superconducting radiofrequency cavities, the energy was continuously increased, reaching a maximum of 64 GeV in 1989. In this exploratory era, the three large detectors - AMY,TOPAZ and VENUS - together with the smaller SHIP group made a rapid survey of particle phenomena in this new energy range. The sixth ('top') quark was first on the list of wanted particles, but the three large groups concluded that there were no new quarks below 32 GeV. The CDF and DO Collaborations at Fermilab's Tevatron recently reported the top quark as being six times as heavy as TRISTAN'S physics reach. Although initial experimental results suggested that the event-shape distributions of multi-hadron events were broadly consistent with the production of the five known quarks, the production rate of hadrons, compared to muons, was seen to rise with energy. The increased energy reach of TRISTAN increased the visibility of the subtle virtual effects of the Z (the electrically neutral carrier of the weak force) produced through the interference of weak and electromagnetic interactions. The rise was found to be slightly larger than expected from five quarks and a Z mass of 92 or 93 GeV, the accepted value at that time. This hinted that the Z mass had to be smaller, as later verified when the SLC and LEP electron-positron colliders at SLAC (Stanford) and CERN respectively came into operation in 1989

  12. Executive Summary - Our mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (Instytut Fizyki Jadrowej im. Henryka Niewodniczanskiego, IFJ PAN) is currently the largest research institution of the Polish Academy of Sciences (Polska Akademia Nauk). The research activity of the Academy is financed mainly from the State budget via the Ministry of Science and Higher Education. The mission of IFJ PAN is stated in its Charter. According to Paragraphs 5, 6, and 7 of the 2004 Charter, the Institute's duty is to carry out research activities in the following areas: 1. High energy and elementary particle physics (including astrophysics), 2. Nuclear physics and strong interaction, 3. Condensed matter physics, 4. Interdisciplinary research, in particular: in radiation and environmental biology, environmental physics, medical physics, dosimetry, nuclear geophysics, radiochemistry and material engineering. The main tasks of the Institute are: 1. To perform research in the above disciplines, 2. To promote the development of scientists and of specialists qualified to carry out research in these disciplines, 3. To organize a Post-Graduate Study Course, 4. To permit, through agreements with national and foreign research institutions, external scholars to train and gain academic qualifications in the Institute's laboratories, 5. To collaborate with national and local authorities in providing them with expertise in the Institute's research topics, especially concerning radiation protection. These tasks are fulfilled by: 1. Performing individual and coordinated research through individual and collective research grant projects, 2. Initiating and maintaining cooperation with laboratories, organizations and institutions performing similar activities, in Poland and abroad, 3. Conferring scientific degrees and titles, 4. Distributing research results obtained, through peer-reviewed publications and other public media, 5. Organizing scientific meetings, conferences, symposia, training workshops, etc

  13. Enantiomeric analogues of SCH 23390 as new probes for behavioral interactions between D-1 and D-2 dopaminergic function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, J.L.; Mashurano, M.; Molloy, A.G.; O'Boyle, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    The purposes of this article are to describe the properties of some newer selective D 1 agents, and to characterize behavioral responses to a D 1 agonist in the intact adult rat. R- and S-SKandF 83566 and other new 1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazephines as selective D 1 agents are discussed. The displacement of 3 H-SCH 23390 from human brain D 1 receptors, in comparison with displacement of 3 H-piflutixol and 3 H-spiperone is shown. Enantiomeric induction of grooming and other behaviors by R- and S-SKandF 38393 is examined. Sections are also devoted to pharmacological characterization of behavioral responses to SKandF 38393 and to D 1 : D 2 receptor systems and the regulation of dopaminergic behaviors

  14. Psychosocial interactions during ISS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2007-02-01

    Based on anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies of space analog environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station, a number of psychosocial issues have been identified that can lead to problems during long-duration space expeditions. Several of these issues were studied during a series of missions to the International Space Station. Using a mood and group climate questionnaire that was completed weekly by crewmembers in space and personnel in mission control, we found no evidence to support the presence of predicted decrements in well-being during the second half or in any specific quarter of the missions. The results did support the predicted displacement of negative feelings to outside supervisors among both crew and ground subjects. There were several significant differences in mood and group perceptions between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Crewmembers related cohesion to the support role of their leader, and mission control personnel related cohesion to both the task and support roles of their leader. These findings are discussed with reference to future space missions.

  15. Social Tagging of Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Mars missions will generate a large amount of data in various forms, such as daily plans, images, and scientific information. Often, there is a semantic linkage between images that cannot be captured automatically. Software is needed that will provide a method for creating arbitrary tags for this mission data so that items with a similar tag can be related to each other. The tags should be visible and searchable for all users. A new routine was written to offer a new and more flexible search option over previous applications. This software allows users of the MSLICE program to apply any number of arbitrary tags to a piece of mission data through a MSLICE search interface. The application of tags creates relationships between data that did not previously exist. These tags can be easily removed and changed, and contain enough flexibility to be specifically configured for any mission. This gives users the ability to quickly recall or draw attention to particular pieces of mission data, for example: Give a semantic and meaningful description to mission data; for example, tag all images with a rock in them with the tag "rock." Rapidly recall specific and useful pieces of data; for example, tag a plan as"driving template." Call specific data to a user s attention; for example, tag a plan as "for:User." This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  16. The validity of immunocytochemical expression of cyclin D1 in fine needle aspiration cytology of breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzat, N.; Hafez, N.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to study the validity of cyclin D1 expression, a cell Fenac; cycle regulatory protein, on (fine needle aspiration cytology) FNAC samples in patients with breast Breast carcinoma; carcinoma using immunostaining technique. Cyclin D1 Patient and methods: This is a study done on 70 patients with primary breast carcinoma, presented to Cytology Unit, Pathology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University. They underwent preoperative FNAC and diagnosed as breast carcinoma. The cytologic and tissue section slides were subjected to cyclin D1 immunocytochemical staining. Only the nuclear immunoreactivity for cyclin D1 was considered specific. The rate of concordance, and discordance, and kappa value were calculated. Relation between cytologic expression of cyclin D1 and different clinico pathologic parameters was evaluated. Results: Cyclin D1 immunocytochemical expression was observed in 53/70 cases (75.7%) in cytologic smears. In histologic sections of the corresponding cases, cyclin D1 was detected in 48/70 cases (68.6%). The concordance rate of cyclin D1 expression in the FNA and histologic sections was 87.1% while the discordance rate was 12.9%. Kappa showed a value of 0.65. A statistically significant relation was found between cyclin D1 immunocytochemical expression and hormonal status as well as nuclear grade. Conclusion: Cyclin D1 immunocytochemical expression can be performed successfully on cytologic samples with a high concordance rate and agreement with histologic results. This can help in determining tumor biology, and plan for patients treatment. The marker showed a significant relation with hormone receptor status and nuclear grade

  17. Prognostic and clinicopathological significance of Cacna2d1 expression in epithelial ovarian cancers: a retrospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dandan; Holm, Ruth; Goscinski, Mariusz Adam; Trope, Claes G; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy, in which cancer stem cells (CSC) have been reported to be the driving force of relapse and therapy-resistance. It is therefore important to explore CSC markers in ovarian cancer. This project aimed to explore the correlation between the expression of potential CSC maker Cacna2d1 and clinicopathological parameters in 238 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) samples. Immunohistochemically, positive Cacna2d1 expression was observed in 83.6% (199/238) of the EOC tumors, among which 107 tumors (44.9%) were highly positive and 92 (38.7%) tumors were weakly positive for the Cacna2d1 protein expression. Among the 158 serous carcinomas, the Cacna2d1 positivity was 148 (93.7%), in which 88 (55.7%) were highly positive, and 60 (38.0%) were weakly positive for the Cacna2d1 protein expression. Most strikingly, the Cacna2d1 was specifically expressed in the infiltration front areas of the EOC tumors. Statistical analyses showed that positive expression of Cacna2d1 was significantly associated with advanced FIGO stage (P<0.001), histological subtype (P=0.017) and tumor differentiation (P=0.015). Positive Cacna2d1 protein expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS) and shorter progression free survival (PFS) in both total EOCs and serous carcinomas, although multivariate analyses did not reach statistical significance. In summary, our results suggest Cacna2d1 protein may play a crucial role in promoting aggressive EOC behavior and progression, and Cacna2d1 may serve as a novel predictive prognostic marker and a potential target for therapeutic intervention in EOCs. PMID:27725913

  18. Monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to quantify the major allergen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen, Cyn d 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffort, O; Calabozo, B; González, R; Carpizo, J A; Barber, D; Polo, F

    2004-12-01

    Pollen of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is an important cause of pollinosis in many areas of the world. Most patients show sensitivity to the major allergen Cyn d 1, a glycoprotein composed of a number of isoforms with a molecular mass of 31-32 kDa. The aim of this work was to develop a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based ELISA to quantify Cyn d 1, and to assess the correlation of the allergen content with the biological activity of C. dactylon pollen extracts. After fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from a BALB/c mouse immunized with C. dactylon pollen extract, Cyn d 1-specific mAbs secreting hybridomas were selected, and the antibodies characterized. One of them (4.4.1) was used as the capture antibody in an ELISA method for Cyn d 1 quantitation. An anti-Cyn d 1 rabbit serum was used as the second antibody. Cyn d 1 was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with mAb 4.4.1, characterized, and used as the standard in the assay. The identity, purity and isoallergen composition of affinity-purified Cyn d 1 was confirmed by N-terminal amino acid sequencing, SDS-PAGE, Western blot and 2D electrophoresis. The Cyn d 1 ELISA is highly specific and sensitive, with a detection limit of 0.24 ng/ml and a linear range of 1.1-9.2 ng/ml. An excellent correlation was found when the content of Cyn d 1, measured in 16 different extracts, was compared with the allergenic activity of the same extracts determined by RAST inhibition. The results prove the usefulness of the Cyn d 1 ELISA for the standardization of C. dactylon-allergen products on the basis of major allergen content. 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Low Thrust Trajectory Design for GSFC Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator (EMTG) is a global trajectory optimization tool. EMTG is intended for use in designing interplanetary missions which...

  20. Dopamine D(1) receptor-mediated control of striatal acetylcholine release by endogenous dopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquas, E; Di Chiara, G

    1999-10-27

    The role of dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors in the control of acetylcholine release in the dorsal striatum by endogenous dopamine was investigated by monitoring with microdialysis the effect of the separate or combined administration of the dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist, SCH 39166 ¿(-)-trans-6,7,7a,8,9, 13b-exahydro-3-chloro-2-hydroxy-N-methyl-5H-benzo-[d]-nap hto-[2, 1b]-azepine hydrochloride¿ (50 microg/kg subcutaneous (s.c.)), of the dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptor agonist, quinpirole (trans-(-)-4aR, 4a,5,6,7,8,8a,9-octahydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazolo-(3,4-g)-quinoline hydrochloride) (5 and 10 microg/kg s.c.), and of the D(3) receptor selective agonist, PD 128,907 [S(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano-[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin -9-ol hydrochloride] (50 microg/kg s.c.), on in vivo dopamine and acetylcholine release. Microdialysis was performed with a Ringer containing low concentrations (0.01 microM) of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, neostigmine. Quinpirole (10 microg/kg s.c.) decreased striatal dopamine and acetylcholine release. Administration of PD 128,907 (50 microg/kg) decreased dopamine but failed to affect acetylcholine release. SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.) stimulated dopamine release and reduced acetylcholine release. Pretreatment with quinpirole reduced (5 microg/kg s.c.) or completely prevented (10 microg/kg s.c.) the stimulation of dopamine release elicited by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.); on the other hand, pretreatment with quinpirole (5 and 10 microg/kg) potentiated the reduction of striatal acetylcholine release induced by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg s.c.). Similarly, pretreatment with PD 128,907 (50 microg/kg) which prevented the increase of dopamine release induced by SCH 39166 (50 microg/kg), potentiated the reduction of striatal acetylcholine transmission elicited by SCH 39166. Thus, pretreatment with low doses of quinpirole or PD 128,907 influences in opposite manner the effect of SCH 39166 on striatal dopamine and

  1. Structural and population-based evaluations of TBC1D1 p.Arg125Trp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom G Richardson

    Full Text Available Obesity is now a leading cause of preventable death in the industrialised world. Understanding its genetic influences can enhance insight into molecular pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. A non-synonymous polymorphism (rs35859249, p.Arg125Trp in the N-terminal TBC1D1 phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB domain has shown a replicated association with familial obesity in women. We investigated these findings in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a large European birth cohort of mothers and offspring, and by generating a predicted model of the structure of this domain. Structural prediction involved the use of three separate algorithms; Robetta, HHpred/MODELLER and I-TASSER. We used the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT to investigate familial association in the ALSPAC study cohort (N = 2,292 mother-offspring pairs. Linear regression models were used to examine the association of genotype with mean measurements of adiposity (Body Mass Index (BMI, waist circumference and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA assessed fat mass, and logistic regression was used to examine the association with odds of obesity. Modelling showed that the R125W mutation occurs in a location of the TBC1D1 PTB domain that is predicted to have a function in a putative protein:protein interaction. We did not detect an association between R125W and BMI (mean per allele difference 0.27 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.00, 0.53 P = 0.05 or obesity (odds ratio 1.01 (95% Confidence Interval: 0.77, 1.31, P = 0.96 in offspring after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest that there was familial association between R125W and obesity (χ(2 = 0.06, P = 0.80. Our analysis suggests that R125W in TBC1D1 plays a role in the binding of an effector protein, but we find no evidence that the R125W variant is related to mean BMI or odds of obesity in a general population sample.

  2. Functional selectivity of allosteric interactions within G protein-coupled receptor oligomers: the dopamine D1-D3 receptor heterotetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Xavier; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Yano, Hideaki; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Kumar-Barodia, Sandeep; Naidu, Yamini T; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent; McCormick, Peter J; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor-D3 receptor (D1R-D3R) heteromer is being considered as a potential therapeutic target for neuropsychiatric disorders. Previous studies suggested that this heteromer could be involved in the ability of D3R agonists to potentiate locomotor activation induced by D1R agonists. It has also been postulated that its overexpression plays a role in L-dopa-induced dyskinesia and in drug addiction. However, little is known about its biochemical properties. By combining bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, bimolecular complementation techniques, and cell-signaling experiments in transfected cells, evidence was obtained for a tetrameric stoichiometry of the D1R-D3R heteromer, constituted by two interacting D1R and D3R homodimers coupled to Gs and Gi proteins, respectively. Coactivation of both receptors led to the canonical negative interaction at the level of adenylyl cyclase signaling, to a strong recruitment of β-arrestin-1, and to a positive cross talk of D1R and D3R agonists at the level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Furthermore, D1R or D3R antagonists counteracted β-arrestin-1 recruitment and MAPK activation induced by D3R and D1R agonists, respectively (cross-antagonism). Positive cross talk and cross-antagonism at the MAPK level were counteracted by specific synthetic peptides with amino acid sequences corresponding to D1R transmembrane (TM) domains TM5 and TM6, which also selectively modified the quaternary structure of the D1R-D3R heteromer, as demonstrated by complementation of hemiproteins of yellow fluorescence protein fused to D1R and D3R. These results demonstrate functional selectivity of allosteric modulations within the D1R-D3R heteromer, which can be involved with the reported behavioral synergism of D1R and D3R agonists. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  3. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  4. Development of X-ray diffractometers XD-D1 AI qualitative analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroshi; Uota, Atsushi; Ishida, Hidenobu

    1994-01-01

    Qualitative X-ray diffraction is a very important analytical method, however, it is also very difficult to perform and needs some special skills. Also, the analysis accuracy depends on the operators' knowledge of qualitative analysis. In order that even a beginner analyst can obtain accurate results, we have developed the 'XD-D1 AI Qualitative Analysis System'. This system can support analytical operations with the experts' knowledge made available by AI techniques. Systematizing the experts' knowledge, we applied the system to our expert shell 'GENZO-I/PRO'. This system enabled a beginner analyst to get the same results as a specialist would get. In this paper, we will describe the process of system design, system construction and an example analysis. (author)

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Mun Su [University of Florida, Gainesville; Moritz, Brelan E. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Glavina Del Rio, Tijana [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Brettin, Thomas S [ORNL; Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Patel, Milind [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ou, Mark [University of Florida, Gainesville; Harbrucker, Roberta [University of Florida, Gainesville; Ingram, Lonnie O. [University of Florida; Shanmugam, Keelnathan T. [University of Florida

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer- ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this spo- rogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attrac- tive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi- cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome se- quence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Dalin, Eileen [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chertkov, Olga [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Land, Miriam L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 and fer-ments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemi-cellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome squence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed.

  7. Benzazepines: Structure-activity relationships between D1 receptor blockade and selected pharmacological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, L.C.; Billiard, W.; Gold, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter describes the displacement of 3 H-23390 and 3 H-spiperone binding by dopamine agonists and antagonists. The authors undertook an evaluation of the ability of selected analogs of SCH 23390 to displace 3 H-SCH 23390 and 3 H-spiperone. Structure-activity relationships of SCH 23390 analogs: 7-position substituents, is shown. It is shown that, in general, benzazepines with a variety of substituents in the 7-position retain their selectivity for D 1 sites. Substituents at the 8-position and at the N-position are also discussed. The authors determine a correlation between displacement of 3 H-SCH 23390 and blockade of dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase (DSAC). These effects and inhibition of conditioned avoidance responsing (CAS) in rats was also studied. A detailed evaluation is presented of the effects of SCH 23390 and haloperidol in the Inclined Screen and CAR tests

  8. Analytic observations for the d=1+ 1 bridge site (or single-step) deposition model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.W.; Kang, H.C.

    1991-01-01

    Some exact results for a reversible version of the d=1+1 bridge site (or single-step) deposition model are presented. Exact steady-state properties are determined directly for finite systems with various mean slopes. These show explicitly how the asymptotic growth velocity and fluctuations are quenched as the slope approaches its maximum allowed value. Next, exact hierarchial equations for the dynamics are presented. For the special case of ''equilibrium growth,'' these are analyzed exactly at the pair-correlation level directly for an infinite system. This provided further insight into asymptotic scaling behavior. Finally, the above hierarchy is compared with one generated from a discrete form of the Kardar--Parisi--Zhang equations. Some differences are described

  9. Holographic two-point functions for Janus interfaces in the D1/D5 CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodaroli, Marco [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75108 Uppsala (Sweden); Estes, John [Department of Physics, Long Island University,1 University Plaza, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Korovin, Yegor [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2017-04-26

    This paper investigates scalar perturbations in the top-down supersymmetric Janus solutions dual to conformal interfaces in the D1/D5 CFT, finding analytic closed-form solutions. We obtain an explicit representation of the bulk-to-bulk propagator and extract the two-point correlation function of the dual operator with itself, whose form is not fixed by symmetry alone. We give an expression involving the sum of conformal blocks associated with the bulk-defect operator product expansion and briefly discuss finite-temperature extensions. To our knowledge, this is the first computation of a two-point function which is not completely determined by symmetry for a fully-backreacted, top-down holographic defect.

  10. Identification of the D-1 dopamine receptor subunit in rat striatum after photoaffinity labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, T; Tanaka, C [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-12-28

    When rat striatal membranes, photolabeled with (/sup 3/H)dopamine under assay conditions similar to those used for dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase, were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, several radioactively labeled bands appeared. Labeling of these bands was reduced in the presence of non-radioactive dopamine during photolysis, but was unaffected by the presence of sulpiride. Haloperidol preferentially reduced the labeling of the main band which had a molecular weight of about 57,000 rather than the other weakly labeled bands. Labeling of this 57,000 dalton protein was not apparent when rat cerebellar membranes were used and was markedly eliminated by kainic acid-induced lesions that destroyed the intrastriatal nerve cell bodies. These results indicate that this 57,000 dalton protein is the binding subunit of the D-1 dopamine receptor.

  11. Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) influences androgen receptor (AR) function in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, Paul; Jaggi, Meena; Syed, Viqar; Chauhan, Subhash C.; Hassan, Sazzad; Biswas, Helal; Balaji, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Protein kinase D1 (PKD1), founding member of PKD protein family, is down-regulated in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). We demonstrate that PKD1 and androgen receptor (AR) are present as a protein complex in PCa cells. PKD1 is associated with a transcriptional complex which contains AR and promoter sequence of the Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) gene. Ectopic expression of wild type PKD1 and the kinase dead mutant PKD1 (K628W) attenuated the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of AR in prostate cancer cells and yeast cells indicating that PKD1 can affect AR transcription activity, whereas knocking down PKD1 enhanced the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of AR. Co-expression of kinase dead mutant with AR significantly inhibited androgen-mediated cell proliferation in both LNCaP and DU145 PC cells. Our data demonstrate for the first time that PKD1 can influence AR function in PCa cells

  12. Evidence for a unique PTSD construct represented by PTSD's D1-D3 symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhai, Jon D; Biehn, Tracey L; Armour, Cherie; Klopper, Jessica J; Frueh, B Christopher; Palmieri, Patrick A

    2011-04-01

    Two models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have received the most empirical support in confirmatory factor analytic studies: King, Leskin, King, and Weathers' (1998) Emotional Numbing model of reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing and hyperarousal; and Simms, Watson, and Doebbeling's (2002) Dysphoria model of reexperiencing, avoidance, dysphoria and hyperarousal. These models only differ in placement of three PTSD symptoms: sleep problems (D1), irritability (D2), and concentration problems (D3). In the present study, we recruited 252 women victims of domestic violence and tested whether there is empirical support to separate these three PTSD symptoms into a fifth factor, while retaining the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models' remaining four factors. Confirmatory factor analytic findings demonstrated that separating the three symptoms into a separate factor significantly enhanced model fit for the Emotional Numbing and Dysphoria models. These three symptoms may represent a unique latent construct. Implications are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of a thermotolerant sporogenic lactic acid bacterium, Bacillus coagulans strain 36D1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Mun Su; Moritz, Brélan E.; Xie, Gary; Glavina del Rio, T.; Dalin, E.; Tice, H.; Bruce, D.; Goodwin, L.; Chertkov, O.; Brettin, T.; Han, C.; Detter, C.; Pitluck, S.; Land, Miriam L.; Patel, Milind; Ou, Mark; Harbrucker, Roberta; Ingram, Lonnie O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus coagulans is a ubiquitous soil bacterium that grows at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 and ferments various sugars that constitute plant biomass to L (+)-lactic acid. The ability of this sporogenic lactic acid bacterium to grow at 50-55 °C and pH 5.0 makes this organism an attractive microbial biocatalyst for production of optically pure lactic acid at industrial scale not only from glucose derived from cellulose but also from xylose, a major constituent of hemicellulose. This bacterium is also considered as a potential probiotic. Complete genome sequence of a representative strain, B. coagulans strain 36D1, is presented and discussed. PMID:22675583

  14. Protein kinase D1 signaling in angiogenic gene expression and VEGF-mediated angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin eRen MD, Phd, FAHA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein kinase D 1 (PKD-1 is a signaling kinase important in fundamental cell functions including migration, proliferation and differentiation. PKD-1 is also a key regulator of gene expression and angiogenesis that is essential for cardiovascular development and tumor progression. Further understanding molecular aspects of PKD-1 signaling in the regulation of angiogenesis may have translational implications in obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The author will summarize and provide the insights into molecular mechanisms by which PKD-1 regulates transcriptional expression of angiogenic genes, focusing on the transcriptional regulation of CD36 by PKD-1-FoxO1 signaling axis along with the potential implications of this axis in arterial differentiation and morphogenesis. He will also discuss a new concept of dynamic balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic signaling in determining angiogenic switch, and stress how PKD-1 signaling regulates VEGF signaling-mediated angiogenesis.

  15. KEhD-1 Debye-Sherrar camera with a coordinate proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageev, O.I.; Glazova, L.P.; Goganov, D.A.; Rejzis, B.M.; Syrkin, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    An arrangement of the KEhD-1 Debye-Sherrar camera, in which the advantages of a proportional counter are combined with the wide range of simultaneous image recording is described. The camera consists of an X-ray tube unit with the URS-0.1 source, a linear coordinate detector with resistive-capacity coding, a signal transducer and the MK-1 multichannel system for data acquisition and processing based on the ''Uskra-1256'' computer. The counting rate of X-ray pulses is > 5x10 4 s -1 , energy resolution for the CuKsub(α) line constitutes 20%, spatial resolution equals 150 μm, detection efficiency constitutes not less than 64%. The range of the detector displacement varies from -30 deg to +130 deg. The information obtained by means of the camera may be output to a display, a plotter, a numeric printer or a magnetic tape

  16. Two- and three-point functions in the D=1 matrix model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Menahem, S.

    1991-01-01

    The critical behavior of the genus-zero two-point function in the D=1 matrix model is carefully analyzed for arbitrary embedding-space momentum. Kostov's result is recovered for momenta below a certain value P 0 (which is 1/√α' in the continuum language), with a non-universal form factor which is expressed simply in terms of the critical fermion trajectory. For momenta above P 0 , the Kostov scaling term is found to be subdominant. We then extend the large-N WKB treatment to calculate the genus-zero three-point function, and elucidate its critical behavior when all momenta are below P 0 . The resulting universal scaling behavior, as well as the non-universal form factor for the three-point function, are related to the two-point functions of the individual external momenta, through the factorization familiar from continuum conformal field theories. (orig.)

  17. Smooth non-extremal D1-D5-P solutions as charged gravitational instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, Bidisha; Rocha, Jorge V.; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-01-01

    We present an alternative and more direct construction of the non-super-symmetric D1-D5-P supergravity solutions found by Jejjala, Madden, Ross and Titchener. We show that these solutions — with all three charges and both rotations turned on — can be viewed as a charged version of the Myers-Perry instanton. We present an inverse scattering construction of the Myers-Perry instanton metric in Euclidean five-dimensional gravity. The angular momentum bounds in this construction turn out to be precisely the ones necessary for the smooth microstate geometries. We add charges on the Myers-Perry instanton using appropriate SO(4,4) hidden symmetry transformations. The full construction can be viewed as an extension and simplification of a previous work by Katsimpouri, Kleinschmidt and Virmani.

  18. Generation of narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs at a rubidium D1 line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Long; Li Shujing; Yuan Haoxiang; Wang Hai

    2016-01-01

    Using the process of cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC), we generate a narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pair resonant on the rubidium (Rb) D1 line (795 nm). The degenerate single-mode photon pair is selected by multiple temperature controlled etalons. The linewidth of generated polarization-entangled photon pairs is 15 MHz which matches the typical atomic memory bandwidth. The measured Bell parameter for the polarization-entangled photons S = 2.73 ± 0.04 which violates the Bell-CHSH inequality by ∼18 standard deviations. The presented entangled photon pair source could be utilized in quantum communication and quantum computing based on quantum memories in atomic ensemble. (author)

  19. Production of the excited charm mesons D1 and D*2 at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbytskyi, Andrii

    2013-02-01

    The production of the excited charm mesons D 1 , D * 2 and D + s1 in ep collisions has been measured with the ZEUS detector at Hera. The data sample taken by the ZEUS detector in the years 2003-2007, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 373 pb -1 has been used. The masses of the neutral, charged and strange states, the widths of the neutral states, the helicity parameters of D 0 1 and D + s1 were determined and compared with other measurements and with theoretical expectations. The measured helicity parameters of the D 0 1 and D + s1 allows for some mixing of S- and D-waves in their decays to D *± π -+ and D *± K 0 respectively. The measured value of the D 0 1 helicity parameter is also consistent with a pure D-wave decay. Ratios of branching fractions of the two decay modes of the D *0 2 , D *± 2 and D + s1 states were measured and compared with previous measurements. The fractions of charm quarks hadronising into D 1 , D * 2 and D + s1 were measured and are consistent with those obtained in e + e - annihilations. The Grid computing technology has a high importance for modern High Energy Physics. This technology has been successfully used in Zeus experiment for the MC simulations and data analysis. The dedicated infrastructure has been maintained by the author since 2010. In addition to continuous support, the author has upgraded and improved the performance of the Grid MC simulations and contributed to the Zeus data preservation project.

  20. DNA repair and cyclin D1 polymorphisms and styrene-induced genotoxicity and immunotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuricova, M.; Naccarati, A.; Kumar, R.; Koskinen, M.; Sanyal, S.; Dusinska, M.; Tulinska, J.; Vodickova, L.; Liskova, A.; Jahnova, E.; Fuortes, L.; Haufroid, V.; Hemminki, K.; Vodicka, P.

    2005-01-01

    1-SO-adenine DNA adducts, DNA single-strand breaks (SBs), chromosomal aberrations (CAs), mutant frequency (MF) at the HPRT gene, and immune parameters (hematological and of humoral immunity) were studied in styrene-exposed human subjects and controls. Results were correlated with genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes (XPD, exon 23, XPG, exon 15, XPC, exon 15, XRCC1, exon 10, XRCC3, exon 7) and cell cycle gene cyclin D1. Results for biomarkers of genotoxicity after stratification for the different DNA repair genetic polymorphisms showed that the polymorphism in exon 23 of the XPD gene modulates levels of chromosomal and DNA damage, HPRT MF, and moderately affects DNA adduct levels. The highest levels of biomarkers were associated with the wild-type homozygous AA genotype. The exposed individuals with the wild-type GG genotype for XRCC1 gene exhibited the lowest CA frequencies, compared to those with an A allele (P < 0.05). Cyclin D1 polymorphism seems to modulate the number of leukocytes and lymphocytes in the analyzed subjects. The number of eosinophiles was positively associated with XPD variant C allele and negatively with XRCC1 variant A allele (P < 0.05) and XPC variant C allele (P < 0.05). Immunoglobulin IgA was positively associated with an XRCC3 variant T allele (P < 0.01) and negatively with XPC variant C allele (P < 0.05). Both C3- and C4-complement components were lower in individuals with XRCC3 CT (P < 0.05) and TT genotypes (P < 0.01). Adhesion molecules sL-selectin and sICAM-1 were associated with XPC genotype (P < 0.05). Individual susceptibility may be reflected in genotoxic and immunotoxic responses to environmental and occupational exposures to xenobiotics

  1. Hepatitis B virus subgenotypes D1 and D3 are prevalent in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarty Runu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the hepatitis B genotyping is important for assessing its clinical implications and geographical distribution, the sub-genotypes have been found useful for determination of specific genomic markers related to hepatocarcinogenesis. In Pakistan, there is no reported data on molecular evolutionary analysis of HBV. A study was, therefore, much needed to evaluate the spectra of mutations present in the strains prevalent here. Findings to confirm specificity of PCR typing, phylogenetic analysis of the pre-S1 region and the divergence was studied through 13 sequences of 362 bp (accession number EF432765 – EF432777. A total of 315 serum samples, selected from HBsAg positive patients representing the major ethnic groups, residing in Karachi, Sindh were tested for genotyping. Genotype D (219/315 was found to be the most prevalent (70% amongst our patients. The rest of the genotypes A and a mixture of A and D (AD were distributed as 20%, and 10% respectively. Phylogenetic tree demonstrated clustering of 11 samples with subgenotype D1 sequences and the remaining two strains on a branch within D3 samples. All samples intermixed with strains from other countries and were found to be closely related to Indian, Iranian and Egyptian HBV strains with 98.7 – 99.0% homology. Conclusion This study confirms the predominance of genotype D in southeastern Asia and presence of subgenotypes DI and D3 in the Pakistani infected patients. More studies are required to investigate the reason for fewer inclusions of D3 compared to the D1 in Pakistani HBV strains.

  2. The string difference equation of the D = 1 matrix model and W1+∞ symmetry of the KP hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awada, M.A.; Sin, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors give a connection between the D = 1 matrix model and the generalized KP hierarchy. First, the authors find a difference equation satisfied by F, the Legendre transformation of the free energy of the D = 1 matrix model on a circle of radius R. Then the authors show that it is a special case of the difference equation of the generalized KP hierarchy with its zero mode identified with the scaling variable of the D = 1 string theory. The authors propose that the massive D = 1 matrix model is described by the generalized KP hierarchy, which implies the manifest integrability of D = 1 string theory. The authors also show that the (generalized) KP hierarchy has an underlying W 1 + ∞ symmetry. By reduction, we prove that the generalized KdV hierarchy has a subalgebra of the above symmetry which again forms a W 1+ ∞ . The authors argue that there are no W constraints in D = 1 string theory, which is in contrast to D 1 + ∞ constraints

  3. Hyperactivity induced by stimulation of separate dopamine D-1 and D-2 receptors in rats with bilateral 6-OHDA lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnt, J

    1985-08-26

    The effects of DA agonists and antagonists with different dopamine (DA) D-1 and D-2 receptor selectivity have been studied in rats with bilateral 6-OHDA lesions. The D-1 agonist SK & F 38393, the D-2 agonist pergolide and the mixed agonist apomorphine all induced marked hyperactivity in lesioned rats in doses which were without stimulant effect in sham-operated animals. The hyperactivity induced by SK & F 38393 was blocked by the DA D-1 antagonist SCH 23390, but unaffected by the D-2 antagonists spiroperidol or clebopride. Pergolide-induced hyperactivity showed the reverse selectivity. The mixed D-1/D-2 antagonists, cis(Z)-flupentixol and cis(Z)-clopenthixol, however blocked the effect of both agonists. Apomorphine-induced hyperactivity was neither blocked by selective D-1 nor D-2 antagonists, but was dose-dependently inhibited by cis(Z)-flupentixol and cis(Z)-clopenthixol. Potent blockade was also obtained by combined treatment with SCH 23390 and spiroperidol, indicating the need of blocking both D-1 and D-2 receptors simultaneously. The results indicate that D-1 and D-2 receptor function can be independently manipulated in denervated rats and they confirm similar results obtained in rats with unilateral 6-OHDA lesions using circling behaviour.

  4. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 reduces pneumococcal lung infection and inflammation in a viral and bacterial coinfection pneumonia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Anthony, Desiree; Yatmaz, Selcuk; Wijburg, Odilia; Satzke, Catherine; Levy, Bruce; Vlahos, Ross; Bozinovski, Steven

    2017-09-15

    Formyl peptide receptor 2/lipoxin A 4 (LXA 4 ) receptor (Fpr2/ALX) co-ordinates the transition from inflammation to resolution during acute infection by binding to distinct ligands including serum amyloid A (SAA) and Resolvin D1 (RvD1). Here, we evaluated the proresolving actions of aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) in an acute coinfection pneumonia model. Coinfection with Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza A virus (IAV) markedly increased pneumococcal lung load and neutrophilic inflammation during the resolution phase. Fpr2/ALX transcript levels were increased in the lungs of coinfected mice, and immunohistochemistry identified prominent Fpr2/ALX immunoreactivity in bronchial epithelial cells and macrophages. Levels of circulating and lung SAA were also highly increased in coinfected mice. Therapeutic treatment with exogenous AT-RvD1 during the acute phase of infection (day 4-6 post-pneumococcal inoculation) significantly reduced the pneumococcal load. AT-RvD1 also significantly reduced neutrophil elastase (NE) activity and restored total antimicrobial activity in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF) of coinfected mice. Pneumonia severity, as measured by quantitating parenchymal inflammation or alveolitis was significantly reduced with AT-RvD1 treatment, which also reduced the number of infiltrating lung neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages as assessed by flow cytometry. The reduction in distal lung inflammation in AT-RvD1-treated mice was not associated with a significant reduction in inflammatory and chemokine mediators. In summary, we demonstrate that in the coinfection setting, SAA levels were persistently increased and exogenous AT-RvD1 facilitated more rapid clearance of pneumococci in the lungs, while concurrently reducing the severity of pneumonia by limiting excessive leukocyte chemotaxis from the infected bronchioles to distal areas of the lungs. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Dopamine D1 sensitivity in the prefrontal cortex predicts general cognitive abilities and is modulated by working memory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wass, Christopher; Pizzo, Alessandro; Sauce, Bruno; Kawasumi, Yushi; Sturzoiu, Tudor; Ree, Fred; Otto, Tim; Matzel, Louis D

    2013-10-15

    A common source of variance (i.e., "general intelligence") underlies an individual's performance across diverse tests of cognitive ability, and evidence indicates that the processing efficacy of working memory may serve as one such source of common variance. One component of working memory, selective attention, has been reported to co-vary with general intelligence, and dopamine D1 signaling in prefrontal cortex can modulate attentional abilities. Based on their aggregate performance across five diverse tests of learning, here we characterized the general cognitive ability (GCA) of CD-1 outbred mice. In response to a D1 agonist (SKF82958, 1 mg/kg), we then assessed the relationship between GCA and activation of D1 receptor (D1R)-containing neurons in the prelimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex, the agranular insular cortex, and the dorsomedial striatum. Increased activation of D1R-containing neurons in the prelimbic cortex (but not the agranular insular cortex or dorsomedial striatum) was observed in animals of high GCA relative to those of low GCA (quantified by c-Fos activation in response to the D1 agonist). However, a Western blot analysis revealed no differences in the density of D1Rs in the prelimbic cortex between animals of high and low GCA. Last, it was observed that working memory training promoted an increase in animals' GCA and enhanced D1R-mediated neuronal activation in the prelimbic cortex. These results suggest that the sensitivity (but not density) of D1Rs in the prelimbic cortex may both regulate GCA and be a target for working memory training.

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement Mission: Architecture and Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundas, David

    2005-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses some of the key trades that have been completed, including the selection of the Core Observatory s orbit, orbit maintenance trades, and design issues related to meeting orbital debris requirements.

  7. In Utero Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter Causes Hypertension Due to Impaired Renal Dopamine D1 Receptor in Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengmeng Ye

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Adverse environment in utero can modulate adult phenotypes including blood pressure. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 exposure in utero causes hypertension in the offspring, but the exact mechanisms are not clear. Renal dopamine D1 receptor (D1R, regulated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4, plays an important role in the regulation of renal sodium transport and blood pressure. In this present study, we determined if renal D1R dysfunction is involved in PM2.5–induced hypertension in the offspring. Methods: Pregnant Sprague–Dawley rats were given an oropharyngeal drip of PM2.5 (1.0 mg/kg at gestation day 8, 10, and 12. The blood pressure, 24-hour sodium excretion, and urine volume were measured in the offspring. The expression levels of GRK4 and D1R were determined by immunoblotting. The phosphorylation of D1R was investigated using immunoprecipitation. Plasma malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase levels were also measured in the offspring. Results: As compared with saline-treated dams, offspring of PM2.5-treated dams had increased blood pressure, impaired sodium excretion, and reduced D1R-mediated natriuresis and diuresis, accompanied by decreased renal D1R expression and GRK4 expression. The impaired renal D1R function and increased GRK4 expression could be caused by increased reactive oxidative stress (ROS induced by PM2.5 exposure. Administration of tempol, a redox-cycling nitroxide, for 4 weeks in the offspring of PM2.5-treated dam normalized the decreased renal D1R expression and increased renal D1R phosphorylation and GRK4 expression. Furthermore, tempol normalized the increased renal expression of c-Myc, a transcription factor that regulates GRK4 expression. Conclusions: In utero exposure to PM2.5 increases ROS and GRK4 expression, impairs D1R-mediated sodium excretion, and increases blood pressure in the offspring. These studies suggest that normalization of D1R function may be a target for the

  8. Resumes of the Bird mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, E.; Borwald, W.; Briess, K.; Kayal, H.; Schneller, M.; Wuensten, Herbert

    2004-11-01

    The DLR micro satellite BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra Red Detection) was piggy- back launched with the Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-C3 into a 570 km circular sun-synchronous orbit on 22 October 2001. The BIRD mission, fully funded by the DLR, answers topical technological and scientific questions related to the operation of a compact infra- red push-broom sensor system on board of a micro satellite and demonstrates new spacecraft bus technologies. BIRD mission control is conducted by DLR / GSOC in Oberpfaffenhofen. Commanding, data reception and data processing is performed via ground stations in Weilheim and Neustrelitz (Germany). The BIRD mission is a demonstrator for small satellite projects dedicated to the hazard detection and monitoring. In the year 2003 BIRD has been used in the ESA project FUEGOSAT to demonstrate the utilisation of innovative space technologies for fire risk management.

  9. 308 Building deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 308 Building (Fuels Development Laboratory) Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process. The functions and requirements to successfully accomplish this mission, the selected alternatives and products will later be defined using the SE process

  10. 309 Building deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the 309 Building (Plutonium Fuels Utilization Program) Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process. The functions and requirements to successfully accomplish this mission, the selected alternatives and products will later be defined using the SE process

  11. MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.

    2008-08-01

    MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is <0,02° for the axis normal to the boresight and 0,04° for the boresight. This paper deals with MIOSAT mission scenario and definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission

  12. The inner magnetosphere imager mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.

    1993-01-01

    After 30 years of in situ measurements of the Earth's magnetosphere, scientists have assembled an incomplete picture of its global composition and dynamics. Imaging the magnetosphere from space will enable scientists to better understand the global shape of the inner magnetosphere, its components and processes. The proposed inner magnetosphere imager (IMI) mission will obtain the first simultaneous images of the component regions of the inner magnetosphere and will enable scientists to relate these global images to internal and external influences as well as local observations. To obtain simultaneous images of component regions of the inner magnetosphere, measurements will comprise: the ring current and inner plasma sheet using energetic neutral atoms; the plasmasphere using extreme ultraviolet; the electron and proton auroras using far ultraviolet (FUV) and x rays; and the geocorona using FUV. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is performing a concept definition study of the proposed mission. NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications has placed the IMI third in its queue of intermediate-class missions for launch in the 1990's. An instrument complement of approximately seven imagers will fly in an elliptical Earth orbit with a seven Earth Radii (R E ) altitude apogee and approximately 4,800-kin altitude perigee. Several spacecraft concepts were examined for the mission. The first concept utilizes a spinning spacecraft with a despun platform. The second concept splits the instruments onto a spin-stabilized spacecraft and a complementary three-axis stabilized spacecraft. Launch options being assessed for the spacecraft range from a Delta 11 for the single and dual spacecraft concepts to dual Taurus launches for the two smaller spacecraft. This paper will address the mission objectives, the spacecraft design considerations, the results of the MSFC concept definition study, and future mission plans

  13. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  14. Spacelab 3 flight experiment No. 3AFT23: Autogenic-feedback training as a preventive method for space adaptation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Sharp, Joseph C.

    1988-01-01

    Space adaptation syndrome is a motion sickness-like disorder which affects up to 50 percent of all people exposed to microgravity in space. This experiment tested a physiological conditioning procedure (Autogenic-Feedback Training, AFT) as an alternative to pharmacological management. Four astronauts participated as subjects in this experiment. Crewmembers A and B served as treatment subjects. Both received preflight training for control of heart rate, respiration rate, peripheral blood volume, and skin conductance. Crewmembers C and D served as controls (i.e., did not receive training). Crewmember A showed reliable control of his own physiological responses, and a significant increase in motion sickness tolerance after training. Crewmember B, however, demonstrated much less control and only a moderate increase in motion sickness tolerance was observed after training. The inflight symptom reports and physiological data recordings revealed that Crewmember A did not experience any severe symptom episodes during the mission, while Crewmember B reported one severe symptom episode. Both control group subjects, C and D (who took antimotion sickness medication), reported multiple symptom episodes on mission day 0. Both inflight data and crew reports indicate that AFT may be an effective countermeasure. Additional data must be obtained inflight (a total of eight treatment and eight control subjects) before final evaluation of this treatment can be made.

  15. Dopamine D1 and D3 receptor polypharmacology as a potential treatment approach for substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galaj, Ewa; Ewing, Scott; Ranaldi, Robert

    2018-06-01

    In the search for efficacious pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine addiction much attention has been given to agents targeting dopamine D1 or D3 receptors because of the involvement of these receptors in drug-related behaviors. D1-like and D3 receptor partial agonists and antagonists have been shown to reduce drug reward, reinstatement of drug seeking and conditioned place preference in rodents and non-human primates. However, translation of these encouraging results to clinical settings has been limited due to a number of factors including toxicity, poor pharmacokinetic properties and extrapyramidal and sedative side effects. This review highlights the role of D1 and D3 receptors in drug reward and seeking, the discovery of D1-D3 heteromers and their potential as targets in the treatment of addiction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Final repository for spent nuclear fuel. Underground design Simpevarp, Layout D1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-15

    This report is a compilation of the results of the underground design work carried out in design phase D1 of the Repository Design Project within the Deep Repository Project for the Simpevarp site. Similar reports are also being produced for the Laxemar and Forsmark sites. The design phase coincides with the initial site investigation phase. The main purpose of phase D1 is to answer the question 'Can a final repository be accommodated within the designated site', but also to test the design methodology and provide feedback to the modelling project. Design was carried out in accordance with the methodology described in UDP (Underground Design Premises), SKB R-04-60, and was based on preliminary data from various disciplines in the site modelling project. The preliminary input data used were then cross-checked against data in the final Site Descriptive Model SDM v 1.2 and significant differences were integrated in the design work. The design results from each design topic were presented by the designer at presentation meetings for SKB's design management and the reviewers engaged by SKB for the specific topic. After the presentation meeting the designer wrote up the work reports for the topic in question. The work reports were then reviewed by SKB's review team. The results of the review were compiled in a statement that was submitted to the designer to be dealt with. In the statement the designer documented which comments were dealt with and how. This report is a compilation of the entire design phase D1 for Simpevarp. The 3D layout with coordinate lists for deposition holes and tunnels that was drawn to illustrate a possible layout was used in the Preliminary safety evaluation of the Simpevarp subarea and the hydro modelling of the Open Repository, both activities within the Deep Repository Project. According to current plans for the Swedish nuclear programme, the minimum required number of canister positions in the repository is estimated to be

  17. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 has a limited role in cell cycle regulation of cyclin D1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke; Guo, Yang; Stacey, William C; Harwalkar, Jyoti; Fretthold, Jonathan; Hitomi, Masahiro; Stacey, Dennis W

    2006-08-30

    The expression level of cyclin D1 plays a vital role in the control of proliferation. This protein is reported to be degraded following phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) on Thr-286. We recently showed that phosphorylation of Thr-286 is responsible for a decline in cyclin D1 levels during S phase, an event required for efficient DNA synthesis. These studies were undertaken to test the possibility that phosphorylation by GSK3 is responsible for the S phase specific decline in cyclin D1 levels, and that this event is regulated by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway which controls GSK3. We found, however, that neither PI3K, AKT, GSK3, nor proliferative signaling activity in general is responsible for the S phase decline in cyclin D1 levels. In fact, the activity of these signaling kinases does not vary through the cell cycle of proliferating cells. Moreover, we found that GSK3 activity has little influence over cyclin D1 expression levels during any cell cycle phase. Inhibition of GSK3 activity by siRNA, LiCl, or other chemical inhibitors failed to influence cyclin D1 phosphorylation on Thr-286, even though LiCl efficiently blocked phosphorylation of beta-catenin, a known substrate of GSK3. Likewise, the expression of a constitutively active GSK3 mutant protein failed to influence cyclin D1 phosphorylation or total protein expression level. Because we were unable to identify any proliferative signaling molecule or pathway which is regulated through the cell cycle, or which is able to influence cyclin D1 levels, we conclude that the suppression of cyclin D1 levels during S phase is regulated by cell cycle position rather than signaling activity. We propose that this mechanism guarantees the decline in cyclin D1 levels during each S phase; and that in so doing it reduces the likelihood that simple over expression of cyclin D1 can lead to uncontrolled cell growth.

  18. Striatal D1- and D2-type dopamine receptors are linked to motor response inhibition in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Chelsea L; Ishibashi, Kenji; Mandelkern, Mark A; Brown, Amira K; Ghahremani, Dara G; Sabb, Fred; Bilder, Robert; Cannon, Tyrone; Borg, Jacqueline; London, Edythe D

    2015-04-15

    Motor response inhibition is mediated by neural circuits involving dopaminergic transmission; however, the relative contributions of dopaminergic signaling via D1- and D2-type receptors are unclear. Although evidence supports dissociable contributions of D1- and D2-type receptors to response inhibition in rats and associations of D2-type receptors to response inhibition in humans, the relationship between D1-type receptors and response inhibition has not been evaluated in humans. Here, we tested whether individual differences in striatal D1- and D2-type receptors are related to response inhibition in human subjects, possibly in opposing ways. Thirty-one volunteers participated. Response inhibition was indexed by stop-signal reaction time on the stop-signal task and commission errors on the continuous performance task, and tested for association with striatal D1- and D2-type receptor availability [binding potential referred to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND)], measured using positron emission tomography with [(11)C]NNC-112 and [(18)F]fallypride, respectively. Stop-signal reaction time was negatively correlated with D1- and D2-type BPND in whole striatum, with significant relationships involving the dorsal striatum, but not the ventral striatum, and no significant correlations involving the continuous performance task. The results indicate that dopamine D1- and D2-type receptors are associated with response inhibition, and identify the dorsal striatum as an important locus of dopaminergic control in stopping. Moreover, the similar contribution of both receptor subtypes suggests the importance of a relative balance between phasic and tonic dopaminergic activity subserved by D1- and D2-type receptors, respectively, in support of response inhibition. The results also suggest that the stop-signal task and the continuous performance task use different neurochemical mechanisms subserving motor response inhibition. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355990-08$15.00/0.

  19. In vivo imaging identifies temporal signature of D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons in cocaine reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calipari, Erin S; Bagot, Rosemary C; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Davidson, Thomas J; Yorgason, Jordan T; Peña, Catherine J; Walker, Deena M; Pirpinias, Stephen T; Guise, Kevin G; Ramakrishnan, Charu; Deisseroth, Karl; Nestler, Eric J

    2016-03-08

    The reinforcing and rewarding properties of cocaine are attributed to its ability to increase dopaminergic transmission in nucleus accumbens (NAc). This action reinforces drug taking and seeking and leads to potent and long-lasting associations between the rewarding effects of the drug and the cues associated with its availability. The inability to extinguish these associations is a key factor contributing to relapse. Dopamine produces these effects by controlling the activity of two subpopulations of NAc medium spiny neurons (MSNs) that are defined by their predominant expression of either dopamine D1 or D2 receptors. Previous work has demonstrated that optogenetically stimulating D1 MSNs promotes reward, whereas stimulating D2 MSNs produces aversion. However, we still lack a clear understanding of how the endogenous activity of these cell types is affected by cocaine and encodes information that drives drug-associated behaviors. Using fiber photometry calcium imaging we define D1 MSNs as the specific population of cells in NAc that encodes information about drug associations and elucidate the temporal profile with which D1 activity is increased to drive drug seeking in response to contextual cues. Chronic cocaine exposure dysregulates these D1 signals to both prevent extinction and facilitate reinstatement of drug seeking to drive relapse. Directly manipulating these D1 signals using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs prevents contextual associations. Together, these data elucidate the responses of D1- and D2-type MSNs in NAc to acute cocaine and during the formation of context-reward associations and define how prior cocaine exposure selectively dysregulates D1 signaling to drive relapse.

  20. The role and relevance of phospholipase D1 during growth and dimorphism of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hube, B; Hess, D; Baker, C A; Schaller, M; Schäfer, W; Dolan, J W

    2001-04-01

    The phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D1 (PLD1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is involved in vesicle transport and is essential for sporulation. The gene encoding the homologous phospholipase D1 from Candida albicans (PLD1) was used to study the role of PLD1 in this pathogenic fungus. In vitro and in vivo expression studies using Northern blots and reverse transcriptase-PCR showed low PLD1 mRNA levels in defined media supporting yeast growth and during experimental infection, while enhanced levels of PLD1 transcripts were detected during the yeast to hyphal transition. To study the relevance of PLD1 during yeast and hyphal growth, an essential part of the gene was deleted in both alleles of two isogenic strains. In vitro PLD1 activity assays showed that pld1 mutants produced no detectable levels of phosphatidic acid, the hydrolytic product of PLD1 activity, and strongly reduced levels of diacylglycerol, the product of lipid phosphate phosphohydrolase, suggesting no or a negligible background PLD1 activity in the pld1 mutants. The pld1 mutants showed no growth differences compared to the parental wild-type in liquid complex and minimal media, independent of the growth temperature. In addition, growth rates of pld1 mutants in media with protein as the sole source of nitrogen were similar to growth rates of the wild-type, indicating that secretion of proteinases was not reduced. Chlamydospore formation was normal in pld1 mutants. When germ tube formation was induced in liquid media, pld1 mutants showed similar rates of yeast to hyphal transition compared to the wild-type. However, no hyphae formation was observed on solid Spider medium, and cell growth on cornmeal/Tween 80 medium indicated aberrant morphogenesis. In addition, pld1 mutants growing on solid media had an attenuated ability to invade the agar. In a model of oral candidosis, pld1 mutants showed no attenuation of virulence. In contrast, the mutant was less virulent in two different mouse models

  1. Deformed D1D5 CFT: A Holographic Probe of Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Ian Theodore

    One of the big unsolved questions in gravity research is the black hole information problem. This problem, which pits the unitarity of quantum field theory against smooth classical spacetime, must have a solution in a complete theory of quantum gravity. This thesis will explore aspects of one approach to this problem in the context of string theory. The approach imagines black hole microstates as string theoretic objects. We look at a prototype system, the D1D5 system, and exploit holography to examine the dual conformal field theory (CFT). Specifically, we examine the CFT deformed from the free orbifold point, dual to a very stringy bulk, using a twisted operator that will take us towards the point with the supergravity description. The effects of twisted operators in the CFT are key to understanding physical processes such as emission and thermalization in black hole microstates. We will propose a component twist method for examining the effects of bare twist operators for higher twists in the continuum limit. Our method builds higher twists from simple 2-cycle twists, whose effects are known. We will find that, in this limit, the coefficients describing general states will follow a conjectured general functional form. We then explore the deformed CFT directly by examining operator mixing for untwisted operators. We will exploit the operator product expansion on the covering space, where twist operators of the orbifold are resolved. We use this to examine the mixing of a general supergravity operator, specifically examine the dilaton, and finish with the mixing of a non-supersymmetric candidate operator. We conjecture that this method could be extended to include twisted operators. We will also examine the mixing of the non-supersymmetric candidate operator by examining three point functions. To automate the lengthy and repetitive computations, we wrote a Mathematica package to compute correlation functions and OPEs in the D1D5 CFT. We will explain some of the

  2. Clinicopathological significance of p16, cyclin D1, Rb and MIB-1 levels in skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-qi Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the expression of p16, cyclin D1, retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb and MIB-1 in skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma tissues, and to determine the clinicopathological significance of the above indexes in these diseases. Methods: A total of 100 skull base chordoma, 30 chondrosarcoma, and 20 normal cartilage tissue samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The expression levels of p16, cyclinD1, Rb and MIB-1 proteins were assessed for potential correlation with the clinicopathological features. Results: As compared to normal cartilage specimen (control, there was decreased expression of p16, and increased expression of cyclin D1, Rb and MIB-1 proteins, in both skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma specimens. MIB-1 LI levels were significantly increased in skull base chordoma specimens with negative expression of p16, and positive expression of cyclin D1 and Rb (P  0.05. However, p16 and MIB-1 levels correlated with the intradural invasion, and expression of p16, Rb and MIB-1 correlated with the number of tumor foci (P < 0.05. Further, the expression of p16 and MIB-1 appeared to correlate with the prognosis of patients with skull base chordoma. Conclusions: The abnormal expression of p16, cyclin D1 and Rb proteins might be associated with the tumorigenesis of skull base chordoma and chondrosarcoma. Keywords: p16, Cyclin D1, Rb, MIB-1, Skull base chordoma, Skull base chondrosarcoma

  3. Protocatechualdehyde possesses anti-cancer activity through downregulating cyclin D1 and HDAC2 in human colorectal cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jin Boo [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Lee, Seong-Ho, E-mail: slee2000@umd.edu [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA enhanced transcriptional downregulation of cyclin D1 gene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA suppressed HDAC2 expression and activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These findings suggest that anti-cancer activity of PCA may be mediated by reducing HDAC2-derived cyclin D1 expression. -- Abstract: Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in barley, green cavendish bananas, and grapevine leaves. Although a few studies reported growth-inhibitory activity of PCA in breast and leukemia cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Thus, we performed in vitro study to investigate if treatment of PCA affects cell proliferation and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells and define potential mechanisms by which PCA mediates growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells. Exposure of PCA to human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 and SW480 cells) suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. PCA decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level and suppressed luciferase activity of cyclin D1 promoter, indicating transcriptional downregulation of cyclin D1 gene by PCA. We also observed that PCA treatment attenuated enzyme activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and reduced expression of HDAC2, but not HDAC1. These findings suggest that cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by PCA may be a result of HDAC2-mediated cyclin D1 suppression.

  4. CC2D1A Regulates Human Intellectual and Social Function as well as NF-κB Signaling Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chiara Manzini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD and intellectual disability (ID are often comorbid, but the extent to which they share common genetic causes remains controversial. Here, we present two autosomal-recessive “founder” mutations in the CC2D1A gene causing fully penetrant cognitive phenotypes, including mild-to-severe ID, ASD, as well as seizures, suggesting shared developmental mechanisms. CC2D1A regulates multiple intracellular signaling pathways, and we found its strongest effect to be on the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB. Cc2d1a gain and loss of function both increase activation of NF-κB, revealing a critical role of Cc2d1a in homeostatic control of intracellular signaling. Cc2d1a knockdown in neurons reduces dendritic complexity and increases NF-κB activity, and the effects of Cc2d1a depletion can be rescued by inhibiting NF-κB activity. Homeostatic regulation of neuronal signaling pathways provides a mechanism whereby common founder mutations could manifest diverse symptoms in different patients.

  5. Activity of D1/2 Receptor Expressing Neurons in the Nucleus Accumbens Regulates Running, Locomotion, and Food Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong eZhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While weight gain is clearly promoted by excessive energy intake and reduced expenditure, the underlying neural mechanisms of energy balance remain unclear. The NAc is one brain region that has received attention for its role in the regulation of energy balance; its D1 and D2 receptor containing neurons have distinct functions in regulating reward behavior and require further examination. The goal of the present study is to investigate how activation and inhibition of D1 and D2 neurons in the NAc influences behaviors related to energy intake and expenditure. Specific manipulation of D1 vs D2 neurons was done in both low expenditure and high expenditure (wheel running conditions to assess behavioral effects in these different states. Direct control of neural activity was achieved using a DREADD (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs strategy. Activation of NAc D1 neurons increased food intake, wheel running and locomotor activity. In contrast, activation of D2 neurons in the NAc reduced running and locomotion while D2 neuron inhibition had opposite effects. These results highlight the importance of considering both intake and expenditure in the analysis of D1 and D2 neuronal manipulations. Moreover, the behavioral outcomes from D1 NAc neuronal manipulations depend upon the activity state of the animals (wheel running vs non-running. The data support and complement the hypothesis of specific NAc dopamine pathways facilitating energy expenditure and suggest a potential strategy for human weight control.

  6. Permeabilization of fungal hyphae by the plant defensin NaD1 occurs through a cell wall-dependent process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weerden, Nicole L; Hancock, Robert E W; Anderson, Marilyn A

    2010-11-26

    The antifungal activity of the plant defensin NaD1 involves specific interaction with the fungal cell wall, followed by permeabilization of the plasma membrane and entry of NaD1 into the cytoplasm. Prior to this study, the role of membrane permeabilization in the activity of NaD1, as well as the relevance of cell wall binding, had not been investigated. To address this, the permeabilization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum hyphae by NaD1 was investigated and compared with that by other antimicrobial peptides, including the cecropin-melittin hybrid peptide CP-29, the bovine peptide BMAP-28, and the human peptide LL-37, which are believed to act largely through membrane disruption. NaD1 appeared to permeabilize cells via a novel mechanism that required the presence of the fungal cell wall. NaD1 and Bac2A, a linear variant of the bovine peptide bactenecin, were able to enter the cytoplasm of treated hyphae, indicating that cell death is accelerated by interaction with intracellular targets.

  7. Development of uncoupling between D1- and D2-mediated motor behavior in rats depleted of dopamine as neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, E M; Bruno, J P

    1994-09-01

    The D1- and D2-mediation of stimulated motor behavior was studied in pups (Days 10-11) and weanlings (Days 20-21) that had been depleted of dopamine (DA) on postnatal Day 3. Administration of the D1-like agonist SKF 38393 (30.0 mg/kg) or the D2-like agonist quinpirole (3.0 mg/kg) increased the incidence of sniffing and locomotion in intact and DA-depleted animals tested at either age. However, the ability of selective DA antagonists to reduce these stimulated responses interacted with both the depletion and the age at the time of testing. When tested as pups, both the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 (0.2 or 0.4 mg/kg) and the D2 antagonist clebopride (10.0 mg/kg) suppressed the behaviors induced by either class of DA agonist. When tested as weanlings, intact animals exhibited the profile of pups (i.e., either antagonist blocked each agonist). In DA-depleted weanlings, however, only the D1 antagonist blocked the D1 agonist-induced responses and only the D2 antagonist blocked the D2 agonist-induced responses. These data demonstrate that the interactions between D1 and D2 receptors in the expression of stimulated motor behaviors are altered following DA depletions in neonates. Moreover, this change in receptor function occurs sometime between 7 and 13 days after the DA depletion.

  8. Alleles of Ppd-D1 gene in the collection of Aegilops tauschii accessions and bread wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko D. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Light period significantly influences on the growth and development of plants. One of the major genes of photoperiod sensitivity is Ppd-D1, located on the chromosome 2D. The aim of the work was to determine the alleles and molecular structure of Ppd-D1 gene in samples from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions, which have different flowering periods, and in 29 Ukrainian wheat varieties. Methods. We used methods of allele-specific PCR with primers to the Ppd-D1 gene, sequencing and Blast-analysis. Results. The collection of Ae. tauschii accessions and several varieties of winter and spring wheat was studied. The molecular structure of the allelic variants (414, 429 and 453 b. p. of Ppd-D1b gene was determined in the collection of Aegilops. tauschii accessions. Conclusions. The Ppd-D1a allele was present in all studied varieties of winter wheat. 60 % of spring wheat is characterized by Ppd-D1b allele (size of amplification products 414 b. p.. Blast-analysis of the sequence data banks on the basis of the reference sequence of sample k-1322 from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions has shown a high homology (80 to 100 % between the nucleotide sequences of PRR genes, that characterize the A and D genomes of representatives of the genera Triticum and Aegilops.

  9. Protocatechualdehyde possesses anti-cancer activity through downregulating cyclin D1 and HDAC2 in human colorectal cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Lee, Seong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. ► PCA enhanced transcriptional downregulation of cyclin D1 gene. ► PCA suppressed HDAC2 expression and activity. ► These findings suggest that anti-cancer activity of PCA may be mediated by reducing HDAC2-derived cyclin D1 expression. -- Abstract: Protocatechualdehyde (PCA) is a naturally occurring polyphenol found in barley, green cavendish bananas, and grapevine leaves. Although a few studies reported growth-inhibitory activity of PCA in breast and leukemia cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Thus, we performed in vitro study to investigate if treatment of PCA affects cell proliferation and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells and define potential mechanisms by which PCA mediates growth arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells. Exposure of PCA to human colorectal cancer cells (HCT116 and SW480 cells) suppressed cell growth and induced apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. PCA decreased cyclin D1 expression in protein and mRNA level and suppressed luciferase activity of cyclin D1 promoter, indicating transcriptional downregulation of cyclin D1 gene by PCA. We also observed that PCA treatment attenuated enzyme activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and reduced expression of HDAC2, but not HDAC1. These findings suggest that cell growth inhibition and apoptosis by PCA may be a result of HDAC2-mediated cyclin D1 suppression.

  10. One-loop transition amplitudes in the D1D5 CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, Zaq; Hampton, Shaun; Mathur, Samir D. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University,191 West Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2017-01-02

    We consider the issue of thermalization in the D1D5 CFT. Thermalization is expected to correspond to the formation of a black hole in the dual gravity theory. We start from the orbifold point, where the theory is essentially free, and does not thermalize. In earlier work it was noted that there was no clear thermalization effect when the theory was deformed off the orbifold point to first order in the relevant twist perturbation. In this paper we consider the deformation to second order in the twist, where we do find effects that can cause thermalization of an initial perturbation. We consider a 1-loop process where two untwisted copies of the CFT are twisted to one copy and then again untwisted to two copies. We start with a single oscillator excitation on the initial CFT, and compute the effect of the two twists on this state. We find simple approximate expressions for the Bogoliubov coefficients and the behavior of the single oscillator excitation in the continuum limit, where the mode numbers involved are taken to be much larger than unity. We also prove a number of useful relationships valid for processes with an arbitrary number of twist insertions.

  11. Coupled 0D-1D CFD Modeling of Right Heart and Pulmonary Artery Morphometry Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Melody; Yang, Weiguang; Feinstein, Jeffrey A.; Marsden, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by elevated pulmonary artery (PA) pressure and remodeling of the distal PAs resulting in right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and failure. It is hypothesized that patients with untreated ventricular septal defects (VSD) may develop PAH due to elevated flows and pressures in the PAs. Wall shear stress (WSS), due to elevated flows, and circumferential stress, due to elevated pressures, are known to play a role in vascular mechanobiology. Thus, simulating VSD hemodynamics and wall mechanics may facilitate our understanding of mechanical stimuli leading to PAH initiation and progression. Although 3D CFD models can capture detailed hemodynamics in the proximal PAs, they cannot easily model hemodynamics and wave propagation in the distal PAs, where remodeling occurs. To improve current PA models, we will present a new method that couples distal PA hemodynamics with RV function. Our model couples a 0D lumped parameter model of the RV to a 1D model of the PA tree, based on human PA morphometry data, to characterize RV performance and WSS changes in the PA tree. We will compare a VSD 0D-1D model and a 0D-3D model coupled to a mathematical morphometry tree model to quantify WSS in the entire PA vascular tree.

  12. Differential expression of cyclin D1 in keratin-producing odontogenic cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo; Vera-Sempere, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression levels of Cyclin D1 (CCD1), a nuclear protein that plays a crucial role in cell cycle progression, in a series of keratin-producing odontogenic cysts. A total of 58 keratin-producing odontogenic cysts, diagnosed over ten years and classified according to the WHO 2005 criteria, were immunohistochemically analyzed in terms of CCD1 expression, which was quantified in the basal, suprabasal and intermediate/superficial epithelial compartments. The extent of immunostaining was measured as a proportion of total epithelial thickness. Quantified immunohistochemical data were correlated with clinicopathological features and clinical recurrence. Keratin-producing odontogenic cysts were classified as 6 syndromic keratocystic odontogenic tumors (S-KCOT), 40 sporadic or non-syndromic KCOT (NS-KCOT) and 12 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOC). Immunohistochemically, CCD1 staining was evident predominantly in the parabasal region of all cystic lesions, but among-lesion differences were apparent, showing a clear expansion of parabasal compartment especially in the S-KCOT, followed to a lesser extent in the NS-KCOT, and being much more reduced in the OOC, which had the greatest average epithelial thickness. The differential expression of CCD1 noted in the present study suggests that dysregulation of cell cycle progression from G1 to the S phase contributes to the different aggressiveness of these lesions. However, CCD1 expression levels did not predict NS-KCOT recurrence, which is likely influenced by factors unrelated to lesion biology.

  13. Dopamine D1 receptor activation leads to object recognition memory in a coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor J; Tresguerres, Martin; Kline, David I

    2017-07-01

    Object recognition memory is the ability to identify previously seen objects and is an adaptive mechanism that increases survival for many species throughout the animal kingdom. Previously believed to be possessed by only the highest order mammals, it is now becoming clear that fish are also capable of this type of memory formation. Similar to the mammalian hippocampus, the dorsolateral pallium regulates distinct memory processes and is modulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine. Caribbean bicolour damselfish ( Stegastes partitus ) live in complex environments dominated by coral reef structures and thus likely possess many types of complex memory abilities including object recognition. This study used a novel object recognition test in which fish were first presented two identical objects, then after a retention interval of 10 min with no objects, the fish were presented with a novel object and one of the objects they had previously encountered in the first trial. We demonstrate that the dopamine D 1 -receptor agonist (SKF 38393) induces the formation of object recognition memories in these fish. Thus, our results suggest that dopamine-receptor mediated enhancement of spatial memory formation in fish represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in vertebrates. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. On the particle-hole symmetry of the fermionic spinless Hubbard model in D=1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Thomaz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the particle-hole symmetry of the one-dimensional (D=1 fermionic spinless Hubbard model, associating that symmetry to the invariance of the Helmholtz free energy of the one-dimensional spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg model, under reversal of the longitudinal magnetic field and at any finite temperature. Upon comparing two regimes of that chain model so that the number of particles in one regime equals the number of holes in the other, one finds that, in general, their thermodynamics is similar, but not identical: both models share the specific heat and entropy functions, but not the internal energy per site, the first-neighbor correlation functions, and the number of particles per site. Due to that symmetry, the difference between the first-neighbor correlation functions is proportional to the z-component of magnetization of the XXZ Heisenberg model. The results presented in this paper are valid for any value of the interaction strength parameter V, which describes the attractive/null/repulsive interaction of neighboring fermions.

  15. Ultrafast switching of the magnetic ground state in d1 titanates though nonlinear phononic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Mingqiang; Rondinelli, James M.

    LaTiO3 and YTiO3 are isostructure d1 titanates, which exhibit distinct magnetic and orbital properties: The former is a G-type antiferromagnet with a 150 K Neel temperature whereas the latter is a rare ferromagnetic (FM) insulator with a 30 K Curie temperature. With first-principles density functional theory calculations, we identify the local structural origin of the magnetic order difference in these orthorhombic perovskites. By increasing the tilt and rotation angles in LaTiO3, respectively, LaTiO3 is predicted to undergo a magnetic phase transition to an FM state. Similarly, decreasing the tilt and rotation angles in YTiO3 leads to a FM-to-AFM phase transition. The underlying physics is attributed to the change in the superexchange coupling between Ti-sites. Last, we propose a route to switch the magnetism in the titanates by controlling the octahedral distortions through dynamical nonlinear phononic coupling. The proposed experiment requires the use of static strain to position the crystal structure in proximity to the structural transition combined with readily achievable fluencies in an ultrafast optical pump-probe geometry The theory work is supported by the U.S Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-SC0012375.

  16. One-loop transition amplitudes in the D1D5 CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Zaq; Hampton, Shaun; Mathur, Samir D.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the issue of thermalization in the D1D5 CFT. Thermalization is expected to correspond to the formation of a black hole in the dual gravity theory. We start from the orbifold point, where the theory is essentially free, and does not thermalize. In earlier work it was noted that there was no clear thermalization effect when the theory was deformed off the orbifold point to first order in the relevant twist perturbation. In this paper we consider the deformation to second order in the twist, where we do find effects that can cause thermalization of an initial perturbation. We consider a 1-loop process where two untwisted copies of the CFT are twisted to one copy and then again untwisted to two copies. We start with a single oscillator excitation on the initial CFT, and compute the effect of the two twists on this state. We find simple approximate expressions for the Bogoliubov coefficients and the behavior of the single oscillator excitation in the continuum limit, where the mode numbers involved are taken to be much larger than unity. We also prove a number of useful relationships valid for processes with an arbitrary number of twist insertions.

  17. Simultaneous Faraday filtering of the Mollow triplet sidebands with the Cs-D1 clock transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portalupi, Simone Luca; Widmann, Matthias; Nawrath, Cornelius; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Gerhardt, Ilja

    2016-11-25

    Hybrid quantum systems integrating semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) and atomic vapours become important building blocks for scalable quantum networks due to the complementary strengths of individual parts. QDs provide on-demand single-photon emission with near-unity indistinguishability comprising unprecedented brightness-while atomic vapour systems provide ultra-precise frequency standards and promise long coherence times for the storage of qubits. Spectral filtering is one of the key components for the successful link between QD photons and atoms. Here we present a tailored Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter based on the caesium-D 1 transition for interfacing it with a resonantly pumped QD. The presented Faraday filter enables a narrow-bandwidth (Δω=2π × 1 GHz) simultaneous filtering of both Mollow triplet sidebands. This result opens the way to use QDs as sources of single as well as cascaded photons in photonic quantum networks aligned to the primary frequency standard of the caesium clock transition.

  18. NASA Facts, The Viking Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of publications of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. The Viking mission to Mars, consisting of two unmanned NASA spacecraft launched in August and September, 1975, is described. A description of the spacecraft and their paths is given. A diagram identifying the…

  19. 75 FR 6178 - Mission Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... geothermal, biomass, hydropower, wind, solar, and energy efficiency sectors. The mission will focus on... offers potential growth, barriers still exist that prevent U.S. companies from accessing the market and... additional opportunities in solar, biomass, ``clean coal'' technology such as gasification or wet coal...

  20. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others

    1997-06-01

    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  1. Deep Space Gateway "Recycler" Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L.; Fries, M.; Hamilton, J.; Landis, R.; John, K.; O'Hara, W.

    2018-02-01

    Use of the Deep Space Gateway provides a hub for a reusable planetary sample return vehicle for missions to gather star dust as well as samples from various parts of the solar system including main belt asteroids, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars moon.

  2. Canada and Missions for Peace

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The study focuses primarily on Canada's role in these missions in light of ..... simply because peacekeeping has been the chief form of UN intervention and one in which ... Other factors, such as financial constraints and increasing social problems ..... Luck, superior armaments, the shortage of professional officers among the ...

  3. The DEMETER Science Mission Centre

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lagoutte, D.; Brochot, J.; Y.; de Carvalho, D.; Elie, F.; Harivelo, F.; Hobara, Y.; Madrias, L.; Parrot, M.; Pincon, J. L.; Berthelier, J. J.; Peschard, D.; Seran, E.; Gangloff, M.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Lebreton, J. P.; Štverák, Štěpán; Trávníček, Pavel M.; Grygorczuk, J.; Slominski, J.; Wronowski, R.; Barbier, S.; Bernard, P.; Gaboriaud, A.; Wallut, J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 5 (2006), s. 428-440 ISSN 0032-0633 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Mission Centre * Data processing Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2006

  4. Space nuclear tug mission applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, J.R.; Rauen, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    An initial assessment indicates that the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 bimodal reactor designs can be integrated into a reusable tug which is capable of supporting many missions including GSO delivery, GSO retrieval, lunar trajectory deliveries, interplanetary deliveries, and a variety of satellite servicing. The tug close-quote s nuclear thermal propulsion provides timely transport and payload delivery, with GSO deliveries on the order of 3 endash 7 days. In general, the tug may provide a number of potential benefits to users. The tug may, for example, extend the life of an existing on-orbit spacecraft, boost spacecraft which were not delivered to their operational orbit, offer increased payload capability, or possibly allow payloads to launch on smaller less expensive launch vehicles. Reusing the tug for 5 or 10 missions requires total reactor burn times of 50 and 100 hours, respectively. Shielding, boom structure, and radiator requirements were identified as key factors in the configuration layout. Economic feasibility is still under evaluation, but preliminary estimates indicate that average flight costs may range from $32 M to $34 M for a 10-mission vehicle and from $39 M to $42 M for a 5-mission vehicle. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Catholic Higher Education as Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This article uses the work of Anthony J. Gittins to reframe our understanding of Catholic higher education as mission. The broad adoption of this framework would require a common intellectual foundation, the possibility of which is dismissed by many. An accessible ontology is implied, however, in the existential analysis and theology of Karl…

  6. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate

    2014-05-01

    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  7. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  8. Multifarious Physics Analyses of the Core Plasma Properties in a Helical DEMO Reactor FFHR-d1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, J.; Satake, S.; Goto, T.; Seki, R.; Nunami, M.; Funaba, H.; Yamada, I.; Suzuki, C.; Sakamoto, R.; Motojima, G.; Yamada, H.; Sagara, A., E-mail: miyazawa@lhd.nifs.ac.jp [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan); Yokoyama, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Masaoka, Y.; Murakami, S. [Departement Nuclear Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Theoretical analyses on the MHD equilibrium, the neoclassical transport, and the alpha particle transport, etc., are being carried out for a helical fusion DEMO reactor named FFHR- d1, using radial profiles extrapolated from LHD. FFHR-d1 is a heliotron type DEMO reactor of which the conceptual design activity has been launched since 2010. It is possible to sustain the burning plasma without auxiliary heating (i.e., self-ignition) in FFHR-d1, since there is no need of plasma current drive in heliotron plasmas. The device size is 4 times enlarged from LHD, i.e., the major radius of helical coil center is 15.6 m, the magnetic field strength at the helical coil center is 4.7 T, and the fusion output is {approx} 3 GW. One of the distinguished subjects in FFHR-d1 compared with the former FFHR design series is the robust similarity with LHD. The arrangement of superconducting magnet coils in FFHR-d1 is similar to that of LHD, except a pair of planar poloidal coils omitted to maximize the maintenance ports. This makes reasonable to assume a similar MHD equilibrium as observed in LHD for FFHR-d1, as long as the beta profiles in these two are similar. In FFHR-d1, radial profiles of density and temperature are determined by multiplying proper enhancement factors on those obtained in LHD, according to the DPE (Direct Profile Extrapolation) method. The enhancement factors are calculated consistently with the gyro-Bohm model. Therefore, the global confinement properties as expressed in ISS95 or ISS04 are kept in FFHR-d1. A large Shafranov shift is foreseen in FFHR-d1 due to its high-beta property. This leads to deterioration in the neoclassical transport and alpha particle confinement. Effectiveness of plasma position control and/or magnetic configuration optimization has been examined to solve this problem and to check the validity of extrapolated profiles. According to these analyses, it is concluded that the self-ignition condition can be achieved in FFHR-d1 by

  9. IntroductionThe Cluster mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fehringer

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission, ESA’s first cornerstone project, together with the SOHO mission, dating back to the first proposals in 1982, was finally launched in the summer of 2000. On 16 July and 9 August, respectively, two Russian Soyuz rockets blasted off from the Russian cosmodrome in Baikonour to deliver two Cluster spacecraft, each into their proper orbit. By the end of August 2000, the four Cluster satellites had reached their final tetrahedral constellation. The commissioning of 44 instruments, both individually and as an ensemble of complementary tools, was completed five months later to ensure the optimal use of their combined observational potential. On 1 February 2001, the mission was declared operational. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study the small-scale plasma structures in three dimensions in key plasma regions, such as the solar wind, bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail and the auroral zones. With its unique capabilities of three-dimensional spatial resolution, Cluster plays a major role in the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP, where Cluster and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO are the European contributions. Cluster’s payload consists of state-of-the-art plasma instrumentation to measure electric and magnetic fields from the quasi-static up to high frequencies, and electron and ion distribution functions from energies of nearly 0 eV to a few MeV. The science operations are coordinated by the Joint Science Operations Centre (JSOC, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK, and implemented by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC, in Darmstadt, Germany. A network of eight national data centres has been set up for raw data processing, for the production of physical parameters, and their distribution to end users all over the world. The latest information on the Cluster mission can be found at http://sci.esa.int/cluster/.

  10. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, G.; Floberghagen, R.; Menard, Y.; Haagmans, R.

    2013-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in fall 2013. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of three identical satellites. The mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth's core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently in the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products for the Swarm user community. The setup of the Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. In case the Swarm satellites are already in orbit, a summary of the on-going mission operations activities will be given. More information on Swarm can be found at www.esa.int/esaLP/LPswarm.html.

  11. IntroductionThe Cluster mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Escoubet

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission, ESA’s first cornerstone project, together with the SOHO mission, dating back to the first proposals in 1982, was finally launched in the summer of 2000. On 16 July and 9 August, respectively, two Russian Soyuz rockets blasted off from the Russian cosmodrome in Baikonour to deliver two Cluster spacecraft, each into their proper orbit. By the end of August 2000, the four Cluster satellites had reached their final tetrahedral constellation. The commissioning of 44 instruments, both individually and as an ensemble of complementary tools, was completed five months later to ensure the optimal use of their combined observational potential. On 1 February 2001, the mission was declared operational. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study the small-scale plasma structures in three dimensions in key plasma regions, such as the solar wind, bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail and the auroral zones. With its unique capabilities of three-dimensional spatial resolution, Cluster plays a major role in the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP, where Cluster and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO are the European contributions. Cluster’s payload consists of state-of-the-art plasma instrumentation to measure electric and magnetic fields from the quasi-static up to high frequencies, and electron and ion distribution functions from energies of nearly 0 eV to a few MeV. The science operations are coordinated by the Joint Science Operations Centre (JSOC, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK, and implemented by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC, in Darmstadt, Germany. A network of eight national data centres has been set up for raw data processing, for the production of physical parameters, and their distribution to end users all over the world. The latest information on the Cluster mission can be found at http://sci.esa.int/cluster/.

  12. Development of experimental concepts for investigating the strength behavior of fine-grained cohesive soil in the Spacelab/space shuttle zero-g environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaparte, R.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    Three different sets of tests are proposed for the NASA Spacelab experimental program. The first of tests, designed to measure the true cohesion of several different soils, would be carried out in space through use of a specially prepared direct shear apparatus. As part of this first series of tests, it is recommended that a set of drained unconfined compression tests be performed terrestrially on the same soils as tested in space. A form of the direct tension test is planned to measure the true tensile strength of the same types of soils used in the first series of tests. The direct tension tests could be performed terrestrially. The combined results of the direct shear tests, direct tension tests, and unconfined compression tests can be used to construct approximate failure envelopes for the soils tested in the region of the stress origin. Relationships between true cohesion and true tensile strength can also be investigated. In addition, the role of physio-chemical variables should be studied. The third set of tests involves using a multiaxial cubical or true triaxial test apparatus to investigate the influence of gravity induced fabric anisotropy and stress nonhomogeneities on the stress strain behavior of cohesive soils at low effective stress levels. These tests would involve both in space and terrestrial laboratory testing.

  13. Mission analysis for the Martian Moons Explorer (MMX) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnola, Stefano; Yam, Chit Hong; Tsuda, Yuichi; Ogawa, Naoko; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro

    2018-05-01

    Mars Moon eXplorer (MMX) is JAXA's next candidate flagship mission to be launched in the early 2020s. MMX will explore the Martian moons and return a sample from Phobos. This paper presents the mission analysis work, focusing on the transfer legs and comparing several architectures, such as hybrid options with chemical and electric propulsion modules. The selected baseline is a chemical-propulsion Phobos sample return, which is discussed in detail with the launch- and return-window analysis. The trajectories are optimized with the jTOP software, using planetary ephemerides for Mars and the Earth; Earth re-entry constraints are modeled with simple analytical equations. Finally, we introduce an analytical approximation of the three-burn capture strategy used in the Mars system. The approximation can be used together with a Lambert solver to quickly determine the transfer Δ v costs.

  14. Optogenetic inhibition of D1R containing nucleus accumbens neurons alters cocaine- mediated regulation of Tiam1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh eChandra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to psychostimulants results in structural and synaptic plasticity in striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs. These cellular adaptations arise from alterations in genes that are highly implicated in the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton, such as Tiam1. Previous studies have demonstrated a crucial role for dopamine receptor 1 (D1-containing striatal MSNs in mediating psychostimulant induced plasticity changes. These D1-MSNs in the nucleus accumbens (NAc positively regulate drug seeking, reward, and locomotor behavioral effects as well as the morphological adaptations of psychostimulant drugs. Here, we demonstrate that rats that actively self-administer cocaine display reduced levels of Tiam1 in the NAc. To further examine the cell type specific contribution to these changes in Tiam1 we used optogenetics to selectively manipulate NAc D1-MSNs or dopamine receptor 2 (D2 expressing MSNs. We find that repeated ChR2 activation of D1-MSNs but not D2-MSNs caused a down-regulation of Tiam1 levels similar to the effects of cocaine. Further, activation of D2-MSNs, which caused a late blunted cocaine-mediated locomotor behavioral response, did not alter Tiam1 levels. We then examined the contribution of D1-MSNs to the cocaine-mediated decrease of Tiam1. Using the light activated chloride pump, eNpHR3.0, we selectively inhibited D1-MSNs during cocaine exposure, which resulted in a behavioral blockade of cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Moreover, inhibiting these NAc D1-MSNs during cocaine exposure reversed the down-regulation of Tiam1 gene expression and protein levels. These data demonstrate that altering activity in specific neural circuits with optogenetics can impact the underlying molecular substrates of psychostimulant mediated behavior and function.

  15. Striatal dopamine D1 and D2 receptors: widespread influences on methamphetamine-induced dopamine and serotonin neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Noah B; Duncker, Patrick C; Marshall, John F

    2011-11-01

    Methamphetamine (mAMPH) is an addictive psychostimulant drug that releases monoamines through nonexocytotic mechanisms. In animals, binge mAMPH dosing regimens deplete markers for monoamine nerve terminals, for example, dopamine and serotonin transporters (DAT and SERT), in striatum and cerebral cortex. Although the precise mechanism of mAMPH-induced damage to monoaminergic nerve terminals is uncertain, both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are known to be important. Systemic administration of dopamine D1 or D2 receptor antagonists to rodents prevents mAMPH-induced damage to striatal dopamine nerve terminals. Because these studies employed systemic antagonist administration, the specific brain regions involved remain to be elucidated. The present study examined the contribution of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in striatum to mAMPH-induced DAT and SERT neurotoxicities. In this experiment, either the dopamine D1 antagonist, SCH23390, or the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, sulpiride, was intrastriatally infused during a binge mAMPH regimen. Striatal DAT and cortical, hippocampal, and amygdalar SERT were assessed as markers of mAMPH-induced neurotoxicity 1 week following binge mAMPH administration. Blockade of striatal dopamine D1 or D2 receptors during an otherwise neurotoxic binge mAMPH regimen produced widespread protection against mAMPH-induced striatal DAT loss and cortical, hippocampal, and amygdalar SERT loss. This study demonstrates that (1) dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in striatum, like nigral D1 receptors, are needed for mAMPH-induced striatal DAT reductions, (2) these same receptors are needed for mAMPH-induced SERT loss, and (3) these widespread influences of striatal dopamine receptor antagonists are likely attributable to circuits connecting basal ganglia to thalamus and cortex. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Synergistic nuclear import of NeuroD1 and its partner transcription factor, E47, via heterodimerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, Rashid; Yasuhara, Noriko; Oe, Souichi; Nagai, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2009-01-01

    The transition from undifferentiated pluripotent cells to terminally differentiated neurons is coordinated by a repertoire of transcription factors. NeuroD1 is a type II basic helix loop helix (bHLH) transcription factor that plays critical roles in neuronal differentiation and maintenance in the central nervous system. Its dimerization with E47, a type I bHLH transcription factor, leads to the transcriptional regulation of target genes. Mounting evidence suggests that regulating the localization of transcription factors contributes to the regulation of their activity during development as defects in their localization underlie a variety of developmental disorders. In this study, we attempted to understand the nuclear import mannerisms of NeuroD1 and E47. We found that the nuclear import of NeuroD1 and E47 is energy-dependent and involves the Ran-mediated pathway. Herein, we demonstrate that NeuroD1 and E47 can dimerize inside the cytoplasm before their nuclear import. Moreover, this dimerization promotes nuclear import as the nuclear accumulation of NeuroD1 was enhanced in the presence of E47 in an in vitro nuclear import assay, and NLS-deficient NeuroD1 was successfully imported into the nucleus upon E47 overexpression. NeuroD1 also had a similar effect on the nuclear accumulation of NLS-deficient E47. These findings suggest a novel role for dimerization that may promote, at least partially, the nuclear import of transcription factors allowing them to function efficiently in the nucleus.

  17. The expression status of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 correlates with clinicopathological characteristics and ER status in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weisun; Nie, Weiwei; Zhang, Wenwen; Wang, Yanru; Zhu, Aiyu; Guan, Xiaoxiang

    2016-01-01

    The ER signaling pathway plays a critical role in breast cancer. ER signaling pathway-related proteins, such as TRX, AR, and cyclin D1, may have an important function in breast cancer. However, the ways that they influence breast cancer development and progression are still unclear. A total of 101 Chinese female patients diagnosed with invasive ductal breast adenocarcinoma were retrospectively enrolled in the study. The expression levels of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 were detected by immunohistochemistry and analyzed via correlation with clinicopathological characteristics and the expression status of ER, PR, and HER2. The expression status of TRX, AR, and cyclin D1 was not associated with the patient's age, menopausal status, tumor size, or histological differentiation (P>0.05), but was positively correlated with ER and PR (PTRX-positive patients were also HER2-positive (P=0.003). Of AR- or cyclin D1-positive patients, most had relatively earlier I-II tumor stage (P=0.005 and P=0.047, respectively) and no metastatic lymph node involvement (P=0.008 and P=0.005, respectively). TRX was found to be positively correlated with ER and PR expression, whereas it was negatively correlated with HER2 expression. In addition, we found that the positive expression of AR and cyclin D1 was correlated with lower TNM stage and fewer metastatic lymph nodes, and it was more common in ER-positive breast cancer than in the basal-like subtype. This may indicate that AR and cyclin D1 are good predictive and prognostic factors and closely interact with ER signaling pathway. Further studies will be necessary to investigate the response and clinical outcomes of treatment targeting TRX, AR, and cyclin D1.

  18. Automated image analysis of cyclin D1 protein expression in invasive lobular breast carcinoma provides independent prognostic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Nicholas P; Lundgren, Katja L; Conway, Catherine; Anagnostaki, Lola; Costello, Sean; Landberg, Göran

    2012-11-01

    The emergence of automated image analysis algorithms has aided the enumeration, quantification, and immunohistochemical analyses of tumor cells in both whole section and tissue microarray samples. To date, the focus of such algorithms in the breast cancer setting has been on traditional markers in the common invasive ductal carcinoma subtype. Here, we aimed to optimize and validate an automated analysis of the cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 in a large collection of invasive lobular carcinoma and relate its expression to clinicopathologic data. The image analysis algorithm was trained to optimally match manual scoring of cyclin D1 protein expression in a subset of invasive lobular carcinoma tissue microarray cores. The algorithm was capable of distinguishing cyclin D1-positive cells and illustrated high correlation with traditional manual scoring (κ=0.63). It was then applied to our entire cohort of 483 patients, with subsequent statistical comparisons to clinical data. We found no correlation between cyclin D1 expression and tumor size, grade, and lymph node status. However, overexpression of the protein was associated with reduced recurrence-free survival (P=.029), as was positive nodal status (Pinvasive lobular carcinoma. Finally, high cyclin D1 expression was associated with increased hazard ratio in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.89). In conclusion, we describe an image analysis algorithm capable of reliably analyzing cyclin D1 staining in invasive lobular carcinoma and have linked overexpression of the protein to increased recurrence risk. Our findings support the use of cyclin D1 as a clinically informative biomarker for invasive lobular breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. RhoA signaling modulates cyclin D1 expression in human lung fibroblasts; implications for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoban PR

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF is a debilitating disease characterized by exaggerated extracellular matrix deposition and aggressive lung structural remodeling. Disease pathogenesis is driven by fibroblastic foci formation, consequent on growth factor overexpression and myofibroblast proliferation. We have previously shown that both CTGF overexpression and myofibroblast formation in IPF cell lines are dependent on RhoA signaling. As RhoA-mediated regulation is also involved in cell cycle progression, we hypothesise that this pathway is key to lung fibroblast turnover through modulation of cyclin D1 kinetic expression. Methods Cyclin D1 expression was compared in primary IPF patient-derived fibroblasts and equivalent normal control cells. Quantitative real time PCR was employed to examine relative expression levels of cyclin D1 mRNA; protein expression was confirmed by western blotting. Effects of Rho signaling were investigated using transient transfection of constitutively active and dominant negative RhoA constructs as well as pharmacological inhibitors. Cellular proliferation of lung fibroblasts was determined by BrdU incorporation ELISA. To further explore RhoA regulation of cyclin D1 in lung fibroblasts and associated cell cycle progression, an established Rho inhibitor, Simvastatin, was incorporated in our studies. Results Cyclin D1 expression was upregulated in IPF compared to normal lung fibroblasts under exponential growth conditions (p Conclusion These findings report for the first time that cyclin D1 expression is deregulated in IPF through a RhoA dependent mechanism that influences lung fibroblast proliferation. This potentially unravels new molecular targets for future anti-IPF strategies; accordingly, Simvastatin inhibition of Rho-mediated cyclin D1 expression in IPF fibroblasts merits further exploitation.

  20. Dopamine D1 receptor gene variation modulates opioid dependence risk by affecting transition to addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    Full Text Available Dopamine D1 receptor (DRD1 modulates opioid reinforcement, reward, and opioid-induced neuroadaptation. We propose that DRD1 polymorphism affects susceptibility to opioid dependence (OD, the efficiency of transition to OD, and opioid-induced pleasure response. We analyzed potential association between seven DRD1 polymorphisms with the following traits: duration of transition from the first use to dependence (DTFUD, subjective pleasure responses to opioid on first use and post-dependence use, and OD risk in 425 Chinese with OD and 514 healthy controls. DTFUD and level of pleasure responses were examined using a semi-structured interview. The DTFUD of opioid addicts ranged from 5 days to 11 years. Most addicts (64.0% reported non-comfortable response upon first opioid use, while after dependence, most addicts (53.0% felt strong opioid-induced pleasure. Survival analysis revealed a correlation of prolonged DTFUD with the minor allele-carrying genotypes of DRD1 rs4532 (hazard ratios (HR = 0.694; p = 0.001 and rs686 (HR = 0.681, p = 0.0003. Binary logistic regression indicated that rs10063995 GT genotype (vs. GG+TT, OR = 0.261 could predict decreased pleasure response to first-time use and the minor alleles of rs686 (OR = 0.535 and rs4532 (OR = 0.537 could predict decreased post-dependence pleasure. Moreover, rs686 minor allele was associated with a decreased risk for rapid transition from initial use to dependence (DTFUD≤30 days; OR = 0.603 or post-dependence euphoria (OR = 0.603 relative to major allele. In conclusion, DRD1 rs686 minor allele decreases the OD risk by prolonging the transition to dependence and attenuating opioid-induced pleasure in Chinese.

  1. Dopamine induces neutrophil apoptosis through a dopamine D-1 receptor-independent mechanism.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sookhai, S

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: For the normal resolution of an acute inflammatory response, neutrophil (PMN) apoptosis is essential to maintain immune homeostasis and to limit inappropriate host tissue damage. A delay in PMN apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Dopamine, a biogenic amine with known cardiovascular and neurotransmitter properties, is used in patients with SIRS to maintain hemodynamic stability. We sought to determine whether dopamine may also have immunoregulatory properties capable of influencing PMN apoptosis, function, and activation state in patients with SIRS. METHODS: PMNs were isolated from healthy volunteers and patients with SIRS and treated with varying doses of dopamine and a dopamine D-1 receptor agonist, fenoldopam. PMN apoptosis was assessed every 6 hours with use of propidium iodide DNA staining and PMN function was assessed with use of respiratory burst activity, phagocytosis ability, and CD11a, CD11b, and CD18 receptor expression as functional markers. RESULTS: There was a significant delay in PMN apotosis in patients with SIRS compared with controls. Treatment of isolated PMNs from both healthy controls and patients with SIRS with 10 and 100 mumol\\/L dopamine induced apoptosis. PMN ingestive and cytocidal capacity were both decreased in patients with SIRS compared with controls. Treatment with dopamine significantly increased phagocytic function. Fenoldopam did not induce PMN apoptosis. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate for the first time that dopamine induces PMN apoptosis and modulates PMN function both in healthy controls and in patients with SIRS. These results indicate that dopamine may be beneficial during SIRS through a nonhemodynamic PMN-dependent proapoptotic mechanism.

  2. MicroRNA-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates cyclin D1 in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiamin; Feilotter, Harriet E; Paré, Geneviève C; Zhang, Xiao; Pemberton, Joshua G W; Garady, Cherif; Lai, Dulcie; Yang, Xiaolong; Tron, Victor A

    2010-05-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive form of human skin cancer characterized by high metastatic potential and poor prognosis. To better understand the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in melanoma, the expression of 470 miRNAs was profiled in tissue samples from benign nevi and metastatic melanomas. We identified 31 miRNAs that were differentially expressed (13 up-regulated and 18 down-regulated) in metastatic melanomas relative to benign nevi. Notably, miR-193b was significantly down-regulated in the melanoma tissues examined. To understand the role of miR-193b in melanoma, functional studies were undertaken. Overexpression of miR-193b in melanoma cell lines repressed cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling identified 314 genes down-regulated by overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells. Eighteen of these down-regulated genes, including cyclin D1 (CCND1), were also identified as putative miR-193b targets by TargetScan. Overexpression of miR-193b in Malme-3M cells down-regulated CCND1 mRNA and protein by > or = 50%. A luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-193b directly regulates CCND1 by binding to the 3'untranslated region of CCND1 mRNA. These studies indicate that miR-193b represses cell proliferation and regulates CCND1 expression and suggest that dysregulation of miR-193b may play an important role in melanoma development.

  3. A D1 receptor antagonist, ecopipam, for treatment of tics in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Donald L; Budman, Cathy L; Singer, Harvey S; Kurlan, Roger; Chipkin, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of dopaminergic signaling has been hypothesized to underlie the motor and phonic tics in Tourette syndrome (TS). The objective of this trial was to evaluate the safety and tic-reducing activity of the selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist ecopipam in adults with TS. This was a multicenter, nonrandomized, open-label study of 50-mg ecopipam daily (weeks 1-2) and then 100 mg daily (weeks 3-8), taken orally before bedtime. The primary efficacy end point was the change in the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) total tic score. Comorbid psychiatric symptoms and premonitory urges were rated; weight, serum metabolic studies, and adverse effects were monitored. Eighteen adults (15 men; 15 white, 2 African American, 1 Asian), with a mean age of 36.2 years (range, 18-63 years), were enrolled, and 15 completed the study. Mean (SD) YGTSS Total Tic score was 30.6 (8.8) at baseline and 25.3 (9.2) at 8 weeks (2-tailed paired t17 = 4.4; P = 0.0004). Mean (SD) YGTSS impairment score was 29.7 (10.9) at baseline and 22.8 (13.7) at final visit (t17 = 2.2; P = 0.04). There was no significant change in premonitory urges or psychiatric symptoms. Mean change in weight was -0.7 kg (P = 0.07). The most commonly reported adverse events were sedation (39%), fatigue (33%), insomnia (33%), somnolence (28%), anxiety (22%), headache (22%), and muscle twitching (22%). In this open-label study in adults with TS, tics were reduced after 8 weeks of treatment with ecopipam. To confirm safety and efficacy, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials are warranted.

  4. Phospholipase D1 increases Bcl-2 expression during neuronal differentiation of rat neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Young; Ma, Weina; Yoon, Sung Nyo; Kang, Min Jeong; Han, Joong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We studied the possible role of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) in the neuronal differentiation, including neurite formation of neural stem cells. PLD1 protein and PLD activity increased during neuronal differentiation. Bcl-2 also increased. Downregulation of PLD1 by transfection with PLD1 siRNA or a dominant-negative form of PLD1 (DN-PLD1) inhibited both neurite outgrowth and Bcl-2 expression. PLD activity was dramatically reduced by a PLCγ (phospholipase Cγ) inhibitor (U73122), a Ca(2+)chelator (BAPTA-AM), and a PKCα (protein kinase Cα) inhibitor (RO320432). Furthermore, treatment with arachidonic acid (AA) which is generated by the action of PLA2 (phospholipase A2) on phosphatidic acid (a PLD1 product), increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CREB, as well as Bcl-2 expression, indicating that PLA2 is involved in the differentiation process resulting from PLD1 activation. PGE2 (prostaglandin E2), a cyclooxygenase product of AA, also increased during neuronal differentiation. Moreover, treatment with PGE2 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CREB, as well as Bcl-2 expression, and this effect was inhibited by a PKA inhibitor (Rp-cAMP). As expected, inhibition of p38 MAPK resulted in loss of CREB activity, and when CREB activity was blocked with CREB siRNA, Bcl-2 production also decreased. We also showed that the EP4 receptor was required for the PKA/p38MAPK/CREB/Bcl-2 pathway. Taken together, these observations indicate that PLD1 is activated by PLCγ/PKCα signaling and stimulate Bcl-2 expression through PLA2/Cox2/EP4/PKA/p38MAPK/CREB during neuronal differentiation of rat neural stem cells.

  5. A decision model for planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelrigg, G. A., Jr.; Brigadier, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Many techniques developed for the solution of problems in economics and operations research are directly applicable to problems involving engineering trade-offs. This paper investigates the use of utility theory for decision making in planetary exploration space missions. A decision model is derived that accounts for the objectives of the mission - science - the cost of flying the mission and the risk of mission failure. A simulation methodology for obtaining the probability distribution of science value and costs as a function spacecraft and mission design is presented and an example application of the decision methodology is given for various potential alternatives in a comet Encke mission.

  6. NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1 exerts cytoprotection against hypoxic injury upon EGFR activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhi-Dong; Xu, Liang; Tang, Kan-Kai; Gong, Fang-Xiao; Liu, Jing-Quan; Ni, Yin; Jiang, Ling-Zhi; Hong, Jun; Han, Fang; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiang-Hong; Sun, Ren-Hua; Mo, Shi-Jing

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis of neural cells is one of the main pathological features in hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) might be a potential therapeutic target for hypoxic/ischemic brain injury since NF-κB has been found to be inactivated after hypoxia exposure, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms of NF-κB inactivation are largely unknown. Here we report that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation prevents neuron-like PC12 cells apoptosis in response to hypoxia via restoring NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1. Functionally, EGFR activation by EGF stimulation mitigates hypoxia-induced PC12 cells apoptosis in both dose- and time-dependent manner. Of note, EGFR activation elevates IKKβ phosphorylation, increases IκBα ubiquitination, promotes P65 nuclear translocation and recruitment at cyclin D1 gene promoter as well as upregulates cyclin D1 expression. EGFR activation also abrogates the decrease of IKKβ phosphorylation, reduction of IκBα ubiquitination, blockade of P65 nuclear translocation and recruitment at cyclin D1 gene promoter as well as downregulation of cyclin D1 expression induced by hypoxia. Furthermore, NF-κB-dependent upregulation of cyclin D1 is instrumental for the EGFR-mediated cytoprotection against hypoxic apoptosis. In addition, the dephosphorylation of EGFR induced by either EGF siRNA transfection or anti-HB-EGF neutralization antibody treatment enhances hypoxic cytotoxicity, which are attenuated by EGF administration. Our results highlight the essential role of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1 in EGFR-mediated cytoprotective effects under hypoxic preconditioning and support further investigation of EGF in clinical trials of patients with hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. - Highlights: • EGFR activation significantly decreases hypoxia-induced PC12 cells injury. • EGFR activation abrogates the transcriptional repression of cyclin D1 induced by hypoxia in a NF

  7. NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1 exerts cytoprotection against hypoxic injury upon EGFR activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhi-Dong [Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou Normal College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China); Xu, Liang [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China); Tang, Kan-Kai [Department of Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Huzhou Normal College, Huzhou 313000, Zhejiang (China); Gong, Fang-Xiao; Liu, Jing-Quan; Ni, Yin; Jiang, Ling-Zhi; Hong, Jun; Han, Fang; Li, Qian; Yang, Xiang-Hong [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China); Sun, Ren-Hua, E-mail: jqin168@hotmail.com [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China); Mo, Shi-Jing, E-mail: msj860307@163.com [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang (China)

    2016-09-10

    Apoptosis of neural cells is one of the main pathological features in hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) might be a potential therapeutic target for hypoxic/ischemic brain injury since NF-κB has been found to be inactivated after hypoxia exposure, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms of NF-κB inactivation are largely unknown. Here we report that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation prevents neuron-like PC12 cells apoptosis in response to hypoxia via restoring NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1. Functionally, EGFR activation by EGF stimulation mitigates hypoxia-induced PC12 cells apoptosis in both dose- and time-dependent manner. Of note, EGFR activation elevates IKKβ phosphorylation, increases IκBα ubiquitination, promotes P65 nuclear translocation and recruitment at cyclin D1 gene promoter as well as upregulates cyclin D1 expression. EGFR activation also abrogates the decrease of IKKβ phosphorylation, reduction of IκBα ubiquitination, blockade of P65 nuclear translocation and recruitment at cyclin D1 gene promoter as well as downregulation of cyclin D1 expression induced by hypoxia. Furthermore, NF-κB-dependent upregulation of cyclin D1 is instrumental for the EGFR-mediated cytoprotection against hypoxic apoptosis. In addition, the dephosphorylation of EGFR induced by either EGF siRNA transfection or anti-HB-EGF neutralization antibody treatment enhances hypoxic cytotoxicity, which are attenuated by EGF administration. Our results highlight the essential role of NF-κB-dependent transcriptional upregulation of cyclin D1 in EGFR-mediated cytoprotective effects under hypoxic preconditioning and support further investigation of EGF in clinical trials of patients with hypoxic/ischemic brain injury. - Highlights: • EGFR activation significantly decreases hypoxia-induced PC12 cells injury. • EGFR activation abrogates the transcriptional repression of cyclin D1 induced by hypoxia in a NF

  8. The D1CT-7 mouse model of Tourette syndrome displays sensorimotor gating deficits in response to spatial confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Sean C; Mosher, Laura J; Strathman, Hunter J; Gochi, Andrea M; Jones, Cori M; Fowler, Stephen C; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-07-01

    The D1CT-7 mouse is one of the best known animal models of Tourette syndrome (TS), featuring spontaneous tic-like behaviours sensitive to standard TS therapies; these characteristics ensure a high face and predictive validity of this model, yet its construct validity remains elusive. To address this issue, we studied the responses of D1CT-7 mice to two critical components of TS pathophysiology: the exacerbation of tic-like behaviours in response to stress and the presence of sensorimotor gating deficits, which are thought to reflect the perceptual alterations causing the tics. D1CT-7 and wild-type (WT) littermates were subjected to a 20 min session of spatial confinement (SC) within an inescapable, 10 cm wide cylindrical enclosure. Changes in plasma corticosterone levels, tic-like behaviours and other spontaneous responses were measured. SC-exposed mice were also tested for the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response (a sensorimotor gating index) and other TS-related behaviours, including open-field locomotion, novel object exploration and social interaction and compared with non-confined counterparts. SC produced a marked increase in corticosterone concentrations in both D1CT-7 and WT mice. In D1CT-7, but not WT mice, SC exacerbated tic-like and digging behaviours, and triggered PPI deficits and aggressive responses. Conversely, SC did not modify locomotor activity or novel object exploration in D1CT-7 mice. Both tic-like behaviours and PPI impairments in SC-exposed D1CT-7 mice were inhibited by standard TS therapies and D1 dopamine receptor antagonism. These findings collectively support the translational and construct validity of D1CT-7 mice with respect to TS. This article is part of a themed section on Updating Neuropathology and Neuropharmacology of Monoaminergic Systems. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v173.13/issuetoc. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Semaphorin 3G Provides a Repulsive Guidance Cue to Lymphatic Endothelial Cells via Neuropilin-2/PlexinD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinyi; Uemura, Akiyoshi; Fukushima, Yoko; Yoshida, Yutaka; Hirashima, Masanori

    2016-11-22

    The vertebrate circulatory system is composed of closely related blood and lymphatic vessels. It has been shown that lymphatic vascular patterning is regulated by blood vessels during development, but its molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the artery-derived ligand semaphorin 3G (Sema3G) and the endothelial cell receptor PlexinD1 play a role in lymphatic vascular patterning. In mouse embryonic back skin, genetic inactivation of Sema3G or PlexinD1 results in abnormal artery-lymph alignment and reduced lymphatic vascular branching. Conditional ablation in mice demonstrates that PlexinD1 is primarily required in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). In vitro analyses show that Sema3G binds to neuropilin-2 (Nrp2), which forms a receptor complex with PlexinD1. Sema3G induces cell collapse in an Nrp2/PlexinD1-dependent manner. Our findings shed light on a molecular mechanism by which LECs are distributed away from arteries and form a branching network during lymphatic vascular development. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation of cytoplasmic beta-catenin and cyclin D1 overexpression during thyroid carcinogenesis around Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirmanov, Serik; Nakashima, Masahiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Matsufuji, Reiko; Takamura, Noboru; Ishigaki, Katsu; Ito, Masahiro; Prouglo, Yuri; Yamashita, Shunichi; Sekine, Ichiro

    2003-06-01

    The Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS), the Republic of Kazakhstan, has been contaminated by radioactive fallout. The alteration of oncogenic molecules in thyroid cancer around the SNTS was considered worthy of analysis because it presented the potential to elucidate the relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid cancer. This study aimed to analyze both beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expressions in thyroid carcinomas around the SNTS. We examined nine cases of chronic thyroiditis, eight cases of follicular adenomas, and 23 cases of papillary carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, all carcinomas displayed a strong cytosolic beta-catenin expression, while both chronic thyroiditis and follicular adenomas showed a significantly lower cytoplasmic beta-catenin (22.2% and 37.5%, respectively). No cyclin D1 immunoreactivity was evident in chronic thyroiditis. In contrast, 62.5% of follicular adenomas and 87.0% of papillary carcinoma showed cyclin D1 overexpression. Additionally, a strong correlation between cytoplasmic beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expression was suggested in thyroid tumors. This study revealed a higher prevalence of both aberrant beta-catenin expression and cyclin D1 overexpression in papillary thyroid cancers around the SNTS than sporadic cases. The analysis of the alteration of the Wnt signaling-related molecules in thyroid cancer around the SNTS may be important to gain an insight into radiation-induced thyroid tumorigenesis.

  11. Development of 99mTc-labelled the d,1-diasteroisomer of HM-PAO for cerebral blood flow imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lun Xiao.

    1989-10-01

    The d,1-diastereoisomer of hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HM-PAO) was selected as the preferred ligand for Tc-99m as a radiotracer for cerebral perfusion imaging. Further improvement of the synthesis and isolation method of HM-PAO resulted in pure d,1-HM-PAO and pure meso-HM-PAO. The neutral, lipophilic Tc-99m complexes of d,1-HM-PAO and meso-HM-PAO were formed in high yield by stannous reduction of Mo-99/Tc-99m generator eluate, respectively. Two minutes following i.v. administration of Tc-99m-d,1-HM-PAO in mice, 2.24% of the injected dose appears in the brain. Little washout of the tracer is observed up to 24-hour post injection. Two minutes following i.v. administration of Tc-99m-meso-HM-PAO in mice, 1.9% of the injected dose appears in the brain. The radioactivity of Tc-99m-meso-HM-PAO declined faster than that of Tc-99m-d,1-HM-PAO did in the brain up to 24-hour post injection. 12 refs, 5 figs, 5 tabs

  12. Plant Defensins NaD1 and NaD2 Induce Different Stress Response Pathways in Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M. Dracatos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (NaD1 and NaD2 are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. Some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall O-glycosylated proteins. Therefore, we investigated if this was the case for NaD1 and NaD2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three Aspergillus nidulans (An O-mannosyltransferase (pmt knockout (KO mutants (An∆pmtA, An∆pmtB, and An∆pmtC. An∆pmtA was resistant to both defensins, while An∆pmtC was resistant to NaD2 only, suggesting NaD1 and NaD2 are unlikely to have a general interaction with O-linked side chains. Further evidence of this difference in the antifungal mechanism was provided by the dissimilarity of the NaD1 and NaD2 sensitivities of the Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol signalling knockout mutants from the cell wall integrity (CWI and high osmolarity glycerol (HOG mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. HOG pathway mutants were sensitive to both NaD1 and NaD2, while CWI pathway mutants only displayed sensitivity to NaD2.

  13. Restrictions in cell cycle progression of adult vestibular supporting cells in response to ectopic cyclin D1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Loponen

    Full Text Available Sensory hair cells and supporting cells of the mammalian inner ear are quiescent cells, which do not regenerate. In contrast, non-mammalian supporting cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle and produce replacement hair cells. Earlier studies have demonstrated cyclin D1 expression in the developing mouse supporting cells and its downregulation along maturation. In explant cultures of the mouse utricle, we have here focused on the cell cycle control mechanisms and proliferative potential of adult supporting cells. These cells were forced into the cell cycle through adenoviral-mediated cyclin D1 overexpression. Ectopic cyclin D1 triggered robust cell cycle re-entry of supporting cells, accompanied by changes in p27(Kip1 and p21(Cip1 expressions. Main part of cell cycle reactivated supporting cells were DNA damaged and arrested at the G2/M boundary. Only small numbers of mitotic supporting cells and rare cells with signs of two successive replications were found. Ectopic cyclin D1-triggered cell cycle reactivation did not lead to hyperplasia of the sensory epithelium. In addition, a part of ectopic cyclin D1 was sequestered in the cytoplasm, reflecting its ineffective nuclear import. Combined, our data reveal intrinsic barriers that limit proliferative capacity of utricular supporting cells.

  14. Restrictions in cell cycle progression of adult vestibular supporting cells in response to ectopic cyclin D1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loponen, Heidi; Ylikoski, Jukka; Albrecht, Jeffrey H; Pirvola, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Sensory hair cells and supporting cells of the mammalian inner ear are quiescent cells, which do not regenerate. In contrast, non-mammalian supporting cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle and produce replacement hair cells. Earlier studies have demonstrated cyclin D1 expression in the developing mouse supporting cells and its downregulation along maturation. In explant cultures of the mouse utricle, we have here focused on the cell cycle control mechanisms and proliferative potential of adult supporting cells. These cells were forced into the cell cycle through adenoviral-mediated cyclin D1 overexpression. Ectopic cyclin D1 triggered robust cell cycle re-entry of supporting cells, accompanied by changes in p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1) expressions. Main part of cell cycle reactivated supporting cells were DNA damaged and arrested at the G2/M boundary. Only small numbers of mitotic supporting cells and rare cells with signs of two successive replications were found. Ectopic cyclin D1-triggered cell cycle reactivation did not lead to hyperplasia of the sensory epithelium. In addition, a part of ectopic cyclin D1 was sequestered in the cytoplasm, reflecting its ineffective nuclear import. Combined, our data reveal intrinsic barriers that limit proliferative capacity of utricular supporting cells.

  15. Dopamine D1 receptor stimulation modulates the formation and retrieval of novel object recognition memory: Role of the prelimbic cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezze, Marie A; Marshall, Hayley J; Fone, Kevin C F; Cassaday, Helen J

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that dopamine D1 receptor antagonists impair novel object recognition memory but the effects of dopamine D1 receptor stimulation remain to be determined. This study investigated the effects of the selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist SKF81297 on acquisition and retrieval in the novel object recognition task in male Wistar rats. SKF81297 (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg s.c.) given 15 min before the sampling phase impaired novel object recognition evaluated 10 min or 24 h later. The same treatments also reduced novel object recognition memory tested 24 h after the sampling phase and when given 15 min before the choice session. These data indicate that D1 receptor stimulation modulates both the encoding and retrieval of object recognition memory. Microinfusion of SKF81297 (0.025 or 0.05 μg/side) into the prelimbic sub-region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in this case 10 min before the sampling phase also impaired novel object recognition memory, suggesting that the mPFC is one important site mediating the effects of D1 receptor stimulation on visual recognition memory. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of chronic REM sleep restriction on D1 receptor and related signal pathways in rat prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yan; Wen, Xiaosa; Rong, Fei; Chen, Xinmin; Ouyang, Ruying; Wu, Shuai; Nian, Hua; Ma, Wenling

    2015-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) mediates cognitive function that is sensitive to disruption by sleep loss, and molecular mechanisms regulating neural dysfunction induced by chronic sleep restriction (CSR), particularly in the PFC, have yet to be completely understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chronic REM sleep restriction (REM-CSR) on the D1 receptor (D1R) and key molecules in D1R' signal pathways in PFC. We employed the modified multiple platform method to create the REM-CSR rat model. The ultrastructure of PFC was observed by electron microscopy. HPLC was performed to measure the DA level in PFC. The expressions of genes and proteins of related molecules were assayed by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The general state and morphology of PFC in rats were changed by CSR, and DA level and the expression of D1R in PFC were markedly decreased (P CSR rats (P CSR induced cognitive dysfunction, and the PKA pathway of D1R may play an important role in the impairment of advanced neural function.

  17. D1/D5 system with B-field, noncommutative geometry and the CFT of the higgs branch

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, A; Wadia, S R; Yogendran, K P; Dhar, Avinash; Mandal, Gautam; Wadia, Spenta R.

    2000-01-01

    The D1/D5 system is considered in the presence of the NS B field. An explicit supergravity solution in the asymptotically flat and near horizon limits is presented. Explicit mass formulae are presented in both cases. This solution has no D3 source branes and represents a true bound state of the D1/D5 system. We study the motion of a separated D1-brane in the background geometry described above and reproduce the Liouville potential that binds the D1 brane. A gauge theory analysis is also presented in the presence of Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) parameters which can be identified with the self-dual part of the NS B field. In the case of a single D5-brane and an arbitrary number of D1 branes we can demonstrate the existence of a bound state in the Higgs branch. We also point out the connection of the SCFT on the resolved Sym$_{Q_1Q_5}(\\tilde T^4)$ with recent developments in non-commutative Yang-Mills theory.

  18. Xenia Mission: Spacecraft Design Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, R. C.; Johnson, C. L.; Kouveliotou, C.; Jones, D.; Baysinger, M.; Bedsole, T.; Maples, C. C.; Benfield, P. J.; Turner, M.; Capizzo, P.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The proposed Xenia mission will, for the first time, chart the chemical and dynamical state of the majority of baryonic matter in the universe. using high-resolution spectroscopy, Xenia will collect essential information from major traces of the formation and evolution of structures from the early universe to the present time. The mission is based on innovative instrumental and observational approaches: observing with fast reaction gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a high spectral resolution. This enables the study of their (star-forming) environment from the dark to the local universe and the use of GRBs as backlight of large-scale cosmological structures, observing and surveying extended sources with high sensitivity using two wide field-of-view x-ray telescopes - one with a high angular resolution and the other with a high spectral resolution.

  19. The Van Allen Probes mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions.
 This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...

  20. Gaia Space Mission and Quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwitter, Tomaž, E-mail: tomaz.zwitter@fmf.uni-lj.si [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-11-15

    Quasars are often considered to be point-like objects. This is largely true and allows for an excellent alignment of the optical positional reference frame of the ongoing ESA mission Gaia with the International Celestial Reference Frame. But presence of optical jets in quasars can cause shifts of the optical photo-centers at levels detectable by Gaia. Similarly, motion of emitting blobs in the jet can be detected as proper motion shifts. Gaia's measurements of spectral energy distribution for around a million distant quasars is useful to determine their redshifts and to assess their variability on timescales from hours to years. Spatial resolution of Gaia allows to build a complete magnitude limited sample of strongly lensed quasars. The mission had its first public data release in September 2016 and is scheduled to have the next and much more comprehensive one in April 2018. Here we briefly review the capabilities and current results of the mission. Gaia's unique contributions to the studies of quasars are already being published, a highlight being a discovery of a number of quasars with optical jets.