WorldWideScience

Sample records for spaceflight operations services

  1. Fatigue Management in Spaceflight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Sleep loss and fatigue remain an issue for crewmembers working on the International Space Station, and the ground crews who support them. Schedule shifts on the ISS are required for conducting mission operations. These shifts lead to tasks being performed during the biological night, and sleep scheduled during the biological day, for flight crews and the ground teams who support them. Other stressors have been recognized as hindering sleep in space; these include workload, thinking about upcoming tasks, environmental factors, and inadequate day/night cues. It is unknown if and how other factors such as microgravity, carbon dioxide levels, or increased radiation, may also play a part. Efforts are underway to standardize and provide care for crewmembers, ground controllers and other support personnel. Through collaborations between research and operations, evidenced-based clinical practice guidelines are being developed to equip flight surgeons with the tools and processes needed for treating circadian desynchrony (and subsequent sleep loss) caused by jet lag and shift work. The proper implementation of countermeasures such as schedules, lighting protocols, and cognitive behavioral education can hasten phase shifting, enhance sleep and optimize performance. This panel will focus on Fatigue Management in Spaceflight Operations. Speakers will present on research-based recommendations and technologies aimed at mitigating sleep loss, circadian desynchronization and fatigue on-orbit. Gaps in current mitigations and future recommendations will also be discussed.

  2. Fault Management Techniques in Human Spaceflight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hagan, Brian; Crocker, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses human spaceflight fault management operations. Fault detection and response capabilities available in current US human spaceflight programs Space Shuttle and International Space Station are described while emphasizing system design impacts on operational techniques and constraints. Preflight and inflight processes along with products used to anticipate, mitigate and respond to failures are introduced. Examples of operational products used to support failure responses are presented. Possible improvements in the state of the art, as well as prioritization and success criteria for their implementation are proposed. This paper describes how the architecture of a command and control system impacts operations in areas such as the required fault response times, automated vs. manual fault responses, use of workarounds, etc. The architecture includes the use of redundancy at the system and software function level, software capabilities, use of intelligent or autonomous systems, number and severity of software defects, etc. This in turn drives which Caution and Warning (C&W) events should be annunciated, C&W event classification, operator display designs, crew training, flight control team training, and procedure development. Other factors impacting operations are the complexity of a system, skills needed to understand and operate a system, and the use of commonality vs. optimized solutions for software and responses. Fault detection, annunciation, safing responses, and recovery capabilities are explored using real examples to uncover underlying philosophies and constraints. These factors directly impact operations in that the crew and flight control team need to understand what happened, why it happened, what the system is doing, and what, if any, corrective actions they need to perform. If a fault results in multiple C&W events, or if several faults occur simultaneously, the root cause(s) of the fault(s), as well as their vehicle-wide impacts, must be

  3. Orbital Hub: a concept for human spaceflight beyond ISS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Stephan S.; Maiwald, Volker; Philpot, Claudia; Quantius, Dominik; Romberg, Oliver; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Vrakking, Vincent; Zeidler, Conrad

    2018-04-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the greatest endeavour in low-Earth orbit since the beginning of the space age and the culmination of human outposts like Skylab and Mir. While a clear schedule has yet to be drafted, it is expected that ISS will cease operation in the 2020s. What could be the layout for a human outpost in LEO with lessons learnt from ISS? What are the use cases and applications of such an outpost in the future? The System Analysis Space Segment group of the German Aerospace Center investigated these and other questions and developed the Orbital Hub concept. In this paper an overview is presented of how the overall concept has been derived and its properties and layouts are described. Starting with a workshop involving the science community, the scientific requirements have been derived and Strawman payloads have been defined for use in further design activities. These design activities focused on Concurrent Engineering studies, where besides DLR employees participants from the industry and astronauts were involved. The result is an expandable concept that is composed of two main parts, the Base Platform, home for a permanent crew of up to three astronauts, and the Free Flyer, an uncrewed autonomous research platform. This modular approach provides one major advantage: the decoupling of the habitat and payload leading to increased quality of the micro-gravity environment. The former provides an environment for human physiology experiments, while the latter allows science without the perturbations caused by a crew, e.g. material experiments or Earth observation. The Free Flyer is designed to operate for up to 3 months on its own, but can dock with the space station for maintenance and experiment servicing. It also has a hybrid propulsion system, chemical and electrical, for different applications. The hub's design allows launch with just three launches, as the total mass of all the hub parts is about 60,000 kg. The main focus of the design is

  4. Configuring the HYSPLIT Model for National Weather Service Forecast Office and Spaceflight Meteorology Group Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    For expedience in delivering dispersion guidance in the diversity of operational situations, National Weather Service Melbourne (MLB) and Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) are becoming increasingly reliant on the PC-based version of the HYSPLIT model run through a graphical user interface (GUI). While the GUI offers unique advantages when compared to traditional methods, it is difficult for forecasters to run and manage in an operational environment. To alleviate the difficulty in providing scheduled real-time trajectory and concentration guidance, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) configured a Linux version of the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) (HYSPLIT) model that ingests the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) guidance, such as the North American Mesoscale (NAM) and the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) models. The AMU configured the HYSPLIT system to automatically download the NCEP model products, convert the meteorological grids into HYSPLIT binary format, run the model from several pre-selected latitude/longitude sites, and post-process the data to create output graphics. In addition, the AMU configured several software programs to convert local Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model output into HYSPLIT format.

  5. Configuring the HYSPLIT Model for National Weather Service Forecast Office and Spaceflight Meteorology Group Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Joseph; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian; Van Speybroeck, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    The National Weather Service Forecast Office in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) is responsible for providing meteorological support to state and county emergency management agencies across East Central Florida in the event of incidents involving the significant release of harmful chemicals, radiation, and smoke from fires and/or toxic plumes into the atmosphere. NWS MLB uses the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model to provide trajectory, concentration, and deposition guidance during such events. Accurate and timely guidance is critical for decision makers charged with protecting the health and well-being of populations at risk. Information that can describe the geographic extent of areas possibly affected by a hazardous release, as well as to indicate locations of primary concern, offer better opportunity for prompt and decisive action. In addition, forecasters at the NWS Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have expressed interest in using the HYSPLIT model to assist with Weather Flight Rules during Space Shuttle landing operations. In particular, SMG would provide low and mid-level HYSPLIT trajectory forecasts for cumulus clouds associated with smoke plumes, and high-level trajectory forecasts for thunderstorm anvils. Another potential benefit for both NWS MLB and SMG is using the HYSPLIT model concentration and deposition guidance in fog situations.

  6. Spaceflight Systems Training: A Comparison and Contrasting of Techniques for Training Ground Operators and Onboard Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmain, Clinton; Fleming, Mark

    2009-01-01

    When developing techniques and products for instruction on manned spaceflight systems, training organizations are often faced with two very different customers: ground operators and onboard crewmembers. Frequently, instructional development focuses on one of these customers with the assumption that the other s needs will be met by default. Experience teaches us that differing approaches are required when developing training tailored to the specific needs of each customer. As a rule, ground operators require focused instruction on specific areas of expertise. Their knowledge should be of the details of the hardware, software, and operational techniques associated with that system. They often benefit from historical knowledge of how their system has operated over its lifetime. Since several different ground operators may be interfacing with the same system, each individual operator must understand the agreed-to principles by which that system will be run. In contrast, onboard crewmembers require a more broad, hands-on awareness of their operational environment. Their training should be developed with an understanding of the physical environment in which they live and work and the day-to-day tasks they are most likely to perform. Rarely do they require a deep understanding of the details of a system; it is often sufficient to teach them just enough to maintain situational awareness and perform basic tasks associated with maintenance and operation of onboard systems. Crewmembers may also develop unique onboard operational techniques that differ from preceding crews. They should be taught what flexibility they have in systems operations and how their specific habits can be communicated to ground support personnel. This paper will explore the techniques that can be employed when developing training for these unique customers. We will explore the history of International Space Station training development and how past efforts can guide us in creating training for users of

  7. Spaceflight Versus Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    Spaceflight is challenging. Human spaceflight is far more challenging,.Those familiar with spaceflight recognize that human spaceflight is more than tacking an environmental control system on an existing spacecraft, that there are a number of serious technical challenges involved in sending people out into space and bringing them back home safely.The return trip, bringing the crew back to the surface of the earth safely, is more than just an additional task, it's the new imperative. Differences between manned and unmanned spaceflight are more than technical. The human element forces a change in philosophy, a mindset that will likely touch every aspect of flight from launch through mission and return. Seasoned space professionals used to the paradigms and priorities of unmanned flight need to be cognizant of these differences and some of the implications, perhaps most especially because mission success and human safety priorities are sometimes contradictory.

  8. Evidence-Based Recommendations for Optimizing Light in Day-to-Day Spaceflight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Leveton, Lauren; Barger, Laura; Clark, Toni; Bollweg, Laura; Ohnesorge, Kristine; Brainard, George

    2015-01-01

    NASA Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) personnel have previously reported on efforts to transition evidence-based recommendations for a flexible lighting system on the International Space Station (ISS). Based on these recommendations, beginning in 2016 the ISS will replace the current fluorescent-based lights with an LED-based system to optimize visual performance, facilitate circadian alignment, promote sleep, and hasten schedule shifting. Additional efforts related to lighting countermeasures in spaceflight operations have also been underway. As an example, a recent BHP research study led by investigators at Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital, evaluated the acceptability, feasibility, and effectiveness of blue-enriched light exposure during exercise breaks for flight controllers working the overnight shift in the Mission Control Center (MCC) at NASA Johnson Space Center. This effort, along with published laboratory studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of appropriately timed light for promoting alertness, served as an impetus for new light options, and educational protocols for flight controllers. In addition, a separate set of guidelines related to the light emitted from electronic devices, were provided to the Astronaut Office this past year. These guidelines were based on an assessment led by NASA's Lighting Environment Test Facility that included measuring the spectral power distribution, irradiance, and radiance of light emitted from ISS-grade laptops and I-Pads, as well as Android devices. Evaluations were conducted with and without the use of off-the-shelf screen filters as well as a software application that touts minimizing the short-wave length of the visible light spectrum. This presentation will focus on the transition for operations process related to lighting countermeasures in the MCC, as well as the evidence to support recommendations for optimal use of laptops, I-Pads, and Android devices during all

  9. Space Toxicology: Environmental Health Considerations during Spaceflight Operations and Potential Paths for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen N.; Sundaresan, Alemalu

    2009-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a specialized discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids [1]. Astronaut explorers face unique challenges to their health while working and living with limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. At its core the practice of space toxicology to identify, assess and predict potential chemical contaminants and limit the astronaut s exposure to these environmental factors in order to protect crew health. Space toxicologists are also charged with setting safe exposure limits that will protect the astronaut against a multitude of chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space, toxicological risks are gauged and managed within the context of isolation, continual exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the necessary use of highly toxic compounds required for propulsion. As the space program move towards human presence and exploration other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of unusual and/or reactive mineral dusts must also be analyzed and controlled. Placing humans for long-term presence in space creates several problems and challenges to the long-term health of the crew, such as bone-loss and immunological challenges and has spurred research into acute, chronic and episodic exposure of the pulmonary system to mineral dusts [2]. NASA has demonstrated that lunar soil contains several types of reactive dusts, including an extremely fine respirable component. In order to protect astronaut health, NASA is now investigating the toxicity of this unique class of dusts. Understanding how these reactive components behave "biochemically" in a moisture-rich pulmonary environment will aid in determining how toxic these particles are to humans. The data obtained from toxicological examination of lunar dusts will determine the human risk criteria for lunar

  10. Assessment of Proficiency During Simulated Rover Operations Following Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Dean, S. L.; De Dios, Y. E.; MacDougall, H. G.; Moore, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Following long-duration space travel, pressurized rovers will enhance crew mobility to explore Mars and other planetary surfaces. Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function may limit the crew s proficiency when performing some rover operations shortly after transition to the new gravitoinertial environment. The primary goal of this investigation is to quantify postflight decrements in operational proficiency in a motion-based rover simulation after International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. Given that postflight performance will also be influenced by the level of preflight proficiency attained, a ground-based normative study was conducted to characterize the acquisition of skills over multiple sessions.

  11. Multicultural factors for international spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, J P

    2001-06-01

    Spaceflight operations, including the International Space Station (ISS) and a mission to Mars, depend on international cooperation. Accordingly, safety, performance, and mission success rely on how well crews and operational personnel with different cultural backgrounds operate together. This paper outlines 10 areas related to spaceflight that are influenced by the national culture and backgrounds of personnel: (a) Communication, (b) Cognition and Decision Making, (c) Technology Interfacing, (d) Interpersonal Interactions, (e) Work, Management, and Leadership Style, (f) Personal Hygiene and Clothing, (g) Food Preparation and Meals, (h) Religion and Holidays, (i) Recreation, and (j) Habitat Aesthetics. Research findings and recommendations are presented, as well as a multicultural training approach to reduce potential challenges for long-duration spaceflight.

  12. Beefing up operations in service firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, R B; Hayes, R H

    1991-01-01

    Many articles exhort service firm managers to empower workers and first-line supervisors, exploit technology, focus on the customer, and, above all, provide outstanding service. This article proposes a framework to help you evaluate your company's competitive standing in each of these areas. It discusses four types of companies on a continuum, from the company that is simply "available for service" to the firm that delivers world class service. The authors focus on operations, the function that controls the service encounter, and apply the manufacturing strategy paradigm to services as a means of implementing change.

  13. Operating cost model for local service airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.; Andrastek, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Several mathematical models now exist which determine the operating economics for a United States trunk airline. These models are valuable in assessing the impact of new aircraft into an airline's fleet. The use of a trunk airline cost model for the local service airline does not result in representative operating costs. A new model is presented which is representative of the operating conditions and resultant costs for the local service airline. The calculated annual direct and indirect operating costs for two multiequipment airlines are compared with their actual operating experience.

  14. Safety Criteria for the Private Spaceflight Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Andy; Maropoulos, Paul

    2010-09-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration(FAA) Office of Commercial Space Transportation(AST) has set specific rules and generic guidelines to cover experimental and operational flights by industry forerunners such as Virgin Galactic and XCOR. One such guideline Advisory Circular(AC) 437.55-1[1] contains exemplar hazard analyses for spacecraft designers and operators to follow under an experimental permit. The FAA’s rules and guidelines have also been ratified in a report to the United States Congress, Analysis of Human Space Flight Safety[2] which cites that the industry is too immature and has ‘insufficient data’ to be proscriptive and that ‘defining a minimum set of criteria for human spaceflight service providers is potentially problematic’ in order not to ‘stifle the emerging industry’. The authors of this paper acknowledge the immaturity of the industry and discuss the problematic issues that Design Organisations and Operators now face.

  15. Spaceflight participant visits CERN!

    CERN Multimedia

    Kathryn Coldham

    2016-01-01

    On 15 July, CERN welcomed spaceflight participant Anousheh Ansari.   Anousheh Ansari’s grin stretches from ear to ear, during an intriguing conversation with Nobel laureate Samuel C.C. Ting at AMS POCC. (Image: Maximilien Brice/CERN) Iranian-American Anousheh Ansari was the first-ever female spaceflight participant, spending eight days on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006. She now has a new addition to her list of extraordinary sights ­– the home of the world’s largest particle accelerator: CERN.   On 15 July, Anousheh Ansari came to CERN and, unsurprisingly, visited the control room of the experiment attached to the ISS: the AMS. At the AMS Payload Operations Control Centre (AMS POCC) on CERN’s Prévessin site, she met the Nobel laureate Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the AMS experiment. Ansari and her accompanying guests were thrilled to expand their knowledge about CERN, its research and its...

  16. Operations Research Flight Ground Service Education/Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a nutritional biochemistry assessment of astronauts in preflight, in-flight, and post-flight operations. In-flight collections of blood and urine samples from astronauts to test the effects of Vitamin K, Pro K, Vitamin D, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Iron, and Sodium in spaceflight is shown. A demonstration of a 1-carbon metabolism pathway that determines the existence of enzymes and polymorphisms is also presented.

  17. Tele-operated service robots : ROSE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osch, van M.P.W.J.; Bera, D.; Hee, van K.M.; Koks, Y.; Zeegers, H.

    2014-01-01

    Service robots are robots that are intended to perform tasks normally done by humans in an environment in which humans work as well. However, they are neither required to accomplish these tasks in the same way as humans nor need to look like a human being. A tele-operated robot is controlled from a

  18. Strategic Promotion And Bank Services Delivery: Operational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chi-square (x2) non-parametric statistical technique was applied in analyzing the primary data so harnessed. The results indicated that Banks services delivery systems are not critically determined by available operational finance. This strategically necessitates budgetary enhancement and focal human capital development ...

  19. The Challenges and Achievements in 50 Years of Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    On April 12, 1961 the era of human spaceflight began with the orbital flight of Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. On May 5, 1961 The United States responded with the launch of Alan Shepard aboard Freedom 7 on the first flight of Project Mercury. The focus of the first 20 years of human spaceflight was developing the fundamental operational capabilities and technologies required for a human mission to the Moon. The Mercury and Gemini Projects demonstrated launch and entry guidance, on-orbit navigation, rendezvous, extravehicular activity, and flight durations equivalent to a round-trip to the Moon. Heroes of this epoch included flight directors Chris Kraft, Gene Kranz, and Glynn Lunney along with astronauts like John Young, Jim Lovell, Tom Stafford, and Neil Armstrong. The "Race to the Moon” was eventually won by the United States with the landing of Apollo 11 on July 20, 1969. The Apollo program was truncated at 11 missions and a new system, the Space Shuttle, was developed which became the focus of the subsequent 30 years. Although never able to meet the flight rate or cost promises made in the 1970s, the Shuttle nevertheless left a remarkable legacy of accomplishment. The Shuttle made possible the launch and servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope and diverse activities such as life science research and classified national security missions. The Shuttle launched more than half the mass ever put into orbit and its heavy-lift capability and large payload bay enabled the on-orbit construction of the International Space Station. The Shuttle also made possible spaceflight careers for scientists who were not military test pilots - people like me. In this talk I will review the early years of spaceflight and share my experiences, including two missions with HST, from the perspective of a five-time flown astronaut and a senior flight operations manager.

  20. Operation without benefit in the services sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, C. U.; Nipkow, J.; Brechbuehl, B.; Glauser, H.; Steinemann, U.

    2009-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the unnecessary operation of electrical equipment. This preliminary study examined in a top-down manner the electrical grid loads at night in Switzerland and attempts to identify unnecessary loads. The results of a bottom-up analysis of seven buildings in the service sector was made. One large complex was also used to identify the sources of night-time loads. Together, these two approaches allowed a first appreciation and a rough quantification of the load caused by the unnecessary operation of equipment in the Swiss electricity grid. The services sector has an estimated share of some 2.4 TWh/a caused by unnecessary operation. In a follow-up project the reduction of unnecessary loads is to be studied in more detail. This second analysis will also have to include loads caused by unnecessary operation during the daytime. The goal of the project is eventually to reduce any unnecessary electric loads and, as a result, the entire electricity demands of Switzerland

  1. Terrestrial Spaceflight Analogs: Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in immune cell distribution and function, circadian misalignment, stress and latent viral reactivation appear to persist during Antarctic winterover at Concordia Station. Some of these changes are similar to those observed in Astronauts, either during or immediately following spaceflight. Others are unique to the Concordia analog. Based on some initial immune data and environmental conditions, Concordia winterover may be an appropriate analog for some flight-associated immune system changes and mission stress effects. An ongoing smaller control study at Neumayer III will address the influence of the hypoxic variable. Changes were observed in the peripheral blood leukocyte distribution consistent with immune mobilization, and similar to those observed during spaceflight. Alterations in cytokine production profiles were observed during winterover that are distinct from those observed during spaceflight, but potentially consistent with those observed during persistent hypobaric hypoxia. The reactivation of latent herpesviruses was observed during overwinter/isolation, that is consistently associated with dysregulation in immune function.

  2. Improving traffic signal management and operations : a basic service model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report provides a guide for achieving a basic service model for traffic signal management and : operations. The basic service model is based on simply stated and defensible operational objectives : that consider the staffing level, expertise and...

  3. Spaceflight Flow Cytometry: Design Challenges and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Dimitri; Kao, Shih-Hsin; Jeevarajan, Antony S.

    2004-01-01

    Future space exploration missions will require analytical technology capable of providing both autonomous medical care to the crew and investigative capabilities to researchers. While several promising candidate technologies exist for further development, flow cytometry is an attractive technology as it offers both crew health and a wide array of biochemistry and immunology assays. While flow cytometry has been widely used for cellular analysis in both clinical and research settings, the requirements for proper operation in spaceflight impose constraints on any instrument designs. The challenges of designing a spaceflight-ready flow cytometer are discussed, as well as some preliminary results using a prototype system.

  4. The Spaceflight Revolution Revisted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, William Sims

    2002-01-01

    There are two models of the future of spaceflight, and there are two theories of how that future might be achieved. The first model of spaceflight assumes that we have already achieved most of what is worth achieving in space, whereas the second imagines it will be possible to build a truly interplanetary civilization in which most human beings live elsewhere than on Earth. The first theory holds that progress comes incrementally from the inexorable working of free markets and political systems, whereas the second believes that revolutionary transformations must sometimes be accomplished by social movements that transcend the ordinary institutions and motivations of mundane existence.

  5. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  6. MANAGING OPERATIONS IMPROVEMENT IN ROMANIAN PUBLIC SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALOI IONUT-COSMIN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a pleading for the transfer of best practices to improving the operational activity in the Romanian public institutions. The practice of implementation demonstrates that the perception of many executives in the Romanian private enterprises regarding the set of tools to improve processes and assimilation of lean philosophy is not a very favorable and encouraging one. It can be said that only some large enterprises had successfully introduced in their daily practice and organization the improvement principles, the operational optimization and the elimination of waste sources. In the SMEs, and especially in the services the experiences are isolated, but they have demonstrated the usefulness (the frequency of saving goals indicate, indeed, the need for proliferation of continuous improvement principles. Regarding the public organizations, the implementation of the new management system of designing and operating the current practices is pretty unknown, accepted at declarative level, but becomes, when is planned and implemented rather a burden on managers who should take on this challenge. Both in public management and private management, today the focus is on people and relationships (processes and projects, starting of course with the work organization. The good practices successfully proved in the private management in the recent decades are transferred today to public institutions; and the Romanian public organizations tend to adapt, also in terms of processes optimization. The study aims to analyze the functioning of the hypothetical management system of processes improvements, respectively the applying of lean tools and principles within the public Romanian institution. They are treated some dysfunctions observed within the process of understanding the utility aspects and throughout the assuming of operational improvement goals within these organizations. The qualitative observations, the critical interpretations and

  7. Report of the reactor Operators Service - Annex F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivotic, Z.

    1990-01-01

    RA reactor operators service is organized in two groups: permanent staff (chief operator, chief shift operators and operators) and changeable group which is formed according to the particular operation needs for working in shifts. During 1989 the operators service staff participated in the following activities: reconstruction of the existing reactor systems, control of the emergency cooling system, construction of the experimental loop 'Vinca-1'. Education of the staff was organized through routine courses, practical training is foreseen for 1991 [sr

  8. Remote operation and maintenance support services for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroki; Higuma, Koji; Shimizu, Shunichi; Sakuma, Masatake; Sonoda, Yukio; Kanemoto, Shigeru

    2004-01-01

    Toshiba Corporation constructed e-Toshiba Operating Plant Service (e-TOPS TM ) system and began remote operation and maintenance support service for nuclear power plants. The service put into practice remote operation and maintenance by harmony of information technologies such as internet and mobile, and nuclear power measurement/diagnostic technologies and security techniques. Outline of e-TOPS TM , remote-control service, -inspection system, -diagnostic service and technologies support service are explained. Construction, objects and application effects of e-TOPS TM , remote diagnostic system using image treatment techniques, construction of device record card control system are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  9. Improved methods for operating public transportation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    In this joint project, West Virginia University and the University of Maryland collaborated in developing improved methods for analyzing and managing public transportation services. Transit travel time data were collected using GPS tracking services ...

  10. Operating System Services for Networked Clusters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bershad, Brian

    2003-01-01

    ...: communication, security, and services. In the area of communication, we developed a new computing infrastructure for partitioning protocols between the primary processor and an embedded co processor...

  11. Utility communication networks and services specification, deployment and operation

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This CIGRE green book begins by addressing the specification and provision of communication services in the context of operational applications for electrical power utilities, before subsequently providing guidelines on the deployment or transformation of networks to deliver these specific communication services. Lastly, it demonstrates how these networks and their services can be monitored, operated, and maintained to ensure that the requisite high level of service quality is consistently achieved.

  12. PHILOSOPHERS BEFORE AND AFTER SPACEFLIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Grigenti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In my contribution, I will show the ways by which philosophers have treated the topic of space-travel before and after its implementation. I will discuss the following points: a Introduction: the human condition. b Philosophers before spaceflight: the Astolfo Protocol. c Philosophers after spaceflight: the Promethean suspect. In this paper I will emphasize the elements of two different and alternative visions of spaceflight that can be found in the Western tradition of philosophical thought.

  13. Brain structural plasticity with spaceflight

    OpenAIRE

    Koppelmans, Vincent; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Seidler, Rachael D

    2016-01-01

    Humans undergo extensive sensorimotor adaptation during spaceflight due to altered vestibular inputs and body unloading. No studies have yet evaluated the effects of spaceflight on human brain structure despite the fact that recently reported optic nerve structural changes are hypothesized to occur due to increased intracranial pressure occurring with microgravity. This is the first report on human brain structural changes with spaceflight. We evaluated retrospective longitudinal T2-weighted ...

  14. PHILOSOPHERS BEFORE AND AFTER SPACEFLIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Grigenti

    2011-01-01

    In my contribution, I will show the ways by which philosophers have treated the topic of space-travel before and after its implementation. I will discuss the following points: a) Introduction: the human condition. b) Philosophers before spaceflight: the Astolfo Protocol. c) Philosophers after spaceflight: the Promethean suspect. In this paper I will emphasize the elements of two different and alternative visions of spaceflight that can be found in the Western tradition of philosophical thought.

  15. Software Engineering for Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    The Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch of NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) provides world-class products, leadership, and technical expertise in software engineering, processes, technology, and systems management for human spaceflight. The branch contributes to major NASA programs (e.g. ISS, MPCV/Orion) with in-house software development and prime contractor oversight, and maintains the JSC Engineering Directorate CMMI rating for flight software development. Software engineering teams work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements. They seek to infuse automation and autonomy into missions, and apply new technologies to flight processor and computational architectures. This presentation will provide an overview of key software-related projects, software methodologies and tools, and technology pursuits of interest to the JSC Spacecraft Software Engineering Branch.

  16. Spaceflight Microbiology: Benefits for Long Duration Spaceflight and Our Understanding of Microorganisms on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight microbiology is composed of both operational and experimental components that complement each other in our understanding of microbial interactions and their responses in the microgravity of spaceflight. Operationally, efforts to mitigate microbiological risk to the crew and the spacecraft have historically focused on minimizing the number of detectable organisms, relying heavily on preventative measures, including appropriate vehicle design, crew quarantine prior to flight, and stringent microbial monitoring. Preflight monitoring targets have included the astronauts, spaceflight foods, potable water systems, the vehicle air and surfaces, and the cargo carried aboard the spacecraft. This approach has been very successful for earlier missions; however, the construction and long-term habitation of the International Space Station (ISS) has created the need for additional inflight monitoring of the environment and potable water systems using hardware designed for both in-flight microbial enumeration and sample collection and return to Earth. In addition to operational activities, the ISS is providing a research platform to advance our understanding of microbiomes in the built environment. Adding to the research possibilities of this system are multiple reports of unique changes in microbial gene expression and phenotypic responses, including virulence and biofilm formation, in response to spaceflight culture. The tremendous potential of the ISS research platform led the National Research Council to recommend that NASA utilize the ISS as a microbial observatory. Collectively, the findings from operational and research activities on the ISS are expected to both enable future space exploration and translate to basic and applied research on Earth.

  17. Report of the reactor Operators Service - Annex F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivotic, Z.

    1992-01-01

    RA reactor operators service is organized in two groups: permanent staff (chief operator, chief shift operators and operators) and changeable group which is formed according to the particular operation needs for working in shifts. For continuous training of the existing operator staff the Service has prepared and published eleven booklets: Nuclear reactor; RA reactor primary coolant loop; System for purification of heavy water; reactor helium system; system for technical water; electric power system; control and operation; ventilation system in the reactor building; special sewage system; construction properties of the reactor core; reactor building and installations. During the reporting period there have been no accidents nor incidents that could affect the reactor personnel [sr

  18. How Spacecraft Fly Spaceflight Without Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Swinerd, Graham

    2009-01-01

    About half a century ago a small satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The satellite did very little other than to transmit a radio signal to announce its presence in orbit. However, this humble beginning heralded the dawn of the Space Age. Today literally thousands of robotic spacecraft have been launched, many of which have flown to far-flung regions of the Solar System carrying with them the human spirit of scientific discovery and exploration. Numerous other satellites have been launched in orbit around the Earth providing services that support our technological society on the ground. How Spacecraft Fly: Spaceflight Without Formulae by Graham Swinerd focuses on how these spacecraft work. The book opens with a historical perspective of how we have come to understand our Solar System and the Universe. It then progresses through orbital flight, rocket science, the hostile environment within which spacecraft operate, and how they are designed. The concluding chapters give a glimpse of what the 21st century may ...

  19. Integrating ecosystem services into national Forest Service policy and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Deal; Lisa Fong; Erin Phelps; Emily Weidner; Jonas Epstein; Tommie Herbert; Mary Snieckus; Nikola Smith; Tania Ellersick; Greg Arthaud

    2017-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept describes the many benefits people receive from nature. It highlights the importance of managing public and private lands sustainably to ensure these benefits continue into the future, and it closely aligns with the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) mission to “sustain the health, diversity, and productivity of the Nation’s forests and...

  20. Local franchisee PPPS for water services operation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bhagwan, J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an alternative service delivery institutional concept, viz the franchising of local entrepreneurs, a PPP model especially suited to developing countries. The concept is being developed with the intention of making it available...

  1. Product quality, service reliability and management of operations at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High product quality, service reliability, and management of operations are key factors in business growth and sustainability. Analyzing “The Starbucks Experience” is a pedagogical approach to reinforcing the concepts of control and management of quality, service reliability, and efficient operations in action. The objective ...

  2. Design of an operations manager selection system in service encounter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanawin Nunthaphanich

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide criteria for selecting operations managers at the ‘service encounter’ for mobile telecommunication companies, and develop a system for this multi-criteria decision-making scheme based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. There are three main criteria for evaluating the capability of service-encounter operation managers: (1 the ability to design service process; (2 the ability to operate service process; (3 the ability to conduct improvement. The AHP operation manager selection tool was developed based on the complex problems at the service encounter. It was created as a decision support system which was used to recruit and evaluate operations managers’ capability for the purpose of career advancement.

  3. Where does the customer fit in a service operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, R B

    1978-01-01

    While management skills can improve service systems, a manager is better off if he or she first has a clear understanding of the operating characteristics that set one service system apart from another. This author offers one view of services, which, if followed, results in a "rational approach to the rationalization" of services. His view, quite simply, is that the less direct contact the customer has with the service system, the greater the potential of the system to operate at peak efficiency. And, conversely, where the direct customer contact is high, the less the potential that exists to achieve high levels of efficiency. This distinction between high- and low-contact systems provides a basis for classifying service production systems that can enable the manager to develop a more effective service operation.

  4. Human Resources Operational Data Store Core Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This database contains only a very small subset of the Human Resources Operational Data Store data. It supports the SSA Employee and Office Data Retrieval (SEODR)...

  5. Airport landside operations and air service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandle, P. B.; Whitlock, E. M.; Lamagna, F.; Mundy, R. A.; Oberhausen, P. J.

    The following areas are discussed: airport curbside planning and design; analysis of New Orleans airport ground transportation system; time series analysis of intercity air travel volume; economic justification of air service to small communities; and general aviation and the airport and airway system (an analysis of cost allocation and recovery).

  6. Preflight screening techniques for centrifuge-simulated suborbital spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattarini, James M; Blue, Rebecca S; Castleberry, Tarah L; Vanderploeg, James M

    2014-12-01

    Historically, space has been the venue of the healthy individual. With the advent of commercial spaceflight, we face the novel prospect of routinely exposing spaceflight participants (SPFs) with multiple comorbidities to the space environment. Preflight screening procedures must be developed to identify those individuals at increased risk during flight. We examined the responses of volunteers to centrifuge accelerations mimicking commercial suborbital spaceflight profiles to evaluate how potential SFPs might tolerate such forces. We evaluated our screening process for medical approval of subjects for centrifuge participation for applicability to commercial spaceflight operations. All registered subjects completed a medical questionnaire, physical examination, and electrocardiogram. Subjects with identified concerns including cardiopulmonary disease, hypertension, and diabetes were required to provide documentation of their conditions. There were 335 subjects who registered for the study, 124 who completed all prescreening, and 86 subjects who participated in centrifuge trials. Due to prior medical history, five subjects were disqualified, most commonly for psychiatric reasons or uncontrolled medical conditions. Of the subjects approved, four individuals experienced abnormal physiological responses to centrifuge profiles, including one back strain and three with anxiety reactions. The screening methods used were judged to be sufficient to identify individuals physically capable of tolerating simulated suborbital flight. Improved methods will be needed to identify susceptibility to anxiety reactions. While severe or uncontrolled disease was excluded, many subjects successfully participated in centrifuge trials despite medical histories of disease that are disqualifying under historical spaceflight screening regimes. Such screening techniques are applicable for use in future commercial spaceflight operations.

  7. It services operations: an approach of resources sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Souza Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sizing IT (Information Technology services resources and incentives for efficient operation should be planned according to the service levels needs and IT provider and customer objectives. The analysis of studies of scaling can be used as strategic information, adapting the IT assets and staff size and enable capacity planning. As a complement, the best practices enable clear rules for penalties and gainsharing over the relationship between customer and IT provider. Hence, this paper aims to contribute with an approach that allows perform flexible service level agreements, allowing a lower risk of outsourcing. Simulation and methods are highlighted for service baseline change which seek to provide benefits to providers and clients, avoiding conflicts over the service operation. The research uses a literature review and an application in matters related to the study area. The results and analysis looking at the possible sizing, flexibility in SLA and incentives for IT external providers in its services operations.

  8. Healthcare operations service redesign and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, David; Thornton, H.; Bamford, Jim

    2008-01-01

    We report on a project that is increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of healthcare\\ud provision by getting “the right patient, the right equipment, the right healthcare worker\\ud to the right place at the right time for the right treatment to be carried out in the right\\ud way.” This is being done through: i) a review of the utilisation and disposition of all\\ud logistics/transport assets and an assessment of future demand/capacity issues and\\ud patterns for healthcare services; ii) the...

  9. Operations and quality management for public service delivery improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulin Mbecke

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Public service management reforms have not yet contributed to poverty eradication and generally socio-economic development of many African countries. The reforms suggested and implemented to date still prove to be weak in addressing the many challenges faced by the public service in delivering goods and services to the population. The failure of the current public service management calls for a consideration of business-driven approaches and practices that facilitate effectiveness, efficiency, competitiveness and flexibility in goods and services provision. The critical social theory methodology and the literature review technique described and raised awareness on service delivery chaos in South Africa. A public service reform that focuses on operations and quality management is one of the ways of improving and sustaining service delivery in South Africa. Operations management is an essential tool for the planning, execution, control, monitoring and evaluation of production processes. Quality management, in the other hand, is essential to ensure best quality of goods and services produced by the public service within acceptable time and available resources to meet or exceed people’s expectations. The operations and quality management framework proposed in this article is a potential alternative to the current service delivery crisis in South Africa.

  10. Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Alex P; Marshall-Bowman, Karina

    2015-06-01

    Although once a widely speculated about and largely theoretical topic, spaceflight-induced intracranial hypertension has gained acceptance as a distinct clinical phenomenon, yet the underlying physiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. In the past, many terms were used to describe the symptoms of malaise, nausea, vomiting, and vertigo, though longer duration spaceflights have increased the prevalence of overlapping symptoms of headache and visual disturbance. Spaceflight-induced visual pathology is thought to be a manifestation of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) because of its similar presentation to cases of known intracranial hypertension on Earth as well as the documentation of increased ICP by lumbar puncture in symptomatic astronauts upon return to gravity. The most likely mechanisms of spaceflight-induced increased ICP include a cephalad shift of body fluids, venous outflow obstruction, blood-brain barrier breakdown, and disruption to CSF flow. The relative contribution of increased ICP to the symptoms experienced during spaceflight is currently unknown, though other factors recently posited to contribute include local effects on ocular structures, individual differences in metabolism, and the vasodilator effects of carbon dioxide. This review article attempts to consolidate the literature regarding spaceflight-induced intracranial hypertension and distinguish it from other pathologies with similar symptomatology. It discusses the proposed physiological causes and the pathological manifestations of increased ICP in the spaceflight environment and provides considerations for future long-term space travel. In the future, it will be critical to develop countermeasures so that astronauts can participate at their peak potential and return safely to Earth.

  11. Innovative water service operation and maintenance: exploration of franchising partnerships

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available WRC and CSIR research has found that franchising partnerships could alleviate and address many challenges in the operation and maintenance of water services infrastructure. Franchising brings appropriate training to those on-site, and also offers...

  12. An Examination of the United States Air Service's Logistics Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    This historical study details the U.S. Air Service's logistics operations at home and abroad in an attempt to determine the relationship between the process and more recently established logistic principles...

  13. Editorial Special issue: Operations Management in Service Systems Downloaded from

    OpenAIRE

    Babai , Mohamed Zied; Jouini , Oualid

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The service sector is the largest sector of the economy in most industrialized nations, and is fast becoming the largest sector in developing nations as well. Driven by today's new business environment, including advanced telecommunications, accelerated business globalization, increased automation and highly on-demand and competitive innovations, the complexity of the operations management of service systems is continuously increasing. Managers of service systems are w...

  14. The Effects of Spaceflight and a Spaceflight Analog on Neurocognitive Perfonnance: Extent, Longevity, and Neural Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, R. D.; Mulavara, A. P.; Koppelmans, V.; Erdeniz, B.; Kofman, I. S.; DeDios, Y. E.; Szecsy, D. L.; Riascos-Castaneda, R. F.; Wood, S. J.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    We are conducting ongoing experiments in which we are performing structural and functional magnetic resonance brain imaging to identify the relationships between changes in neurocognitive function and neural structural alterations following a six month International Space Station mission and following 70 days exposure to a spaceflight analog, head down tilt bedrest. Our central hypothesis is that measures of brain structure, function, and network integrity will change from pre to post intervention (spaceflight, bedrest). Moreover, we predict that these changes will correlate with indices of cognitive, sensory, and motor function in a neuroanatomically selective fashion. Our interdisciplinary approach utilizes cutting edge neuroimaging techniques and a broad ranging battery of sensory, motor, and cognitive assessments that will be conducted pre flight, during flight, and post flight to investigate potential neuroplastic and maladaptive brain changes in crewmembers following long-duration spaceflight. Success in this endeavor would 1) result in identification of the underlying neural mechanisms and operational risks of spaceflight-induced changes in behavior, and 2) identify whether a return to normative behavioral function following re-adaptation to Earth's gravitational environment is associated with a restitution of brain structure and function or instead is supported by substitution with compensatory brain processes. With the bedrest study, we will be able to determine the neural and neurocognitive effects of extended duration unloading, reduced sensory inputs, and increased cephalic fluid distribution. This will enable us to parse out the multiple mechanisms contributing to any spaceflight-induced neural structural and behavioral changes that we observe in the flight study. In this presentation I will discuss preliminary results from six participants who have undergone the bed rest protocol. These individuals show decrements in balance and functional mobility

  15. Operational Risk Assesement Tools for Quality Management in Banking Services

    OpenAIRE

    Dima, Alina Mihaela

    2009-01-01

    Among all the different types of risks that can affect financial companies, the operational risk can be the most devastating and the most difficult to anticipate. The management of operational risk is a key component of financial and risk management discipline that drives net income results, 2capital management and customer satisfaction. The present paper contains a statistical analysis in order to determine the number of operational errors as quality based services determinants, depending on...

  16. Modelling Vessel Traffic Service to understand resilience in everyday operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praetorius, Gesa; Hollnagel, Erik; Dahlman, Joakim

    2015-01-01

    Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) is a service to promote traffic fluency and safety in the entrance to ports. This article's purpose has been to explore everyday operations of the VTS system to gain insights in how it contributes to safe and efficient traffic movements. Interviews, focus groups and an observation have been conducted to collect data about everyday operations, as well as to grasp how the VTS system adapts to changing operational conditions. The results show that work within the VTS domain is highly complex and that the two systems modelled realise their services vastly differently, which in turn affects the systems' ability to monitor, respond and anticipate. This is of great importance to consider whenever changes are planned and implemented within the VTS domain. Only if everyday operations are properly analysed and understood, it can be estimated how alterations to technology and organisation will affect the overall system performance

  17. Bioavailability of Promethazine during Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Jason L.; Wang, Zuwei; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2009-01-01

    Promethazine (PMZ) is the choice anti-motion sickness medication for treating space motion sickness (SMS) during flight. The side effects associated with PMZ include dizziness, drowsiness, sedation, and impaired psychomotor performance which could impact crew performance and mission operations. Early anecdotal reports from crewmembers indicate that these central nervous system side effects of PMZ are absent or greatly attenuated in microgravity, potentially due to changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics in microgravity. These changes could also affect the therapeutic effectiveness of drugs in general and PMZ, in particular. In this investigation, we examined bioavailability and associated pharmacokinetics of PMZ in astronauts during and after space flight. Methods. Nine astronauts received, per their preference, PMZ (25 or 50 mg as intramuscular injection, oral tablet, or rectal suppository) on flight day one for the treatment of SMS and subsequently collected saliva samples and completed sleepiness scores for 72 h post dose. Thirty days after the astronauts returned to Earth, they repeated the protocol. Bioavailability and PK parameters were calculated and compared between flight and ground. Results. Maximum concentration (Cmax) was lower and time to reach Cmax (tmax) was longer in flight than on the ground. Area under the curve (AUC), a measure of bioavailability, was lower and biological half-life (t1/2) was longer in flight than on the ground. Conclusion. Results indicate that bioavailability of PMZ is reduced during spaceflight. Number of samples, sampling method, and sampling schedule significantly affected PK parameter estimates.

  18. Space Mission Operations Ground Systems Integration Customer Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The facility, which is now the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, has provided continuous space mission and related services for the space industry since 1961, from Mercury Redstone through the International Space Station (ISS). Throughout the long history of the facility and mission support teams, the HOSC has developed a stellar customer support and service process. In this era, of cost cutting, and providing more capability and results with fewer resources, space missions are looking for the most efficient way to accomplish their objectives. One of the first services provided by the facility was fax transmission of documents to, then, Cape Canaveral in Florida. The headline in the Marshall Star, the newspaper for the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center, read "Exact copies of Documents sent to Cape in 4 minutes." The customer was Dr. Wernher von Braun. Currently at the HOSC we are supporting, or have recently supported, missions ranging from simple ISS payloads requiring little more than "bentpipe" telemetry access, to a low cost free-flyer Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite (FASTSAT), to a full service ISS payload Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer 2 (AMS2) supporting 24/7 operations at three operations centers around the world with an investment of over 2 billion dollars. The HOSC has more need and desire than ever to provide fast and efficient customer service to support these missions. Here we will outline how our customer-centric service approach reduces the cost of providing services, makes it faster and easier than ever for new customers to get started with HOSC services, and show what the future holds for our space mission operations customers. We will discuss our philosophy concerning our responsibility and accessibility to a mission customer as well as how we deal with the following issues: initial contact with a customer, reducing customer cost, changing regulations and security

  19. Optimizing capital and time expenditures for drilling service operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zazovskiy, F Ya; Soltysyak, T I

    1980-01-01

    The operational efficiency of drilling services operations management are examined. The structure of time expenditure is analyzed for repair operations according to equipment type employed by the Ivano-Frankovsk Drilling Management under the Ukrneft' enterprise during 1977. The results of this analysis are weighed against a series of service operations carried out at industrial enterprises and connected with technical disruptions. Some of the cases examined include service competion operations outside of the industrial units when technical processes are disrupted only for the change of equipment which has outlived its usefulness and is no longer in series production. First of all, time expended for repair work can be reduced to zero during the drilling of shallow wells which do not require extensive drilling time. The actual savings, both in time and money, as far as repair work is concerned, hinges on the actual time factor for total oil depetion. An equation is provided for optimal time expenditure necessary for repair work and equipment replacement. An actual example is given from the Dolinsk UBR (Drillin Management) under the Ukrneft' enterprise where time spent on actual service operations has appeared to be less than the optimal figure cited in the above material. This is possible because of increased capital expenditures.

  20. US Fish and Wildlife Service lands biomonitoring operations manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rope, R.C.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1993-08-01

    This is Volume 1 of an operations manual designed to facilitate the development of biomonitoring strategies for U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands. It is one component of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Lands Biomonitoring Operations Manual. The Volume contains the Introduction to the Manual, background information on monitoring, and procedures for developing a biomonitoring strategy for Service lands. The purpose of the Biomonitoring Operations Manual is to provide an approach to develop and implement biomonitoring activities to assess the status and trends of U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service trust resources. It also provides field sampline methods and documentation protocols for contaminant monitoring activities. The strategy described in the Manual has been designed as a stand alone process to characterize the presence of contaminants on lands managed by the Service. This process can be sued to develop a monitoring program for any tract of real estate with potential threats from on- or off-site contaminants. Because the process was designed to address concerns for Service lands that span the United States from Alaska to the Tropical Islands, it has a generic format that can be used in al types of ecosystems, however, significant site specific informtion is required to complete the Workbook and make the process work successfully.

  1. Spaceflight bioreactor studies of cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Lisa E; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2002-01-01

    well-being (loss of muscle and skeletal tissues [15-17]) and gene- and cell-level responses to the mechanical environment [13,14,18]. All five of the spaceflight bioreactor studies described above utilized three-dimensional cell culture systems in which the cells were associated with biodegradable polymer scaffolds [17], collagen gel [16], or microcarrier beads [13-15,18] in order to promote the expression of differentiated cell function. In four of the five spaceflight bioreactor studies [15-18], cells were cultured in perfused vessels (cartridges or rotating bioreactors) within recirculating loops designed to maintain medium composition within target ranges by a combination of gas exchange and fresh medium supply. Future spaceflight studies of cells and tissues are likely to involve a three-dimensional culture system, to promote cellular differentiation, and perfusion with or without rotation, to provide a gravity-independent mechanism for fluid mixing and mass transport. Previous spaceflight studies have guided the ongoing development of NASA flight hardware for the ISS (e.g. the EDU-2 and the CCU). This next generation of hardware will have extended operational capabilities including on-line microscopy, in-line sensors for the monitoring and control of metabolic parameters, modular design for replicate cultures, and, perhaps most importantly of all, compatibility with the ISS centrifuge. The latter will permit in-flight, 1 g control cultures, and thereby allow the experimental variable to be gravity itself rather than the more general "spaceflight environment". Technical limitations of spaceflight studies (e.g. allowable size, mass, and power) continue to motivate a creative approach to system design and to result in "spin-off" technologies (e.g. the STLV) for ground-based cell and tissue culture research. The increasing scientific and medical relevance of this work is evidenced by the growing number of publications in which advanced bioreactors are used for in

  2. Frequent premature ventricular contractions in an orbital spaceflight participant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Richard T; Stepanek, Jan P; Scott, Luis R; Voronkov, Yury I

    2010-06-01

    Commercial spaceflight participants on orbital flights typically are older than career astronauts and they often have medical conditions that have not been studied at high g or in microgravity. This is a case report of a 56-yr-old orbital spaceflight participant with essential tremor and frequent premature ventricular contractions that occurred at rates up to 7000 per day. Before training and spaceflight, he was required to complete extensive clinical investigations to demonstrate normal cardiac structures and the absence of cardiac pathology. The evaluation included signal averaged ECG, transthoracic stress echocardiography, exercise tolerance tests, electrophysiological studies, cardiac MRI, electron beam CT, Holter monitoring, and overnight oximetry. While no cardiac pathology was demonstrated, the Russian medical team required that the PVCs be treated prior to training and spaceflight. For the initial flight, a selective beta-1 receptor beta blocker was used and for the second a calcium channel blocker was used in combination with a nonselective beta blocker for tremor control. Analogue environment testing assured that this combination of medications was compatible. The spaceflight participant's PVCs were incompletely suppressed with a low-dose selective beta-1 blocker, but were well suppressed by a calcium channel blocker. He tolerated in-flight periodic use of a nonselective beta blocker in combination with a calcium channel blocker. In-flight ECG and blood pressure monitoring results were normal, and an ECG obtained midmission and on landing day showed successful PVC suppression. He did not have any cardiac difficulty with launch, on-orbit operations, entry, or recovery

  3. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    A two phase study was conducted to analyze and develop the requirements for remote operating systems as applied to space based operations for the servicing, maintenance, and repair of satellites. Phase one consisted of the development of servicing requirements to establish design criteria for remote operating systems. Phase two defined preferred system concepts and development plans which met the requirements established in phase one. The specific tasks in phase two were to: (1) identify desirable operational and conceptual approaches for selected mission scenarios; (2) examine the potential impact of remote operating systems incorporated into the design of the space station; (3) address remote operating systems design issues, such as mobility, which are effected by the space station configuration; and (4) define the programmatic approaches for technology development, testing, simulation, and flight demonstration.

  4. Changes in the immune system during and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. R.; Konstantinova, I.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Jennings, R.

    1997-01-01

    The results of immunological analyses before, during and after spaceflight, have established the fact that spaceflight can result in a blunting of the immune mechanisms of human crew members and animal test species. There is some evidence that the immune function changes in short-term flights resemble those occurring after acute stress, while the changes during long-term flights resemble those caused by chronic stress. In addition, this blunting of the immune function occurs concomitant with a relative increase in potentially infectious microorganisms in the space cabin environment. This combination of events results in an increased probability of inflight infectious events. The realization of this probability has been shown to be partially negated by the judicious use of a preflight health stabilization program and other operational countermeasures. The continuation of these countermeasures, as well as microbial and immunological monitoring, are recommended for continued spaceflight safety.

  5. Service Operations Optimization: Recent Development in Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Services are the key of success in operation management. Designing the effective strategies by optimization techniques is the fundamental and important condition for performance increase in service operations (SOs management. In this paper, we mainly focus on investigating SOs optimization in the areas of supply chain management, which create the greatest business values. Specifically, we study the recent development of SOs optimization associated with supply chain by categorizing them into four different industries (i.e., e-commerce industry, consumer service industry, public sector, and fashion industry and four various SOs features (i.e., advertising, channel coordination, pricing, and inventory. Moreover, we conduct the technical review on the stylish industries/topics and typical optimization models. The classical optimization approaches for SOs management in supply chain are presented. The managerial implications of SOs in supply chain are discussed.

  6. Build-operate-transfer Outsourcing Contracts in Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely used in the engineering and construction industry and has recently spread into the service industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets, India in particular, are now offering BOT outsourcing contracts in which...... the client firms are allotted call options, i.e. the right, but not the obligation, to transfer pre-specified assets from the service provider. As such, BOT outsourcing contracts seems to be an interesting contractual novelty that combines the advantages of outsourced and captive offshoring operations....... In this paper we investigate under which circumstances a BOT outsourcing contract (i.e. a contract where the client firm exercises its call option) is beneficial, or the opposite, to the emerging market vendor firm. Whether BOT outsourcing contracts are boon or bane to an emerging market vendor basically hinges...

  7. Benefits of joint audits of service company and operator personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Companies operating in the petroleum industry are showing an increasing collective awareness of safety and environmental issues. The objective of management in any organization is to identify potential hazards and develop and implement an action plant to eliminate these hazards. Joint audits between operating companies and service companies have proved an effective means of developing an objective and realistic safety awareness program. Joint audits, unlike external audits, enable both companies to develop, implement and monitor a meaningful safety policy based on factual information. The paper describes the planning, execution and follow up of an in-depth joint audit. Analysis of the audit results generated action plans to correct areas in need of improvement for both the operating and service companies. Of these areas, most could be corrected and resolved within three months while the remainder were targeted for remedial action to be completed within one year. The paper provides a thorough set of guidelines for all stages of a successful joint audit and illustrates, with examples, the operational improvements to be gained from such operator/service-company cooperation

  8. Activity-Tracking Service for Building Operating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Jakob; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2018-01-01

    of Things sensors and devices promise to deliver rich data about human activities and control of loads. However, existing proposals for building operating systems that should combine such data and control opportunities does not provide concepts and support for activity data. In this paper we propose...... an activity-tracking service for building operating systems. The service is designed to consider the security, privacy, integration, extendability and scalability challenges in the building setting. We provide initial findings for testing the system in a proof of concept evaluation using a set of common......Several high consuming electricity loads in retail stores are currently highly intertwined in human activities. Without knowledge of such activities it is difficult to improve the energy efficiency of the loads operation for sustainability and cost reasons. The increasing availability of Internet...

  9. Physical Training for Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehr, James A; Guilliams, Mark E; Petersen, Nora; Hirsch, Natalie; Kawashima, Shino; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Physical training has been conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) for the past 10 yr as a countermeasure to physiological deconditioning during spaceflight. Each member space agency has developed its own approach to creating and implementing physical training protocols for their astronauts. We have divided physical training into three distinct phases (preflight, in-flight, and postflight) and provided a description of each phase with its constraints and limitations. We also discuss how each member agency (NASA, ESA, CSA, and JAXA) prescribed physical training for their crewmembers during the first 10 yr of ISS operations. It is important to understand the operational environment, the agency responsible for the physical training program, and the constraints and limitations associated with spaceflight to accurately design and implement exercise training or interpret the exercise data collected on ISS. As exploration missions move forward, resolving agency differences in physical training programs will become important to maximizing the effectiveness of exercise as a countermeasure and minimizing any mission impacts.

  10. Advances in service and operations for ATLAS data management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Graeme A; Garonne, Vincent; Lassnig, Mario; Molfetas, Angelos; Barisits, Martin; Calvet, Ivan; Beermann, Thomas; Megino, Fernando Barreiro; Campana, Simone; Zhang, Donal; Tykhonov, Andrii; Serfon, Cedric; Oleynik, Danila; Petrosyan, Artem

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS has recorded almost 5PB of RAW data since the LHC started running at the end of 2009. Many more derived data products and complimentary simulation data have also been produced by the collaboration and, in total, 70PB is currently stored in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid by ATLAS. All of this data is managed by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system, called Don Quixote 2 (DQ2). DQ2 has evolved rapidly to help ATLAS Computing operations manage these large quantities of data across the many grid sites at which ATLAS runs and to help ATLAS physicists get access to this data. In this paper we describe new and improved DQ2 services: popularity; space monitoring and accounting; exclusion service; cleaning agents; deletion agents. We describe the experience of data management operation in ATLAS computing, showing how these services enable management of petabyte scale computing operations. We illustrate the coupling of data management services to other parts of the ATLAS computing infrastructure, in particular showing how feedback from the distributed analysis system in ATLAS has enabled dynamic placement of the most popular data, helping users and groups to analyse the increasing data volumes on the grid.

  11. Advances in service and operations for ATLAS data management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Graeme A.; Garonne, Vincent; Lassnig, Mario; Molfetas, Angelos; Barisits, Martin; Zhang, Donal; Calvet, Ivan; Beermann, Thomas; Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Tykhonov, Andrii; Campana, Simone; Serfon, Cedric; Oleynik, Danila; Petrosyan, Artem; ATLAS Collaboration

    2012-06-01

    ATLAS has recorded almost 5PB of RAW data since the LHC started running at the end of 2009. Many more derived data products and complimentary simulation data have also been produced by the collaboration and, in total, 70PB is currently stored in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid by ATLAS. All of this data is managed by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system, called Don Quixote 2 (DQ2). DQ2 has evolved rapidly to help ATLAS Computing operations manage these large quantities of data across the many grid sites at which ATLAS runs and to help ATLAS physicists get access to this data. In this paper we describe new and improved DQ2 services: popularity; space monitoring and accounting; exclusion service; cleaning agents; deletion agents. We describe the experience of data management operation in ATLAS computing, showing how these services enable management of petabyte scale computing operations. We illustrate the coupling of data management services to other parts of the ATLAS computing infrastructure, in particular showing how feedback from the distributed analysis system in ATLAS has enabled dynamic placement of the most popular data, helping users and groups to analyse the increasing data volumes on the grid.

  12. Brain structural plasticity with spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, Vincent; Bloomberg, Jacob J; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Seidler, Rachael D

    2016-01-01

    Humans undergo extensive sensorimotor adaptation during spaceflight due to altered vestibular inputs and body unloading. No studies have yet evaluated the effects of spaceflight on human brain structure despite the fact that recently reported optic nerve structural changes are hypothesized to occur due to increased intracranial pressure occurring with microgravity. This is the first report on human brain structural changes with spaceflight. We evaluated retrospective longitudinal T2-weighted MRI scans and balance data from 27 astronauts (thirteen ~2-week shuttle crew members and fourteen ~6-month International Space Station crew members) to determine spaceflight effects on brain structure, and whether any pre to postflight brain changes are associated with balance changes. Data were obtained from the NASA Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health. Brain scans were segmented into gray matter maps and normalized into MNI space using a stepwise approach through subject specific templates. Non-parametric permutation testing was used to analyze pre to postflight volumetric gray matter changes. We found extensive volumetric gray matter decreases, including large areas covering the temporal and frontal poles and around the orbits. This effect was larger in International Space Station versus shuttle crew members in some regions. There were bilateral focal gray matter increases within the medial primary somatosensory and motor cortex; i.e., the cerebral areas where the lower limbs are represented. These intriguing findings are observed in a retrospective data set; future prospective studies should probe the underlying mechanisms and behavioral consequences.

  13. Analysis of remote operating systems for space-based servicing operations. Volume 2: Study results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The developments in automation and robotics have increased the importance of applications for space based servicing using remotely operated systems. A study on three basic remote operating systems (teleoperation, telepresence and robotics) was performed in two phases. In phase one, requirements development, which consisted of one three-month task, a group of ten missions were selected. These included the servicing of user equipment on the station and the servicing of the station itself. In phase two, concepts development, which consisted of three tasks, overall system concepts were developed for the selected missions. These concepts, which include worksite servicing equipment, a carrier system, and payload handling equipment, were evaluated relative to the configurations of the overall worksite. It is found that the robotic/teleoperator concepts are appropriate for relatively simple structured tasks, while the telepresence/teleoperator concepts are applicable for missions that are complex, unstructured tasks.

  14. Spaceflight promotes biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooseong Kim

    Full Text Available Understanding the effects of spaceflight on microbial communities is crucial for the success of long-term, manned space missions. Surface-associated bacterial communities, known as biofilms, were abundant on the Mir space station and continue to be a challenge on the International Space Station. The health and safety hazards linked to the development of biofilms are of particular concern due to the suppression of immune function observed during spaceflight. While planktonic cultures of microbes have indicated that spaceflight can lead to increases in growth and virulence, the effects of spaceflight on biofilm development and physiology remain unclear. To address this issue, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was cultured during two Space Shuttle Atlantis missions: STS-132 and STS-135, and the biofilms formed during spaceflight were characterized. Spaceflight was observed to increase the number of viable cells, biofilm biomass, and thickness relative to normal gravity controls. Moreover, the biofilms formed during spaceflight exhibited a column-and-canopy structure that has not been observed on Earth. The increase in the amount of biofilms and the formation of the novel architecture during spaceflight were observed to be independent of carbon source and phosphate concentrations in the media. However, flagella-driven motility was shown to be essential for the formation of this biofilm architecture during spaceflight. These findings represent the first evidence that spaceflight affects community-level behaviors of bacteria and highlight the importance of understanding how both harmful and beneficial human-microbe interactions may be altered during spaceflight.

  15. Space Weather Impacts on Spacecraft Operations: Identifying and Establishing High-Priority Operational Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, G.; Reid, S.; Tranquille, C.; Evans, H.

    2013-12-01

    Space Weather is a multi-disciplinary and cross-domain system defined as, 'The physical and phenomenological state of natural space environments. The associated discipline aims, through observation, monitoring, analysis and modelling, at understanding and predicting the state of the Sun, the interplanetary and planetary environments, and the solar and non-solar driven perturbations that affect them, and also at forecasting and nowcasting the potential impacts on biological and technological systems'. National and Agency-level efforts to provide services addressing the myriad problems, such as ESA's SSA programme are therefore typically complex and ambitious undertakings to introduce a comprehensive suite of services aimed at a large number and broad range of end users. We focus on some of the particular threats and risks that Space Weather events pose to the Spacecraft Operations community, and the resulting implications in terms of User Requirements. We describe some of the highest-priority service elements identified as being needed by the Operations community, and outline some service components that are presently available, or under development. The particular threats and risks often vary according to orbit, so the particular User Needs for Operators at LEO, MEO and GEO are elaborated. The inter-relationship between these needed service elements and existing service components within the broader Space Weather domain is explored. Some high-priority service elements and potential correlation with Space Weather drivers include: solar array degradation and energetic proton storms; single event upsets at GEO and solar proton events and galactic cosmic rays; surface charging and deep dielectric charging at MEO and radiation belt dynamics; SEUs at LEO and the South Atlantic Anomaly and its variability. We examine the current capability to provide operational services addressing such threats and identify some advances that the Operations community can expect to benefit

  16. The Next Spaceflight Solar Irradiance Sensor: TSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Greg; Pilewskie, Peter; Richard, Erik

    2016-05-01

    The Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS) will continue measurements of the solar irradiance with improved accuracies and stabilities over extant spaceflight instruments. The two TSIS solar-observing instruments include the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) and the Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) for measuring total- and spectral- solar-irradiance, respectively. The former provides the net energy powering the Earth’s climate system while the latter helps attribute where that energy is absorbed by the Earth’s atmosphere and surface. Both spaceflight instruments are assembled and being prepared for integration on the International Space Station. With operations commencing in late 2017, the TSIS is intended to overlap with NASA’s ongoing SOlar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission, which launched in 2003 and contains the first versions of both the TIM and SIM instruments, as well as with the TSI Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE), which began total solar irradiance measurements in 2013. We summarize the TSIS’s instrument improvements and intended solar-irradiance measurements.

  17. Manned spaceflight log II—2006–2012

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2013-01-01

    April 12, 1961 "Attention! This is Radio Moscow speaking...The world's first satellite spaceship, Vostock, with a man aboard, was put into orbit round the Earth." Soviet Union cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin becomes the first person to fly in space, completing one orbit in 108 minutes. April 5, 2001 As NASA prepares to fly the final Shuttle missions to the International Space Station, Russia launches Soyuz TMA 21 (code-named 'Yuri Gagarin') with the 28th ISS Expedition crew aboard, celebrating 50 years of manned spaceflight. Meanwhile, in China, preparations continue for launching the nation's first Space Station (called Tiangong 1 - or Heavenly Palace 1) later in the year. The sixth decade of manned spaceflight orbital operations has truly began. At this point in the history of human space exploration, it is timely to review the first five decades of adventure and look forward to the next decade and what it might bring. Several notable anniversaries celebrated in 2011 make it the right time to reflect and pay homa...

  18. The Royal Naval Medical Services: delivering medical operational capability. the 'black art' of Medical Operational Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, M

    2013-01-01

    This article looks to dispel the mysteries of the 'black art' of Medical Operational Planning whilst giving an overview of activity within the Medical Operational Capability area of Medical Division (Med Div) within Navy Command Headquarters (NCHQ) during a period when the Royal Naval Medical Services (RNMS) have been preparing and reconfiguring medical capability for the future contingent battle spaces. The rolling exercise program has been used to illustrate the ongoing preparations taken by the Medical Operational Capability (Med Op Cap) and the Medical Force Elements to deliver medical capability in the littoral and maritime environments.

  19. Virtual reality: Avatars in human spaceflight training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterlund, Jeffrey; Lawrence, Brad

    2012-02-01

    With the advancements in high spatial and temporal resolution graphics, along with advancements in 3D display capabilities to model, simulate, and analyze human-to-machine interfaces and interactions, the world of virtual environments is being used to develop everything from gaming, movie special affects and animations to the design of automobiles. The use of multiple object motion capture technology and digital human tools in aerospace has demonstrated to be a more cost effective alternative to the cost of physical prototypes, provides a more efficient, flexible and responsive environment to changes in the design and training, and provides early human factors considerations concerning the operation of a complex launch vehicle or spacecraft. United Space Alliance (USA) has deployed this technique and tool under Research and Development (R&D) activities on both spacecraft assembly and ground processing operations design and training on the Orion Crew Module. USA utilizes specialized products that were chosen based on functionality, including software and fixed based hardware (e.g., infrared and visible red cameras), along with cyber gloves to ensure fine motor dexterity of the hands. The key findings of the R&D were: mock-ups should be built to not obstruct cameras from markers being tracked; a mock-up toolkit be assembled to facilitate dynamic design changes; markers should be placed in accurate positions on humans and flight hardware to help with tracking; 3D models used in the virtual environment be striped of non-essential data; high computational capable workstations are required to handle the large model data sets; and Technology Interchange Meetings with vendors and other industries also utilizing virtual reality applications need to occur on a continual basis enabling USA to maintain its leading edge within this technology. Parameters of interest and benefit in human spaceflight simulation training that utilizes virtual reality technologies are to

  20. Operational Use of OGC Web Services at the Met Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    graphs, and combined with the WMS pre-rendered images and text, in a FLEX application, to provide sophisticated, user impact-based view of the weather. The OGC web services supporting these applications have been developed in collaboration with commercial companies. Visual Weather was originally a desktop application for forecasters, but IBL have developed it to expose the full range of forecast and observation data through standard web services (WCS and WMS). Forecasts and observations relating to specific locations and geographic features are held in an Oracle Database, and exposed as a WFS using Snowflake Software's GO-Publisher application. The Met Office has worked closely with both IBL and Snowflake Software to ensure that the web services provided strike a balance between conformance to the standards and performance in an operational environment. This has proved challenging in areas where the standards are rapidly evolving (e.g. WCS) or do not allow adequate description of the Met-Ocean domain (e.g. multiple time coordinates and parametric vertical coordinates). It has also become clear that careful selection of the features to expose, based on the way in which you expect users to query those features, in necessary in order to deliver adequate performance. These experiences are providing useful 'real-world' input in to the recently launched OGC MetOcean Domain Working Group and World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) initiatives in this area.

  1. Applying Registry Services to Spaceflight Technologies to Aid in the Assignment of Assigned Numbers to Disparate Systems and their Technologies to Further Enable Interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Robert N.; Nichols, Kelvin F.; Witherspoon, Keith R.

    2006-01-01

    To date very little effort has been made to provide interoperability between various space agency projects. To effectively get to the Moon and beyond systems must interoperate. To provide interoperability, standardization and registries of various technologies will be required. These registries will be created as they relate to space flight. With the new NASA Moon/Mars initiative, a requirement to standardize and control the naming conventions of very disparate systems and technologies is emerging. The need to provide numbering to the many processes, schemas, vehicles, robots, space suits and technologies (e.g. versions), to name a few, in the highly complex Constellation initiative is imperative. The number of corporations, developer personnel, system interfaces, people interfaces will require standardization and registries on a scale not currently envisioned. It would only take one exception (stove piped system development) to weaken, if not, destroy interoperability. To start, a standardized registry process must be defined that allows many differing engineers, organizations and operators the ability to easily access disparate registry information across numerous technological and scientific disciplines. Once registries are standardized the need to provide registry support in terms of setup and operations, resolution of conflicts between registries and other issues will need to be addressed. Registries should not be confused with repositories. No end user data is "stored" in a registry nor is it a configuration control system. Once a registry standard is created and approved, the technologies that should be registered must be identified and prioritized. In this paper, we will identify and define a registry process that is compatible with the Constellation initiative and other non related space activities and organizations. We will then identify and define the various technologies that should use a registry to provide interoperability. The first set of

  2. Fundamentals of Anesthesiology for Spaceflight

    OpenAIRE

    Komorowski, M; Fleming, SF; Kirkpatrick, AK

    2016-01-01

    During future space exploration missions, the risk of medical events requiring surgery is significant, and will likely rely on anesthetic techniques. Available options during spaceflight include local, regional (nerve block) and general anesthesia. No actual invasive anesthesia was ever performed on humans in space or immediately after landing, and the safe delivery of such advanced medical care in this context is challenging. In the first section of this review, Human adaptation to the space...

  3. 47 CFR 64.710 - Operator services for prison inmate phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator services for prison inmate phones. 64... services for prison inmate phones. (a) Each provider of inmate operator services shall: (1) Identify itself... authorities of a prison or other correctional institution for use by inmates. (3) Inmate operator services...

  4. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Sandoval, L.; Leveton, L.; Arias, D.

    2011-01-01

    In 1956, on the eve of human space travel Strughold first proposed a simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to optimize the potential of the ISS as a gateway to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Initial search of formal and grey literature augmented by liaison with subject matter experts. Search strategy focused on both the use of term long duration mission and long duration spaceflight, and also broader related current and historical definitions and classification models of spaceflight. The related sea and air travel literature was also subsequently explored with a view to identifying analogous models or classification systems. There are multiple different definitions and classification systems for spaceflight including phase and type of mission, craft and payload and related risk management models. However the frequently used concepts of long duration mission and long duration spaceflight are infrequently operationally defined by authors, and no commonly referenced classical or gold standard definition or model of these terms emerged from the search. The categorization (Cat) system for sailing was found to be of potential analogous utility, with its focus on understanding the need for crew and craft autonomy at various levels of potential adversity and inability to gain outside support or return to a safe location, due to factors of time, distance and location.

  5. New Trends in the Outsourcing of Maintenance/Operation Services

    CERN Document Server

    Wilhelmsson, M

    2001-01-01

    The contracting-experience of maintenance/operation work in our group can today be considered as rich with the first generation of contract implemented more than 15 years ago. The incumbent contract was started in 1997, so it is now into its 4th year. Certain improvements that have already been implemented has had a large impact on our contract culture e.g. performance indicators. The next re-tendering is now approaching and with this borne in mind, the author will discuss through various sections of this report the following main points: firstly, an overview of the trends today in this area; secondly, comparing these trends with implemented practices; and finally, what can be future development in the outsourcing of the maintenance/operation of the Cooling & Ventilation services.

  6. Spaceflight Modulates Gene Expression in Astronauts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Astronauts are exposed to a unique combination of stressors during spaceflight which leads to alterations in their physiology and potentially increases their...

  7. Business process re-engineering in service operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of business process re-engineering, and how it was applied to the operations of the Consumers Gas Company were discussed. Business process re-engineering was defined as the improvement of the efficiency of the customer-service process, and the overall improvement of practices and operations. The re-engineering project was said to involve a thorough analysis of information technology, current limitations, and business operational needs, undertaken on an enterprise-wide basis. Viewed generically,a re-engineering project was said to have six major components: (1) business drivers (i.e. the articulation of the Company's strategic issues); (2) benchmark measures; (3) future state process models; (4) cost/benefit analysis; (5) a change management plan; and (6) a development plan. Business improvements expected to result from the project include reduced cost of operation, reduction of waste, and a substantially complete re-design of the business process. Management of the project involved a team approach, and help of a consultant to identify the scope of the re-design, its limitations, and future state. A life expectancy of approximately 10 years was given for the re-engineering plan, with annual benefits (in terms of cost reduction) of $4.6 million by the year 2000

  8. Implementing Strategic Planning Capabilities Within the Mars Relay Operations Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hy, Franklin; Gladden, Roy; Allard, Dan; Wallick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Since the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), Spirit and Opportunity, began their travels across the Martian surface in January of 2004, orbiting spacecraft such as the Mars 2001 Odyssey orbiter have relayed the majority of their collected scientific and operational data to and from Earth. From the beginning of those missions, it was evident that using orbiters to relay data to and from the surface of Mars was a vastly more efficient communications strategy in terms of power consumption and bandwidth compared to direct-to-Earth means. However, the coordination between the various spacecraft, which are largely managed independently and on differing commanding timelines, has always proven to be a challenge. Until recently, the ground operators of all these spacecraft have coordinated the movement of data through this network using a collection of ad hoc human interfaces and various, independent software tools. The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) has been developed to manage the evolving needs of the Mars relay network, and specifically to standardize and integrate the relay planning and coordination data into a centralized infrastructure. This paper explores the journey of developing the MaROS system, from inception to delivery and acceptance by the Mars mission users.

  9. Data Service:Characteristics,Market Structure,and the Role of Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruo-peng; LU Ting-jie

    2005-01-01

    To study characteristics and market structure of data service and the role of operator,this paper makes a commercial model by applying the theory of intermediaries and neoclassic economics.Data service has different economic characteristics from voice service.Firstly,production mode of data service is roundabout production,secondly,driving power of data service is economies of specialization,and finally,management method of data service is impersonal management.In data service market,information asymmetry and barrier to entry determine transaction efficiency and the specialization level of service providers indirectly.Therefore,operator should intervene in the market by offering trade service in order to promote development of service providers.Because of different quality of service providers,market structure of data service must be the state that trade platform built by operator and intermediary platform built by operator coexists.

  10. 76 FR 57635 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors; Correction AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... ``Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors'' (76 FR 52231... of, a Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspector, and had direct responsibility to inspect...

  11. PI Microgravity Services Role for International Space Station Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    During the ISS era, the NASA Lewis Research Center's Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) project will provide to principal investigators (PIs) microgravity environment information and characterization of the accelerations to which their experiments were exposed during on orbit operations. PIMS supports PIs by providing them with microgravity environment information for experiment vehicles, carriers, and locations within the vehicle. This is done to assist the PI with their effort to evaluate the effect of acceleration on their experiments. Furthermore, PIMS responsibilities are to support the investigators in the area of acceleration data analysis and interpretation, and provide the Microgravity science community with a microgravity environment characterization of selected experiment carriers and vehicles. Also, PIMS provides expertise in the areas of microgravity experiment requirements, vibration isolation, and the implementation of requirements for different spacecraft to the microgravity community and other NASA programs.

  12. Sensor Nanny, data management services for marine observation operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loubrieu, Thomas; Détoc, Jérôme; Thorel, Arnaud; Azelmat, Hamza

    2016-04-01

    In marine sciences, the diversity of observed properties (from water physic to contaminants in observed in biological individuals or sediment) and observation methodologies (from manned sampling and analysis in labs to large automated networks of homogeneous platforms) requires different expertises and thus dedicated scientific program (ARGO, EMSO, GLOSS, GOSHIP, OceanSites, GOSUD, Geotrace, SOCAT, member state environment monitoring networks, experimental research…). However, all of them requires similar IT services to support the maintenance of their network (calibrations, deployment strategy, spare part management...) and their data management. In Europe, the National Oceanographic Data Centres coordinated by the IOC/IODE and SeaDataNet provide reliable reference services (e.g. vocabularies, contact directories), standards and long term data preservation. Besides the regional operational oceanographic centres (ROOSes) coordinated by EuroGOOS and Copernicus In-Situ Thematic Assembly Centre provide efficient data management for near real time or delayed mode services focused on physics and bio-geo-chemistry in the water column. Other e-infrastructures, such as euroBIS for biodiversity, are focused on specific disciplines. Beyond the current scope of these well established infrastructures, Sensor Nanny is a web application providing services for operators of observatories to manage their observations on the "cloud". The application stands against the reference services (vocabularies, organization directory) and standard profiles (OGC/Sensor Web Enablement) provided by SeaDataNet. The application provides an on-line editor to graphically describe, literally draw, their observatory (acquisition and processing systems). The observatory description is composed by the user from a palette of hundreds of pre-defined sensors or hardware linked together. In addition, the data providers can upload their data in CSV and netCDF formats on a dropbox-like system. The latest

  13. Operational space weather service for GNSS precise positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric plasma can significantly influence the propagation of radio waves and the ionospheric disturbances are capable of causing range errors, rapid phase and amplitude fluctuations (radio scintillations of satellite signals that may lead to degradation of the system performance, its accuracy and reliability. The cause of such disturbances should be sought in the processes originating in the Sun. Numerous studies on these phenomena have been already carried out at a broad international level, in order to measure/estimate these space weather induced effects, to forecast them, and to understand and mitigate their impact on present-day technological systems. SWIPPA (Space Weather Impact on Precise Positioning Applications is a pilot project jointly supported by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA. The project aims at establishing, operating, and evaluating a specific space-weather monitoring service that can possibly lead to improving current positioning applications based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS. This space weather service provides GNSS users with essential expert information delivered in the form of several products - maps of TEC values, TEC spatial and temporal gradients, alerts for ongoing/oncoming ionosphere disturbances, etc.

  14. Operational space weather service for GNSS precise positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The ionospheric plasma can significantly influence the propagation of radio waves and the ionospheric disturbances are capable of causing range errors, rapid phase and amplitude fluctuations (radio scintillations of satellite signals that may lead to degradation of the system performance, its accuracy and reliability. The cause of such disturbances should be sought in the processes originating in the Sun. Numerous studies on these phenomena have been already carried out at a broad international level, in order to measure/estimate these space weather induced effects, to forecast them, and to understand and mitigate their impact on present-day technological systems.

    SWIPPA (Space Weather Impact on Precise Positioning Applications is a pilot project jointly supported by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA. The project aims at establishing, operating, and evaluating a specific space-weather monitoring service that can possibly lead to improving current positioning applications based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS. This space weather service provides GNSS users with essential expert information delivered in the form of several products - maps of TEC values, TEC spatial and temporal gradients, alerts for ongoing/oncoming ionosphere disturbances, etc.

  15. New Procedure for Account Operations at the CERN Service Desk

    CERN Multimedia

    The Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    Who can activate your computing account? Who can unblock it? And who can reset your password if you've forgotten it? Until recently, users who addressed such problems to the Service Desk were asked a set of questions...   The corresponding answers were designed to properly verify the requestor’s identity such that only the real owner could activate/unblock/reset his computing account. However, it turned out that the answers were easily obtainable (and that there is no better set of questions to ask). Therefore, in order to ensure optimal protection of your account, this procedure will be replaced on 28 November 2011. From that date on, users will be asked to produce a physical ID when requesting the Service Desk to perform operations like computer account activation, account unblocking or password resets. This physical ID can either be a passport/ID card or the CERN access card. If you need to activate/unblock/reset your computing account, you will either have to produ...

  16. Defending spaceflight: The echoes of Apollo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovetto, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    This paper defends, and emphasizes the importance of, spaceflight, broadly construed to include human and unmanned spaceflight, space science, exploration and development. Within this discourse, I provide counter-replies to remarks by physicist Dr. Steven Weinberg against my previous support of human spaceflight. In this defense of peaceful spaceflight I draw upon a variety of sources. Although a focus is human spaceflight, human and unmanned modes must not be treated as an either-or opposition. Rather, each has a critical role to play in moving humanity forward as a spacefaring species. In the course of this communication, I also stress the perennial role of space agencies as science and technology-drivers, and their function to provide a stable and unified platform for space programs.

  17. Developing an operational capabilities index of the emergency services sector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, M.J.; Eaton, L.K.; Shoemaker, Z.M.; Fisher, R.E.; Veselka, S.N.; Wallace, K.E.; Petit, F.D. (Decision and Information Sciences)

    2012-02-20

    In order to enhance the resilience of the Nation and its ability to protect itself in the face of natural and human-caused hazards, the ability of the critical infrastructure (CI) system to withstand specific threats and return to normal operations after degradation must be determined. To fully analyze the resilience of a region and the CI that resides within it, both the actual resilience of the individual CI and the capability of the Emergency Services Sector (ESS) to protect against and respond to potential hazards need to be considered. Thus, a regional resilience approach requires the comprehensive consideration of all parts of the CI system as well as the characterization of emergency services. This characterization must generate reproducible results that can support decision making with regard to risk management, disaster response, business continuity, and community planning and management. To address these issues, Argonne National Laboratory, in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Sector Specific Agency - Executive Management Office, developed a comprehensive methodology to create an Emergency Services Sector Capabilities Index (ESSCI). The ESSCI is a performance metric that ranges from 0 (low level of capabilities) to 100 (high). Because an emergency services program has a high ESSCI, however, does not mean that a specific event would not be able to affect a region or cause severe consequences. And because a program has a low ESSCI does not mean that a disruptive event would automatically lead to serious consequences in a region. Moreover, a score of 100 on the ESSCI is not the level of capability expected of emergency services programs; rather, it represents an optimal program that would rarely be observed. The ESSCI characterizes the state of preparedness of a jurisdiction in terms of emergency and risk management. Perhaps the index's primary benefit is that it can systematically capture, at a given point in time, the

  18. CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service) In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre: A service for operational Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the

  19. Immune changes in test animals during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnyak, A. T.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Rykova, M. P.; Meshkov, D. O.; Mastro, A.; Konstantinova, I.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past two decades, it has become apparent that changes in immune parameters occur in cosmonauts and astronauts after spaceflight. Therefore, interest has been generated in the use of animal surrogates to better understand the nature and extent of these changes, the mechanism of these changes, and to allow the possible development of countermeasures. Among the changes noted in animals after spaceflight are alterations in lymphocytic blastogenesis, cytokine function, natural killer cell activity, and colony-stimulating factors. The nature and significance of spaceflight-induced changes in immune responses will be the focus of this review.

  20. Radiation protection for human spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic radiation exposure is one of the most significant risks associated with human space exploration. Except for the principles of justification and optimization (ALARA), the concepts of terrestrial radiation protection are of limited applicability to human spaceflight, as until now only few experimentally verified data on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions and the dose distribution within the human body exist. Instead of applying the annual dose limits for workers on ground also to astronauts, whose careers are of comparatively short duration, the overall lifetime risk is used as a measure. For long-term missions outside Earth's magnetic field, the acceptable level of risk has not yet been defined, since there is not enough information available to estimate the risk of effects to the central nervous system and of potential non-cancer radiation health hazards. (orig.)

  1. Point-of-Care Ultrasound for Pulmonary Concerns in Remote Spaceflight Triage Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Benjamin D; Blue, Rebecca S; Castleberry, Tarah L; Antonsen, Erik L; Vanderploeg, James M

    2018-02-01

    With the development of the commercial space industry, growing numbers of spaceflight participants will engage in activities with a risk for pulmonary injuries, including pneumothorax, ebullism, and decompression sickness, as well as other concomitant trauma. Medical triage capabilities for mishaps involving pulmonary conditions have not been systematically reviewed. Recent studies have advocated the use of point-of-care ultrasound to screen for lung injury or illness. The operational utility of portable ultrasound systems in disaster relief and other austere settings may be relevant to commercial spaceflight. A systematic review of published literature was conducted concerning the use of point-of-care pulmonary ultrasound techniques in austere environments, including suggested examination protocols for triage and diagnosis. Recent studies support the utility of pulmonary ultrasound examinations when performed by skilled operators, and comparability of the results to computed tomography and chest radiography for certain conditions, with important implications for trauma management in austere environments. Pulmonary injury and illness are among the potential health risks facing spaceflight participants. Implementation of point-of-care ultrasound protocols could aid in the rapid diagnosis, triage, and treatment of such conditions. Though operator-dependent, ultrasound, with proper training, experience, and equipment, could be a valuable tool in the hands of a first responder supporting remote spaceflight operations.Johansen BD, Blue RS, Castleberry TL, Antonsen EL, Vanderploeg JM. Point-of-care ultrasound for pulmonary concerns in remote spaceflight triage environments. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):122-129.

  2. 76 FR 54528 - Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ...) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the Sequencing of Certification and... on the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) standard operating procedure (SOP) describing the process... comments on the SOP : AIR-100-001; Standard Operating Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project...

  3. Evaluating Failures and near Misses in Human Spaceflight History for Lessons for Future Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    Studies done in the past have drawn on lessons learned with regard to human loss-of-life events. However, an examination of near-fatal accidents can be equally useful, not only in detecting causes, both proximate and systemic, but also for determining what factors averted disaster, what design decisions and/or operator actions prevented catastrophe. Binary pass/fail launch history is often used for risk, but this also has limitations. A program with a number of near misses can look more reliable than a consistently healthy program with a single out-of-family failure. Augmenting reliability evaluations with this near miss data can provide insight and expand on the limitations of a strictly pass/fail evaluation. This paper intends to show how near-miss lessons learned can provide crucial data for any new human spaceflight programs that are interested in sending man into space

  4. Contents operation center for 'mopera' information service; Mopera joho service muke contents un'ei center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    'Mopera' information service is a mobile information service in which NTT Mobile Communications Network, Inc. offers information of various fields such as business and hobbies for the users of the portable telephone or PHS of the company. Toshiba Corp. started the contents operation center consistently performing from the preparation of contents to the management of a server for the above information service, making efforts in expanding the contents since the beginning of the service in the fall of 1998, and operating at present more than ten kinds of contents such as news, weather forecast, and stock information other than mobile 'Ekimae-Tanken Club' (adventure club in front of a station). Moreover, Toshiba takes it into consideration to build a system aiming at a stable operation like a duplex operation of a server, 24-hour automatic surveillance, etc., continuously providing highly reliable services. (translated by NEDO)

  5. 47 CFR 64.707 - Public dissemination of information by providers of operator services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public dissemination of information by providers of operator services. 64.707 Section 64.707 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... § 64.707 Public dissemination of information by providers of operator services. Providers of operator...

  6. Drosophila melanogaster gene expression changes after spaceflight.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gene expression levels were determined in 3rd instar and adult Drosophila melanogaster reared during spaceflight to elucidate the genetic and molecular mechanisms...

  7. Distributed System for Spaceflight Biomedical Support

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our project investigated whether a software platform could integrate as wide a variety of devices and data types as needed for spaceflight biomedical support. The...

  8. Interim policy on establishment and operation of internet open, anonymous information servers and services

    OpenAIRE

    Acting Dean of Computer and Information Services

    1995-01-01

    Purpose. To establish interim NPS general policy regarding establishment and operation of Open, Anonymous Information Servers and Services, such as World Wide Web (http), Gopher, Anonymous FTP, etc...

  9. Tele-operated service robots for household and care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osch, van M.P.W.J.; Bera, D.; Koks, Y.; Hee, van K.M.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Maas, G.J.; Gassel, van F.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Service robots are a relatively new branch of robotics after the successful industry robots and the experimental humanoids. Service robots are supposed to perform tasks that normally are done by humans in particular daily life activities. However they do not have to do it in the same way as

  10. Improving Reliability of Service Operation Using FMEA Review and New Opportunity for Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agung; Gunawan, Indra

    2016-01-01

    Despite its growing contribution to the global economy, investigation on the application status of service FMEA study to support realization of reliable service operation is very limited in literature. Motivated by such situation, the paper presented an initial survey on the status and research gaps in developing and applying FMEA in service sectors. Systematic preliminary survey using specific criteria are undertaken. Our study indicated that development and application of service FMEA are partially addressing the characteristics of service operations and it is still applied into the good deed and profit oriented operations. Opportunities for further investigation pertaining to advancement of its decision supporting tool for service risk appraisal, its modification to cope with sustainability related requirements and application of service FMEA in not for profit oriented operations are presented as new avenues for further investigation

  11. Service Quality Evaluation and Ranking of Container Terminal Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sayareh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the service industry, the regular assessment of service quality is considered as a means of promoting the quality of services. Container market is no exception, and the quality of providing service in a container terminal is of prime importance in attracting new customers and maintaining the existing ones. The main aim of present research is to evaluate the quality of service being offered at Shahid Rajaee Container Terminal (SRCT in Bandar Abbas port. The evaluation process uses SERVQUAL model which is an appropriate tool for measuring the service quality, identifying and analyzing available gaps between service expectations and perceptions. Target population in this research includes customers of SRCT. The standard and customized questionnaires were distributed among 165 samples, out of which 127 (77% were returned. For the purpose of data analyses, initially the reliability of SERVQUAL model was checked, and then paired sample t-test was performed to reveal any possible gap between expectations and perceptions of respondents. Finally, TOPSIS was used to rank the 9 main container service companies in the SRCT. The results indicated that there are significant gaps between customers’ expectations and perceptions in SRCT, in all five dimensions of services quality. Additionally, from weighing point of view, ‘Tangibles’ was the most important dimension, followed by ‘Reliability’, ‘Assurance’, ‘Responsiveness’ and ‘Empathy’. In addition, ‘Tangibles’ dimension had maximum gap and ‘Empathy’ dimension had minimum gap between customers’ expectations and perceptions. Finally, after ranking companies, BandarAbbas Aria Container Terminal (BACT Company was ranked first among nine companies in satisfying customers’ expectations.

  12. Virtual age model for equipment aging plant based on operation environment and service state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liming; Cai Qi; Zhao Xinwen; Chen Ling

    2010-01-01

    The accelerated life model based on the operation environment and service state was established by taking the virtual age as the equipment aging indices. The effect of different operation environments and service states on the reliability and virtual age under the continuum operation conditions and cycle operation conditions were analyzed, and the sensitivities of virtual age on operational environments and service states were studied. The results of the example application show that the effect of NPP equipment lifetime and the key parameters related to the reliability can be quantified by this model, and the result is in accordance with the reality.(authors)

  13. Radiation biodosimetry: Applications for spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, W. F.; Miller, A. C.; Grace, M. B.; McLeland, C. B.; Luo, L.; Muderhwa, J. M.; Miner, V. L.; Prasanna, P. G. S.

    The multiparametric dosimetry system that we are developing for medical radiological defense applications could be adapted for spaceflight environments. The system complements the internationally accepted personnel dosimeters and cytogenetic analysis of chromosome aberrations, considered the best means of documenting radiation doses for health records. Our system consists of a portable hematology analyzer, molecular biodosimetry using nucleic acid and antigen-based diagnostic equipment, and a dose assessment management software application. A dry-capillary tube reagent-based centrifuge blood cell counter (QBC Autoread Plus, Beckon Dickinson Bioscience) measures peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes, which could determine radiation dose based on the kinetics of blood cell depletion. Molecular biomarkers for ionizing radiation exposure (gene expression changes, blood proteins) can be measured in real time using such diagnostic detection technologies as miniaturized nucleic acid sequences and antigen-based biosensors, but they require validation of dose-dependent targets and development of optimized protocols and analysis systems. The Biodosimetry Assessment Tool, a software application, calculates radiation dose based on a patient's physical signs and symptoms and blood cell count analysis. It also annotates location of personnel dosimeters, displays a summary of a patient's dosimetric information to healthcare professionals, and archives the data for further use. These radiation assessment diagnostic technologies can have dual-use applications supporting general medical-related care.

  14. Egypt : Operational Framework for Integrated Rural Sanitation Service Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The Framework presented in this report links - for the first time in the Egyptian context - access to investment in rural sanitation services to quantifiable water quality (and health) improvements, in a given hydrologic basin. The Framework provides an integrated, institutional structure of relevant Government agencies and of serviced communities, which is built on integrated water resources management (IWRM) principles: treating water as a holistic resource, management at the lowest appropr...

  15. The quality of mobile phone services provided by Romanian operators, from consumers` perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doru Alexandru Pleşea

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mobile services are distinguished through their quality, either we speak about the way the client is approached and placed in the centre of the operator's actions, or about the services the client benefits in his capacity as a client. The Romanian mobile operators’ services have greatly evolved from their launch in 1997. Along these times, the mobile operators brought more value to these services, due to their need to meet the consumers' expectations with services of high quality and competitiveness. Usually the Romanian consumers place the price in the forefront of their service/mobile phone services acquisition, but an objective analyze of the quality of the mobile phone services has to take into account both technical aspects of the services and the interfacing services too. Therefore, this paper takes into account technical characteristics of the services such as national telephony coverage, data transmission services coverage, the signal quality, maximum speed of data transfer as well as related services such as distribution network, sales and support sales services, after-sales services, and range of available terminals. Based on mobile services comprehensive analysis made available to consumers by the major players on the Romanian market, this paper aims to highlight the main reasons of the consumers’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

  16. 78 FR 12358 - UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ..., Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Leafstone... Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations (UBS), Weehawken, New Jersey. The workers are engaged... to include all leased workers on-site at UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas...

  17. 75 FR 65525 - Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,327] Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division of Wellpoint, Inc., Green Bay, WI; Notice... former workers of Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield, Claim Management Services, Inc. Operations, a Division...

  18. The role of coordinated marketing-operations strategy in services : Implications for managerial decisions and execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, M.; Rhee, van der B.; Karniouchina, E.; Verma, R.; Victorino, L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of a coordinated marketing and operations strategy in goods and service producing business organizations. Customer engagement and co-production are imperative service delivery considerations, and therefore an aligned marketing and operations

  19. 33 CFR 150.507 - How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inflatable lifesaving appliances? 150.507 Section 150.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Inflatable Lifesaving Appliances § 150.507 How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances? (a) The operator must service each inflatable liferaft according to 46 CFR subpart 160...

  20. Comparative analysis of decentralised and centralised operating model in retail banking global transactional services

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Business Management) The Global Transactions Services (GTS) business unit was established alongside the Rand Merchant Bank (RMB) brand reporting into a Corporate and Investment Banking Board. GTS has been mandated to deliver global cash management, trade and custody services and account services to large corporates in the jurisdictions where FirstRand operates. Technology advances in centralising operating structures, have made it possible for GTS to centralise back office operatio...

  1. LOGISTICS CUSTOMER SERVICE ON THE EXAPLE OF LOGISTIC’S OPERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna WALASEK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is an attempt to approach essential issues in modern logistics customer service. It shows the direct link between logistics operations and customer satisfaction before, during and after the service is provided. Third party logistics operator “GAMA” serves as an example of a successful logistics strategy appliance, which translates into high customer satisfaction. A detailed description of logistics services and the role they play in the modern market is provided.

  2. 44 ICT's, Service Delivery and Operational Performance in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-07-21

    Jul 21, 2011 ... influencing performance in organizations. This paper ... banking industry based on the fact that the main function of banks can be viewed not ..... adoption of IT devices on banks operations using both structural analyses and.

  3. Reduced risks and improved economic operation of ancillary services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Jokic, A.; Hermans, R.M.; Frunt, J.; Kling, W.L.; Nobel, Frank; Boonekamp, P.; Boer, de W.W.

    2010-01-01

    Present arrangements and regulation for ancillary services for power balance in power systems cannot cope with future developments in power systems as the participants do not receive proper incentives for required behaviour. This paper analyzes the consequences of current arrangements for system

  4. Virtualized Multi-Mission Operations Center (vMMOC) and its Cloud Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Haisam Kassim

    2017-01-01

    His presentation will cover, the current and future, technical and organizational opportunities and challenges with virtualizing a multi-mission operations center. The full deployment of Goddard Space Flight Centers (GSFC) Virtualized Multi-Mission Operations Center (vMMOC) is nearly complete. The Space Science Mission Operations (SSMO) organizations spacecraft ACE, Fermi, LRO, MMS(4), OSIRIS-REx, SDO, SOHO, Swift, and Wind are in the process of being fully migrated to the vMMOC. The benefits of the vMMOC will be the normalization and the standardization of IT services, mission operations, maintenance, and development as well as ancillary services and policies such as collaboration tools, change management systems, and IT Security. The vMMOC will also provide operational efficiencies regarding hardware, IT domain expertise, training, maintenance and support.The presentation will also cover SSMO's secure Situational Awareness Dashboard in an integrated, fleet centric, cloud based web services fashion. Additionally the SSMO Telemetry as a Service (TaaS) will be covered, which allows authorized users and processes to access telemetry for the entire SSMO fleet, and for the entirety of each spacecrafts history. Both services leverage cloud services in a secure FISMA High and FedRamp environment, and also leverage distributed object stores in order to house and provide the telemetry. The services are also in the process of leveraging the cloud computing services elasticity and horizontal scalability. In the design phase is the Navigation as a Service (NaaS) which will provide a standardized, efficient, and normalized service for the fleet's space flight dynamics operations. Additional future services that may be considered are Ground Segment as a Service (GSaaS), Telemetry and Command as a Service (TCaaS), Flight Software Simulation as a Service, etc.

  5. NASA Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment: Recent Conjunctions of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browns, Ansley C.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses a brief history of NASA Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment (CA) activities, an overview of NASA CA process for ISS and Shuttle, and recent examples from Human Spaceflight conjunctions.

  6. Space Life Sciences at NASA: Spaceflight Health Policy and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; House, Nancy G.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2005, the President proposed a new initiative, the Vision for Space Exploration. To accomplish the goals within the vision for space exploration, physicians and researchers at Johnson Space Center are establishing spaceflight health standards. These standards include fitness for duty criteria (FFD), permissible exposure limits (PELs), and permissible outcome limits (POLs). POLs delineate an acceptable maximum decrement or change in a physiological or behavioral parameter, as the result of exposure to the space environment. For example cardiovascular fitness for duty standards might be a measurable clinical parameter minimum that allows successful performance of all required duties. An example of a permissible exposure limit for radiation might be the quantifiable limit of exposure over a given length of time (e.g. life time radiation exposure). An example of a permissible outcome limit might be the length of microgravity exposure that would minimize bone loss. The purpose of spaceflight health standards is to promote operational and vehicle design requirements, aid in medical decision making during space missions, and guide the development of countermeasures. Standards will be based on scientific and clinical evidence including research findings, lessons learned from previous space missions, studies conducted in space analog environments, current standards of medical practices, risk management data, and expert recommendations. To focus the research community on the needs for exploration missions, NASA has developed the Bioastronautics Roadmap. The Bioastronautics Roadmap, NASA's approach to identification of risks to human space flight, revised baseline was released in February 2005. This document was reviewed by the Institute of Medicine in November 2004 and the final report was received in October 2005. The roadmap defines the most important research and operational needs that will be used to set policy, standards (define acceptable risk), and

  7. Time-critical multirate scheduling using contemporary real-time operating system services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Although real-time operating systems provide many of the task control services necessary to process time-critical applications (i.e., applications with fixed, invariant deadlines), it may still be necessary to provide a scheduling algorithm at a level above the operating system in order to coordinate a set of synchronized, time-critical tasks executing at different cyclic rates. The scheduling requirements for such applications and develops scheduling algorithms using services provided by contemporary real-time operating systems.

  8. Spaceflight induced changes in the human proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononikhin, Alexey S; Starodubtseva, Natalia L; Pastushkova, Lyudmila Kh; Kashirina, Daria N; Fedorchenko, Kristina Yu; Brhozovsky, Alexander G; Popov, Igor A; Larina, Irina M; Nikolaev, Evgeny N

    2017-01-01

    Spaceflight is one of the most extreme conditions encountered by humans: Individuals are exposed to radiation, microgravity, hypodynamia, and will experience isolation. A better understanding of the molecular processes induced by these factors may allow us to develop personalized countermeasures to minimize risks to astronauts. Areas covered: This review is a summary of literature searches from PubMed, NASA, Roskosmos and the authors' research experiences and opinions. The review covers the available proteomic data on the effects of spaceflight factors on the human body, including both real space missions and ground-based model experiments. Expert commentary: Overall, the authors believe that the present background, methodology and equipment improvements will enhance spaceflight safety and support accumulation of new knowledge on how organisms adapt to extreme conditions.

  9. Evaluation of operating experience for service life of components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Sunder, R.

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of the operating experience of German light-water reactor components based on licensee event reports indicates that a large part of the defects and failures are caused by fatigue and/or corrosion type mechanisms. Actions have been taken to eliminate the causes by redesigning systems, replacement of components and change of operating procedures. The interaction of fatigue and corrosion mechanisms are not understood in all details today, further research is still necessary. To establish a more realistic data base of the local loading and water chemistry condition for all loading conditions the application of advanced monitoring systems is proposed. The benefits of these systems are that the operating procedures can be further optimized, the actual used life time fraction can be calculated regularly and the data base can be used for life time extension. (orig.) [de

  10. Spaceflight Effect on White Matter Structural Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jessica K.; Kopplemans, Vincent; Paternack, Ofer; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2017-01-01

    Recent reports of elevated brain white matter hyperintensity (WMH) counts and volume in postflight astronaut MRIs suggest that further examination of spaceflight's impact on the microstructure of brain white matter is warranted. To this end, retrospective longitudinal diffusion-weighted MRI scans obtained from 15 astronauts were evaluated. In light of the recent reports of microgravity-induced cephalad fluid shift and gray matter atrophy seen in astronauts, we applied a technique to estimate diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics corrected for free water contamination. This approach enabled the analysis of white matter tissue-specific alterations that are unrelated to fluid shifts, occurring from before spaceflight to after landing. After spaceflight, decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values were detected in an area encompassing the superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Increased radial diffusivity (RD) and decreased axial diffusivity (AD) were also detected within overlapping regions. In addition, FA values in the corticospinal tract decreased and RD measures in the precentral gyrus white matter increased from before to after flight. The results show disrupted structural connectivity of white matter in tracts involved in visuospatial processing, vestibular function, and movement control as a result of spaceflight. The findings may help us understand the structural underpinnings of the extensive spaceflight-induced sensorimotor remodeling. Prospective longitudinal assessment of the white matter integrity in astronauts is needed to characterize the evolution of white matter microstructural changes associated with spaceflight, their behavioral consequences, and the time course of recovery. Supported by a grant from the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, NASA NCC 9-58.

  11. Control Modes in International Service Operations: The Propensity to Franchise

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Fladmoe-Lindquist; Laurent L. Jacque

    1995-01-01

    What determines a service firm's organizational choice between equity-based control and franchising? This question, which has elicited some theoretical answers and a few empirical tests in a domestic setting, has never been addressed in an international context before. This study explains the mode of control chosen in terms of a theoretical framework which borrows from agency theory and transaction cost analysis. The propensity to franchise internationally was found to be directly related to ...

  12. Cost Analysis of Operation Theatre Services at an Apex Tertiary Care Trauma Centre of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddharth, Vijaydeep; Kumar, Subodh; Vij, Aarti; Gupta, Shakti Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Operating room services are one of the major cost and revenue-generating centres of a hospital. The cost associated with the provisioning of operating department services depends on the resources consumed and the unit costs of those resources. The objective of this study was to calculate the cost of operation theatre services at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre, AIIMS, New Delhi. The study was carried out at the operation theatre department of Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Centre (JPNATC), AIIMS from April 2010 to March 2011 after obtaining approval from concerned authorities. This study was observational and descriptive in nature. Traditional (average or gross) costing methodology was used to arrive at the cost for the provisioning of operation theatre (OT) services. Cost was calculated under two heads; as capital and operating cost. Annualised cost of capital assets was calculated according to the methodology prescribed by the World Health Organization and operating costs were taken on actual basis; thereafter, per day cost of OT services was obtained. The average number of surgeries performed in the trauma centre per day is 13. The annual cost of providing operating room services at JPNATC, New Delhi was calculated to be 197,298,704 Indian rupees (INR) (US$ 3,653,679), while the per hour cost was calculated to be INR 22,626.92 (US$ 419). Majority of the expenditures were for human resource (33.63 %) followed by OT capital cost (31.90 %), consumables (29.97 %), engineering maintenance cost (2.55 %), support services operating cost (1.22 %) and support services capital cost (0.73 %). Of the total cost towards the provisioning of OT services, 32.63 % was capital cost while 67.37 % is operating cost. The results of this costing study will help in the future planning of resource allocation within the financial constraints (US$ 1 = INR 54).

  13. 76 FR 24836 - Regulatory Approach for Commercial Orbital Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... human spaceflight. The FAA will share its current philosophy, but is most interested in the public's... for Commercial Orbital Human Spaceflight AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... information from the public on the regulatory approach to commercial orbital human spaceflight by the FAA...

  14. Service design: a review of methods and techniques inthe point of view of service operations management area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Torres Júnior

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As in many developing countries, the service sector in Brazil is responsible for generating income and employment for a significant portion of the population. Due to this economic relevance, service organizations are faced with an increasingly demanding and competitive market. This demand greater innovation and business planning. Despite this, the process of service development remains a relatively unexplored subject in the literature. Several issues regarding the planning and management remain without clear ideas or propositions that guide their appropriate treatment. The result of this situation, the methods and techniques that help design the services are not properly disseminated. These are scattered through the literature of operations management services. Given this framework, the light of a review of the literature and concerning the elements that compose the service project according to the works of Machuca, Zamora-Gonzalez and Aguilar-Escobar (2007 and Edvardsson (1997, the present work points and examine the methods and techniques suggested by many authors and works on the area of Service Operations. It was found that the knowledge about the methods and techniques is diffuse. This knowledge is concentrated on the design process and determining the location of services.

  15. Automation of Field Operations and Services (AFOS) National Weather Service (NWS) Service Records and Retention System (SRRS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Service Records and Retention System (SRRS) is historical digital data set DSI-9949, a collection of products created by the U.S. National Weather Service (NWS) and...

  16. Operating Guangzhou Hotel Industry with Service Concept of Cantonese Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ As the completion of New Baiyun International Airport and Pazhou International Conference Center and the fast development of exhibition industry, the commerce and trade position of Guangzhou (the historical and cultural international city) is growing with each passing day. With the Cantonese food service concept and guest receiving methods of "Culture, Trend,Friendly and Hospitality", Guangzhou hotel industry has won the satisfaction from domestic and foreign businessmen and tourists. With the cultural tinge of and trend of Lingnan, Guangzhou hotels have become the display window to foreign guests. Guangzhou hotels treat all the guests very well during the spring and autumn China Export Commodities Fairs.

  17. A handbook of digital library economics operations, collections and services

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, David P

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a companion volume to Digital Library Economics and focuses on the 'how to' of managing digital collections and services (of all types) with regard to their financing and financial management. The emphasis is on case studies and practical examples drawn from a wide variety of contexts. A Handbook of Digital Library Economics is a practical manual for those involved - or expecting to be involved - in the development and management of digital libraries.provides practical approach to the subjectfocuses on the challenges associated with the economic and financial aspects of digi

  18. Implementation of operational meteorological information service for CARE REMDAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sung Nam; Nam, Jae Cheol; Choi, Jae Chun; Lee, Byong Lyol; Lee, Bo Ram; Shin, Hyun Cheol; Park, Nan Ah; Song, Chang Keun; Park, Sang Jong

    1999-12-01

    The scope of this study consists of : improve of CARE REMDAS - identification of meteorolgical information required for nuclear emergency response and their efficient use on a real-time basis, review of the production and operation of KMA NWP nodels and their applications. Suggestions on the improvements in nuclear emergency response systme from the care studies of both domestic and foreign countries - case study of a domestic model for radioactivity T/D in terms of model dynamics and operation, investigation of promising support systems by reviewing the current status of T/D model in UK. Recommendations on a promising meteorological information sevices based on foreign cases - examinations of DWD system, including EU for nuclear emergency response, review on the meteorogical information support by DWD for NERS

  19. Implementation of operational meteorological information service for CARE REMDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sung Nam; Nam, Jae Cheol; Choi, Jae Chun [Meteorological Reaearch Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byong Lyol; Lee, Bo Ram; Shin, Hyun Cheol; Park, Nan Ah [Korea Meteorological Administration, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Keun; Park, Sang Jong [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    The scope of this study consists of : improve of CARE REMDAS - identification of meteorolgical information required for nuclear emergency response and their efficient use on a real-time basis, review of the production and operation of KMA NWP nodels and their applications. Suggestions on the improvements in nuclear emergency response systme from the care studies of both domestic and foreign countries - case study of a domestic model for radioactivity T/D in terms of model dynamics and operation, investigation of promising support systems by reviewing the current status of T/D model in UK. Recommendations on a promising meteorological information sevices based on foreign cases - examinations of DWD system, including EU for nuclear emergency response, review on the meteorogical information support by DWD for NERS.

  20. Enhanced design, operation and maintenance practices for a longer plant service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, E.; Courcoux, A.

    2004-01-01

    Plant service life problems have been under detailed investigation in France and the experience acquired by our company over the past 25 years in the design, construction and maintenance of Pressurized Water Reactors has contributed to develop skills, equipment and capabilities available for efficient plant aging management and component service life extension. The service life of a nuclear power plant is deeply dependant of the provisions made during the design stage, directly linked to good operating conditions and adequate maintenance practices. This paper presents the importance of these three steps (design, operation and maintenance) for plant service life concern. (author)

  1. Perancangan Tata Kelola Layanan Teknologi Informasi Menggunakan ITIL versi 3 Domain Service Transition Dan Service Operation Di Pemerintah Kota Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luki Aisha Kusuma Wardani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, Information Technology plays an important role in an organization, and not only as a support equipment. Bandung City Government, as a government agency, make IT into one of the visions that need to be achieved. To achieve good governance based on Minister Regulation Number 41 in 2007, IT Governance is needed to ensure that the investment of IT can add value and align with institution’s objective. Bandung City Government currently doesn’t have policies and procedure that regulate about IT Service Management. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim to create a guidance for Office of Communications and Information Technology of Bandung (Diskominfo to optimize the service provided. This study also aims to make Service Management governance so that the management of IT service have certain quality and meet the needs of business customers, and improve the quality as the agreement with the customers. This study was conducted using ITIL v3 with Service Operation and Service Transition domain. ITIL is IT Service Management best practice to improve the efficiency of IT operational. ISO 15504 was conducted to asses Capability Level of ITIL Process. Capability Level of Service Transition is 24.5% and Capability Level of Service Operation is 23%. Because of the inadequacy of the primary data, the assessment was also carried out by mapping the objective of institution with the risks related to the lack of ITIL processes. The results of the design are the governance policies and procedures related to the ITIL processes needed by the institution.

  2. Health Services in Denmark: Co-operation between different sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    minorities, constituting about 9 % of the total population of 5.5 millions.    The Danish Welfare State can be characterised as ‘universal’, providing high quality social care and benefits to all members of the society. Overall, the Danish healthcare system is based on a free access system with equity...... interventions and individual activities by the few health workers with a special interest in the migrant health. TTT is an illustration of providing psychosocial services to ethnic minority youth and their families based on combination of citizen volunteer work with partly state funding. This mental health NGO......, marked by systematic, stratified and hierarchical organisation and on the other end “Bottom up” approach in the United Kingdom,  marked by grassroots orientation and rather chaotic situation organising programmes for dispersed groups (Watters and Ingleby, 2004).  ...

  3. The services and operational characteristics of the Eutelsat system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, F. M.

    The Eutelsat satellite multiservice system (SMS) based on the French Telecom 1 and the European ECS satellites is characterized. Circuit-switched, reserved, full-time-leased, and part-time-leased services will be offered to business customers in point-to-point or point-to-multipoint configurations and in one-way or two-way modes for such purposes as video or audio conferencing, computer-to-computer data transfer, remote printing, packet-switched data transfer, fast facsimile, slow-scan TV, and electronic mail. Maps of the coverage zones and a block diagram of the monitoring and control network are provided, and consideration is given to the ground-station requirements and the access schemes (SCPC/FDMA for ECS; TDMA for Telecom 1).

  4. Genitourinary Injuries Sustained by Female U.S. Service Members During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-07

    2. REPORT TYPE 10/07/2017 Presentation 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE GENITOURINARY INJURIES SUSTAINED BY FEMALE U.S. SERVICE MEMBERS DURING OPERATION...for increased female GU injuries in future conflicts and the long-term sequelae from these injury patterns. Materials and Methods: The Department of

  5. Lessons from the organisation of the UK medical services deployed in support of Operation TELIC (Iraq) and Operation HERRICK (Afghanistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricknell, Martin C M; Nadin, M

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides the definitive record of the UK Defence Medical Services (DMS) lessons from the organisation of medical services in support of Operation (Op) TELIC (Iraq) and Op HERRICK (Afghanistan). The analysis involved a detailed review of the published academic literature, internal post-operational tour reports and post-tour interviews. The list of lessons was reviewed through three Military Judgement Panel cycles producing the single synthesis ' the golden thread ' and eight ' silver bullets ' as themes to institutionalise the learning to deliver the golden thread. One additional theme, mentoring indigenous healthcare systems and providers, emerged as a completely new capability requirement. The DMS has established a programme of work to implement these lessons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Spaceplane Hermes Europe's dream of independent manned spaceflight

    CERN Document Server

    van den Abeelen, Luc

    2017-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the European Hermes program. It tells the fascinating story of how Europe aimed for an independent manned spaceflight capability which was to complement US and Soviet/Russian space activities.In 1975, France decided to expand its plans for automated satellites for materials processing to include the development of a small 10 ton spaceplane to be launched on top of a future heavy-lifting Ariane rocket. This Hermes spaceplane would give Europe its own human spaceflight capability for shuttling crews between Earth and space stations. The European Space Agency backed the proposal. Unfortunately, after detailed studies, the project was cancelled in 1993. If Hermes had been introduced into service, it could have become the preferred "space taxi" for ferrying crews to and from the International Space Station. But that opportunity was lost. This book provides the first look of the complete story of and reasons for the demise of this ambitious program. It also gives an account w...

  7. Special Army Reports Prepared by Defense Finance and Accounting Service Indianapolis Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul J; Marsh, Patricia A; Armstrong, Jack L; Wenzel, Paul C; Barnes, Leslie M; Grum, Andrew D; Kleiman, E. E; Baer, Joseph A; Maroska, Chad A; Thompson, Ann L

    2007-01-01

    .... This is the second in a series of reports related to Army budget execution operations. The first report discussed the transmission of Army budget execution data by the Defense Finance and Accounting Service (DFAS...

  8. Draft Title V Operating Permit: Andeavor Field Services, LLC - Walker Hollow Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draft Title V Operating Permit, statement of basis, public notice bulletin, and the administrative permit docket (application and other supporting documents) for the Draft Part 71 Permit for Andeavor Field Services, LLC - Walker Hollow CS.

  9. Outsourcing of Defense Supply Center, Columbus, Bus and Taxi Service Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Introduction. We performed the audit in response to allegations to the Defense Hotline that the Defense Supply Center, Columbus, outsourcing study for bus and taxi service operations was based on incorrect methodology...

  10. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Wonsits Valley Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Wonsits Valley Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  11. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Coyote Wash Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Coyote Wash Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  12. Apollo Spacecraft 012 Command/Service Module being moved to Operations bldg

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Transfer of Apollo Spacecraft 012 Command/Service Module for mating to the Saturn Lunar Module Adapter No. 05 in the Manned Spacecraft Operations bldg. S/C 012 will be flown on the Apollo/Saturn 204 mission.

  13. Research and development portfolio of the sustainability science team national sustainable operations USDA Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trista Patterson; David Nicholls; Jonathan Long

    2015-01-01

    The Sustainability Science Team (SST) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service Sustainable Operations Initiative is a 18-member virtual research and development team, located across five regions and four research stations of the USDA Forest Service. The team provides research, publication, systems analysis, and decision support to the Sustainable...

  14. 42 CFR 412.405 - Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. 412.405 Section 412.405 Public... Services of Inpatient Psychiatric Facilities § 412.405 Preadmission services as inpatient operating costs under the inpatient psychiatric facility prospective payment system. The prospective payment system...

  15. Urine Pretreatment History and Perspective in NASA Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Adam, Niklas; Chambers, Antja; Broyan, James

    2015-01-01

    Urine pretreatment is a technology that may seem to have small mass impacts in future spaceflight missions, but can have significant impacts on reliability, life, and performance of the rest of the wastewater management and recovery systems. NASA has experience with several different urine pretreatment systems, including those flow on the space shuttle, evaluated for NASA waste collection systems or used in Russian commodes on ISS, or developed by NASA or industry as alternatives. Each has had unique requirements for shelf life, operational life, and the life or conditions of the stored, treated urine. Each was evaluated under different test conditions depending on mission, and depending on testing experience developed over NASA's history. Those that were flown led to further lessons learned about hardware compatibility and control. As NASA looks forward to human spaceflight missions beyond low Earth orbit, these techniques need to be evaluated in new light. Based on published design reference missions, candidate requirements can be derived for future systems. Initial comparisons between these requirements and previous performance or test results can be performed. In many cases these comparisons reveal data gaps. Successful previous performance is not enough to address current needs.

  16. 41 CFR 102-85.175 - Are the standard level services for cleaning, mechanical operation, and maintenance identified in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services for cleaning, mechanical operation, and maintenance identified in an OA? 102-85.175 Section 102-85... of Service § 102-85.175 Are the standard level services for cleaning, mechanical operation, and maintenance identified in an OA? Unless specified otherwise in the OA, standard level services for cleaning...

  17. The Next Generation Platform as a Service Cloudifying Service Deployments in Telco-Operators Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kentis, Angelos Mimidis; Ollora Zaballa, Eder; Soler, José

    2018-01-01

    5G standard emerges at a particular time in technology history when cloud transforms deeply almost all industries and services: it becomes obvious that innovations have to be made cloud-native for being successful. 5G must become the ubiquitous fabric blending universal connectivity (to humans, r...

  18. Adding Value to the Network: Exploring the Software as a Service and Platform as a Service Models for Mobile Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vânia

    The environments of software development and software provision are shifting to Web-based platforms supported by Platform/Software as a Service (PaaS/SaaS) models. This paper will make the case that there is equally an opportunity for mobile operators to identify additional sources of revenue by exposing network functionalities through Web-based service platforms. By elaborating on the concepts, benefits and risks of SaaS and PaaS, several factors that should be taken into consideration in applying these models to the telecom world are delineated.

  19. Response of carausius morosus to spaceflight environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, G.; Bucker, H.; Facius, R.; Horneck, G. (DFVLR-Institute for Aerospace Medicine, 5000 Koeln 90, FRG (DE)); Ruther, W. (University of Marburg, 3550 Marburg, FRG (DE)); Beaujean, R. (University Kiel, 2300 Kiel 1, FRG (DE)); Heinrich, W. (University of Siegen, 5900 Siegen 21, FRG (DE))

    1989-05-15

    Already during the early biosatellite program, a synergistic action of radiation and spaceflight factors---probably microgravity---was observed in disturbances of development of Dropsophila larvae, such as chromosome translocations and body anomalies. Radiation was applied by an onboard source of gamma-radiation. The synergism was supposed to be due to an increase in chromosome breakage followed by a loss or exchange of genetic information.

  20. Response of carausius morosus to spaceflight environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, G.; Bucker, H.; Facius, R.; Horneck, G.; Ruther, W.; Beaujean, R.; Heinrich, W.

    1989-01-01

    Already during the early biosatellite program, a synergistic action of radiation and spaceflight factors---probably microgravity---was observed in disturbances of development of Dropsophila larvae, such as chromosome translocations and body anomalies. Radiation was applied by an onboard source of gamma-radiation. The synergism was supposed to be due to an increase in chromosome breakage followed by a loss or exchange of genetic information

  1. Long term operation of nuclear power plants – IAEA SALTO peer review service and its results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivanek, Robert, E-mail: r.krivanek@iaea.org

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • SALTO peer review service is designed for reviewing of ageing management and NPPs’ preparedness LTO. • It has been established as an effective tool to review the compliance with IAEA safety standards. • The important issues for safe LTO are being identified by SALTO missions. • Analysis of those issues is provided in the paper. • This peer review service is strongly recommended for NPPs prior to entering LTO period. - Abstract: This paper presents main IAEA activities for safe long term operation (LTO) which includes establishment of IAEA Safety Standards and other LTO related documents, fostering information exchange and establishing databases and provision of SALTO (Safety Aspects of Long Term Operation) peer review service. This paper provides insights into IAEA SALTO peer review service objectives, scope and methodology. The SALTO peer review service was designed to assist nuclear power plant (NPP) operators in adopting a proper approach to LTO of their plants and in implementing complete and appropriate activities to ensure that plant safety will be maintained during the LTO period. The SALTO peer review service can also support regulators in establishing or improving regulatory and licensing strategies for LTO of NPPs. Issues derived from 19 SALTO missions and 2 LTO modules of OSART (Operational Safety Review Team) missions conducted during the period of 2005 to March 2014 are also analyzed in this paper.

  2. Genetic dissection of the Arabidopsis spaceflight transcriptome: Are some responses dispensable for the physiological adaptation of plants to spaceflight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lisa Paul

    Full Text Available Experimentation on the International Space Station has reached the stage where repeated and nuanced transcriptome studies are beginning to illuminate the structural and metabolic differences between plants grown in space compared to plants on the Earth. Genes that are important in establishing the spaceflight responses are being identified, their roles in spaceflight physiological adaptation are increasingly understood, and the fact that different genotypes adapt differently is recognized. However, the basic question of whether these spaceflight responses are actually required for survival has yet to be posed, and the fundamental notion that spaceflight responses may be non-adaptive has yet to be explored. Therefore the experiments presented here were designed to ask if portions of the plant spaceflight response can be genetically removed without causing loss of spaceflight survival and without causing increased stress responses. The CARA experiment compared the spaceflight transcriptome responses in the root tips of two Arabidopsis ecotypes, Col-0 and WS, as well as that of a PhyD mutant of Col-0. When grown with the ambient light of the ISS, phyD plants displayed a significantly reduced spaceflight transcriptome response compared to Col-0, suggesting that altering the activity of a single gene can actually improve spaceflight adaptation by reducing the transcriptome cost of physiological adaptation. The WS genotype showed an even simpler spaceflight transcriptome response in the ambient light of the ISS, more broadly indicating that the plant genotype can be manipulated to reduce the cost of spaceflight adaptation, as measured by transcriptional response. These differential genotypic responses suggest that genetic manipulation could further reduce, or perhaps eliminate the metabolic cost of spaceflight adaptation. When plants were germinated and then left in the dark on the ISS, the WS genotype actually mounted a larger transcriptome response

  3. Development of an operational manual for a consultation-liaison psychiatry service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Anne Pf; Sharma, Swapnil; Carpenter, Lindsay J; Gatsi, Mike

    2018-02-01

    Consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP) services sit between mental health and the general hospital, and risk being poorly understood by both systems. The aim of this study was to develop an operational manual for a CLP service, which defined functions and governance. The CLP literature was reviewed with a focus on descriptions of CLP roles, organisational processes, quality measures and service development. The CLP team held service planning meetings and met with members of the mental health and hospital executives. Site visits and collaboration with other CLP services occurred in defining the roles of the CLP service and organisational governance. A CLP operational document was developed, including a description of the service, its functions, staff roles and governance. Procedural information such as the CLP timetable, referral process, triage and assessment, documentation, activity recording, quality assurance and relevant policies were outlined. The development of a dedicated operational manual for CLP clarified the roles, functions and governance of CLP within the general hospital and mental health systems. The development process facilitated the engagement of key clinicians and administrators of these systems, the determination of quality improvement targets and greater transparency and accountability.

  4. Urolithiasis and Genitourinary Systems Issues for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey A.; Sargsyan, Ashot; Pietryzk, Robert; Sams, C.; Stepaniak, Phillip; Whitson, P.

    2008-09-01

    Genitourinary medical events have shown to be an issue for both short duration and long duration spaceflight, and are anticipated to also be a potential issue for future exploration missions as well. This is based on actual historical pre-, in- and post-flight medical events, as well as assessment of what future flight challenges lay ahead. For this study, retrospective record review, as well as prospective studies of ultrasound and contingency management procedure development, and oral urinary stone prophylaxis were conducted. Results showed that the incidence of prior urinary calculi in- and post-flight was a risk driver for development of on-orbit countermeasures, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic methods for a possible in-flight calculus contingency. Oral potassium citrate and bisphosphonate preparations show promise for prophylaxis in spaceflight risk reduction. We conclude that a properly developed approach of selection, monitoring, and preventive medicine with effective countermeasures, along with early imaging diagnosis and minimally-invasive contingency intervention, should prevent issues such as urinary calculi from having a significant mission impact for exploration-class spaceflight.

  5. Black molecular adsorber coatings for spaceflight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Nithin S.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-09-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  6. Spaceflight Activates Lipotoxic Pathways in Mouse Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R Jonscher

    Full Text Available Spaceflight affects numerous organ systems in the body, leading to metabolic dysfunction that may have long-term consequences. Microgravity-induced alterations in liver metabolism, particularly with respect to lipids, remain largely unexplored. Here we utilize a novel systems biology approach, combining metabolomics and transcriptomics with advanced Raman microscopy, to investigate altered hepatic lipid metabolism in mice following short duration spaceflight. Mice flown aboard Space Transportation System -135, the last Shuttle mission, lose weight but redistribute lipids, particularly to the liver. Intriguingly, spaceflight mice lose retinol from lipid droplets. Both mRNA and metabolite changes suggest the retinol loss is linked to activation of PPARα-mediated pathways and potentially to hepatic stellate cell activation, both of which may be coincident with increased bile acids and early signs of liver injury. Although the 13-day flight duration is too short for frank fibrosis to develop, the retinol loss plus changes in markers of extracellular matrix remodeling raise the concern that longer duration exposure to the space environment may result in progressive liver damage, increasing the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  7. Spaceflight Activates Lipotoxic Pathways in Mouse Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonscher, Karen R.; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Suhalim, Jeffrey L.; Orlicky, David J.; Potma, Eric O.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Bateman, Ted A.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Levi, Moshe; Friedman, Jacob E.; Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Spaceflight affects numerous organ systems in the body, leading to metabolic dysfunction that may have long-term consequences. Microgravity-induced alterations in liver metabolism, particularly with respect to lipids, remain largely unexplored. Here we utilize a novel systems biology approach, combining metabolomics and transcriptomics with advanced Raman microscopy, to investigate altered hepatic lipid metabolism in mice following short duration spaceflight. Mice flown aboard Space Transportation System -135, the last Shuttle mission, lose weight but redistribute lipids, particularly to the liver. Intriguingly, spaceflight mice lose retinol from lipid droplets. Both mRNA and metabolite changes suggest the retinol loss is linked to activation of PPARα-mediated pathways and potentially to hepatic stellate cell activation, both of which may be coincident with increased bile acids and early signs of liver injury. Although the 13-day flight duration is too short for frank fibrosis to develop, the retinol loss plus changes in markers of extracellular matrix remodeling raise the concern that longer duration exposure to the space environment may result in progressive liver damage, increasing the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27097220

  8. Man/terminal interaction evaluation of computer operating system command and control service concepts. [in Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, D. W.; Shields, N. L., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The Experiment Computer Operating System (ECOS) of the Spacelab will allow the onboard Payload Specialist to command experiment devices and display information relative to the performance of experiments. Three candidate ECOS command and control service concepts were reviewed and laboratory data on operator performance was taken for each concept. The command and control service concepts evaluated included a dedicated operator's menu display from which all command inputs were issued, a dedicated command key concept with which command inputs could be issued from any display, and a multi-display concept in which command inputs were issued from several dedicated function displays. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed in terms of training, operational errors, task performance time, and subjective comments of system operators.

  9. Adaptation of the Skeletal System during Long-duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Lang, Thomas F.; LeBlanc, Adrian D.; Schneider, Victor S.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Smith, Scott M.; Vico, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    exceeds spaceflight exposure but for which the restoration of whole bone strength remains an open issue and may involve structural alteration; and 4. Display risk factors for bone loss -- such as the negative calcium balance and down-regulated calcium-regulating hormones in response to bone atrophy -- that can be compounded by the constraints of conducting mission operations (inability to provide essential nutrients and vitamins). The full characterization of the skeletal response to mechanical unloading in space is not complete. In particular, countermeasures used to date have been inadequate and it is not yet known whether more appropriate countermeasures can prevent the changes in bone that have been found in previous flights, knowledge gaps related to the effects of prolonged (greater than or equal to 6 months) space exposure and to partial gravity environments are substantial, and longitudinal measurements on crew members after spaceflight are required to assess the full impact on skeletal recovery.

  10. AREVA NP products and services for NPP operation and maintenance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechelette, Anne; Rat, Guy Le

    2009-01-01

    AREVA supplies customized services throughout the reactor improvement process according to clients' requirements: safety, performance, availability, obsolescence, operating and maintenance conditions, environment and technical assistance. Form design studies to on site modification and implementation including requalification tests, AREVA, as OEM*, has various products and services in the field of Engineering and Upgrading to satisfy client demands. In keeping with Inpo's AP913 approach, AREVA is particularly skilled in this methodology to help utilities improve availability factor and maintenance programs. AREVA has customized its services to many utilities in cooperating with local partners, suppliers, and engineering service providers through partnerships, consortiums, joint ventures, etc. AREVA's knowledge of the fleet's operation and maintenance experience helps NPP clients to identify the most cost effective improvements and approaches. Different examples of modifications of modifications and improvements performed in France and abroad illustrate AREVA's involvement in the NPP continuous upgrade process

  11. Correction of engineering servicing regularity of transporttechnological machines in operational process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, A. N.; Makarov, E. I.; Zakharov, N. S.

    2018-03-01

    In the article, the issue of correcting engineering servicing regularity on the basis of actual dependability data of cars in operation is considered. The purpose of the conducted research is to increase dependability of transport-technological machines by correcting engineering servicing regularity. The subject of the research is the mechanism of engineering servicing regularity influence on reliability measure. On the basis of the analysis of researches carried out before, a method of nonparametric estimation of car failure measure according to actual time-to-failure data was chosen. A possibility of describing the failure measure dependence on engineering servicing regularity by various mathematical models is considered. It is proven that the exponential model is the most appropriate for that purpose. The obtained results can be used as a separate method of engineering servicing regularity correction with certain operational conditions taken into account, as well as for the technical-economical and economical-stochastic methods improvement. Thus, on the basis of the conducted researches, a method of engineering servicing regularity correction of transport-technological machines in the operational process was developed. The use of that method will allow decreasing the number of failures.

  12. Method and apparatus to predict the remaining service life of an operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Kangas, Lars J.; Terrones, Kristine M.; Maynard, Melody A.; Pawlowski, Ronald A. , Ferryman; Thomas A.; Skorpik, James R.; Wilson, Bary W.

    2008-11-25

    A method and computer-based apparatus for monitoring the degradation of, predicting the remaining service life of, and/or planning maintenance for, an operating system are disclosed. Diagnostic information on degradation of the operating system is obtained through measurement of one or more performance characteristics by one or more sensors onboard and/or proximate the operating system. Though not required, it is preferred that the sensor data are validated to improve the accuracy and reliability of the service life predictions. The condition or degree of degradation of the operating system is presented to a user by way of one or more calculated, numeric degradation figures of merit that are trended against one or more independent variables using one or more mathematical techniques. Furthermore, more than one trendline and uncertainty interval may be generated for a given degradation figure of merit/independent variable data set. The trendline(s) and uncertainty interval(s) are subsequently compared to one or more degradation figure of merit thresholds to predict the remaining service life of the operating system. The present invention enables multiple mathematical approaches in determining which trendline(s) to use to provide the best estimate of the remaining service life.

  13. Consumer-Operated Service Programs: monetary and donated costs and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Brian T; Mannix, Danyelle; Freed, Michael C; Campbell, Jean; Johnsen, Matthew; Jones, Kristine; Blyler, Crystal R

    2011-01-01

    Examine cost differences between Consumer Operated Service Programs (COSPs) as possibly determined by a) size of program, b) use of volunteers and other donated resources, c) cost-of-living differences between program locales, d) COSP model applied, and e) delivery system used to implement the COSP model. As part of a larger evaluation of COSP, data on operating costs, enrollments, and mobilization of donated resources were collected for eight programs representing three COSP models (drop-in centers, mutual support, and education/advocacy training). Because the 8 programs were operated in geographically diverse areas of the US, costs were examined with and without adjustment for differences in local cost of living. Because some COSPs use volunteers and other donated resources, costs were measured with and without these resources being monetized. Scale of operation also was considered as a mediating variable for differences in program costs. Cost per visit, cost per consumer per quarter, and total program cost were calculated separately for funds spent and for resources donated for each COSP. Differences between COSPs in cost per consumer and cost per visit seem better explained by economies of scale and delivery system used than by cost-of-living differences between program locations or COSP model. Given others' findings that different COSP models produce little variation in service effectiveness, minimize service costs by maximizing scale of operation while using a delivery system that allows staff and facilities resources to be increased or decreased quickly to match number of consumers seeking services.

  14. Effect Of Spaceflight On Microbial Gene Expression And Virulence: Preliminary Results From Microbe Payload Flown On-Board STS-115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; HonerzuBentrup, K,; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; Hammond, T.; Allen, P.; Baker, C.; Ott, C. M.; Nelman-Gonzalez M.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Human presence in space, whether permanent or temporary, is accompanied by the presence of microbes. However, the extent of microbial changes in response to spaceflight conditions and the corresponding changes to infectious disease risk is unclear. Previous studies have indicated that spaceflight weakens the immune system in humans and animals. In addition, preflight and in-flight monitoring of the International Space Station (ISS) and other spacecraft indicates the presence of opportunistic pathogens and the potential of obligate pathogens. Altered antibiotic resistance of microbes in flight has also been shown. As astronauts and cosmonauts live for longer periods in a closed environment, especially one using recycled water and air, there is an increased risk to crewmembers of infectious disease events occurring in-flight. Therefore, understanding how the space environment affects microorganisms and their disease potential is critically important for spaceflight missions and requires further study. The goal of this flight experiment, operationally called MICROBE, is to utilize three model microbial pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans to examine the global effects of spaceflight on microbial gene expression and virulence attributes. Specifically, the aims are (1) to perform microarray-mediated gene expression profiling of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, in response to spaceflight in comparison to ground controls and (2) to determine the effect of spaceflight on the virulence potential of these microorganisms immediately following their return from spaceflight using murine models. The model microorganisms were selected as they have been isolated from preflight or in-flight monitoring, represent different degrees of pathogenic behavior, are well characterized, and have sequenced genomes with available microarrays. In particular, extensive studies of S. typhimurium by the Principal Investigator, Dr. Nickerson

  15. Operations management and reform combining with the principles of public service of the university sports venue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keyi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low utilization rate of opening-use, backward management and unreasonable configurations, university sports venue cannot produce some economic benefits, which makes the operating expenses in college stadiums extremely tense. Even sometimes it comes to the precarious situation. Therefore, there should be an operations management reform for college sports venue. Firstly, the article analyzes the current situation of stadium operations management. Secondly, with the actual experience of the authors, this essay discussed on how to strengthen the operation and management of modem college sports venues and reform, which includes the way enhancing the training about modem operational management knowledge of college stadiums, strengthening the diversified operation of college stadiums, highlighting the "people-oriented" in college sports venue design concepts and vigorously developing the training services about stylistic aspects of youth and, etc.,

  16. Resource allocation in shared spectrum access communications for operators with diverse service requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibria, Mirza Golam; Villardi, Gabriel Porto; Ishizu, Kentaro; Kojima, Fumihide; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we study inter-operator spectrum sharing and intra-operator resource allocation in shared spectrum access communication systems and propose efficient dynamic solutions to address both inter-operator and intra-operator resource allocation optimization problems. For inter-operator spectrum sharing, we present two competent approaches, namely the subcarrier gain-based sharing and fragmentation-based sharing, which carry out fair and flexible allocation of the available shareable spectrum among the operators subject to certain well-defined sharing rules, traffic demands, and channel propagation characteristics. The subcarrier gain-based spectrum sharing scheme has been found to be more efficient in terms of achieved throughput. However, the fragmentation-based sharing is more attractive in terms of computational complexity. For intra-operator resource allocation, we consider resource allocation problem with users' dissimilar service requirements, where the operator supports users with delay constraint and non-delay constraint service requirements, simultaneously. This optimization problem is a mixed-integer non-linear programming problem and non-convex, which is computationally very expensive, and the complexity grows exponentially with the number of integer variables. We propose less-complex and efficient suboptimal solution based on formulating exact linearization, linear approximation, and convexification techniques for the non-linear and/or non-convex objective functions and constraints. Extensive simulation performance analysis has been carried out that validates the efficiency of the proposed solution.

  17. Fish Inner Ear Otolith Growth Under Real Microgravity (Spaceflight) and Clinorotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anken, Ralf; Brungs, Sonja; Grimm, Dennis; Knie, Miriam; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2016-06-01

    Using late larval stages of cichlid fish ( Oreochromis mossambicus) we have shown earlier that the biomineralization of otoliths is adjusted towards gravity by means of a neurally guided feedback loop. Centrifuge experiments, e.g., revealed that increased gravity slows down otolith growth. Microgravity thus should yield an opposite effect, i.e., larger than normal otoliths. Consequently, late larval cichlids (stage 14, vestibular system operational) were subjected to real microgravity during the 12 days FOTON-M3 spaceflight mission (OMEGAHAB-hardware). Controls were kept at 1 g on ground within an identical hardware. Animals of another batch were subsequently clinorotated within a submersed fast-rotating clinostat with one axis of rotation (2d-clinostat), a device regarded to simulate microgravity. Temperature and light conditions were provided in analogy to the spaceflight experiment. Controls were maintained at 1 g within the same aquarium. After all experiments, animals had reached late stage 21 (fish can swim freely). Maintenance under real microgravity during spaceflight resulted in significantly larger than normal otoliths (both lapilli and sagittae, involved in sensing gravity and the hearing process, respectively). This result is fully in line with an earlier spaceflight study in the course of which otoliths from late-staged swordtails Xiphophorus helleri were analyzed. Clinorotation resulted in larger than 1 g sagittae. However, no effect on lapilli was obtained. Possibly, an effect was present but too light to be measurable. Overall, spaceflight obviously induces an adaptation of otolith growth, whereas clinorotation does not fully mimic conditions of microgravity regarding late larval cichlids.

  18. Development of OSSA(Operation Service Support Agreement) Simulator and Site Acceptance Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, DaeSeung; Ahn, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jong-Beom [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Building the nuclear power plant is on the schedule, remaining question is who could operate the NPP after the construction is finished. OSSA is known as Operation Service Support Agreement, it is the contract between KHNP(Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co.,) and ENEC(Emirates Nuclear Energy Corporation) for United Arab Emirates Nuclear Power Plant operations support. The contract is mostly about the safety and reliability operations and as well as of the training of UAE operators to have better experiences. UAE operators needed to be trained and tested before they come to UAE for operate the NPP. The OSSA simulator was built because operator shall not make any mistakes even if the plant is not yet constructed. Simulator Training is a key for getting experiences without operating the actual plant, because the nuclear power plant never used as the test in real situations. Operators’ requirement is to have more than 2 years at site experiences and also they have to be trained 5 to 8 months of the training. The experience such as the site acceptance test will lead the future nuclear industry to meet the global standard and to lead the safety of the NPP. Under the OSSA agreement 400 KHNP experts will support the operations. Most of the operators were trained at the OSSA simulator which is most reliable simulator that can demonstrate satisfactory performance for the simulator.

  19. Vitamin K status in spaceflight and ground-based models of spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone loss is a well-documented change during and after long-duration spaceflight. Many types of countermeasures to bone loss have been proposed, including vitamin K supplementation. The objective of this series of studies was to measure change in vitamin K status in response to microgravity under a ...

  20. 33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section 150.504 Navigation and...: OPERATIONS Emergency and Specialty Equipment Launching Appliances § 150.504 When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator must service launching...

  1. 75 FR 47631 - Swets Information Services, Operations Department, Information Technology Group, Marketing Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,668] Swets Information Services, Operations Department, Information Technology Group, Marketing Group, Finance Group, Runnemede..., Information Technology (IT) Group, Marketing Group and the Finance Group into one entity instead of...

  2. The operations and effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection services in Kampala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.; Mol, A.P.J.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container

  3. A Study on an appropriate operating system of environmental basic facility service industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun Joo [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    The environmental basic facility service industry is designed to have a structural reorganization of general operating system and the efficient and effective participation of private industry and regulation of industry in connection with the general system. 35 refs., 9 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Island operation capability in the Colombian electrical market: a promising ancillary service of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marín-Jiménez, Juan D.; Carvajal-Quintero, Sandra; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    is presented. Subsequently, an existing electrical distribution system with small hydropower plants is considered as a study case in order to identify the technical requirements set out for both, the distribution system and the generation source. Finally, taking into account the current Law and regulations......, a proposal is outlined for the implementation of the island operation capability ancillary service in the Colombian electrical system....

  5. Individual Tariffs for Mobile Services: Analysis of Operator Business and Risk Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Chen (Hong); L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA design approach is offered for individual tariffs for mass customized mobile service products, whereby operators can determine their contract acceptance rules to guarantee with a set probability their minimum profit and risk levels. It uses realistic improvements to earlier reported

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Circadian Regulation During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, S. B.; Boyle, R.

    2012-01-01

    The physiology of both vertebrates and invertebrates follows internal rhythms coordinated in phase with the 24-hour daily light cycle. This circadian clock is governed by a central pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain. However, peripheral circadian clocks or oscillators have been identified in most tissues. How the central and peripheral oscillators are synchronized is still being elucidated. Light is the main environmental cue that entrains the circadian clock. Under the absence of a light stimulus, the clock continues its oscillation in a free-running condition. In general, three functional compartments of the circadian clock are defined. The vertebrate retina contains endogenous clocks that control many aspects of retinal physiology, including retinal sensitivity to light, neurohormone synthesis (melatonin and dopamine), rod disk shedding, signalling pathways and gene expression. Neurons with putative local circadian rhythm generation are found among all the major neuron populations in the mammalian retina. In the mouse, clock genes and function are more localized to the inner retinal and ganglion cell layers. The photoreceptor, however, secrete melatonin which may still serve a an important circadian signal. The reception and transmission of the non-visual photic stimulus resides in a small subpopulation (1-3%) or retinal ganglion cells (RGC) that express the pigment melanopsin (Opn4) and are called intrisically photoreceptive RGC (ipRGC). Melanopsin peak absorption is at 420 nm and all the axons of the ipRGC reach the SCN. A common countermeasure for circadian re-entrainment utilizes blue-green light to entrain the circadian clock and mitigate the risk of fatigue and health and performance decrement due to circadian rhythm disruption. However, an effective countermeasure targeting the photoreceptor system requires that the basic circadian molecular machinery remains intact during spaceflight. We hypothesize that spaceflight may affect ip

  7. The ISS flight of Richard Garriott: a template for medicine and science investigation on future spaceflight participant missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Richard T; Garriott, Owen K; Bogomolov, Valery V; Pochuev, Vladimir I; Morgun, Valery V; Garriott, Richard A

    2010-02-01

    A total of eight commercial spaceflight participants have launched to the International Space Station (ISS) on Soyuz vehicles. Based on an older mean age compared to career astronauts and an increased prevalence of medical conditions, spaceflight participants have provided the opportunity to learn about the effect of space travel on crewmembers with medical problems. The 12-d Soyuz TMA-13/12 ISS flight of spaceflight participant Richard Garriott included medical factors that required preflight intervention, risk mitigation strategies, and provided the opportunity for medical study on-orbit. Equally important, Mr. Garriott conducted extensive medical, scientific, and educational payload operations during the flight. These included 7 medical experiments and a total of 15 scientific projects such as protein crystal growth, Earth observations/photography, educational projects with schools, and amateur radio. The medical studies included the effect of microgravity on immune function, sleep, bone loss, corneal refractive surgery, low back pain, motion perception, and intraocular pressure. The overall mission success resulted from non-bureaucratic agility in mission planning, cooperation with investigators from NASA, ISS, International Partners, and the Korean Aerospace Research Institute, in-flight support and leadership from a team with spaceflight and Capcom experience, and overall mission support from the ISS program. This article focuses on science opportunities that suborbital and orbital spaceflight participant flights offer and suggests that the science program on Richard Garriott's flight be considered a model for future orbital and suborbital missions. The medical challenges are presented in a companion article.

  8. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Chouker, A.; Feuerecker, M.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper reviews the use of 14 day undersea missions as a possible analog for short duration spaceflight for the study of immune system dysregulation. Sixteen subjects from the the NASA Extreme Enviro nment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 12, 13 and 14 missions were studied for immune system dysregulation. The assays that are presented in this poster are the Virleukocyte subsets, the T Cell functions, and the intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles. Other assays were performed, but are not included in this presntation.

  9. Plant growth strategies are remodeled by spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anna-Lisa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arabidopsis plants were grown on the International Space Station within specialized hardware that combined a plant growth habitat with a camera system that can capture images at regular intervals of growth. The Imaging hardware delivers telemetric data from the ISS, specifically images received in real-time from experiments on orbit, providing science without sample return. Comparable Ground Controls were grown in a sister unit that is maintained in the Orbital Environment Simulator at Kennedy Space Center. One of many types of biological data that can be analyzed in this fashion is root morphology. Arabidopsis seeds were geminated on orbit on nutrient gel Petri plates in a configuration that encouraged growth along the surface of the gel. Photos were taken every six hours for the 15 days of the experiment. Results In the absence of gravity, but the presence of directional light, spaceflight roots remained strongly negatively phototropic and grew in the opposite direction of the shoot growth; however, cultivars WS and Col-0 displayed two distinct, marked differences in their growth patterns. First, cultivar WS skewed strongly to the right on orbit, while cultivar Col-0 grew with little deviation away from the light source. Second, the Spaceflight environment also impacted the rate of growth in Arabidopsis. The size of the Flight plants (as measured by primary root and hypocotyl length was uniformly smaller than comparably aged Ground Control plants in both cultivars. Conclusions Skewing and waving, thought to be gravity dependent phenomena, occur in spaceflight plants. In the presence of an orienting light source, phenotypic trends in skewing are gravity independent, and the general patterns of directional root growth typified by a given genotype in unit gravity are recapitulated on orbit, although overall growth patterns on orbit are less uniform. Skewing appears independent of axial orientation on the ISS – suggesting

  10. Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P., Jr.; Ronda, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short (Sleep-Short) will examine the effects of spaceflight on the sleep of the astronauts during space shuttle missions. Advancing state-of-the-art technology for monitoring, diagnosing and assessing treatment of sleep patterns is vital to treating insomnia on Earth and in space.

  11. Predictors of Help-Seeking Intentions in Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans and Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcari, Carole; Koch, Ellen I; Rauch, Sheila A M; Hoodin, Flora; Ellison, Grant; McSweeney, Lauren

    2017-05-01

    Despite significant numbers of Afghanistan and Iraqi veterans and service members who report symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse, the majority do not seek help for these problems. A better understanding of the help-seeking process might aid providers and administrators in outreach and provision of services for those who need them. Past research has shown several variables that influence an individual's help-seeking behavior: demographic variables, the nature and severity of a mental health problem, and psychological variables. The three goals of the study were to determine which variables predicted help-seeking intentions from various sources for a psychological problem, identify barriers to help seeking, and identify sources of help sought in the past year. All Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans and service members registered with a Midwestern VA Healthcare System between 2001 and 2007 received a letter requesting participation in an Internet-based survey. Participants completed nine questionnaires regarding their current physical and psychological health, social support, self-efficacy, public and self-stigma, and barriers to seeking help for a psychological problem. In addition, patterns of help seeking from informal (i.e., partner/spouse, family, friends) and formal (i.e., physician, psychiatrist, or psychologist, either from Veterans Affairs [VA] or the private sector) sources of help were examined. Results from the linear regression model including all formal and informal sources of help indicated a significant model fit with attitudes toward psychotherapy, social support, and current mental health status as significant coefficients. Of note, attitudes toward psychotherapy were a significant coefficient in all help-seeking models; stigma was a significant coefficient with formal and VA sources, and social support was found to be a significant predictor with informal sources

  12. Towards an effective co-operation between companies and occupational safety and health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Drift, Dorine Willy

    2002-01-01

    In the Dutch Working Conditions Act, every employer is required to organize preventive occupational safety and health services (OSH-Services). The OSH-Services need to have a certification that can be compared with ISO-9000. This article is focused on the question: How can companies and OSH-Services co-operate more effectively to obtain a better OSH management system inside the companies? To answer this question, TNO has developed an approach to support organisations in the health care branch to obtain a better service from their OSH-Service. TNO has chosen to focus on supporting the companies, because of the recognition that the effectiveness of OSH-Services has been found in effects on their customers, the companies. As a result of the research project a stepwise approach with several tools was developed. After the development phase, parts of the approach and the tools were used in several other consultancy projects. Evaluative studies have not been performed yet. However, from the development activities and several consultancy projects some remarkable evaluative findings can be given. The approach can be useful for companies and OSH-Services to make their goals and expectations more explicit. The approach also helps to make the management of companies clear that their own behaviour is relevant to the achievement of their goals in occupational health and safety policy, in addition to the services provided by the OSH-Service and their professionals. The approach cannot fulfil the possible need for qualification of OSH professionals. However, the approach can make the OSH professionals clear in what way they have qualification needs.

  13. Operational Space-Assisted Irrigation Advisory Services: Overview Of And Lessons Learned From The Project DEMETER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osann Jochum, M. A.; Demeter Partners

    2006-08-01

    The project DEMETER (DEMonstration of Earth observation TEchnologies in Routine irrigation advisory services) was dedicated to assessing and demonstrating improvements introduced by Earth observation (EO) and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in farm and Irrigation Advisory Service (IAS) day-to-day operations. The DEMETER concept of near-real-time delivery of EO-based irrigation scheduling information to IAS and farmers has proven to be valid. The operationality of the space segment was demonstrated for Landsat 5-TM in the Barrax pilot zone during the 2004 and 2005 irrigation campaigns. Extra-fast image delivery and quality controlled operational processing make the EO-based crop coefficient maps available at the same speed and quality as ground-based data (point samples), while significantly extending the spatial coverage and reducing service cost. Leading-edge online analysis and visualization tools provide easy, intuitive access to the information and personalized service to users. First feedback of users at IAS and farmer level is encouraging. The paper gives an overview of the project and its main achievements.

  14. Anesthesia during and Immediately after Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, Christoph N.; Price, Catherine; Janelle, Gregory M.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing presence of humans in space and long-duration manned missions to the Moon or Mars pose novel challenges to the delivery of medical care. Even now, cumulative person-days in space exceed 80 years and preparations for a return to the Moon are actively underway. Medical care after an emergent de-orbit or an accident during a non-nominal landing must not only address the specific disease or injuries but also the challenges posed by physiologic adaptations to microgravity. In the highly autonomous situation of a long-term space mission the situation is even more complex, because personnel, equipment, specific training, and clinical experience are by definition limited. To summarize our current knowledge specifically for anesthetic care during and immediately after spaceflight, we will review physiologic adaptations to microgravity with particular emphasis on the resulting anesthetic risks, discuss veterinary experiences with anesthesia in weightlessness or in animals adapted to microgravity, describe current research that pertains to anesthesia and spaceflight and point out unresolved questions for future investigation.

  15. Skeletal changes during and after spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Laurence; Hargens, Alan

    2018-03-21

    Space sojourns are challenging for life. The ability of the human body to adapt to these extreme conditions has been noted since the beginning of human space travel. Skeletal alterations that occur during spaceflight are now better understood owing to tools such as dual-energy X-ray densitometry and high-resolution peripheral quantitative CT, and murine models help researchers to understand cellular and matrix changes that occur in bone and that are difficult to measure in humans. However, questions remain with regard to bone adaptation and osteocyte fate, as well as to interactions of the skeleton with fluid shifts towards the head and with the vascular system. Further investigations into the relationships between the musculoskeletal system, energy metabolism and sensory motor acclimatisation are needed. In this regard, an integrated intervention is required that will address multiple systems simultaneously. Importantly, radiation and isolation-related stresses are gaining increased attention as the prospect of human exploration into deep space draws nearer. Although space is a unique environment, clear parallels exist between the effects of spaceflight, periods of immobilization and ageing, with possibly irreversible features. Space travel offers an opportunity to establish integrated deconditioning and ageing interventions that combine nutritional, physical and pharmaceutical strategies.

  16. Intracranial Fluid Redistribution During a Spaceflight Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, Vincent; Pasternak, Ofer; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; De Dios, Yiri E.; Wood, Scott J.; Riascos, Roy; Reuter-Lorenz, Patrica A.; Kofman, Igor S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2017-01-01

    The neural correlates of spaceflight-induced sensorimotor impairments are unknown. Head down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) serves as a microgravity analog because it mimics the headward fluid shift and limb unloading of spaceflight. We investigated focal brain white matter (WM) changes and fluid shifts during 70 days of 6 deg HDBR in 16 subjects who were assessed pre (2x), during (3x), and post-HDBR (2x). Changes over time were compared to those in control subjects (n=12) assessed four times over 90 days. Diffusion MRI was used to assess WM microstructure and fluid shifts. Free-Water Imaging, derived from diffusion MRI, was used to quantify the distribution of intracranial extracellular free water (FW). Additionally, we tested whether WM and FW changes correlated with changes in functional mobility and balance measures. HDBR resulted in FW increases in fronto-temporal regions and decreases in posterior-parietal regions that largely recovered by two weeks post-HDBR. WM microstructure was unaffected by HDBR. FW decreased in the post-central gyrus and precuneus. We previously reported that gray matter increases in these regions were associated with less HDBR-induced balance impairment, suggesting adaptive structural neuroplasticity. Future studies are warranted to determine causality and underlying mechanisms.

  17. Characterization of the industrial irradiation services operating in the state of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.S.; Campos, I.C.; Silva, J F.; Gomes, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial irradiation is the practice that, making use of electron beams or gamma rays, provides benefits such as sterilization of hospital products, food preservation, treatment of precious stones, the aging of cachaça and the preservation of works of art. The objective of the work is to characterize the overview of industrial irradiation services operating in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ). The methodology involved a survey of the installations licensed by the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for the industrial irradiation operation in the state. Technical visits were organized at the Radiological Protection Services of all detected facilities. It was found that there are only two installations authorized by CNEN in RJ and both use electron beam irradiation. Only one of them acts with the commercialization of the service, employing a 10-mega electron-volt double beam from two linear particle accelerators. The second facility uses the service for its own purposes, equipped with a single accelerator, single-beam 600-kilo electron-volt emitter. It is concluded that, numerically, there are few industrial irradiation facilities in RJ. Based on characteristics such as beam penetrability, the nature of the source, logistic cost and radiation protection measures, these facilities prefer to make use of accelerators (electron beams). It should be noted that if the only company that currently offers the service to third parties decides to close its activities, manufacturers, suppliers, and consequently the population can suffer some impact, given the absence of options in the market

  18. Applications of Short Message Service and WAP in Operating Remotely Triggered Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Maiti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices are becoming more powerful, reliable and common every year. Hence we can use mobile devices for conducting laboratory sessions in distance education. This paper discusses issues of integrating Short Message Service (SMS to operate instruments of hardware-based remotely triggered laboratories. Components of the system include searching an experiment, performing experiment, result handling, error handling and method of exchanging information. It is designed using the National Instruments (NI Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW development system and web services. The scheme will enable students to conduct hardware experiments with mobile devices using SMS from anywhere and anytime.

  19. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Roscommon, Roscommon

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flory, David

    2015-09-01

    This review of the governance of maternity services at South Tipperary General Hospital has focussed on the systems and processes for assurance of service quality, risk management and patient safety primarily inside the hospital but also in the Hospital Group structure within which it operates. The effectiveness of the governance arrangements is largely determined by the quality of the leadership and management – both clinical and general – which designs, implements, and oversees those systems and processes and is ultimately responsible and accountable.\\r\

  20. From Space to Earth – Spaceflight for new Knowledge and Innovations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    In his presentation, titled "From Space to Earth – Spaceflight for new Knowledge and Innovations", Prof. Ernst Messerschmid will begin with his own spaceflight experience on the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1985 for the German Spacelab D1 Mission. With a few examples he will illustrate the relevance of using the microgravity environment for a wide range of multidisciplinary experiments. This is followed by a description of the International Space Station, the European contribution to the ISS, and how astronauts live and work over several months in space. In the next two decades, humanity will strive to fly back to the Moon, to asteroids and later on to Mars. New systems for transportation and infrastructure will form a complex mission scenario, operated by robotic systems and later by astronauts. Today a wide range of scientific or technological objectives are carried out in space, mostly through international cooperation. Commercial missions are funded by the private sector. Space is now a scienti...

  1. Cryogenic Fiber Optic Assemblies for Spaceflight Environments: Design, Manufacturing, Testing, and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomes, W. Joe; Ott, Melanie N.; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Onuma, Eleanya; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Fiber optic assemblies have been used on spaceflight missions for many years as an enabling technology for routing, transmitting, and detecting optical signals. Due to the overwhelming success of NASA in implementing fiber optic assemblies on spaceflight science-based instruments, system scientists increasingly request fibers that perform in extreme environments while still maintaining very high optical transmission, stability, and reliability. Many new applications require fiber optic assemblies that will operate down to cryogenic temperatures as low as 20 Kelvin. In order for the fiber assemblies to operate with little loss in optical throughput at these extreme temperatures requires a system level approach all the way from how the fiber assembly is manufactured to how it is held, routed, and integrated. The NASA Goddard Code 562 Photonics Group has been designing, manufacturing, testing, and integrating fiber optics for spaceflight and other high reliability applications for nearly 20 years. Design techniques and lessons learned over the years are consistently applied to developing new fiber optic assemblies that meet these demanding environments. System level trades, fiber assembly design methods, manufacturing, testing, and integration will be discussed. Specific recent examples of ground support equipment for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST); the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2); and others will be included.

  2. Operational health and physics service during the maintenance of the Australian National Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1994-01-01

    Modern Medical Cyclotrons use intense beams of high energy protons or deuterons to produce large activities of short and medium lived radionuclides. After continuous operation for prolonged periods the Cyclotron components become activated through various nuclear interactions therefore, the risk of personal radiation hazard while handling such activated cyclotron components is high. This paper describes all operational aspects of the Health Physics service evolved during the first preventative maintenance program of the Australian National Medical Cyclotron, which took place in June 1993. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  3. Goods and Services Tax (GST: Challenges Faced by Business Operators in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Loo Ern

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the factors affecting business operators’ awareness on the implementation of Goods and Services Tax (GST and the perceived issues and problems they may likely encounter with the implementation of GST in Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed to 302 registered members (business operators of three Chambers of Commerce in Melaka. The findings of this study show that more than 70% of the respondents are aware of the GST mechanism and issues. The majority of the respondents also agreed that to comply with GST legislations, business operators need to have sufficient knowledge on appropriate and adequate documentation thus leading to increased compliance costs.

  4. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Wall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, finds that the concept of franchising, so successfully used by the private sector to deliver many goods and services, if applied to water services operation and maintenance, could alleviate and address many challenges in the management of water services. At the same time, franchising could provide an ideal stimulus to support the development of local enterprises, all within the municipal service delivery environment. Franchisee water service providers, dependent for their livelihood on the success of their business, would have a strong incentive to perform, and would also enjoy the benefit of the franchisor’s expert guidance and quality assurance. Some areas for potential franchising include meter management, billing, plumbing, pressure management, sewer maintenance, and wastewater treatment processes. The help from the franchisor would be of particular value to water services authorities at a distance from the major urban centres. Few of these authorities can afford to employ competent qualified staff, and often non-compliance with the laid down performance standards is a direct consequence of this lack. Significant improvements would soon be seen if the generally under-qualified and under-resourced water services staff could have this ongoing support, mentoring and quality control — or if the authority could enter into partnerships with small local enterprises or NGOs which would, through franchising, enjoy the necessary ongoing support, mentoring and quality control, and would have

  5. Contribution of the operational dosimetry in the radiation protection optimization in a nuclear medicine service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herit, S.; Cosculluela, S.; Lambert, B.; Gras, H.

    2007-01-01

    Beyond its contribution in the personnel dosimetric surveillance, the operational dosimetry is a very efficient educational tool, of easy use. This study is lengthened by the setting up in 2007 of a job study in order to redefine the service zoning and by an evaluation of the extremities dosimetry with the help of thermoluminescent rings, in order to optimize the practices during the phase of preparation and injection. (N.C.)

  6. The quality control program for an Ontario Hydro operated thermoluminescence dosimetry service at nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, B.H.; Walsh, M.L.

    1975-11-01

    An essential aspect of the Ontario Hydro TLD service is the operation of an acceptable quality control (QC) program. The QC program which has been generally accepted by the A.E.C.B. is presented in this document. The aims of the program are as follows: (1) to ensure that Ontario Hydro maintains an acceptable standard of dosimetry; (2) to be able to demonstrate to any interested party that the dose measurements for individual workers have a high degree of credibility. (author)

  7. Spaceflight Affects Postnatal Development of the Aortic Wall in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-ichiro Katsuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated effect of microgravity environment during spaceflight on postnatal development of the rheological properties of the aorta in rats. The neonate rats were randomly divided at 7 days of age into the spaceflight, asynchronous ground control, and vivarium control groups (8 pups for one dam. The spaceflight group rats at 9 days of age were exposed to microgravity environment for 16 days. A longitudinal wall strip of the proximal descending thoracic aorta was subjected to stress-strain and stress-relaxation tests. Wall tensile force was significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, whereas there were no significant differences in wall stress or incremental elastic modulus at each strain among the three groups. Wall thickness and number of smooth muscle fibers were significantly smaller in the spaceflight group than in the two control groups, but there were no significant differences in amounts of either the elastin or collagen fibers among the three groups. The decreased thickness was mainly caused by the decreased number of smooth muscle cells. Plastic deformation was observed only in the spaceflight group in the stress-strain test. A microgravity environment during spaceflight could affect postnatal development of the morphological and rheological properties of the aorta.

  8. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  9. Altered Venous Function during Long-Duration Spaceflights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Olivier Fortrat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Venous adaptation to microgravity, associated with cardiovascular deconditioning, may contribute to orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. The aim of this study was to analyze the main parameters of venous hemodynamics with long-duration spaceflight.Methods: Venous plethysmography was performed on 24 cosmonauts before, during, and after spaceflights aboard the International Space Station. Venous plethysmography assessed venous filling and emptying functions as well as microvascular filtration, in response to different levels of venous occlusion pressure. Calf volume was assessed using calf circumference measurements.Results: Calf volume decreased during spaceflight from 2.3 ± 0.3 to 1.7 ± 0.2 L (p < 0.001, and recovered after it (2.3 ± 0.3 L. Venous compliance, determined as the relationship between occlusion pressure and the change in venous volume, increased during spaceflight from 0.090 ± 0.005 to 0.120 ± 0.007 (p < 0.01 and recovered 8 days after landing (0.071 ± 0.005, arbitrary units. The index of venous emptying rate decreased during spaceflight from −0.004 ± 0.022 to −0.212 ± 0.033 (p < 0.001, arbitrary units. The index of vascular microfiltration increased during spaceflight from 6.1 ± 1.8 to 10.6 ± 7.9 (p < 0.05, arbitrary units.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that overall venous function is changed during spaceflight. In future, venous function should be considered when developing countermeasures to prevent cardiovascular deconditioning and orthostatic intolerance with long-duration spaceflight.

  10. On Representative Spaceflight Instrument and Associated Instrument Sensor Web Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizhner, Semion; Patel, Umeshkumar; Vootukuru, Meg

    2007-01-01

    Sensor Web-based adaptation and sharing of space flight mission resources, including those of the Space-Ground and Control-User communication segment, could greatly benefit from utilization of heritage Internet Protocols and devices applied for Spaceflight (SpaceIP). This had been successfully demonstrated by a few recent spaceflight experiments. However, while terrestrial applications of Internet protocols are well developed and understood (mostly due to billions of dollars in investments by the military and industry), the spaceflight application of Internet protocols is still in its infancy. Progress in the developments of SpaceIP-enabled instrument components will largely determine the SpaceIP utilization of those investments and acceptance in years to come. Likewise SpaceIP, the development of commercial real-time and instrument colocated computational resources, data compression and storage, can be enabled on-board a spacecraft and, in turn, support a powerful application to Sensor Web-based design of a spaceflight instrument. Sensor Web-enabled reconfiguration and adaptation of structures for hardware resources and information systems will commence application of Field Programmable Arrays (FPGA) and other aerospace programmable logic devices for what this technology was intended. These are a few obvious potential benefits of Sensor Web technologies for spaceflight applications. However, they are still waiting to be explored. This is because there is a need for a new approach to spaceflight instrumentation in order to make these mature sensor web technologies applicable for spaceflight. In this paper we present an approach in developing related and enabling spaceflight instrument-level technologies based on the new concept of a representative spaceflight Instrument Sensor Web (ISW).

  11. Spaceflight enhances cell aggregation and random budding in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Crabbé

    Full Text Available This study presents the first global transcriptional profiling and phenotypic characterization of the major human opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grown in spaceflight conditions. Microarray analysis revealed that C. albicans subjected to short-term spaceflight culture differentially regulated 452 genes compared to synchronous ground controls, which represented 8.3% of the analyzed ORFs. Spaceflight-cultured C. albicans-induced genes involved in cell aggregation (similar to flocculation, which was validated by microscopic and flow cytometry analysis. We also observed enhanced random budding of spaceflight-cultured cells as opposed to bipolar budding patterns for ground samples, in accordance with the gene expression data. Furthermore, genes involved in antifungal agent and stress resistance were differentially regulated in spaceflight, including induction of ABC transporters and members of the major facilitator family, downregulation of ergosterol-encoding genes, and upregulation of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance. Finally, downregulation of genes involved in actin cytoskeleton was observed. Interestingly, the transcriptional regulator Cap1 and over 30% of the Cap1 regulon was differentially expressed in spaceflight-cultured C. albicans. A potential role for Cap1 in the spaceflight response of C. albicans is suggested, as this regulator is involved in random budding, cell aggregation, and oxidative stress resistance; all related to observed spaceflight-associated changes of C. albicans. While culture of C. albicans in microgravity potentiates a global change in gene expression that could induce a virulence-related phenotype, no increased virulence in a murine intraperitoneal (i.p. infection model was observed under the conditions of this study. Collectively, our data represent an important basis for the assessment of the risk that commensal flora could play during human spaceflight missions. Furthermore, since the

  12. Effects of spaceflight on murine skeletal muscle gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David L.; Bandstra, Eric R.; Harrison, Brooke C.; Thorng, Seiha; Stodieck, Louis S.; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Morony, Sean; Lacey, David L.; Hammond, Timothy G.; Leinwand, Leslie L.; Argraves, W. Scott; Bateman, Ted A.; Barth, Jeremy L.

    2009-01-01

    Spaceflight results in a number of adaptations to skeletal muscle, including atrophy and shifts toward faster muscle fiber types. To identify changes in gene expression that may underlie these adaptations, we used both microarray expression analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction to quantify shifts in mRNA levels in the gastrocnemius from mice flown on the 11-day, 19-h STS-108 shuttle flight and from normal gravity controls. Spaceflight data also were compared with the ground-based unloading model of hindlimb suspension, with one group of pure suspension and one of suspension followed by 3.5 h of reloading to mimic the time between landing and euthanization of the spaceflight mice. Analysis of microarray data revealed that 272 mRNAs were significantly altered by spaceflight, the majority of which displayed similar responses to hindlimb suspension, whereas reloading tended to counteract these responses. Several mRNAs altered by spaceflight were associated with muscle growth, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85α, insulin response substrate-1, the forkhead box O1 transcription factor, and MAFbx/atrogin1. Moreover, myostatin mRNA expression tended to increase, whereas mRNA levels of the myostatin inhibitor FSTL3 tended to decrease, in response to spaceflight. In addition, mRNA levels of the slow oxidative fiber-associated transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor (PPAR)-γ coactivator-1α and the transcription factor PPAR-α were significantly decreased in spaceflight gastrocnemius. Finally, spaceflight resulted in a significant decrease in levels of the microRNA miR-206. Together these data demonstrate that spaceflight induces significant changes in mRNA expression of genes associated with muscle growth and fiber type. PMID:19074574

  13. Physiological and Functional Alterations after Spaceflight and Bed Rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Miller, Chris A; Kofman, Igor S; Reschke, Millard F; Taylor, Laura C; Lawrence, Emily L; Wood, Scott J; Laurie, Steven S; Lee, Stuart M C; Buxton, Roxanne E; May-Phillips, Tiffany R; Stenger, Michael B; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L; Ryder, Jeffrey W; Feiveson, Alan H; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2018-04-03

    Exposure to microgravity causes alterations in multiple physiological systems, potentially impacting the ability of astronauts to perform critical mission tasks. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on functional task performance and to identify the key physiological factors contributing to their deficits. A test battery comprised of 7 functional tests and 15 physiological measures was used to investigate the sensorimotor, cardiovascular and neuromuscular adaptations to spaceflight. Astronauts were tested before and after 6-month spaceflights. Subjects were also tested before and after 70 days of 6° head-down bed rest, a spaceflight analog, to examine the role of axial body unloading on the spaceflight results. These subjects included Control and Exercise groups to examine the effects of exercise during bed rest. Spaceflight subjects showed the greatest decrement in performance during functional tasks that required the greatest demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium which was paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests that assessed postural and dynamic gait control. Other changes included reduced lower limb muscle performance and increased heart rate to maintain blood pressure. Exercise performed during bed rest prevented detrimental change in neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, however, both bed rest groups experienced functional and balance deficits similar to spaceflight subjects. Bed rest data indicates that body support unloading experienced during spaceflight contributes to postflight postural control dysfunction. Further, the bed rest results in the Exercise group of subjects confirm that resistance and aerobic exercises performed during spaceflight can play an integral role in maintaining neuromuscular and cardiovascular function, which can help in reducing decrements in functional performance. These results indicate that a countermeasure to mitigate postflight postural control dysfunction is

  14. 77 FR 54924 - Temporary Concession Contract for the Operation of Lodging, Food and Beverage and Retail Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-WASO-CONC-10876; 2410-OYC] Temporary Concession Contract for the Operation of Lodging, Food and Beverage and Retail Services in Canyon de Chelly... services include lodging, food and beverage and retail. DATES: January 1, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  15. Technology assessment of human spaceflight - Combining philosophical and technical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromm, J.; Hoevelmann, G. H.

    1992-08-01

    A transutilitarian rationale is proposed for assessing human spaceflight that is based on objectives for these endeavors and ethical norms of conduct. Specific attention is given to: presupposed/tacit reasons for including man in spaceflight and the restricted notion of rational/justifiable activity. It is shown that economic rationale is insufficient and unsuitable as a means for assessing manned spaceflight, and transutilitarian objectives are compiled that contribute to the motivation for manned flight. The transutilitarian motivations include: pioneering uncharted territory, enhancing national prestige, establishing space-related autonomy, promoting international cooperation, and enhancing science and the quality of human life.

  16. Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight study analyzes risk management in large enterprises and how to effectively communicate risks across organizations. The Calysto Risk Management tool developed by NASA's Kennedy Space Center's SharePoint team is used and referenced throughout the study. Calysto is a web-base tool built on Microsoft's SharePoint platform. The risk management process at NASA is examined and incorporated in the study. Using risk management standards from industry and specific organizations at the Kennedy Space Center, three methods of communicating and elevating risk are examined. Each method describes details of the effectiveness and plausibility of using the method in the Calysto Risk Management Tool. At the end of the study suggestions are made for future renditions of Calysto.

  17. Consumer-operated service program members' explanatory models of mental illness and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Janet M

    2014-10-01

    Incorporating individuals' understandings and explanations of mental illness into service delivery offers benefits relating to increased service relevance and meaning. Existing research delineates explanatory models of mental illness held by individuals in home, outpatient, and hospital-based contexts; research on models held by those in peer-support contexts is notably absent. In this article, I describe themes identified within and across explanatory models of mental illness and recovery held by mental health consumers (N = 24) at one peer center, referred to as a consumer-operated service center (COSP). Participants held explanatory models inclusive of both developmental stressors and biomedical causes, consistent with a stress-diathesis model (although no participant explicitly referenced such). Explicit incorporation of stress-diathesis constructs into programming at this COSP offers the potential of increasing service meaning and relevance. Identifying and incorporating shared meanings across individuals' understandings of mental illness likewise can increase relevance and meaning for particular subgroups of service users. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Using operational research modelling to improve the provision of health services: the case of DNA technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, R

    1995-01-01

    Operational research (OR) analysis provides information and systems to support decision making. In health care there are examples of OR being used to support decisions surrounding both the organization of health services and the treatment of individual patients. However, its uptake is currently low in spite of the increase in potential areas of application. In practice there is a lack of awareness amongst health service staff about what OR is and how it can help. This paper addresses this issue by exposing the contribution that OR made to a programme of research relating to DNA technology. Examples are given of the way it was used to provide information on the costs and outcomes of services and the ways these evolve over time. These examples demonstrate the way OR methods increase the understanding of both analysts and service providers about a problem area. This helps ensure that appropriate and valid approaches to tackling problem areas are developed. When developing these approaches, the problem orientated philosophy of OR means analysts are willing to use a range of methodologies, some originating in OR and some in other disciplines. The broad focus of OR also means that its findings enhance those provided by other disciplines which might seem to be competitors. The conclusion of the paper is that OR has a crucial role to play in the improvement of health services.

  19. Operation without benefit in the services sector; Betrieb ohne Nutzen. BoN im Dienstleistungssektor - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, C. U.; Nipkow, J. [S.A.F.E., Zuerich (Switzerland); Brechbuehl, B. [Universitaet Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Glauser, H. [ea si, Windisch (Switzerland); Steinemann, U. [Ingenieurbuero US, Wollerau (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the unnecessary operation of electrical equipment. This preliminary study examined in a top-down manner the electrical grid loads at night in Switzerland and attempts to identify unnecessary loads. The results of a bottom-up analysis of seven buildings in the service sector was made. One large complex was also used to identify the sources of night-time loads. Together, these two approaches allowed a first appreciation and a rough quantification of the load caused by the unnecessary operation of equipment in the Swiss electricity grid. The services sector has an estimated share of some 2.4 TWh/a caused by unnecessary operation. In a follow-up project the reduction of unnecessary loads is to be studied in more detail. This second analysis will also have to include loads caused by unnecessary operation during the daytime. The goal of the project is eventually to reduce any unnecessary electric loads and, as a result, the entire electricity demands of Switzerland

  20. Implementation and operational experience of an integrated fuel information service at the BNFL THORP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, D.N.; Ramsden, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    BNFL's THORP Plant, which started active operations early in 1994, has contracts to reprocess 7000t(U) of fuel belonging to 33 customers in 9 countries in the UK, Europe and Japan during its first 10 years of operation. Contracts are in place or being negotiated, and further business sought after, with the expectation of extending THORP's operations well beyond the initial 10 years. An integrated data management service, for the fuel storage areas of BNFL's THORP Division, is being implemented to replace several, independent, systems. This Fuel Information Service (FIS) will bring the Nuclear Materials Accountancy and Safeguards Records together with the Operating Records into one database from which all Safeguards Reports will be made. BNFL's contractual and commercial data and technical data on the stored fuel, required to support the reprocessing business, will also be brought into the common database. FIS is the first stage in a project to integrate the Materials Management systems throughout the THORP nuclear recycling business including irradiated fuel receipt and storage, reprocessing and storage of products, mixed oxide fuel manufacture and the conditioning and storage of wastes

  1. Analysis of the Effects of a Flexible Ramping Ancillary Service Product on Power System Operations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik

    2015-10-19

    The recent increased interest in utilizing variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and solar in power systems has motivated investigations into new operating procedures. Although these resources provide desirable value to a system (e.g., no fuel costs or emissions), interconnecting them provides unique challenges. Their variable, non-controllable nature in particular requires significant attention, because it directly results in increased power system variability and uncertainty. One way to handle this is via new operating reserve schemes. Operating reserves provide upward and downward generation and ramping capacity to counteract uncertainty and variability prior to their realization. For instance, uncertainty and variability in real-time dispatch can be accounted for in the hour-ahead unit commitment. New operating reserve methodologies that specifically account for the increased variability and uncertainty caused by VG are currently being investigated and developed by academia and industry. This paper examines one method inspired by the new operating reserve product being proposed by the California Independent System Operator. The method is based on examining the potential ramping requirements at any given time and enforcing those requirements via a reserve demand curve in the market-clearing optimization as an additional ancillary service product.

  2. A Business Analysis of a SKYLON-based European Launch Service Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempsell, Mark; Aprea, Julio; Gallagher, Ben; Sadlier, Greg

    2016-04-01

    Between 2012 and 2014 an industrial consortium led by Reaction Engines conducted a feasibility study for the European Space Agency with the objective to explore the feasibility of SKYLON as the basis for a launcher that meets the requirements established for the Next Generation European Launcher. SKYLON is a fully reusable single stage to orbit launch system that is enabled by the unique performance characteristic of the Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine and is under active development. The purpose of the study which was called ;SKYLON-based European Launch Service Operator (S-ELSO); was to support ESA decision making on launch service strategy by exploring the potential implications of this new launch system on future European launch capability and the European industry that supports it. The study explored both a SKYLON operator (S-ELSO) and SKYLON manufacturer as separate business ventures. In keeping with previous studies, the only strategy that was found that kept the purchase price of the SKYLON low enough for a viable operator business was to follow an ;airline; business model where the manufacturer sells SKYLONs to other operators in addition to S-ELSO. With the assumptions made in the study it was found that the SKYLON manufacturer with a total production run of between 30 and 100 SKYLONs could expect an Internal Rate of Return of around 10%. This was judged too low for all the funding to come from commercial funding sources, but is sufficiently high for a Public Private Partnership. The S-ELSO business model showed that the Internal Rate of Return would be high enough to consider operating without public support (i.e. commercial in operation, irrespective of any public funding of development), even when the average launch price is lowered to match the lowest currently quoted price for expendable systems.

  3. CIEMAT external dosimetry service: ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation and 3 y of operational experience as an accredited laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Lopez, J.L.; Martin, R.; Benavente, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry Service decided to implement a quality management system, in accordance with established requirements, in order to achieve ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. Although the Service comprises the approved individual monitoring services of both external and internal radiation, this paper is specific to the actions taken by the External Dosimetry Service, including personal and environmental dosimetry laboratories, to gain accreditation and the reflections of 3 y of operational experience as an accredited laboratory. (authors)

  4. The SCD - Stem Cell Differentiation ESA Project: Preparatory Work for the Spaceflight Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, Silvia; Barenghi, Livia; van Loon, Jack; Bradamante, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Due to spaceflight, astronauts experience serious, weightlessness-induced bone loss because of an unbalanced process of bone remodeling that involves bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), as well as osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. The effects of microgravity on osteo-cells have been extensively studied, but it is only recently that consideration has been given to the role of BMSCs. Previous researches indicated that human BMSCs cultured in simulated microgravity (sim-μg) alter their proliferation and differentiation. The spaceflight opportunities for biomedical experiments are rare and suffer from a number of operative constraints that could bias the validity of the experiment itself, but remain a unique opportunity to confirm and explain the effects due to microgravity, that are only partially activated/detectable in simulated conditions. For this reason, we carefully prepared the SCD - STEM CELLS DIFFERENTIATION experiment, selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) and now on the International Space Station (ISS). Here we present the preparatory studies performed on ground to adapt the project to the spaceflight constraints in terms of culture conditions, fixation and storage of human BMSCs in space aiming at satisfying the biological requirements mandatory to retrieve suitable samples for post-flight analyses. We expect to understand better the molecular mechanisms governing human BMSC growth and differentiation hoping to outline new countermeasures against astronaut bone loss.

  5. Operator models for delivering municipal solid waste management services in developing countries: Part B: Decision support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soós, Reka; Whiteman, Andrew D; Wilson, David C; Briciu, Cosmin; Nürnberger, Sofia; Oelz, Barbara; Gunsilius, Ellen; Schwehn, Ekkehard

    2017-08-01

    This is the second of two papers reporting the results of a major study considering 'operator models' for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in emerging and developing countries. Part A documents the evidence base, while Part B presents a four-step decision support system for selecting an appropriate operator model in a particular local situation. Step 1 focuses on understanding local problems and framework conditions; Step 2 on formulating and prioritising local objectives; and Step 3 on assessing capacities and conditions, and thus identifying strengths and weaknesses, which underpin selection of the operator model. Step 4A addresses three generic questions, including public versus private operation, inter-municipal co-operation and integration of services. For steps 1-4A, checklists have been developed as decision support tools. Step 4B helps choose locally appropriate models from an evidence-based set of 42 common operator models ( coms); decision support tools here are a detailed catalogue of the coms, setting out advantages and disadvantages of each, and a decision-making flowchart. The decision-making process is iterative, repeating steps 2-4 as required. The advantages of a more formal process include avoiding pre-selection of a particular com known to and favoured by one decision maker, and also its assistance in identifying the possible weaknesses and aspects to consider in the selection and design of operator models. To make the best of whichever operator models are selected, key issues which need to be addressed include the capacity of the public authority as 'client', management in general and financial management in particular.

  6. PROCESS APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT OF ACTIVITY LOGISTIC OPERATOR OF WAREHOUSE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryacheva Natalia Evgenievna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article methodological and practical aspects of improvement of activity of the logistic operator of warehouse services on the basis of use of a process approach in management of the organization are considered. The object of the research is justification of necessity of process approach’s in logistic operation’s activity and development of algorithm of their work at clients’ business processes and approbation of assessment technique of logistics service efficiency. Scientific novelty of this article is that it is the first time when models of business processes of warehouse logistics one developed. Also algorithmization and standartization are carried out and indicators of an assessment of efficiency of rendered logistic service are developed. Use of process approach in logistics operator activity gives him powerful advantages in competitive rivalry. The increase of efficiency of logistic operator’s commercial activity (LLC Company «Logy Log» Nizhny Novgorod after the transition in management from functions to processes fully confirms this statement. Consolidation of logistic operator’s positions in different functional areas becomes an incentive to development of logistics and as a result to reduction of costs at delivery of industrial freights and consumer goods to the final user.

  7. PROCESS APPROACH IN MANAGEMENT OF ACTIVITY LOGISTIC OPERATOR OF WAREHOUSE SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Евгеньевна Горячева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present article methodological and practical aspects of improvement of activity of the logistic operator of warehouse services on the basis of use of a process approach in management of the organization are considered.The object of the research is justification of necessity of process approach’s in logistic operation’s activity and development of algorithm of their work at clients’ business processes and approbation of assessment technique of logistics service efficiency.Scientific novelty of this article is that it is the first time when models of business processes of warehouse logistics one developed. Also algorithmization and standartization are carried out and indicators of an assessment of efficiency of rendered logistic service are developed.Use of process approach in logistics operator activity gives him powerful advantages in competitive rivalry. The increase of efficiency of logistic operator’s commercial activity (LLC Company «Logy Log» Nizhny Novgorod after the transition in management from functions to processes fully confirms this statement.Consolidation of logistic operator’s positions in different functional areas becomes an incentive to development of logistics and as a result to reduction of costs at delivery of industrial freights and consumer goods to the final user.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-30

  8. Operating experience feedback report: Service water system failures and degradations: Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.; Leeds, E.

    1988-11-01

    A comprehensive review and evaluation of service water system failures and degradations observed in operating events in light water reactors from 1980 to 1987 has been conducted. The review and evaluation focused on the identification of causes of system failures and degradations, the adequacy of corrective actions implemented and planned, and the safety significance of the operating events. The results of this review and evaluation indicate that the service water system failures and degradations have significant safety implications. These system failures and degradations are attributable to a great variety of causes, and have adverse impact on a large number of safety-related systems and components which are required to mitigate reactor accidents. Specifically, the causes of failures and degradations include various fouling mechanisms (sediment deposition, biofouling, corrosion and erosion, pipe coating failure, calcium carbonate, foreign material and debris intrusion); single failures and other design deficiencies; flooding; multiple equipment failures; personnel and procedural errors; and seismic deficiencies. Systems and components adversely impacted by a service water system failure or degradation include the component cooling water system, emergency diesel generators, emergency core cooling system pumps and heat exchangers, the residual heat removal system, containment spray and fan coolers, control room chillers, and reactor building cooling units. 44 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Characteristics of the prices of operating reserves and regulation services in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, characteristics of the prices of reserves and regulation services in the Ontario, New York and ERCOT electricity markets are studied. More specifically, price variability, price jumps, long-range correlation, and non-linearity of the prices are analyzed using the available measures in the literature. For the Ontario electricity market, the prices of 10-min spinning, 10-min non-spinning, and 30-min operating reserves for the period May 1, 2002 to December 31, 2007 are analyzed. For the New York market, prices of the same reserves plus regulation service are studied for the period February 5, 2005 to December 31, 2008. For the ERCOT market, we analyze the prices of responsive reserve, regulation up and regulation down services, for the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009. The studied characteristics of operating reserve and regulation prices are also compared with those of energy prices. The findings of this paper show that the studied reserve and regulation prices feature extreme volatility, more frequent jumps and spikes, different peak price occurrence time, and lower predictability, compared to the energy prices. - Research highlights: → We examine various statistical characteristics of reserve and regulation prices. → We compare characteristics of reserve and regulation and energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices feature different patterns from energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices are more dispersive and volatile than energy price.

  10. A platform for real-time online health analytics during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Carolyn

    Monitoring the health and wellbeing of astronauts during spaceflight is an important aspect of any manned mission. To date the monitoring has been based on a sequential set of discontinuous samplings of physiological data to support initial studies on aspects such as weightlessness, and its impact on the cardiovascular system and to perform proactive monitoring for health status. The research performed and the real-time monitoring has been hampered by the lack of a platform to enable a more continuous approach to real-time monitoring. While any spaceflight is monitored heavily by Mission Control, an important requirement within the context of any spaceflight setting and in particular where there are extended periods with a lack of communication with Mission Control, is the ability for the mission to operate in an autonomous manner. This paper presents a platform to enable real-time astronaut monitoring for prognostics and health management within space medicine using online health analytics. The platform is based on extending previous online health analytics research known as the Artemis and Artemis Cloud platforms which have demonstrated their relevance for multi-patient, multi-diagnosis and multi-stream temporal analysis in real-time for clinical management and research within Neonatal Intensive Care. Artemis and Artemis Cloud source data from a range of medical devices capable of transmission of the signal via wired or wireless connectivity and hence are well suited to process real-time data acquired from astronauts. A key benefit of this platform is its ability to monitor their health and wellbeing onboard the mission as well as enabling the astronaut's physiological data, and other clinical data, to be sent to the platform components at Mission Control at each stage when that communication is available. As a result, researchers at Mission Control would be able to simulate, deploy and tailor predictive analytics and diagnostics during the same spaceflight for

  11. Spaceflight 2 um Tm Fiber MOPA Amplifier, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to design, develop, and test a spaceflight prototype 2051 nm thulium (Tm)-doped fiber amplifier (TDFA) optical master oscillator power amplifier...

  12. Parallel Detection of Multiple Biomarkers During Spaceflight, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Maintaining the health of astronauts during extended spaceflight is critical to the success of the mission. Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. (RMD) proposes an...

  13. Space/Flight Operable Miniature Six Axis Transducer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — FUTEK will fully design and manufacture a sensor capable of measuring forces in and about each axis. The unit will measure forces up to 300 Newton's in the principle...

  14. Radiation protection for human interplanetary spaceflight and planetary surface operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, B.C. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)]|[DLR Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne (Germany)]|[NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiation protection issues are reviewed for five categories of radiation exposure during human missions to the moon and Mars: trapped radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, solar flare particle events, planetary surface emissions, and on-board radiation sources. Relative hazards are dependent upon spacecraft and vehicle configurations, flight trajectories, human susceptibility, shielding effectiveness, monitoring and warning systems, and other factors. Crew cabins, interplanetary mission modules, surface habitats, planetary rovers, and extravehicular mobility units (spacesuits) provide various degrees of protection. Countermeasures that may be taken are reviewed relative to added complexity and risks that they could entail, with suggestions for future research and analysis.

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Training and Education for Spaceflight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonmaw, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral-training (CBT) is an evidence-based practice commonly used to help treat insomnia, and is part of NASA's countermeasure regimen for Fatigue Management. CBT addresses the life style and habits of individuals that are maladaptive to managing stress and fatigue. This includes addressing learned behavioral responses that may cause stress and lead to an increased sense of fatigue. While the initial cause of onset of fatigue in the individual may be no longer present, the perception and engrained anticipation of fatigue persist and cause an exaggerated state of tension. CBT combined with relaxation training allows the individual to unlearn the maladaptive beliefs and behaviors and replace them with routines and techniques that allow cognitive restructuring and resultant relief from stress. CBT allows for elimination in individuals of unwanted ruminating thoughts and anticipatory anxiety by, for example, training the individuals to practice stressful situations in a relaxed state. As a result of CBT, relaxation can be accomplished in many ways, such as progressive muscle relaxation, meditation and guided imagery. CBT is not therapy, but rather the synthesis of behavioral countermeasures. CBT utilizes progressive relaxation as a means of reinforcing educational and cognitive countermeasures. These countermeasures include: masking, elimination of distracting thoughts, anxiety control, split attention, cognitive restructuring and other advanced psychological techniques.

  16. Job task characteristics of Australian emergency services volunteers during search and rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Aaron; Lenton, Gavin; Savage, Robbie; Aisbett, Brad

    2018-02-01

    Search and rescue operations are necessary in locating, assisting and recovering individuals lost or in distress. In Australia, land-based search and rescue roles require a range of physically demanding tasks undertaken in dynamic and challenging environments. The aim of the current research was to identify and characterise the physically demanding tasks inherent to search and rescue operation personnel within Australia. These aims were met through a subjective job task analysis approach. In total, 11 criterion tasks were identified by personnel. These tasks were the most physically demanding, frequently occurring and operationally important tasks to these specialist roles. Muscular strength was the dominant fitness component for 7 of the 11 tasks. In addition to the discrete criterion tasks, an operational scenario was established. With the tasks and operational scenario identified, objective task analysis procedures can be undertaken so that practitioners can implement evidence-based strategies, such as physical selection procedures and task-based physical training programs, commensurate with the physical demands of search and rescue job roles. Practitioner Summary: The identification of physically demanding tasks amongst specialist emergency service roles predicates health and safety strategies which can be incorporated into organisations. Knowledge of physical task parameters allows employers to mitigate injury risk through the implementation of strategies modelled on the precise physical demands of the role.

  17. The next phase of life-sciences spaceflight research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Timothy; Nemoto, Kanako; Hashizume, Toko; Mori, Chihiro; Sugimoto, Tomoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Fukui, Keiji; Yamazaki, Takashi; Higashibata, Akira; Higashitani, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Recently we demonstrated that the effectiveness of RNAi interference (RNAi) for inhibiting gene expression is maintained during spaceflight in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and argued for the biomedical importance of this finding. We also successfully utilized green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged proteins to monitor changes in GPF localization during flight. Here we discuss potential applications of RNAi and GFP in spaceflight studies and the ramifications of these experiments for the future of space life-sciences research. PMID:22446523

  18. 33 CFR 150.506 - When must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? 150.506 Section 150.506 Navigation and...: OPERATIONS Emergency and Specialty Equipment Inflatable Lifesaving Appliances § 150.506 When must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? (a) The operator must...

  19. Characteristics associated with organizational independence in consumer-operated service organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2011-01-01

    This research compares two types of consumer organizations in one state in order to explore the significance of organizational independence for internal structure/operations and external relationships. The first type, consumeroperated service organizations (COSOs), are independent and fully self-governing; the second are peer-support service organizations (PSSOs), which are part of larger non-consumer entities. Mail surveys were completed by COSO and PSSO directors of a geographically representative sample of organizations; telephone interviews were conducted with a sub-sample. Owing to small sample size, matched COSO-PSSO pairs were analyzed using non-parametric statistics. COSOs and PSSOs are similar in some ways, e.g., types of services provided, but significantly different on internal variables, such as budget size, and external variables, such as number of relationships with community groups. Organizational independence appears to be a significant characteristic for consumer service organizations and should be encouraged by funders and among participants. Funders might establish administrative and/or programmatic measures to support consumer organizations that are independent or moving toward independence; their participants would also benefit from the provision, by authorities or advocates, of materials to guide organizations toward, for example, 501(c)3 status.

  20. Microstructural evolution and deformation features in gas turbine blades operated in-service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Tong, Jinyan [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Feng, Qiang [National Center for Materials Service Safety, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Jianxin [Key Laboratory of Liquid Structure and Heredity of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • Gas turbine blades operated in-service have been investigated. • Two primary MC decomposition reactions take place during servicing. • Deformation features during servicing have been analyzed. - Abstract: The nickel based superalloy GH4037 is employed in gas turbine blades because of its high temperature strength and oxidation resistance. Microstructural evolution and deformation features in gas turbine blades after 1600 h service have been investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The microstructure of blade changes according to complex and comprehensive temperature and stress fields applied on it. Microstructural observations show that minor carbide precipitates dispersedly precipitate in the matrix. Two MC decomposition reactions occur: MC + γ → M{sub 23}C{sub 6} + γ′ and MC + γ → M{sub 23}C{sub 6} + η. Blocky, closely spaced M{sub 23}C{sub 6} particles continuously distribute along grain boundaries. The main deformation features, such as slip bands, APB-coupled dislocation pairs, stacking faults bound by partial dislocations and deformation twinning, have also been analyzed in terms of fundamental deformation mechanisms and environmental effects.

  1. Semi-Automatic Operational Service for Drought Monitoring and Forecasting in the Tuscany Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Magno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A drought-monitoring and forecasting system developed for the Tuscany region was improved in order to provide a semi-automatic, more detailed, timely and comprehensive operational service for decision making, water authorities, researchers and general stakeholders. Ground-based and satellite data from different sources (regional meteorological stations network, MODIS Terra satellite and CHIRPS/CRU precipitation datasets are integrated through an open-source, interoperable SDI (spatial data infrastructure based on PostgreSQL/PostGIS to produce vegetation and precipitation indices that allow following of the occurrence and evolution of a drought event. The SDI allows the dissemination of comprehensive, up-to-date and customizable information suitable for different end-users through different channels, from a web page and monthly bulletins, to interoperable web services, and a comprehensive climate service. The web services allow geospatial elaborations on the fly, and the geo-database can be increased with new input/output data to respond to specific requests or to increase the spatial resolution.

  2. GSM Marketing Service Providers Operations and Customers Satisfaction in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Sunday Abayomi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out on the GSM arm of the Nigerian Telecomunication sectorto primarily investigate the level of satisfaction that the subscribers of GSM service providers haveenjoyed in the seven years of operations in Nigeria. In testing this empirically, MTN, GLOBACOMand ZAIN were selected as case studies. 600 questionnaires were administered on the subscribers ofthese GSM service providers in the Six States of the South-Western Nigeria using the purposivesampling technique. In analyzing the collated data, three hypotheses were tested with the use ofPercentages, T-test, F-test, [at 95% confidence limit], Cross-tabulation [using the ‘Eta’ Directionalmeasure] and statistical charts. The results from the SPSS 16 output rejected the Null hypotheses.This further indicated that, the various factors that determined the level of subscribers’ satisfactionwere statistically significant. The study therefore concluded that, subscribers in Nigeria aredissatisfied with the services of their service providers hence, the need for the regulatory body; NCCto ensure that subscribers interests are protected. The study then suggested that,, the GSM serviceproviders should reposition themselves to give adequate value to subscribers money incommensuration with their own gains from the Nigeria Telecommunications market.

  3. Post-Flight Back Pain Following International Space Station Missions: Evaluation of Spaceflight Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Back pain during spaceflight has often been attributed to the lengthening of the spinal column due to the absence of gravity during both short and long-duration missions. Upon landing and re-adaptation to gravity, the spinal column reverts back to its original length thereby causing some individuals to experience pain and muscular spasms, while others experience no ill effects. With International Space Station (ISS) missions, cases of back pain and injury are more common post-flight, but little is known about the potential risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this project was to perform an initial evaluation of reported post-flight back pain and injury cases to relevant spaceflight risk factors in United States astronauts that have completed an ISS mission. METHODS All US astronauts who completed an ISS mission between Expeditions (EXP) 1 and 41 (2000-2015) were included in this evaluation. Forty-five astronauts (36 males and 9 females) completed 50 ISS missions during the study time period, as 5 astronauts completed 2 ISS missions. Researchers queried medical records of the 45 astronauts for occurrences of back pain and injury. A case was defined as any reported event of back pain or injury to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, or coccyx spine regions. Data sources for the cases included the Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record; Astronaut Strength, Conditioning and Rehabilitation electronic documentation; the Private Medical Conference tool; and the Space Medicine Operations Team records. Post-flight cases were classified as an early case if reported within 45 days of landing (R + 45) or a late case if reported from R + 46 to R + 365 days after landing (R + 1y). Risk factors in the astronaut population for back pain include age, sex, prior military service, and prior history of back pain. Additionally, spaceflight specific risk factors such as type of landing vehicle and onboard exercise countermeasures were included to evaluate their

  4. QA and Testing in CERNBOX: the cornerstone of service development and operation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    QA and Testing in CERNBOX (https://cernbox.cern.ch) presents a serious challenge and is critically important: - the service deals with user data directly on their local computers (synchronization clients), at present ~1000 clients connecting daily - the very nature of synchronization is to propagate changes across computers which also means propagating problems if they occur - there is a wide range of supported platforms (MacOSX, Windows, major Linux distributions, mobile platforms) - OS semantics are often incompatible or conflicting: for example HFS is case preserving, NTFS supports the legacy of 8.3 DOS file format, etc. - the operational environment varies enormously, for example: from fast, reliable network inside computing center to unreliable, high-latency, ad-hoc connections from airports - etc. From service development perspective, CERNBOX integrates several complex components which development cycles are disjoint and geographically distributed: - PB-range storage backend (EOS) developed...

  5. Study of short-haul aircraft operating economics. Phase 2: an analysis of the impact of jet modernization on local service airline operating costs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrastek, D.A.

    1976-05-01

    The objectives of this phase of the study were (1) to assess the 10 year operating cost trends of the local service airlines operating in the 1965 through 1974 period, (2) to glean from these trends the technological and operational parameters which were impacted most significantly by the transition to newer pure jet, short haul transports, and effected by changing fuel prices and cost of living indices, and (3) to develop, construct, and evaluate an operating cost forecasting model which would incorporate those factors which best predicted airline total operating cost behavior over that 10-year period.

  6. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  7. Operational Planetary Space Weather Services for the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Nicolas; Grande, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Under Horizon 2020, the Europlanet 2020 Research Infrastructure (EPN2020-RI, http://www.europlanet-2020-ri.eu) includes an entirely new Virtual Access Service, "Planetary Space Weather Services" (PSWS) that will extend the concepts of space weather and space situational awareness to other planets in our Solar System and in particular to spacecraft that voyage through it. PSWS will provide at the end of 2017 12 services distributed over 4 different service domains - 1) Prediction, 2) Detection, 3) Modelling, 4) Alerts. These services include 1.1) A 1D MHD solar wind prediction tool, 1.2) Extensions of a Propagation Tool, 1.3) A meteor showers prediction tool, 1.4) A cometary tail crossing prediction tool, 2.1) Detection of lunar impacts, 2.2) Detection of giant planet fireballs, 2.3) Detection of cometary tail events, 3.1) A Transplanet model of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, 3.2) A model of the Mars radiation environment, 3.3.) A model of giant planet magnetodisc, 3.4) A model of Jupiter's thermosphere, 4) A VO-event based alert system. We will detail in the present paper some of these services with a particular emphasis on those already operational at the time of the presentation (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.2, 3.1, 4). The proposed Planetary Space Weather Services will be accessible to the research community, amateur astronomers as well as to industrial partners planning for space missions dedicated in particular to the following key planetary environments: Mars, in support of ESA's ExoMars missions; comets, building on the success of the ESA Rosetta mission; and outer planets, in preparation for the ESA JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE). These services will also be augmented by the future Solar Orbiter and BepiColombo observations. This new facility will not only have an impact on planetary space missions but will also allow the hardness of spacecraft and their components to be evaluated under variety of known conditions, particularly radiation conditions, extending

  8. Identification of Conflicts between Transmission and Distribution System Operators when Acquiring Ancillary Services from Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zecchino, Antonio; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    ancillary services from flexible units. The investigation is carried out considering a 3-area power system which allows to take into account local constraints as well as system-wide needs. As outcome, this paper identifies the conflicts from both a theoretical and a practical point of view, by means...... products according to requests coming from both distribution and transmission system operators. The goal of this paper is to provide an identification procedure that is able to detect, identify and catalogue possible conflicts among the involved stakeholders that take place when requesting and/or acquiring...

  9. A space-based public service platform for terrestrial rescue operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisig, R.; Bernstein, J.; Cramblit, D. C.

    1977-01-01

    The space-based Public Service Platform (PSP) is a multibeam, high-gain communications relay satellite that can provide a variety of functions for a large number of people on earth equipped with extremely small, very low cost transceivers. This paper describes the PSP concept, the rationale used to derive the concept, the criteria for selecting specific communication functions to be performed, and the advantages of performing such functions via satellite. The discussion focuses on the benefits of using a PSP for natural disaster warning; control of attendant rescue/assistance operations; and rescue of people in downed aircraft, aboard sinking ships, lost or injured on land.

  10. Waste minimization, recycling and reuse in operations support services fleet maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Government regulations and smart business practices demand that organizations dramatically reduce both the type and volume of waste generated by their operations. This article describes successful waste minimization and recycling programs created by the Fleet Maintenance, Operations Support Services Division, Westinghouse Hanford Company. These comprehensive programs have greatly reduced waste formerly produced in maintaining 3,528 government-owned vehicles and nearly 200 emergency power generators at the Hanford Site. The actions are integral to preventing future contamination of the Site as well as to cleaning up the complexity of wastes from almost 50 years of defense production. The results of the Fleet Maintenance programs are impressive, recording cost savings of $290,000 in fiscal year 1993 and $965,000 since 1988

  11. MIT January Operational Internship Experience 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLatte, Danielle; Furhmann, Adam; Habib, Manal; Joujon-Roche, Cecily; Opara, Nnaemeka; Pasterski, Sabrina Gonzalez; Powell, Christina; Wimmer, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the 2011 January Operational Internship experience (JOIE) program which allows students to study operational aspects of spaceflight, how design affects operations and systems engineering in practice for 3 weeks. Topics include: (1) Systems Engineering (2) NASA Organization (3) Workforce Core Values (4) Human Factors (5) Safety (6) Lean Engineering (7) NASA Now (8) Press, Media, and Outreach and (9) Future of Spaceflight.

  12. Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR): The United States Marine Corps Initiative to Deliver Mental Health Services to Operating Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nash, William P

    2006-01-01

    Combat/operational stress control, defined as programs and policies to prevent, identify, and manage adverse combat/operational stress reactions, is the primary responsibility of military commanders...

  13. Operator models for delivering municipal solid waste management services in developing countries. Part A: The evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David C; Kanjogera, Jennifer Bangirana; Soós, Reka; Briciu, Cosmin; Smith, Stephen R; Whiteman, Andrew D; Spies, Sandra; Oelz, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    This article presents the evidence base for 'operator models' - that is, how to deliver a sustainable service through the interaction of the 'client', 'revenue collector' and 'operator' functions - for municipal solid waste management in emerging and developing countries. The companion article addresses a selection of locally appropriate operator models. The evidence shows that no 'standard' operator model is effective in all developing countries and circumstances. Each city uses a mix of different operator models; 134 cases showed on average 2.5 models per city, each applying to different elements of municipal solid waste management - that is, street sweeping, primary collection, secondary collection, transfer, recycling, resource recovery and disposal or a combination. Operator models were analysed in detail for 28 case studies; the article summarises evidence across all elements and in more detail for waste collection. Operators fall into three main groups: The public sector, formal private sector, and micro-service providers including micro-, community-based and informal enterprises. Micro-service providers emerge as a common group; they are effective in expanding primary collection service coverage into poor- or peri-urban neighbourhoods and in delivering recycling. Both public and private sector operators can deliver effective services in the appropriate situation; what matters more is a strong client organisation responsible for municipal solid waste management within the municipality, with stable political and financial backing and capacity to manage service delivery. Revenue collection is also integral to operator models: Generally the municipality pays the operator from direct charges and/or indirect taxes, rather than the operator collecting fees directly from the service user.

  14. A modular, programmable measurement system for physiological and spaceflight applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, John W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Miles, Christopher J.

    1993-02-01

    The NASA-Ames Sensors 2000] Program has developed a small, compact, modular, programmable, sensor signal conditioning and measurement system, initially targeted for Life Sciences Spaceflight Programs. The system consists of a twelve-slot, multi-layer, distributed function backplane, a digital microcontroller/memory subsystem, conditioned and isolated power supplies, and six application-specific, physiological signal conditioners. Each signal condition is capable of being programmed for gains, offsets, calibration and operate modes, and, in some cases, selectable outputs and functional modes. Presently, the system has the capability for measuring ECG, EMG, EEG, Temperature, Respiration, Pressure, Force, and Acceleration parameters, in physiological ranges. The measurement system makes heavy use of surface-mount packaging technology, resulting in plug in modules sized 125x55 mm. The complete 12-slot system is contained within a volume of 220x150x70mm. The system's capabilities extend well beyond the specific objectives of NASA programs. Indeed, the potential commercial uses of the technology are virtually limitless. In addition to applications in medical and biomedical sensing, the system might also be used in process control situations, in clinical or research environments, in general instrumentation systems, factory processing, or any other applications where high quality measurements are required.

  15. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  16. Bridging the Gap Between Research and Operations in the National Weather Service: The Huntsville Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darden, C.; Carroll, B.; Lapenta, W.; Jedlovec, G.; Goodman, S.; Bradshaw, T.; Gordon, J.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Weather Service Office (WFO) in Huntsville, Alabama (HUN) is slated to begin full-time operations in early 2003. With the opening of the Huntsville WFO, a unique opportunity has arisen for close and productive collaboration with scientists at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH). As a part of the collaboration effort, NASA has developed the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center. The mission of the SPoRT center is to incorporate NASA earth science technology and research into the NWS operational environment. Emphasis will be on improving mesoscale and short-term forecasting in the first 24 hours of the forecast period. As part of the collaboration effort, the NWS and NASA will develop an implementation and evaluation plan to streamline the integration of the latest technologies and techniques into the operational forecasting environment. The desire of WFO HUN, NASA, and UAH is to provide a model for future collaborative activities between research and operational communities across the country.

  17. Efficacy of Antimicrobials on Bacteria Cultured in a Spaceflight Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, CA; Wotring, Virginia; Barrila, Jennifer; Crabbe, Aurelie; Castro, Sarah; Davis, Richard; Rideout, April; McCarthy, Breanne; Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    As humans travel in space, they will interact with microbial flora from themselves, other crewmembers, their food, and the environment. While evaluations of microbial ecology aboard the Mir and ISS suggest a predominance of common environmental flora, the presence of (and potential for) infectious agents has been well documented. Likewise, pathogens have been detected during preflight monitoring of spaceflight food, resulting in the disqualification of that production lot from flight. These environmental and food organisms range from the obligate pathogen, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), which has been responsible for disqualification and removal of food destined for ISS and has previously been reported from Shuttle crew refuse, to the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, isolated numerous times from ISS habitable compartments and the crew. Infectious disease events have affected spaceflight missions, including an upper respiratory infection that delayed the launch of STS-36 and an incapacitating Pseudomonas aeruginosa urinary tract infection of a crewmember during Apollo 13. These observations indicate that the crew has the potential to be exposed to obligate and opportunistic pathogens. This risk of exposure is expected to increase with longer mission durations and increased use of regenerative life support systems. As antibiotics are the primary countermeasure after infection, determining if their efficacy during spaceflight missions is comparable to terrestrial application is of critical importance. The NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) culture system has been successfully used as a spaceflight culture analogue to identify potential alterations in several key microbial characteristics, such as virulence and gene regulation, in response to spaceflight culture. We hypothesized that bacteria cultured in the low fluid shear RWV environment would demonstrate changes in efficacy of antibiotics compared to higher fluid shear controls

  18. Research on evaluation of third-party governance operation services for environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bingsheng; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang

    2017-11-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of third-party governance operation services for environmental pollution, and determines the evaluation indicator system composed of 5 primary indicators as the basic competence of enterprise, operation of equipment, technique economics, environmental benefit and management level, and 26 secondary indicators via policies and regulations, standards, literature research and expert consultation in combination with the composition elements, service value judgment factors and full-life cycle of the work, providing theoretical support for the effect evaluation of third-governance over the environmental pollution in China. Then, the hierarchical analytic matrix is formed by analyzing the environmental pollution governance evaluation indicator system via analytic hierarchy process and scoring the importance of various indicators by experts by applying the Delphi method. The feature vector of the matrix is then calculated to obtain the weight of each indicator and verify the effectiveness of the Delphi method and obtain the comprehensive weight by judging the consistency of the matrix, so as to finally determine the overall ordering level of the importance of secondary indicators.

  19. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service overview for operational monitoring of current crop conditions and production forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, J.

    2016-12-01

    The presentation will discuss the current status of the International Production Assessment Division of the USDA ForeignAgricultural Service for operational monitoring and forecasting of current crop conditions, and anticipated productionchanges to produce monthly, multi-source consensus reports on global crop conditions including the use of Earthobservations (EO) from satellite and in situ sources.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) International Production AssessmentDivision (IPAD) deals exclusively with global crop production forecasting and agricultural analysis in support of the USDAWorld Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) lockup process and contributions to the World Agricultural Supply DemandEstimates (WASE) report. Analysts are responsible for discrete regions or countries and conduct in-depth long-termresearch into national agricultural statistics, farming systems, climatic, environmental, and economic factors affectingcrop production. IPAD analysts become highly valued cross-commodity specialists over time, and are routinely soughtout for specialized analyses to support governmental studies. IPAD is responsible for grain, oilseed, and cotton analysison a global basis. IPAD is unique in the tools it uses to analyze crop conditions around the world, including customweather analysis software and databases, satellite imagery and value-added image interpretation products. It alsoincorporates all traditional agricultural intelligence resources into its forecasting program, to make the fullest use ofavailable information in its operational commodity forecasts and analysis. International travel and training play animportant role in learning about foreign agricultural production systems and in developing analyst knowledge andcapabilities.

  20. How to operate a university institute as a radiological emergency service?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besancon, A.; Bochud, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Radiation Physics (IRA) is attached to the Department of Medical Radiology at the Vaud University Hospital Center (CHUV) in Lausanne. The Institute's main tasks are strongly linked to the medical activities of the Department: radiotherapy, radiodiagnostics, interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The Institute also works in the fields of operational radiation protection, radiation metrology and radioecology. In the case of an accident involving radioactive materials, the emergency services are able to call on the assistance of radiation protection specialists. In order to avoid having to create and maintain a specific structure, both burdensome and rarely needed, Switzerland decided to unite all existing emergency services for such events. Thus, the IRA was invited to participate in this network. The challenge is therefore to integrate a university structure, used to academic collaborations and the scientific approach, to an interventional organization accustomed to strict policies, a military-style command structure and 'drilled' procedures. The IRA's solution entails mobilizing existing resources and the expertise developed through professional experience. The main asset of this solution is that it involves the participation of committed collaborators who remain in a familiar environment, and are able to use proven materials and mastered procedures, even if the atmosphere of an accident situation differs greatly from regular laboratory routines. However, this solution requires both a commitment to education and training in emergency situations, and a commitment in terms of discipline by each collaborator in order to be integrated into a response plan supervised by an operational command center. (authors)

  1. A managed clinical network for cardiac services: set-up, operation and impact on patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Hamilton

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the set up and operation of a Managed Clinical Network for cardiac services and assess its impact on patient care. Methods: This single case study used process evaluation with observational before and after comparison of indicators of quality of care and costs. The study was conducted in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland and used a three-level framework. Process evaluation of the network set-up and operation through a documentary review of minutes; guidelines and protocols; transcripts of fourteen semi-structured interviews with health service personnel including senior managers, general practitioners, nurses, cardiologists and members of the public. Outcome evaluation of the impact of the network through interrupted time series analysis of clinical data of 202 patients aged less than 76 years admitted to hospital with a confirmed myocardial infarction one-year pre and one-year post, the establishment of the network. The main outcome measures were differences between indicators of quality of care targeted by network protocols. Economic evaluation of the transaction costs of the set-up and operation of the network and the resource costs of the clinical care of the 202 myocardial infarction patients from the time of hospital admission to 6 months post discharge through interrupted time series analysis. The outcome measure was different in National Health Service resource use. Results: Despite early difficulties, the network was successful in bringing together clinicians, patients and managers to redesign services, exhibiting most features of good network management. The role of the energetic lead clinician was crucial, but the network took time to develop and ‘bed down’. Its primary “modus operand” was the development of a myocardial infarction pathway and associated protocols. Of sixteen clinical care indicators, two improved significantly following the launch of the network and nine showed improvements, which were

  2. A managed clinical network for cardiac services: set-up, operation and impact on patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stc Hamilton, Karen E; Sullivan, Frank M; Donnan, Peter T; Taylor, Rex; Ikenwilo, Divine; Scott, Anthony; Baker, Chris; Wyke, Sally

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the set up and operation of a Managed Clinical Network for cardiac services and assess its impact on patient care. This single case study used process evaluation with observational before and after comparison of indicators of quality of care and costs. The study was conducted in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland and used a three-level framework. Process evaluation of the network set-up and operation through a documentary review of minutes; guidelines and protocols; transcripts of fourteen semi-structured interviews with health service personnel including senior managers, general practitioners, nurses, cardiologists and members of the public. Outcome evaluation of the impact of the network through interrupted time series analysis of clinical data of 202 patients aged less than 76 years admitted to hospital with a confirmed myocardial infarction one-year pre and one-year post, the establishment of the network. The main outcome measures were differences between indicators of quality of care targeted by network protocols. Economic evaluation of the transaction costs of the set-up and operation of the network and the resource costs of the clinical care of the 202 myocardial infarction patients from the time of hospital admission to 6 months post discharge through interrupted time series analysis. The outcome measure was different in National Health Service resource use. Despite early difficulties, the network was successful in bringing together clinicians, patients and managers to redesign services, exhibiting most features of good network management. The role of the energetic lead clinician was crucial, but the network took time to develop and 'bed down'. Its primary "modus operand" was the development of a myocardial infarction pathway and associated protocols. Of sixteen clinical care indicators, two improved significantly following the launch of the network and nine showed improvements, which were not statistically significant. There was no difference

  3. Network Analysis of Rodent Transcriptomes in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Maya; Fogle, Homer; Costes, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Network analysis methods leverage prior knowledge of cellular systems and the statistical and conceptual relationships between analyte measurements to determine gene connectivity. Correlation and conditional metrics are used to infer a network topology and provide a systems-level context for cellular responses. Integration across multiple experimental conditions and omics domains can reveal the regulatory mechanisms that underlie gene expression. GeneLab has assembled rich multi-omic (transcriptomics, proteomics, epigenomics, and epitranscriptomics) datasets for multiple murine tissues from the Rodent Research 1 (RR-1) experiment. RR-1 assesses the impact of 37 days of spaceflight on gene expression across a variety of tissue types, such as adrenal glands, quadriceps, gastrocnemius, tibalius anterior, extensor digitorum longus, soleus, eye, and kidney. Network analysis is particularly useful for RR-1 -omics datasets because it reinforces subtle relationships that may be overlooked in isolated analyses and subdues confounding factors. Our objective is to use network analysis to determine potential target nodes for therapeutic intervention and identify similarities with existing disease models. Multiple network algorithms are used for a higher confidence consensus.

  4. Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, William J.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation is an overview of the some of the known results of spaceflight induced intracranial hypertension. Historical information from Gemini 5, Apollo, and the space shuttle programs indicated that some vision impairment was reported and a comparison between these historical missions and present missions is included. Optic Disc Edema, Globe Flattening, Choroidal Folds, Hyperopic Shifts and Raised Intracranial Pressure has occurred in Astronauts During and After Long Duration Space Flight. Views illustrate the occurrence of Optic Disc Edema, Globe Flattening, and Choroidal Folds. There are views of the Arachnoid Granulations and Venous return, and the question of spinal or venous compliance issues is discussed. The question of increased blood flow and its relation to increased Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is raised. Most observed on-orbit papilledema does not progress, and this might be a function of plateau homeostasis for the higher level of intracranial pressure. There are seven cases of astronauts experiencing in flight and post flight symptoms, which are summarized and follow-up is reviewed along with a comparison of the treatment options. The question is "is there other involvement besides vision," and other Clinical implications are raised,

  5. Developing Personalized Sensorimotor Adaptability Countermeasures for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. Interestingly, astronauts who return from spaceflight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. In this paper we will be presenting results from our ground-based study that show how behavioral, brain imaging and genomic data may be used to predict individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability to novel sensorimotor environments. This approach will allow us to better design and implement sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures against decrements in post-mission adaptive capability that are customized for each crewmember's sensory biases, adaptive capacity, brain structure, functional capacities, and genetic predispositions. The ability to customize adaptability training will allow more efficient use of crew time during training and will optimize training prescriptions for astronauts to ensure expected outcomes.

  6. Planning and programming of pre-operational and in-service inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udaondo, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    After a brief mention of the actual scope of in-service inspection work, conclusions are presented that relate to the preparations for inspections, making use of experience acquired since 1972 at 11 nuclear power plants in Spain which have commissioned such studies from one particular organization, and analyses are given of the advantages to be gained therefrom. Three different aspects of preparations for inspections are considered: (a) man-hour estimates and the duration of in-service inspections; (b) the sequence of action during a pre-operational inspection (assuming a typical functional organization) from definition of the codes of practice and standards applicable up to the issue of the final report and the schedule for distribution of the annual work load to be invested in a typical project, as a result of combining the two previous estimates, and (c) the documentary aspect of preparations for an inspection during a scheduled outage, as related to the various documents to be drawn up and their contents. Reference is made to the general training to be given to the staff in charge of inspection activities so as to provide them with information on, and a perspective of, the in-service inspection jobs required. (author)

  7. A new electron density model of the plasmasphere for operational applications and services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakowski, Norbert; Hoque, Mohammed Mainul

    2018-03-01

    The Earth's plasmasphere contributes essentially to total electron content (TEC) measurements from ground or satellite platforms. Furthermore, as an integral part of space weather, associated plasmaspheric phenomena must be addressed in conjunction with ionosphere weather monitoring by operational space weather services. For supporting space weather services and mitigation of propagation errors in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications we have developed the empirical Neustrelitz plasmasphere model (NPSM). The model consists of an upper L shell dependent part and a lower altitude dependent part, both described by specific exponential decays. Here the McIllwain parameter L defines the geomagnetic field lines in a centered dipole model for the geomagnetic field. The coefficients of the developed approaches are successfully fitted to numerous electron density data derived from dual frequency GPS measurements on-board the CHAMP satellite mission from 2000 to 2005. The data are utilized for fitting up to the L shell L = 3 because a previous validation has shown a good agreement with IMAGE/RPI measurements up to this value. Using the solar radio flux index F10.7 as the only external parameter, the operation of the model is robust, with 40 coefficients fast and sufficiently accurate to be used as a background model for estimating TEC or electron density profiles in near real time GNSS applications and services. In addition to this, the model approach is sensitive to ionospheric coupling resulting in anomalies such as the Nighttime Winter Anomaly and the related Mid-Summer Nighttime Anomaly and even shows a slight plasmasphere compression of the dayside plasmasphere due to solar wind pressure. Modelled electron density and TEC values agree with estimates reported in the literature in similar cases.

  8. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  9. OPERATIONAL REMOTE SENSING SERVICES IN NORTH EASTERN REGION OF INDIA FOR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, EARLY WARNING FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. Raju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North Eastern Region (NER of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the

  10. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  11. Operation and Management of Thermostatically Controlled Loads for Providing Regulation Services to Power Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanouni, Maziar

    The notion of demand-side participation in power systems operation and control is on the verge of realization because of the advancement in the required technologies an tools like communications, smart meters, sensor networks, large data management techniques, large scale optimization method, etc. Therefore, demand-response (DR) programs can be one of the prosperous solutions to accommodate part of the increasing demand for load balancing services which is brought about by the high penetration of intermittent renewable energies in power systems. This dissertation studies different aspects of the DR programs that utilized the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to provide load balancing services. The importance of TCLs among the other loads lie on their flexibility in power consumption pattern while the customer/end-user comfort is not (or minimally) impacted. Chapter 2 discussed a previously presented direct load control (DLC) to control the power consumption of aggregated TCLs. The DLC method performs a power tracking control and based on central approach where a central controller broadcasts the control command to the dispersed TCLs to toggle them on/off. The central controller receives measurement feedback from the TCLs once per couple of minutes to run a successful forecast process. The performance evaluation criteria to evaluate the load balancing service provided by the TCLs are presented. The results are discussed under different scenarios and situation. The numerical results show the proper performance of the DLC method. This DLC method is used as the control method in all the studies in this dissertation. Chapter 3 presents performance improvements for the original method in Chapter 2 by communicating two more pieces of information called forecast parameters (FPs). Communicating improves the forecast process in the DLC and hence, both performance accuracy and the amount of tear-and-wear imposed on the TCLs. Chapter 4 formulates a stochastic

  12. Application of Telemedicine Technologies to Long Term Spaceflight Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, O. I.; Grigoriev, A. I.

    Space medicine passed a long way of search for informative methods of medical data collection and analysis and worked out a complex of effective means of countermeasures and medical support. These methods and means aimed at optimization of the habitation conditions and professional activity of space crews enabled space medicine specialists to create a background for the consecutive prolongation of manned space flights and providing their safety and effectiveness. To define support systems perspectives we should consider those projects on which bases the systems are implemented. According to the set opinion manned spaceflights programs will develop in two main directions. The first one is connected with the near space exploration, first of all with the growing interest in scientific-applied and in prospect industrial employment of large size orbit manned complexes, further development of transport systems and in long-run prospect - reclamation of Lunar surface. The second direction is connected with the perspectives of interplanetary missions. There's no doubt that the priority project of the near-earth space exploration in the coming decenaries will be building up of the International Space Station. This trend characteristics prove the necessity to provide crews whose members may differ in health with individual approach to the schedule of work, rest, nutrition and training, to the medical control and therapeutic-prophylactic procedures. In these conditions the importance of remote monitoring and distance support of crew members activities by the earth- based medical control services will increase. The response efficiency in such cases can only be maintained by means of advanced telemedicine systems. The international character of the International Space Station (ISS) gives a special importance to the current activities on integrating medical support systems of the participating countries. Creation of such a system will allow to coordinate international research

  13. Operational Criteria for the Design of Front-Office Processes in Multi-Channel Service Delivery Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Rui; Amorim, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    This paper identifies relevant operational factors that affect the design of front-office processes in Multi-Channel Service Delivery Systems. Based on two in-depth case studies in banking and telecommunications, we distinguish four operational factors: i) characteristics of the inputs and outputs of the service activities; ii) characteristics of the transformation taking place; iii) the expected utilization; iv) the economics of developing the activities in the channels. Building on these re...

  14. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID) occurs during spaceflight and may represent specific clinical risks for exploration-class missions. An appropriate ground analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation would offer a platform for ground-evaluation of various potential countermeasures. This study evaluated the NASA Undersea Mission Operations ( NEEMO ), consisting of 14 day undersea deployment at the Aquarius station, as an analog for SAID. Sixteen Aquanauts from missions NEEMO-12, 13 and 14 participated in the study. RESULTS Mid-mission alterations leukocyte distribution occurred, including granulocytosis and elevations in central-memory CD8+ T-cells. General T cell function was reduced during NEEMO missions in roughly 50% of subjects. Secreted cytokines profiles were evaluated following whole blood stimulation with CD3/CD28 (T cells) or LPS (monocytes). T cell production of IFNg, IL-5, IL-10, IL-2, TNFa and IL-6 were all reduced before and during the mission. Conversely, monocyte production of TNFa, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1b and IL-8 were elevated during mission, moreso at the MD-14 timepoint. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen and early antigen were increased in approximately 40% of the subjects. Changes in EBV tetramer-positive CD8+ T-cells exhibited a variable pattern. Antibodies against Cytomegalovirus (CMV) were marginally increased during the mission. Herpesvirus reactivation was determined by PCR. EBV viral load was generally elevated at L-6. Higher levels of salivary EBV were found during the NEEMO mission than before and after as well as than the healthy controls. No VZV or CMV was found in any pre, during and after NEEMO mission or control samples. Plasma cortisol was elevated at L-6. CONCLUSION Unfortunately, L-6 may be too near to mission start to be an appropriate baseline measurement. The general immune changes in leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production, virus specific

  15. 49 CFR 37.169 - Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of such devices, shall be permitted in the passenger compartment. When the bus is at rest at a stop... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service... Interim requirements for over-the-road bus service operated by private entities. (a) Private entities...

  16. Methodology for calculating perception of the user experience of the quality of monitored integrated telecommunications operator services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for calculating perception of the user experience of the quality of monitored integrated telecommunications operator services. For this purpose, data from the monitoring of user services is used, along with questionnaires previously completed by a representative

  17. Demand and supply-based operating modes--a framework for analyzing health care service production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillrank, Paul; Groop, P Johan; Malmström, Tomi J

    2010-12-01

    The structure of organizations that provide services should reflect the possibilities of and constraints on production that arise from the market segments they serve. Organizational segmentation in health care is based on urgency and severity as well as disease type, bodily function, principal method, or population subgroup. The result is conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. A managerial perspective is needed to identify activities with similar requirements for integration, coordination, and control. The arguments in this article apply new reasoning to the previous literature. The method used in this article to classify health care provision distinguishes different types of health problems that share generic constraints of production. The analysis leads to seven different demand-supply combinations, each with its own operational logic. These are labeled demand and supply-based operating modes (DSO modes), and constitute the managerial building blocks of health care organizations. The modes are Prevention, Emergency, One visit, Project, Elective, Cure, and Care. As analytical categories the DSO modes can be used to understand current problems. Several operating modes in one unit create managerial problems of conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. The DSO modes are constructed as managerially homogeneous categories or care platforms responding to general types of demand, and supply constraints. The DSO modes bring methods of industrial management to bear on efforts to improve health care. © 2010 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  18. Arianespace Launch Service Operator Policy for Space Safety (Regulations and Standards for Safety)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdainne, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Since December 10, 2010, the French Space Act has entered into force. This French Law, referenced as LOS N°2008-518 ("Loi relative aux Opérations Spatiales"), is compliant with international rules. This French Space Act (LOS) is now applicable for any French private company whose business is dealing with rocket launch or in orbit satellites operations. Under CNES leadership, Arianespace contributed to the consolidation of technical regulation applicable to launch service operators.Now for each launch operation, the operator Arianespace has to apply for an authorization to proceed to the French ministry in charge of space activities. In the files issued for this purpose, the operator is able to justify a high level of warranties in the management of risks through robust processes in relation with the qualification maintenance, the configuration management, the treatment of technical facts and relevant conclusions and risks reduction implementation when needed.Thanks to the historic success of Ariane launch systems through its more than 30 years of exploitation experience (54 successes in a row for latest Ariane 5 launches), Arianespace as well as European public and industrial partners developed key experiences and knowledge as well as competences in space security and safety. Soyuz-ST and Vega launch systems are now in operation from Guiana Space Center with identical and proved risks management processes. Already existing processes have been slightly adapted to cope with the new roles and responsibilities of each actor contributing to the launch preparation and additional requirements like potential collision avoidance with inhabited space objects.Up to now, more than 12 Ariane 5 launches and 4 Soyuz-ST launches have been authorized under the French Space Act regulations. Ariane 5 and Soyuz- ST generic demonstration of conformity have been issued, including exhaustive danger and impact studies for each launch system.This article will detail how Arianespace

  19. Modification of Motion Perception and Manual Control Following Short-Durations Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Vanya, R. D.; Esteves, J. T.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination and spatial disorientation following G-transitions. This ESA-NASA study was designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances following short-duration spaceflights. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the effects of stimulus frequency on adaptive changes in motion perception during passive tilt and translation motion, (2) quantify decrements in manual control of tilt motion, and (3) evaluate vibrotactile feedback as a sensorimotor countermeasure.

  20. Spaceflight modulates gene expression in the whole blood of astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrila, Jennifer; Ott, C Mark; LeBlanc, Carly; Mehta, Satish K; Crabbé, Aurélie; Stafford, Phillip; Pierson, Duane L; Nickerson, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts are exposed to a unique combination of stressors during spaceflight, which leads to alterations in their physiology and potentially increases their susceptibility to disease, including infectious diseases. To evaluate the potential impact of the spaceflight environment on the regulation of molecular pathways mediating cellular stress responses, we performed a first-of-its-kind pilot study to assess spaceflight-related gene-expression changes in the whole blood of astronauts. Using an array comprised of 234 well-characterized stress-response genes, we profiled transcriptomic changes in six astronauts (four men and two women) from blood preserved before and immediately following the spaceflight. Differentially regulated transcripts included those important for DNA repair, oxidative stress, and protein folding/degradation, including HSP90AB1 , HSP27 , GPX1 , XRCC1 , BAG-1 , HHR23A , FAP48 , and C-FOS . No gender-specific differences or relationship to number of missions flown was observed. This study provides a first assessment of transcriptomic changes occurring in the whole blood of astronauts in response to spaceflight.

  1. Spaceflight and Neurosurgery: A Comprehensive Review of the Relevant Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinney, Christian C; Allison, Zain

    2018-01-01

    Spaceflight and the associated gravitational fluctuations may impact various components of the central nervous system. These include changes in intracranial pressure, the spine, and neurocognitive performance. The implications of altered astronaut performance on critical spaceflight missions are potentially significant. The current body of research on this important topic is extremely limited, and a comprehensive review has not been published. Herein, the authors address this notable gap, as well as the role of the neurosurgeon in optimizing potential diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. A literature search was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases, with no time constraints. Significant manuscripts on physiologic changes associated with spaceflight and microgravity were identified and reviewed. Manifestations were separated into 1 of 3 general categories, including changes in intracranial pressure, the spine, and neurocognitive performance. A comprehensive literature review yielded 27 studies with direct relevance to the impact of microgravity and spaceflight on nervous system physiology. This included 7 studies related to intracranial pressure fluctuations, 17 related to changes in the spinal column, and 3 related to neurocognitive change. The microgravity environment encountered during spaceflight impacts intracranial physiology. This includes changes in intracranial pressure, the spinal column, and neurocognitive performance. Herein, we present a systematic review of the published literature on this issue. Neurosurgeons should have a key role in the continued study of this important topic, contributing to both diagnostic and therapeutic understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 48 CFR 225.401-71 - Products or services in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan. 225.401-71 Section 225.401-71 Federal Acquisition... Afghanistan. When acquiring products or services, other than small arms, in support of operations in Iraq or Afghanistan— (a) If using the procedure specified in 225.7703-1(a)(1), the purchase restriction at FAR 25.403...

  3. Modification of unilateral otolith responses following spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew H; Schönfeld, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to resolve the issue of spaceflight-induced, adaptive modification of the otolith system by measuring unilateral otolith responses in a pre- versus post-flight design. The study represents the first comprehensive approach to examining unilateral otolith function following space flight. Ten astronauts participated in unilateral otolith function tests three times preflight and up to four times after Shuttle flights from landing day through the subsequent 10 days. During unilateral centrifugation, utricular function was examined by the perceptual changes reflected by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and the otolith-mediated ocular counter-roll, designated as utriculo-ocular response (UOR). Unilateral saccular reflexes were recorded by measurement of collic vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP). The findings demonstrate a general increase in interlabyrinth asymmetry of otolith responses on landing day relative to preflight baseline, with subsequent reversal in asymmetry within 2-3 days. Recovery to baseline levels was achieved within 10 days. This fluctuation in asymmetry was consistent for the utricle tests (SVV and UOR) while apparently stronger for SVV. A similar asymmetry was observed during cVEMP testing. In addition, the results provide initial evidence of a dominant labyrinth. The findings require reconsideration of the otolith asymmetry hypothesis; in general, on landing day, the response from one labyrinth was equivalent to preflight values, while the other showed considerable discrepancy. The finding that one otolith response can return to one-g level within hours after re-entry while the other takes considerably longer demonstrates the importance of considering the otolith response as a result of both peripheral and associated central neural processing.

  4. Proposal for the award of an industrial service contract for stores operations and relatedlogistics, in-house mail distribution and transport services on the CERN site

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an industrial support contract for stores operations and related logistics, in-house mail distribution and transport services on the CERN site. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium ISS (CH) - ISS (ES), for stores operations and related logistics, in-house mail distribution and transport services on the CERN site for a period of three years for a total amount not exceeding 10 312 028 Swiss francs not subject to revision. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period.

  5. A Novel Resource Management Method of Providing Operating System as a Service for Mobile Transparent Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for mobile transparent computing. It extends the PC transparent computing to mobile terminals. Since resources contain different kinds of operating systems and user data that are stored in a remote server, how to manage the network resources is essential. In this paper, we apply the technologies of quick emulator (QEMU virtualization and mobile agent for mobile transparent computing (MTC to devise a method of managing shared resources and services management (SRSM. It has three layers: a user layer, a manage layer, and a resource layer. A mobile virtual terminal in the user layer and virtual resource management in the manage layer cooperate to maintain the SRSM function accurately according to the user’s requirements. An example of SRSM is used to validate this method. Experiment results show that the strategy is effective and stable.

  6. A novel resource management method of providing operating system as a service for mobile transparent computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yonghua; Huang, Suzhen; Wu, Min; Zhang, Yaoxue; She, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for mobile transparent computing. It extends the PC transparent computing to mobile terminals. Since resources contain different kinds of operating systems and user data that are stored in a remote server, how to manage the network resources is essential. In this paper, we apply the technologies of quick emulator (QEMU) virtualization and mobile agent for mobile transparent computing (MTC) to devise a method of managing shared resources and services management (SRSM). It has three layers: a user layer, a manage layer, and a resource layer. A mobile virtual terminal in the user layer and virtual resource management in the manage layer cooperate to maintain the SRSM function accurately according to the user's requirements. An example of SRSM is used to validate this method. Experiment results show that the strategy is effective and stable.

  7. Economic Feasibility of Wireless Sensor Network-Based Service Provision in a Duopoly Setting with a Monopolist Operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Cano, Angel; Romero, Julián; Sacoto-Cabrera, Erwin J; Guijarro, Luis

    2017-11-25

    We analyze the feasibility of providing Wireless Sensor Network-data-based services in an Internet of Things scenario from an economical point of view. The scenario has two competing service providers with their own private sensor networks, a network operator and final users. The scenario is analyzed as two games using game theory. In the first game, sensors decide to subscribe or not to the network operator to upload the collected sensing-data, based on a utility function related to the mean service time and the price charged by the operator. In the second game, users decide to subscribe or not to the sensor-data-based service of the service providers based on a Logit discrete choice model related to the quality of the data collected and the subscription price. The sinks and users subscription stages are analyzed using population games and discrete choice models, while network operator and service providers pricing stages are analyzed using optimization and Nash equilibrium concepts respectively. The model is shown feasible from an economic point of view for all the actors if there are enough interested final users and opens the possibility of developing more efficient models with different types of services.

  8. Analysis of the quality of wastewater from the service stations located in the operative area of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority

    OpenAIRE

    Dahal, Karna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to analyse the data of pollutant parameters for waste water from the service stations situated in the operative area of the Viikinmäki and Suomenoja WWTPs in the Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority (HSY). The main reason for this analysis was that HSY wanted to know about the quality of waste water discharged from the service stations into the influent of its WWTPs. The number of cars used in Finland is increasing day by day; hence, au...

  9. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel and fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievering, N.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Recent changes in the United States' nuclear policy, in recognition of the increased proliferation risk, have raised questions of US intentions in international nuclear fuel and fuel-cycle service co-operation. This paper details those intentions in relation to the key elements of the new policy. In the past, the USA has been a world leader in peaceful nuclear co-operation with other nations and, mindful of the relationships between civilian nuclear technology and nuclear weapon proliferation, remains strongly committed to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, IAEA safeguards and other elements concerned with international nuclear affairs. Now, in implementing President Carter's nuclear initiatives, the USA will continue its leading role in nuclear fuel and fuel-cycle co-operation in two ways, (1) by increasing its enrichment capacity for providing international LWR fuel supplies and (2) by taking the lead in solving the problems of near and long-term spent fuel storage and disposal. Beyond these specific steps, the USA feels that the international community's past efforts in controlling the proliferation risks of nuclear power are necessary but inadequate for the future. Accordingly, the USA urges other similarly concerned nations to pause with present developments and to join in a programme of international co-operation and participation in a re-assessment of future plans which would include: (1) Mutual assessments of fuel cycles alternative to the current uranium/plutonium cycle for LWRs and breeders, seeking to lessen proliferation risks; (2) co-operative mechanisms for ensuring the ''front-end'' fuel supply including uranium resource exploration, adequate enrichment capacity, and institutional arrangements; (3) means of dealing with short-, medium- and long-term spent fuel storage needs by means of technical co-operation and assistance and possibly establishment of international storage or repository facilities; and (4) for reprocessing plants, and related fuel

  10. Emergency operation for penetrating thoracic trauma in a metropolitan surgical service in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Damian Luiz; Quazi, Muhammed A; Reddy, Kriban; Thomson, Sandie Rutherford

    2011-09-01

    This audit examines our total experience with penetrating thoracic trauma. It reviews all the patients who were brought alive to our surgical service and all who were taken directly to the mortuary. The group of patients who underwent emergency operation for penetrating thoracic trauma is examined in detail. A prospective trauma registry is maintained by the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Complex. This database was retrospectively interrogated for all patients requiring an emergency thoracic operation for penetrating injury from July 2006 till July 2009. A retrospective review of mortuary data for the same period was undertaken to identify patients with penetrating thoracic trauma who had been taken to the forensic mortuary. Over the 3-year period July 2006 to July 2009, a total of 1186 patients, 77 of whom were female, were admitted to the surgical services in Pietermaritzburg with penetrating thoracic trauma. There were 124 gunshot wounds and 1062 stab wounds. A total of 108 (9%) patients required emergency operation during the period under review. The mechanism of trauma in the operative group was stab wounds (n = 102), gunshot wound (n = 4), stab with compass (n = 1), and impalement by falling on an arrow (n = 1). Over the same period 676 persons with penetrating thoracic trauma were taken to the mortuary. There were 135 (20%) gunshot wounds of the chest in the mortuary cohort. The overall mortality for penetrating thoracic trauma was 541 (33%) of 1603 for stab wounds and 135 (52%) of 259 for gunshot wounds of the chest. Among the 541 subjects with stab wounds from the mortuary cohort, there were 206 (38%) with cardiac injuries. In the emergency operation group there were 11 (10%) deaths. In 76 patients a cardiac injury was identified. The other injuries identified were lung parenchyma bleeding (n = 12) intercostal vessels (n = 10), great vessels of the chest (n = 6), internal thoracic vessel (n = 2), and pericardial injury with no myocardial injury (n = 2

  11. Evidence Report: Risk of Bone Fracture due to Spaceflight-Induced Changes to Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Evans, Harlan J.; Smith, Scott A.; Spector, Elisabeth R.; Yardley, Greg; Myer, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    Given that spaceflight may induce adverse changes in bone ultimate strength with respect to mechanical loads during and post-mission, there is a possibility a fracture may occur for activities otherwise unlikely to induce fracture prior to initiating spaceflight.

  12. Spaceflight 1.94 Micron Tm Fiber Laser Transmitter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek will develop a spaceflight prototype 1940 nm, 100 W thulium (Tm) laser suitable for NASA spaceflight and long-duration unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)...

  13. Spaceflight 1.94 micron Tm Fiber Laser Transmitter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to develop a spaceflight prototype 1940 nm, 100 W thulium (Tm) laser suitable for NASA spaceflight and long-duration unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)...

  14. Front-office/back-office configurations and operational performance in complex health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmel, Paul; van Steenis, Thomas; Meijboom, Bert

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) occurs from various causes at different ages and leads to many different types of healthcare needs. Several Dutch ABI-networks installed a local co-ordination and contact point (CCP) which functions as a central and easily accessible service for people to consult when they have questions related to ABI. To explore the relationship between front/back office design and operational performance by investigating the particular enquiry service provided by different CCPs for people affected by an ABI. In-depth interviews with 14 FO/BO employees from three case organizations, complemented with information from desk research and three one-day field visits. The CCPs applied different FO/BO configurations in terms of customer contact and in terms of grouping of front and/or back office activities into tasks for one employee. It is the complexity of the enquiry that determines which approach is more appropriate. For complex enquiries, the level of decoupling is high in all CCPs. This allows multiple experts to be involved in the process. For regular enquiries, CCPs have a choice: either working in the same way as in the complex enquiries or coupling FO/BO activities to be able to serve clients faster and without handovers.

  15. Solar Flare Prediction Science-to-Operations: the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Themelis, Konstantinos; Magiati, Margarita; Angelopoulou, Georgia

    2016-07-01

    We attempt a synoptical overview of the scientific origins of the Athens Effective Solar Flare Forecasting (A-EFFort) utility and the actions taken toward transitioning it into a pre-operational service of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The preferred method for solar flare prediction, as well as key efforts to make it function in a fully automated environment by coupling calculations with near-realtime data-downloading protocols (from the Solar Dynamics Observatory [SDO] mission), pattern recognition (solar active-region identification) and optimization (magnetic connectivity by simulated annealing) will be highlighted. In addition, the entire validation process of the service will be described, with its results presented. We will conclude by stressing the need for across-the-board efforts and synergistic work in order to bring science of potentially limited/restricted interest into realizing a much broader impact and serving the best public interests. The above presentation was partially supported by the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort project, ESA Contract No. 4000111994/14/D/MRP. Special thanks go to the ESA Project Officers R. Keil, A. Glover, and J.-P. Luntama (ESOC), M. Bobra and C. Balmer of the SDO/HMI team at Stanford University, and M. Zoulias at the RCAAM of the Academy of Athens for valuable technical help.

  16. What can business model innovation bring to transport service operations in a context of increasing liberalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Casan, J.A.

    2016-07-01

    Transport services continue to be liberalized across the entire European Union, although at differing speeds in each Member State. This momentum is expected to continue in the coming years. Against this background, attention to new dimensions of transport services becomes imperative. The focus, which has so far centred on managing infrastructure, must now shift to lesser explored areas, like product innovation and customer relationship management. The efficiency and competitiveness of new private operators will depend to a large extent on achieving a balanced development of the three aforementioned areas, as well as paying particular attention to their inherent logic, in order to build a strong value proposition. Business model innovation emerged in the field of strategic management yet goes beyond the traditional framework of competition 'for the market' and 'in the market', opening a wider and more promising space, i.e. the market creation framework. The goal is no longer to discover and exploit opportunities, but to create new opportunities and generate new market spaces. (Author)

  17. Users' demographic profile and quality attributes of bus services: The perspectives of users, operators and local authorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Nur'Amirah Mhd.; Hamid, Ahmad Hilmy Abd

    2017-10-01

    Bus services that can help meet almost every bus user's needs are the goals of bus operators. Despite such an idealistic view, the operators themselves, users and even the local authorities have been found to hold different views about the quality of service that the bus should deliver. As the users i.e., customers are considered as important stakeholders, understanding their characteristics, profile and pattern is very crucial. To this end, the present study has attempted to gauge the perspectives of all the above-mentioned stakeholders. For the users, a customer satisfaction survey was employed to look into the relative influence of service attributes. In addition, surveys were also administered to bus operators and local authorities to study their perspectives in relation to this matter. 450 randomly selected respondents were surveyed. Identification of the service level was analyzed through the Likert scale whereas the perspectives of the operators and authorities were dealt with through mean value Analysis. Specifically, this study aims to identify the crucial attributes in determining the quality of the bus services. Findings of the study indicated that different attributes were selected by users, operators and authorities, which clearly enlightened the variations of the important attributes in determining the level of bus service quality. In its attempt to compare the service level attributes from three perspectives, this study has helped advance better improvement and strategies for the urban public bus operators and planners, in addition to the authorities in delivering user-friendly bus services by taking into account the local context, user profile and demographic characteristics.

  18. CIEMAT EXTERNAL DOSIMETRY SERVICE: ISO/IEC 17025 ACCREDITATION AND 3 Y OF OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE AS AN ACCREDITED LABORATORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, A M; Rodríguez, R; López, J L; Martín, R; Benavente, J F

    2016-09-01

    In 2008, the CIEMAT Radiation Dosimetry Service decided to implement a quality management system, in accordance with established requirements, in order to achieve ISO/IEC 17025 accreditation. Although the Service comprises the approved individual monitoring services of both external and internal radiation, this paper is specific to the actions taken by the External Dosimetry Service, including personal and environmental dosimetry laboratories, to gain accreditation and the reflections of 3 y of operational experience as an accredited laboratory. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Synthetic Biology and Human Health: Potential Applications for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Carr, Christopher; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Y.; Grenon, Marlene; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Santos, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. Spaceflight-related changes have been reported in the musculo-skeletal, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems. The spacecraft environment further subjects the traveler to noise and gravitational forces, as well as airborne chemical, microbiological contaminants, and radiation exposure. As humans prepare for longer duration missions effective countermeasures must be developed, verified, and implemented to ensure mission success. Over the past ten years, synthetic biology has opened new avenues for research and development in areas such as biological control, biomaterials, sustainable energy production, bioremediation, and biomedical therapies. The latter in particular is of great interest to the implementation of long-duration human spaceflight capabilities. This article discusses the effects of spaceflight on humans, and reviews current capabilities and potential needs associated with the health of the astronauts where synthetic biology could play an important role in the pursuit of space exploration.

  20. Muscle sarcomere lesions and thrombosis after spaceflight and suspension unloading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D.A.; Ellis, S.; Giometti, C.S.; Hoh, J.F.Y.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E.I.; Oganov, V.S.; Slocum, G.R.; Bain, J.L.W.; Sedlak, F.R. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Extended exposure of humans to spaceflight produces a progressive loss of skeletal muscle strength. This process must be understood to design effective countermeasures. The present investigation examined hindlimb muscles from flight rats killed as close to landing as possible. Spaceflight and tail suspension-hindlimb unloading (unloaded) produced significant decreases in fiber cross-sectional areas of the adductor longus (AL), a slow-twitch antigravity muscle. However, the mean wet weight of the flight AL muscles was near normal, whereas that of the suspension unloaded AL muscles was significantly reduced. Interstitial edema within the flight AL, but not in the unloaded AL, appeared to account for this apparent disagreement.In both conditions, the slow-twitch oxidative fibers atrophied more than the fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic fibers. Microcirculation was also compromised by spaceflight, such that there was increased formation of thrombi in the postcapillary venules and capillaries.

  1. Franchising - a partnership model for efficient water services operation and maintenance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a need in South Africa for institutional innovations aimed at increasing the coverage and reliability of water services, and sustaining those services. The paper describes an alternative service delivery institutional concept, viz...

  2. Experiences of ocean literacy with different users of operational oceanography services and with high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Paola; Coppini, Giovanni; Martinelli, Sara; Bonarelli, Roberto; Lecci, Rita; Pinardi, Nadia; Cretì, Sergio; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Federico, Ivan; Mannarini, Gianandrea; Verri, Giorgia; Jansen, Eric; Lusito, Letizia; Macchia, Francesca; Montagna, Fabio; Buonocore, Mauro; Marra, Palmalisa; Tedesco, Luca; Cavallo, Arturo

    2017-04-01

    According to a common definition, ocean literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on people and people influence on the ocean. An ocean-literate person is able to make informed and responsible decisions regarding the ocean and its resources. To this aim, this paper presents operational oceanographic tools developed to meet the needs of different users, and activities performed in collaboration with high school students to support new developments of the same tools. Operational oceanography allows to deal with societal challenges such as maritime safety, coastal and marine environment management, climate change assessment and marine resources management. Oceanographic products from the European Copernicus Marine Monitoring Service - CMEMS are transformed and communicated to public and stakeholders through adding-value chains (downstreaming), which consider advanced visualization, usage of multi-channels technological platforms and specific models and algorithms. Sea Situational Awareness is strategically important for management and safety purposes of any marine domain and, in particular, the Mediterranean Sea and its coastal areas. Examples of applications for sea situational awareness and maritime safety are here presented, through user-friendly products available both by web and mobile channels (that already reach more than 100.000 users in the Mediterranean area). Further examples of ocean literacy are web bulletins used to communicate the technical contents and information related to oceanographic forecasts to a wide public. They are the result of a collaboration with high school students, with whom also other activities on improving products visualization and online communication have been performed.

  3. Structural damage detection for in-service highway bridge under operational and environmental variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenhao; Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong; Christenson, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Structural health monitoring has drawn significant attention in the past decades with numerous methodologies and applications for civil structural systems. Although many researchers have developed analytical and experimental damage detection algorithms through vibration-based methods, these methods are not widely accepted for practical structural systems because of their sensitivity to uncertain environmental and operational conditions. The primary environmental factor that influences the structural modal properties is temperature. The goal of this article is to analyze the natural frequency-temperature relationships and detect structural damage in the presence of operational and environmental variations using modal-based method. For this purpose, correlations between natural frequency and temperature are analyzed to select proper independent variables and inputs for the multiple linear regression model and neural network model. In order to capture the changes of natural frequency, confidence intervals to detect the damages for both models are generated. A long-term structural health monitoring system was installed on an in-service highway bridge located in Meriden, Connecticut to obtain vibration and environmental data. Experimental testing results show that the variability of measured natural frequencies due to temperature is captured, and the temperature-induced changes in natural frequencies have been considered prior to the establishment of the threshold in the damage warning system. This novel approach is applicable for structural health monitoring system and helpful to assess the performance of the structure for bridge management and maintenance.

  4. Validation of mixing heights derived from the operational NWP models at the German weather service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, B.; Schrodin, R.; Jacobsen, I. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany); Engelbart, D. [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Meteorol. Observ. Lindenberg (Germany)

    1997-10-01

    NWP models incorporate an ever-increasing number of observations via four-dimensional data assimilation and are capable of providing comprehensive information about the atmosphere both in space and time. They describe not only near surface parameters but also the vertical structure of the atmosphere. They operate daily, are well verified and successfully used as meteorological pre-processors in large-scale dispersion modelling. Applications like ozone forecasts, emission or power plant control calculations require highly resolved, reliable, and routine values of the temporal evolution of the mixing height (MH) which is a critical parameter in determining the mixing and transformation of substances and the resulting pollution levels near the ground. The purpose of development at the German Weather Service is a straightforward mixing height scheme that uses only parameters derived from NWP model variables and thus automatically provides spatial and temporal fields of mixing heights on an operational basis. An universal parameter to describe stability is the Richardson number Ri. Compared to the usual diagnostic or rate equations, the Ri number concept of determining mixing heights has the advantage of using not only surface layer parameters but also regarding the vertical structure of the boundary layer resolved in the NWP models. (au)

  5. Alterations in adaptive immunity persist during long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond P; Mehta, Satish; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is currently unknown whether immune system alterations persist during long-duration spaceflight. In this study various adaptive immune parameters were assessed in astronauts at three intervals during 6-month spaceflight on board the International Space Station (ISS). AIMS: To assess phenotypic and functional immune system alterations in astronauts participating in 6-month orbital spaceflight. Methods: Blood was collected before, during, and after flight from 23 astronauts participating in 6-month ISS expeditions. In-flight samples were returned to Earth within 48 h of collection for immediate analysis. Assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution, T-cell function, virus-specific immunity, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine production profiles. Results: Redistribution of leukocyte subsets occurred during flight, including an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and alterations in CD8+ T-cell maturation. A reduction in general T-cell function (both CD4+ and CD8+) persisted for the duration of the 6-month spaceflights, with differential responses between mitogens suggesting an activation threshold shift. The percentage of CD4+ T cells capable of producing IL-2 was depressed after landing. Significant reductions in mitogen-stimulated production of IFNγ, IL-10, IL-5, TNFα, and IL-6 persisted during spaceflight. Following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, production of IL-10 was reduced, whereas IL-8 production was increased during flight. Conclusions: The data indicated that immune alterations persist during long-duration spaceflight. This phenomenon, in the absence of appropriate countermeasures, has the potential to increase specific clinical risks for crewmembers during exploration-class deep space missions. PMID:28725716

  6. Advanced Strategic and Tactical Relay Request Management for the Mars Relay Operations Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Wallick, Michael N.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wang, Paul; Hy, Franklin H.

    2013-01-01

    This software provides a new set of capabilities for the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) in support of Strategic and Tactical relay, including a highly interactive relay request Web user interface, mission control over relay planning time periods, and mission management of allowed strategic vs. tactical request parameters. Together, these new capabilities expand the scope of the system to include all elements critical for Tactical relay operations. Planning of replay activities spans a time period that is split into two distinct phases. The first phase is called Strategic, which begins at the time that relay opportunities are identified, and concludes at the point that the orbiter generates the flight sequences for on board execution. Any relay request changes from this point on are called Tactical. Tactical requests, otherwise called Orbit - er Relay State Changes (ORSC), are highly restricted in terms of what types of changes can be made, and the types of parameters that can be changed may differ from one orbiter to the next. For example, one orbiter may be able to delay the start of a relay request, while another may not. The legacy approach to ORSC management involves exchanges of e-mail with "requests for change" and "acknowledgement of approval," with no other tracking of changes outside of e-mail folders. MaROS Phases 1 and 2 provided the infrastructure for strategic relay for all supported missions. This new version, 3.0, introduces several capabilities that fully expand the scope of the system to include tactical relay. One new feature allows orbiter users to manage and "lock" Planning Periods, which allows the orbiter team to formalize the changeover from Strategic to Tactical operations. Another major feature allows users to interactively submit tactical request changes via a Web user interface. A third new feature allows orbiter missions to specify allowed tactical updates, which are automatically incorporated into the tactical change process

  7. Structural Design Requirements and Factors of Safety for Spaceflight Hardware: For Human Spaceflight. Revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Karen S.; Kujala, Rod; Fogt, Vince; Romine, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the structural requirements for human-rated spaceflight hardware including launch vehicles, spacecraft and payloads. These requirements are applicable to Government Furnished Equipment activities as well as all related contractor, subcontractor and commercial efforts. These requirements are not imposed on systems other than human-rated spacecraft, such as ground test articles, but may be tailored for use in specific cases where it is prudent to do so such as for personnel safety or when assets are at risk. The requirements in this document are focused on design rather than verification. Implementation of the requirements is expected to be described in a Structural Verification Plan (SVP), which should describe the verification of each structural item for the applicable requirements. The SVP may also document unique verifications that meet or exceed these requirements with NASA Technical Authority approval.

  8. Apollo-Soyuz test project. Operations handbook command/service/docking modules (CSM 119/DM 1): Operational procedures reference issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Operational and configuration checks for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project are presented. The checks include: backup crew prelaunch, prime crew prelaunch, boost and insertion, G and C reference data, G and N reference modes, rendezvous, navigation, Apollo-Soyuz operations, abort procedures, and emergency procedures.

  9. Optimation of Operation System Integration between Main and Feeder Public Transport (Case Study: Trans Jakarta-Kopaja Bus Services)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miharja, M.; Priadi, Y. N.

    2018-05-01

    Promoting a better public transport is a key strategy to cope with urban transport problems which are mostly caused by a huge private vehicle usage. A better public transport service quality not only focuses on one type of public transport mode, but also concerns on inter modes service integration. Fragmented inter mode public transport service leads to a longer trip chain as well as average travel time which would result in its failure to compete with a private vehicle. This paper examines the optimation process of operation system integration between Trans Jakarta Bus as the main public transport mode and Kopaja Bus as feeder public transport service in Jakarta. Using scoring-interview method combined with standard parameters in operation system integration, this paper identifies the key factors that determine the success of the two public transport operation system integrations. The study found that some key integration parameters, such as the cancellation of “system setoran”, passenger get in-get out at official stop points, and systematic payment, positively contribute to a better service integration. However, some parameters such as fine system, time and changing point reliability, and information system reliability are among those which need improvement. These findings are very useful for the authority to set the right strategy to improve operation system integration between Trans Jakarta and Kopaja Bus services.

  10. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    IntroductionSalutogenesis and posttraumatic growth represent personal growth and improved functioning as a result of experiencing major challenging events. These developments are not simply resilience (a return to a baseline level of well-being), but positive change in such characteristics as self-understanding, relations with others, personal values, and life goals. Space agencies and space psychologists, primarily concerned with deleterious effects and their countermeasures, have not paid much attention to such beneficial long-term aftereffects of spaceflight. PurposeTo document what changes veterans of the Soviet/Russian space program report as a consequence of their experiences. MethodTwenty retired male cosmonauts Mir and/or ISS cosmonauts filled out relevant self-report questionnaires. Results: Although there was little change in the relative rankings of a list of values, the scale showed an overall increase in the rated importance of all personal values, although only the increase in Self-Direction reached statistical significance. Responses to one of two post-space growth questionnaires based on the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were compared to the means of two comparison groups: 152 first-time mothers, and 926 respondents who had experienced various forms of trauma. The cosmonauts reported higher scores on the dimension of New Possibilities when compared to the new mothers and the traumatized group, and higher scores on Personal Strength and Overall PTG compared to the latter. Respondents who had spent more than a year in space, and those who flew on both Mir and ISS, were the most likely to report positive change in the domain Appreciation of Life. The other post-space career questionnaire reflected major changes in Perceptions of the Earth and of Space, and increases on a number of other dimensions, including New Possibilities and Changes in Daily Life, with positive scores that significantly exceeded the original report. DiscussionIt appears

  11. Launch Pad Escape System Design (Human Spaceflight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    A launch pad escape system for human spaceflight is one of those things that everyone hopes they will never need but is critical for every manned space program. Since men were first put into space in the early 1960s, the need for such an Emergency Escape System (EES) has become apparent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has made use of various types of these EESs over the past 50 years. Early programs, like Mercury and Gemini, did not have an official launch pad escape system. Rather, they relied on a Launch Escape System (LES) of a separate solid rocket motor attached to the manned capsule that could pull the astronauts to safety in the event of an emergency. This could only occur after hatch closure at the launch pad or during the first stage of flight. A version of a LES, now called a Launch Abort System (LAS) is still used today for all manned capsule type launch vehicles. However, this system is very limited in that it can only be used after hatch closure and it is for flight crew only. In addition, the forces necessary for the LES/LAS to get the capsule away from a rocket during the first stage of flight are quite high and can cause injury to the crew. These shortcomings led to the development of a ground based EES for the flight crew and ground support personnel as well. This way, a much less dangerous mode of egress is available for any flight or ground personnel up to a few seconds before launch. The early EESs were fairly simple, gravity-powered systems to use when thing's go bad. And things can go bad very quickly and catastrophically when dealing with a flight vehicle fueled with millions of pounds of hazardous propellant. With this in mind, early EES designers saw such a passive/unpowered system as a must for last minute escapes. This and other design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at the safety design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at

  12. Report on the service quality incentive regulations for gas network operators and ERDF. 2009-2010 Report Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-11-01

    The latest natural gas transmission network tariffs, called 'ATRT4', and the tariffs for natural gas distribution network, 'ATRD3', as well as the 3. tariffs for using the public electricity networks, 'TURPE 3', constitute a regulatory framework offering incentives to gas transmission and distribution operators, as well as the electricity distributor ERDF, to control their costs and improve the quality of service provided for network users. For gas and electricity distribution system operators (DSO), the incentive-based regulation for quality of service implemented through the tariffs is complementary to the supervision powers of the licensing authorities. It operates by means of concession contracts which imply that the concessionaire has to deliver activity reports and that the licensing authorities have to publish monitoring reports of the concessionaire's activity. The licensing authorities act on the local level, whereas the incentive regulation is of national scope. The actions of the licensing authorities and of the Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE) contribute together to assess and enhance the quality of service of the DSO. As the service quality monitoring exercises are conducted successively, the analysis will become more refined as a greater data history is acquired. The quality of service from the gas network operators (GrDF, GRTgaz and TIGF) and the electricity distributor (ERDF) has been improving gradually over the period of the monitoring, or has stabilised at a satisfactory level for the areas that are most important for the correct functioning of the market. Some objectives set by the tariffs have been met or even exceeded, which earns financial bonuses for the operators in question. This second service quality monitoring report on the gas network operators and ERDF is going to be used by the CRE, in consultation with all the market players, to refine the incentive mechanisms already in place. Contents: 1

  13. Operational Stress Control and Readiness (OSCAR): The United States Marine Corps Initiative to Deliver Mental Health Services to Operating Forces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nash, William P

    2006-01-01

    .... The role of military mental health professionals in combat/operational stress control is to adapt scientific tools for prevention, identification, and treatment for use by military leaders at all levels...

  14. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Galway - Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Foley, Geraldine

    2012-02-01

    Abstract Service providers and service users often have different perspectives on health and social care services. We have undertaken a systematic review of empirical data between 1988 and March 2011 relating to ALS service users\\' perspectives on health and social care services. Forty-seven texts were extracted and a narrative synthesis conducted. Few studies have explored ALS patients\\' experiences in relation to their satisfaction with services. Our review showed that ALS patients expect dignified care but they are often dissatisfied with health care services and have unmet expectations of their care. Most studies of decision-making and preferences for care have focused on end-of-life intervention. Various factors influence preferences for care from the service user perspective and people with ALS may adjust their use of services as they negotiate change. In conclusion, further research on the timeliness of services to meet changing needs of service users is required. The service user experience of allied health care services prior to end-of-life care also warrants investigation. Service providers need to support people with ALS as they negotiate feelings of acceptance and independence. Research to identify the key parameters of the ALS patient experience of services is required.

  15. ECOSPACE : a pre-operational satellite system and services for ocean colour monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, André; Cerutti-Maori, Guy; Morel, Michel

    2017-11-01

    A permanent monitoring of the oceanic algal biomass (phytoplankton), of its photosynthetic activity, ecological and biogeochemical impact, or of its long-term response to changing physical and climatic conditions, is a crucial goal of scientific programmes (such as JGOFS, GLOBEC, LOICZ), as well as of international observing systems (such as GOOS, GCOS, IGOS). After a decade without ocean colour satellite-borne sensor, several instruments have been, or will be launched. They are increasingly sophisticated in their design and operation. Their complexity results from constraints for multipurpose mission (involving not only ocean, but also land and atmosphere), or from requirements for exploratory research projects and development of new methodologies for improved ocean colour interpretation and "advanced" products. In contrast, the proposed specific ECOSPACE mission is an ocean colour dedicated instrument, with a global monitoring vocation. It relies on known algorithms for accurate atmospheric corrections and aerosol load estimate over open ocean (about 96% of the whole ocean), and known algorithms for a meaningful quantification of the oceanic algal biomass (in terms of Chlorophyll concentration). The coastal zones are observed as well, and their particular features delineated : however, detailed studies that imply high ground resolution and more spectral channels are out of the scope of the present proposal. The ECOSPACE mission represents a feasibility demonstration ; more precisely it is a first step toward the setting up of an operational Satellite System and Services for a future continuous supply of stable, compatible, easy-to-merge ocean colour date products. In essence, such a Service would be similar to those already existing for meteorology and for some oceanic variables (e.g. sea level). Although new approaches to management and implementation over a short time scale are needed, the ECOSPACE project relies essentially on existing scientific and

  16. Cardiovascular Aspects of Space Shuttle Flights: At the Heart of Three Decades of American Spaceflight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Platts, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of the Space Shuttle era elevated cardiovascular deconditioning from a research topic in gravitational physiology to a concern with operational consequences during critical space mission phases. NASA has identified three primary cardiovascular risks associate with short-duration (less than 18 d) spaceflight: orthostatic intolerance; decreased maximal oxygen uptake; and cardiac arrhythmias. Orthostatic hypotension (OH) was observed postflight in Mercury astronauts, studied in Gemini and Apollo astronauts, and tracked as it developed in-flight during Skylab missions. A putative hypotensive episode in the pilot during an early shuttle landing, and well documented postflight hypotension in a quarter of crewmembers, catalyzed NASA's research effort to understand its mechanisms and develop countermeasures. Shuttle investigations documented the onset of OH, tested mechanistic hypotheses, and demonstrated countermeasures both simple and complex. Similarly, decreased aerobic capacity in-flight threatened both extravehicular activity and post-landing emergency egress. In one study, peak oxygen uptake and peak power were significantly decreased following flights. Other studies tested hardware and protocols for aerobic conditioning that undergird both current practice on long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions and plans for interplanetary expeditions. Finally, several studies suggest that cardiac arrhythmias are of less concern during short-duration spaceflight than during long-duration spaceflight. Duration of the QT interval was unchanged and the frequency of premature atrial and ventricular contractions was actually shown to decrease during extravehicular activity. These investigations on short-duration Shuttle flights have paved the way for research aboard long-duration ISS missions and beyond. Efforts are already underway to study the effects of exploration class missions to asteroids and Mars.

  17. Rapid Electrochemical Detection and Identification of Microbiological and Chemical Contaminants for Manned Spaceflight Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane; Botkin, Douglas; Gazda, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Microbial control in the spacecraft environment is a daunting task, especially in the presence of human crew members. Currently, assessing the potential crew health risk associated with a microbial contamination event requires return of representative environmental samples that are analyzed in a ground-based laboratory. It is therefore not currently possible to quickly identify microbes during spaceflight. This project addresses the unmet need for spaceflight-compatible microbial identification technology. The electrochemical detection and identification platform is expected to provide a sensitive, specific, and rapid sample-to-answer capability for in-flight microbial monitoring that can distinguish between related microorganisms (pathogens and non-pathogens) as well as chemical contaminants. This will dramatically enhance our ability to monitor the spacecraft environment and the health risk to the crew. Further, the project is expected to eliminate the need for sample return while significantly reducing crew time required for detection of multiple targets. Initial work will focus on the optimization of bacterial detection and identification. The platform is designed to release nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) from microorganisms without the use of harmful chemicals. Bacterial DNA or RNA is captured by bacteria-specific probe molecules that are bound to a microelectrode, and that capture event can generate a small change in the electrical current (Lam, et al. 2012. Anal. Chem. 84(1): 21-5.). This current is measured, and a determination is made whether a given microbe is present in the sample analyzed. Chemical detection can be accomplished by directly applying a sample to the microelectrode and measuring the resulting current change. This rapid microbial and chemical detection device is designed to be a low-cost, low-power platform anticipated to be operated independently of an external power source, characteristics optimal for manned spaceflight and areas where power

  18. Development of the DL/H-1 full pressure suit for private spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Pablo de; Harris, Gary L.

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to detail the need for full pressure suits to protect spaceflight participants during the experimental phases of flight testing of new space vehicles. It also details the objectives, historical background, basis for design, problems encountered by the designers and final development of the DL/H-1 full pressure suit. It will include justification for its use and results of the initial tests in the high altitude chamber and spacecraft simulator at the J.D. Odegard School of Aerospace Sciences at the University of North Dakota. For the test flights of early commercial space vehicles and tourist suborbital spacecrafts, emergency protection from the rarified air of the upper atmosphere and the vacuum of low Earth orbit almost certainly will be a requirement. Suborbital vehicles could be operating in "space equivalent conditions" for as long as 30 min to as much as several hours. In the case of cabin pressure loss, without personal protection, catastrophic loss of crew and vehicle could result. This paper explains the different steps taken by the authors who designed and built a preflight hardware pressure suit that can meet the physiological and comfort requirements of the tourist suborbital industry and the early commercial private spaceflight community. The suborbital tourist and commercial spaceflight industry have unique problems confronting the pressure suit builder such as unpressurized comfort, reasonable expense, unique sizing of the general population, decompression complications of persons not fitting a past military physiology profile and equipment weight issues. In addition, the lack of a certifying agency or guidance from international or national aviation authorities has created the opportunity for the emerging civilian pressure suit industry to create a new safety standard by which it can regulate itself in the same way the recreational SCUBA diving industry has since the late 1950s.

  19. Operation evaluation of Venezuelan radiological service; Evaluacion del funcionamiento de un servicio de radiologia de un hospital venezolano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padron, A.; Sanchez, A.; Martinez, V.; D' Alessandro, A.

    2006-07-01

    This work's intention is to evaluate the Radiology Service operation of Venezuelan hospital based on the Venezuelan Norms for the ionizing radiations use in medical diagnostic. The investigation's results show a violation of these norms. Therefore we propose some recommendations (about the personal and area dosimetry, medical equipment maintenance and calibration and the elaboration of procedures manuals) to be considered by the Institution to optimizing the Service's activities. (Author)

  20. Roles of the operator and the safety services in nuclear power plant quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, M.; Perrot, J.

    1985-01-01

    With regard to the operation of nuclear power plants, Electricite de France formally recognized in 1973 that it was necessary for safety reasons and economically acceptable to adopt organizational principles of quality assurance that would be applicable both to its own activities and to those of its suppliers. Generally speaking, the form and spirit of the quality assurance programme chosen is based largely on the Code of Practice No. 50-C-QA. In particular, the programme focuses on the flexible character of quality assurance requirements and stresses that in the final analysis product quality depends above all on those to whom the project has been assigned, because it is they who are responsible for meeting the quality objectives set. Ten years of experience with the suppliers of Electricite de France has shown that these suppliers, after some initial difficulty, have been able to adapt the application of quality assurance so as to achieve satisfactory quality as regards both safety and availability. In the case of the French standard nuclear power plants, quality assurance is particularly important thanks to the traceability which it affords and to the allowance for corrective measures which it demands. The safety services normally take action related to quality assurance in three ways: through regulation, the analysis of measures to assure plant safety, and plant supervision. As regards regulation, an order has just been published relating to design, construction and operational quality in base-load nuclear power plants. The requirements laid down in this document incorporate the recommendations of the IAEA Code on quality assurance. (author)

  1. Operational, quality, and risk management in the transfusion service: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnough, Lawrence Tim

    2012-07-01

    For general health care, the difference between quality and safety has been unclear for measurable patient outcomes. In contrast, in the transfusion service (TS), the relationship between quality and safety has been direct and demonstrable. Case studies are summarized to illustrate the relationship between operations, quality management, and risk management in the TS. In blood availability for elective surgery over 3 audited intervals, the incidence of patients undergoing elective surgery without available crossmatched blood that had been requested was 1:333, 1:328, and 1:225 for pre-quality improvement, post-quality improvement, and subsequent postintervention audit assessment, respectively. In event discovery reports (EDRs) over 2 years, incidence of biologic product deviation reports (Food and Drug Administration reportable) was successfully reduced from 60 biologic product deviation reports (12%) of 507 EDRs in 2009 to 42 (12%) of 336 EDRs in 2010. In wrong blood in tube, 102 specimens were identified (by a change in patient's ABO/Rh) from 176,711 type and screen/cross-match specimens received over a 5-year interval, detected either by previous patient record of ABO/Rh or by a second specimen for blood type confirmation implemented in our TS for the last 3 years. No known cases of "mismatched" red blood cell transfusion have occurred during this interval. There is an inverse relationship between resources/time expended on quality and risk management relative to volumes of operations in the TS. Laboratory-based initiatives that improve patient safety and clinical outcomes need to have resources aligned with the personnel and time required for quality management and risk management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Commercial Human Spaceflight: Self-Regulation is the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgobba, Tommaso

    2013-09-01

    In 2004, the US private spaceflight industry welcomed a law (i.e. the Commercial Space Launch Amendment Act (CSLAA)) postponing until December 23, 2012 or until an accident occurs, the ability by the FAA to issue safety standards and regulations except for aspects of public safety. The Congress later extended the original deadline nearly three years to October 1, 2015.It goes without saying that while government regulations are postponed a commercial spaceflight company has in any case all interest to build a safe vehicles according to the state-of-art. No doubt that their engineers will routinely apply well established technical standards for developing or procuring subsystems and equipment, like pressurized tanks, batteries or pyro valves. They will also at certain points take decisions about redundancy levels when defining, for example, the on-board computers architecture, or the landing system. There will be trade-offs to be made considering cost and mass constraints and acceptable risk thresholds defined. Some key safety decisions will be taken at technical level, other will be necessarily deferred to the company management due to potential impact on the overall project cost and schedule.Therefore the on-going debate is not truly about making or not a commercial space system safe (for those on-board), but about who should bear, at this initial stage of industry development, responsibility to ensure that best practices are known and consistently applied. Responsibility which traditionally belongs to government agencies but that the CSLAA "de facto" delegates to each manufacturer.This paper tries to demonstrate that the traditional model of government establishing detailed safety regulations and certifying compliance is no longer valid for the development of highly advanced systems, and that the current trend is instead for relevant industrial community as a whole to take the lead in developing detailed safety standards and policies and verifying their

  3. Computer Aided Reference Services in the Academic Library: Experiences in Organizing and Operating an Online Reference Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Ryan E.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes the development of the Computer-Aided Reference Services (CARS) division of the University of Utah Libraries' reference department. Development, organizational structure, site selection, equipment, management, staffing and training considerations, promotion and marketing, budget and pricing, record keeping, statistics, and evaluation…

  4. Agent-based self-service technology adoption model for air-travelers: Exploring best operational practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keiichi; Kurahashi, Setsuya

    2018-02-01

    The continuous development of the service economy and an aging society with fewer children is expected to lead to a shortage of workers in the near future. In addition, the growth of the service economy would require service providers to meet various service requirements. In this regard, self-service technology (SST) is a promising alternative to securing labor in both developed and emerging countries. SST is expected to coordinate the controllable productive properties in order to optimize resources and minimize consumer stress. As services are characterized by simultaneity and inseparability, a smoother operation in cooperation with the consumer is required to provide a certain level of service. This study focuses on passenger handling in an airport departure lobby with the objective of optimizing multiple service resources comprising interpersonal service staff and self-service kiosks. Our aim is to elucidate the passenger decision- making mechanism of choosing either interpersonal service or self-service as the check-in option, and to apply it to analyze several scenarios to determine the best practice. The experimental space is studied and an agent-based model is proposed to analyze the operational efficiency via a simulation. We expand on a previous SST adoption model, which is enhanced by introducing the concept of individual traits. We focus on the decision-making of individuals who are neutral toward the service option, by tracking the actual activity of passengers and mapping their behavior into the model. A new method of validation that follows a different approach is proposed to ensure that this model approximates real-world situations. A scenario analysis is then carried out with the aim of exploring the best operational practice to minimize the stress experienced by the air travelers and to meet the business needs of the airline managers at the airport. We collected actual data from the Departure Control System of an airline to map the real-world data

  5. Agent-Based Self-Service Technology Adoption Model for Air-Travelers: Exploring Best Operational Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Ueda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The continuous development of the service economy and an aging society with fewer children is expected to lead to a shortage of workers in the near future. In addition, the growth of the service economy would require service providers to meet various service requirements. In this regard, self-service technology (SST is a promising alternative to securing labor in both developed and emerging countries. SST is expected to coordinate the controllable productive properties in order to optimize resources and minimize consumer stress. As services are characterized by simultaneity and inseparability, a smoother operation in cooperation with the consumer is required to provide a certain level of service. This study focuses on passenger handling in an airport departure lobby with the objective of optimizing multiple service resources comprising interpersonal service staff and self-service kiosks. Our aim is to elucidate the passenger decision-making mechanism of choosing either interpersonal service or self-service as the check-in option, and to apply it to analyze several scenarios to determine the best practice. The experimental space is studied and an agent-based model is proposed to analyze the operational efficiency via a simulation. We expand on a previous SST adoption model, which is enhanced by introducing the concept of individual traits. We focus on the decision-making of individuals who are neutral toward the service option, by tracking the actual activity of passengers and mapping their behavior into the model. A new method of validation that follows a different approach is proposed to ensure that this model approximates real-world situations. A scenario analysis is then carried out with the aim of exploring the best operational practice to minimize the stress experienced by the air travelers and to meet the business needs of the airline managers at the airport. We collected actual data from the Departure Control System of an airline to map

  6. Camera aboard 'Friendship 7' photographs John Glenn during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    A camera aboard the 'Friendship 7' Mercury spacecraft photographs Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. during the Mercury-Atlas 6 spaceflight (00302-3); Photographs Glenn as he uses a photometer to view the sun during sunsent on the MA-6 space flight (00304).

  7. Psychosocial and Psychophysiological Strain in Extended Spaceflight Simulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šolcová, Iva

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2004), s. 179-186 ISSN 0039-3320 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/03/1168 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : spaceflight simulation * enforced confinement * psychosocial burden Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.274, year: 2004

  8. Human Spaceflight: Activities for the Intermediate and Junior High Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartsfield, John W.; Hartsfield, Kendra J.

    Since its beginning, space science has created high interest and continues to prod the imagination of students. This activity packet, which has been designed to enhance the curriculum and challenge gifted students, contains background information on spaceflight as well as 24 interdisciplinary classroom activities, 3 crossword puzzles, and 3 word…

  9. Operation of a soil vapor extraction and air sparging system at a former gasoline service station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromicko, G.J.; Klingensmith, R.C.; Simpson, D.K.

    1995-01-01

    Closure activities for three underground storage tanks (USTs) were conducted at Quaker State Corporation's (QSC) former service station in Conneaut, Pennsylvania as part of a property transfer during July, 1991. The facility, formerly owned by QSC, was operated from construction (early 1960's) through the sale of the property (early 1980's). Subsequent to sale of the facility, the property has been resold and the building reconfigured several times. The facility is located on a comer lot located along state highway Route 322 in the business district of Conneaut Lake as shown in Figure 1. Across the highway to the north, is Conneaut lake. The site is bordered by a residential property to the south and commercial properties on the east and west. A Pennsylvania State Game Commission Game Lands, is located approximately 150 feet southeast of the property Quaker State again became involved with the property in 1991 when the cur-rent owner attempted to sell the property and the lender for the prospective purchaser identified the presence of USTs. Subsequent to the confirmation of the USTS, UST closure activities were initiated. Subsurface investigations were conducted to delineate the extent of potential petroleum impacts and corrective actions were initiated which are on-going today

  10. Microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, E; Jacxsens, L; Daelman, J; Van Landeghem, F; Uyttendaele, M

    2012-04-01

    The microbiological performance of a food safety management system in a food service operation was measured using a microbiological assessment scheme as a vertical sampling plan throughout the production process, from raw materials to final product. The assessment scheme can give insight into the microbiological contamination and the variability of a production process and pinpoint bottlenecks in the food safety management system. Three production processes were evaluated: a high-risk sandwich production process (involving raw meat preparation), a medium-risk hot meal production process (starting from undercooked raw materials), and a low-risk hot meal production process (reheating in a bag). Microbial quality parameters, hygiene indicators, and relevant pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli O157) were in accordance with legal criteria and/or microbiological guidelines, suggesting that the food safety management system was effective. High levels of total aerobic bacteria (>3.9 log CFU/50 cm(2)) were noted occasionally on gloves of food handlers and on food contact surfaces, especially in high contamination areas (e.g., during handling of raw material, preparation room). Core control activities such as hand hygiene of personnel and cleaning and disinfection (especially in highly contaminated areas) were considered points of attention. The present sampling plan was used to produce an overall microbiological profile (snapshot) to validate the food safety management system in place.

  11. Proposal for the award of an industrial services contract for computer centre operations

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This document concerns the award of an Industrial Services contract for Computer Centre operations. Following a market survey carried out among 40 firms in eleven Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2871/IT) was sent on 9 March 2001 to nine firms and one consortium consisting of two firms in six Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received three tenders from two firms and one consortium in three Member States. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium DCS (CH) - INTRASOFT (GR), the lowest bidder, for an initial period of three years from 1 October 2001 for a total amount of 2 196 588 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 30 September 2002. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period. The consortium has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CH-55% ; GR-45%.

  12. Co-operation of medical and chemical services to provide radiation safety in special zone during Chernobyl' accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperation of medical and chemical services of the operation group in the special zone during intensive decontamination of the site and neighboring herritories at the Chernobyl NPP are considered. Responsibilities of medical and chemical services, their relations with civie and millitary organizations within the ChNPP region and 30-km zone are reviewed. Cooperation of the services mentioned above consisted in information exchange aimed at overall comprehension of the situation, cooperative activities in the commision and at elaboration of recommendations with an account of radiation safety measures

  13. Machine Learning Approaches to Increasing Value of Spaceflight Omics Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Diana

    2017-01-01

    The number of spaceflight bioscience mission opportunities is too small to allow all relevant biological and environmental parameters to be experimentally identified. Simulated spaceflight experiments in ground-based facilities (GBFs), such as clinostats, are each suitable only for particular investigations -- a rotating-wall vessel may be 'simulated microgravity' for cell differentiation (hours), but not DNA repair (seconds) -- and introduce confounding stimuli, such as motor vibration and fluid shear effects. This uncertainty over which biological mechanisms respond to a given form of simulated space radiation or gravity, as well as its side effects, limits our ability to baseline spaceflight data and validate mission science. Machine learning techniques autonomously identify relevant and interdependent factors in a data set given the set of desired metrics to be evaluated: to automatically identify related studies, compare data from related studies, or determine linkages between types of data in the same study. System-of-systems (SoS) machine learning models have the ability to deal with both sparse and heterogeneous data, such as that provided by the small and diverse number of space biosciences flight missions; however, they require appropriate user-defined metrics for any given data set. Although machine learning in bioinformatics is rapidly expanding, the need to combine spaceflight/GBF mission parameters with omics data is unique. This work characterizes the basic requirements for implementing the SoS approach through the System Map (SM) technique, a composite of a dynamic Bayesian network and Gaussian mixture model, in real-world repositories such as the GeneLab Data System and Life Sciences Data Archive. The three primary steps are metadata management for experimental description using open-source ontologies, defining similarity and consistency metrics, and generating testing and validation data sets. Such approaches to spaceflight and GBF omics data may

  14. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  15. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available an ideal stimulus to support the development of local enterprises, all within the municipal service delivery environment. Franchisee water service providers, dependent for their livelihood on the success of their business, would have a strong incentive...

  16. Beyond the Experience. In search of an operative paradigm for the industrialisation of services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    After many years, in which service design occupied some blurred areas in different disciplines, this activity is now creating its own ground and consolidating both practice and research. The increasing number of conferences and publications on service design, the growing number of cases...... and the emergence of new education programs are contributing to raise service design to the status of an independent disciplinary area. The contributions to the definition of a disciplinary corpus for service design come from two main directions: the first concerns the definition of a methodological framework...... for service design. This area is developing methodological tools for analysing, designing and representing services. The second area focuses on real cases, developing projects that are advancing the practice of service design and making service design visible to private business and public administrations...

  17. Spaceflight and ageing: reflecting on Caenorhabditis elegans in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Yoko; Honda, Shuji; Narici, Marco; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of space travel continues to capture the imagination. Several competing companies are now promising flights for the general population. Previously, it was recognized that many of the physiological changes that occur with spaceflight are similar to those seen with normal ageing. This led to the notion that spaceflight can be used as a model of accelerated ageing and raised concerns about the safety of individuals engaging in space travel. Paradoxically, however, space travel has been recently shown to be beneficial to some aspects of muscle health in the tiny worm Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans is a commonly used laboratory animal for studying ageing. C. elegans displays age-related decline of some biological processes observed in ageing humans, and about 35% of C. elegans' genes have human homologs. Space flown worms were found to have decreased expression of a number of genes that increase lifespan when expressed at lower levels. These changes were accompanied by decreased accumulation of toxic protein aggregates in ageing worms' muscles. Thus, in addition to spaceflight producing physiological changes that are similar to accelerated ageing, it also appears to produce some changes similar to delayed ageing. Here, we put forward the hypothesis that in addition to the previously well-appreciated mechanotransduction changes, neural and endocrine signals are altered in response to spaceflight and that these may have both negative (e.g. less muscle protein) and some positive consequences (e.g. healthier muscles), at least for invertebrates, with respect to health in space. Given that changes in circulating hormones are well documented with age and in astronauts, our view is that further research into the relationship between metabolic control, ageing, and adaptation to the environment should be productive in advancing our understanding of the physiology of both spaceflight and ageing.

  18. Clinical Herpes Zoster in Antarctica as a Model for Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David P; Brinley, Alaina A; Blue, Rebecca S; Gruschkus, Stephen K; Allen, Andrew T; Parazynski, Scott E

    2017-08-01

    Antarctica is a useful analog for spaceflight, as both environments are remote, isolated, and with limited resources. While previous studies have demonstrated increased asymptomatic viral shedding in both the Antarctic and spaceflight environments, clinical manifestations of reactivated viral disease have been less frequently identified. We sought to identify the incidence of clinical herpes zoster from viral reactivation in the Antarctic winter-over population. Medical records from the 2014 winter season were reviewed for the incidence of zoster in U.S. Antarctic personnel and then compared to the age-matched U.S. Five cases of clinical herpes zoster occurred in the Antarctic Station population of 204 persons, for an incidence of 33.3 per 1000 person-years vs. 3.2 per 1000 person-years in the general population. Four cases were in persons under age 40, yielding an incidence of 106.7 per 1000 person-years in persons ages 30-39 compared to an incidence of 2.0 per 1000 person-years in the same U.S. age group. Immune suppression due to the stressful Antarctic environment may have contributed to the increased incidence of herpes zoster in U.S. Antarctic personnel during the winter of 2014. Working and living in isolated, confined, and extreme environments can cause immune suppression, reactivating latent viruses and increasing viral shedding and symptomatic disease. Such changes have been observed in other austere environments, including spaceflight, suggesting that clinical manifestations of viral reactivation may be seen in future spaceflight.Reyes DP, Brinley AA, Blue RS, Gruschkus SK, Allen AT, Parazynski SE. Clinical herpes zoster in Antarctica as a model for spaceflight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):784-788.

  19. Effects and Responses to Spaceflight in the Mouse Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanello, Susana B.; Theriot, Corey; Westby, Christian; Boyle, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Several stress environmental factors are combined in a unique fashion during spaceflight, affecting living beings widely across their physiological systems. Recently, attention has been placed on vision changes in astronauts returning from long duration missions. Alterations include hyperoptic shift, globe flattening, choroidal folds and optic disc edema, which are probably associated with increased intracranial pressure. These observations justify a better characterization of the ocular health risks associated with spaceflight. This study investigates the impact of spaceflight on the biology of the mouse retina. Within a successful tissue sharing effort, eyes from albino Balb/cJ mice aboard STS-133 were collected for histological analysis and gene expression profiling of the retina at 1 and 7 days after landing. Both vivarium and AEM (Animal Enclosure Module) mice were used as ground controls. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage was higher in the flight samples compared to controls on R+1, and decreased on R+7. A trend toward higher oxidative and cellular stress response gene expression was also observed on R+1 compared to AEM controls, and these levels decreased on R+7. Several genes coding for key antioxidant enzymes, namely, heme-oxygenase-1, peroxiredoxin, and catalase, were among those upregulated after flight. Likewise, NF B and TGFbeta1, were upregulated in one flight specimen that overall showed the most elevated oxidative stress markers on R+1. In addition, retinas from vivarium control mice evidenced higher oxidative stress markers, NF B and TGFbeta1, likely due to the more intense illumination in vivarium cages versus the AEM. These preliminary data suggest that spaceflight represents a source of environmental stress that translates into oxidative and cellular stress in the retina, which is partially reversible upon return to Earth. Further work is needed to dissect the contribution of the various spaceflight factors (microgravity, radiation) and to

  20. Spaceflight-induced synaptic modifications within hair cells of the mammalian utricle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultemeier, David R; Choy, Kristel R; Schweizer, Felix E; Hoffman, Larry F

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight alleviates the load normally imposed by the Earth's gravitational field on the inner ear utricular epithelia. Previous ultrastructural investigations have shown that spaceflight induces an increase in synapse density within hair cells of the rat utricle. However, the utricle exhibits broad physiological heterogeneity across different epithelial regions, and it is unknown whether capabilities for synaptic plasticity generalize to hair cells across its topography. To achieve systematic and broader sampling of the epithelium than was previously conducted, we used immunohistochemistry and volumetric image analyses to quantify synapse distributions across representative utricular regions in specimens from mice exposed to spaceflight (a 15-day mission of the space shuttle Discovery). These measures were compared with similarly sampled Earth-bound controls. Following paraformaldehyde fixation and microdissection, immunohistochemistry was performed on intact specimens to label presynaptic ribbons (anti-CtBP2) and postsynaptic receptor complexes (anti-Shank1A). Synapses were identified as closely apposed pre- and postsynaptic puncta. Epithelia from horizontal semicircular canal cristae served as "within-specimen" controls, whereas utricles and cristae from Earth-bound cohorts served as experimental controls. We found that synapse densities decreased in the medial extrastriolae of microgravity specimens compared with experimental controls, whereas they were unchanged in the striolae and horizontal cristae from the two conditions. These data demonstrate that structural plasticity was topographically localized to the utricular region that encodes very low frequency and static changes in linear acceleration, and illuminates the remarkable capabilities of utricular hair cells for synaptic plasticity in adapting to novel gravitational environments. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Spaceflight imposes a radically different sensory environment

  1. The impact of minimum pay implementation on small businesses operating cost and sustainability: A case of service business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanim Rusly Fariza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of minimum wage requirement in Malaysia beginning mid 2016 seems to impact both employees and employers in different ways. While this implementation could increase household income and claimed to boost employees’ productivity, employers or business operators, on the other hand are experiencing stringent effect on their business operating cost. The effect is more significant for small business operators, including the childcare centers. Childcare industry operates in the service sector, which represents the main contributor of Malaysian SMEs. Unfortunately for the industry, there is an increasing numbers of childcare centers have to cease their operation due to inability to comply with the minimum pay requirement. In the absence of thorough understanding of the phenomena, the small businesses, particularly among institution-based childcare, is at the risk of losing their businesses. This exploratory study intends to assess how the implementation of minimum pay requirement affects the existing operating cost structure, and consequently business sustainability of Malaysian childcare industry.

  2. 42 CFR 1001.1701 - Billing for services of assistant at surgery during cataract operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Billing for services of assistant at surgery during..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES PROGRAM INTEGRITY-MEDICARE AND STATE HEALTH CARE PROGRAMS Permissive Exclusions § 1001.1701 Billing for services of assistant at surgery during cataract...

  3. Quality of the paratransit service (tricycle and its operation in Aba, Nigeria: An analysis of customers' opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obioma R. Nwaogbe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the quality of the paratransit service and its operations in Aba, Abia State, Nigeria, with a view to identifying its challenges and contributions to informal transport and equitable service distribution to the residents of Aba. Structured questionnaires and past literature were used as sources of data. The primary data included road networks, number of trips per day by operators, operating speed, and purpose of travel, passengers' security, tricycle speed, and waiting time. The study was conducted by using two questionnaires: one for the operators and the other for tricycle users. The total number of completed questionnaires for the survey was 100 for operators and 229 for users. The sampling technique used was random sampling from several zones of the study area. Data were analysed using percentage and Chi-square statistical techniques for testing the hypotheses with the Minitab 11.0 version package. The study found that 92% of operators reported a high level of road network deterioration, and 61% reported making 9-12 trips per day. The hypothesis test was used to study people's feelings about the attributes of the service provided for paratransit users, such as affordability, regularity, comfort and safety. It was found that there is no significant difference at the 5% level between the various categories of these respondents.

  4. A Time Scheduling Model of Logistics Service Supply Chain Based on the Customer Order Decoupling Point: A Perspective from the Constant Service Operation Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC. PMID:24715818

  5. A time scheduling model of logistics service supply chain based on the customer order decoupling point: a perspective from the constant service operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weihua; Yang, Yi; Xu, Haitao; Liu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yijia; Liang, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    In mass customization logistics service, reasonable scheduling of the logistics service supply chain (LSSC), especially time scheduling, is benefit to increase its competitiveness. Therefore, the effect of a customer order decoupling point (CODP) on the time scheduling performance should be considered. To minimize the total order operation cost of the LSSC, minimize the difference between the expected and actual time of completing the service orders, and maximize the satisfaction of functional logistics service providers, this study establishes an LSSC time scheduling model based on the CODP. Matlab 7.8 software is used in the numerical analysis for a specific example. Results show that the order completion time of the LSSC can be delayed or be ahead of schedule but cannot be infinitely advanced or infinitely delayed. Obtaining the optimal comprehensive performance can be effective if the expected order completion time is appropriately delayed. The increase in supply chain comprehensive performance caused by the increase in the relationship coefficient of logistics service integrator (LSI) is limited. The relative concern degree of LSI on cost and service delivery punctuality leads to not only changes in CODP but also to those in the scheduling performance of the LSSC.

  6. Rodent Habitat On ISS: Spaceflight Effects On Mouse Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Padmanabhan, S.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011), Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, emphasized the importance of expanding NASA life sciences research to long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The first flight experiment carrying mice, Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1), was launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4, exposing the mice to a total of 37 days in space. Ground control groups were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Mouse health and behavior were monitored for the duration of the experiment via video streaming. Here we present behavioral analysis of two groups of five C57BL/6 female adult mice viewed via fixed camera views compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight (Flt) and Ground Control (GC) mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another, and they quickly learned to anchor themselves using tails and/or paws. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior including the development of organized ‘circling’ or ‘race-tracking’ behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. We quantified the bout frequency, duration and rate of circling with respect to characteristic behaviors observed in the varying stages of the progressive development of circling: flipping utilizing two sides of the

  7. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

  8. 75 FR 45058 - Operation of Wireless Communications Services in the 2.3 GHz Band; Establishment of Rules and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    .... SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission amends its rules to enable the deployment of mobile broadband... interference to satellite radio users, aeronautical mobile telemetry (AMT) operations, and the Deep Space... satellite-based service and are not used to transmit local programming or advertising. DATES: Effective...

  9. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  10. 76 FR 66328 - Callaway Golf Ball Operations, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reliable Temp Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-80,110] Callaway Golf Ball... Golf Ball Operations, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Reliable Temp Services, Inc., and... production of golf balls. The notice was published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2011 (76 FR 40401). At...

  11. An Investigation of Operational Decision Making in Situ: Incident Command in the U.K. Fire and Rescue Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Hatton, Sabrina R; Butler, Philip C; Honey, Robert C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the nature of decision making at operational incidents in order to inform operational guidance and training. Normative models of decision making have been adopted in the guidance and training for emergency services. In these models, it is assumed that decision makers assess the current situation, formulate plans, and then execute the plans. However, our understanding of how decision making unfolds at operational incidents remains limited. Incident commanders, attending 33 incidents across six U.K. Fire and Rescue Services, were fitted with helmet-mounted cameras, and the resulting video footage was later independently coded and used to prompt participants to provide a running commentary concerning their decisions. The analysis revealed that assessment of the operational situation was most often followed by plan execution rather than plan formulation, and there was little evidence of prospection about the potential consequences of actions. This pattern of results was consistent across different types of incident, characterized by level of risk and time pressure, but was affected by the operational experience of the participants. Decision making did not follow the sequence of phases assumed by normative models and conveyed in current operational guidance but instead was influenced by both reflective and reflexive processes. These results have clear implications for understanding operational decision making as it occurs in situ and suggest a need for future guidance and training to acknowledge the role of reflexive processes. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  12. Consolidating Financial Statements of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Revolving Fund of the Defense Business Operations Fund-FY 1992

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1993-01-01

    ...) Revolving Fund of the Defense Business Operations Fund (the Fund). The revolving Fund was created to provide finance and accounting services to DoD customers, charging them the full cost of those services...

  13. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk.

  14. Spaceflight Radiation Health program at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.S.; Badhwar, G.D.; Golightly, M.J.; Hardy, A.C.; Konradi, A.; Yang, T.C.

    1993-12-01

    The Johnson Space Center leads the research and development activities that address the health effects of space radiation exposure to astronaut crews. Increased knowledge of the composition of the environment and of the biological effects of space radiation is required to assess health risks to astronaut crews. The activities at the Johnson Space Center range from quantification of astronaut exposures to fundamental research into the biological effects resulting from exposure to high energy particle radiation. The Spaceflight Radiation Health Program seeks to balance the requirements for operational flexibility with the requirement to minimize crew radiation exposures. The components of the space radiation environment are characterized. Current and future radiation monitoring instrumentation is described. Radiation health risk activities are described for current Shuttle operations and for research development program activities to shape future analysis of health risk

  15. Military Construction of the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Operations Facility, Columbus, Ohio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The audit objectives were to determine whether the Defense Finance and Accounting Service Columbus Center properly planned and programmed the FY 1996 proposed military construction project and whether...

  16. Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Nowak, a resident of Ware Mass. and Chief Operator of the Upper Blackstone Water Pollution Abatement District (District) in Milbury, Mass., was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  17. Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant Chief Operator Recognized for Outstanding Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dustin Price, a resident of Berwick Maine and the Chief Operator of the Seabrook, N.H. Wastewater Treatment Plant, was honored by EPA with a 2016 Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant Operator of the Year Excellence Award.

  18. Wisconsin Public Service, Weston Generating Station; Petition to Object to Issuance of Title V Operating Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database.

  19. Urban Transport Services in Sub-Saharan Africa : Improving Vehicle Operations

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    The report presents findings, and the way forward in respect of the Knowledge and Research (KAR) Project on vehicle operations in Sub-Saharan Africa, basically undertaken in Uganda and Ghana. In the first phase, the study identified problems faced by transport operators in both countries, and analyzed their impact on vehicle operating costs, as well as examining transport regulations, and ...

  20. 14 CFR 375.50 - Transit flights; scheduled international air service operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transit flights; scheduled international... WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Transit Flights § 375.50 Transit flights; scheduled international air service... to the International Air Services Transit Agreement in transit across the United States may not be...

  1. 76 FR 52231 - Restrictions on Operators Employing Former Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... its implementation of safety management systems, issued its report titled, ``Managing Risks in Civil... Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... responsible for the oversight of, a Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspector, and had direct...

  2. Defense Inventory: Further Analysis and Enhanced Metrics Could Improve Service Supply and Depot Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Managed Spare Parts at Service Industrial Sites by Supply Chain , Fiscal...Metrics and Inventory Stratification Reporting; and Defense Logistics Agency Instruction 4140.08, DLA Retail Supply Chain Materiel Management ...the retail supply system, which is typically managed by the services. As a retail inventory manager at industrial sites, DLA manages the supply

  3. Using online public services: a measurement of citizens’ operational, formal, information and strategic skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Wimmer, Maria A.; Scholl, Hans J.; Ferro, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    It is important to take digital inequality research in consideration when focusing on electronic public service delivery. From this point of view, this paper considers four digital skills that citizens need when using online public services. Measurements of these skills in the Netherlands indicate

  4. Third Angle of RSBY: Service Providers' Perspective to RSBY-operational Issues in Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Mayur; Saxena, Deepak B

    2013-04-01

    Government of India in 2008, launched its flagship health insurance scheme for the poor. The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) combines cutting edge technology with an unusual reliance on incentives to provide inpatient insurance coverage. The scheme allows for cashless hospitalization services at any of the empaneled hospitals. Stakeholders in RSBY include members of the community, Insurance Company and the service provider. The study manuscript is an attempt to get an insight to understand the bottle necks in faced by the service providers with an overall goal to understand issues in complete roll out of RSBY and its successful implementation across country. It was conducted to undertake the stakeholder analysis and understand the service providers' perspective to RSBY. The present study was conducted in the Patan district of Gujarat state. Qualitative tool mainly in-depth interview of service providers of RSBY in Patan district of Gujarat state was utilized for the data collection. Service providers opined an ineffective IEC around the utility of the RSBY service in the community. In spite of the claim that scheme relies heavily on technology to ensure paperless cashless services, on field, it was observed in the present study that the claim settlements are done through physical documents. The service providers had a perceived threat of being suspended from the list/de-empanelment of the provider by the insurance company. There is an urgent need for improved and effective IEC for the service and possibilities of an arrangement for to settle the case of grievances around suspensions ao that genuine hospitals can have fair deal as well. There definitely remains a greater and more serious role of government, which ranges from ownership to larger issue of governance.

  5. Third angle of RSBY: Service providers′ perspective to RSBY-operational issues in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Trivedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Government of India in 2008, launched its flagship health insurance scheme for the poor. The Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY combines cutting edge technology with an unusual reliance on incentives to provide inpatient insurance coverage. The scheme allows for cashless hospitalization services at any of the empaneled hospitals. Stakeholders in RSBY include members of the community, Insurance Company and the service provider. Aim: The study manuscript is an attempt to get an insight to understand the bottle necks in faced by the service providers with an overall goal to understand issues in complete roll out of RSBY and its successful implementation across country. It was conducted to undertake the stakeholder analysis and understand the service providers′ perspective to RSBY. Setting and Design: The present study was conducted in the Patan district of Gujarat state. Qualitative tool mainly in-depth interview of service providers of RSBY in Patan district of Gujarat state was utilized for the data collection. Results and Conclusion: Service providers opined an ineffective IEC around the utility of the RSBY service in the community. In spite of the claim that scheme relies heavily on technology to ensure paperless cashless services, on field, it was observed in the present study that the claim settlements are done through physical documents. The service providers had a perceived threat of being suspended from the list/de-empanelment of the provider by the insurance company. There is an urgent need for improved and effective IEC for the service and possibilities of an arrangement for to settle the case of grievances around suspensions ao that genuine hospitals can have fair deal as well. There definitely remains a greater and more serious role of government, which ranges from ownership to larger issue of governance.

  6. PAREX, a numerical code in the service of La Hague plant operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisson, J.; Huron, P.; Huel, C. [AREVA NC, La Hague Plant, Technical Direction, 50444, Beaumont-Hague (France); Dinh, B. [CEA, Centre de Marcoule, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry and Process Department, F-30207, Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)

    2016-07-01

    The PAREX code developed by the CEA is able to simulate the PUREX process in steady or transient state. From an operator point of view, this numerical code for simulation of liquid-liquid extraction operations is an outstanding tool as an aid for plant operation through process flow sheet optimization, troubleshooting and safety analysis calculations. This paper focuses on two examples. The first concerns the evaluation of the available operating margin of the extraction zone of the first purification cycle flowsheet. The second example concerns a uranium-plutonium splitting operation where the code was used to explain a shift of plutonium concentration in the solvent outlet. (authors)

  7. Effects of Spaceflight on Cells of Bone Marrow Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Özçivici

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Once only a subject for science fiction novels, plans for establishing habitation on space stations, the Moon, and distant planets now appear among the short-term goals of space agencies. This article reviews studies that present biomedical issues that appear to challenge humankind for long-term spaceflights. With particularly focus on cells of bone marrow origin, studies involving changes in bone, immune, and red blood cell populations and their functions due to extended weightlessness were reviewed. Furthermore, effects of mechanical disuse on primitive stem cells that reside in the bone marrow were also included in this review. Novel biomedical solutions using space biotechnology will be required in order to achieve the goal of space exploration without compromising the functions of bone marrow, as spaceflight appears to disrupt homeostasis for all given cell types.

  8. The effect of spaceflight and microgravity on the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ombergen, Angelique; Demertzi, Athena; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Jeurissen, Ben; Sijbers, Jan; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B; Parizel, Paul M; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Sunaert, Stefan; Laureys, Steven; Wuyts, Floris L

    2017-10-01

    Microgravity, confinement, isolation, and immobilization are just some of the features astronauts have to cope with during space missions. Consequently, long-duration space travel can have detrimental effects on human physiology. Although research has focused on the cardiovascular and musculoskeletal system in particular, the exact impact of spaceflight on the human central nervous system remains to be determined. Previous studies have reported psychological problems, cephalic fluid shifts, neurovestibular problems, and cognitive alterations, but there is paucity in the knowledge of the underlying neural substrates. Previous space analogue studies and preliminary spaceflight studies have shown an involvement of the cerebellum, cortical sensorimotor, and somatosensory areas and the vestibular pathways. Extending this knowledge is crucial, especially in view of long-duration interplanetary missions (e.g., Mars missions) and space tourism. In addition, the acquired insight could be relevant for vestibular patients, patients with neurodegenerative disorders, as well as the elderly population, coping with multisensory deficit syndromes, immobilization, and inactivity.

  9. Pleurodeles Waltl Humoral Immune Response under Spaceflight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascove, Matthieu; Touche, Nadege; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

    2008-06-01

    The immune system is an important regulatory mechanism affected by spaceflights. In a previous work, we performed a first study of the humoral immune response induced by the immunization of Pleurodeles waltl during a 5 months stay onboard the Mir space station. This analysis indicated that heavy-chain variable domains of specific IgM are encoded by genes of the VHII and VHVI families. However, the contributions of these two families to IgM heavy-chains are different in flown animals [1]. To better understand this immune response modification, we have now determined how individual VH genes have been used to build specific IgM binding sites in animals immunized on earth or in space. This new study revealed quantitative and qualitative modifications in VH genes expression. These data confirm that a spaceflight might affect the humoral response.

  10. The elements of a commercial human spaceflight safety reporting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Ian

    2017-10-01

    In its report on the SpaceShipTwo accident the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) included in its recommendations that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) ;in collaboration with the commercial spaceflight industry, continue work to implement a database of lessons learned from commercial space mishap investigations and encourage commercial space industry members to voluntarily submit lessons learned.; In its official response to the NTSB the FAA supported this recommendation and indicated it has initiated an iterative process to put into place a framework for a cooperative safety data sharing process including the sharing of lessons learned, and trends analysis. Such a framework is an important element of an overall commercial human spaceflight safety system.

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, R.; Zwart, S. R.; Fields, E.; Heer, M.; Sibonga, J.; Smith, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Many nutritional factors influence bone, from the basics of calcium and vitamin D, to factors which influence bone through acid/base balance, including protein, sodium, and more. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a recently identified factor, secreted from osteocytes, which is involved in classic (albeit complex) feedback loops controlling phosphorus homeostasis through both vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) (1, 2). As osteocytes are gravity sensing cells, it is important to determine if there are changes in FGF23 during spaceflight. In extreme cases, such as chronic kidney disease, FGF23 levels are highly elevated. FGF23 imbalances, secondary to dietary influences, may contribute to skeletal demineralization and kidney stone risk during spaceflight.

  12. Bone Loss During Spaceflight: Available Models and Counter-Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan; Bach, David; Geller, David

    2015-01-01

    There is ongoing concern for human health during spaceflights. Of particular interest is the uncoupling of bone remodeling and its resultant effect on calcium metabolism and bone loss. The calculated average loss of bone mineral density (BMD) is approximately 1-1.5% per month of spaceflight. The effect of decreased BMD on associated fractures in astronauts is not known. Currently on the International Space Station (ISS), bone loss is managed through dietary supplements and modifications and resistance exercise regimen. As the duration of space flights increases, a review of the current methods available for the prevention of bone loss is warranted. The goal of this project is to review and summarize recent studies that have focused on maintaining BMD during exposure to microgravity. Interventions were divided into physical (Table 1), nutritional (Table 2), or pharmacologic (Table 3) categories. Physical modalities included resistance exercise, low level vibration, and low intensity pulsed ultrasound. Nutritional interventions included altering protein, salt, and fat intake; and vitamin D supplementation. Pharmacologic interventions included the use of bisphosphonates and beta blockers. Studies reported outcomes based on bone density determined by DXA bone scan, micro-architecture of histology and microCT, and serum and urine markers of bone turnover. The ground analog models utilized to approximate osseous physiology in microgravity included human patients previously paralyzed or subjects confined to bedrest. Ground analog animal models include paralysis, immobilization and ovariectomies. As a result of the extensive research performed there is a multi-modality approach available for the management of BMD during spaceflight that includes resistance training, nutrition and dietary supplements. However, there is a paucity of literature describing a formalized tiered protocol to guide investigators through the progression from animal models to human patient ground

  13. Dysrhythmias in Laypersons During Centrifuge-Simulated Suborbital Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Rahul; Blue, Rebecca S; Mathers, Charles H; Castleberry, Tarah L; Vanderploeg, James M

    2017-11-01

    There are limited data on cardiac dysrhythmias in laypersons during hypergravity exposure. We report layperson electrocardiograph (ECG) findings and tolerance of dysrhythmias during centrifuge-simulated suborbital spaceflight. Volunteers participated in varied-length centrifuge training programs of 2-7 centrifuge runs over 0.5-2 d, culminating in two simulated suborbital spaceflights of combined +Gz and +Gx (peak +4.0 Gz, +6.0 Gx, duration 5 s). Monitors recorded pre- and post-run mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), 6-s average heart rate (HR) collected at prespecified points during exposures, documented dysrhythmias observed on continuous 3-lead ECG, self-reported symptoms, and objective signs of intolerance on real-time video monitoring. Participating in the study were 148 subjects (43 women). Documented dysrhythmias included sinus pause (N = 5), couplet premature ventricular contractions (N = 4), bigeminy (N = 3), accelerated idioventricular rhythm (N = 1), and relative bradycardia (RB, defined as a transient HR drop of >20 bpm; N = 63). None were associated with subjective symptoms or objective signs of acceleration intolerance. Episodes of RB occurred only during +Gx exposures. Subjects had a higher post-run vs. pre-run MAP after all exposures, but demonstrated no difference in pre- and post-run HR. RB was more common in men, younger individuals, and subjects experiencing more centrifuge runs. Dysrhythmias in laypersons undergoing simulated suborbital spaceflight were well tolerated, though RB was frequently noted during short-duration +Gx exposure. No subjects demonstrated associated symptoms or objective hemodynamic sequelae from these events. Even so, heightened caution remains warranted when monitoring dysrhythmias in laypersons with significant cardiopulmonary disease or taking medications that modulate cardiac conduction.Suresh R, Blue RS, Mathers CH, Castleberry TL, Vanderploeg JM. Dysrhythmias in laypersons during centrifuge-stimulated suborbital

  14. Tolerance of centrifuge-simulated suborbital spaceflight by medical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Rebecca S; Pattarini, James M; Reyes, David P; Mulcahy, Robert A; Garbino, Alejandro; Mathers, Charles H; Vardiman, Johnené L; Castleberry, Tarah L; Vanderploeg, James M

    2014-07-01

    We examined responses of volunteers with known medical disease to G forces in a centrifuge to evaluate how potential commercial spaceflight participants (SFPs) might tolerate the forces of spaceflight despite significant medical history. Volunteers were recruited based upon suitability for each of five disease categories (hypertension, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, lung disease, back or neck problems) or a control group. Subjects underwent seven centrifuge runs over 2 d. Day 1 consisted of two +G(z) runs (peak = +3.5 G(z), Run 2) and two +G(x), runs (peak = +6.0 G(x), Run 4). Day 2 consisted of three runs approximating suborbital spaceflight profiles (combined +G(x) and +G(z), peak = +6.0 G(x)/+4.0 G(z)). Data collected included blood pressure, electrocardiogram, pulse oximetry, neurovestibular exams, and post-run questionnaires regarding motion sickness, disorientation, grayout, and other symptoms. A total of 335 subjects registered for participation, of which 86 (63 men, 23 women, age 20-78 yr) participated in centrifuge trials. The most common causes for disqualification were weight and severe and uncontrolled medical or psychiatric disease. Five subjects voluntarily withdrew from the second day of testing: three for anxiety reasons, one for back strain, and one for time constraints. Maximum hemodynamic values recorded included HR of 192 bpm, systolic BP of 217 mmHg, and diastolic BP of 144 mmHg. Common subjective complaints included grayout (69%), nausea (20%), and chest discomfort (6%). Despite their medical history, no subject experienced significant adverse physiological responses to centrifuge profiles. These results suggest that most individuals with well-controlled medical conditions can withstand acceleration forces of launch and re-entry profiles of current commercial spaceflight vehicles.

  15. THE CONCEPTUALISATION AND OPERATIONAL MEASUREMENT OF PRICE FAIRNESS PERCEPTION IN MASS SERVICE CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saowanee Srikanjanarak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop a measure of price fairness perception by extending price fairness conceptualisation to a multi-scale measure, thereby capturing its complexity in a mass service context. The service context is becoming increasingly competitive, particularly in the telecommunication industry, where a variety of service options is offered (e.g., mobile phone services. A review of price fairness perception literature usually focuses on the equity and social exchange theory and upon findings from exploratory research of the current market situation. In this article, the measure is conceptualised to entail a more extensive set of dimensions. These dimensions include the following: flexible price, reasonable price, acceptable price and superior price. Previous researchers have used actual price to focus on the structure and price comparison of competitors within the service industry. In contrast, this research has focused on the price comparison in terms of relative price. Additionally, we use a survey to elicit responses from 998 individual users of prepaid mobile phone services in Thailand. The results indicate a valid and reliable measure of price fairness perception, permitting us to understand how customers perceive that a price offered by service providers is fair. This understanding will help managers (and their respective organisations to design an appropriate price strategy that fits what their customer's wants and needs while fostering a long-term relationship with them.

  16. Human Spaceflight Conjunction Assessment: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jason T.

    2011-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the process of a human space flight conjunction assessment and lessons learned from the more than twelve years of International Space Station (ISS) operations. Also, the application of these lessons learned to a recent ISS conjunction assessment with object 84180 on July 16, 2009 is also presented.

  17. The catecholamine response to spaceflight: role of diet and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    Compared with men, women appear to have a decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response to stress. The two manifestations where the sexual dimorphism has been the most pronounced involve the response of the SNS to fluid shifts and fuel metabolism during exercise. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether a similar sexual dimorphism was found in the response to spaceflight. To do so, we compared catecholamine excretion by male and female astronauts from two similar shuttle missions, Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS1, 1991) and 2 (SLS2, 1993) for evidence of sexual dimorphism. To evaluate the variability of the catecholamine response in men, we compared catecholamine excretion from the two SLS missions against the 1996 Life and Microgravity Sciences Mission (LMS) and the 1973 Skylab missions. RESULTS: No gender- or mission-dependent changes were found with epinephrine. Separating out the SLS1/2 data by gender shows that norepinephrine excretion was essentially unchanged with spaceflight in women (98 +/- 10%; n = 3) and substantially decreased with the men (41 +/- 9%; n = 4, P gender-specific effects. We conclude that norepinephrine excretion during spaceflight is both mission and gender dependent. Men show the greater response, with at least three factors being involved, a response to microgravity, energy balance, and the ratio of carbohydrate to fat in the diet.

  18. Spaceflight Effects on Cytochrome P450 Content in Mouse Liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Moskaleva

    Full Text Available Hard conditions of long-term manned spaceflight can affect functions of many biological systems including a system of drug metabolism. The cytochrome P450 (CYP superfamily plays a key role in the drug metabolism. In this study we examined the hepatic content of some P450 isoforms in mice exposed to 30 days of space flight and microgravity. The CYP content was established by the mass-spectrometric method of selected reaction monitoring (SRM. Significant changes in the CYP2C29, CYP2E1 and CYP1A2 contents were detected in mice of the flight group compared to the ground control group. Within seven days after landing and corresponding recovery period changes in the content of CYP2C29 and CYP1A2 returned to the control level, while the CYP2E1 level remained elevated. The induction of enzyme observed in the mice in the conditions of the spaceflight could lead to an accelerated biotransformation and change in efficiency of pharmacological agents, metabolizing by corresponding CYP isoforms. Such possibility of an individual pharmacological response to medication during long-term spaceflights and early period of postflight adaptation should be taken into account in space medicine.

  19. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper draws on British Nuclear Fuels' (BNFL) wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement, are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as management, financial R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by BNFL in the co-operation with other organizations over several years in both major and much smaller agreements, illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the present status of these organizations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for international co-operation to succeed. (author)

  20. Effects of aging and service wear on main steam isolation valves and valve operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    In recent years main steam isolation valve (MSIV operating problems have resulted in significant operational transients (e.g., spurious reactor trips, steam generator dry out, excessive valve seat leakage), increased cost, and decreased plant availability. A key ingredient to an engineering-oriented reliability improvement effort is a thorough understanding of relevant historical experience. A detailed review of historical failure data available through the Institute of Nuclear Power Operation's Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System has been conducted for several types of MSIVs and valve operators for both boiling-water reactors and pressurized-water reactors. The focus of this review is on MSIV failures modes, actuator failure modes, consequences of failure on plant operations, method of failure detection, and major stressors affecting both valves and valve operators

  1. Installation, Configuration and Operational Testing of a PKI Certificate Server and Its Supporting Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ambers, Vanessa

    2004-01-01

    Public key infrastructure (PKI) was created to provide the basic services of confidentiality, authenticity, integrity and non-repudiation for sensitive information that may traverse public (un-trusted) networks...

  2. Quitline – Services Available – Hours Of Operation And Available Languages - 2010 To Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2010-2017. National Quitline Data Warehouse (NQDW). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. NQDW Data. National Quitline Data Warehouse...

  3. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Galway, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    This study explored registered psychiatric nurses\\' (RPNs\\') interactions and level of empathy towards service users with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A qualitative approach was used, and 17 RPNs were interviewed using a semistructured interview schedule incorporating the "staff-patient interaction response scale" (SPIRS). Four themes emerged following data analysis: "challenging and difficult," "manipulative, destructive and threatening behaviour," "preying on the vulnerable resulting in splitting staff and other service users," and "boundaries and structure." Additionally, low levels of empathy were evident in the majority of participants\\' responses to the SPIRS. The findings provide further insight on nurses\\' empathy responses and views on caring for service users with BPD and further evidence for the need for training and education for nurses in the care of service users diagnosed with BPD.

  4. History and operation of INIS magnetic tape retrieval service in CSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, J.

    The Nuclear Information Centre is responsible for the utilization of the INIS magnetic tape in Czechoslovakia as the country's national INIS centre. The tape has been used since 1974 for selective dissemination of information using an EC 1040 computer. Currently, users are provided with SDI searches, their copies (the so-called parasite searches) and retrospective searches. The organization of INIS-SDI services is described and the results are reported of the poll among the users of the services. (Ha)

  5. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delea, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    Diabetes is an increasingly prevalent chronic illness that places a huge burden on the individual, the health system and society. Patients with active foot disease and lower limb amputations due to diabetes have a significant amount of interaction with the health care services. The purpose of this study was to explore the attitudes and experiences of foot care services in Ireland among people with diabetes and active foot disease or lower limb amputations.

  6. Robust and Resilient Services: How to design, build and operate them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiers, J.; McCance, G.; Mendez Lorenzo, P.

    2007-01-01

    Grid infrastructures require a high degree of fault tolerance and reliability. This can only be achieved by careful planning and detailed implementation. We describe on-going work within the WLCG project to build and run highly reliable services. Following the a priori a nalysis based on the services and service levels listed in the Memorandum of Understanding that sites participating in WLCG have signed[1], this paper provides an a posteriori a nalysis following over 2 years of production service. This work covers not only the services deployed at the Tier0 centre at CERN - which has the most stringent service requirements related to the acquisition of the raw data, the initial processing phase and the distribution of raw and processed data to Tier1 sites, but also a similar analysis for Tier1 and major Tier2 sites. The latter will be covered at a workshop that will take place shortly before the EELA conference and so will be very up-to-date. (Author)

  7. Evaluating QoS-enabled information management services in a Navy operational context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Aaron M.; Sinclair, Asher; Loyall, Joseph P.

    2011-06-01

    Information Management (IM) services support the discovery, brokering, and dissemination of mission-critical information based on the information's content and characteristics. IM services support the dissemination of future information (through subscriptions) and past information (through queries) regardless of its source. To be useful across enterprise and tactical environments, IM services need mission-driven Quality of Service (QoS) features as part of their core functionality. We have developed QoS management features, QoS Enabled Dissemination (QED), that extend an Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) developed set of IM services, Phoenix. This paper describes the results of a joint services experiment evaluating QED and Phoenix in a US Navy scenario involving multiple ships connected by a Disconnected, Intermittent, Limited (DIL) satellite network. Experiments evaluate QED and Phoenix's ability to (1) provide IM in the Wide Area Network (WAN) context of the satellite communications, which includes long latencies and background traffic not under QED control; (2) control and utilize active-precedence and queue management features provided by the WAN; (3) handle severe network overload, network disruptions, and dynamic changes in policies; and (4) successfully enforce deadlines and information replacement policies.

  8. Human Spaceflight Recent Conjunctions of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browns, Ansley C.

    2010-01-01

    I. During each nine-hour shift (or upon request), the Orbital Safety Analyst (OSA) at JSpOC updates the entire tracked catalog with the latest tracking data from the SSN and screens this catalog against NASA s assets. a) For ISS operations, a 72-hour advance screening is performed. b) For Shuttle orbit operations, a 36-hour advance screening is performed. c) If a vehicle is performing a maneuver during the screening period, OSA uses post-reboost-trajectory data supplied by Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H) for screening. II. An automated process is used to detect any conjunctions within 10 x 40 x 40 km box (centered on the vehicle) using Special Perturbation (SP) processing: a) Box dimensions are Radial x Downtrack x Crosstrack. b) Any object found within this box has the tracking tasking level increased to improve (hopefully) its uncertainty in its current and predicted orbital trajectory. c) OSA informs NASA if any object is found inside a 2 x 25 x 25 km box then creates and sends an Orbital Conjunction Message (OCM) to NASA which contains detailed information about the conjunction. d) For Shuttle, the box size used for screening and reporting is altered for special operations (day of rendezvous, launch screening, etc.).

  9. Statistical Design of an Adaptive Synthetic X- Control Chart with Run Rule on Service and Management Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucheng Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved synthetic X- control chart based on hybrid adaptive scheme and run rule scheme is introduced to enhance the statistical performance of traditional synthetic X- control chart on service and management operation. The proposed scientific hybrid adaptive schemes consider both variable sampling interval and variable sample size scheme. The properties of the proposed chart are obtained using Markov chain approach. An extensive set of numerical results is presented to test the effectiveness of the proposed model in detecting small and moderate shifts in the process mean. The results show that the proposed chart is quicker than the standard synthetic X- chart and CUSUM chart in detecting small and moderate shifts in the process of service and management operation.

  10. ARG1 Functions in the Physiological Adaptation of Undifferentiated Plant Cells to Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanska, Agata K.; Schultz, Eric R.; Yao, JiQiang; Sng, Natasha J.; Zhou, Mingqi; Callaham, Jordan B.; Ferl, Robert J.; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2017-11-01

    Scientific access to spaceflight and especially the International Space Station has revealed that physiological adaptation to spaceflight is accompanied or enabled by changes in gene expression that significantly alter the transcriptome of cells in spaceflight. A wide range of experiments have shown that plant physiological adaptation to spaceflight involves gene expression changes that alter cell wall and other metabolisms. However, while transcriptome profiling aptly illuminates changes in gene expression that accompany spaceflight adaptation, mutation analysis is required to illuminate key elements required for that adaptation. Here we report how transcriptome profiling was used to gain insight into the spaceflight adaptation role of Altered response to gravity 1 (Arg1), a gene known to affect gravity responses in plants on Earth. The study compared expression profiles of cultured lines of Arabidopsis thaliana derived from wild-type (WT) cultivar Col-0 to profiles from a knock-out line deficient in the gene encoding ARG1 (ARG1 KO), both on the ground and in space. The cell lines were launched on SpaceX CRS-2 as part of the Cellular Expression Logic (CEL) experiment of the BRIC-17 spaceflight mission. The cultured cell lines were grown within 60 mm Petri plates in Petri Dish Fixation Units (PDFUs) that were housed within the Biological Research In Canisters (BRIC) hardware. Spaceflight samples were fixed on orbit. Differentially expressed genes were identified between the two environments (spaceflight and comparable ground controls) and the two genotypes (WT and ARG1 KO). Each genotype engaged unique genes during physiological adaptation to the spaceflight environment, with little overlap. Most of the genes altered in expression in spaceflight in WT cells were found to be Arg1-dependent, suggesting a major role for that gene in the physiological adaptation of undifferentiated cells to spaceflight.

  11. Mental health consumer-operated services organizations in the US: citizenship as a core function and strategy for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2011-06-01

    Consumer-operated services organizations (COSOs) are independent, non-profit organizations that provide peer support and other non-clinical services to seriously mentally ill people. Mental health consumers provide many of these services and make up at least a majority of the organization's leadership. Although the dominant conception of the COSO is as an adjunct to clinical care in the public mental health system, this paper reconcieves the organization as a civic association and thereby a locus of citizenship. Drawing on empirical research on COSOs in one state and the citizenship and civic democracy literatures, COSOs are analyzed here as membership organizations with democratic norms and strong ties to local communities. The suggestion is made that by embracing and enhancing their status as civic associations, COSOs may advance the goals of the social movement that spawned them and avoid predictable obstacles to further growth and development.

  12. Report on the incentive regulation regarding the service quality of natural gas network operators and ERDF. Summary report 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-05-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator electricite Reseau Distribution France (ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from 1 July 2010 to 30 June 2011. They were used to inform the work conducted to develop the incentive regulation mechanism for service quality in GrDF's ATRD4 tariff (A Third-party access to natural gas distribution networks, scheduled to enter into effect on 1 July 2012). The conclusions of the report will also be used by the CRE for ERDF as part of the work on TURPE 4 tariff (Tariff for the use of public electricity grids, scheduled to enter into effect during the third quarter of 2013), for natural gas local distribution companies (LDCs) to prepare their ATRD4 tariff (Entry into effect scheduled for 1 July 2013), as well as for GRTgaz and TIGF to define the future ATRT5 tariff (Third-party access to natural gas transmission networks, scheduled to enter into effect on 1 April 2013). Implemented in 2009 with an initial annual follow- up report on gas network operators Gr

  13. Operational reliability of high pressure steam lines of pearlitic steels after 150-200 thousand h service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, E.Ya.; Chajkovskij, V.M.; Osasyuk, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    Usage of both calculational and physical methods is recommended to estimate a service operating life of long-term working steam line materials. Application of these methods is demonstrated when studying steam line bends made of 12MKh and 12Kh1MF pearlitic steels. Good coincidence of results for the determination of residual durability of steam lines is obtained using these two methods [ru

  14. Services Acquisition in the Department of Defense: Analysis of Operational and Performance Data to Identify Drivers of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-24

    improving the disclosure of CPARS program office Audit results (Black et al., 2014, pp. 48–49). Acquisition Research Program Graduate School of...improving the disclosure of CPARS program office audit results (Black et al., 2014, pp. 44–49). Recommendations Based on our conclusions, we identified...Fitzsimmons, J. A., & Fitzsimmons, M. J. (2006). Service management: Operations, strategy, and information technology (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw -Hill

  15. Applying operations management in client-oriented and cost-efficient provision of care, welfare and housing services

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blok, Carolien; Meijboom, Bert; Luijkx, Katrien; Schols, Jos

    2008-01-01

    Purpose In all Western countries, ageing populations cause the demand for elderly care services to increase dramatically. In addition, elderly clients are getting more demanding about the services they require to fulfil their widely varying and multiple needs. Besides, cost reductions have been the focus of governmental policies and organisational practices for many years. Health care providers increasingly see operations management as a promising approach to align both client-orientation and cost-efficiency in their day-to-day practices. Theory The paper starts from operations management literature on front office—back office design and modular production. Organisations have several options for deciding which activities need to be performed by FO, BO, or the client himself, and in deciding which employees need to perform these activities. By applying modular production, organisations can differentiate care and related services to a high degree without major cost increases. Method A literature review will be presented leading to a theoretical framework. This formed the basis for explorative case studies in the elderly care sector. Results and conclusions It will be argued how insights provided with the framework may enhance a client-orientation in integrated care delivery without major cost increases. Although case studies need to be interpreted with caution, interesting implications for organisational structures and inter-organisational cooperation can be seen. We will discuss how combined supply of care services can be made transparent to enhance choice options in service products, and what is required at the level of professionals for providing care and service packages based on client demand.

  16. Experience with respect to dose limitation in nuclear fuel service operations in the United Kingdom supporting civil nuclear power programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom, the nuclear power generation programme is supported by nuclear fuel services including uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication and reprocessing, operated by British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL). These have entailed the processing of large quantities of uranium and of plutonium and fission products arising in the course of irradiation of fuel in nuclear power stations and have necessitated substantial programmes for the radiological protection of the public and of the workers employed in the industry. This paper presents and reviews the statistics of doses recorded in the various sectors of nuclear fuel services operations against the background of the standards to which the industry is required to operate. A description is given of the development of BNFL policy in keeping with the objective of being recognized as among those industries regarded as safe and the resource implications of measures to reduce doses received by workers are reviewed in the light of experience. Finally, the paper reviews the epidemiological data which have been, and continue to be, collected for workers who have been employed in these nuclear fuel services. (author)

  17. Effect of Spaceflight on the Circadian Rhythm, Lifespan and Gene Expression of Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kanyan

    2015-01-01

    Space travelers are reported to experience circadian rhythm disruption during spaceflight. However, how the space environment affects circadian rhythm is yet to be determined. The major focus of this study was to investigate the effect of spaceflight on the Drosophila circadian clock at both the behavioral and molecular level. We used China’s Shenzhou-9 spaceship to carry Drosophila. After 13 days of spaceflight, behavior tests showed that the flies maintained normal locomotor activity rhythm and sleep pattern. The expression level and rhythm of major clock genes were also unaffected. However, expression profiling showed differentially regulated output genes of the circadian clock system between space flown and control flies, suggesting that spaceflight affected the circadian output pathway. We also investigated other physiological effects of spaceflight such as lipid metabolism and lifespan, and searched genes significantly affected by spaceflight using microarray analysis. These results provide new information on the effects of spaceflight on circadian rhythm, lipid metabolism and lifespan. Furthermore, we showed that studying the effect of spaceflight on gene expression using samples collected at different Zeitgeber time could obtain different results, suggesting the importance of appropriate sampling procedures in studies on the effects of spaceflight. PMID:25798821

  18. Effect of spaceflight on the circadian rhythm, lifespan and gene expression of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Ma

    Full Text Available Space travelers are reported to experience circadian rhythm disruption during spaceflight. However, how the space environment affects circadian rhythm is yet to be determined. The major focus of this study was to investigate the effect of spaceflight on the Drosophila circadian clock at both the behavioral and molecular level. We used China's Shenzhou-9 spaceship to carry Drosophila. After 13 days of spaceflight, behavior tests showed that the flies maintained normal locomotor activity rhythm and sleep pattern. The expression level and rhythm of major clock genes were also unaffected. However, expression profiling showed differentially regulated output genes of the circadian clock system between space flown and control flies, suggesting that spaceflight affected the circadian output pathway. We also investigated other physiological effects of spaceflight such as lipid metabolism and lifespan, and searched genes significantly affected by spaceflight using microarray analysis. These results provide new information on the effects of spaceflight on circadian rhythm, lipid metabolism and lifespan. Furthermore, we showed that studying the effect of spaceflight on gene expression using samples collected at different Zeitgeber time could obtain different results, suggesting the importance of appropriate sampling procedures in studies on the effects of spaceflight.

  19. Gravity in mammalian organ development: differentiation of cultured lung and pancreas rudiments during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, B. S.; Hardman, P.; Paulsen, A.

    1994-01-01

    Organ culture of embryonic mouse lung and pancreas rudiments has been used to investigate development and differentiation, and to assess the effects of microgravity on culture differentiation, during orbital spaceflight of the shuttle Endeavour (mission STS-54). Lung rudiments continue to grow and branch during spaceflight, an initial result that should allow future detailed study of lung morphogenesis in microgravity. Cultured embryonic pancreas undergoes characteristic exocrine acinar tissue and endocrine islet tissue differentiation during spaceflight, and in ground controls. The rudiments developing in the microgravity environment of spaceflight appear to grow larger than their ground counterparts, and they may have differentiated more rapidly than controls, as judged by exocrine zymogen granule presence.

  20. Effects of spaceflight on the immunoglobulin repertoire of unimmunized C57BL/6 mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spaceflight has been shown to suppress the adaptive immune response altering the distribution and function of lymphocyte populations. B lymphocytes express highly...

  1. Comparison of the spaceflight transcriptome of four commonly used Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This experiment compared the spaceflight transcriptomes of four commonly used natural variants (ecotypes) of Arabidopsis thaliana using RNAseq. In nature Arabidopsis...

  2. Distance and Size Perception in Astronauts during Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Clément

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight is known to elicit orientation illusions, errors in sensory localization, postural imbalance, changes in vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular reflexes, and space motion sickness. The objective of this experiment was to investigate whether an alteration in cognitive visual-spatial processing, such as the perception of distance and size of objects, is also taking place during prolonged exposure to microgravity. Our results show that astronauts on board the International Space Station exhibit biases in the perception of their environment. Objects’ heights and depths were perceived as taller and shallower, respectively, and distances were generally underestimated in orbit compared to Earth. These changes may occur because the perspective cues for depth are less salient in microgravity or the eye-height scaling of size is different when an observer is not standing on the ground. This finding has operational implications for human space exploration missions.

  3. The implementation methodology of Total Quality Management in health services, as a best practice operation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Malamou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Total Quality Management – TQM (Total Quality Management-TQM, health services, is a modern management philosophy to improve the quality and efficiency of the organization as a whole, with the involvement of all employees, at all levels. According to the research data, the concept of quality is distinguished in technical, interpersonal quality and hotel infrastructure and focuses on patient satisfaction. The Critical success factors of TQM, organizations for business excellence in continuous competitive changing environment, is the management commitment, customer focus, constant communication with employees, encouragement and reward, education and scientific training, continuous improvement quality of service, interdependent relationships with suppliers, active employee participation, creation of representative indicators, targets and benchmarking, continuous outcome assessment and continuous review, review of program procedures. The purpose of this article is through the review of Greek and international literature, to introduce the methodology of a project TQM, to health services, as everyday best practice, with emphasis on quality of service. According to the literature review, TQM contributes to improving the quality of health services, the cultivation of team spirit, cooperation between health professionals and leadership, with a view to satisfy all. TQM is purely anthropocentric theory of organization and administration. We need comprehensive effort approach to improving the quality of leadership and the introduction of the culture of workers.

  4. 20 CFR 670.945 - Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... provider to pay such taxes, the center operator or service provider may pay the taxes with Federal funds... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are Job Corps operators and service providers authorized to pay State or local taxes on gross receipts? 670.945 Section 670.945 Employees' Benefits...

  5. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Southern Services, Cork

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacGiobuin, S

    2017-08-01

    Food allergies are common in preschool children. This study’s aims are to establish prevalence, to clarify management practices, levels of preparedness and the perceived role of General Practitioners amongst Early Years Services providers. This study is an anonymous, quantitative, cross sectional study. An online questionnaire was distributed to 282 Early Years Service providers. Data were analysed using SPSS. Response rate was 35% (n=98). Prevalence of food allergy was 3% (n=119). Allergic reactions to food had occurred on site in 16% (n=15). Written emergency action plans were available in 47% of facilities (n=46). Medications were not kept on site in 63% (n=62) of facilities. General practitioners were felt to have an important role in the management of food allergies by 76% of respondents (n=61). This study identifies significant areas for improvement in the management of food allergic child in Early Years Services

  6. International co-operation in the supply of nuclear fuel cycle services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allday, C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper draws on B.N.F.L.'s wide experience of international collaboration in nuclear fuel process activities to examine the pros and cons of international agreements. Initially, the factors that influence the need to co-operate, the extent of possible co-operation and the alternative types of agreement are reviewed. Next, the benefits, problems and risks associated with each function, such as managmenet, financial, R and D, marketing and operations that could be covered within the scope of an international agreement, are examined in detail. The paper continues by calling upon specific experience obtained by B.N.F.L. in co-operation with other organisations over several years in operating both major and much smaller agreements illustrating the rationale behind the co-operation, the resolution of 'teething' troubles and the current status of these organisations. In conclusion, the paper comments upon the effectiveness of collaboration agreements and identifies several requirements for internation co-operation to succeed

  7. Benefit Estimation Model for Tourist Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehlich, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that the only potential means for significant reduction of the recurrent launch cost, which results in a stimulation of human space colonization, is to make the launcher reusable, to increase its reliability, and to make it suitable for new markets such as mass space tourism. But such space projects, that have long range aspects are very difficult to finance, because even politicians would like to see a reasonable benefit during their term in office, because they want to be able to explain this investment to the taxpayer. This forces planners to use benefit models instead of intuitive judgement to convince sceptical decision-makers to support new investments in space. Benefit models provide insights into complex relationships and force a better definition of goals. A new approach is introduced in the paper that allows to estimate the benefits to be expected from a new space venture. The main objective why humans should explore space is determined in this study to ``improve the quality of life''. This main objective is broken down in sub objectives, which can be analysed with respect to different interest groups. Such interest groups are the operator of a space transportation system, the passenger, and the government. For example, the operator is strongly interested in profit, while the passenger is mainly interested in amusement, while the government is primarily interested in self-esteem and prestige. This leads to different individual satisfactory levels, which are usable for the optimisation process of reusable launch vehicles.

  8. Evolution of Flexible Multibody Dynamics for Simulation Applications Supporting Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, An; Brain, Thomas A.; MacLean, John R.; Quiocho, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    During the course of transition from the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs to the Orion and Journey to Mars exploration programs, a generic flexible multibody dynamics formulation and associated software implementation has evolved to meet an ever changing set of requirements at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Challenging problems related to large transitional topologies and robotic free-flyer vehicle capture/ release, contact dynamics, and exploration missions concept evaluation through simulation (e.g., asteroid surface operations) have driven this continued development. Coupled with this need is the requirement to oftentimes support human spaceflight operations in real-time. Moreover, it has been desirable to allow even more rapid prototyping of on-orbit manipulator and spacecraft systems, to support less complex infrastructure software for massively integrated simulations, to yield further computational efficiencies, and to take advantage of recent advances and availability of multi-core computing platforms. Since engineering analysis, procedures development, and crew familiarity/training for human spaceflight is fundamental to JSC's charter, there is also a strong desire to share and reuse models in both the non-realtime and real-time domains, with the goal of retaining as much multibody dynamics fidelity as possible. Three specific enhancements are reviewed here: (1) linked list organization to address large transitional topologies, (2) body level model order reduction, and (3) parallel formulation/implementation. This paper provides a detailed overview of these primary updates to JSC's flexible multibody dynamics algorithms as well as a comparison of numerical results to previous formulations and associated software.

  9. Managing Co-operative Business Networks for Service Co-Creation in Rural Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Leick, Birgit

    .8 % of Denmark´s total exports in 2013 (DAMVAD, 2014). While the production of windmills is concentrated on large companies, the assembly, maintenance and service of the windmill parks is dominated by SMEs. Many firms in the Danish wind energy or wind turbine industry are organized in cooperating networks...... ). In the future, the surplus per windmill is expected to only slightly rise compared to total energy output that will rise tremendously owing to an increase in the number of windmills per windmill farm (DAMVAD, 2014). Increasing the number of windmills per farm will increase the demand of service and maintenance...

  10. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Dublin 16

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hunter, Andrew

    2017-09-25

    Recent policy and service provision recommends a woman-centred approach to maternity care. Midwife-led models of care are seen as one important strategy for enhancing women\\'s choice; a core element of woman-centred care. In the Republic of Ireland, an obstetric consultant-led, midwife-managed service model currently predominates and there is limited exploration of the concept of women centred care from the perspectives of those directly involved; that is, women, midwives, general practitioners and obstetricians. This study considers women\\'s and clinicians\\' views, experiences and perspectives of woman-centred maternity care in Ireland.

  11. Investigation of the franchising option for water services operation in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available , but there is much less (if any) exper ience of the use of brandi ng i n ma rkets where compet it ion is li m ited or non- existent. T he value of brands, and thei r appropr iateness to water ser vices operat ion, is a n issue that needs to be explored... 1 Franchisee 1 1 Franchi see 2 Franchisee 3 2 ? Under the franchise ?brand?, franchisees receive business ?know-how? from franchisor, and provide services / products to customers ? Franchisor monitors quality of product / service...

  12. Placement of the Services with the help of Perception Maps presented by the GSM Operators Facilitating in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Ekiyor

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Product placement comes into prominence as a wide and de tailed topic reaching the basis to the differentiation in the market. The product placement facilities are to form a specific product perception on the target consumer’s minds. In giving these services, a good marketing communication with the consumers has an important role. In the frame of product placement, the perception maps are used as a visual vehicle. In this study: the aim was to put forth the positioning of the service given by the cell phone operators facilitating in Turkey by the help of percepti on maps with the data gained by the consumers. Also, another aim was to visually show the different and similar variables of the cell phone operators in the minds of the consumers. In the scope of a literature review a questionnaire has been prepared to id entify the similarities and differences between the cell phone operators. The questionnaire has been applied to 521 consumers. As each consumer evaluated the three operators 1563 data has been gained. The evaluation of the data gained after the study was done by discriminant analysis

  13. Draft Title V Operating Permit: Andeavor Field Services, LLC - Walker Hollow Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draft Operating Permit (Permit Number: V-UO-000979-2017.00), statement of basis, public notice bulletin, and the administrative permit docket (application and other supporting documents) for the Andeavor Walker Hollow Compressor Station.

  14. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Nua Healthcare Services, Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Colleran, Gabrielle C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior triangle masses pose an important clinical dilemma. It is very difficult to distinguish the potential pathologies pre operatively by clinical and radiological assessment. CASE REPORT: The first case highlights the management of a bilateral chemodectoma, the second case is a presentation of castleman\\'s disease and the third is that of metastatic tonsillar adenocarcinoma. All three cases had a similar presentation and radiological appearance pre-operatively. CONCLUSION: Anterior triangle masses span the clinical spectrum of pathologies from chemodectoma to castleman\\'s disease to carcinoma. Expert vascular and radiological management is required for optimum patient care and should take place in a tertiary referral centre. Duplex US, CTA and MRA are important pre operative assessment tools to ensure that adequate information regarding the relationship of the lesion to the carotid artery is available to the operating surgeon who should have vascular expertise as deliberate practice volume has been repeatedly shown to result in improved patient outcome.

  15. Controls Over Operating System and Security Software Supporting the Defense Finance and Accounting Service

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKinney, Terry

    1994-01-01

    This is the final in a series of three audits of management controls over the operating systems and security software used by the information processing centers that support the Defense Finance and Accounting Centers (DFAS...

  16. Coming in From the Cold ... War: Defense Humint Services Support to Military Operations Other Than War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, David

    2000-01-01

    ...) and theater commander in chiefs (CINCs) in military operations other than war (MOOTW). The examination included a study into the recent history of military HUMINT, and the Department of Defense's (DoD's...

  17. Front-office/back-office configurations and operational performance in complex health services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemmel, P.; van Steenis, T.; Meijboom, B.R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acquired brain injury (ABI) occurs from various causes at different ages and leads to many different types of healthcare needs. Several Dutch ABI-networks installed a local co-ordination and contact point (CCP) which functions as a central and easily accessible service for people to

  18. Incorporating Ecosystem Goods and Services in Environmental Planning - Definitions, Classification and Operational Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    the characteristics of the surrounding landscape , including proximity to and use by people are considered as key determinants in the levels and values...a certain level of management may be necessary in some environments. Within the definition of ecosystem goods and services, there are two major...regulation Erosion regulation Disease regulation Pest regulation Pollination Cultural Cultural diversity Spiritual and religious values Recreation

  19. Supply-Chain Culture Clashes in Europe. Pitfalls in Japanese Service Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René); M. Shinohara

    2006-01-01

    textabstractJapanese companies value service and quality highly and they put much effort in realising this. However, survey research carried out in 2001 among senior managers of Japanese logistics companies in the Netherlands, indicated that these efforts do not result in significant performance

  20. 20 CFR 670.525 - What residential support services must Job Corps center operators provide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., vending machines, disciplinary fines, and donations, and is run by an elected student government, with the... the Secretary: (a) A quality living and learning environment that supports the overall training... week, 24 hours a day; (b) An ongoing, structured counseling program for students; (c) Food service...

  1. Privacy Management Service Contracts as a New Business Opportunity for Operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractRecognizing the importance of privacy management as a business process and a business support process, this paper proposes the use of service level agreements (SLA’s) around privacy features, including qualitative and quantitative ones. Privacy metrics are defined by both parties with

  2. Delivery through innovation: CSIR research on water services infrastructure operation through franchising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need for institutional innovations aimed at improving access to basic water services in South Africa, and sustaining that improvement. In support of effective delivery, the CSIR, with the support of the Water Research Commission...

  3. Pembuatan Service Level Requirement, Service Level Agreement dan Operational Level Agreement pada layanan help desk SAP berdasarkan kerangka kerja ITIL versi 2011 (Studi Kasus : Pupuk Indonesia Holding Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Shabrina Prameswari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available PT. Pupuk Indonesia Holding Company baru saja melakukan implementasi SAP pada tahun 2014. Dalam penerapannya, perusahaan merasa perlu membuat help desk SAP sebagai pusat penanganan masalah bagi perusahaan dan 7 anak perusahaannya yang kemudian dapat berfungsi juga sebagai knowledge base yang berguna apabila ada masalah yang berulang diwaktu selanjutnya. Untuk merancang layanan help desk yang baik, perlu didefinisikannya target layanan dalam sebuah kontrak perjanjian antara pengguna layanan dan penyedia layanan. Selain itu,Perjanjian layanan tersebut diperlukan juga sebagai jaminan kualitas help desk yang dapat disepakati oleh penyedia layanan dan pengguna layanan yang merupakan pengguna SAP pada PT. Pupuk Indonesia dan anak perusahaannya. Hal tersebut bertujuan untuk menyelaraskan bisnis dengan kualitas layanan serta menentukan kebutuhan dan harapan pelanggan dalam sebuah perjanjian antara penyedia layanan dan pengguna layanan. Dari permasalahan tersebut, maka diperlukan pembuatan dokumen Service Level Requirement, Service Level Agreement dan juga Operational Level Agreement pada help desk SAP, dengan dilakukan observasi dokumen dan wawancara pada pihak pengguna layanan dan penyedia layanan, maka setelah itu dibuatlah dokumen Service Level management tersebut berdasarkan ITIL Versi 2011.

  4. Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the services section is (1) to offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers, (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described

  5. Minimal support technology and in situ resource utilization for risk management of planetary spaceflight missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. L.; Rygalov, V. Ye.; Johnson, S. B.

    2009-04-01

    All artificial systems and components in space degrade at higher rates than on Earth, depending in part on environmental conditions, design approach, assembly technologies, and the materials used. This degradation involves not only the hardware and software systems but the humans that interact with those systems. All technological functions and systems can be expressed through functional dependence: [Function]˜[ERU]∗[RUIS]∗[ISR]/[DR];where [ERU]efficiency (rate) of environmental resource utilization[RUIS]resource utilization infrastructure[ISR]in situ resources[DR]degradation rateThe limited resources of spaceflight and open space for autonomous missions require a high reliability (maximum possible, approaching 100%) for system functioning and operation, and must minimize the rate of any system degradation. To date, only a continuous human presence with a system in the spaceflight environment can absolutely mitigate those degradations. This mitigation is based on environmental amelioration for both the technology systems, as repair of data and spare parts, and the humans, as exercise and psychological support. Such maintenance now requires huge infrastructures, including research and development complexes and management agencies, which currently cannot move beyond the Earth. When considering what is required to move manned spaceflight from near Earth stations to remote locations such as Mars, what are the minimal technologies and infrastructures necessary for autonomous restoration of a degrading system in space? In all of the known system factors of a mission to Mars that reduce the mass load, increase the reliability, and reduce the mission’s overall risk, the current common denominator is the use of undeveloped or untested technologies. None of the technologies required to significantly reduce the risk for critical systems are currently available at acceptable readiness levels. Long term interplanetary missions require that space programs produce a craft

  6. Practical and clinical nutritional concerns during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, M. R.; Fettman, M. J.; Phillips, R. W.

    1994-01-01

    Experience with space exploration to date has raised more questions regarding nutritional requirements for astronauts than it has answered. As mission lengths continue to increase, nutrient imbalances due to alterations in intake, dietary requirements, bioavailability, or excretion, may become more important. Factors adversely affecting intake include those as straightforward as stress and as complex as space-adaptation syndrome. Metabolic alterations induced by shifts in fluid and electrolyte balance, neuroendocrine function, and changes in hepatic protein synthesis and skeletal muscle type that result in nutrient partitioning to different biochemical pathways may also affect dietary requirements. Food processing effects on nutrient stability and digestibility, which apply to limited quantities of our usual diet on Earth, may become more important for diets that contain little fresh food during extended-length missions. Whereas nutrient and water recycling through ecosystems is taken for granted on Earth, specific effects of trace contaminant accumulation will require greater attention for prolonged space flights. Human factors, esthetics, and user-friendly operations will be necessary to facilitate the psychological as well as physiological health of the astronauts.

  7. VISIR: technological infrastructure of an operational service for safe and efficient navigation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarini, Gianandrea; Turrisi, Giuseppe; D'Anca, Alessandro; Scalas, Mario; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni; Palermo, Francesco; Carluccio, Ivano; Scuro, Matteo; Cretì, Sergio; Lecci, Rita; Nassisi, Paola; Tedesco, Luca

    2016-08-01

    VISIR (discoVerIng Safe and effIcient Routes) is an operational decision support system (DSS) for optimal ship routing designed and implemented in the frame of the TESSA (TEchnology for Situational Sea Awareness) project. The system is aimed to increase safety and efficiency of navigation through the use of forecast environmental fields and route optimization. VISIR can be accessed through a web interface (www.visir-nav.com) and mobile applications for both iOS and Android devices. This paper focuses on the technological infrastructure developed for operating VISIR as a DSS. Its main components are described, the performance of the operational system is assessed through experimental measurements, and a few case studies are presented.

  8. [The organization and management of health services during mine clearance operations in Finistère].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliou, Philippe; Largeau, Françoise

    2009-01-01

    The regional social affairs and health services department (DDASS) of Finistère in France, in cooperation with first-aid workers, the town hall and the police headquarters, have developed and refined a method for medical evacuations of people during mine clearance in the area of Brest. It consists of conducting a census of the population in their place of residence, identifying the hospitalisation needs, and organising their management and care provided by the first-aid workers. Having been applied and put into practice since 2003, this method is reliant on tools created by the regional social affairs and health services department of. It is frequently used and has proven its effectiveness.

  9. US National Geothermal Data System: Web feature services and system operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Stephen; Clark, Ryan; Allison, M. Lee; Anderson, Arlene

    2013-04-01

    The US National Geothermal Data System is being developed with support from the US Department of Energy to reduce risk in geothermal energy development by providing online access to the body of geothermal data available in the US. The system is being implemented using Open Geospatial Consortium web services for catalog search (CSW), map browsing (WMS), and data access (WFS). The catalog now includes 2427 registered resources, mostly individual documents accessible via URL. 173 WMS and WFS services are registered, hosted by 4 NGDS system nodes, as well as 6 other state geological surveys. Simple feature schema for interchange formats have been developed by an informal community process in which draft content models are developed based on the information actually available in most data provider's internal datasets. A template pattern is used for the content models so that commonly used content items have the same name and data type across models. Models are documented in Excel workbooks and posted for community review with a deadline for comment; at the end of the comment period a technical working group reviews and discusses comments and votes on adoption. When adopted, an XML schema is implemented for the content model. Our approach has been to keep the focus of each interchange schema narrow, such that simple-feature (flat file) XML schema are sufficient to implement the content model. Keeping individual interchange formats simple, and allowing flexibility to introduce new content models as needed have both assisted in adoption of the service architecture. One problem that remains to be solved is that off-the-shelf server packages (GeoServer, ArcGIS server) do not permit configuration of a normative schema location to be bound with XML namespaces in instance documents. Such configuration is possible with GeoServer using a more complex deployment process. XML interchange format schema versions are indicated by the namespace URI; because of the schema location

  10. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Roscommon, Roscommon

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahoney, S

    2012-06-01

    AJ Cronin (1896-1981) was a Scottish-born doctor-turned-novelist whose most famous novel is The Citadel, published in 1937. The book describes the struggles of an idealistic young doctor working in Wales and London in the 1920s and 30s. The novel was a global bestseller and its portrayal of a largely ineffective, corruption-ridden system of healthcare is thought to have directly influenced the foundation of the National Health Service in 1948. The Citadel anticipates such phenomena as evidence-based medicine and continuing medical education. This paper argues that the novel was never intended as propaganda for a state-controlled national health service. On the contrary, Cronin was against state control. Analysis of the novel is informed by recent biographical revelations about Cronin and the blurring of the margin between fact and fiction in Cronin\\'s life and work is examined.

  11. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Sligo

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahoney, S

    2012-06-01

    AJ Cronin (1896-1981) was a Scottish-born doctor-turned-novelist whose most famous novel is The Citadel, published in 1937. The book describes the struggles of an idealistic young doctor working in Wales and London in the 1920s and 30s. The novel was a global bestseller and its portrayal of a largely ineffective, corruption-ridden system of healthcare is thought to have directly influenced the foundation of the National Health Service in 1948. The Citadel anticipates such phenomena as evidence-based medicine and continuing medical education. This paper argues that the novel was never intended as propaganda for a state-controlled national health service. On the contrary, Cronin was against state control. Analysis of the novel is informed by recent biographical revelations about Cronin and the blurring of the margin between fact and fiction in Cronin\\'s life and work is examined.

  12. VISIONS Vehicular communication Improvement : solution based on IMS Operational Nodes and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Lequerica Roca, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Digital services and communications in vehicular scenarios provide the essential assets to improve road transport in several ways like reducing accidents, improving traffic efficiency and optimizing the transport of goods and people. Vehicular communications typically rely on VANET (Vehicular Ad hoc Networks). In these networks vehicles communicate with each other without the need of infrastructure. VANET are mainly oriented to disseminate information to the vehicles in certain geographic are...

  13. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Donegal

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Mairéad

    2011-12-01

    The principal aim was to assess the utility of three needs assessment\\/dependency tools for use in community-based palliative care services. Specific objectives were to assess a sample of patients receiving specialist palliative care community nursing using these tools, to assess the predictive ability of each tool, and to explore the utility of prioritizing and measuring patient dependency from a clinical nurse specialist (CNS) perspective.

  14. Towards a Framework for Knowledge-based Pricing Services Improving Operational Agility in the Retail Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kowatsch, Tobias; Maass, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Marketing research has identified several benefits of dynamic pricing models. For example, dynamic pricing in terms of inventory considerations and time horizons, bundling or personalized offerings has been found to increase sales volume, customer satisfaction and to skim reservation prices. However, today's retailers lack the capability to apply dynamic pricing models because of missing services that realize them and technologies such as smart product infrastructures that deliver the resu...

  15. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Wall

    2008-01-01

    Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC) of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), finds that the concept of franch...

  16. Public Service Company, Fort St. Vrain Station, Petition For Objection to Issuance of Operating Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Honeywell Engines, Systems and Services, Phoenix, Arizona, Petition to Object to Title V Operating Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Petition Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-petition-database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  18. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Nua Healthcare Services, Laois

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brabazon, E D

    2010-01-01

    The use of routinely available electronic sources of healthcare data on the spread of influenza has the potential to enhance current surveillance activities. This study aimed to develop a method for identifying influenza-related records from general practitioner(GP) out-of-hours (OOH) services in Ireland. Data from one such service were interrogated for keywords relating to influenza-like illness (ILI) and a proxy measure of influenza activity in the community setting was developed. Comparison of this syndromic surveillance measure with national data on ILI consultation rates demonstrated a statistically significant temporal correlation.In five out of six influenza seasons investigated,peaks in the GP OOH influenza-related calls appeared at least one week ahead of peaks in the national ILI consultation rates. The method described in this paper has been extended to nine OOH services in Ireland (covering 70% of the Irish population) to provide weekly figures on self-reported illness for influenza in the community and its data have been incorporated into the national weekly influenza reports produced by the Health Protection Surveillance Centre. These data should provide early warnings of both seasonal and pandemic influenza in Ireland.

  19. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M; Port, Allison M; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J; Mott, Christopher M; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-11-01

    Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological, and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains, including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen's d = 1.00), cognitive throughput (d = 0.68), and abstract reasoning (d = 0.65). In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogues to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses.

  20. Innate Immune Responses of Drosophila melanogaster Are Altered by Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Oana; Lera, Matthew P.; Sanchez, Max E.; Levic, Edina; Higgins, Laura A.; Shmygelska, Alena; Fahlen, Thomas F.; Nichol, Helen; Bhattacharya, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly) innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The goals of this study were to elucidate fundamental immune processes in Drosophila affected by spaceflight and to measure host-pathogen responses post-flight. Five containers, each containing ten female and five male fruit flies, were housed and bred on the space shuttle (average orbit altitude of 330.35 km) for 12 days and 18.5 hours. A new generation of flies was reared in microgravity. In larvae, the immune system was examined by analyzing plasmatocyte number and activity in culture. In adults, the induced immune responses were analyzed by bacterial clearance and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of selected genes following infection with E. coli. The RNA levels of relevant immune pathway genes were determined in both larvae and adults by microarray analysis. The ability of larval plasmatocytes to phagocytose E. coli in culture was attenuated following spaceflight, and in parallel, the expression of genes involved in cell maturation was downregulated. In addition, the level of constitutive expression of pattern recognition receptors and opsonins that specifically recognize bacteria, and of lysozymes, antimicrobial peptide (AMP) pathway and immune stress genes, hallmarks of humoral immunity, were also reduced in larvae. In adults, the efficiency of bacterial clearance measured in vivo following a systemic infection with E. coli post-flight, remained robust. We show that spaceflight altered both cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila and that the disruption occurs at multiple interacting pathways. PMID:21264297

  1. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Savitt, Adam; Moore, Tyler M.; Port, Allison M.; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J.; Nasrini, Jad; Mollicone, Daniel J.; Mott, Christopher M.; McCann, Thom; Dinges, David F.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sustained high-level cognitive performance is of paramount importance for the success of space missions, which involve environmental, physiological and psychological stressors that may affect brain functions. Despite subjective symptom reports of cognitive fluctuations in spaceflight, the nature of neurobehavioral functioning in space has not been clarified. Methods We developed a computerized cognitive test battery (Cognition) that has sensitivity to multiple cognitive domains and was specifically designed for the high-performing astronaut population. Cognition consists of 15 unique forms of 10 neuropsychological tests that cover a range of cognitive domains including emotion processing, spatial orientation, and risk decision making. Cognition is based on tests known to engage specific brain regions as evidenced by functional neuroimaging. Here we describe the first normative and acute total sleep deprivation data on the Cognition test battery as well as several efforts underway to establish the validity, sensitivity, feasibility, and acceptability of Cognition. Results Practice effects and test-retest variability differed substantially between the 10 Cognition tests, illustrating the importance of normative data that both reflect practice effects and differences in stimulus set difficulty in the population of interest. After one night without sleep, medium to large effect sizes were observed for 3 of the 10 tests addressing vigilant attention (Cohen’s d=1.00), cognitive throughput (d=0.68), and abstract reasoning (d=0.65). Conclusions In addition to providing neuroimaging-based novel information on the effects of spaceflight on a range of cognitive functions, Cognition will facilitate comparing the effects of ground-based analogs to spaceflight, increase consistency across projects, and thus enable meta-analyses. PMID:26564759

  2. Innate immune responses of Drosophila melanogaster are altered by spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Marcu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations and impairment of immune responses in humans present a health risk for space exploration missions. The molecular mechanisms underpinning innate immune defense can be confounded by the complexity of the acquired immune system of humans. Drosophila (fruit fly innate immunity is simpler, and shares many similarities with human innate immunity at the level of molecular and genetic pathways. The goals of this study were to elucidate fundamental immune processes in Drosophila affected by spaceflight and to measure host-pathogen responses post-flight. Five containers, each containing ten female and five male fruit flies, were housed and bred on the space shuttle (average orbit altitude of 330.35 km for 12 days and 18.5 hours. A new generation of flies was reared in microgravity. In larvae, the immune system was examined by analyzing plasmatocyte number and activity in culture. In adults, the induced immune responses were analyzed by bacterial clearance and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR of selected genes following infection with E. coli. The RNA levels of relevant immune pathway genes were determined in both larvae and adults by microarray analysis. The ability of larval plasmatocytes to phagocytose E. coli in culture was attenuated following spaceflight, and in parallel, the expression of genes involved in cell maturation was downregulated. In addition, the level of constitutive expression of pattern recognition receptors and opsonins that specifically recognize bacteria, and of lysozymes, antimicrobial peptide (AMP pathway and immune stress genes, hallmarks of humoral immunity, were also reduced in larvae. In adults, the efficiency of bacterial clearance measured in vivo following a systemic infection with E. coli post-flight, remained robust. We show that spaceflight altered both cellular and humoral immune responses in Drosophila and that the disruption occurs at multiple interacting pathways.

  3. Changes of the eye during long-term spaceflight. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Makarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review includes the publications of the scientific literature on the eye change during long-term spaceflight. The any eye changes such as visual impairment, hyperopic shift in refraction, changes in the intraocular pressure, increased the intracranial pressure, globe flattening, choroidal folding, optic disc edema, and optic nerve kinking and other changes were reported. The main cause of eye disorders, in all probability, is the increase of the intracranial pressure during long-term spaceflight. The reasons of the increased intracranial pressure are a collection of various factors of adaptation mechanisms in the body to weightless conditions. The leading role in the development of intracranial hypertension takes a redistribution of the body fluids (blood and lymph in the direction of the head, but the opportunities and the effect of other factors are present. Also the displacement and increase of the internal organs volume of the chest can cause external compression of the jugular veins, increasing the pressure of the blood in them, and as the result to lead to the increase of the intracranial pressure. The role of trigger such mechanisms in the development of the intracranial hypertension in the microgravity environment as anatomical predisposition of the body, race, metabolic changes under the influence of high carbon dioxide content in the different compartments of the station, high sodium intake, the enzyme dysfunction, weight exercises of the astronauts was discussed. However, the pathogenic mechanisms is currently still under investigation. An important role in the study of the adaptation mechanisms is given to research not only before and after the flight, but also during the space flight. The accumulated knowledge and experience about the changes in organs and systems in the conditions of human adaptation to microgravity will help answer many questions related to the implementation of the long spaceflights.

  4. A Psychiatric Formulary for Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Eric; Bui, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Behavioral health is essential for the safety, well-being, and performance of crewmembers in both human spaceflight and Antarctic exploration. Over the past five decades, psychiatric issues have been documented in orbital spaceflight. In Antarctica, literature suggests up to 5% of wintering crewmembers could meet criteria for a psychiatric illness, including mood disorders, stressor-related disorders, sleep-wake disorders, and substance-related disorders. Experience from these settings indicates that psychiatric disorders on deep space missions must be anticipated. An important part of planning for the psychological health of crewmembers is the onboard provision of psychotropic drugs. These medications have been available on orbital missions. A greater variety and supply of these drugs exist at Antarctic facilities. The size and diversity of a deep space psychiatric formulary will be greater than that provided on orbital missions. Drugs to be provisioned include anxiolytics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and hypnotics. Each drug category should include different medications, providing diverse pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and side effect profiles. The formulary itself should be rigorously controlled, given the abuse potential of some medications. In-flight treatment strategies could include psychological monitoring of well-being and early intervention for significant symptoms. Psychiatric emergencies would be treated aggressively with behavioral and pharmacological interventions to de-escalate potentially hazardous situations. On long-duration space missions, a robust psychiatric formulary could provide crewmembers autonomy and flexibility in treating a range of behavioral issues from depression to acute psychosis. This will contribute to the safety, health, and performance of crewmembers, and to mission success.Friedman E, Bui B. A psychiatric formulary for long-duration spaceflight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(11):1024-1033.

  5. Improving Civil-Military Information Sharing in Peace Support Operations Using a Service-Oriented Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    solutions that operate reliable under adverse conditions including a bandwidth-limited environment, and provide them with customised information...236 Klein, G. (1998) Sources of Power: How people make decisions, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass ., USA, 1998 NATO (2007) NATO Architecture Framework

  6. Evaluating communication architectures in operational information services1 (Version 1.1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, J.de

    2005-01-01

    In military operations, many units are mobile and equipped with relatively limited (wireless) communication means in terms of bandwidth and transmission range. Moreover, communications are potentially subject to interference, jamming, and unavailability (e.g., because of radio silence). In this

  7. Technology assessment for Spaceship Two, space tourism, and private spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Randy

    A seven-step technology assessment was conducted to address questions regarding the significance and likely consequences associated with the introduction of Spaceship Two, space tourism, and private spaceflight. Impacts were assessed across four categories: the Role and Functions of Government, Private Industry Factors, Cultural and Societal Impacts, and the Time Frame in which these impacts were anticipated to occur. The technology assessment findings were compared to the results of expert interviews that addressed the sane four categories. The researcher noted that, while there was overwhelming agreement between the technology assessment's primary impacts and the expert interview responses, there were several differences. The technology assessment and interviewees agreed that the federal government would likely be both a regulator and user of private spaceflight. Both agreed that business partnerships would be key in pursuing private spaceflight. There was also consensus that, as market forces come to bear, ticket prices would drop and a larger market and broader passenger demographic would emerge. The technology assessment and experts agreed that an accident, especially one early in the industry's evolution, could be disastrous. Both agreed that private spaceflight can serve as a inspiration to students and be a positive influence in society, and both agreed that the start of passenger flights should take place in the 2010 - 2012 timeframe. Due to the potentially disastrous consequences of an accident, there was agreement between the technology assessment and experts on the value of flight and ground crew training, driven by insurance carriers and federal mandate. Most differences between the technology assessment's findings and the expert interview responses were due to omission, rather than direct disagreement. However, this was not the case in every instance. The most significant difference between the technology assessment and the experts involved the

  8. Development of Bone Remodeling Model for Spaceflight Bone Physiology Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennline, James A.; Werner, Christopher R.; Lewandowski, Beth; Thompson, Bill; Sibonga, Jean; Mulugeta, Lealem

    2015-01-01

    Current spaceflight exercise countermeasures do not eliminate bone loss. Astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1-2% a month (Lang et al. 2004, Buckey 2006, LeBlanc et al. 2007). This may lead to early onset osteoporosis and place the astronauts at greater risk of fracture later in their lives. NASA seeks to improve understanding of the mechanisms of bone remodeling and demineralization in 1g in order to appropriately quantify long term risks to astronauts and improve countermeasures. NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA's bone discipline to develop a validated computational model to augment research efforts aimed at achieving this goal.

  9. A primary report on honeybee space-flight breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jun; Shi Wei; Ding Guiling; Lv Liping; Liu Zhiguang

    2009-01-01

    The semen of honeybees (Apis mellifera ligustica and Apis mellifera carnica) was carried by the recoverable satellite for a spaceflight and was inseminated instrumentally to the virgin queens after returning to the earth. The preliminary results showed that both the vitality of the sperm and the survival rate of SP 1 queen were lower than those of the control. Obvious variations in morphology appeared on the progeny workers of queens in SP 2 and in SP 3 generations, but most of variation were unfavorable. Mutants with desirable characters were not found after the space fight. (authors)

  10. 20 CFR 662.270 - How are the costs of providing services through the One-Stop delivery system and the operating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... through the One-Stop delivery system and the operating costs of the system to be funded? 662.270 Section... and the operating costs of the system to be funded? The MOU must describe the particular funding arrangements for services and operating costs of the One-Stop delivery system. Each partner must contribute a...

  11. Bluetooth Heart Rate Monitors For Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, R. E.; West, M. R.; Kalogera, K. L.; Hanson, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    used in an ISS Bluetooth validation study, because it simultaneously transmits magnetic pulse that is integrated with existing exercise hardware on ISS. The simultaneous data streams allow for beat-to-beat comparison between the current ISS standard and CS2. Upon Bluetooth validation aboard ISS, the research team will down select a new BT_HRM for operational use.

  12. Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight-Long

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Barger, Laura K.; Wright, Kenneth P., Jr.; Ronda, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight-Long (Sleep-Long) will examine the effects of spaceflight and ambient light exposure on the sleep-wake cycles of the crew members during long-duration stays on the space station.

  13. Is skeletal muscle ready for long-term spaceflight and return to gravity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    It is now clear that prevention of muscle debilitation during spaceflight will require a broader approach than simple exercise aimed at strengthening of the muscle fibers. The levels of several hormones and receptors are altered by unloading and must be returned to homeostasis. Pharmacotherapy and gene transfer strategies to raise the relative level of structural proteins may minimize the problems faced by astronauts in readapting to Earth-gravity. Up to now, we have only minimally exploited microgravity for advancing our understanding of muscle biology. A research laboratory in the space station with a centrifuge facility (gravity control) is essential for conducting basic research in this field. Microgravity has proven an excellent tool for noninvasively perturbing the synthesis of muscle proteins in the search for molecular signals and gene regulatory factors influencing differentiation, growth, maintenance and atrophy of muscle. Understanding the relation between blood flow and interstitial edema and between workload and subsequent structural failure are but two important problems that require serious attention. The roles of hormones and growth factors in regulating gene expression and their microgravity-induced altered production are other urgent issues to pursue. These types of studies will yield information that advances basic knowledge of muscle biology and offers insights into countermeasure design. This knowledge is likely to assist rehabilitation of diseased or injured muscles in humans on Earth, especially individuals in the more vulnerable aging population and persons participating in strenuous sports. Will the skeletal muscle system be prepared for the increased exposure to microgravity and the return to gravity loading without injury when space station is operational? The answer depends in large part on continued access to space and funding of ground-based models and flight experiments. The previous two decades of spaceflight research have described

  14. Sustained Accelerated Idioventricular Rhythm in a Centrifuge-Simulated Suborbital Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Rahul; Blue, Rebecca S; Mathers, Charles; Castleberry, Tarah L; Vanderploeg, James M

    2017-08-01

    Hypergravitational exposures during human centrifugation are known to provoke dysrhythmias, including sinus dysrhythmias/tachycardias, premature atrial/ventricular contractions, and even atrial fibrillations or flutter patterns. However, events are generally short-lived and resolve rapidly after cessation of acceleration. This case report describes a prolonged ectopic ventricular rhythm in response to high G exposure. A previously healthy 30-yr-old man voluntarily participated in centrifuge trials as a part of a larger study, experiencing a total of 7 centrifuge runs over 48 h. Day 1 consisted of two +Gz runs (peak +3.5 Gz, run 2) and two +Gx runs (peak +6.0 Gx, run 4). Day 2 consisted of three runs approximating suborbital spaceflight profiles (combined +Gx and +Gz). Hemodynamic data collected included blood pressure, heart rate, and continuous three-lead electrocardiogram. Following the final acceleration exposure of the last Day 2 run (peak +4.5 Gx and +4.0 Gz combined, resultant +6.0 G), during a period of idle resting centrifuge activity (resultant vector +1.4 G), the subject demonstrated a marked change in his three-lead electrocardiogram from normal sinus rhythm to a wide-complex ectopic ventricular rhythm at a rate of 91-95 bpm, consistent with an accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR). This rhythm was sustained for 2 m, 24 s before reversion to normal sinus. The subject reported no adverse symptoms during this time. While prolonged, the dysrhythmia was asymptomatic and self-limited. AIVR is likely a physiological response to acceleration and can be managed conservatively. Vigilance is needed to ensure that AIVR is correctly distinguished from other, malignant rhythms to avoid inappropriate treatment and negative operational impacts.Suresh R, Blue RS, Mathers C, Castleberry TL, Vanderploeg JM. Sustained accelerated idioventricular rhythm in a centrifuge-simulated suborbital spaceflight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(8):789-793.

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of establishing and operating radiation oncology services in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunkyoung; Cho, Yoon-Min; Kwon, Soonman; Park, Kunhee

    2017-10-01

    Rising demand for services of cancer patients has been recognised by the Government of Fiji as a national health priority. Increasing attention has been paid to the lack of service of radiation therapy or radiotherapy in Fiji. This study aims to estimate and compare the costs and benefits of introducing radiation oncology services in Fiji from the societal perspective. Time horizon for cost-benefit analysis (CBA) was 15 years from 2021 to 2035. The benefits and costs were converted to the present values of 2016. Estimates for the CBA model were taken from previous studies and expert opinions and data obtained from field visits to Fiji in January 2016. Sensitivity analyses with changing assumptions were undertaken. The estimated net benefit, applying the national minimum wage (NMW) to measure monetary value for life-year gained, was -31,624,421 FJD with 0.69 of benefit-cost (B/C) ratio. If gross national income (GNI) per capita was used for the value of life years, net benefit was 3,975,684 FJD (B/C ratio: 1.04). With a pessimistic scenario, establishing the center appeared to be not cost-beneficial, and the net benefit was -53,634,682 FJD (B/C ratio: 0.46); net benefit with an optimistic scenario was estimated 23,178,189 FJD (B/C ratio: 1.20). Based on the CBA results from using GNI per capita instead of the NMW, this project would be cost-beneficial. Introducing a radiation oncology center in Fiji would have potential impacts on financial sustainability, financial protection, and accessibility and equity of the health system. Copyright © 2017 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Nua Healthcare Services, Kildare

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    1997-01-01

    The Dublin Eye and Ear Hospital Act, 1897 came in to force on 15th July 1897. The Act provided for the amalgamation of the National Eye and Ear Hospital in Molesworth Street (founded in 1814) and St Mark\\'s Ophthalmic Hospital in Lincoln Place founded in 1844 by Sir William R. Wilde) and established this Hospital. We are therefore celebrating this year the completion of one hundred year of service by the Hospital to the citizens of Dublin and indeed to people from all parts of Ireland.

  17. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Monaghan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Day, Mary Rose

    2015-03-02

    Self-neglect is a worldwide and serious public health issue that can have serious adverse outcomes and is more common in older people. Cases can vary in presentation, but typically present as poor self-care, poor care of the environment and service refusal. Community nurses frequently encounter self-neglect cases and health and social care professionals play a key role in the identification, management and prevention of self-neglect. Self-neglect cases can give rise to ethical, personal and professional challenges. The aim of this article is to create a greater understanding of the concept of self-neglect among community nurses.

  18. Get Your Hotel Operations Team Onboard The Tricycle of Guest Service

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Doug

    2018-01-01

    As hospitality industry trainers know, using symbols and models can help trainees grasp abstract concepts and make seemingly-complex paradigms easy to understand. Seems like is a good time for the hotel industry to update its model, so let’s get your team onboard The Tricycle of Guest Service. When you think about it, a tricycle is a perfect model for a positive guest experience. For one, it has three wheels, just like the three components of a memorable guest stay. The back wheels repres...

  19. Debris mitigation measures by satellite design and operational methods - Findings from the DLR space debris End-to-End Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdunnus, H.; Beltrami, P.; Janovsky, R.; Koppenwallner, G.; Krag, H.; Reimerdes, H.; Schäfer, F.

    Debris Mitigation has been recognised as an issue to be addressed by the space faring nations around the world. Currently, there are various activities going on, aiming at the establishment of debris mitigation guidelines on various levels, reaching from the UN down to national space agencies. Though guidelines established on the national level already provide concrete information how things should be done (rather that specifying what should be done or providing fundamental principles) potential users of the guidelines will still have the need to explore the technical, management, and financial implications of the guidelines for their projects. Those questions are addressed by the so called "Space Debris End-to-End Service" project, which has been initiated as a national initiative of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR). Based on a review of already existing mitigation guidelines or guidelines under development and following an identification of needs from a circle of industrial users the "End-to-End Service Gu idelines" have been established for designer and operators of spacecraft. The End-to-End Service Guidelines are based on requirements addressed by the mitigation guidelines and provide recommendations how and when the technical consideration of the mitigation guidelines should take place. By referencing requirements from the mitigation guidelines, the End-to-End Service Guidelines address the consideration of debris mitigation measures by spacecraft design and operational measures. This paper will give an introduction to the End-to-End Service Guidelines. It will focus on the proposals made for mitigation measures by the S/C system design, i.e. on protective design measures inside the spacecraft and on design measures, e.g. innovative protective (shielding) systems. Furthermore, approaches on the analytical optimisation of protective systems will be presented, aiming at the minimisation of shield mass under conservation of the protective effects. On the

  20. US Fish and Wildlife Service biomonitoring operations manual, Appendices A--K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gianotto, D.F.; Rope, R.C.; Mondecar, M.; Breckenridge, R.P.; Wiersma, G.B.; Staley, C.S.; Moser, R.S.; Sherwood, R.; Brown, K.W.

    1993-04-01

    Volume 2 contains Appendices and Summary Sheets for the following areas: A-Legislative Background and Key to Relevant Legislation, B- Biomonitoring Operations Workbook, C-Air Monitoring, D-Introduction to the Flora and Fauna for Biomonitoring, E-Decontamination Guidance Reference Field Methods, F-Documentation Guidance, Sample Handling, and Quality Assurance/Quality Control Standard Operating Procedures, G-Field Instrument Measurements Reference Field Methods, H-Ground Water Sampling Reference Field Methods, I-Sediment Sampling Reference Field Methods, J-Soil Sampling Reference Field Methods, K-Surface Water Reference Field Methods. Appendix B explains how to set up strategy to enter information on the ``disk workbook``. Appendix B is enhanced by DE97006389, an on-line workbook for users to be able to make revisions to their own biomonitoring data.

  1. Prioritizing lean supply chain management initiatives in healthcare service operations: A fuzzy-AHP approach

    OpenAIRE

    Adebanjo, Dotun; Laosirihongthong, Tritos; Samaranayake, Premaratne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of practitioners/experts about the prioritisation of healthcare performance measures and their relationship with lean supply chain management (LSCM) practices. The study will also prioritise the drivers and resources required to implement LSCM in a healthcare operations context. The prioritisation is based on the relative weights of various initiatives on a range of performance measures. Twenty-four LSCM initiatives were identified...

  2. VISIR: technological infrastructure of an operational service for safe and efficient navigation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    G. Mannarini; G. Turrisi; A. D'Anca; M. Scalas; N. Pinardi; G. Coppini; F. Palermo; I. Carluccio; M. Scuro; S. Cretì; R. Lecci; P. Nassisi; L. Tedesco

    2016-01-01

    VISIR (discoVerIng Safe and effIcient Routes) is an operational decision support system (DSS) for optimal ship routing designed and implemented in the frame of the TESSA (TEchnology for Situational Sea Awareness) project. The system is aimed to increase safety and efficiency of navigation through the use of forecast environmental fields and route optimization. VISIR can be accessed through a web interface (www.visir-nav.com) and mobile applications for both iOS and Androi...

  3. Media ion composition controls regulatory and virulence response of Salmonella in spaceflight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Wilson

    Full Text Available The spaceflight environment is relevant to conditions encountered by pathogens during the course of infection and induces novel changes in microbial pathogenesis not observed using conventional methods. It is unclear how microbial cells sense spaceflight-associated changes to their growth environment and orchestrate corresponding changes in molecular and physiological phenotypes relevant to the infection process. Here we report that spaceflight-induced increases in Salmonella virulence are regulated by media ion composition, and that phosphate ion is sufficient to alter related pathogenesis responses in a spaceflight analogue model. Using whole genome microarray and proteomic analyses from two independent Space Shuttle missions, we identified evolutionarily conserved molecular pathways in Salmonella that respond to spaceflight under all media compositions tested. Identification of conserved regulatory paradigms opens new avenues to control microbial responses during the infection process and holds promise to provide an improved understanding of human health and disease on Earth.

  4. Building a Smooth Medical Service for Operating Room Using RFID Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Ping Hung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the information technology advancement, the feasibility for the establishment of mobile medical environments has been strengthened. Using RFID to facilitate the tracing of patients’ mobile position in hospital has attracted more attentions from researchers due to the demand on advanced features. Traditionally, the management of surgical treatment is generally manually operated and there is no consistent operating procedure for patients transferring among wards, surgery waiting rooms, operating rooms, and recovery rooms, resulting in panicky and urgent transferring work among departments and, thus, leading to delays and errors. In this paper, we propose a new framework using radio frequency identification (RFID technology for a mobilized surgical process monitoring system. Through the active tag, an application management system used before, during, and after the surgical processes has been proposed. The concept of signal level matrix, SLM, was proposed to accurately identify patients and dynamically track patients’ location. By updating patient’s information real-time, the preprocessing time needed for various tasks and incomplete transfers among departments can be reduced, the medical resources can be effectively used, unnecessary medical disputes can be reduced, and more comprehensive health care environment can be provided. The feasibility and effectiveness of our proposed system are demonstrated with a number of experimental results.

  5. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Health Service Executive, Cavan

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neill, Shane C O

    2012-07-16

    AbstractIntroductionNail patella syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary condition, with an incidence of 22 per million in the United Kingdom. The syndrome’s most common features include iliac horns, hypoplastic patella and nail dysplasia.Case presentationWe report the case of a 26-year-old Caucasian man with nail patella syndrome who sustained a fracture of his right hypoplastic patella after a fall. His right knee became swollen and he was unable to extend against gravity immediately post fall. Radiographs revealed a fracture of the lower pole of his right patella with associated complete disruption of the extensor mechanism of the knee. He underwent operative fixation and his post operative course was uneventful. He was further treated post operatively with a full knee cast and graded immobilization. At six months he had regained the full range of motion at the knee joint.ConclusionsTo the best of our knowledge, this is the only case report in the literature describing a patella fracture in an individual with nail patella syndrome. We hypothesize that given the extent of pre-existing knee joint impairment in these individuals, functional outcome may be inferior, suggesting the need for more frequent follow-up.

  6. Contracting out Support Services in Future Expeditionary Operations: Learning from the Afghan Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kinsey

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As with the US led Coalition war in Iraq, the war in Afghanistan has seen an unprecedented number of private contractors being utilised in support of military operations in the country. In the case of the United States government for example, over half of its personnel in Afghanistan and Iraq are contract employees, while the same figure in the UK stands at 30 per cent and is set to increase in the coming years. This level of contractor involvement in the ‘War on Terror’ is not inconsequential. Indeed, their contribution to military operations is so large they are now able to influence NATO’s counter-insurgency operations and thus its overall strategy for fighting the Taliban and Al-Qaeda. Importantly, such involvement can be both beneficial and/or detrimental. This article first sets out to explore how NATO came to rely on so many contractors in Afghanistan and the risks this involves for the ‘War on Terror’.

  7. Psychiatric worker and family members: pathways towards co-operation networks within psychiatric assistance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Carbone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The family’s role in patient care was greatly altered by Law 180. This law, introduced in Italy in 1978, led to a gradual phasing out of custodial treatment for psychiatric patients. This different mindset, which views the family as an alternative to institutionalization, leads to it being seen as an essential entity in the setting up of community service dynamics. We interviewed health professionals in order to understand obstacles of collaboration between family members and mental health care workers. The goal was to uncover actions that promote collaboration and help build alliances between families and psychiatric workers. Results showed that health professionals view the family as a therapeutic resource. Despite this view, family members were rarely included in patient treatment. The reasons is: the structures have a theoretical orientation of collaboration with the family but, for nurses not are organized a few meeting spaces with family members. Services should create moments, such as multi-family groups or groups of information, managed by nurses and not only by doctors. These occasions it might facilitate the knowledge between professionals and family members.

  8. Joint Service Common Operating Environment (COE) Common Geographic Information System functional requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meitzler, W.D.

    1992-06-01

    In the context of this document and COE, the Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are decision support systems involving the integration of spatially referenced data in a problem solving environment. They are digital computer systems for capturing, processing, managing, displaying, modeling, and analyzing geographically referenced spatial data which are described by attribute data and location. The ability to perform spatial analysis and the ability to combine two or more data sets to create new spatial information differentiates a GIS from other computer mapping systems. While the CCGIS allows for data editing and input, its primary purpose is not to prepare data, but rather to manipulate, analyte, and clarify it. The CCGIS defined herein provides GIS services and resources including the spatial and map related functionality common to all subsystems contained within the COE suite of C4I systems. The CCGIS, which is an integral component of the COE concept, relies on the other COE standard components to provide the definition for other support computing services required.

  9. The corporate governance contribution as a creation of value for commercial partnerships between service providers and logistic operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Rocha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical research identified the possibility that Governance factors contribute as evidence of value in the relationships of commercial partnerships between Logistic Operators and service providers. The data analysis allowed to identify three possible levels of grouping due to the variables of facilitators of proximity of partnerships that showed that it is possible to have a relationship with transparence between the client company and its suppliers. Most of these groups of suppliers were characterized by the intention to share operating profits with the client company, with little tolerance to financial risks of joint investments and a tendency to sign future supply contracts. Transparency, ethics and corporate responsibility have contributed to the consolidation of these groupings of partnerships among companies, as well as creating a mutual and evolutionary process of full confidence in such a way that Corporate Governance becomes the main value factor for this relationship.

  10. Lessons learned about spaceflight and cell biology experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2004-01-01

    Conducting cell biology experiments in microgravity can be among the most technically challenging events in a biologist's life. Conflicting events of spaceflight include waiting to get manifested, delays in manifest schedules, training astronauts to not shake your cultures and to add reagents slowly, as shaking or quick injection can activate signaling cascades and give you erroneous results. It is important to select good hardware that is reliable. Possible conflicting environments in flight include g-force and vibration of launch, exposure of cells to microgravity for extended periods until hardware is turned on, changes in cabin gases and cosmic radiation. One should have an on-board 1-g control centrifuge in order to eliminate environmental differences. Other obstacles include getting your funding in a timely manner (it is not uncommon for two to three years to pass between notification of grant approval for funding and actually getting funded). That said, it is important to note that microgravity research is worthwhile since all terrestrial life evolved in a gravity field and secrets of biological function may only be answered by removing the constant of gravity. Finally, spaceflight experiments are rewarding and worth your effort and patience.

  11. Invited review: gender issues related to spaceflight: a NASA perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, D. L.; Jennings, R. T.; Meck, J. V.; Powell, M. R.; Putcha, L.; Sams, C. P.; Schneider, S. M.; Shackelford, L. C.; Smith, S. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    This minireview provides an overview of known and potential gender differences in physiological responses to spaceflight. The paper covers cardiovascular and exercise physiology, barophysiology and decompression sickness, renal stone risk, immunology, neurovestibular and sensorimotor function, nutrition, pharmacotherapeutics, and reproduction. Potential health and functional impacts associated with the various physiological changes during spaceflight are discussed, and areas needing additional research are highlighted. Historically, studies of physiological responses to microgravity have not been aimed at examining gender-specific differences in the astronaut population. Insufficient data exist in most of the discipline areas at this time to draw valid conclusions about gender-specific differences in astronauts, in part due to the small ratio of women to men. The only astronaut health issue for which a large enough data set exists to allow valid conclusions to be drawn about gender differences is orthostatic intolerance following shuttle missions, in which women have a significantly higher incidence of presyncope during stand tests than do men. The most common observation across disciplines is that individual differences in physiological responses within genders are usually as large as, or larger than, differences between genders. Individual characteristics usually outweigh gender differences per se.

  12. Spaceflight Activates Autophagy Programs and the Proteasome in Mouse Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, Elizabeth A; Pecaut, Michael J; Jonscher, Karen R

    2017-09-27

    Increased oxidative stress is an unavoidable consequence of exposure to the space environment. Our previous studies showed that mice exposed to space for 13.5 days had decreased glutathione levels, suggesting impairments in oxidative defense. Here we performed unbiased, unsupervised and integrated multi-'omic analyses of metabolomic and transcriptomic datasets from mice flown aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Enrichment analyses of metabolite and gene sets showed significant changes in osmolyte concentrations and pathways related to glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism, likely consequences of relative dehydration of the spaceflight mice. However, we also found increased enrichment of aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and purine metabolic pathways, concomitant with enrichment of genes associated with autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome. When taken together with a downregulation in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2-mediated signaling, our analyses suggest that decreased hepatic oxidative defense may lead to aberrant tRNA post-translational processing, induction of degradation programs and senescence-associated mitochondrial dysfunction in response to the spaceflight environment.

  13. Intraocular Lens Use in an Astronaut During Long Duration Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Thomas H; Gibson, C Robert; Schmid, Josef F; Lipsky, William; Sargsyan, Ashot E; Garcia, Kathleen; Williams, Jeffrey N

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the first use of an intraocular lens (IOL) in an astronaut during long duration spaceflight (LDSF). An astronaut developed a unilateral cataract and underwent phacoemulsification with insertion of an acrylic IOL. Approximately 15 mo later he flew on a Soyuz spacecraft to the International Space Station (ISS), where he successfully completed a 6-mo mission. Ocular examination, including ultrasound (US), was performed before, during, and after his mission and he was questioned regarding visual changes during each portion of his flight. We documented no change in IOL position during his space mission. This astronaut reported excellent and stable vision during liftoff, entry into microgravity (MG), 6 mo on the ISS, descent, and landing. Our results suggest that modern IOLs are stable, effective, and well tolerated during LDSF.Mader TH, Gibson CR, Schmid JF, Lipsky W, Sargsyan AE, Garcia K, Williams JN. Intraocular lens use in an astronaut during long duration spaceflight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):63-65.

  14. Human spaceflight and an asteroid redirect mission: Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    The planning of human spaceflight programmes is an exercise in careful rationing of a scarce and expensive resource. Current NASA plans are to develop the new capability for human-rated launch into space to replace the Space Transportation System (STS), more commonly known as the Space Shuttle, combined with a heavy lift capability, and followed by an eventual Mars mission. As an intermediate step towards Mars, NASA proposes to venture beyond Low Earth Orbit to cis-lunar space to visit a small asteroid which will be captured and moved to lunar orbit by a separate robotic mission. The rationale for this and how to garner support from the scientific community for such an asteroid mission are discussed. Key points that emerge are that a programme usually has greater legitimacy when it emerges from public debate, mostly via a Presidential Commission, a report by the National Research Council or a Decadal Review of science goals etc. Also, human spaceflight missions need to have support from a wide range of interested communities. Accordingly, an outline scientific case for a human visit to an asteroid is made. Further, it is argued here that the scientific interest in an asteroid mission needs to be included early in the planning stages, so that the appropriate capabilities (here the need for drilling cores and carrying equipment to, and returning samples from, the asteroid) can be included.

  15. Effects of spaceflight on the muscles of the murine shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hua; Lim, Chanteak; Schwartz, Andrea G; Andreev-Andrievskiy, Alexander; Deymier, Alix C; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical loading is necessary for the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Removal of loading via microgravity, paralysis, or bed rest leads to rapid loss of muscle mass and function; however, the molecular mechanisms that lead to these changes are largely unknown, particularly for the spaceflight (SF) microgravity environment. Furthermore, few studies have explored these effects on the shoulder, a dynamically stabilized joint with a large range of motion; therefore, we examined the effects of microgravity on mouse shoulder muscles for the 15-d Space Transportation System (STS)-131, 13-d STS-135, and 30-d Bion-M1 missions. Mice from STS missions were euthanized within 4 h after landing, whereas mice from the Bion-M1 mission were euthanized within 14 h after landing. The motion-generating deltoid muscle was more sensitive to microgravity than the joint-stabilizing rotator cuff muscles. Mice from the STS-131 mission exhibited reduced myogenic ( Myf5 and -6 ) and adipogenic ( Pparg , Cebpa , and Lep ) gene expression, whereas either no change or an increased expression of these genes was observed in mice from the Bion-M1 mission. In summary, muscle responses to microgravity were muscle-type specific, short-duration SF caused dramatic molecular changes to shoulder muscles and responses to reloading upon landing were rapid.-Shen, H., Lim, C., Schwartz, A. G., Andreev-Andrievskiy, A., Deymier, A. C., Thomopoulos, S. Effects of spaceflight on the muscles of the murine shoulder. © FASEB.

  16. Spaceflight Activates Autophagy Programs and the Proteasome in Mouse Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Blaber

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress is an unavoidable consequence of exposure to the space environment. Our previous studies showed that mice exposed to space for 13.5 days had decreased glutathione levels, suggesting impairments in oxidative defense. Here we performed unbiased, unsupervised and integrated multi-‘omic analyses of metabolomic and transcriptomic datasets from mice flown aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis. Enrichment analyses of metabolite and gene sets showed significant changes in osmolyte concentrations and pathways related to glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid metabolism, likely consequences of relative dehydration of the spaceflight mice. However, we also found increased enrichment of aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and purine metabolic pathways, concomitant with enrichment of genes associated with autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome. When taken together with a downregulation in nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2-mediated signaling, our analyses suggest that decreased hepatic oxidative defense may lead to aberrant tRNA post-translational processing, induction of degradation programs and senescence-associated mitochondrial dysfunction in response to the spaceflight environment.

  17. Human Spaceflight and American Society: The Record So Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Charles

    2002-01-01

    These remarks give me an excuse to revisit a world that Catherine Cox and I had a chance to live in vicariously from 1986 to 1989 when we were researching and writing about Project Apollo. As I thought about it, I realized that actually very few people in this audience have had a chance to live in that world, either vicariously or for real. For most people today, NASA's human spaceflight program is the Shuttle. The NASA you know is an extremely large bureaucracy. The Apollo you know is a historical event. So to kick off today's presentations, I want to be the "Voice of Christmas Past." If we want to think about what is possible for human spaceflight as part of America's future, it is essential to understand how NASA people understood "possible" during the Apollo era. It is also important to understand that the way NASA functioned during the Apollo Program was wildly different from the way NASA functions now. In fact-and I say this with all due respect to the current NASA team members who are doing fine work-the race to the Moon was not really a race against the Russians; it was a race to see if we could get to the Moon before NASA became a bureaucracy, and we won. But the lessons of that experience should be ones that we still have at the front of our minds.

  18. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPANIES USING SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE (SOA AND OF THEIR OPERATION CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Duran Heras

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to establish the main characteristics of the organizations that have successfully implemented information systems based on Service Oriented Architecture (SOA. Their environmental circumstances have also been studied. To achieve this objective, a SOA bibliographic review has been carried out, encompassing an analysis of 25 real cases in which different SOA applications were successfully implemented. All these cases were published between 2.001 and 2.007. The conclusions of this article can be briefly summarized as follows: SOA is well suited for organizations that rely on important legacy systems, whose performance is hindered by the lack of integration and flexibility of their computer architectures. These organizations therefore need to improve such architectures rather than replace them by new systems; SOA is being used by organizations that need to integrate their systems with those of their supply chain partners; SOA solutions provide support for the use of Web technologies.

  19. Traffic condition with road upgrading during construction and operation stages based on level-of-service (LOS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, A. C.; Lee, H. H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, traffic survey was done at signalized intersection of both ends of an upgrading road during morning and afternoon peak hours throughout construction period. The intersections of Tudan Road located at Miri City in Sarawak State, Malaysia were chosen as study sites. The aim of this research was to investigate the traffic condition for the signalized intersections of a R3 secondary road that being upgrading to standard U5 dual carriageway during peak hours for construction and operation stages. Data collected from these sites were analyzed according to Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2010. From the results, the level-of-services (LOS) of Kuala Baram By Pass Road intersection improved from Level F to Level E at operation stage for weekday during peak hours in the morning. LOS of Lutong-Kuala Baram Road intersection at construction stage were Level C during peak hours in the morning and Level D during peak hours in the afternoon for weekends. However, the LOS during both peak hours for weekends were projected to improve to Level B at the operation stage. It proved that the road construction has affected LOS, and this temporary issue can be solved after the upgraded road is in operation.

  20. The influence of stakeholder groups in operation and maintenance services of offshore wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Pedersen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    One of the prime challenges in offshore wind is to manage and coordinate with the various stakeholders involved in the operation and maintenance (O&M) phase. Therefore the aims of this paper are: i) to map the stakeholder groups involved in O&M of Offshore Wind Farm (OWF), ii) to assess...... the identified stakeholder group's interest and power to influence O&M, iii) to evaluate the relationship between different stakeholder groups and iv) to highlight potential strategies to manage the stakeholder groups. In this article, the stakeholder analysis approach is used. The results reveal that eleven key...

  1. Occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in raw and ready-to-eat foods and in a Canadian food service operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Diane T; Sattar, Syed A; Farber, Jeffrey M; Carrillo, Catherine D

    2008-10-01

    The occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in a variety of foods from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, and raw milk samples from across Canada was determined over a 2-year period. The samples consisted of 55 raw foods (chicken, pork, and beef), 126 raw milk samples from raw milk cheese manufacturers, and 135 ready-to-eat foods (meat products, salads, and raw milk cheeses). Campylobacter jejuni was detected in 4 of the 316 samples analyzed: 1 raw beef liver sample and 3 raw chicken samples. An isolation rate of 9.7% was observed among the raw chicken samples tested. This study also investigated the role of cross-contamination in disseminating Campylobacter from raw poultry within a food service operation specializing in poultry dishes. Accordingly, kitchen surfaces within a restaurant in Ottawa, Ontario, were sampled between March and August 2001. Tests of the sampling method indicated that as few as 100 Campylobacter cells could be detected if sampling was done within 45 min of inoculation; however, Campylobacter spp. were not detected in 125 swabs of surfaces within the kitchens of this food service operation. Despite the reported high prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw poultry, this organism was not detected on surfaces within a kitchen of a restaurant specializing in poultry dishes.

  2. Microbiological sampling plan based on risk classification to verify supplier selection and production of served meals in food service operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, Evy; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Van Landeghem, Filip; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-08-01

    Food service operations are confronted with a diverse range of raw materials and served meals. The implementation of a microbial sampling plan in the framework of verification of suppliers and their own production process (functionality of their prerequisite and HACCP program), demands selection of food products and sampling frequencies. However, these are often selected without a well described scientifically underpinned sampling plan. Therefore, an approach on how to set-up a focused sampling plan, enabled by a microbial risk categorization of food products, for both incoming raw materials and meals served to the consumers is presented. The sampling plan was implemented as a case study during a one-year period in an institutional food service operation to test the feasibility of the chosen approach. This resulted in 123 samples of raw materials and 87 samples of meal servings (focused on high risk categorized food products) which were analyzed for spoilage bacteria, hygiene indicators and food borne pathogens. Although sampling plans are intrinsically limited in assessing the quality and safety of sampled foods, it was shown to be useful to reveal major non-compliances and opportunities to improve the food safety management system in place. Points of attention deduced in the case study were control of Listeria monocytogenes in raw meat spread and raw fish as well as overall microbial quality of served sandwiches and salads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of a Recirculating Dipper Well Combined with Ozone Sanitizer for Control of Foodborne Pathogens in Food Service Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Giselle; Gibson, Kristen E

    2016-09-01

    In the retail food service industry, small countertop sinks, or dipper wells, are utilized to rinse and store serving utensils between uses. These dipper wells are designed to operate under a constant flow of water, which serves both to prevent the accumulation of microorganisms and to aid in the cleanliness of the dipper well itself. Here, a recirculating dipper well ozone sanitation system (DWOSS) was evaluated for the control and inactivation of Escherichia coli , Listeria innocua , PRD1 bacteriophage, and Staphylococcus aureus present on a stainless steel disher. In a low ozone (O 3 ) demand medium, the DWOSS achieved over a 5-log reduction for E. coli , L. innocua , and PRD1 at 30 s when exposed to 0.45 to 0.55 ppm of residual O 3 . A greater than 5-log total CFU reduction was achieved for S. aureus at a 600-s exposure time and 0.50 ppm of residual O 3 . When evaluated in the presence of high O 3 demand medium (10% skim milk), the DWOSS performed significantly better (P food service. To our knowledge, a dipper well with a cleaning-in-place sanitizing system is not currently available for use in the food service industry; and, thus, this is the first study to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning-in-place dipper well.

  4. Where there's muck, there's brass: Creating sustainable franchise micro-businesses to do water services operation and maintenance in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Partnerships, using the basic principles of social franchising, could address many challenges in the operation and/or maintenance of water services. Development of this concept in South Africa is moving from research into practice....

  5. Packaging's Contribution for the Effectiveness of the Space Station's Food Service Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Storage limitations will have a major effect on space station food service. For example: foods with low bulk density such as ice cream, bread, cake, standard type potato chips and other low density snacks, flaked cereals, etc., will exacerbate the problem of space limitations; package containers are inherently volume consuming and refuse creating; and the useful observation that the optimum package is no package at all leads to the tentative conclusion that the least amount of packaging per unit of food, consistent with storage, aesthetics, preservation, cleanliness, cost and disposal criteria, is the most practical food package for the space station. A series of trade offs may have to be made to arrive at the most appropriate package design for a particular type of food taking all the criteria into account. Some of these trade offs are: single serve vs. bulk; conventional oven vs. microwave oven; nonmetallic aseptically vs. non-aseptically packaged foods; and comparison of aseptic vs. nonaseptic food packages. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  6. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services South East, Kilkenny

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLoughlin, Kathleen

    2015-11-24

    For most people, home is the preferred place of care and death. Despite the development of specialist palliative care and primary care models of community based service delivery, people who are dying, and their families\\/carers, can experience isolation, feel excluded from social circles and distanced from their communities. Loneliness and social isolation can have a detrimental impact on both health and quality of life. Internationally, models of social and practical support at the end of life are gaining momentum as a result of the Compassionate Communities movement. These models have not yet been subjected to rigorous evaluation. The aims of the study described in this protocol are: (1) to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and potential effectiveness of The Good Neighbour Partnership (GNP), a new volunteer-led model of social and practical care\\/support for community dwelling adults in Ireland who are living with advanced life-limiting illness; and (2) to pilot the method for a Phase III Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT).

  7. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Roscommon, Roscommon

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Higgins, A

    2014-11-01

    The provision of high quality healthcare information about pregnancy is important to women and to healthcare professionals and it is 1 driven, in part, by a desire to improve clinical outcomes,. The objective of this study was to examine the use of digital media by women\\' to access pregnancy information. A questionnaire was distributed to women attending a large maternity hospital. Of the 522 respondents, the mean age was 31.8 years, 45% (235\\/522) were nulliparous, 62% (324\\/522) lived in the capital city and 29% (150\\/522) attended the hospital as private patients. Overall 95% (498\\/522) used the internet for pregnancy information, 76% (399\\/522) had a smartphone and 59% (235\\/399) of smartphone owners had used a pregnancy smartapp. The nature of internet usage for pregnancy information included discussion forums (70%), social networks (67%), video media (48%), e-books (15%), blogs (13%), microblogs (9%) and podcasts (4%). Even women who were socially disadvantaged reported high levels of digital media usage. In contemporary maternity care women use digital media extensively for pregnancy information. All maternity services should have a digital media strategy.

  8. Automated fault-management in a simulated spaceflight micro-world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Bernd; Di Nocera, Francesco; Rottger, Stefan; Parasuraman, Raja

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As human spaceflight missions extend in duration and distance from Earth, a self-sufficient crew will bear far greater onboard responsibility and authority for mission success. This will increase the need for automated fault management (FM). Human factors issues in the use of such systems include maintenance of cognitive skill, situational awareness (SA), trust in automation, and workload. This study examine the human performance consequences of operator use of intelligent FM support in interaction with an autonomous, space-related, atmospheric control system. METHODS: An expert system representing a model-base reasoning agent supported operators at a low level of automation (LOA) by a computerized fault finding guide, at a medium LOA by an automated diagnosis and recovery advisory, and at a high LOA by automate diagnosis and recovery implementation, subject to operator approval or veto. Ten percent of the experimental trials involved complete failure of FM support. RESULTS: Benefits of automation were reflected in more accurate diagnoses, shorter fault identification time, and reduced subjective operator workload. Unexpectedly, fault identification times deteriorated more at the medium than at the high LOA during automation failure. Analyses of information sampling behavior showed that offloading operators from recovery implementation during reliable automation enabled operators at high LOA to engage in fault assessment activities CONCLUSIONS: The potential threat to SA imposed by high-level automation, in which decision advisories are automatically generated, need not inevitably be counteracted by choosing a lower LOA. Instead, freeing operator cognitive resources by automatic implementation of recover plans at a higher LOA can promote better fault comprehension, so long as the automation interface is designed to support efficient information sampling.

  9. Open data for water-related operational services, the SWITCH-ON approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoli, Paolo; Bagli, Stefano; Valerio, Luzzi; Broccoli, Davide; Piccinini, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    Recently, a collaborative project started called SWITCH-ON (EU FP7 project No 603587) coordinated by SMHI (http://water-switch-on.eu/) as part of the contemporary European movement imposed by the INSPIRE directive and the Open Data Strategy. Among It's R&D activities GECOsistema develops and expands inside SWITCH-ON a set of online services to tackle major water related issues, from reservoir and irrigation supply, to hydrological change adaptation and hydropower potential mapping. Here we present major releases of APRIL, HyCAW and High-resolution European HydroPower Atlas; all of which make intense use of open data. APRIL is a tool for seasonal run-off forecasts, that takes advantage of open datasets or low-cost data and performs forecasts through calibrated machine learning algorithms. HyCAW is a wizard that supports the assessment of adaptation options to cope with change in the temporal distribution of water availability as well as in the total water quantity. EU HPA provides all relevant information necessary to appraise the feasibility of a micro-hydropower plant at a specific site, taking into account hydrological as well as technical and economic factors. All the tools share a common vision of the project to address water concerns and currently untapped potential of open data for improved water management across the EU. Users are guided through a Web GIS interface, created using open source Web Mapping Applications, Open-Layers and Map Server, to explore available hydrological information in the area of interest, plot available data, perform analysis, and get reports and statistics.

  10. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services South East, Waterford

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hawton, Keith

    2011-06-10

    Abstract Background In order to reduce fatal self-poisoning legislation was introduced in the UK in 1998 to restrict pack sizes of paracetamol sold in pharmacies (maximum 32 tablets) and non-pharmacy outlets (maximum 16 tablets), and in Ireland in 2001, but with smaller maximum pack sizes (24 and 12 tablets). Our aim was to determine whether this resulted in smaller overdoses of paracetamol in Ireland compared with the UK. Methods We used data on general hospital presentations for non-fatal self-harm for 2002 - 2007 from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England (six hospitals), and from the National Registry of Deliberate Self-harm in Ireland. We compared sizes of overdoses of paracetamol in the two settings. Results There were clear peaks in numbers of non-fatal overdoses, associated with maximum pack sizes of paracetamol in pharmacy and non-pharmacy outlets in both England and Ireland. Significantly more pack equivalents (based on maximum non-pharmacy pack sizes) were used in overdoses in Ireland (mean 2.63, 95% CI 2.57-2.69) compared with England (2.07, 95% CI 2.03-2.10). The overall size of overdoses did not differ significantly between England (median 22, interquartile range (IQR) 15-32) and Ireland (median 24, IQR 12-36). Conclusions The difference in paracetamol pack size legislation between England and Ireland does not appear to have resulted in a major difference in sizes of overdoses. This is because more pack equivalents are taken in overdoses in Ireland, possibly reflecting differing enforcement of sales advice. Differences in access to clinical services may also be relevant.

  11. 78 FR 36017 - MCM Rail Services LLC, d/b/a Baltimore Industrial Railroad-Operation Exemption-Hilco SP Rail, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35725] MCM Rail Services LLC, d/b/a Baltimore Industrial Railroad-- Operation Exemption--Hilco SP Rail, LLC MCM Rail Services LLC, d/b/a Baltimore Industrial Railroad (MCM), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption...

  12. Round table: The New Constructions; New Build; IAEA Services Nuclear Power Reactor Technologies Construction and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choho, Tarik; Ward, Tony; Koshy, Thomas; )

    2014-01-01

    The first round-table of Atoms for the Future 2014 focused on the topic of 'The new construction'. Attendees had the opportunity to see Tarik Choho, Chief Commercial Executive Officer at AREVA, Tony Ward, Partner and Head of Power and Utilities at EY, as well as Thomas Koshy, Head of Nuclear Power technology Development Section at the IAEA, share their respective point of view and discuss together. They first started with their own presentation before sitting together at the discussion panel. Tarik Choho explained that there are many opportunities for new builds around the world, and especially in new comer countries. Thomas Koshy brought his expert point of view as an international regulator. He showed that the technology landscape also includes new designs as well as non-electricity generation uses. Those two aspects could bring both opportunities and challenges for licensing. Tony Ward showed how difficult it was to finance such a capitalistically intensive project as a new build, and how one could try to find an electricity retail price which is acceptable for both the general private consumer and the plant operator. All speakers agreed that preparation was core to a nuclear new build project. They also pointed out that every project involves more and more actors, and that it could be challenging to let everyone have the appropriate say

  13. VAS operational procedures and results at the Kansas City Satellite Field Services Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, B.; Carle, W.; Anthony, R.

    1983-01-01

    An operational assessment of VAS data by using a Man-computer Interactive Data Access System (McIDAS) terminal linked by a 9600 band telephone line is discussed. Seven hours of VAS data were processed and edited daily. Data was scheduled 16 hours a day, 7 days a week; however, during this time period there were very few days with 16 hours of data to evalute. The McIDAS terminal, which has 10 display frames and 5 graphics, provide access to the sounding data processed. These data are processed using two procedures. The dwell sounding data are generated by using all 12 spectral channels with a spin budget of 39. To provide coverage for most of the United States, soundings are made starting at 18 minutes after the hour from approximately 49 deg N to 36 deg N and at 48 minutes after the hour from 36 deg N to 26 deg N. The dwell imaging mode uses 11 channels but the spin budge is 17. With the reduced spin budget, retrievals can be made at 18 or 48 minutes after the hour for approximately 44 deg N to 27 deg N. With these constraints a schedule, of data sets was proposed to use the schedule and how the data set could be used are shown.

  14. Development of preventive maintenance technology and advanced service equipment for operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Kazuhiro; Sumikawa, Masaharu; Hirakawa, Hiromasa; Arakawa, Tadao; Hasegawa, Kunio; Kato, Kanji.

    1990-01-01

    Hitachi Ltd. as a manufacturer of nuclear power plants has carried out the consistent general preventive maintenance activities from the planning of the plants and the design of maintainability in the construction phase to the planning and working of preventive maintenance in the operation and maintenance phase, and exerted efforts to heighten the capacity ratio and reliability of the plants. For the purpose, the steady activities of reliability improvement have been carried out throughout the whole company, and the rationalization of the planning and management of the preventive maintenance with a computer and the development of the robots to which Al is applied have been promoted. As the technology of upgrading the facilities, boron racks, the control rods having long life and so on were developed, and their practical use is advanced. Moreover for the future, the development of the diagnostic technology on material deterioration using superconductive quantum interference devices (SQUID) is in progress. The preventive maintenance activities in Hitachi Ltd., the technical development for the purpose and the upgrading of the plant facilities are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Operational Excellence in Manufacturing, Service and the Oil & Gas: the Sectorial Definitional Constructs and Risk Management Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazu Hassan Muazu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The current global business climate has not been favorable to most firms irrespective of industry affiliation. That condition necessitated companies to adopt operational excellence as a strategy for optimising output with little resources, reducing lead time with the efficient use of assets and employees and avoiding safety and health issues to people and the environment. As a result of the need for operational excellence, many kinds of literature defined the concept based on the context of industry or sector. Industries such as manufacturing, services, oil and gas, mining and so many industries to mention a few, have their unique construct in the definition and therefore causing dilemma on which dimension to hold on to. It is against this backdrop that this paper synthesizes and integrate all the varying dimensions and fuses out similarities, differences and the antecedence of research directions taken on the few mentioned sectors. The paper thus concludes that the unique construct among all the definitions is continuous improvement, cost reduction, quality, time utilization, operational efficiency, staff involvement and output optimisation. However, they varied on risk management, staff health, safety and the concern for the environment, which is unique to oil and gas industry and that can affect the choice of research variables.

  16. Human Spaceflight Technology Needs - A Foundation for JSC's Technology Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2013-01-01

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which adds risks as well as provides a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation s primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (TechNeeds) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology

  17. Modelling of the Nutrient Medium for Plants Cultivation in Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2016-07-01

    MODELLING OF THE NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR PLANTS CULTIVATION IN SPACEFLIGHT Nechitajlo G.S.*, Rakhmetova A.A.**, Bogoslovskaja O.A.**, Ol'hovskay I.P.**, Glushchenko N.N.** *Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (IBCP RAS) mail: spacemal@mail.ru **V.L. Talrose Institute for Energy Problems of Chemical Physics of Russian Academy of Science (INEPCP RAS) mail: nnglu@ mail.ru The valuable life and fruitful activity of cosmonauts and researchers in conditions of spaceflights and prolonged work at space stations are only possible with creating life area providing fresh air, natural food, comfortable psychological conditions, etc. The solution of that problem under space conditions seems impossible without use of high nano- and biotechnologies for plants growth. A priority should be given not only to choose species of growth plants in space, but also to improve conditions for their growth which includes optimal nourishing components for plants, preparation of nutrient mediums, illumination and temperature. We are deeply convinced that just manipulations with growing conditions for cultivated plants, but not genes changes, is a guarantee of success in the decision of this problem. For improving the method of plants growing on the artificial nutrient medium with balanced content of components, being necessary for growth and development of plants, we added essential metal elements: Fe, Zn, Cu - in an electroneutral state in the form of nanoparticles instead of sulfates or other easily dissolving salts. Nanoparticulated metals are known to have a number of advantages in comparison with salts: metals in an electroneutral form are characterized with the prolonged and multifunctional action, low toxicity per se and appearing to be much below the toxicity of the same metals in the ionic forms, accumulation as a reserve being used in biotic dozes, active distribution in bodies and organs of plants and stimulation of vital processes. A high reactivity

  18. Incidence of clinical symptoms during long-duration orbital spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crucian B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brian Crucian,1 Adriana Babiak-Vazquez,2 Smith Johnston,1 Duane L Pierson,1 C Mark Ott,1 Clarence Sams1 1Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division, NASA-Johnson Space Center, 2Epidemiology/Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, KBR-Wyle, Houston, TX, USA Background: The environment of spaceflight may elevate an astronaut’s clinical risk for specific diseases. The purpose of this study was to derive, as accurately as currently possible, an assessment of in-flight clinical “incidence” data, based on observed clinical symptoms in astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS.Methods: Electronic medical records were examined from 46 long-duration ISS crew members, each serving approximately a 6-month mission on board the ISS, constituting 20.57 total flight years. Incidence for immunological-related adverse health events or relevant clinical symptoms was tabulated in a non-identifiable fashion. Event categories included infectious diseases, allergies, and rashes/hypersensitivities. A subsequent re-evaluation of more notable events, either of prolonged duration or unresponsive to treatment, was performed.Results: For the disease/symptom categories used in this evaluation, the ISS incidence rate was 3.40 events per flight year. Skin rashes were the most reported event (1.12/flight year followed by upper respiratory symptoms (0.97/flight year and various other (non-respiratory infectious processes. During flight, 46% of crew members reported an event deemed “notable”. Among the notable events, 40% were classified as rashes/hypersensitivities. Characterization of on-orbit rashes manifested as redness with irritation, and could present on a variety of body locations.Conclusion: Based on reported symptoms, astronauts experience adverse medical events of varying severity during long-duration spaceflights. The data suggests caution, from both a vehicle design and biomedical countermeasures perspective, as space

  19. The Stability of Bioactive Compounds in Spaceflight Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Douglas, G. L.

    2017-01-01

    The status and stability of bioactive compounds in the processed and shelf-stable spaceflight food system have not previously been investigated though the presence of such compounds in aged space foods could have health significance for crews on long duration exploration missions. Over forty foods - either existing International Space Station (ISS) food provisioning items, newly developed foods for spaceflight, or commercially-available ready-to-eat foods - that were predicted to have a relatively high concentrations of one or more bioactive compounds (lycopene, lutein, omega-3 fatty acids, phenolics, sterols, and/or flavonoids) were selected for the study. Food samples were sent overnight to the Food Composition Laboratory of the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University (Corvallis, OR) for bioactive compound analysis. Three packages of each product were blended together for the analysis to reduce package-to-package variability. All ISS food items and commercial foods were analyzed initially and after 12 and 24 months of 21degC storage. Food development occurred in a staggered fashion, so data collection for the newly developed foods continues. Lastly, sensory evaluation and additional temperature storage data (4degC, 35degC) for select foods were collected to establish additional stability parameters. Efficacious concentrations of lycopene, lutein, and omega-3 fatty acids were measured in limited spaceflight foods; two grams of sterols a day may be difficult to achieve with the current space diet. Total polyphenol delivery appears stable and adequate, but individual phenolic compounds vary in stability and were not specifically evaluated in this study. The data suggests that some bioactive compounds, like lycopene and lutein, degrade and then plateau at some equilibrium concentration. The anthocyanin stability appears to be related to storage temperature and food matrix, and lutein stability in leafy vegetables may be impacted by storage temperature

  20. Incentive regulation regarding the service quality of electricity and natural gas network operators in 2015. Follow-up Report, January 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The tariffs set by the French Energy Regulation Commission (CRE) for natural gas distribution system operators (DSOs), natural gas transmission system operators (TSOs) as well as for the electricity distribution system operator (Enedis, former ERDF) include an incentive regulation regarding the quality of service. The CRE has defined indicators to monitor the performance of operators in several fields considered relevant to assess the quality of service. Some of these indicators, considered to have specific importance in ensuring that the market operates properly, are subject to a system of financial incentives: bonuses or penalties are given to operators depending on the attainment of objectives set by the CRE. Other indicators, which do not carry financial incentives, complete the mechanism and ensure a broader surveillance of the operators' service quality. A financial incentive may be applied to these indicators at a later date if the CRE deems it necessary. The analyses of the service quality monitoring indicators presented in this report cover the period from January 1 to December 31, 2015. A review of the service quality of DSOs, TSOs and Enedis is made according to these indicators. An annex contains all individual quality reports of Enedis, DSOs and TSOs