WorldWideScience

Sample records for spaced horizontal groups

  1. Bubble growth in a narrow horizontal space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, Benoit; Goulet, Remi [CETHIL, UMR5008, CNRS, INSA-Lyon, Universite Lyon1 (France); Passos, Julio Cesar [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. LABSOLAR

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an axis-symmetric two-phase flow model describing the growth of a single bubble squeezed between a horizontal heated upward-facing disc and an insulating surface placed parallel to the heated surface. Heat transfers at the liquid-vapour interfaces are predicted by the kinetic limit of vaporisation. The depths of the liquid films deposed on the surfaces (heated surface and confinement space) are determined using the Moriyama and Inoue correlation (1996). Transient heat transfers within the heated wall are taken into account. The model is applied to pentane bubble growth. The influence of the gap size, the initial temperature of the system, the thermal effusivity of the heated wall and the kinetic limit of vaporisation are studied. The results show that the expansion of the bubbles strongly depends on the gap size and can be affected by the effusivity of the material. Mechanical inertia effects are mainly dominant at the beginning of the bubble expansion. Pressure drop induced by viscous effects have to be taken into account for high capillary numbers. Heat transfers at the meniscus are negligible except at the early stages of the bubble growth. (author)

  2. Bubble growth in a narrow horizontal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutz, Benoit; Goulet, Remi; Passos, Julio Cesar

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an axis-symmetric two-phase flow model describing the growth of a single bubble squeezed between a horizontal heated upward-facing disc and an insulating surface placed parallel to the heated surface. Heat transfers at the liquid-vapour interfaces are predicted by the kinetic limit of vaporisation. The depths of the liquid films deposed on the surfaces (heated surface and confinement space) are determined using the Moriyama and Inoue correlation (1996). Transient heat transfers within the heated wall are taken into account. The model is applied to pentane bubble growth. The influence of the gap size, the initial temperature of the system, the thermal effusivity of the heated wall and the kinetic limit of vaporisation are studied. The results show that the expansion of the bubbles strongly depends on the gap size and can be affected by the effusivity of the material. Mechanical inertia effects are mainly dominant at the beginning of the bubble expansion. Pressure drop induced by viscous effects have to be taken into account for high capillary numbers. Heat transfers at the meniscus are negligible except at the early stages of the bubble growth. (author)

  3. Horizontal biases in rats’ use of three-dimensional space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovalekic, Aleksandar; Hayman, Robin; Becares, Natalia; Reid, Harry; Thomas, George; Wilson, Jonathan; Jeffery, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Rodent spatial cognition studies allow links to be made between neural and behavioural phenomena, and much is now known about the encoding and use of horizontal space. However, the real world is three dimensional, providing cognitive challenges that have yet to be explored. Motivated by neural findings suggesting weaker encoding of vertical than horizontal space, we examined whether rats show a similar behavioural anisotropy when distributing their time freely between vertical and horizontal movements. We found that in two- or three-dimensional environments with a vertical dimension, rats showed a prioritization of horizontal over vertical movements in both foraging and detour tasks. In the foraging tasks, the animals executed more horizontal than vertical movements and adopted a “layer strategy” in which food was collected from one horizontal level before moving to the next. In the detour tasks, rats preferred the routes that allowed them to execute the horizontal leg first. We suggest three possible reasons for this behavioural bias. First, as suggested by Grobety and Schenk [5], it allows minimisation of energy expenditure, inasmuch as costly vertical movements are minimised. Second, it may be a manifestation of the temporal discounting of effort, in which animals value delayed effort as less costly than immediate effort. Finally, it may be that at the neural level rats encode the vertical dimension less precisely, and thus prefer to bias their movements in the more accurately encoded horizontal dimension. We suggest that all three factors are related, and all play a part. PMID:21419172

  4. Stress and nurses' horizontal mobbing: moderating effects of group identity and group support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa, Gabriela; Moriano, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    Horizontal mobbing is a process of systematic and repeated aggression towards a worker by coworkers. Among others, stress has been pointed out as one of the antecedents that favors the onset of horizontal mobbing, whereas group support to the target could act as a buffer. Moreover, the social identity approach emphasizes that group identity is an antecedent of group support. This study explores the interaction of group support and group identity in the explanation of horizontal mobbing in a sample (N = 388) of registered nurses and licensed practical nurses employed at two large hospitals in Madrid and Navarre (Spain). The results show that stress is positively associated to horizontal mobbing, whereas group support and group identity were negative predictors of horizontal mobbing. Furthermore, the combination of low group identity and low group support precipitated HM among nurses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Space shuttle orbiter guidance, naviagation and control software functional requirements: Horizontal flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The shuttle GN&C software functions for horizontal flight operations are defined. Software functional requirements are grouped into two categories: first horizontal flight requirements and full mission horizontal flight requirements. The document privides the intial step in the shuttle GN&C software design process. It also serves as a management tool to identify analyses which are required to define requirements.

  6. Hazy spaces, tangent spaces, manifolds and groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, C.T.J.

    1977-03-01

    The results on hazy spaces and the developments leading to hazy manifolds and groups are summarized. Proofs have appeared elsewhere so here examples are considered and some motivation for definitions and constructions in the theorems is analyzed. It is shown that quite simple ideas, intuitively acceptable, lead to remarkable similarity with the theory of differentiable manifolds. Hazy n manifolds have tangent bundles that are hazy 2n manifolds and there are hazy manifold structures for groups. Products and submanifolds are easily constructed and in particular the hazy n-sphere manifolds as submanifolds of the standard hazy manifold Zsup(n+1)

  7. Space Interferometry Science Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.

    1992-12-01

    Decisions taken by the astronomy and astrophysics survey committee and the interferometry panel which lead to the formation of the Space Interferometry Science Working Group (SISWG) are outlined. The SISWG was formed by the NASA astrophysics division to provide scientific and technical input from the community in planning for space interferometry and in support of an Astrometric Interferometry Mission (AIM). The AIM program hopes to measure the positions of astronomical objects with a precision of a few millionths of an arcsecond. The SISWG science and technical teams are described and the outcomes of its first meeting are given.

  8. Twistor space, Minkowski space and the conformal group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broek, P.M. van den

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the conformal group of compactified Minkowski space is isomorphic to a group of rays of semilinear transformations of twistor space. The action of the conformal group on twistor space is given by an explicit realisation of this isomorphism. In this way we determine the transformation of twistor space under space inversion and time inversion. (orig.)

  9. Nystagmus responses in a group of normal humans during earth-horizontal axis rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Conrad, III; Furman, Joseph M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal eye movement responses to earth-horizontal yaw axis rotation were evaluated in 50 normal human subjects who were uniformly distributed in age (20-69 years) and each age group was then divided by gender. Subjects were rotated with eyes open in the dark, using clockwise and counter-clockwise 60 deg velocity trapezoids. The nystagmus slow component velocity is analyzed. It is shown that, despite large intersubject variability, parameters which describe earth-horizontal yaw axis responses are loosely interrelated, and some of them vary significantly with gender and age.

  10. Twistor space, Minkowski space and the conformal group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that the conformal group of compactified Minkowski space is isomorphic to a group of rays of semilinear transformations of twistor space. The action of the conformal group on twistor space is given by an explicit realisation of this isomorphism. In this way we determine the

  11. Horizontal transmission of group B streptococcus in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinis, Julia; Shah, Jay; Murthy, Prashanth; Fulford, Martha

    2011-06-01

    The incidence of early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis in the neonatal population has decreased substantially since the introduction of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis and routine prenatal screening. However, these strategies have not reduced the incidence of late-onset GBS infections. Additional research pertaining to the transmission of late-onset GBS infections is required to develop effective preventive methods. The present report describes probable horizontal transmission of late-onset GBS infection among three infants in a neonatal intensive care unit. GBS strain confirmation was based on the microbiological picture, antibiogram and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These cases highlight the morbidity associated with late-onset GBS disease and the importance of considering horizontal transmission as an etiological factor in GBS infection in the newborn period. Further studies assessing horizontal transmission in late-onset GBS disease may improve prevention and early intervention.

  12. Mapping spaces and automorphism groups of toric noncommutative spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gwendolyn E.; Schenkel, Alexander; Szabo, Richard J.

    2017-09-01

    We develop a sheaf theory approach to toric noncommutative geometry which allows us to formalize the concept of mapping spaces between two toric noncommutative spaces. As an application, we study the `internalized' automorphism group of a toric noncommutative space and show that its Lie algebra has an elementary description in terms of braided derivations.

  13. Horizontal transmission of group B streptococcus in a neonatal intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Morinis, Julia; Shah, Jay; Murthy, Prashanth; Fulford, Martha

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of early-onset group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis in the neonatal population has decreased substantially since the introduction of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis and routine prenatal screening. However, these strategies have not reduced the incidence of late-onset GBS infections. Additional research pertaining to the transmission of late-onset GBS infections is required to develop effective preventive methods. The present report describes probable horizontal transmi...

  14. Noncommutative phase spaces on Aristotle group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancille Ngendakumana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We realize noncommutative phase spaces as coadjoint orbits of extensions of the Aristotle group in a two dimensional space. Through these constructions the momenta of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of a naturally introduced magnetic eld. These cases correspond to the minimal coupling of the momentum with a magnetic potential.

  15. Simple derivation of magnetic space groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertaut, E.F.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Grenoble, 38

    1975-01-01

    The magnetic translation lattices can be described by invariant wave vectors k. Advantages of the wave vector notation over the notations used by Belov et al. and Opechowski et al. are pointed out. In a one-dimensional real representation a space group element (α/tau(1)) has either the character +1 (symmetry element) or -1 (antisymmetry element). Thus the square of any space group operation must have the character +1 in a one-dimensional real representation. This simple ''square criterion'' is used to limit the admissible k-vectors and to derive the family of magnetic space groups, i.e. the set of all possible magnetic space groups, belonging to the same crystallographic space group. In the discussion some useful side results are obtained. Not only the real one-dimensional representations of point groups are connected to real one-dimensional representations of space groups, but a direct connection is shown to exist between one-dimensional complex representations of the point groups 3, 4 and 6 and one-dimensional real representations, belonging to P[001/2]=Psub(2c)(Psub(c))-lattices with screw axes 3 1 , 3 2 , 4 2 , 6 2 and 6 4 . Rules are derived for finding the Belov symbol when the Opechowski-Guccione symbol of the magnetic space group is known and this opportunity is used for correcting errors in the Opechowski-Guccione tables [fr

  16. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael; Glazer, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    This Second Edition provides solid state scientists, who are not necessarily experts in crystallography, with an understandable and comprehensive guide to the new International Tables for Crystallography. The basic ideas of symmetry, lattices, point groups, and space groups are explained in a clear and detailed manner. Notation is introduced in a step-by-step way so that the reader is supplied with the tools necessary to derive and apply space group information. Of particular interest in this second edition are the discussions of space groups application to such timely topics as high-te

  17. Space-Time Crystal and Space-Time Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shenglong; Wu, Congjun

    2018-03-02

    Crystal structures and the Bloch theorem play a fundamental role in condensed matter physics. We extend the static crystal to the dynamic "space-time" crystal characterized by the general intertwined space-time periodicities in D+1 dimensions, which include both the static crystal and the Floquet crystal as special cases. A new group structure dubbed a "space-time" group is constructed to describe the discrete symmetries of a space-time crystal. Compared to space and magnetic groups, the space-time group is augmented by "time-screw" rotations and "time-glide" reflections involving fractional translations along the time direction. A complete classification of the 13 space-time groups in one-plus-one dimensions (1+1D) is performed. The Kramers-type degeneracy can arise from the glide time-reversal symmetry without the half-integer spinor structure, which constrains the winding number patterns of spectral dispersions. In 2+1D, nonsymmorphic space-time symmetries enforce spectral degeneracies, leading to protected Floquet semimetal states. We provide a general framework for further studying topological properties of the (D+1)-dimensional space-time crystal.

  18. Quantum group gauge theory on quantum spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzezinski, T.; Majid, S.

    1993-01-01

    We construct quantum group-valued canonical connections on quantum homogeneous spaces, including a q-deformed Dirac monopole on the quantum sphere of Podles quantum differential coming from the 3-D calculus of Woronowicz on SU q (2). The construction is presented within the setting of a general theory of quantum principal bundles with quantum group (Hopf algebra) fiber, associated quantum vector bundles and connection one-forms. Both the base space (spacetime) and the total space are non-commutative algebras (quantum spaces). (orig.)

  19. Student Facebook groups as a third space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Janus Holst; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    -institutional, personal space of the Facebook network. The main study of the article examines six student-managed Facebook groups and provides an analysis of a total of 2247 posts and 12,217 comments. Furthermore, the study draws on group interviews with students from 17 Danish upper secondary schools and a survey......The paper examines educational potentials of Facebook groups that are created and managed by students without any involvement from teachers. The objective is to study student-managed Facebook groups as a ‘third space' between the institutional space of teacher-managed Facebook groups and the non...... answered by 932 students from 25 schools. Based on the survey and interviews, the paper concludes that Facebook is an important educational tool for students in Danish upper secondary schools to receive help on homework and assignments. Furthermore, on the basis of the analysis of Facebook groups...

  20. String cohomology groups of complex projective spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Iver; Bökstedt, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    Let X be a space and write LX for its free loop space equipped with the action of the circle group T given by dilation. The equivariant cohomology H*(LXhT;Z/p) is a module over H*(BT;Z/p). We give a computation of this module when X=CPr for any positive integer r and any prime number p. The compu......Let X be a space and write LX for its free loop space equipped with the action of the circle group T given by dilation. The equivariant cohomology H*(LXhT;Z/p) is a module over H*(BT;Z/p). We give a computation of this module when X=CPr for any positive integer r and any prime number p...

  1. Quantum groups and quantum homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, P.P.

    1994-01-01

    The usefulness of the R-matrix formalism and the reflection equations is demonstrated on examples of the quantum group covariant algebras (quantum homogeneous spaces): quantum Minkowski space-time, quantum sphere and super-sphere. The irreducible representations of some covariant algebras are constructed. The generalization of the reflection equation to super case is given and the existence of the quasiclassical limits is pointed out. (orig.)

  2. DAYLIGHTING PERFORMANCE OF HORIZONTAL LIGHT PIPE BRANCHING ON OPEN PLAN OFFICE SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feny ELSIANA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available For daylighting purpose, office buildings should have a shallow plan and increase the ratio of surface to building’s volume. However, intensive use of air-conditioning drives office building’s plan to be deep with a minimum surface to volume ratio. This leads to the presence of areas that have insufficient daylight level at the work plane. Considering limitations of some daylighting methods in distributing daylight to these areas, Horizontal Light Pipe (HLP was selected. The aim of this research was to evaluate and explain the effect of HLP branching on daylight quantity and distribution inside open plan office space. Experimental with simulation as a tool was used as the research method. HLP branching’s uniformity ratio, illuminance and Daylight Factor were compared with unbranching HLP, simultaneously with daylighting standards. Results showed that office space with HLP-L branching had higher daylight level than HLP-T branching, 296 lux and 295 lux, HLP-L and HLP-T, respectively. However, HLP-T branching distributed daylight more evenly than HLP-L branching, with uniformity ratio as 1.49:1 and 1.50:1, HLP-T and HLP-L, respectively. Both of them met the illuminance target value and uniformity at work plane. Light’s deflection and improvement amount of opening distribution decreased average illuminance and Daylight Factor up to 3.59%. Those also decreased uniformity of daylight inside the space.

  3. NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

  4. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  5. An optimal design of cluster spacing intervals for staged fracturing in horizontal shale gas wells based on the optimal SRVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ren

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When horizontal well staged cluster fracturing is applied in shale gas reservoirs, the cluster spacing is essential to fracturing performance. If the cluster spacing is too small, the stimulated area between major fractures will be overlapped, and the efficiency of fracturing stimulation will be decreased. If the cluster spacing is too large, the area between major fractures cannot be stimulated completely and reservoir recovery extent will be adversely impacted. At present, cluster spacing design is mainly based on the static model with the potential reservoir stimulation area as the target, and there is no cluster spacing design method in accordance with the actual fracturing process and targets dynamic stimulated reservoir volume (SRV. In this paper, a dynamic SRV calculation model for cluster fracture propagation was established by analyzing the coupling mechanisms among fracture propagation, fracturing fluid loss and stress. Then, the cluster spacing was optimized to reach the target of the optimal SRVs. This model was applied for validation on site in the Jiaoshiba shale gasfield in the Fuling area of the Sichuan Basin. The key geological engineering parameters influencing the optimal cluster spacing intervals were analyzed. The reference charts for the optimal cluster spacing design were prepared based on the geological characteristics of south and north blocks in the Jiaoshiba shale gasfield. It is concluded that the cluster spacing optimal design method proposed in this paper is of great significance in overcoming the blindness in current cluster perforation design and guiding the optimal design of volume fracturing in shale gas reservoirs. Keywords: Shale gas, Horizontal well, Staged fracturing, Cluster spacing, Reservoir, Stimulated reservoir volume (SRV, Mathematical model, Optimal method, Sichuan basin, Jiaoshiba shale gasfield

  6. Groups on transformations in Finslerian spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The article first appeared in the Internal Reports of the ICTP in 1981. Since then the topic has attracted a large number of authors and several contributions have been made thereafter. Thus, a previous work of the author is revised and up-dated here including the post-1981 contributions in the field. Infinitesimal transformations defining motions, affine motions, projective motions, conformal transformations and curvature collineations in various types of Finslerian spaces are discussed here. The notation and symbolism used in the paper is mainly based on the author's works. (author). 72 refs

  7. ERG [Engineering Review Group] and GRG [Geologic Review Group] review of the horizontal versus vertical modes of waste emplacement at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytrowski, B.R.

    1988-01-01

    The Engineering Review Group (ERG) and Geologic Review Group (GRG) were established by the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (ONWI) to help evaluate specific issues in the US Department of Energy's nuclear waste repository program. The December 1985 meeting and the February 1986 meeting dealt with the evaluation of the Fluor Technology, Inc., architect-engineer recommendation of the horizontal mode of waste package emplacement for the Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (SCP-CDR). The ONWI recommendation regarding horizontal and vertical modes of waste package emplacement and associated studies was reviewed. This report documents the ERG and GRG's comments and recommendations on this subject and ONWI responses to the specific points raised by these groups. The ERG and GRG joint review groups concurred with ONWI recommendations that additional studies are required in order to reach a decision on the method of emplacement to be used. In the opinion of these groups, both methods can be implemented; however, should the decision be reached today the vertical mode would be preferred

  8. Retabulation of space group extinctions for electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.; Tanaka, M.

    1989-01-01

    The space group tables previously published by one of the authors and others are here presented in a revised and compacted form designed to make for compatability with existing tables for X-ray diffraction. 136 of the 230 space groups are subject to dynamic extinctions due to glide planes and screw axes, and the observables from these space groups in specific settings are tabulated. Tabs

  9. Symmetries of quantum spaces. Subgroups and quotient spaces of quantum SU(2) and SO(3) groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podles, P.

    1995-01-01

    We prove that each action of a compact matrix quantum group on a compact quantum space can be decomposed into irreducible representations of the group. We give the formula for the corresponding multiplicities in the case of the quotient quantum spaces. We describe the subgroups and the quotient spaces of quantum SU(2) and SO(3) groups. (orig.)

  10. Projective unitary-antiunitary representations of the Shubnikov space groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broek, P.M. van den.

    1979-01-01

    Some mathematical aspects of the symmetry of a physical system in quantum mechanics are examined with special emphasis on the symmetry groups of charged particles in crystalline solids, the Shuknikov space groups. (Auth.)

  11. The International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ronald J.; Rabin, Robert; Lujan, Barbara F.

    1993-01-01

    Throughout the 1980s, ESA and the space agencies of Canada, Germany, France, Japan, and the U.S. have pursued cooperative projects bilaterally and multilaterally to prepare for, and to respond to, opportunities in space life sciences research previously unapproachable in scale and sophistication. To cope effectively with likely future space research opportunities, broad, multilateral, coordinated strategic planning is required. Thus, life scientists from these agencies have allied to form the International Space Life Sciences Strategic Planning Working Group. This Group is formally organized under a charter that specifies the purpose of the Working Group as the development of an international strategic plan for the space life sciences, with periodic revisions as needed to keep the plan current. The plan will be policy-, not operations-oriented. The Working Group also may establish specific implementation teams to coordinate multilateral science policy in specific areas; such teams have been established for space station utilization, and for sharing of flight equipment.

  12. Professional Discussion Groups: Informal Learning in a Third Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I explored two discussion groups and discovered Third Space elements such as cultural hybridity, counterscript, and sharing of experiences and resources contributed to a safe learning environment existing at the boundaries between participant personal and professional spaces. The groups operated under the auspices of a…

  13. A primer on Hilbert space theory linear spaces, topological spaces, metric spaces, normed spaces, and topological groups

    CERN Document Server

    Alabiso, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, a fundamental tool for non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Linear, topological, metric, and normed spaces are all addressed in detail, in a rigorous but reader-friendly fashion. The rationale for an introduction to the theory of Hilbert space, rather than a detailed study of Hilbert space theory itself, resides in the very high mathematical difficulty of even the simplest physical case. Within an ordinary graduate course in physics there is insufficient time to cover the theory of Hilbert spaces and operators, as well as distribution theory, with sufficient mathematical rigor. Compromises must be found between full rigor and practical use of the instruments. The book is based on the author's lessons on functional analysis for graduate students in physics. It will equip the reader to approach Hilbert space and, subsequently, rigged Hilbert space, with a more practical attitude. With respect to the original lectures, the mathematical flavor in all sub...

  14. Renormalization group in statistical physics - momentum and real spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukalov, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    Two variants of the renormalization group approach in statistical physics are considered, the renormalization group in the momentum and the renormalization group in the real spaces. Common properties of these methods and their differences are cleared up. A simple model for investigating the crossover between different universality classes is suggested. 27 refs

  15. Multiscale Analysis of Time Irreversibility Based on Phase-Space Reconstruction and Horizontal Visibility Graph Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongping; Shang, Pengjian; Xiong, Hui; Xia, Jianan

    Time irreversibility is an important property of nonequilibrium dynamic systems. A visibility graph approach was recently proposed, and this approach is generally effective to measure time irreversibility of time series. However, its result may be unreliable when dealing with high-dimensional systems. In this work, we consider the joint concept of time irreversibility and adopt the phase-space reconstruction technique to improve this visibility graph approach. Compared with the previous approach, the improved approach gives a more accurate estimate for the irreversibility of time series, and is more effective to distinguish irreversible and reversible stochastic processes. We also use this approach to extract the multiscale irreversibility to account for the multiple inherent dynamics of time series. Finally, we apply the approach to detect the multiscale irreversibility of financial time series, and succeed to distinguish the time of financial crisis and the plateau. In addition, Asian stock indexes away from other indexes are clearly visible in higher time scales. Simulations and real data support the effectiveness of the improved approach when detecting time irreversibility.

  16. Natural convective flows in a horizontal channel provided with heating isothermal blocks: Effect of the inter blocks spacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkas, M.; Hasnaoui, M.; Amahmid, A.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical study of laminar steady natural convection induced in a two dimensional horizontal channel provided with rectangular heating blocks, periodically mounted on its lower wall, is carried out. The blocks' surface temperature, T H ' , is maintained constant and the former are connected with adiabatic surfaces. The upper wall of the channel is maintained cold at a temperature T C ' H ' . Fluid flow, temperature fields and heat transfer rates are presented for different combinations of the governing parameters which are the Rayleigh number (10 2 ≤Ra≤2x10 6 ), the blocks' spacing (1/4≤C=l ' /H ' ≤1), the blocks' height (1/8≤B=h ' /H ' ≤1/2) and the relative width of the blocks (A=(L ' -l ' )/H ' =1/2). The results obtained in the case of air (Pr = 0.72) show that the flow structure and the heat transfer are significantly influenced by the control parameters. It is found that there are situations where the increase of the blocks' spacing leads to a reduction of heat transfer.

  17. On the Chabauty space of locally compact abelian groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cornulier, Yves

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains several results about the Chabauty space of a general locally compact abelian group. Notably, we determine its topological dimension, we characterize when it is totally disconnected or connected; we characterize isolated points.

  18. Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngendakumana, Ancille, E-mail: nancille@yahoo.fr; Todjihoundé, Leonard, E-mail: leonardt@imsp.uac.org [Institut de Mathématiques et des Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Porto-Novo (Benin); Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim, E-mail: kimpaye@kie.ac.rw [Kigali Institute of Education (KIE), Kigali (Rwanda)

    2014-01-15

    Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given.

  19. Group theoretical construction of planar noncommutative phase spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngendakumana, Ancille; Todjihoundé, Leonard; Nzotungicimpaye, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Noncommutative phase spaces are generated and classified in the framework of centrally extended anisotropic planar kinematical Lie groups as well as in the framework of noncentrally abelian extended planar absolute time Lie groups. Through these constructions the coordinates of the phase spaces do not commute due to the presence of naturally introduced fields giving rise to minimal couplings. By symplectic realizations methods, physical interpretations of generators coming from the obtained structures are given

  20. Polymorphism of CRISPR shows separated natural groupings of Shigella subtypes and evidence of horizontal transfer of CRISPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojie; Li, Peng; Su, Wenli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Guang; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Cui, Xianyan; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) act as an adaptive RNA-mediated immune mechanism in bacteria. They can also be used for identification and evolutionary studies based on polymorphisms within the CRISPR locus. We amplified and analyzed 6 CRISPR loci from 237 Shigella strains belonging to the 4 species groups, as well as 13 Escherichia coli strains. The CRISPR-associated (cas) gene sequence arrays of these strains were screened and compared. The CRISPR sequences from Shigella were conserved among subtypes, suggesting that CRISPR may represent a new identification tool for the detection and discrimination of Shigella species. Secondary structure analysis showed a different stem-loop structure at the terminal repeat, suggesting a distinct recognition mechanism in the formation of crRNA. In addition, the presence of “self-target” spacers and polymorphisms within CRISPR in Shigella indicated a selective pressure for inhibition of this system, which has the potential to damage “self DNA.” Homology analysis of spacers showed that CRISPR might be involved in the regulation of virulence transmission. Phylogenetic analysis based on CRISPR sequences from Shigella and E. coli indicated that although phenotypic properties maintain convergent evolution, the 4 Shigella species do not represent natural groupings. Surprisingly, comparative analysis of Shigella repeats with other species provided new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. Our results suggested that CRISPR analysis is applicable for the detection of Shigella species and for investigation of evolutionary relationships. PMID:26327282

  1. Polymorphism of CRISPR shows separated natural groupings of Shigella subtypes and evidence of horizontal transfer of CRISPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chaojie; Li, Peng; Su, Wenli; Li, Hao; Liu, Hongbo; Yang, Guang; Xie, Jing; Yi, Shengjie; Wang, Jian; Cui, Xianyan; Wu, Zhihao; Wang, Ligui; Hao, Rongzhang; Jia, Leili; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) act as an adaptive RNA-mediated immune mechanism in bacteria. They can also be used for identification and evolutionary studies based on polymorphisms within the CRISPR locus. We amplified and analyzed 6 CRISPR loci from 237 Shigella strains belonging to the 4 species groups, as well as 13 Escherichia coli strains. The CRISPR-associated (cas) gene sequence arrays of these strains were screened and compared. The CRISPR sequences from Shigella were conserved among subtypes, suggesting that CRISPR may represent a new identification tool for the detection and discrimination of Shigella species. Secondary structure analysis showed a different stem-loop structure at the terminal repeat, suggesting a distinct recognition mechanism in the formation of crRNA. In addition, the presence of "self-target" spacers and polymorphisms within CRISPR in Shigella indicated a selective pressure for inhibition of this system, which has the potential to damage "self DNA." Homology analysis of spacers showed that CRISPR might be involved in the regulation of virulence transmission. Phylogenetic analysis based on CRISPR sequences from Shigella and E. coli indicated that although phenotypic properties maintain convergent evolution, the 4 Shigella species do not represent natural groupings. Surprisingly, comparative analysis of Shigella repeats with other species provided new evidence for CRISPR horizontal transfer. Our results suggested that CRISPR analysis is applicable for the detection of Shigella species and for investigation of evolutionary relationships.

  2. Group structure and group process for effective space station astronaut teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, J. M.; Kagan, R. S.

    1985-01-01

    Space Station crews will encounter new problems, many derived from the social interaction of groups working in space for extended durations. Solutions to these problems must focus on the structure of groups and the interaction of individuals. A model of intervention is proposed to address problems of interpersonal relationships and emotional stress, and improve the morale, cohesiveness, and productivity of astronaut teams.

  3. Non-Supramenable Groups Acting on Locally Compact Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kellerhals, Julian; Monod, Nicolas; Rørdam, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Supramenability of groups is characterised in terms of invariant measures on locally compact spaces. This opens the door to constructing interesting crossed product $C^*$-algebras for non-supramenable groups. In particular, stable Kirchberg algebras in the UCT class are constructed using crossed ...

  4. Lie Group Solution for Free Convective Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Chemically Reacting Horizontal Plate in a Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM is employed to investigate the steady laminar incompressible free convective flow of a nanofluid past a chemically reacting upward facing horizontal plate in a porous medium taking into account heat generation/absorption and the thermal slip boundary condition. Using similarity transformations developed by Lie group analysis, the continuity, momentum, energy, and nanoparticle volume fraction equations are transformed into a set of coupled similarity equations. The OHAM solutions are obtained and verified by numerical results using a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. The effect of the emerging flow controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction have been presented graphically and discussed. Good agreement is found between analytical and numerical results of the present paper with published results. This close agreement supports our analysis and the accuracy of the numerical computations. This paper also includes a representative set of numerical results for reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in a table for various values of the parameters. It is concluded that the reduced Nusselt number increases with the Lewis number and reaction parameter whist it decreases with the order of the chemical reaction, thermal slip, and generation parameters.

  5. Performance evaluation of inpatient service in Beijing: a horizontal comparison with risk adjustment based on Diagnosis Related Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Weiyan; Huang, Yinmin; Hu, Mu; Zhang, Xiumei

    2009-04-30

    The medical performance evaluation, which provides a basis for rational decision-making, is an important part of medical service research. Current progress with health services reform in China is far from satisfactory, without sufficient regulation. To achieve better progress, an effective tool for evaluating medical performance needs to be established. In view of this, this study attempted to develop such a tool appropriate for the Chinese context. Data was collected from the front pages of medical records (FPMR) of all large general public hospitals (21 hospitals) in the third and fourth quarter of 2007. Locally developed Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) were introduced as a tool for risk adjustment and performance evaluation indicators were established: Charge Efficiency Index (CEI), Time Efficiency Index (TEI) and inpatient mortality of low-risk group cases (IMLRG), to reflect respectively work efficiency and medical service quality. Using these indicators, the inpatient services' performance was horizontally compared among hospitals. Case-mix Index (CMI) was used to adjust efficiency indices and then produce adjusted CEI (aCEI) and adjusted TEI (aTEI). Poisson distribution analysis was used to test the statistical significance of the IMLRG differences between different hospitals. Using the aCEI, aTEI and IMLRG scores for the 21 hospitals, Hospital A and C had relatively good overall performance because their medical charges were lower, LOS shorter and IMLRG smaller. The performance of Hospital P and Q was the worst due to their relatively high charge level, long LOS and high IMLRG. Various performance problems also existed in the other hospitals. It is possible to develop an accurate and easy to run performance evaluation system using Case-Mix as the tool for risk adjustment, choosing indicators close to consumers and managers, and utilizing routine report forms as the basic information source. To keep such a system running effectively, it is necessary to

  6. Sobolev Spaces on Locally Compact Abelian Groups: Compact Embeddings and Local Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Górka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue our research on Sobolev spaces on locally compact abelian (LCA groups motivated by our work on equations with infinitely many derivatives of interest for string theory and cosmology. In this paper, we focus on compact embedding results and we prove an analog for LCA groups of the classical Rellich lemma and of the Rellich-Kondrachov compactness theorem. Furthermore, we introduce Sobolev spaces on subsets of LCA groups and study its main properties, including the existence of compact embeddings into Lp-spaces.

  7. Differential calculus on quantum spaces and quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumino, B.

    1992-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the quantum differential calculus. The quantum group GL q (n) is treated by considering it as a particular quantum space. Functions on SL q (n) are defined as a subclass of functions on GL q (n). The case of SO q (n) is also briefly considered. These notes cover part of a lecture given at the XIX International Conference on Group Theoretic Methods in Physics, Salamanca, Spain 1992

  8. The crystallographic space groups and Heterotic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    While the 17 planar crystallographic groups were shown to correspond to 17 two and three Stein spaces with a total dimension equal to DimE12=5α-bar o ≅685, the present work reveals that the corresponding 219 three dimensional groups leads to a total dimensionality equal to N o ≅8872 which happens to be the exact total number of massless states of the transfinite version of Heterotic super string spectrum.

  9. Real-space renormalization group approach to driven diffusive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanney, T [SUPA and School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Stinchcombe, R B [Theoretical Physics, 1 Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-24

    We introduce a real-space renormalization group procedure for driven diffusive systems which predicts both steady state and dynamic properties. We apply the method to the boundary driven asymmetric simple exclusion process and recover exact results for the steady state phase diagram, as well as the crossovers in the relaxation dynamics for each phase.

  10. Real-space renormalization group approach to driven diffusive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanney, T; Stinchcombe, R B

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a real-space renormalization group procedure for driven diffusive systems which predicts both steady state and dynamic properties. We apply the method to the boundary driven asymmetric simple exclusion process and recover exact results for the steady state phase diagram, as well as the crossovers in the relaxation dynamics for each phase

  11. Canadian space agency discipline working group for space dosimetry and radiation science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, Anthony; Waller, Edward; Lewis, Brent; Bennett, Leslie; Conroy, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Full text: One of the great technical challenges in the human and robotic exploration of space is the deleterious effect of radiation on humans and physical systems. The magnitude of this challenge is broadly understood in terms of the sources of radiation, however, a great deal remains to be done in the development of instrumentation, suitable for the space environment, which can provide real-time monitoring of the complex radiation fields encountered in space and a quantitative measure of potential biological risk. In order to meet these research requirements collaboration is needed between experimental nuclear instrumentation scientists, theoretical scientists working on numerical modeling techniques and radiation biologists. Under the auspices of the Canadian Space Agency such a collaborative body has been established as one of a number of Discipline Working Groups. Members of the Space Dosimetry and Radiation Science working group form a collaborative network across Canada including universities, government laboratories and the industrial sector. Three central activities form the core of the Space Dosimetry and Radiation Science DWG. An instrument sub-group is engaged in the development of instruments capable of gamma ray, energetic charged particle and neutron dosimetry including the ability to provide dosimetric information in real-time. A second sub-group is focused on computer modeling of space radiation fields in order to assess the performance of conceptual designs of detectors and dosimeters or the impact of radiation on cellular and sub-cellular biological targets and a third sub-group is engaged in the study of the biological effects of space radiation and the potential of biomarkers as a method of assessing radiation impact on humans. Many working group members are active in more than one sub-group facilitating communication throughout the whole network. A summary progress-report will be given of the activities of the Discipline Working Group and the

  12. The space shuttle payload planning working groups: Volume 9: Materials processing and space manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The findings and recommendations of the Materials Processing and Space Manufacturing group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The effects of weightlessness on the levitation processes, mixture stability, and control over heat and mass transport in fluids are considered for investigation. The research and development projects include: (1) metallurgical processes, (2) electronic materials, (3) biological applications, and (4)nonmetallic materials and processes. Additional recommendations are provided concerning the allocation of payload space, acceptance of experiments for flight, flight qualification, and private use of the space shuttle.

  13. Trimesic acid dimethyl sulfoxide solvate: space group revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Bernès

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title solvate, C9H6O6·C2H6OS, was determined 30 years ago [Herbstein, Kapon & Wasserman (1978. Acta Cryst. B34, 1613–1617], with data collected at room temperature, and refined in the space group P21. The present redetermination, based on high-resolution diffraction data, shows that the actual space group is more likely to be P21/m. The crystal structure contains layers of trimesic acid molecules lying on mirror planes. A mirror plane also passes through the S and O atoms of the solvent molecule. The molecules in each layer are interconnected through strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional supramolecular network within each layer. The donor groups are the hydroxyls of the trimesic acid molecules, while the acceptors are the carbonyl or the sulfoxide O atoms.

  14. Optical Fiber Assemblies for Space Flight from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Photonics Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thoma, William Joe; LaRocca, Frank; Chuska, Richard; Switzer, Robert; Day, Lance

    2009-01-01

    The Photonics Group at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in the Electrical Engineering Division of the Advanced Engineering and Technologies Directorate has been involved in the design, development, characterization, qualification, manufacturing, integration and anomaly analysis of optical fiber subsystems for over a decade. The group supports a variety of instrumentation across NASA and outside entities that build flight systems. Among the projects currently supported are: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Mars Science Laboratory, the James Webb Space Telescope, the Express Logistics Carrier for the International Space Station and the NASA Electronic Parts. and Packaging Program. A collection of the most pertinent information gathered during project support over the past year in regards to space flight performance of optical fiber components is presented here. The objective is to provide guidance for future space flight designs of instrumentation and communication systems.

  15. Winter School on Operator Spaces, Noncommutative Probability and Quantum Groups

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Providing an introduction to current research topics in functional analysis and its applications to quantum physics, this book presents three lectures surveying recent progress and open problems.  A special focus is given to the role of symmetry in non-commutative probability, in the theory of quantum groups, and in quantum physics. The first lecture presents the close connection between distributional symmetries and independence properties. The second introduces many structures (graphs, C*-algebras, discrete groups) whose quantum symmetries are much richer than their classical symmetry groups, and describes the associated quantum symmetry groups. The last lecture shows how functional analytic and geometric ideas can be used to detect and to quantify entanglement in high dimensions.  The book will allow graduate students and young researchers to gain a better understanding of free probability, the theory of compact quantum groups, and applications of the theory of Banach spaces to quantum information. The l...

  16. On the Far-Zone Electromagnetic Field of a Horizontal Electric Dipole Over an Imperfectly Conducting Half-Space With Extensions to Plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Krzysztof A.; Lin, Hung-I.

    2018-01-01

    Second-order asymptotic formulas for the electromagnetic fields of a horizontal electric dipole over an imperfectly conducting half-space are derived using the modified saddle-point method. Application examples are presented for ordinary and plasmonic media, and the accuracy of the new formulation is assessed by comparisons with two alternative state-of-the-art theories and with the rigorous results of numerical integration.

  17. A geometric renormalization group in discrete quantum space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requardt, Manfred

    2003-01-01

    We model quantum space-time on the Planck scale as dynamical networks of elementary relations or time dependent random graphs, the time dependence being an effect of the underlying dynamical network laws. We formulate a kind of geometric renormalization group on these (random) networks leading to a hierarchy of increasingly coarse-grained networks of overlapping lumps. We provide arguments that this process may generate a fixed limit phase, representing our continuous space-time on a mesoscopic or macroscopic scale, provided that the underlying discrete geometry is critical in a specific sense (geometric long range order). Our point of view is corroborated by a series of analytic and numerical results, which allow us to keep track of the geometric changes, taking place on the various scales of the resolution of space-time. Of particular conceptual importance are the notions of dimension of such random systems on the various scales and the notion of geometric criticality

  18. System theory on group manifolds and coset spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockett, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study questions regarding controllability, observability, and realization theory for a particular class of systems for which the state space is a differentiable manifold which is simultaneously a group or, more generally, a coset space. We show that it is possible to give rather explicit expressions for the reachable set and the set of indistinguishable states in the case of autonomous systems. We also establish a type of state space isomorphism theorem. Our objective is to reduce all questions about the system to questions about Lie algebras generated from the coefficient matrices entering in the description of the system and in that way arrive at conditions which are easily visualized and tested.

  19. Real space renormalization group for spectra and density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiecko, C.; Roman, E.

    1984-09-01

    We discuss the implementation of the Real Space Renormalization Group Decimation Technique for 1-d tight-binding models with long range interactions with or without disorder and for the 2-d regular square lattice. The procedure follows the ideas developed by Southern et al. Some new explicit formulae are included. The purpose of this study is to calculate spectra and densities of states following the procedure developed in our previous work. (author)

  20. The dual algebra of the Poincare group on Fock space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klink, W.H.; Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA

    1989-01-01

    The Lie algebra of operators commuting with the Poincare group on the Fock space appropriate for a massive spinless particle is constructed in terms of raising and lowering operators indexed by a Lorentz invariant function. From the assumption that the phase operator is an element of this Lie algebra, it is shown that the scattering operator can be written as a unitary representation operator of the group associated with the Lie algebra. A simple choice of the phase operator shows that the Lorentz invariant function can be interpreted as a basic scattering amplitude, in the sense that all multiparticle scattering amplitudes can be written in terms of this basic scattering amplitude. (orig.)

  1. Group quantization on configuration space: Gauge symmetries and linear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, M.; Aldaya, V.; Calixto, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new, configuration-space picture of a formalism of group quantization, the GAQ formalism, is presented in the context of a previous algebraic generalization. This presentation serves to make a comprehensive discussion in which other extensions of the formalism, principally to incorporate gauge symmetries, are developed as well. Both images are combined in order to analyze, in a systematic manner and with complete generality, the case of linear fields (Abelian current groups). To illustrate these developments we particularize them for several fields and, in particular, we carry out the quantization of the Abelian Chern endash Simons models over an arbitrary closed surface in detail. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. Groups, matrices, and vector spaces a group theoretic approach to linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Carrell, James B

    2017-01-01

    This unique text provides a geometric approach to group theory and linear algebra, bringing to light the interesting ways in which these subjects interact. Requiring few prerequisites beyond understanding the notion of a proof, the text aims to give students a strong foundation in both geometry and algebra. Starting with preliminaries (relations, elementary combinatorics, and induction), the book then proceeds to the core topics: the elements of the theory of groups and fields (Lagrange's Theorem, cosets, the complex numbers and the prime fields), matrix theory and matrix groups, determinants, vector spaces, linear mappings, eigentheory and diagonalization, Jordan decomposition and normal form, normal matrices, and quadratic forms. The final two chapters consist of a more intensive look at group theory, emphasizing orbit stabilizer methods, and an introduction to linear algebraic groups, which enriches the notion of a matrix group. Applications involving symm etry groups, determinants, linear coding theory ...

  3. Working Group 2 summary: Space charge effects in bending systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, C.L.; Emma, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    At the start of the Workshop, the authors asked the Working Group 2 participants to concentrate on three basic goals: (1) survey the status of how comprehensively the physics concerning space-charge effects in bends is understood and how complete is the available ensemble of analytic and computational tools; (2) guided by data from experiments and operational experience, identify sources of, and cures for, beam degradation; and (3) review space-charge physics in rings and the limitations it introduces. As the Workshop unfolded, the third goal naturally folded into the other two goals, and these goals, they believe, were fulfilled in that the Working Group was able to compile an end product consisting of a set of recommendations for potentially fruitful future work. This summary constitutes an overview of the deliberations of the Working Group, and it is their hope that the summary clarifies the motivation for the recommended work listed at the end. The summary is organized according to the two aforementioned goals, and the prime topics of discussion appear as subsections under these goals

  4. Irreducible quantum group modules with finite dimensional weight spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dennis Hasselstrøm

    a finitely generated U q -module which has finite dimensional weight spaces and is a sum of those. Our approach follows the procedures used by S. Fernando and O. Mathieu to solve the corresponding problem for semisimple complex Lie algebra modules. To achieve this we have to overcome a number of obstacles...... not present in the classical case. In the process we also construct twisting functors rigerously for quantum group modules, study twisted Verma modules and show that these admit a Jantzen filtration with corresponding Jantzen sum formula....

  5. The birth of NASA the work of the Space Task Group, America's first true space pioneers

    CERN Document Server

    von Ehrenfried, Dutch

    2016-01-01

    This is the story of the work of the original NASA space pioneers; men and women who were suddenly organized in 1958 from the then National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) into the Space Task Group. A relatively small group, they developed the initial mission concept plans and procedures for the U. S. space program. Then they boldly built hardware and facilities to accomplish those missions. The group existed only three years before they were transferred to the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, in 1962, but their organization left a large mark on what would follow. Von Ehrenfried's personal experience with the STG at Langley uniquely positions him to describe the way the group was structured and how it reacted to the new demands of a post-Sputnik era. He artfully analyzes how the growing space program was managed and what techniques enabled it to develop so quickly from an operations perspective. The result is a fascinating window into history, amply backed up by first person documentation ...

  6. Horizontal Accelerator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Horizontal Accelerator (HA) Facility is a versatile research tool available for use on projects requiring simulation of the crash environment. The HA Facility is...

  7. Generalized 2-vector spaces and general linear 2-groups

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Josep

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a notion of {\\it generalized 2-vector space} is introduced which includes Kapranov and Voevodsky 2-vector spaces. Various kinds of generalized 2-vector spaces are considered and examples are given. The existence of non free generalized 2-vector spaces and of generalized 2-vector spaces which are non Karoubian (hence, non abelian) categories is discussed, and it is shown how any generalized 2-vector space can be identified with a full subcategory of an (abelian) functor category ...

  8. R-102, 1 Group Space-Independent Inverse Reactor Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganove, J.J.

    1966-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Given the space-independent, one energy group reactor kinetics equations and the initial conditions, this program determines the time variation of reactivity required to produce the given input of flux-time data. 2 - Method of solution: Time derivatives of neutron density are obtained by application of (a) five-point quartic, (b) three-point parabolic, (c) five-point least-mean-square cubic, (d) five-point least-mean-square parabolic, or (e) five-point least-mean-square linear formulae to the neutron density or to the natural logarithm of the neutron density. Between each data point the neutron density is assumed to be (a) exponential*(third-order polynomial), (b) exponential, or (c) linear. Changes in reactivity between data points are obtained algebraically from the kinetics equations, neutron density derivatives, and the algebraic representation of neutron density. First and second time derivatives of the reactivity are obtained by use of any of the formulae applicable to the neutron density. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of - 50 delay groups; 1000 data points; 99 data blocks (A data block is a sequence of input points characterized by a fixed time-interval between points, a smoothing option, and a number of repetitions of the smoothing option)

  9. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: IONOLAB-TEC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, F.; Sezen, U.; Arikan, O.; Ugurlu, O.; Nayir, H.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather (SW) is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space and affect Earth and its technological systems. SW is a consequence of the solar activities and the coupling of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere due to the Earth's magnetic field. The monitoring and prediction of SW has utmost importance for HF communication, Satellite communication, navigation and guidance systems, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Space Craft exit and entry into the atmosphere. Ionosphere is the plasma layer of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation and it is a key player of SW. Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. IONOLAB is a group of researchers of various disciplines, getting together to handle challenges of the Earth's ionosphere. The team has researchers from Hacettepe University and Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and General Command of Mapping of Turkish Army. One of the most important contributions of IONOLAB group is the automated web-based computation service for Total Electron Content (TEC). TEC corresponds to the line integral of electron density distribution on a given path. TEC can also be expressed as the amount of free electrons within 1 m2 cross-sectional area of the cylinder on the ray path. Global Position System (GPS) provides a cost-effective medium for monitoring of ionosphere using the signals recorded by stationary GPS receivers in estimating TEC. IONOLAB group has developed IONOLAB-TEC for reliable and robust estimates for all latitudes and both calm and disturbed days by using RINEX, IONEX and satellite ephemeris data provided from the IGS centers. IONOLAB-TEC consists of a regularized signal estimation algorithm which combines signals from all GPS satellites for a given instant and a given receiver, for a desired time period or for 24 hours

  10. Assessment of building facade performance in terms of daylighting and the associated energy consumption in architectural spaces: Vertical and horizontal shading devices for southern exposure facades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzoubi, Hussain H.; Al-Zoubi, Amneh H. [Department of Architecture, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid 22110 (Jordan)

    2010-08-15

    This paper examines the effect of vertical and horizontal shading devices on the quality of daylight in buildings and the associated energy saving. Excessive daylight in architectural spaces contributes negatively to the energy consumption in buildings. Blinds and shading devices are good solutions to attenuate the surplus amount of daylight in spaces. Accordingly, this study evaluates the effect of shading devices on the amount of light flux and the associated solar energy in buildings. It estimates the energy consumption attributed to lighting spaces for three common positions of shading devices. Computer simulation strategy was undertaken to correlate the illuminance level in spaces with room geometry and architectural shading elements. The Holophane model for lighting calculations was used to estimate the average illuminance level on workplane and correlate it with the expected saving energy in buildings. The study concluded that there is an optimal orientation for shading devices that keeps the internal illuminance level within the acceptable range with minimum amount of solar heat gain. (author)

  11. Space, time and group identity in Jubilees 8-9

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    This paper investigates this change in communication strategy and ... his orientation towards and organisation of space, as revealed in his ideas ..... two versions of the same tradition or the parallel development of an older, .... In the case of Numbers Israel ... with its chronological system of jubilees and heavenly space.

  12. Classifying spaces with virtually cyclic stabilizers for linear groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degrijse, Dieter Dries; Köhl, Ralf; Petrosyan, Nansen

    2015-01-01

    We show that every discrete subgroup of GL(n, ℝ) admits a finite-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers. Applying our methods to SL(3, ℤ), we obtain a four-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers and a decomposition of the algebraic K-theory of its...

  13. Changes in hydrocarbon groups, soil ecotoxicity and microbiology along horizontal and vertical contamination gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Hakala, Kati P; Lappi, Kaisa; Kondo, Elina; Vaalama, Anu; Suominen, Leena

    2012-03-01

    Horizontal and vertical contaminant gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste were characterised with the aim to assess parallel changes in hydrocarbon groups and general, microbiological and ecotoxicological soil characteristics. In the surface soil polar compounds were the most prevalent fraction of heptane-extractable hydrocarbons, superseding GC-FID-resolvable and high-molar-mass aliphatics and aromatics, but there was no indication of their relatively higher mobility or toxicity. The size of the polar fraction correlated poorly with soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties, which were better explained by the total heptane-extractable and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Deleterious effects on soil microbiology in situ were observed at surprisingly low TPH concentrations (0.3%). Due to the accumulation of polar and complexed degradation products, TPH seems an insufficient measure to assess the quality and monitor the remediation of soil with weathered hydrocarbon contamination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping Spaces, Centralizers, and p-Local Finite Groups of Lie Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laude, Isabelle

    We study the space of maps from the classifying space of a finite p-group to theBorel construction of a finite group of Lie type G in characteristic p acting on itsbuilding. The first main result is a description of the homology with Fp-coefficients,showing that the mapping space, up to p...... between a finite p-group and theuncompleted classifying space of the p-local finite group coming from a finite groupof Lie type in characteristic p, providing some of the first results in this uncompletedsetting.......-completion, is a disjoint union indexedover the group homomorphism up to conjugation of classifying spaces of centralizersof p-subgroups in the underlying group G. We complement this description bydetermining the actual homotopy groups of the mapping space. These resultstranslate to descriptions of the space of maps...

  15. The group approach to AdS space propagators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Thorsten; Manvelyan, Ruben; Ruehl, Werner

    2003-01-01

    We show that AdS two-point functions can be obtained by connecting two points in the interior of AdS space with one point on its boundary by a dual pair of Dobrev's boundary-to-bulk intertwiners and integrating over the boundary point

  16. Student "Facebook" Groups as a Third Space: Between Social Life and Schoolwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaen, Janus; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The paper examines educational potentials of "Facebook" groups that are created and managed by students without any involvement from teachers. The objective is to study student-managed "Facebook" groups as a "third space" between the institutional space of teacher-managed "Facebook" groups and the…

  17. On determining the isometry group of a Riemannian space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlhede, A.; Maccallum, M.A.H.

    1982-01-01

    An extension of the recently discussed algorithm for deciding the equivalence problem for Riemannian metrics is presented. The extension determines the structure constants of the isometry group and enables us to obtain some information about its orbits, including the form of the Killing vectors in canonical coordinates. (author)

  18. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. IMPLICATIONS FROM THE NEARLY UNIVERSAL NATURE OF HORIZONTAL BRANCH DISCONTINUITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T. M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute,Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, IC2 Building, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Dalessandro, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Piotto, G.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,”Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sweigart, A. V. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Aparicio, A., E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu, E-mail: jayander@stsci, E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: pietrinferni@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: dantona@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: M.Salaris@ljmu.ac.uk, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Calle Vía Láctea s/n. E38200 — La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    The UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey of Galactic globular clusters provides a new window into the phenomena that shape the morphological features of the horizontal branch (HB). Using this large and homogeneous catalog of UV and blue photometry, we demonstrate that the HB exhibits discontinuities that are remarkably consistent in color (effective temperature). This consistency is apparent even among some of the most massive clusters hosting multiple distinct sub-populations (such as NGC 2808, ω Cen, and NGC 6715), demonstrating that these phenomena are primarily driven by atmospheric physics that is independent of the underlying population properties. However, inconsistencies arise in the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the discontinuity within the blue HB (BHB) distribution shifts ∼1000–2000 K hotter. We demonstrate that this shift is likely due to a large helium enhancement in the BHB stars of these clusters, which in turn affects the surface convection and evolution of such stars. Our survey also increases the number of Galactic globular clusters known to host blue-hook stars (also known as late hot flashers) from 6 to 23 clusters. These clusters are biased toward the bright end of the globular cluster luminosity function, confirming that blue-hook stars tend to form in the most massive clusters with significant self-enrichment.

  19. Tiempo, espacio y el futuro del pasado: los horizontes de la Historia = Time, space and the future of the past: The horizons of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Armitage

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Es mucho lo que ha quedado atrás en un amplio abanico de campos históricos. Numerosos historiadores están ensanchando los espacios para crear historias internacionales, transnacionales y globales. Otros están expandiendo el tiempo, para perseguir una Big History, una Deep History y la historia del Antropoceno. ¿Cuál es la explicación para esta expansión de los horizontes? ¿Y que significa para el futuro de la Historia? Este artículo presenta un alegato para la consideración de la historia como una disciplina de las transformaciones sociales y políticas en medio de las crisis de gobernanza global, creciente desigualdad y cambio climático antropogénico.Big is back across a wide range of historical fields. Many historians are stretching space, to create international, transnational and global histories. Others are expanding time, to pursue Big History, Deep History and the history of the Anthropocene. What explains this broadening of horizons? And what does it mean for the future of history? This article makes a case for history as a discipline of social and political transformation amid crises of global governance, rising inequality, and anthropogenic climate change.

  20. Changes in hydrocarbon groups, soil ecotoxicity and microbiology along horizontal and vertical contamination gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkonen, Anu; Hakala, Kati P.; Lappi, Kaisa; Kondo, Elina; Vaalama, Anu; Suominen, Leena

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal and vertical contaminant gradients in an old landfarming field for oil refinery waste were characterised with the aim to assess parallel changes in hydrocarbon groups and general, microbiological and ecotoxicological soil characteristics. In the surface soil polar compounds were the most prevalent fraction of heptane-extractable hydrocarbons, superseding GC–FID-resolvable and high-molar-mass aliphatics and aromatics, but there was no indication of their relatively higher mobility or toxicity. The size of the polar fraction correlated poorly with soil physical, chemical and microbiological properties, which were better explained by the total heptane-extractable and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Deleterious effects on soil microbiology in situ were observed at surprisingly low TPH concentrations (0.3%). Due to the accumulation of polar and complexed degradation products, TPH seems an insufficient measure to assess the quality and monitor the remediation of soil with weathered hydrocarbon contamination. - Highlights: ► Weathered hydrocarbon contamination and soil quality on landfarm site were studied. ► Silica fractionation of hydrocarbons separated aliphatics, aromatics and polars. ► Polar hydrocarbon metabolites had accumulated in the surface soil. ► Total hydrocarbons and TPH correlated with soil quality changes better than polars. ► Toxic response of soil microbial biomass and activity were seen at low TPH (<0.5%). - Polar metabolites constitute the largest fraction of crude oil-derived contaminants in a landfarming site, but TPH better explains soil microbial and ecotoxicological responses.

  1. Brauer groups and obstruction problems moduli spaces and arithmetic

    CERN Document Server

    Hassett, Brendan; Várilly-Alvarado, Anthony; Viray, Bianca

    2017-01-01

    The contributions in this book explore various contexts in which the derived category of coherent sheaves on a variety determines some of its arithmetic. This setting provides new geometric tools for interpreting elements of the Brauer group. With a view towards future arithmetic applications, the book extends a number of powerful tools for analyzing rational points on elliptic curves, e.g., isogenies among curves, torsion points, modular curves, and the resulting descent techniques, as well as higher-dimensional varieties like K3 surfaces. Inspired by the rapid recent advances in our understanding of K3 surfaces, the book is intended to foster cross-pollination between the fields of complex algebraic geometry and number theory. Contributors: · Nicolas Addington · Benjamin Antieau · Kenneth Ascher · Asher Auel · Fedor Bogomolov · Jean-Louis Colliot-Thélène · Krishna Dasaratha · Brendan Hassett · Colin Ingalls · Martí Lahoz · Emanuele Macrì · Kelly McKinnie · Andrew Obus · Ekin Ozman · Raman...

  2. COSTANZA, 1-D 2 Group Space-Dependent Reactor Dynamics of Spatial Reactor with 1 Group Delayed Neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agazzi, A.; Gavazzi, C.; Vincenti, E.; Monterosso, R.

    1964-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The programme studies the spatial dynamics of reactor TESI, in the two group and one space dimension approximation. Only one group of delayed neutrons is considered. The programme simulates the vertical movement of the control rods according to any given movement law. The programme calculates the evolution of the fluxes and temperature and precursor concentration in space and time during the power excursion. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum number of lattice points is 100

  3. Horizontal violence in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsimoulaki Evangelia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One’s effort to clarify the definition of horizontal labour violence is of great importance, due to the variety of definitions that are mentioned in the worldwide scientific literature. Furthermore, the reference of multiple forms of such violence herein the nurse professional group is challenging, as well. Another fact of great importance is that, any form of professional violence (horizontal violence, horizontal mobbing in the work place environment can be possibly escalated and include even physical abuse (Bullying, besides the psychological and emotional impact for the victim. The definitions of Horizontal violence, Mobbing and Bullying, include a repeated negative behaviour emanating from at least one “predator” towards at least one “victim”, with work status differences and the existence or lack of physical abuse (Bullying. Horizontal violence is a hostile, aggressive and harmful behaviour which is either overt or concealed and is pointed from an individual to another individual of the same working rank and causes intense emotional pain at the victim. The manifestations vary from humiliating tasks assignment or the victim’s efforts undermining to clearly aggressive behaviors (criticism, intimidation, sarcasm etc.. The reason behind this phenomenon is multifactorial extended not only towards the working environment but also to the personal characteristics of the “predator” as well as the possible “victim”. The researchers emphasize the high incidence of the phenomenon, as well as the cost that is induced by the violent behaviors to both the health professionals and the hospital. Finally, they point out the paradox of the presence of violence inside a system that is designed to promote health.

  4. Intervenções urbanas, usos e ocupações de espaços na região central de Belo Horizonte = Urban interventions, usage and occupation of spaces in the central region of Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme, Juliana Gonzaga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de jovem (inaugurada em 1897 Belo Horizonte passou por um relativo processo de esvaziamento de seu centro histórico com a demolição de alguns edifícios, o deslocamento das moradias de classe média para outras regiões, a diminuição de áreas de espaço público de convivência e da presença da elite nessa região. Como em diversas cidades, esse processo mobilizou agentes públicos e iniciativa privada na elaboração de projetos de requalificação urbana voltados para sua área central. A proposta deste trabalho é refletir sobre a forma como esses projetos vêm sendo implementados pelo poder público e a região requalificada vem sendo apropriada pelos diferentes atores. Nossa hipótese é de que os processos de requalificação urbana em Belo Horizonte não devem ser pensados como intervenções voltadas apenas para o mercado, o entretenimento e o consumo cultural, numa palavra, a gentrificação

  5. Representation of SO(4,1) group and Hawking effect in the de-Sitter space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogush, A.A.; Otchik, V.S.

    1983-01-01

    Expression relating the solution of the equation for particles with spin 1/2 to matrix elements of group SO(4, 1), is obtained. When using the relation of the Dirac equation solutions in the de Sitter space with matrix elements of representations of group SO(4, 1) the presence of the Hawking effect in the space is established. The de Sitter space is considered as 4-dimensional hyperboloid, inserted into 5-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space. It is established, that the average number of emitted spinor particles obeys the Fermi-Dirac distribution

  6. Derivation of space groups in mm2, 222 and mmm crystal classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigam, G.D.

    1987-08-01

    An algebraic approach is developed to derive space groups using 4x4 Seitz matrices for the crystal classes mm2, 222 and mmm in the orthorhombic system. The advantage of the present method is that it is relatively simple and can be adapted to introduce space groups to beginners. One of the advantages of the present method is that it admits a geometrical visualization of the symmetry elements of space group. The method can easily be extended to other crystal classes in a straightforward way. 16 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Intervenções urbanas, usos e ocupações de espaços na região central de Belo Horizonte = Urban interventions, usage and occupation of spaces in the central region of Belo Horizonte

    OpenAIRE

    Jayme, Juliana Gonzaga; Trevisan, Eveline

    2012-01-01

    Apesar de jovem (inaugurada em 1897) Belo Horizonte passou por um relativo processo de esvaziamento de seu centro histórico com a demolição de alguns edifícios, o deslocamento das moradias de classe média para outras regiões, a diminuição de áreas de espaço público de convivência e da presença da elite nessa região. Como em diversas cidades, esse processo mobilizou agentes públicos e iniciativa privada na elaboração de projetos de requalificação urbana voltados para sua área central. A propos...

  8. Positive-definite functions and unitary representations of locally compact groups in a Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gali, I.M.; Okb el-Bab, A.S.; Hassan, H.M.

    1977-08-01

    It is proved that the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of an integral representation of a group of unitary operators in a Hilbert space is that it is positive-definite and continuous in some topology

  9. Challenges in Teaching Space Physics to Different Target Groups From Space Weather Forecasters to Heavy-weight Theorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, H. E.

    2008-12-01

    Plasma physics as the backbone of space physics is difficult and thus the space physics students need to have strong foundations in general physics, in particular in classical electrodynamics and thermodynamics, and master the basic mathematical tools for physicists. In many universities the number of students specializing in space physics at Master's and Doctoral levels is rather small and the students may have quite different preferences ranging from experimental approach to hard-core space plasma theory. This poses challenges in building up a study program that has both the variety and depth needed to motivate the best students to choose this field. At the University of Helsinki we require all beginning space physics students, regardless whether they enter the field as Master's or Doctoral degree students, to take a one-semester package consisting of plasma physics and its space applications. However, some compromises are necessary. For example, it is not at all clear, how thoroughly Landau damping should be taught at the first run or how deeply should the intricacies of collisionless reconnection be discussed. In both cases we have left the details to an optional course in advanced space physics, even with the risk that the student's appreciation of, e.g., reconnection may remain at the level of a magic wand. For learning experimental work, data analysis or computer simulations we have actively pursued arrangements for the Master's degree students to get a summer employments in active research groups, which usually lead to the Master's theses. All doctoral students are members of research groups and participate in experimental work, data analysis, simulation studies or theory development, or any combination of these. We emphasize strongly "learning by doing" all the way from the weekly home exercises during the lecture courses to the PhD theses which in Finland consist typically of 4-6 peer-reviewed articles with a comprehensive introductory part.

  10. Implementation of small group discussion as a teaching method in earth and space science subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryani, N. P.; Supriyadi

    2018-03-01

    In Physics Department Universitas Negeri Semarang, Earth and Space Science subject is included in the curriculum of the third year of physics education students. There are various models of teaching earth and space science subject such as textbook method, lecturer, demonstrations, study tours, problem-solving method, etc. Lectures method is the most commonly used of teaching earth and space science subject. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of two ways interaction between lecturers and students. This research used small group discussion as a teaching method in Earth and Space science. The purpose of this study is to identify the conditions under which an efficient discussion may be initiated and maintained while students are investigating properties of earth and space science subjects. The results of this research show that there is an increase in student’s understanding of earth and space science subject proven through the evaluation results. In addition, during the learning process, student’s activeness also increase.

  11. Description of symmetry of magnetic structures by representations of space groups. [Tables, projecton operator methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W

    1974-10-15

    A description of magnetic structures based on the use of representations of space groups is given. Representations of the space groups were established for each compound on the basis of experimental data by the method of projection operators. The compounds contained in the list are collected according to crystal systems, alphabetically within each system. The description of each compound consists of the four parts. The first part contain the chemical symbol of the compound, the second its space group. The next part contains the chemical symbol of the magnetic atom and its positions in Wychoff notation with the number of equivalent positions in the crystal unit cell. The main description of a compound magnetic structure is given in the fourth part. It contains: K vector defined in the reciprocal space, the representation according to which a magnetic structure is transformed and the axial vector function S which describes the magnetic structure.

  12. Fundamental group of dual graphs and applications to quantum space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nada, S.I.; Hamouda, E.H.

    2009-01-01

    Let G be a connected planar graph with n vertices and m edges. It is known that the fundamental group of G has 1 -(n - m) generators. In this paper, we show that if G is a self-dual graph, then its fundamental group has (n - 1) generators. We indicate that these results are relevant to quantum space time.

  13. Space-time versus world-sheet renormalization group equation in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, R.; Roland, K.

    1991-05-01

    We discuss the relation between space-time renormalization group equation for closed string field theory and world-sheet renormalization group equation for first-quantized strings. Restricting our attention to massless states we argue that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the fixed point solutions of the two renormalization group equations. In particular, we show how to extract the Fischler-Susskind mechanism from the string field theory equation in the case of the bosonic string. (orig.)

  14. Group-velocity dispersion effects on quantum noise of a fiber optical soliton in phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Heongkyu; Lee, Euncheol

    2010-01-01

    Group-velocity dispersion (GVD) effects on quantum noise of ultrashort pulsed light are theoretically investigated at the soliton energy level, using Gaussian-weighted pseudo-random distribution of phasors in phase space for the modeling of quantum noise properties including phase noise, photon number noise, and quantum noise shape in phase space. We present the effects of GVD that mixes the different spectral components in time, on the self-phase modulation(SPM)-induced quantum noise properties in phase space such as quadrature squeezing, photon-number noise, and tilting/distortion of quantum noise shape in phase space, for the soliton that propagates a distance of the nonlinear length η NL = 1/( γP 0 ) (P 0 is the pulse peak power and γ is the SPM parameter). The propagation dependence of phase space quantum noise properties for an optical soliton is also provided.

  15. The Lp Spectrum of Locally Symmetric Spaces with Small Fundamental Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    We determine the L p spectrum of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on certain complete locally symmetric spaces M whose universal covering X is a symmetric space of non-compact type with rank one. More precisely, we show that the L p spectra of M and X coincide if the fundamental group of M is small and if the injectivity radius of M is bounded away from zero. In the L 2 case, the restriction on the injectivity radius is not needed

  16. The homology groups of moduli spaces on non-classical Klein surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaw, Myint

    2001-08-01

    We describe the moduli space M-vector±(g,c) of non-classical directed Klein surfaces of genus g=h-c-1 with c≥0 distinguished points as a configuration space B ± (h,c) of classes h-slit pairs in C. Based on this model, we prove that M-vector ± (g,c) is non-orientable for any g and c and we compute the homology groups of the moduli spaces M-vector ± (g,c) for g≤2. (author)

  17. Generation of symmetry coordinates for crystals using multiplier representations of the space groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1978-01-01

    Symmetry coordinates play an important role in the normal-mode calculations of crystals. It is therefore of great importance to have a general method, which may be applied for any crystal at any wave vector, to generate these. The multiplier representations of the space groups as given by Kovalev...... and the projection-operator technique provide a basis for such a method. The method is illustrated for the nonsymmorphic D36 space group, and the theoretical background for the representations of space groups in general is reviewed and illustrated on the example above. It is desirable to perform the projection...... of symmetry coordinates in such a way that they may be used for as many wave vectors as possible. We discuss how to achieve this goal. The detailed illustrations should make it simple to apply the theory in any other case....

  18. An introduction to Lie groups and the geometry of homogeneous spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Arvanitoyeorgos, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    It is remarkable that so much about Lie groups could be packed into this small book. But after reading it, students will be well-prepared to continue with more advanced, graduate-level topics in differential geometry or the theory of Lie groups. The theory of Lie groups involves many areas of mathematics. In this book, Arvanitoyeorgos outlines enough of the prerequisites to get the reader started. He then chooses a path through this rich and diverse theory that aims for an understanding of the geometry of Lie groups and homogeneous spaces. In this way, he avoids the extra detail needed for a thorough discussion of other topics. Lie groups and homogeneous spaces are especially useful to study in geometry, as they provide excellent examples where quantities (such as curvature) are easier to compute. A good understanding of them provides lasting intuition, especially in differential geometry. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and research mathematicians interested in differenti...

  19. Selenomethionine substitution of orotidine-5-monophosphate decarboxylase causes a change in crystal contacts and space group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Harris, Pernille; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2001-01-01

    with the inhibitor 1-(5'-phospho- -D-ribofuranosyl)barbituric acid crystallizes under similar conditions as the native enzyme. In contrast to the native enzyme, where the crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P212121, the SeMet-substituted enzyme crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21......-wavelength anomalous dispersion technique, both native and SeMet-substituted proteins have been produced and purified. During the production of SeMet ODCase, it was observed that SeMet was the only amino acid that it was necessary to add to the defined medium during expression. SeMet-substituted ODCase in complex...

  20. The Picard group of the moduli space of r-Spin Riemann surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randal-Williams, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    An r-Spin Riemann surface is a Riemann surface equipped with a choice of rth root of the (co)tangent bundle. We give a careful construction of the moduli space (orbifold) of r-Spin Riemann surfaces, and explain how to establish a Madsen–Weiss theorem for it. This allows us to prove the “Mumford...... conjecture” for these moduli spaces, but more interestingly allows us to compute their algebraic Picard groups (for g≥10, or g≥9 in the 2-Spin case). We give a complete description of these Picard groups, in terms of explicitly constructed line bundles....

  1. Johnson Space Center's Risk and Reliability Analysis Group 2008 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Mark; Boyer, Roger; Cross, Bob; Hamlin, Teri; Roelant, Henk; Stewart, Mike; Bigler, Mark; Winter, Scott; Reistle, Bruce; Heydorn,Dick

    2009-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) Safety & Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate s Risk and Reliability Analysis Group provides both mathematical and engineering analysis expertise in the areas of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) analysis, and data collection and analysis. The fundamental goal of this group is to provide National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decisionmakers with the necessary information to make informed decisions when evaluating personnel, flight hardware, and public safety concerns associated with current operating systems as well as with any future systems. The Analysis Group includes a staff of statistical and reliability experts with valuable backgrounds in the statistical, reliability, and engineering fields. This group includes JSC S&MA Analysis Branch personnel as well as S&MA support services contractors, such as Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and SoHaR. The Analysis Group s experience base includes nuclear power (both commercial and navy), manufacturing, Department of Defense, chemical, and shipping industries, as well as significant aerospace experience specifically in the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), and Constellation Programs. The Analysis Group partners with project and program offices, other NASA centers, NASA contractors, and universities to provide additional resources or information to the group when performing various analysis tasks. The JSC S&MA Analysis Group is recognized as a leader in risk and reliability analysis within the NASA community. Therefore, the Analysis Group is in high demand to help the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) continue to fly safely, assist in designing the next generation spacecraft for the Constellation Program (CxP), and promote advanced analytical techniques. The Analysis Section s tasks include teaching classes and instituting personnel qualification processes to enhance the professional abilities of our analysts

  2. An introduction to data reduction: space-group determination, scaling and intensity statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Philip R

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of how to run the CCP4 programs for data reduction (SCALA, POINTLESS and CTRUNCATE) through the CCP4 graphical interface ccp4i and points out some issues that need to be considered, together with a few examples. It covers determination of the point-group symmetry of the diffraction data (the Laue group), which is required for the subsequent scaling step, examination of systematic absences, which in many cases will allow inference of the space group, putting multiple data sets on a common indexing system when there are alternatives, the scaling step itself, which produces a large set of data-quality indicators, estimation of |F| from intensity and finally examination of intensity statistics to detect crystal pathologies such as twinning. An appendix outlines the scoring schemes used by the program POINTLESS to assign probabilities to possible Laue and space groups.

  3. Future In-Space Operations (FISO): A Working Group and Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Long-duration human capabilities beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), either in support of or as an alternative to lunar surface operations, have been assessed at least since the late 1960s. Over the next few months, we will present short histories of concepts for long-duration, free-space human habitation beyond LEO from the end of the Apollo program to the Decadal Planning Team (DPT)/NASA Exploration Team (NExT), which was active in 1999 2000 (see Forging a vision: NASA s Decadal Planning Team and the origins of the Vision for Space Exploration , The Space Review, December 19, 2005). Here we summarize the brief existence of the Future In-Space Operations (FISO) working group in 2005 2006 and its successor, a telecon-based colloquium series, which we co-moderate.

  4. Response to the Comment by G. Emch on projective group representations in quaternionic Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the differing definitions of complex and quaternionic projective group representations employed by us and by Emch. The definition of Emch (termed here a strong projective representation) is too restrictive to accommodate quaternionic Hilbert space embeddings of complex projective representations. Our definition (termed here a weak projective representation) encompasses such embeddings, and leads to a detailed theory of quaternionic, as well as complex, projective group representations. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Realization of vector fields for quantum groups as pseudodifferential operators on quantum spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Chong-Sun; Zumino, B.

    1995-01-01

    The vector fields of the quantum Lie algebra are described for the quantum groups GL q (n), SL q (N) and SO q (N) as pseudodifferential operators on the linear quantum spaces covariant under the corresponding quantum group. Their expressions are simple and compact. It is pointed out that these vector fields satisfy certain characteristic polynomial identities. The real forms SU q (N) and SO q (N,R) are discussed in detail

  6. Lie groups and symmetric spaces in memory of F. I. Karpelevich

    CERN Document Server

    Gindikin, S G

    2003-01-01

    The book contains survey and research articles devoted mainly to geometry and harmonic analysis of symmetric spaces and to corresponding aspects of group representation theory. The volume is dedicated to the memory of Russian mathematician F. I. Karpelevich (1927-2000).

  7. Torelli groups, extended Johnson homomorphisms, and new cycles on the moduli space of curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Shigeyuki; Penner, Robert

    modulo N are derived for all N. Furthermore, the first Johnson homomorphism, which is defined from the classical Torelli group to the third exterior power of the homology of the surface, is shown to lift to an explicit canonical 1-cocycle of the Teichmueller space. The main tool for these results...... cocycle lifts of the higher Johnson homomorphisms....

  8. Disintegration of positive isometric group representations on L^p-spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeu, de M.F.E.; Rozendaal, J.

    2017-01-01

    Let G be a Polish locally compact group acting on a Polish space X" role="presentation">X with a G-invariant probability measure μ" role="presentation">μ. We factorize the integral with respect to μ" role="presentation">μ in terms of the integrals with respect to the ergodic measures on X, and show

  9. Fourier-space TEM reconstructions with symmetry adapted functions for all rotational point groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Stefano; Navaza, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    A general-purpose and simple expression for the coefficients of symmetry adapted functions referred to conveniently oriented symmetry axes is given for all rotational point groups. The expression involves the computation of reduced Wigner-matrix elements corresponding to an angle specific to each group and has the computational advantage of leading to Fourier-space TEM (transmission electron microscopy) reconstruction procedures involving only real valued unknowns. Using this expression, a protocol for ab initio view and center assignment and reconstruction so far used for icosahedral particles has been tested with experimental data in other point groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborative groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijns, Karel; Kirschner, Paul A; Jochems, Wim; Van Buuren, Hans

    2004-04-01

    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group dynamics. Though now known to be important, this aspect is often ignored, denied or forgotten by educators and researchers who tend to concentrate on cognitive processes and on-task contexts. This "one-sided" educational focus largely determines the set of requirements in the design of computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) environments resulting in functional CSCL environments. In contrast, our research is aimed at the design and implementation of sociable CSCL environments which may increase the likelihood that a sound social space will emerge. We use a theoretical framework that is based upon an ecological approach to social interaction, centering on the concept of social affordances, the concept of the sociability of CSCL environments, and social presence theory. The hypothesis is that the higher the sociability, the more likely that social interaction will take place or will increase, and the more likely that this will result in an emerging sound social space. In the present research, the variables of interest are sociability, social space, and social presence. This study deals with the construction and validation of three instruments to determine sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborating groups. The findings suggest that the instruments have potential to be useful as measures for the respective variables. However, it must be realized that these measures are "first steps."

  11. Planning and managing future space facility projects. [management by objectives and group dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, J. E.; Wilhelm, J. A.; Tanner, T. A.; Helmreich, R. L.; Burgenbauch, S. F.

    1979-01-01

    To learn how ground-based personnel of a space project plan and organize their work and how such planning and organizing relate to work outcomes, longitudinal study of the management and execution of the Space Lab Mission Development Test 3 (SMD 3) was performed at NASA Ames Research Center. A view of the problems likely to arise in organizations and some methods of coping with these problems are presented as well as the conclusions and recommendations that pertain strictly to SMD 3 management. Emphasis is placed on the broader context of future space facility projects and additional problems that may be anticipated. A model of management that may be used to facilitate problem solving and communication - management by objectives (MBO) is presented. Some problems of communication and emotion management that MBO does not address directly are considered. Models for promoting mature, constructive and satisfying emotional relationships among group members are discussed.

  12. Extended system of space-time coordinates and generalized translation group of transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaleev, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method of extending space-time is considered. In the nonrelativistic case extending goes by joining a scalar to the 3-dimensional radius-vector, completing this to a quaternion. The interpretation of scalar obtained as a parameter of scale transfornation of the generalized translation of group of transformations is given. Some basic expressions of nonrelativistic classical mechanics in the quaternion representation are given. In the relativistic case space-time is constructed from two quaternions: the first one consists of a pair scalar-3-dimensional radius-vector; the second one, of a pair-time-scalar-3-dimensional time-vector. Time and space coordinates, enter into the expression with the opposite signature. The introduction of a time-vector as well as of a new scalar is stipulated by the requirement of the principle of conforming quantum mechanics of the 1/2 spin to classical mechanics [ru

  13. METHOD OF GROUP OBJECTS FORMING FOR SPACE-BASED REMOTE SENSING OF THE EARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Grigoriev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. Research findings of the specific application of space-based optical-electronic and radar means for the Earth remote sensing are considered. The subject matter of the study is the current planning of objects survey on the underlying surface in order to increase the effectiveness of sensing system due to the rational use of its resources. Method. New concept of a group object, stochastic swath and stochastic length of the route is introduced. The overview of models for single, group objects and their parameters is given. The criterion for the existence of the group object based on two single objects is formulated. The method for group objects formation while current survey planning has been developed and its description is presented. The method comprises several processing stages for data about objects with the calculation of new parameters, the stochastic characteristics of space means and validates the spatial size of the object value of the stochastic swath and stochastic length of the route. The strict mathematical description of techniques for model creation of a group object based on data about a single object and onboard special complex facilities in difficult conditions of registration of spatial data is given. Main Results. The developed method is implemented on the basis of modern geographic information system in the form of a software tool layout with advanced tools of processing and analysis of spatial data in vector format. Experimental studies of the forming method for the group of objects were carried out on a different real object environment using the parameters of modern national systems of the Earth remote sensing detailed observation Canopus-B and Resurs-P. Practical Relevance. The proposed models and method are focused on practical implementation using vector spatial data models and modern geoinformation technologies. Practical value lies in the reduction in the amount of consumable resources by means of

  14. Loop space representation of quantum general relativity and the group of loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, R.

    1991-01-01

    The action of the constraints of quantum general relativity on a general state in the loop representation is coded in terms of loop derivatives. These differential operators are related to the infinitesimal generators of the group of loops and generalize the area derivative first considered by Mandelstam. A new sector of solutions of the physical states space of nonperturbative quantum general relativity is found. (orig.)

  15. Location preferences of groups in public leisure spaces: the case of Likya Cafe in Ankara

    OpenAIRE

    Altay, Can

    1999-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1999. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1999. Includes bibliographical references. In this study, public leisure spaces are examined considering the social and spatial behavior of occupant groups. After an introduction to the concepts of leisure, its types, its relations with public life and cultural concepts, the study discusses leisure ...

  16. Moduli space of self-dual connections in dimension greater than four for abelian Gauge groups

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Natacha

    2018-01-01

    In 1954, C. Yang and R. Mills created a Gauge Theory for strong interaction of Elementary Particles. More generally, they proved that it is possible to define a Gauge Theory with an arbitrary compact Lie group as Gauge group. Within this context, it is interesting to find critical values of a functional defined on the space of connections: the Yang-Mills functional. If the based manifold is four dimensional, there exists a natural notion of (anti-)self-dual 2-form, which gives a natural notio...

  17. Grouped fuzzy SVM with EM-based partition of sample space for clustered microcalcification detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiya; Feng, Jun; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-07-20

    Detection of clustered microcalcification (MC) from mammograms plays essential roles in computer-aided diagnosis for early stage breast cancer. To tackle problems associated with the diversity of data structures of MC lesions and the variability of normal breast tissues, multi-pattern sample space learning is required. In this paper, a novel grouped fuzzy Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm with sample space partition based on Expectation-Maximization (EM) (called G-FSVM) is proposed for clustered MC detection. The diversified pattern of training data is partitioned into several groups based on EM algorithm. Then a series of fuzzy SVM are integrated for classification with each group of samples from the MC lesions and normal breast tissues. From DDSM database, a total of 1,064 suspicious regions are selected from 239 mammography, and the measurement of Accuracy, True Positive Rate (TPR), False Positive Rate (FPR) and EVL = TPR* 1-FPR are 0.82, 0.78, 0.14 and 0.72, respectively. The proposed method incorporates the merits of fuzzy SVM and multi-pattern sample space learning, decomposing the MC detection problem into serial simple two-class classification. Experimental results from synthetic data and DDSM database demonstrate that our integrated classification framework reduces the false positive rate significantly while maintaining the true positive rate.

  18. Toward a standardized structural-functional group connectome in MNI space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Andreas; Blankenburg, Felix

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the structural architecture of the human brain in terms of connectivity between its subregions has provided profound insights into its underlying functional organization and has coined the concept of the "connectome", a structural description of the elements forming the human brain and the connections among them. Here, as a proof of concept, we introduce a novel group connectome in standard space based on a large sample of 169 subjects from the Enhanced Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample (eNKI-RS). Whole brain structural connectomes of each subject were estimated with a global tracking approach, and the resulting fiber tracts were warped into standard stereotactic (MNI) space using DARTEL. Employing this group connectome, the results of published tracking studies (i.e., the JHU white matter and Oxford thalamic connectivity atlas) could be largely reproduced directly within MNI space. In a second analysis, a study that examined structural connectivity between regions of a functional network, namely the default mode network, was reproduced. Voxel-wise structural centrality was then calculated and compared to others' findings. Furthermore, including additional resting-state fMRI data from the same subjects, structural and functional connectivity matrices between approximately forty thousand nodes of the brain were calculated. This was done to estimate structure-function agreement indices of voxel-wise whole brain connectivity. Taken together, the combination of a novel whole brain fiber tracking approach and an advanced normalization method led to a group connectome that allowed (at least heuristically) performing fiber tracking directly within MNI space. Such an approach may be used for various purposes like the analysis of structural connectivity and modeling experiments that aim at studying the structure-function relationship of the human connectome. Moreover, it may even represent a first step toward a standard DTI template of the human brain

  19. Assessment of space plasma effectsfor satellite applications:Working Group 2 overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jakowski

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available An important part of the tasks of Working Group 2 of the COST Action 271 «Assessment of space plasma effect for satellites applications» is the assessment of novel data sources for information about the state of ionisation of the ionosphere. This report deals with those aspects which are not represented adequately in the scientific papers in this issue. Here emphasis is given to the product aspect (data and model collections, descriptions of methods and algorithms, availability of products, expected future developments and the links between the past COST Actions 238 and 251 with the present Action 271 and with possible future cooperations. Working Group 2 was leading in the transionospheric propagation aspects of possible products for the International Telecommunication Union?s Radiocommunication (ITU-R Study Group 3. This report gives a short overview emphasizing future developments.

  20. The Group Evacuation Behavior Based on Fire Effect in the Complicated Three-Dimensional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively depict the group evacuation behavior in the complicated three-dimensional space, a novel pedestrian flow model is proposed with three-dimensional cellular automata. In this model the calculation methods of floor field and fire gain are elaborated at first, and the transition gain of target position at the next moment is defined. Then, in consideration of pedestrian intimacy and velocity change, the group evacuation strategy and evolution rules are given. Finally, the experiments were conducted with the simulation platform to study the relationships of evacuation time, pedestrian density, average system velocity, and smoke spreading velocity. The results had shown that large-scale group evacuation should be avoided, and in case of large pedestrian density, the shortest route of evacuation strategy would extend system evacuation time.

  1. Topological and homological properties of the orbit space of a compact linear Lie group with commutative connected component

    OpenAIRE

    Styrt, O. G.

    2016-01-01

    The problem in question is whether the quotient space of a compact linear group is a topological manifold and whether it is a homological manifold. In the paper, the case of an infinite group with commutative connected component is considered.

  2. The Community-based Organizations Working Group of the Space Science Education Support Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J. H.; Lowes, L. L.; Asplund, S.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Space Science Support Network Community-based Organizations Working Group (CBOWG) has been working for the past two years on issues surrounding afterschool programs and programs for youth (e.g., Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, summer camps, afterschool and weekend programs for various ages, programs with emphases on minority youth). In this session the co-leaders of the CBOWG will discuss the challenges of working with community-based organizations on a regional or national level. We will highlight some ties that we have forged with the National Institute for Out of School Time (NIOST) and the National Afterschool Association (NAA). We will also talk about efforts to coordinate how various entities within NASA cooperate with community-based organizations to serve the best interests of these groups. We will give a couple of examples of how NASA space science organizations have partnered with community-based organizations. The session will include some handouts of information and resources that the CBOWG has found useful in developing an understanding of this segment of informal education groups. We would like to thank NASA for providing resources to support the work of the CBOWG.

  3. Independence of automorphism group, center, and state space of quantum logics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navara, M.

    1992-01-01

    We prove that quantum logics (-orthomodular posets) admit full independence of the attributes important within the foundations of quantum mechanics. Namely, we present the construction of quantum logics with given sublogics (=physical subsystems), automorphism groups, centers (=open-quotes classical partsclose quotes of the systems), and state spaces. Thus, all these open-quotes parametersclose quotes are independent. Our result is rooted in the line of investigation carried out by Greechie; Kallus and Trnkova; Kalmbach; and Navara and Ptak; and considerably enriches the known algebraic methods in orthomodular posets. 19 refs., 1 fig

  4. Representation theory of 2-groups on finite dimensional 2-vector spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Elgueta, Josep

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the 2-category $\\mathfrak{Rep}_{{\\bf 2Mat}_{\\mathbb{C}}}(\\mathbb{G})$ of (weak) representations of an arbitrary (weak) 2-group $\\mathbb{G}$ on (some version of) Kapranov and Voevodsky's 2-category of (complex) 2-vector spaces is studied. In particular, the set of equivalence classes of representations is computed in terms of the invariants $\\pi_0(\\mathbb{G})$, $\\pi_1(\\mathbb{G})$ and $[\\alpha]\\in H^3(\\pi_0(\\mathbb{G}),\\pi_1(\\mathbb{G}))$ classifying $\\mathbb{G}$. Also the categ...

  5. A Phase Transformation with no Change in Space Group Symmetry: Octafluoronaphtalene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawley, G. S.; Dietrich, O. W.

    1975-01-01

    A solid-state phase transformation in octafluoronaphthalene has been discovered at 266.5K on cooling, and at 15K higher on heating. The symmetry of both phases is found to be the same, namely monoclinic with space group P21/c. The unit cell parameters change by up to 10%, but the integrity...... of a single crystal, which shatters on cooling, is good enough for a single-crystal structure determination. This has been done in both phases to a sufficient accuracy that a mechanism for the transformation can be proposed. Molecules which lie parallel to one another shear to a new parallel position...

  6. Gauge fields in nonlinear group realizations involving two-dimensional space-time symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machacek, M.E.; McCliment, E.R.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that gauge fields may be consistently introduced into a model Lagrangian previously considered by the authors. The model is suggested by the spontaneous breaking of a Lorentz-type group into a quasiphysical two-dimensional space-time and one internal degree of freedom, loosely associated with charge. The introduction of zero-mass gauge fields makes possible the absorption via the Higgs mechanism of the Goldstone fields that appear in the model despite the fact that the Goldstone fields do not transform as scalars. Specifically, gauge invariance of the Yang-Mills type requires the introduction of two sets of massless gauge fields. The transformation properties in two-dimensional space-time suggest that one set is analogous to a charge doublet that behaves like a second-rank tensor in real four-dimensional space time. The other set suggests a spin-one-like charge triplet. Via the Higgs mechanism, the first set absorbs the Goldstone fields and acquires mass. The second set remains massless. If massive gauge fields are introduced, the associated currents are not conserved and the Higgs mechanism is no longer fully operative. The Goldstone fields are not eliminated, but coupling between the Goldstone fields and the gauge fields does shift the mass of the antisymmetric second-rank-tensor gauge field components

  7. Quantum spaces, central extensions of Lie groups and related quantum field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Timothé; Wallet, Jean-Christophe

    2018-02-01

    Quantum spaces with su(2) noncommutativity can be modelled by using a family of SO(3)-equivariant differential *-representations. The quantization maps are determined from the combination of the Wigner theorem for SU(2) with the polar decomposition of the quantized plane waves. A tracial star-product, equivalent to the Kontsevich product for the Poisson manifold dual to su(2) is obtained from a subfamily of differential *-representations. Noncommutative (scalar) field theories free from UV/IR mixing and whose commutative limit coincides with the usual ϕ 4 theory on ℛ3 are presented. A generalization of the construction to semi-simple possibly non simply connected Lie groups based on their central extensions by suitable abelian Lie groups is discussed. Based on a talk presented by Poulain T at the XXVth International Conference on Integrable Systems and Quantum symmetries (ISQS-25), Prague, June 6-10 2017.

  8. Analysis of Adult Female Mouse (Mus musculus) Group Behavior on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group

  9. Knot wormholes and the dimensional invariant of exceptional Lie groups and Stein space hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elokaby, Ayman

    2009-01-01

    The present short note points out a most interesting and quite unexpected connection between the number of distinct knot as a function of their crossing number and exceptional Lie groups and Stein space hierarchies. It is found that the crossing number 7 plays the role of threshold similar to 4 and 5 in E-infinity theory and for the 11 crossing the number of distinct knots is very close to 4α-bar 0 +1=548+1=549, where α-bar 0 =137 is the inverse integer electromagnetic fine structure constant. This is particularly intriguing in view of a similar relation pertinent to the 17 two and three Stein spaces where the total dimension is Σ 1 17 Stein=5α-bar 0 +1=685+1=686, as well as the sum of the eight exceptional Lie symmetry groups Σ i=1 8 |E i |=4α-bar 0 =548. The slight discrepancy of one is explained in both cases by the inclusion of El Naschie's transfinite corrections leading to Σ i=1 8 |E i |=(4)(137+k 0 )=548.328157 and Σ i=1 17 Stein=(5)(137+k 0 )=685.41097, where k o = φ 5 (1 - φ 5 ) and φ=(√(5)-1)/2.

  10. Vertical and horizontal subsidiarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Daniluk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article makes an attempt to analyze the principle of subsidiarity in its two main manifestations, namely vertical and horizontal, to outline the principles of relations between the state and regions within the vertical subsidiarity, and features a collaboration of the government and civil society within the horizontal subsidiarity. Scientists identify two types, or two levels of the subsidiarity principle: vertical subsidiarity and horizontal subsidiarity. First, vertical subsidiarity (or territorial concerning relations between the state and other levels of subnational government, such as regions and local authorities; second, horizontal subsidiarity (or functional concerns the relationship between state and citizen (and civil society. Vertical subsidiarity expressed in the context of the distribution of administrative responsibilities to the appropriate higher level lower levels relative to the state structure, ie giving more powers to local government. However, state intervention has subsidiary-lower action against local authorities in cases of insolvency last cope on their own, ie higher organisms intervene only if the duties are less authority is insufficient to achieve the goals. Horizontal subsidiarity is within the relationship between power and freedom, and is based on the assumption that the concern for the common good and the needs of common interest community, able to solve community members (as individuals and citizens’ associations and role of government, in accordance horizontal subsidiarity comes to attracting features subsidiarity assistance, programming, coordination and possibly control.

  11. On the Lie symmetry group for classical fields in noncommutative space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ricardo Martinho Lima Santiago [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil); Instituto Federal da Bahia (IFBA), BA (Brazil); Ressureicao, Caio G. da [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Vianna, Jose David M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), BA (Brazil); Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: An alternative way to include effects of noncommutative geometries in field theory is based on the concept of noncommutativity among degrees of freedom of the studied system. In this context it is reasonable to consider that, in the multiparticle noncommutative quantum mechanics (NCQM), the noncommutativity among degrees of freedom to discrete system with N particles is also verified. Further, an analysis of the classical limit of the single particle NCQM leads to a deformed Newtonian mechanics where the Newton's second law is modified in order to include the noncommutative parameter {theta}{sub {iota}j} and, for a one-dimensional discrete system with N particles, the dynamical evolution of each particle is given by this modified Newton's second law. Hence, applying the continuous limit to this multiparticle classical system it is possible to obtain a noncommutative extension of two -dimensional field theory in a noncommutative space. In the present communication we consider a noncommutative extension of the scalar field obtained from this approach and we analyze the Lie symmetries in order to compare the Lie group of this field with the usual scalar field in the commutative space. (author)

  12. "Friends" and "Foes" in the Social Space of the Tatar Ethnic Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia O. Khazieva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of the World Culture is a demonstration of the "war" between the two opposites: on the one hand, we see a trend towards unification of all aspects of life on a global scale, and on the other, there is a clear confrontation between different groups of mankind. Of the many causes of the disunity of the people, the authors' focus at the opposition "friend – foe" as a metaphysical principle of formation of social space wasn't chosen by accident. The fact is that any culture, in principle, is dichotomous, and the opposition "friend – foe" is the fullest incarnation of this dichotomy. As a universal principle of the formation and functioning of the cultures, it originally manifests itself in every one of them. And, as the authors of the study suggest: this opposition could either "work" in general on the cross-cultural cooperation and unity or be one of the confrontation sources. The main result of the study is that history has prepared and put forward the Tartars for carrying out a special mission, to unite peoples and cultures. But the revolutionary social upheavals that take place in the modern world pose a threat (in the circumstances of forced migration of peoples, the growth of national consciousness of the former Soviet Union space, and especially in the face of Islamic fundamentalism on fulfilling this function.

  13. Real-space renormalization group; application to site percolation in square lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.; Schwachheim, G.

    1978-05-01

    The real-space renormalization group proposed by Reynolds, Klein and Stanley 1977 to treat the site percolation is analysed and extended . The best among 3 possible definitions of 'percolating' configurations and among 5 possible methods to weight these configurations, are established for percolation in square lattices. The use of n xn square clusters leads, for n = 2 (RKS), n = 3 and n = 4, to √ sub (p) approximately equal to 1.635, √ sub(p) approximately equal to 1.533 and √ sub(p) approximately equal to 1.498, and also to P sub(c) approximately equal to 0.382, P sub(c) approximately equal to 0.388 and P sub(c) approximately equal to 0.398, exhibiting in this way the correct (but slow) tendency towards the best up to date values [pt

  14. Fisher's Zeros as the Boundary of Renormalization Group Flows in Complex Coupling Spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denbleyker, A.; Du Daping; Liu Yuzhi; Meurice, Y.; Zou Haiyuan

    2010-01-01

    We propose new methods to extend the renormalization group transformation to complex coupling spaces. We argue that Fisher's zeros are located at the boundary of the complex basin of attraction of infrared fixed points. We support this picture with numerical calculations at finite volume for two-dimensional O(N) models in the large-N limit and the hierarchical Ising model. We present numerical evidence that, as the volume increases, the Fisher's zeros of four-dimensional pure gauge SU(2) lattice gauge theory with a Wilson action stabilize at a distance larger than 0.15 from the real axis in the complex β=4/g 2 plane. We discuss the implications for proofs of confinement and searches for nontrivial infrared fixed points in models beyond the standard model.

  15. Space-group approach to two-electron states in unconventional superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarzhemsky, V. G.

    2008-01-01

    The direct application of the space-group representation theory, makes possible to obtain limitations for the symmetry of SOP on lines and planes of symmetry in one-electron Brillouin zone. In the case of highly symmetric UPt 3 only theoretical nodal structure of IR E 2u is in agreement with all the experimental results. On the other hand, in the case of high-T c superconductors the two electron description of Cooper pairs in D 2h symmetry is not sufficient to describe experimental nodal structure. It was shown that in this case, the nodal structure is the result of underlying interactions between two-electron states and hidden symmetry D-4 h . (author)

  16. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  17. Quantum groups, roots of unity and particles on quantized Anti-de Sitter space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinacker, H.

    1997-01-01

    Quantum groups in general and the quantum Anti-de Sitter group U q (so(2,3)) in particular are studied from the point of view of quantum field theory. The author shows that if q is a suitable root of unity, there exist finite-dimensional, unitary representations corresponding to essentially all the classical one-particle representations with (half) integer spin, with the same structure at low energies as in the classical case. In the massless case for spin ≥ 1, open-quotes naiveclose quotes representations are unitarizable only after factoring out a subspace of open-quotes pure gaugesclose quotes, as classically. Unitary many-particle representations are defined, with the correct classical limit. Furthermore, the author identifies a remarkable element Q in the center of U q (g), which plays the role of a BRST operator in the case of U q (so(2,3)) at roots of unity, for any spin ≥ 1. The associated ghosts are an intrinsic part of the indecomposable representations. The author shows how to define an involution on algebras of creation and anihilation operators at roots of unity, in an example corresponding to non-identical particles. It is shown how nonabelian gauge fields appear naturally in this framework, without having to define connections on fiber bundles. Integration on Quantum Euclidean space and sphere and on Anti-de Sitter space is studied as well. The author gives a conjecture how Q can be used in general to analyze the structure of indecomposable representations, and to define a new, completely reducible associative (tensor) product of representations at roots of unity, which generalizes the standard open-quotes truncatedclose quotes tensor product as well as many-particle representations

  18. Quantum groups, roots of unity and particles on quantized Anti-de Sitter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinacker, Harold [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-23

    Quantum groups in general and the quantum Anti-de Sitter group Uq(so(2,3)) in particular are studied from the point of view of quantum field theory. The author shows that if q is a suitable root of unity, there exist finite-dimensional, unitary representations corresponding to essentially all the classical one-particle representations with (half) integer spin, with the same structure at low energies as in the classical case. In the massless case for spin ≥ 1, "naive" representations are unitarizable only after factoring out a subspace of "pure gauges", as classically. Unitary many-particle representations are defined, with the correct classical limit. Furthermore, the author identifies a remarkable element Q in the center of Uq(g), which plays the role of a BRST operator in the case of Uq(so(2,3)) at roots of unity, for any spin ≥ 1. The associated ghosts are an intrinsic part of the indecomposable representations. The author shows how to define an involution on algebras of creation and anihilation operators at roots of unity, in an example corresponding to non-identical particles. It is shown how nonabelian gauge fields appear naturally in this framework, without having to define connections on fiber bundles. Integration on Quantum Euclidean space and sphere and on Anti-de Sitter space is studied as well. The author gives a conjecture how Q can be used in general to analyze the structure of indecomposable representations, and to define a new, completely reducible associative (tensor) product of representations at roots of unity, which generalizes the standard "truncated" tensor product as well as many-particle representations.

  19. Holomorphic representation of constant mean curvature surfaces in Minkowski space: Consequences of non-compactness in loop group methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Rossman, Wayne; Schmitt, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    We give an infinite dimensional generalized Weierstrass representation for spacelike constant mean curvature (CMC) surfaces in Minkowski 3-space $\\R^{2,1}$. The formulation is analogous to that given by Dorfmeister, Pedit and Wu for CMC surfaces in Euclidean space, replacing the group $SU_2$ with...

  20. Convergent-beam electron diffraction study of incommensurately modulated crystals. Pt. 2. (3 + 1)-dimensional space groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Masami; Takahashi, Mariko; Tanaka, Michiyoshi

    1994-01-01

    The convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) method for determining three-dimensional space groups is extended to the determination of the (3 + 1)-dimensional space groups for one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystals. It is clarified than an approximate dynamical extinction line appears in the CBED discs of the reflections caused by an incommensurate modulation. The extinction enables the space-group determination of the (3 + 1)-dimensional crystals or the one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystals. An example of the dynamical extinction line is shown using an incommensurately modulated crystal of Sr 2 Nb 2 O 7 . Tables of the dynamical extinction lines appearing in CBED patterns are given for all the (3 + 1)-dimensional space groups of the incommensurately modulated crystal. (orig.)

  1. CfDS attends the first meeting of the All-Party Parliamentary Astronomy and Space Environment Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizon, B.

    1999-06-01

    This group first met on March 11th, 1999, as 'a forum for discussion to further parliamentary interest in astronomy and the space environment affecting terrestrial life and its climate; and to increase awareness of the social, political and philosophical implications of present and future space technologies connected with exploring and understanding the cosmos'. CfDS coordinator Bob Mizon attended the first meeting of the group.

  2. Consciousness viewed in the framework of brain phase space dynamics, criticality, and the Renormalization Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this paper will be addressed in three stages: I will first review currently prominent theoretical conceptualizations of the neurobiology of consciousness and, where appropriate, identify ill-advised and flawed notions in theoretical neuroscience that may impede viewing consciousness as a phenomenon in the physics of brain. In this context, I will also introduce relevant facts that tend not to receive adequate attention in much of the current consciousness discourse. Next, I will review the evidence that accrued in the last decade that identifies the resting brain as being in a state of criticality. In the framework of state phase dynamics of statistical physics, this observational evidence also entails that the resting brain is poised at the brink of a second order phase transition. On this basis, I will in the third stage propose applying the framework of the Renormalization Group to viewing consciousness as a phenomenon in statistical physics. In physics, concepts of phase space transitions and the Renormalization Group are powerful tools for interpreting phenomena involving many scales of length and time in complex systems. The significance of these concepts lies in their accounting for the emergence of different levels of new collective behaviors in complex systems, each level with its distinct macroscopic physics, organization, and laws, as a new pattern of reality. In this framework, I propose to view subjectivity as the symbolic description of the physical brain state of consciousness that emerges as one of the levels of phase transitions of the brain-body-environment system, along the trajectory of Renormalization Group Transformations

  3. Mathematical aspects of molecular replacement. III. Properties of space groups preferred by proteins in the Protein Data Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirikjian, G; Sajjadi, S; Toptygin, D; Yan, Y

    2015-03-01

    The main goal of molecular replacement in macromolecular crystallography is to find the appropriate rigid-body transformations that situate identical copies of model proteins in the crystallographic unit cell. The search for such transformations can be thought of as taking place in the coset space Γ\\G where Γ is the Sohncke group of the macromolecular crystal and G is the continuous group of rigid-body motions in Euclidean space. This paper, the third in a series, is concerned with viewing nonsymmorphic Γ in a new way. These space groups, rather than symmorphic ones, are the most common ones for protein crystals. Moreover, their properties impact the structure of the space Γ\\G. In particular, nonsymmorphic space groups contain both Bieberbach subgroups and symmorphic subgroups. A number of new theorems focusing on these subgroups are proven, and it is shown that these concepts are related to the preferences that proteins have for crystallizing in different space groups, as observed in the Protein Data Bank.

  4. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (A)synchronous collaborative groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreijns, K.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.; Buuren, H. van

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group

  5. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (a)synchronous collaborating groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreijns, C.J.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.M.G.; Buuren, van H.

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group

  6. The bicovariant differential calculus on the κ-Poincare group and on the κ-Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosinski, P.; Maslanka, P.; Sobczyk, J.

    1996-01-01

    The bicovariant differential calculus on the four-dimensional κ-Poincare group and the corresponding Lie-algebra-like structure are described. The differential calculus on the n-dimensional κ-Minkowski space covariant under the action of the κ-Poincare group was constructed. 5 refs

  7. Transformation of Air Quality Monitor Data from the International Space Station into Toxicological Effect Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Zalesak, Selina M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary reason for monitoring air quality aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is to determine whether air pollutants have collectively reached a concentration where the crew could experience adverse health effects. These effects could be near-real-time (e.g. headache, respiratory irritation) or occur late in the mission or even years later (e.g. cancer, liver toxicity). Secondary purposes for monitoring include discovery that a potentially harmful compound has leaked into the atmosphere or that air revitalization system performance has diminished. Typical ISS atmospheric trace pollutants consist of alcohols, aldehydes, aromatic compounds, halo-carbons, siloxanes, and silanols. Rarely, sulfur-containing compounds and alkanes are found at trace levels. Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs) have been set in cooperation with a subcommittee of the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. For each compound and time of exposure, the limiting adverse effect(s) has been identified. By factoring the analytical data from the Air Quality Monitor (AQM), which is in use as a prototype instrument aboard the ISS, through the array of compounds and SMACs, the risk of 16 specific adverse effects can be estimated. Within each adverse-effect group, we have used an additive model proportioned to each applicable 180-day SMAC to estimate risk. In the recent past this conversion has been performed using archival data, which can be delayed for months after an air sample is taken because it must be returned to earth for analysis. But with the AQM gathering in situ data each week, NASA is in a position to follow toxic-effect groups and correlate these with any reported crew symptoms. The AQM data are supplemented with data from real-time CO2 instruments aboard the ISS and from archival measurements of formaldehyde, which the AQM cannot detect.

  8. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SNAPSHOT SEARCH FOR PLANETARY NEBULAE IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS OF THE LOCAL GROUP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Howard E., E-mail: heb11@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Single stars in ancient globular clusters (GCs) are believed incapable of producing planetary nebulae (PNs), because their post-asymptotic-giant-branch evolutionary timescales are slower than the dissipation timescales for PNs. Nevertheless, four PNs are known in Galactic GCs. Their existence likely requires more exotic evolutionary channels, including stellar mergers and common-envelope binary interactions. I carried out a snapshot imaging search with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for PNs in bright Local Group GCs outside the Milky Way. I used a filter covering the 5007 Å nebular emission line of [O iii], and another one in the nearby continuum, to image 66 GCs. Inclusion of archival HST frames brought the total number of extragalactic GCs imaged at 5007 Å to 75, whose total luminosity slightly exceeds that of the entire Galactic GC system. I found no convincing PNs in these clusters, aside from one PN in a young M31 cluster misclassified as a GC, and two PNs at such large angular separations from an M31 GC that membership is doubtful. In a ground-based spectroscopic survey of 274 old GCs in M31, Jacoby et al. found three candidate PNs. My HST images of one of them suggest that the [O iii] emission actually arises from ambient interstellar medium rather than a PN; for the other two candidates, there are broadband archival UV HST images that show bright, blue point sources that are probably the PNs. In a literature search, I also identified five further PN candidates lying near old GCs in M31, for which follow-up observations are necessary to confirm their membership. The rates of incidence of PNs are similar, and small but nonzero, throughout the GCs of the Local Group.

  9. Effects of incentives on psychosocial performances in simulated space-dwelling groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert D.; Brady, Joseph V.; Hursh, Steven R.; Gasior, Eric D.; Spence, Kevin R.; Emurian, Henry H.

    Prior research with individually isolated 3-person crews in a distributed, interactive, planetary exploration simulation examined the effects of communication constraints and crew configuration changes on crew performance and psychosocial self-report measures. The present report extends these findings to a model of performance maintenance that operationalizes conditions under which disruptive affective responses by crew participants might be anticipated to emerge. Experiments evaluated the effects of changes in incentive conditions on crew performance and self-report measures in simulated space-dwelling groups. Crews participated in a simulated planetary exploration mission that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic samples. Results showed that crew performance effectiveness was unaffected by either positive or negative incentive conditions, while self-report measures were differentially affected—negative incentive conditions produced pronounced increases in negative self-report ratings and decreases in positive self-report ratings, while positive incentive conditions produced increased positive self-report ratings only. Thus, incentive conditions associated with simulated spaceflight missions can significantly affect psychosocial adaptation without compromising task performance effectiveness in trained and experienced crews.

  10. A generalized Wigner function on the space of irreducible representations of the Weyl-Heisenberg group and its transformation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibort, A; Man'ko, V I; Marmo, G; Simoni, A; Ventriglia, F

    2009-01-01

    A natural extension of the Wigner function to the space of irreducible unitary representations of the Weyl-Heisenberg group is discussed. The action of the automorphisms group of the Weyl-Heisenberg group onto Wigner functions and their generalizations and onto symplectic tomograms is elucidated. Some examples of physical systems are considered to illustrate some aspects of the characterization of the Wigner functions as solutions of differential equations

  11. Extreme covariant quantum observables in the case of an Abelian symmetry group and a transitive value space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapasalo, Erkka Theodor; Pellonpaeae, Juha-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    We represent quantum observables as normalized positive operator valued measures and consider convex sets of observables which are covariant with respect to a unitary representation of a locally compact Abelian symmetry group G. The value space of such observables is a transitive G-space. We characterize the extreme points of covariant observables and also determine the covariant extreme points of the larger set of all quantum observables. The results are applied to position, position difference, and time observables.

  12. Responding to the Concerns of Student Cultural Groups: Redesigning Spaces for Cultural Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Anise Mazone; Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the engagement of a student committee in redesigning an entire floor of a university union to accommodate student cultural centers and provide space in a fair and equitable manner. The reorganization focused on the process as well as the task of allocating space, with an emphasis on the opportunity to foster the development of…

  13. Group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization of organic compounds at the normal boiling point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenying, Wei; Jinyu, Han; Wen, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The specific position of a group in the molecule has been considered, and a group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point of organic compounds has been developed. Expression for enthalpy of vaporization Delta(vap)H(T(b)) has been established and numerical values of relative group parameters obtained. The average percent deviation of estimation of Delta(vap)H(T(b)) is 1.16, which show that the present method demonstrates significant improvement in applicability to predict the enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, compared the conventional group methods.

  14. The cohomology of orbit spaces of certain free circle group actions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Suppose that G = S1 acts freely on a finitistic space X whose (mod p) cohomology ring is isomorphic to that of a lens space L2m−1(p;q1,...,qm) or S1 ×. CPm−1. The mod p index of the action is defined to be the largest integer n such that αn = 0, where α ϵ H2(X/G; Zp) is the nonzero characteristic class of the S1-.

  15. Determining sociability, social space, and social presence in (A)synchronous collaborative groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kreijns, K.; Kirschner, P.A.; Jochems, W.; Buuren, H. van

    2004-01-01

    The effectiveness of group learning in asynchronous distributed learning groups depends on the social interaction that takes place. This social interaction affects both cognitive and socioemotional processes that take place during learning, group forming, establishment of group structures, and group dynamics. Though now known to be important, this aspect is often ignored, denied or forgotten by educators and researchers who tend to concentrate on cognitive processes and on-task contexts. This...

  16. El Naschie's Cantorian space-time and general relativity by means of Barbilian's group. A Cantorian fractal axiomatic model of space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, I.; Agop, M.; Jarcau, M.

    2004-01-01

    One builds the vacuum metrics of the stationary electromagnetic field through the complex potential model. There are thus emphasized both a variational principle, independent on the Ricci tensor, and some internal symmetries of the vacuum solutions. One shows that similar results may be obtained using the Barbiliant's group. By analytical continuation of a Barbilian transformation the link between the fixed points of the modular groups of the vacuum and the golden mean PHI=(1/(1+PHI))=(√5-1)/2 of ε (∞) space-time is established. Finally, a Cantorian fractal axiomatic model of the space-time is presented. The model is explained using a set of coupled equations which may describe the self organizing processes at the solid-liquid, plasma-plasma, and superconductor-superconductor interfaces

  17. Horizontal wells in subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losonsky, G.; Beljin, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on horizontal wells which offer an effective alternative to vertical wells in various environmental remediation technologies. Hydrogeological advantages of horizontal wells over vertical wells include a larger zone of influence, greater screen length, higher specific capacity and lower groundwater screen entrance velocity. Because of these advantages, horizontal wells can reduce treatment time and costs of groundwater recovery (pump-and-treat), in situ groundwater aeration (sparging) and soil gas extraction (vacuum extraction). Horizontal wells are also more effective than vertical wells in landfill leachate collection (under-drains), bioremediation, and horizontal grout injection

  18. Canonical Groups for Quantization on the Two-Dimensional Sphere and One-Dimensional Complex Projective Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumadi A H A; H, Zainuddin

    2014-01-01

    Using Isham's group-theoretic quantization scheme, we construct the canonical groups of the systems on the two-dimensional sphere and one-dimensional complex projective space, which are homeomorphic. In the first case, we take SO(3) as the natural canonical Lie group of rotations of the two-sphere and find all the possible Hamiltonian vector fields, and followed by verifying the commutator and Poisson bracket algebra correspondences with the Lie algebra of the group. In the second case, the same technique is resumed to define the Lie group, in this case SU (2), of CP'.We show that one can simply use a coordinate transformation from S 2 to CP 1 to obtain all the Hamiltonian vector fields of CP 1 . We explicitly show that the Lie algebra structures of both canonical groups are locally homomorphic. On the other hand, globally their corresponding canonical groups are acting on different geometries, the latter of which is almost complex. Thus the canonical group for CP 1 is the double-covering group of SO(3), namely SU(2). The relevance of the proposed formalism is to understand the idea of CP 1 as a space of where the qubit lives which is known as a Bloch sphere

  19. Compactness of the automorphism group of a topological parallelism on real projective 3-space: The disconnected case

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer, Löwen

    2017-01-01

    We prove that the automorphism group of a topological parallelism on real projective 3-space is compact. In a preceding article it was proved that at least the connected component of the identity is compact. The present proof does not depend on that earlier result.

  20. Cubic scattering amplitudes for all massless representations of the Poincare group in any space-time dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Metsaev, R.R.

    1996-02-01

    Using the language of highest weight representations and the light cone formalism we construct a full list of cubic amplitudes of scattering for all bosonic massless representations of the Poincare group in any even space-time dimension. (author). 29 refs

  1. Evaluating a Safe Space Training for School Counselors and Trainees Using a Randomized Control Group Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Rebekah; Hays, Danica G.

    2014-01-01

    School counselors need to advocate and act as an ally for all students. Safe Space, a training designed to facilitate competency for working with and serving LGBTQ youth (i.e., LGBTQ competency), has received increased attention in the field of school counseling. However, limited empirical support exists for training interventions such as Safe…

  2. Space, time and group identity in Jubilees 8-9 | Venter | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jubilees 8-9 is a rewriting of Genesis 10. It changed a depiction of Israel's identity in genealogical terms into one using spatial terms. This ideological construct was based on a Noah tradition and on Biblical texts describing the ideal borders of the land allotted to. Israel. Using a triad of space, time and identity the author of ...

  3. Group Dynamics as a Critical Component of Successful Space Exploration: Conceptual Theory and Insights from the Biosphere 2 Closure Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Allen, John P.

    As space exploration and eventually habitation achieves longer durations, successfully managing group dynamics of small, physically isolated groups will become vital. The paper summarizes important underlying research and conceptual theory and how these manifested in a well-documented example: the closure experiments of Biosphere 2. Key research breakthroughs in discerning the operation of small human groups comes from the pioneering work of W.R. Bion. He discovered two competing modalities of behavior. The first is the “task-oriented” or work group governed by shared acceptance of goals, reality-thinking in relation to time, resources and rational, and intelligent management of challenges presented. The opposing, usually unconscious, modality is what Bion called the “basic-assumption” group and alternates between three “group animal” groups: dependency/kill the leader; fight/flight and pairing. If not dealt with, these dynamics work to undermine and defeat the conscious task group’s goal achievement. The paper discusses crew training and selection, various approaches to structuring the work and hierarchy of the group, the importance of contact with a larger population through electronic communication and dealing with the “us-them” syndrome frequently observed between crew and Mission Control. The experience of the first two year closure of Biosphere 2 is drawn on in new ways to illustrate vicissitudes and management of group dynamics especially as both the inside team of biospherians and key members of Mission Control had training in working with group dynamics. Insights from that experience may help mission planning so that future groups in space cope successfully with inherent group dynamics challenges that arise.

  4. A summary of activities of the US/Soviet-Russian joint working group on space biology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R.; Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.; Tverskaya, Galina; Orlov, Oleg I.; Ilyin, Eugene A.; Souza, Kenneth A.

    2010-10-01

    The very foundation of cooperation between the United States (US) and Russia (former Soviet Union) in space exploration is a direct result of the mutual desire for scientific understanding and the creation of a collaborative mechanism—the Joint Working Group (JWG) on Space Biology and Medicine. From the dawn of the space age, it has been the quest of humankind to understand its place in the universe. While nations can and do solve problems independently, it takes nations, working together, to accomplish great things. The formation of the JWG provided an opportunity for the opening of a series of productive relationships between the superpowers, the US and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); and served as a justification for continued relationship for medical assistance in spaceflight, and to showcase Earth benefits from space medicine research. This relationship has been played out on an international scale with the construction and operation of the International Space Station. The fundamental reason for this successful endeavor is a direct result of the spirit and perseverance of the men and women who have worked diligently side-by-side to promote science and move our understanding of space forward. This manuscript provides a historical perspective of the JWG; how it came about; its evolution; what it accomplished; and what impact it has had and continues to have in the 21st century with regard to human spaceflight and space life sciences research. It captures the spirit of this group, which has been in continuous existence for over 40 years, and provides a never before reported summary of its activities.

  5. Group dynamics in a long-term blind endeavor on Earth: An analog for space missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition group dynamic analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.

    2008-12-01

    suggested distinguishable mission phase model, the Lewis and Clark Expedition will be analyzed for similarities to these space findings. Factors of consideration in support of this analysis involve an understanding of the leadership qualities of Lewis and Clark (and relations established and maintained with one another), the selection and diversity of their crew, and the group dynamics that were developed and maintained so carefully during the expedition. With this knowledge and understanding one can gain enormous insights useful in the planning and preparation for future long-duration space exploratory missions with high level of autonomy, mobility, minimal primary life support supply and high dependence on material re-circulation and In-Situ Resource Utilization approach.

  6. Kinematic algebras, groups for elementary particles, and the geometry of momentum space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmest'ev, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that to each n-dimensional (n≥2) homogeneous isotropic Riemannian momentum (coordinate) space there corresponds a definite kinematic local algebra of operators N/sub a/, M/sub a//sub b/, P/sub a//sub ,/ ω(a,b = 1,2,...,n). In the three-dimensional case this gives the possibility of classifying particles in accordance with the algebras of the types of momentum space. The approach developed also makes it possible to obtain generalized equations describing particles of the different types. The operators under consideration satisfy not only the relevant algebra but also relations independent of the algebra that coincide in form with the Maxwell equations

  7. Interaction between the soma and the axon terminal of horizontal cells in carp retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, M.; van Dijk, B. W.; Spekreijse, H.

    1990-01-01

    In teleost retina, the receptive fields of horizontal cell axon terminals have a larger space constant than the receptive fields of the horizontal cell somata. Generally this difference in receptive field size is attributed to the cell coupling which is assumed to be stronger in the horizontal axon

  8. Grouping horses according to gender-Effects on aggression, spacing and injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisfjord Jørgensen, Grete Helen; Borsheim, Linn; Mejdell, Cecilie Marie

    2009-01-01

    Many horse owners tend to group horses according to gender, in an attempt to reduce aggressive interactions and the risk of injuries. The aim of our experiment was to test the effects of such gender separation on injuries, social interactions and individual distance in domestic horses. A total...... of 66 horses were recruited from 4 different farms in Norway and Denmark and divided into six batches. Within each batch, horses were allotted into one mare group, one gelding group and one mixed gender group, with most groups consisting of three or four animals. After 4-6 weeks of acclimatisation......, a trained observer recorded all social interactions using direct, continuous observation 1 h in the morning and 1 h in the afternoon for three consecutive days. Recordings of the nearest neighbour of each horse were performed using instantaneous sampling every 10 min. The horses were inspected for injuries...

  9. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  10. Innovation in the teaching of astrophysics and space science - spacecraft design group study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelli, C

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes how the design of a scientific satellite can be used to provide both a stimulating and effective subject for a physics based group study. The group study divides the satellite into distinct subsystems and small teams of two or three students carry out the detailed design of each subsystem. The aim is to produce a complete satellite system design along with the choice of launch vehicle, orbit and communications system so that all the mission requirements can be met. An important feature of the group study is that it is a student led activity with staff acting as mentors. The development of key skills and important learning outcomes from the group study is discussed along with the method for assessment, structuring and resourcing the study

  11. Group Analysis in FieldTrip of Time-Frequency Responses: A Pipeline for Reproducibility at Every Step of Processing, Going From Individual Sensor Space Representations to an Across-Group Source Space Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau M. Andersen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An important aim of an analysis pipeline for magnetoencephalographic (MEG data is that it allows for the researcher spending maximal effort on making the statistical comparisons that will answer his or her questions. The example question being answered here is whether the so-called beta rebound differs between novel and repeated stimulations. Two analyses are presented: going from individual sensor space representations to, respectively, an across-group sensor space representation and an across-group source space representation. The data analyzed are neural responses to tactile stimulations of the right index finger in a group of 20 healthy participants acquired from an Elekta Neuromag System. The processing steps covered for the first analysis are MaxFiltering the raw data, defining, preprocessing and epoching the data, cleaning the data, finding and removing independent components related to eye blinks, eye movements and heart beats, calculating participants' individual evoked responses by averaging over epoched data and subsequently removing the average response from single epochs, calculating a time-frequency representation and baselining it with non-stimulation trials and finally calculating a grand average, an across-group sensor space representation. The second analysis starts from the grand average sensor space representation and after identification of the beta rebound the neural origin is imaged using beamformer source reconstruction. This analysis covers reading in co-registered magnetic resonance images, segmenting the data, creating a volume conductor, creating a forward model, cutting out MEG data of interest in the time and frequency domains, getting Fourier transforms and estimating source activity with a beamformer model where power is expressed relative to MEG data measured during periods of non-stimulation. Finally, morphing the source estimates onto a common template and performing group-level statistics on the data are

  12. Two-Dimensional Space-Time Dependent Multi-group Diffusion Equation with SLOR Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulianti, Y.; Su'ud, Z.; Waris, A.; Khotimah, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    The research of two-dimensional space-time diffusion equations with SLOR (Successive-Line Over Relaxation) has been done. SLOR method is chosen because this method is one of iterative methods that does not required to defined whole element matrix. The research is divided in two cases, homogeneous case and heterogeneous case. Homogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity. Heterogeneous case has been inserted by step reactivity and ramp reactivity. In general, the results of simulations are agreement, even in some points there are differences.

  13. Mixed-symmetry fields in de Sitter space: a group theoretical glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, Thomas [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS,Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais,Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Groupe de Mécanique et Gravitation, Service de Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université de Mons - UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons, Belgique (Belgium); Bekaert, Xavier [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS,Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais,Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity and Strings, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Boulanger, Nicolas [Groupe de Mécanique et Gravitation, Service de Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université de Mons - UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons, Belgique (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    We derive the characters of all unitary irreducible representations of the (d+1)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime isometry algebra so(1,d+1), and propose a dictionary between those representations and massive or (partially) massless fields on de Sitter spacetime. We propose a way of taking the flat limit of representations in (anti-) de Sitter spaces in terms of these characters, and conjecture the spectrum resulting from taking the flat limit of mixed-symmetry fields in de Sitter spacetime. We identify the equivalent of the scalar singleton for the de Sitter (dS) spacetime.

  14. Validation of missed space-group symmetry in X-ray powder diffraction structures with dispersion-corrected density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempler, Daniela; Schmidt, Martin U; van de Streek, Jacco

    2017-08-01

    More than 600 molecular crystal structures with correct, incorrect and uncertain space-group symmetry were energy-minimized with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D, PBE-D3). For the purpose of determining the correct space-group symmetry the required tolerance on the atomic coordinates of all non-H atoms is established to be 0.2 Å. For 98.5% of 200 molecular crystal structures published with missed symmetry, the correct space group is identified; there are no false positives. Very small, very symmetrical molecules can end up in artificially high space groups upon energy minimization, although this is easily detected through visual inspection. If the space group of a crystal structure determined from powder diffraction data is ambiguous, energy minimization with DFT-D provides a fast and reliable method to select the correct space group.

  15. Comparison of the Cc and R3c space groups for the superlattice phase of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjan, Rajeev; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Ragini; Pandey, Dhananjai

    2005-01-01

    Recent controversy about the space group of the low temperature superlattice phase of Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 is settled. It is shown that the R3c space group for the superlattice phase cannot correctly account for the peak positions of the superlattice reflections present in the neutron diffraction patterns. The correct space group is reconfirmed to be Cc. A comparison of the atomic coordinates of Cc and Cm space groups is also presented to show that in the absence of superlattice reflections, as is the case with x-ray diffraction data, one would land up in the Cm space group. This superlattice phase is found to coexist with another monoclinic phase of the Cm space group

  16. Almost horizontal turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolmogorov, A N

    2004-01-01

    The paper is published without modifications. Kolmogorov's manuscript was apparently prepared during his participation in one of expeditions of the ship 'D. Mendeleev' to the Atlantic Ocean (1969) or in a circumnavigation of the world (1971) organized by the Institute for Oceanology led at the time by A.S. Monin. As Kolmogorov himself wrote, the choice of the topic was stimulated by observations concerning '...meanders with horizontal sizes of hundreds of kilometers on a flow involving a layer of hundreds of meters, with subsequent disintegration of these meanders into vortices gradually decreasing in size to several kilometers'. In modern terminology, the paper is devoted to the problem of intensive mixing in pycnoclines, that is, thin layers of stratified fluid, caused by internal waves whose frequencies are less than the Brent-Vaeisaelae frequency. Here I would like to note two circumstances. The first is the scientific insight characteristic for Kolmogorov; this very approach was later reflected in numerous publications (see, for instance, the monograph by V.S. Modevich, V.I. Nikulin, and A.G. Stetsenko 'Dynamics of internal mixing in a stratified medium', Institute for Hydromechanics, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Naukova Dumka, Kiev 1988). The second, the more significant in my opinion, is the genuine intellectual curiosity and breadth of thought of this great thinker, who studied not only the most abstract mathematical constructions but also got his head out of the clouds with great interest to solve concrete applied problems

  17. Creating social spaces to tackle AIDS-related stigma: reviewing the role of church groups in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C; Skovdal, M; Gibbs, A

    2011-08-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS.

  18. Validation of missed space-group symmetry in X-ray powder diffraction structures with dispersion-corrected density functional theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Daniela; Schmidt, Martin U.; Van De Streek, Jacco

    2017-01-01

    More than 600 molecular crystal structures with correct, incorrect and uncertain space-group symmetry were energy-minimized with dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT-D, PBE-D3). For the purpose of determining the correct space-group symmetry the required tolerance on the atomic...... with missed symmetry were investigated by dispersion-corrected density functional theory. In 98.5% of the cases the correct space group is found....

  19. A Topic Space Oriented User Group Discovering Scheme in Social Network: A Trust Chain Based Interest Measuring Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, user group has become an effective platform for information sharing and communicating among users in social network sites. In present work, we propose a single topic user group discovering scheme, which includes three phases: topic impact evaluation, interest degree measurement, and trust chain based discovering, to enable selecting influential topic and discovering users into a topic oriented group. Our main works include (1 an overview of proposed scheme and its related definitions; (2 topic space construction method based on topic relatedness clustering and its impact (influence degree and popularity degree evaluation; (3 a trust chain model to take user relation network topological information into account with a strength classification perspective; (4 an interest degree (user explicit and implicit interest degree evaluation method based on trust chain among users; and (5 a topic space oriented user group discovering method to group core users according to their explicit interest degrees and to predict ordinary users under implicit interest and user trust chain. Finally, experimental results are given to explain effectiveness and feasibility of our scheme.

  20. Social organization and space use of a wild mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmeyer, Timo; Kappeler, Peter M; Willaume, Eric; Benoit, Laure; Mboumba, Sylvère; Charpentier, Marie J E

    2015-10-01

    Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are enigmatic Old World primates whose social organization and ecology remain poorly known. Previous studies indicated, for example, that groups are composed of only adult females and their young or that several units composed of one adult male and several females make up larger permanent social units. Here, we present the first data on group composition and male ranging patterns from the only habituated wild mandrill group and examine how home range size and daily path length varied with environmental and demographic factors over a 15-month period. Our study site is located in southern Gabon where we followed the group on a daily basis, collecting data on presence, ranging, behavior, and parasite load of its individual members. Throughout the study, the group was made up of about 120 individuals, including several non-natal and natal adult and sub-adult males. One-male units were never observed. The mandrills traveled an estimated 0.44-6.50 km/day in a home range area of 866.7 ha. Exploratory analyses revealed that precipitation, the number of adult males present, and the richness of protozoan parasites were all positively correlated with daily path length. These results clarify the social system of mandrills and provide first insights into the factors that shape their ranging patterns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Group Analysis in MNE-Python of Evoked Responses from a Tactile Stimulation Paradigm: A Pipeline for Reproducibility at Every Step of Processing, Going from Individual Sensor Space Representations to an across-Group Source Space Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lau M

    2018-01-01

    An important aim of an analysis pipeline for magnetoencephalographic data is that it allows for the researcher spending maximal effort on making the statistical comparisons that will answer the questions of the researcher, while in turn spending minimal effort on the intricacies and machinery of the pipeline. I here present a set of functions and scripts that allow for setting up a clear, reproducible structure for separating raw and processed data into folders and files such that minimal effort can be spend on: (1) double-checking that the right input goes into the right functions; (2) making sure that output and intermediate steps can be accessed meaningfully; (3) applying operations efficiently across groups of subjects; (4) re-processing data if changes to any intermediate step are desirable. Applying the scripts requires only general knowledge about the Python language. The data analyses are neural responses to tactile stimulations of the right index finger in a group of 20 healthy participants acquired from an Elekta Neuromag System. Two analyses are presented: going from individual sensor space representations to, respectively, an across-group sensor space representation and an across-group source space representation. The processing steps covered for the first analysis are filtering the raw data, finding events of interest in the data, epoching data, finding and removing independent components related to eye blinks and heart beats, calculating participants' individual evoked responses by averaging over epoched data and calculating a grand average sensor space representation over participants. The second analysis starts from the participants' individual evoked responses and covers: estimating noise covariance, creating a forward model, creating an inverse operator, estimating distributed source activity on the cortical surface using a minimum norm procedure, morphing those estimates onto a common cortical template and calculating the patterns of activity

  2. Group Analysis in MNE-Python of Evoked Responses from a Tactile Stimulation Paradigm: A Pipeline for Reproducibility at Every Step of Processing, Going from Individual Sensor Space Representations to an across-Group Source Space Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau M. Andersen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An important aim of an analysis pipeline for magnetoencephalographic data is that it allows for the researcher spending maximal effort on making the statistical comparisons that will answer the questions of the researcher, while in turn spending minimal effort on the intricacies and machinery of the pipeline. I here present a set of functions and scripts that allow for setting up a clear, reproducible structure for separating raw and processed data into folders and files such that minimal effort can be spend on: (1 double-checking that the right input goes into the right functions; (2 making sure that output and intermediate steps can be accessed meaningfully; (3 applying operations efficiently across groups of subjects; (4 re-processing data if changes to any intermediate step are desirable. Applying the scripts requires only general knowledge about the Python language. The data analyses are neural responses to tactile stimulations of the right index finger in a group of 20 healthy participants acquired from an Elekta Neuromag System. Two analyses are presented: going from individual sensor space representations to, respectively, an across-group sensor space representation and an across-group source space representation. The processing steps covered for the first analysis are filtering the raw data, finding events of interest in the data, epoching data, finding and removing independent components related to eye blinks and heart beats, calculating participants' individual evoked responses by averaging over epoched data and calculating a grand average sensor space representation over participants. The second analysis starts from the participants' individual evoked responses and covers: estimating noise covariance, creating a forward model, creating an inverse operator, estimating distributed source activity on the cortical surface using a minimum norm procedure, morphing those estimates onto a common cortical template and calculating the patterns

  3. Two-group neutron transport theory in adjacent space with lineary anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A solution method for two-group neutron transport theory with anisotropic scattering is introduced by the combination of case method (expansion method of self singular function) and the invariant imbedding (invariance principle). The numerical results for the Milne problem in light water and borated water is presented to demonstrate the avalibility of the method [pt

  4. Smile attractiveness related to buccal corridor space in 3 different facial types: A perception of 3 ethnic groups of Malaysians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimbalkar, Smita; Oh, Yih Y; Mok, Reei Y; Tioh, Jing Y; Yew, Kai J; Patil, Pravinkumar G

    2018-03-16

    Buccal corridor space and its variations greatly influence smile attractiveness. Facial types are different for different ethnic populations, and so is smile attractiveness. The subjective perception of smile attractiveness of different populations may vary in regard to different buccal corridor spaces and facial patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine esthetic perceptions of the Malaysian population regarding the width of buccal corridor spaces and their effect on smile esthetics in individuals with short, normal, and long faces. The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial face was modified to create 2 different facial types (brachyfacial and dolicofacial). Each face form was further modified into 5 different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22%, and 28%). The images were submitted to 3 different ethnic groups of evaluators (Chinese, Malay, Indian; 100 each), ranging between 17 and 21 years of age. A visual analog scale (50 mm in length) was used for assessment. The scores given to each image were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis test, and pairwise comparison was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). All 3 groups of evaluators could distinguish gradations of dark spaces in the buccal corridor at 2%, 10%, and 28%. Statistically significant differences were observed among 3 groups of evaluators in esthetic perception when pairwise comparisons were performed. A 15% buccal corridor was found to score esthetically equally within 3 face types by all 3 groups of evaluators. The Indian population was more critical in evaluation than the Chinese or Malay populations. In a pairwise comparison, more significant differences were found between long and short faces and the normal face; the normal face was compared with long and short faces separately. The width of the buccal corridor space influences smile attractiveness in different facial types. A medium buccal corridor (15%) is the esthetic characteristic preferred by all groups of evaluators

  5. Horizontal Acoustic Barriers for Protection from Seismic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of a seismic barrier is to protect an area occupied by a building or a group of buildings from seismic waves. Depending on nature of seismic waves that are most probable in a specific region, different kinds of seismic barriers can be suggested. Herein, we consider a kind of a seismic barrier that represents a relatively thin surface layer that prevents surface seismic waves from propagating. The ideas for these barriers are based on one Chadwick's result concerning nonpropagation condition for Rayleigh waves in a clamped half-space, and Love's theorem that describes condition of nonexistence for Love waves. The numerical simulations reveal that to be effective the length of the horizontal barriers should be comparable to the typical wavelength.

  6. Implementation of rigorous renormalization group method for ground space and low-energy states of local Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brenden; Vidick, Thomas; Motrunich, Olexei I.

    2017-12-01

    The success of polynomial-time tensor network methods for computing ground states of certain quantum local Hamiltonians has recently been given a sound theoretical basis by Arad et al. [Math. Phys. 356, 65 (2017), 10.1007/s00220-017-2973-z]. The convergence proof, however, relies on "rigorous renormalization group" (RRG) techniques which differ fundamentally from existing algorithms. We introduce a practical adaptation of the RRG procedure which, while no longer theoretically guaranteed to converge, finds matrix product state ansatz approximations to the ground spaces and low-lying excited spectra of local Hamiltonians in realistic situations. In contrast to other schemes, RRG does not utilize variational methods on tensor networks. Rather, it operates on subsets of the system Hilbert space by constructing approximations to the global ground space in a treelike manner. We evaluate the algorithm numerically, finding similar performance to density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) in the case of a gapped nondegenerate Hamiltonian. Even in challenging situations of criticality, large ground-state degeneracy, or long-range entanglement, RRG remains able to identify candidate states having large overlap with ground and low-energy eigenstates, outperforming DMRG in some cases.

  7. Behavioral and biological effects of autonomous versus scheduled mission management in simulated space-dwelling groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Peter G.; Hursh, Steven R.; Hienz, Robert D.; Emurian, Henry H.; Gasior, Eric D.; Brinson, Zabecca S.; Brady, Joseph V.

    2011-05-01

    Logistical constraints during long-duration space expeditions will limit the ability of Earth-based mission control personnel to manage their astronaut crews and will thus increase the prevalence of autonomous operations. Despite this inevitability, little research exists regarding crew performance and psychosocial adaptation under such autonomous conditions. To this end, a newly-initiated study on crew management systems was conducted to assess crew performance effectiveness under rigid schedule-based management of crew activities by Mission Control versus more flexible, autonomous management of activities by the crews themselves. Nine volunteers formed three long-term crews and were extensively trained in a simulated planetary geological exploration task over the course of several months. Each crew then embarked on two separate 3-4 h missions in a counterbalanced sequence: Scheduled, in which the crews were directed by Mission Control according to a strict topographic and temporal region-searching sequence, and Autonomous, in which the well-trained crews received equivalent baseline support from Mission Control but were free to explore the planetary surface as they saw fit. Under the autonomous missions, performance in all three crews improved (more high-valued geologic samples were retrieved), subjective self-reports of negative emotional states decreased, unstructured debriefing logs contained fewer references to negative emotions and greater use of socially-referent language, and salivary cortisol output across the missions was attenuated. The present study provides evidence that crew autonomy may improve performance and help sustain if not enhance psychosocial adaptation and biobehavioral health. These controlled experimental data contribute to an emerging empirical database on crew autonomy which the international astronautics community may build upon for future research and ultimately draw upon when designing and managing missions.

  8. Communication constraints, indexical countermeasures, and crew configuration effects in simulated space-dwelling groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hienz, Robert D.; Brady, Joseph V.; Hursh, Steven R.; Banner, Michele J.; Gasior, Eric D.; Spence, Kevin R.

    2007-02-01

    Previous research with groups of individually isolated crews communicating and problem-solving in a distributed interactive simulation environment has shown that the functional interchangeability of available communication channels can serve as an effective countermeasure to communication constraints. The present report extends these findings by investigating crew performance effects and psychosocial adaptation following: (1) the loss of all communication channels, and (2) changes in crew configuration. Three-person crews participated in a simulated planetary exploration mission that required identification, collection, and analysis of geologic samples. Results showed that crews developed and employed discrete navigation system operations that served as functionally effective communication signals (i.e., “indexical” or “deictic” cues) in generating appropriate crewmember responses and maintaining performance effectiveness in the absence of normal communication channels. Additionally, changes in crew configuration impacted both performance effectiveness and psychosocial adaptation.

  9. Horizontal drilling under Lake Erie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, R.

    2001-07-01

    Drilling oil wells under Lake Erie calls for horizontal drilling wells to be drilled from shore out into the pay-zone under the lake. The nature and characteristics of horizontal wells as compared to vertical wells are explored. Considerations that have to be taken into account in drilling horizontal wells are explained (the degree of curvature, drilling fluid quality, geosteering in the pay-zone, steering instrumentation, measurements while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD)). The concept and reasons for extended reach wells are outlined, along with characteristic features of multilateral wells.

  10. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite Jeffrey

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the

  11. Group theoretical approach to quantum fields in de Sitter space II. The complementary and discrete series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Euihun; Mourad, Jihad; Parentani, Renaud

    2007-01-01

    We use an algebraic approach based on representations of de Sitter group to construct covariant quantum fields in arbitrary dimensions. We study the complementary and the discrete series which correspond to light and massless fields and which lead new feature with respect to the massive principal series we previously studied (hep-th/0606119). When considering the complementary series, we make use of a non-trivial scalar product in order to get local expressions in the position representation. Based on these, we construct a family of covariant canonical fields parametrized by SU(1, 1)/U(1). Each of these correspond to the dS invariant alpha-vacua. The behavior of the modes at asymptotic times brings another difficulty as it is incompatible with the usual definition of the in and out vacua. We propose a generalized notion of these vacua which reduces to the usual conformal vacuum in the conformally massless limit. When considering the massless discrete series we find that no covariant field obeys the canonical commutation relations. To further analyze this singular case, we consider the massless limit of the complementary scalar fields we previously found. We obtain canonical fields with a deformed representation by zero modes. The zero modes have a dS invariant vacuum with singular norm. We propose a regularization by a compactification of the scalar field and a dS invariant definition of the vertex operators. The resulting two-point functions are dS invariant and have a universal logarithmic infrared divergence

  12. From condensed matter to Higgs physics. Solving functional renormalization group equations globally in field space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchardt, Julia

    2017-02-07

    By means of the functional renormalization group (FRG), systems can be described in a nonperturbative way. The derived flow equations are solved via pseudo-spectral methods. As they allow to resolve the full field dependence of the effective potential and provide highly accurate results, these numerical methods are very powerful but have hardly been used in the FRG context. We show their benefits using several examples. Moreover, we apply the pseudo-spectral methods to explore the phase diagram of a bosonic model with two coupled order parameters and to clarify the nature of a possible metastability of the Higgs-Yukawa potential.In the phase diagram of systems with two competing order parameters, fixed points govern multicritical behavior. Such systems are often discussed in the context of condensed matter. Considering the phase diagram of the bosonic model between two and three dimensions, we discover additional fixed points besides the well-known ones from studies in three dimensions. Interestingly, our findings suggest that in certain regions of the phase diagram, two universality classes coexist. To our knowledge, this is the first bosonic model where coexisting (multi-)criticalities are found. Also, the absence of nontrivial fixed points can have a physical meaning, such as in the electroweak sector of the standard model which suffers from the triviality problem. The electroweak transition giving rise to the Higgs mechanism is dominated by the Gaussian fixed point. Due to the low Higgs mass, perturbative calculations suggest a metastable potential. However, the existence of the lower Higgs-mass bound eventually is interrelated with the maximal ultraviolet extension of the standard model. A relaxation of the lower bound would mean that the standard model may be still valid to even higher scales. Within a simple Higgs-Yukawa model, we discuss the origin of metastabilities and mechanisms, which relax the Higgs-mass bound, including higher field operators.

  13. Horizontal cooperative purchasing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2007-01-01

    Purchasing in groups is a concept that is becoming increasingly popular in both the private and public sector. Often, the advantages such as lower purchase pricese, learning from each other, and reduced transaction costs outweigh set-up and management costs and drawbacks such as disclosure of

  14. Creating space for citizenship: The impact of group structure on validating the voices of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Elaine C; O'Connor, Deborah L; Loiselle, Lisa; Hickman, Kathy; Heibein, Bill; Hounam, Brenda; Mann, Jim

    2016-05-01

    Recently, there has been increasing attention given to finding ways to help people diagnosed with dementia 'live well' with their condition. Frequently however, the attention has been placed on the family care partner as the foundation for creating a context that supports the person with dementia to live well. A recent participatory action research (PAR) study highlighted the importance of beginning to challenge some of the assumptions around how best to include family, especially within a context of supporting citizenship. Three advisory groups consisting of 20 people with dementia, 13 care partners, and three service providers, were set up in three locations across Canada to help develop a self-management program for people with dementia. The hubs met monthly for up to two years. One of the topics that emerged as extremely important to consider in the structuring of the program revolved around whether or not these groups should be segregated to include only people with dementia. A thematic analysis of these ongoing discussions coalesced around four inter-related themes: creating safe spaces; maintaining voice and being heard; managing the balancing act; and the importance of solidarity Underpinning these discussions was the fifth theme, recognition that 'one size doesn't fit all'. Overall an important finding was that the presence of family care-partners could have unintended consequences in relation to creating the space for active citizenship to occur in small groups of people with dementia although it could also offer some opportunities. The involvement of care partners in groups with people with dementia is clearly one that is complex without an obvious answer and dependent on a variety of factors to inform a solution, which can and should be questioned and revisited. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. The fundamental groupoid of the quotient of a Hausdorff space by a discontinuous action of a discrete group is the orbit groupoid of the induced action

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ronald; Higgins, Philip J.

    2002-01-01

    The main result is that the fundamental groupoid of the orbit space of a discontinuous action of a discrete group on a Hausdorff space which admits a universal cover is the orbit groupoid of the fundamental groupoid of the space. We also describe work of Higgins and of Taylor which makes this result usable for calculations. As an example, we compute the fundamental group of the symmetric square of a space. The main result, which is related to work of Armstrong, is due to Brown and Higgins in ...

  16. INFLUENCE OF ECOLOGICAL GROUP COMPOSITION, PLANTATION SPACING AND ARRANGEMENT IN THE RESTORATION OF RIPARIAN FOREST ON RESERVOIR SHORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Augusto Vieira Soares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the effect of spacing, arrangement and ecological group composition of planted seedlings on the restoration process of artificial reservoir shores in southeastern Brazil. The assessments were performed 12 years after the settlement of the experiment in which five mixed stand models were tested. First, a general evaluation of the stand was performed when we surveyed the overstory and understory, seed bank and soil for chemical analysis.Then, the restoration indicators survival of planted trees, basal area and density of the tree community, litter accumulated on the soil and canopy closure index were utilized to compare the plantation models and to assess the influence the experimental factors on these parameters. In the general analysis, we found that the studied stand presents low diversity, poor regeneration, and seed bank dominated mostly by one planted exotic tree species and weeds, which may jeopardize the self- maintenance of the stand in the future. The factor that most influenced the models was the ecological group composition with the best performance found for models in which both pioneer and non-pioneer groups were used. Probably, the plantation arrangement and spacing did not have greater influence due to both plant mortality and natural regeneration that has developed to this age. Hence, it is not recommended the use of only pioneer species in the implantation of riparian forest and the proportion of 50% pioneers and 50% non-pioneers using as much species as possible is indicated for areas that might present constraints for the natural regeneration.

  17. Surgical treatment for paralytic horizontal strabismus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhou*

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the effect of surgery for paralytic horizontal strabismus and the paralytic horizontal strabismus performed by Jensen procedure with antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession and medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession.METHODS: Fifteen cases(17 eyeswith complete or nearly complete paralytic horizontal strabismus from January 2005 to August. 2014 in our hospital were assessed retrospectively,7 eyes of 7 cases with treatment group A were performed Jensen procedure combined antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession, 10 eyes of 8 cases with treatment group B were performed medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession. seventeen eyes of 15 cases with an average of 21±8.71mo follow-up were observed.RESULTS: All 17 eyes of 15 cases after the operation obtained satisfied effects, 16 eyes of 14 cases obtained ideal long-term effect. One eye of a patient with a 6mo follow-up was undercorrected of 30△. We found a varying degree of postoperative improvement in visual function. There was a significant reduction in the strabismus angle for distance and near(t=28.71, Pt=36.21, Pt=17.96, Pt=9.20,PCONCLUSION: Jensen procedure combined antagonist muscle of paralytic muscle recession and medial or lateral rectus extra large resection/recession is a safe and successful method of treatment in complete or nearly complete paralysis horizontal strabismus. Patients achieve orthophoria, improvement of the motor ability, and larger field of binocular single vision for long time.

  18. Experimental Study on Natural Convection Heat Transfer From two Parallel Horizontal Cylinders in Horizontal Cylindrical Enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed T. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  An experimental study on natural convection heat transfer from two parallel horizontal cylinders in horizontal cylindrical enclosure was carried out under condition of constant surfaces temperature for two cylinders and cylindrical enclosure. The study included the effect of Rayleigh number, rotation angle that represent the confined angle between the passing horizontal plane in cylindrical enclosure center and passing line in two cylinders centers, and the spaces between two cylinders on their heat loss ability.39An experimental set-up was used for this purpose which consist watercontainer, test section which is formed of plastic cylinder that represent the cylindrical enclosure, and two heating elements which are formed of two copper cylinders with (19 mm in diameters heated internally by electrical sources that represents transfer and heat loss elements through this set-up.      The experiments were done at the range of Rayleigh number between ( , cylinders rotation angle at ( , and spacing ratio at ( .     The study showed that the ability of heat loss from two cylinders is a function of Rayleigh number, cylinders rotation angle, and the spaces between them. This ability is increased by increasing of Rayleigh number and it was showed that this ability reaches maximum value at the first cylinder ( and minimum value at the second cylinder ( at spacing ratio (S/D=3 and rotation angle ( for the first and ( for the second cylinder respectively.      The effective variables on natural convection heat transfer from the above two cylinders are related by two correlating equations, each one explains dimensionless relation of heat transfer from each cylinder that represented by Nusselt number against Rayleigh number, rotation angle, and the spacing ratio between two cylinders. 

  19. The third spatial dimension risk approach for individual risk and group risk in multiple use of space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suddle, Shahid; Ale, Ben

    2005-01-01

    Buildings above roads and railways are examples of multiple use of space. Safety is one of the critical issues for such projects. Risk analyses can be undertaken to investigate what safety measures that are required to realise these projects. The results of these analyses can also be compared to risk acceptance criteria, if they are applicable. In The Netherlands, there are explicit criteria for acceptability of individual risk and societal risk. Traditionally calculations of individual risk result in contours of equal risk on a map and thus are considered in two-dimensional space only. However, when different functions are layered the third spatial dimension, height, becomes an important parameter. The various activities and structures above and below each other impose mutual risks. There are no explicit norms or policies about how to deal with the individual or group risk approach in the third dimension. This paper proposes an approach for these problems and gives some examples. Finally, the third dimension risk approach is applied in a case study of Bos en Lommer, Amsterdam

  20. Renormalization group flows and fixed points for a scalar field in curved space with nonminimal F (ϕ )R coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikin, Boris S.; Shapiro, Ilya L.; Wipf, Andreas; Zanusso, Omar

    2017-12-01

    Using covariant methods, we construct and explore the Wetterich equation for a nonminimal coupling F (ϕ )R of a quantized scalar field to the Ricci scalar of a prescribed curved space. This includes the often considered nonminimal coupling ξ ϕ2R as a special case. We consider the truncations without and with scale- and field-dependent wave-function renormalization in dimensions between four and two. Thereby the main emphasis is on analytic and numerical solutions of the fixed point equations and the behavior in the vicinity of the corresponding fixed points. We determine the nonminimal coupling in the symmetric and spontaneously broken phases with vanishing and nonvanishing average fields, respectively. Using functional perturbative renormalization group methods, we discuss the leading universal contributions to the RG flow below the upper critical dimension d =4 .

  1. Critical Dynamics of the Xy-Model on the One-Dimensional Superlattice by Position Space Renormalization Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, J. P. De; Gonçalves, L. L.

    The critical dynamics of the isotropic XY-model on the one-dimensional superlattice is considered in the framework of the position space renormalization group theory. The decimation transformation is introduced by considering the equations of motion of the operators associated to the excitations of the system, and it corresponds to an extension of the procedure introduced by Stinchcombe and dos Santos (J. Phys. A18, L597 (1985)) for the homogeneous lattice. The dispersion relation is obtained exactly and the static and dynamic scaling forms are explicitly determined. The dynamic critical exponent is also obtained and it is shown that it is identical to the one of the XY-model on the homogeneous chain.

  2. Effect of horizontal reinforcement in strengthening of masonry members

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, S.H.; Ilyas, M.; Ggaffar, A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental research program was undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of a new technique for strengthening masonry wall panels using steel strips on compressive and shear strength enhancement. The experimental work includes eight wall panels, four each for compressive and shear strength evaluation. This work was the phase I of extensive research project which include testing of strengthened masonry wall panels under monotonic load (Phase-I), static cyclic load (Phase-2) and dynamic load (Phase-3). The wall panels were strengthened with different steel strip arrangements, which consist of single/double face application of coarse and fine steel strip mesh with reduced spacing of horizontal strips. This paper investigates only the effectiveness of horizontal steel strips on strength enhancement. Four masonry wall panels are considered in two groups and in each group, one wall was retrofitted with coarse steel mesh on single face and on second wall fine steel mesh was applied on one side. Furthermore, test results of strengthened specimens are also compared with the un-strengthened specimen (REFE). The mechanisms by which load was carried were observed, varying from the initial, uncracked state, and the final, fully cracked state. The results demonstrate a quite significant increase in the compressive and shear capacity of strengthened panels as compared to REFE-panel. However, increase in the compressive strength of fine mesh above that of coarse mesh is negligible. The technique/approach is found quite viable for strengthening of masonry walls, for rehabilitation of old deteriorated buildings and unreinforced masonry structures in seismic zones. (author)

  3. Duality and free measures in vector spaces, the spectral theory of actions of non-locally compact groups

    OpenAIRE

    Vershik, A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a general duality theory for vector measure spaces taking its origin in the author's papers written in the 1960s. The main result establishes a direct correspondence between the geometry of a measure in a vector space and the properties of the space of measurable linear functionals on this space regarded as closed subspaces of an abstract space of measurable functions. An example of useful new features of this theory is the notion of a free measure and its applications.

  4. Method for explosive expansion toward horizontal free faces for forming an in situ oil shale retort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Thomas E.

    1980-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming a plurality of vertically spaced apart voids extending horizontally across different levels of the retort site, leaving a separate zone of unfragmented formation between each pair of adjacent voids. Explosive is placed in each zone, and such explosive is detonated in a single round for forming an in situ retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale. The same amount of formation is explosively expanded upwardly and downwardly toward each void. A horizontal void excavated at a production level has a smaller horizontal cross-sectional area than a void excavated at a lower level of the retort site immediately above the production level void. Explosive in a first group of vertical blast holes is detonated for explosively expanding formation downwardly toward the lower void, and explosive in a second group of vertical blast holes is detonated in the same round for explosively expanding formation upwardly toward the lower void and downwardly toward the production level void for forming a generally T-shaped bottom of the fragmented mass.

  5. Stackelberg equilibria and horizontal differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lambertini, Luca

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes a taxonomy of the Stackelberg equilibria emerging from a standard game of horizontal differentiation à la Hotelling in which the strategy set of the sellers in the location stage is the real axis. Repeated leadership appears the most advantageous position. Furthermore, this endogenously yields vertical differentiation between products at equilibrium.

  6. Horizontal Diplopia Following Upper Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz-Basso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia is an infrequent complication after blepharoplasty. Most of the cases are in its vertical form due to trauma of the extraocular muscles. In this article, we present a case of horizontal diplopia following cosmetic upper blepharoplasty; we review the literature on this unexpected complication and offer some recommendations to avoid it.

  7. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J.; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas. PMID:28594390

  8. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Kruize, Hanneke; van Kempen, Elise; Gidlow, Christopher J; Hurst, Gemma; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Maas, Jolanda; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2017-06-08

    It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002), Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989), Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847), and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933) as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  9. Does the Health Impact of Exposure to Neighbourhood Green Space Differ between Population Groups? An Explorative Study in Four European Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Ruijsbroek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that certain residents, such as those with a low socioeconomic status, the elderly, and women, may benefit more from the presence of neighbourhood green space than others. We tested this hypothesis for age, gender, educational level, and employment status in four European cities. Data were collected in Barcelona (Spain; n = 1002, Kaunas (Lithuania; n = 989, Doetinchem (The Netherlands; n = 847, and Stoke-on-Trent (UK; n = 933 as part of the EU-funded PHENOTYPE project. Surveys were used to measure mental and general health, individual characteristics, and perceived neighbourhood green space. Additionally, we used audit data about neighbourhood green space. In Barcelona, there were positive associations between neighbourhood green space and general health among low-educated residents. In the other cities and for the other population groups, there was little evidence that the association between health and neighbourhood green space differed between population groups. Overall, our study does not support the assumption that the elderly, women, and residents who are not employed full-time benefit more from neighbourhood green space than others. Only in the highly urbanised city of Barcelona did the low-educated group benefit from neighbourhood green spaces. Perhaps neighbourhood green spaces are more important for the health of low-educated residents in particularly highly urbanised areas.

  10. The Winfrith horizontal impact rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, P.

    1985-12-01

    The Horizontal Impact Rig has been designed to allow studies of the impact of radioactive material transport containers and their associated transport vehicles and impact limiters, using large scale models, and to allow physically large missiles to be projected for studying the impact behaviour of metal and concrete structures. It provides an adequately rigid support structure for impact experiments with targets of large dimensions. Details of its design, instrumentation, performance prediction and construction are given. (U.K.)

  11. Atmospheric horizontal divergence and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castans, M.

    1981-01-01

    The action of horizontal divergence on diffusion near the ground is established through.a very simple flow model. The shape of the well-known Pasquill-Gifford-Turner curves, that apparently take account in some way of divergence, is justified. The possibility of explaining the discre--pancies between the conventional straight line model and experimental results, mainly under low-wind-speed satable conditions, is considered. Some hints for further research are made. (auth.)

  12. “Here is the knowledge-where should I put it?” Findings from a study of how knowledge spaces are used within a support group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, P. H.; Snis, U.

    1999-01-01

    In order to design useful knowledge media spaces for knowledge workers it is essential that we understand the nature of the work conducted and the knowledge applied in real settings. The paper reports from a study of how a group of quality assurance specialists in the pharmaceutical industry gather......, structure and distribute information and knowledge. Based on the findings, a number of overall requirements for knowledge media spaces are identified and discussed. The essential findings were that information and knowledge are created and handled in many different ways and have many different forms....... The core issues of our lessons learned so far are that we carefully need to consider knowledge media spaces both in terms of communication channels and knowledge archives. Knowledge media spaces should be seen as spaces in which knowledge and information is exchanged, filed, retrieved, presented...

  13. Effects of horizontal plyometric training volume on soccer players' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanci, Javier; Los Arcos, Asier; Camara, Jesús; Castillo, Daniel; García, Alberto; Castagna, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the dose response effect of strength and conditioning programmes, involving horizontally oriented plyometric exercises, on relevant soccer performance variables. Sixteen soccer players were randomly allocated to two 6-week plyometric training groups (G1 and G2) differing by imposed (twice a week) training volume. Post-training G1 (4.13%; d = 0.43) and G2 (2.45%; d = 0.53) moderately improved their horizontal countermovement jump performance. Significant between-group differences (p  0.05, d = trivial or small) post-training improvements in sprint, change of direction ability (CODA) and horizontal arm swing countermovement jump were reported in either group. Horizontal plyometric training was effective in promoting improvement in injury prevention variables. Doubling the volume of a horizontal plyometric training protocol was shown to have no additional effect over functional aspects of soccer players' performance.

  14. comparative evaluation of pressure distribution between horizontal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This paper presents comparative analysis between the pressure behavior of ... Green and source function were used to evaluate the performance of horizontal well and ..... Superscript. ' derivative. D = dimensionless. h = horizontal. = change.

  15. Active living : the impact of renovating urban open spaces on increasing the level of physical activity among social groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, Hiske; Shokoohi, Roya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The provision of active parks/public open space is the key factor in promoting active living, because people and specially low-income and elderlies are being more interested in doing non-organized/informal, and no-cost sports/physical activities in outdoor spaces in recent decades

  16. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Skillman, Evan D. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Holtzman, Jon [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Box 30001, 1320 Frenger Street, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F., E-mail: drw@ucsc.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2014-07-10

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10{sup 5} M{sub ☉} to 30% for galaxies with M > 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉}) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  17. The star formation histories of local group dwarf galaxies. I. Hubble space telescope/wide field planetary camera 2 observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Skillman, Evan D.; Holtzman, Jon; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2014-01-01

    We present uniformly measured star formation histories (SFHs) of 40 Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies based on color-magnitude diagram (CMD) analysis from archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging. We demonstrate that accurate SFHs can be recovered from CMDs that do not reach the oldest main sequence turn-off (MSTO), but emphasize that the oldest MSTO is critical for precisely constraining the earliest epochs of star formation. We find that: (1) the average lifetime SFHs of dwarf spheroidals (dSphs) can be approximated by an exponentially declining SFH with τ ∼ 5 Gyr; (2) lower luminosity dSphs are less likely to have extended SFHs than more luminous dSphs; (3) the average SFHs of dwarf irregulars (dIrrs), transition dwarfs, and dwarf ellipticals can be approximated by the combination of an exponentially declining SFH (τ ∼ 3-4 Gyr) for lookback ages >10-12 Gyr ago and a constant SFH thereafter; (4) the observed fraction of stellar mass formed prior to z = 2 ranges considerably (80% for galaxies with M < 10 5 M ☉ to 30% for galaxies with M > 10 7 M ☉ ) and is largely explained by environment; (5) the distinction between 'ultra-faint' and 'classical' dSphs is arbitrary; (6) LG dIrrs formed a significantly higher fraction of stellar mass prior to z = 2 than the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies from Leitner and the SFHs from the abundance matching models of Behroozi et al. This may indicate higher than expected star formation efficiencies at early times in low mass galaxies. Finally, we provide all the SFHs in tabulated electronic format for use by the community.

  18. D-Side: A Facility and Workforce Planning Group Multi-criteria Decision Support System for Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, Madjid

    2005-01-01

    "To understand and protect our home planet, to explore the universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers" is NASA's mission. The Systems Management Office at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is searching for methods to effectively manage the Center's resources to meet NASA's mission. D-Side is a group multi-criteria decision support system (GMDSS) developed to support facility decisions at JSC. D-Side uses a series of sequential and structured processes to plot facilities in a three-dimensional (3-D) graph on the basis of each facility alignment with NASA's mission and goals, the extent to which other facilities are dependent on the facility, and the dollar value of capital investments that have been postponed at the facility relative to the facility replacement value. A similarity factor rank orders facilities based on their Euclidean distance from Ideal and Nadir points. These similarity factors are then used to allocate capital improvement resources across facilities. We also present a parallel model that can be used to support decisions concerning allocation of human resources investments across workforce units. Finally, we present results from a pilot study where 12 experienced facility managers from NASA used D-Side and the organization's current approach to rank order and allocate funds for capital improvement across 20 facilities. Users evaluated D-Side favorably in terms of ease of use, the quality of the decision-making process, decision quality, and overall value-added. Their evaluations of D-Side were significantly more favorable than their evaluations of the current approach. Keywords: NASA, Multi-Criteria Decision Making, Decision Support System, AHP, Euclidean Distance, 3-D Modeling, Facility Planning, Workforce Planning.

  19. Bubble shape in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Hanyang; Guo, Liejin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The bubble shapes in intermittent flows are presented experimentally. • The nose-tail inversion phenomenon appears at a low Froude number in downward pipe. • Transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the bubble tail changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental study of the shape of isolated bubbles in horizontal and near horizontal intermittent flows. It is found that the shapes of the nose and body of bubble depend on the Froude number defined by gas/liquid mixture velocity in a pipe, whereas the shape of the back of bubble region depends on both the Froude number and bubble length. The photographic studies show that the transition from plug to slug flow occurs when the back of the bubble changes from staircase pattern to hydraulic jump with the increase of the Froude number and bubble length. The effect of pipe inclination on characteristics of bubble is significant: The bubble is inversely located in a downwardly inclined pipe when the Froude number is low, and the transition from plug flow to slug flow in an upward inclined pipe is more ready to occur compared with that in a downwardly inclined pipe

  20. Environmental restoration using horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looney, B.B.; Kaback, D.S.; Hazen, T.C.; Corey, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Energy, technical personnel from the Savannah River Laboratory and other DOE laboratories, universities and private industry have completed a full scale demonstration of environmental remediation using horizontal wells. The test successfully removed approximately 7250 kg of contaminants. A large amount of characterization and monitoring data was collected to aid in interpretation of the test and to provide the information needed for future environmental restorations that employ directionally drilled wells as extraction or delivery systems

  1. Contribution of on-site Coulomb repulsion energy to structural, electronic and magnetic properties of SrCoO3 for different space groups: first-principles study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammady Shibghatullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of SrCoO3 in Pm3̅m and P4/mbm space groups, which are calculated by using generalized gradient approximation corrected with on-site Coulomb repulsion U and exchange energies J. The cubic lattice parameter a and local magnetic moments of Co (μCo are optimized by varying U at Co 3d site. Employing ultrasoft pseudopotential, the values of U = 8 eV and J = 0.75 eV are the best choice for Pm3̅m space group. We found the value of μCo = 2.56 μB, which is consistent with the previous results. It was also found that Co 3d, hybridized with O 2p, is the main contributor to ferromagnetic metallic properties. Besides, norm-conserving pseudopotential promotes a, which is in good agreement with experimental result. However, it is not suitable for P4/mbm space group. By using ultrasoft pseudopotential, the value of U = 3 eV (J = 0.75 is the most suitable for P4/mbm group. Ferromagnetic metallic properties, Jahn-Teller distortion, and reasonable lattice parameters have been obtained. This study shows that U has significant contribution to the calculated properties and also points out that P4/mbm space group with US-PP is suitable to describe experimental results.

  2. A Spectroscopic Survey of Field Red Horizontal-branch Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afşar, Melike; Bozkurt, Zeynep; Böcek Topcu, Gamze; Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Sneden, Christopher; Şehitog̅lu, Gizem

    2018-06-01

    A metallicity, chemical composition, and kinematic survey has been conducted for a sample of 340 candidate field red horizontal-branch (RHB) stars. Spectra with high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio were gathered with the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m Tull and the Hobby–Eberly Telescope echelle spectrographs, and were used to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities, microturbulent velocities, [Fe/H] metallicities, and abundance ratios [X/Fe] for seven α and Fe-group species. The derived temperatures and gravities confirm that at least half of the candidates are true RHB stars, with (average) parameters T eff ∼ 5000 K and log g ∼ 2.5. From the α abundances alone, the thin and thick Galactic populations are apparent in our sample. Space motions for 90% of the program stars were computed from Hipparcos and Gaia parallaxes and proper motions. Correlations between chemical compositions and Galactic kinematics clearly indicate the existence of both thin-disk and thick-disk RHB stars.

  3. Horizontal gene transfer in chromalveolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debashish

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT, the non-genealogical transfer of genetic material between different organisms, is considered a potentially important mechanism of genome evolution in eukaryotes. Using phylogenomic analyses of expressed sequence tag (EST data generated from a clonal cell line of a free living dinoflagellate alga Karenia brevis, we investigated the impact of HGT on genome evolution in unicellular chromalveolate protists. Results We identified 16 proteins that have originated in chromalveolates through ancient HGTs before the divergence of the genera Karenia and Karlodinium and one protein that was derived through a more recent HGT. Detailed analysis of the phylogeny and distribution of identified proteins demonstrates that eight have resulted from independent HGTs in several eukaryotic lineages. Conclusion Recurring intra- and interdomain gene exchange provides an important source of genetic novelty not only in parasitic taxa as previously demonstrated but as we show here, also in free-living protists. Investigating the tempo and mode of evolution of horizontally transferred genes in protists will therefore advance our understanding of mechanisms of adaptation in eukaryotes.

  4. Improved waterflooding efficiency by horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popa, C. G. [Petroleum and Gas Univ., Ploesti (Romania); Clipea, M. [SNP Petrom SA, ICPT Campina (Romania)

    1998-12-31

    The influence of well pattern involving the use of horizontal wells on the overall efficiency of the waterflooding process was analyzed. Three different scenarios were examined: (1) a pattern of using two parallel horizontal wells, one for injection, the other for production, (2) a pattern of one horizontal well for water injection and several vertical wells for production, and (3) a pattern of using vertical wells for injection and one horizontal well for production. In each case, the waterflooding process was simulated using a two phase two dimensional numerical model. Results showed that the pressure loss along the horizontal section had a large influence on the sweep efficiency whether the horizontal well was used for injection or production. Overall, the most successful combination appeared to be using vertical wells for injection and horizontal wells for production. 4 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  5. "Con Café, Compañerismo, y Calidad": Latina Women Fashioning a Writing Group into a Space of Praxis and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtig, Janise

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the spatial practices through which a group of Mexican immigrant women, participants in a school-based writing workshop I facilitated for four years, molded and gave meaning to our weekly writing routine to foster inclusivity as the basis for collective teaching and learning--creating what I refer to as a space of praxis and…

  6. Explorando nuevos horizontes en NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, G. L.

    A pesar de la incesante expansión del Universo iniciada con el Big Bang 14 mil millones de años atrás, nuestro Universo se siente cada día más cercano. La inquebrantable vocación de la humanidad por descubrir nuevos horizontes ha permitido el acercamiento de civilizaciones en nuestro planeta y nos ha permitido conocer nuestro lugar en el Universo como nunca antes. En este artículo presento una breve sinopsis de nuestro trabajo que se relaciona con diversas investigaciones con implicaciones astrobiológicas, desde el origen de los ingredientes de la "sopa de la vida", hasta la evolución y composición de la atmósfera de Marte.

  7. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel, a reactor guard vessel, a thermal insulation shell and a horizontal seismic restraint, a restraint is described comprising: a. a first ring on the wall of the reactor vessel; b. a second ring on the wall of the reactor guard vessel in alignment with the first ring; c. a first block attached to the second ring proximate the first ring so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the first block and the first ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion; d. motion limit means extending through an aperture in the thermal insulation shell in alignment with the second ring and the first block; the e. a second block attached to the motion limit means proximate the second ring and in alignment the first block so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the second block and the second ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion

  8. Applying the Helmholtz Illusion to Fashion: Horizontal Stripes Won't Make You Look Fatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Thompson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A square composed of horizontal lines appears taller and narrower than an identical square made up of vertical lines. Reporting this illusion, Hermann von Helmholtz noted that such illusions, in which filled space seems to be larger than unfilled space, were common in everyday life, adding the observation that ladies' frocks with horizontal stripes make the figure look taller. As this assertion runs counter to modern popular belief, we have investigated whether vertical or horizontal stripes on clothing should make the wearer appear taller or fatter. We find that a rectangle of vertical stripes needs to be extended by 7.1% vertically to match the height of a square of horizontal stripes and that a rectangle of horizontal stripes must be made 4.5% wider than a square of vertical stripes to match its perceived width. This illusion holds when the horizontal or vertical lines are on the dress of a line drawing of a woman. We have examined the claim that these effects apply only for 2-dimensional figures in an experiment with 3-D cylinders and find no support for the notion that horizontal lines would be ‘fattening’ on clothes. Significantly, the illusion persists when the horizontal or vertical lines are on pictures of a real half-body mannequin viewed stereoscopically. All the evidence supports Helmholtz's original assertion.

  9. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir.

  10. Enveloping algebra-valued gauge transformations for non-abelian gauge groups on non-commutative spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurco, B.; Schraml, S.; Schupp, P.; Wess, J.

    2000-11-01

    An enveloping algebra-valued gauge field is constructed, its components are functions of the Lie algebra-valued gauge field and can be constructed with the Seiberg-Witten map. This allows the formulation of a dynamics for a finite number of gauge field components on non-commutative spaces.

  11. Enveloping algebra-valued gauge transformations for non-abelian gauge groups on non-commutative spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurco, B.; Schraml, S.; Wess, J.; Schupp, P.

    2000-01-01

    An enveloping algebra-valued gauge field is constructed, its components are functions of the Lie algebra-valued gauge field and can be constructed with the Seiberg-Witten map. This allows the formulation of a dynamics for a finite number of gauge field components on non-commutative spaces. (orig.)

  12. Enveloping algebra-valued gauge transformations for non-abelian gauge groups on non-commutative spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurco, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mathematik, Bonn (Germany); Schraml, S.; Wess, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany); Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Muenchen (Germany); Schupp, P. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    An enveloping algebra-valued gauge field is constructed, its components are functions of the Lie algebra-valued gauge field and can be constructed with the Seiberg-Witten map. This allows the formulation of a dynamics for a finite number of gauge field components on non-commutative spaces. (orig.)

  13. Representations of classical groups on the lattice and its application to the field theory on discrete space-time

    OpenAIRE

    Lorente, M.

    2003-01-01

    We explore the mathematical consequences of the assumption of a discrete space-time. The fundamental laws of physics have to be translated into the language of discrete mathematics. We find integral transformations that leave the lattice of any dimension invariant and apply these transformations to field equations.

  14. Talk in Blended-Space Speech Communities: An Exploration of Discursive Practices of a Professional Development Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Tabitha Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study is an exploration of alternative teacher professional development. While using symbolic interactionism for a research lens, it characterizes the discursive practices commonly found in formal, informal, and blended-space speech communities based on the talk within a leadership-development program comprised of five female, church-based…

  15. 107 Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group Meeting (RCC-MG): NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Range Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2016-01-01

    The following is a summary of the major meteorological/atmospheric projects and research that have been or currently are being accomplished at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Listed below are highlights of work done during the past 6 months in the Engineering Directorate (ED) and in the Science and Mission Systems Office (ZP).

  16. 108 Range Commanders Council Meteorology Group Meeting (RCC-MG) NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Range Report - April 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry C.

    2017-01-01

    The following is a summary of the major meteorological/atmospheric projects and research that have been or currently are being accomplished at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Listed below are highlights of work done during the past 6 months in the Engineering Directorate (ED) and in the Science and Technology Office (ST).

  17. Horizontal Stratification in Access to Danish University Programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2018-01-01

    a relatively detailed classification of parents’ occupations to determine how students are endowed with different forms of capital, even when their parents would typically be characterised as belonging to the same social group. Second, we distinguish among disciplines and among university institutions...... to explain the dynamics of horizontal stratification in the Danish university system. Using unique and exhaustive register data, including all higher education institutions and the entire 1984 cohort as of the age of 24, we uncover distinct differences in the magnitude and type of horizontal stratification...... in different fields of study and university institutions. Most importantly, we find distinct patterns of horizontal stratification by field of study and parental occupation that would have remained hidden had we used more aggregated classifications for field of study and social origin....

  18. The dynamical groups SO0(3.2) and SO0(4.2) as space-time groups of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, W.

    1981-01-01

    Elementary particles are described by representations of SO 0 (4.2) and SO 0 (3.2). An S-matrix invariant under the corresponding group constrains the possible scattering channels. The simptest used representations have each one gauge freedom, the physical significance of which is discussed. 'Higher' representations can be constructed from the simplest by means of the tensor product; the same is true for the corresponding particles. The simplest objects of the SO 0 (3.2) theory, the SO 0 (3.2) theory, the Dirac singletons correspond to the states of a 2-dimensional harmonic oscillator. The basic states of this are interpreted as urs in the sense of von Weizsaecker. (orig./HSI) [de

  19. Up or down? Reading direction influences vertical counting direction in the horizontal plane – a cross-cultural comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Melanie Goebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Most adults and children in cultures where reading text progresses from left to right also count objects from the left to the right side of space. The reverse is found in cultures with a right-to-left reading direction. The current set of experiments investigated whether vertical counting in the horizontal plane is also influenced by reading direction. In experiment 1, native English-speaking children and adults and native Cantonese-speaking children and adults performed three object counting tasks. Objects were presented flat on a table in a horizontal, vertical and square display. Independent of culture, the horizontal array was mostly counted from left to right. While the majority of English-speaking children counted the vertical display from bottom to top, the majority of the Cantonese-speaking children as well as both Cantonese- and English-speaking adults counted the vertical display from top to bottom. This pattern was replicated in the counting pattern for squares: all groups except the English-speaking children started counting with the top left coin. In experiment 2, Cantonese-speaking adults counted a square array of objects after they read a text presented to them either in left to right or in top to bottom reading direction. Most Cantonese-speaking adults starting counting the array by moving horizontally from left to right. However, significantly more Cantonese-speaking adults started counting with a top-to-bottom movement after reading the text presented in a top-to-bottom reading direction than in a left-to-right reading direction. Our results show clearly that vertical counting in the horizontal plane is influenced by longstanding as well as more recent experience of reading direction.

  20. Up or down? Reading direction influences vertical counting direction in the horizontal plane - a cross-cultural comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Silke M

    2015-01-01

    Most adults and children in cultures where reading text progresses from left to right also count objects from the left to the right side of space. The reverse is found in cultures with a right-to-left reading direction. The current set of experiments investigated whether vertical counting in the horizontal plane is also influenced by reading direction. Participants were either from a left-to-right reading culture (UK) or from a mixed (left-to-right and top-to-bottom) reading culture (Hong Kong). In Experiment 1, native English-speaking children and adults and native Cantonese-speaking children and adults performed three object counting tasks. Objects were presented flat on a table in a horizontal, vertical, and square display. Independent of culture, the horizontal array was mostly counted from left to right. While the majority of English-speaking children counted the vertical display from bottom to top, the majority of the Cantonese-speaking children as well as both Cantonese- and English-speaking adults counted the vertical display from top to bottom. This pattern was replicated in the counting pattern for squares: all groups except the English-speaking children started counting with the top left coin. In Experiment 2, Cantonese-speaking adults counted a square array of objects after they read a text presented to them either in left-to-right or in top-to-bottom reading direction. Most Cantonese-speaking adults started counting the array by moving horizontally from left to right. However, significantly more Cantonese-speaking adults started counting with a top-to-bottom movement after reading the text presented in a top-to-bottom reading direction than in a left-to-right reading direction. Our results show clearly that vertical counting in the horizontal plane is influenced by longstanding as well as more recent experience of reading direction.

  1. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  2. Penetrating particles in horizontal air showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlenberg, J.; Boehm, E.

    1975-01-01

    Particle density and arrival time of muons has been measured in Horizontal Air Showers. 5,600 showers have been recorded in 7,800 hours. Using stringent selection criteria 155 showers have been found horizontal (zenith angle larger 70 0 ) in the size range 4.1 > lg N > 5.5. The muons observed in these showers can be explained by purely electromagnetic origin of horizontal showers. (orig.) [de

  3. Horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism among college students in the United States, Taiwan, and Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, J S

    2001-10-01

    Among college students in the United States, Taiwan, and Argentina, the author examined the strength of 4 cultural patterns (horizontal collectivism, vertical collectivism, horizontal individualism, vertical individualism; H. C. Triandis, 1995). A 3-group confirmatory factor analysis established the measurement equivalence among the 3 samples before the comparison. The Taiwanese and the Argentine samples were more vertically collectivist than the U.S. sample. The U.S. and the Taiwanese samples were more vertically individualistic than the Argentine sample. The U.S. sample was more horizontally individualistic than the Argentine sample, which, in turn, was more horizontally individualistic than the Taiwanese sample.

  4. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  5. A "safe space" for learning and reflection: one school's design for continuity with a peer group across clinical clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Calvin L; Johnston, C Bree; Singh, Bobby; Garber, Jonathan D; Kaplan, Elizabeth; Lee, Kewchang; Teherani, Arianne

    2011-12-01

    The value of continuity in medical education, particularly during clerkships, is increasingly recognized. Previous clerkship-based models have described changes that emphasize continuity in patient care, learner supervision, and curriculum. The creation of continuous student peer groups can foster interactions that enhance mutual support through uncomfortable professional transitions during the clerkship years. Here, the authors describe a third-year clerkship model based at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center called VA Longitudinal Rotations (VALOR), designed explicitly to establish a supportive learning environment for small peer groups.Seven groups of medical students (42 total) completed VALOR across three academic years between 2007 and 2009. On clerkships during VALOR, one hour per week was designated for faculty-facilitated sessions amongst peer groups. Students' perceptions of peer group support and overall program satisfaction were determined with immediate post surveys and focus groups at the end of VALOR, and with follow-up surveys 5 to 27 months after completing VALOR. Students strongly valued several elements of VALOR peer groups, including support through clerkship challenges, meeting for facilitated reflection, and appreciating patient experiences across the continuum of care. Students' appreciation for their peer group experiences persisted well after the conclusion of VALOR. VALOR students performed the same as or better than traditional clerkship students on knowledge and skill-based outcomes. The authors demonstrate that their third-year clerkship program using peer groups has built supportive learning networks and facilitated reflection, allowing students to develop critical professional skills. Student communication around patient care was also feasible and highly valued.

  6. Female Leadership in Public Religious Space : An Alternative Group of Women in Tablighi Jamaat in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, Momotaj

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide trend of emerging women-led religious reformist movements create the opportunity for Muslim women to emerge as religious leaders, the positions that have historically been held by men. This study has focused on a women’s group, named the Group of Four Companions (GFC), working for renewal of faith among the Muslim women in a community in Bangladesh. The group claims a wing of Tablighi Jamaat (TJ)―an Islamic missionary movement originated in the 1920s, the largest Islamic piety m...

  7. Assessment of the perception of verticality and horizontality with self-paced saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Bambagioni, D; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A

    1998-07-01

    We investigated the ability of human subjects (Ss) to make self-paced saccades in the earth-vertical and horizontal directions (space-referenced task) and in the direction of the head-vertical and horizontal axis (self-referenced task) during whole body tilts of 0 degrees, 22.5 degrees, 45 degrees and 90 degrees in the frontal (roll) plane. Saccades were recorded in the dark with computerised video-oculography. During space-referenced tasks, the saccade vectors did not fully counter-rotate to compensate for larger angles of body tilt. This finding is in agreement with the 'A' effect reported for the visual vertical. The error was significantly larger for saccades intended to be space-horizontal than space-vertical. This vertico-horizontal dissociation implies greater difficulty in defining horizontality than verticality with the non-visual motor task employed. In contrast, normal Ss (and an alabyrinthine subject tested) were accurate in orienting saccades to their own (cranio-centric) vertical and horizontal axes regardless of tilt indicating that cranio-centric perception is robust and apparently not affected by gravitational influences.

  8. Vertical and horizontal access configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spampinato, P.T.

    1987-01-01

    A number of configuration features and maintenance operations are influenced by the choice of whether a design is based on vertical or horizontal access for replacing reactor components. The features which are impacted most include the first wall/blanket segmentation, the poloidal field coil locations, the toroidal field coil number and size, access port size for in-vessel components, and facilities. Since either configuration can be made to work, the choice between the two is not clear cut because both have certain advantages. It is apparent that there are large cost benefits in the poloidal field coil system for ideal coil locations for high elongation plasmas and marginal savings for the INTOR case. If we assume that a new tokamak design will require a higher plasma elongation, the recommendation is to arrange the poloidal field coils in a cost-effective manner while providing reasonable midplane access for heating interfaces and test modules. If a new design study is not based on a high elongation plasma, it still appears prudent to consider this approach so that in-vessel maintenance can be accomplished without moving very massive structures such as the bulk shield. 10 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Horizontal vortex single chamber hydroturbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Antonio Zarate-Orrego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó una máquina con alta resistencia de forma para extraer energía de una quebrada, río o corriente marina, y generar electricidad. Sin instrumentos adecuados, la investigación fue cualitativa. Se supuso que si aun así funcionaba, su comportamiento podía mejorar suavizándose la forma. El aparato tiene una tobera semi-convergente de paredes planas, una cámara de vórtice cilíndrica y un rodete. Capta agua por su sección mayor y la descarga tangencialmente por su sección menor en la cámara de vórtice; ésta tiene un orificio en una de sus paredes laterales. Así forma un vórtice horizontal que hace girar un rodete cuyo eje acciona un generador eléctrico. El trabajo experimental realizado mostró que sí es posible producir energía eléctrica con este dispositivo pese a las condiciones adversas en que se ensayó.

  10. Horizontal gene transfer between bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2007-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) refers to the acquisition of foreign genes by organisms. The occurrence of HGT among bacteria in the environment is assumed to have implications in the risk assessment of genetically modified bacteria which are released into the environment. First, introduced genetic sequences from a genetically modified bacterium could be transferred to indigenous micro-organisms and alter their genome and subsequently their ecological niche. Second, the genetically modified bacterium released into the environment might capture mobile genetic elements (MGE) from indigenous micro-organisms which could extend its ecological potential. Thus, for a risk assessment it is important to understand the extent of HGT and genome plasticity of bacteria in the environment. This review summarizes the present state of knowledge on HGT between bacteria as a crucial mechanism contributing to bacterial adaptability and diversity. In view of the use of GM crops and microbes in agricultural settings, in this mini-review we focus particularly on the presence and role of MGE in soil and plant-associated bacteria and the factors affecting gene transfer.

  11. Full-scale fire experiments on vertical horizontal cable trays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangs, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-10-01

    Two full-scale fire experiments on PVC cables used in nuclear power plants were carried out, one with cables in vertical position and one with cables in horizontal position. The vertical cable bundle, 3 m high, 300 mm wide and 30 mm thick, was attached to a steel cable ladder. The vertical bundle experiment was carried out in nearly free space with three walls near the cable ladder guiding air flow in order to stabilise flames. The horizontal cable experiment was carried out in a small room with five cable bundles attached to steel cable ladders. Three of the 2 m long cable bundles were located in an array, equally spaced above each other near one long side of the room and two correspondingly near the opposite long side. The vertical cable bundle was ignited with a small propane gas burner beneath the lower edge of the bundle. The horizontal cable bundles were ignited with a small propane burner beneath the lowest bundle in an array of three bundles. Rate of heat release by means of oxygen consumption calorimetry, mass change, CO 2 , CO and smoke production rate and gas, wall and cable surface temperatures were measured as a function of time, as well as time to sprinkler operation and failure of test voltage in cables. Additionally, the minimum rate of heat release needed to ignite the bundle was determined. This paper concentrates on describing and recording the experimental set-up and the data obtained. (orig.)

  12. The Process of Horizontal Differentiation: Two Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daft, Richard L.; Bradshaw, Patricia J.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the process of horizontal differentiation by examining events leading to the establishment of 30 new departments in five universities. Two types of horizontal differentiation processes--administrative and academic--were observed and each was associated with different organizational conditions. (Author/IRT)

  13. Measurement and Analysis of Horizontal Vibration Response of Pile Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boominathan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Pile foundations are frequently used in very loose and weak deposits, in particular soft marine clays deposits to support various industrial structures, power plants, petrochemical complexes, compressor stations and residential multi-storeyed buildings. Under these circumstances, piles are predominantly subjected to horizontal dynamic loads and the pile response to horizontal vibration is very critical due to its low stiffness. Though many analytical methods have been developed to estimate the horizontal vibration response, but they are not well validated with the experimental studies. This paper presents the results of horizontal vibration tests carried out on model aluminium single piles embedded in a simulated Elastic Half Space filled with clay. The influence of various soil and pile parameters such as pile length, modulus of clay, magnitude of dynamic load and frequency of excitation on the horizontal vibration response of single piles was examined. Measurement of various response quantities, such as the load transferred to the pile, pile head displacement and the strain variation along the pile length were done using a Data Acquisition System. It is found that the pile length, modulus of clay and dynamic load, significantly influences the natural frequency and peak amplitude of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment occurs at the fundamental frequency of the soil-pile system. The maximum bending moment of long piles is about 2 to 4 times higher than that of short piles and it increases drastically with the increase in the shear modulus of clay for both short and long piles. The active or effective pile length is found to be increasing under dynamic load and empirical equations are proposed to estimate the active pile length under dynamic loads.

  14. Horizontal drilling assessment in Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catania, Peter; Wilson, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    The first horizontal well was drilled in Saskatchewan in 1987. Since then, the number of horizontal wells drilled has escalated rapidly, averaging approximately 500 per year since 1993. When combined with horizontal wells drilled in Alberta, the major Canadian oil-producing province, the total number drilled in 1995 was 978. This total exceeds the National Energy Board (NEB) projected maximum of 816 wells per year. The NEB projections were based on a break-even point for the drilling of horizontal wells of a return of CDN $285,000 using a discount rate of 15%. This corresponded to a cumulative production from each individual well of some 11,000 m 3 . The introduction of a royalty-free production volume of 12,000 m 3 per horizontal well in Saskatchewan was instrumental in stimulating the rapid expansion in the use of horizontal wells and helping Canada to exceed the forecasted drilling level. Within Saskatchewan, daily production from 1964 active horizontal wells is in excess of 20,000 m 3 . Comparative analysis indicates that the average daily production per well has increased from approximately by 40% with the advent of horizontal wells. In total production terms, provincial production has increased from 11.7 million cubic metres in 1989 to 20.9 million m 3 in 1996. This represents an increase of almost 79% based primarily on the extensive use of horizontal wells. In 1996, horizontal wells produced 36% of the province's oil from 12% of the active wells. In the southeastern producing areas of Saskatchewan, the Williston Basin, declining oil-production has jumped 100%, with horizontal wells accounting for approximately 50% of total regional production. Pay zones in this areas, as in most of the province, tend to be relatively thin, with net pay frequently less that 5 m. The modest investment of some CDN $5 million in government research funding 10 years ago to stimulate the development of horizontal wells, combined with a favourable royalty structure, has been at

  15. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  16. 基于MUSIC-Group Delay算法的相邻相干信号源定位%Closely spaced coherent-source localization based on MUSIC-group delay algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑家芝

    2016-01-01

    为了准确的进行相邻的相干信号源定位,提出了一种基于多重信号分类群延迟(MUSIC-group delay)的改进算法。首先,将空间平滑技术引入到波达方向(DoA)估计当中去除部分相干信号。由于在信号源相邻的情况下子空间算法的性能降低,就结合了 MUSIC-Group Delay算法来区分相邻的信号源,这种方法因为自身的加和性通过 MUSIC 相位谱来计算群延迟函数,从而能估计出相邻的信号源。理论分析和仿真结果表明提出的方法估计相邻的相干信号源比子空间算法更精确,分辨率更高。%In this paper,the closely spaced coherent-source localization is considered,and an improved method based on the group delay of Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC)is presented.Firstly,we introduce the spatial smoothing technique into direction of arrival (DoA)estimation to get rid of the coherent part of signals.Due to the degraded per-formance of sub-space based methods on the condition of nearby sources,we then utilize the MUSIC-Group Delay algo-rithm to distinguish the closely spaced sources,which can resolve spatially close sources by the use of the group delay function computed from the MUSIC phase spectrum for efficient DoA estimation owing to its spatial additive property. Theoretical analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can estimate the DoA of the coherent close signal sources more precisely and have higher resolution compared with sub-space based methods.

  17. Auditing Consistency and Usefulness of LOINC Use among Three Large Institutions - Using Version Spaces for Grouping LOINC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.C.; Vreeman, D.J.; Huff, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We wanted to develop a method for evaluating the consistency and usefulness of LOINC code use across different institutions, and to evaluate the degree of interoperability that can be attained when using LOINC codes for laboratory data exchange. Our specific goals were to: 1) Determine if any contradictory knowledge exists in LOINC. 2) Determine how many LOINC codes were used in a truly interoperable fashion between systems. 3) Provide suggestions for improving the semantic interoperability of LOINC. Methods We collected Extensional Definitions (EDs) of LOINC usage from three institutions. The version space approach was used to divide LOINC codes into small sets, which made auditing of LOINC use across the institutions feasible. We then compared pairings of LOINC codes from the three institutions for consistency and usefulness. Results The number of LOINC codes evaluated were 1,917, 1,267 and 1,693 as obtained from ARUP, Intermountain and Regenstrief respectively. There were 2,022, 2,030, and 2,301 version spaces among ARUP & Intermountain, Intermountain & Regenstrief and ARUP & Regenstrief respectively. Using the EDs as the gold standard, there were 104, 109 and 112 pairs containing contradictory knowledge and there were 1,165, 765 and 1,121 semantically interoperable pairs. The interoperable pairs were classified into three levels: 1) Level I – No loss of meaning, complete information was exchanged by identical codes. 2) Level II – No loss of meaning, but processing of data was needed to make the data completely comparable. 3) Level III – Some loss of meaning. For example, tests with a specific ‘method’ could be rolled-up with tests that were ‘methodless’. Conclusions There are variations in the way LOINC is used for data exchange that result in some data not being truly interoperable across different enterprises. To improve its semantic interoperability, we need to detect and correct any contradictory knowledge within LOINC and add

  18. The stimulus integration area for horizontal vergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Robert S; Howard, Ian P; Fang, Xueping

    2004-06-01

    Over what region of space are horizontal disparities integrated to form the stimulus for vergence? The vergence system might be expected to respond to disparities within a small area of interest to bring them into the range of precise stereoscopic processing. However, the literature suggests that disparities are integrated over a fairly large parafoveal area. We report the results of six experiments designed to explore the spatial characteristics of the stimulus for vergence. Binocular eye movements were recorded using magnetic search coils. Each dichoptic display consisted of a central target stimulus that the subject attempted to fuse, and a competing stimulus with conflicting disparity. In some conditions the target was stationary, providing a fixation stimulus. In other conditions, the disparity of the target changed to provide a vergence-tracking stimulus. The target and competing stimulus were combined in a variety of conditions including those in which (1) a transparent textured-disc target was superimposed on a competing textured background, (2) a textured-disc target filled the centre of a competing annular background, and (3) a small target was presented within the centre of a competing annular background of various inner diameters. In some conditions the target and competing stimulus were separated in stereoscopic depth. The results are consistent with a disparity integration area with a diameter of about 5 degrees. Stimuli beyond this integration area can drive vergence in their own right, but they do not appear to be summed or averaged with a central stimulus to form a combined disparity signal. A competing stimulus had less effect on vergence when separated from the target by a disparity pedestal. As a result, we propose that it may be more useful to think in terms of an integration volume for vergence rather than a two-dimensional retinal integration area.

  19. Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  20. Ongoing Analysis of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco engine analysis is a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  1. Horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubra, O. [SKODA Praha Company, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-09-01

    Horizontal steam generators are typical components of nuclear power plants with pressure water reactor type VVER. Thermal-hydraulic behavior of horizontal steam generators is very different from the vertical U-tube steam generator, which has been extensively studied for several years. To contribute to the understanding of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics a computer program for 3-D steady state analysis of the PGV-1000 steam generator has been developed. By means of this computer program, a detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermodynamic study of the horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 has been carried out and a set of important steam generator characteristics has been obtained. The 3-D distribution of the void fraction and 3-D level profile as functions of load and secondary side pressure have been investigated and secondary side volumes and masses as functions of load and pressure have been evaluated. Some of the interesting results of calculations are presented in the paper.

  2. Productivity and injectivity of horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Khalid

    2000-03-06

    One of the key issues addressed was pressure drop in long horizontal wells and its influence on well performance. Very little information is available in the literature on flow in pipes with influx through pipe walls. Virtually all of this work has been in small diameter pipes and with single-phase flow. In order to address this problem new experimental data on flow in horizontal and near horizontal wells have been obtained. Experiments were conducted at an industrial facility on typical 6 1/8 ID, 100 feet long horizontal well model. The new data along with available information in the literature have been used to develop new correlations and mechanistic models. Thus it is now possible to predict, within reasonable accuracy, the effect of influx through the well on pressure drop in the well.

  3. Horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with horizontal cooperation in transport and logistics. It contains a comprehensive discussion of the available academic literature on this topic, many practical examples, and an empirical investigation of opportunities and impediments. Furthermore, three enabling concepts for

  4. Horizontal alveolar bone loss: A periodontal orphan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, A.; Rohini, S.; Naveen, A.; Haritha, A.; Reddy, Krishnanjeneya

    2010-01-01

    Background: Attempts to successfully regenerate lost alveolar bone have always been a clinician’s dream. Angular defects, at least, have a fairer chance, but the same cannot be said about horizontal bone loss. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of horizontal alveolar bone loss and vertical bone defects in periodontal patients; and later, to correlate it with the treatment modalities available in the literature for horizontal and vertical bone defects. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. Part I was the radiographic evaluation of 150 orthopantomographs (OPGs) (of patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and seeking periodontal care), which were digitized and read using the AutoCAD 2006 software. All the periodontitis-affected teeth were categorized as teeth with vertical defects (if the defect angle was ≤45° and defect depth was ≥3 mm) or as having horizontal bone loss. Part II of the study comprised search of the literature on treatment modalities for horizontal and vertical bone loss in four selected periodontal journals. Results: Out of the 150 OPGs studied, 54 (36%) OPGs showed one or more vertical defects. Totally, 3,371 teeth were studied, out of which horizontal bone loss was found in 3,107 (92.2%) teeth, and vertical defects were found only in 264 (7.8%) of the teeth, which was statistically significant (P<.001). Search of the selected journals revealed 477 papers have addressed the treatment modalities for vertical and horizontal types of bone loss specifically. Out of the 477 papers, 461 (96.3%) have addressed vertical bone loss, and 18 (3.7%) have addressed treatment options for horizontal bone loss. Two papers have addressed both types of bone loss and are included in both categories. Conclusion: Horizontal bone loss is more prevalent than vertical bone loss but has been sidelined by researchers as very few papers have been published on the subject of regenerative treatment modalities for

  5. Efficient Storage and Querying of Horizontal Tables Using a PIVOT Operation in Commercial Relational DBMSs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Hyun; Moon, Yang-Sae; Kim, Jinho; Kim, Sang-Wook

    In recent years, a horizontal table with a large number of attributes is widely used in OLAP or e-business applications to analyze multidimensional data efficiently. For efficient storing and querying of horizontal tables, recent works have tried to transform a horizontal table to a traditional vertical table. Existing works, however, have the drawback of not considering an optimized PIVOT operation provided (or to be provided) in recent commercial RDBMSs. In this paper we propose a formal approach that exploits the optimized PIVOT operation of commercial RDBMSs for storing and querying of horizontal tables. To achieve this goal, we first provide an overall framework that stores and queries a horizontal table using an equivalent vertical table. Under the proposed framework, we then formally define 1) a method that stores a horizontal table in an equivalent vertical table and 2) a PIVOT operation that converts a stored vertical table to an equivalent horizontal view. Next, we propose a novel method that transforms a user-specified query on horizontal tables to an equivalent PIVOT-included query on vertical tables. In particular, by providing transformation rules for all five elementary operations in relational algebra as theorems, we prove our method is theoretically applicable to commercial RDBMSs. Experimental results show that, compared with the earlier work, our method reduces storage space significantly and also improves average performance by several orders of magnitude. These results indicate that our method provides an excellent framework to maximize performance in handling horizontal tables by exploiting the optimized PIVOT operation in commercial RDBMSs.

  6. Horizontal well impact on heavy oil supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, B.; Bielecki, J.; Hu, J.; Wall, B.; Drummond, K.

    1993-01-01

    Horizontal wells can take advantage of gravity drainage mechanisms, which can be important in conventional heavy oil and bitumen recovery. Horizontal drilling will impact on the development of established conventional heavy oil pools by infill drilling and application of enhanced recovery techniques. There will also be an impact on the development of extensions to established and newly discovered heavy oil pools, as well as a major impact on development of bitumen resources. To assess the impact of horizontal drilling on heavy oil supply, high-impact and low-impact scenarios were evaluated under specified oil-price assumptions for four heavy oil areas in Saskatchewan and Alberta. Horizontal well potential for infill drilling, waterflood projects, and thermal projects was assessed and estimates were made of such developments as reserves additions and heavy oil development wells under the two scenarios. In the low case, projected supply of conventional heavy oil and bitumen stabilizes at a level in the 90,000-94,000 m 3 /d after 1994. In the high case, overall supply continuously grows from 80,000 m 3 /d in 1992 to 140,000 m 3 /d in 2002. Through application of horizontal drilling, reserves additions in western Canada could be improved by ca 100 million m 3 by 2002. 14 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Dataset on daytime outdoor thermal comfort for Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashima, Simone Queiroz da Silveira; Assis, Eleonora Sad de; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2016-12-01

    This dataset describe microclimatic parameters of two urban open public spaces in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil; physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index values and the related subjective responses of interviewees regarding thermal sensation perception and preference and thermal comfort evaluation. Individuals and behavioral characteristics of respondents were also presented. Data were collected at daytime, in summer and winter, 2013. Statistical treatment of this data was firstly presented in a PhD Thesis ("Percepção sonora e térmica e avaliação de conforto em espaços urbanos abertos do município de Belo Horizonte - MG, Brasil" (Hirashima, 2014) [1]), providing relevant information on thermal conditions in these locations and on thermal comfort assessment. Up to now, this data was also explored in the article "Daytime Thermal Comfort in Urban Spaces: A Field Study in Brazil" (Hirashima et al., in press) [2]. These references are recommended for further interpretation and discussion.

  8. Challenges in horizontal model integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolczyk, Katrin; Conradi, Carsten

    2016-03-11

    Systems Biology has motivated dynamic models of important intracellular processes at the pathway level, for example, in signal transduction and cell cycle control. To answer important biomedical questions, however, one has to go beyond the study of isolated pathways towards the joint study of interacting signaling pathways or the joint study of signal transduction and cell cycle control. Thereby the reuse of established models is preferable, as it will generally reduce the modeling effort and increase the acceptance of the combined model in the field. Obtaining a combined model can be challenging, especially if the submodels are large and/or come from different working groups (as is generally the case, when models stored in established repositories are used). To support this task, we describe a semi-automatic workflow based on established software tools. In particular, two frequent challenges are described: identification of the overlap and subsequent (re)parameterization of the integrated model. The reparameterization step is crucial, if the goal is to obtain a model that can reproduce the data explained by the individual models. For demonstration purposes we apply our workflow to integrate two signaling pathways (EGF and NGF) from the BioModels Database.

  9. Adjustable recessions in horizontal comitant strabismus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the surgical outcome of adjustable with the conventional recession in patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Patients and Methods: A prospective comparative nonrandomized interventional pilot study was performed on patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Fifty-four patients (27 in each group were allocated into 2 groups to undergo either adjustable suture (AS recession or non-AS (NAS recession along with conventional resection. The patients were followed up for 6 months. A successful outcome was defined as deviation ±10 prism diopters at 6 months. The results were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, and Student′s t-test. Results: A successful outcome was found in 24 (88.8% patients in AS and 17 (62.9% in NAS group (P = 0.02. The postoperative adjustment was done in 13 (48.1% patients in AS group. There was one complication (tenon′s cyst in AS group. Conclusion: AS recession may be considered in all cooperative patients undergoing strabismus surgery for comitant deviations.

  10. Genealogical electronic coupling procedure incorporating the Hartree--Fock interacting space and suitable for degenerate point groups. Application to excited states of BH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swope, W.C.; Schaefer, H.F. III; Yarkony, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of Clebsch--Gordan-type coupling coefficients for finite point groups is applied to the problem of constructing symmetrized N-electron wave functions (configurations) for use by the Hartree--Fock SCF and CI methods of determining electronic wave functions for molecular systems. The configurations are eigenfunctions of electronic spin operators, and transform according to a particular irreducible representation of the relevant group of spatial operations which leave the Born--Oppenheimer Hamiltonian invariant. The method proposed for constructing the configurations involves a genealogical coupling procedure. It is particularly useful for studies of molecules which belong to a group which has multiply degenerate irreducible representations. The advantage of the method is that it results in configurations which are real linear combinations of determinants of real symmetry orbitals. This procedure for constructing configurations also allows for the identification of configurations which have no matrix element of the Hamiltonian with a reference configuration. It is therefore possible to construct a Hartree--Fock interacting space of configurations which can speed the convergence of a CI wave function. The coupling method is applied to a study of the ground and two excited electronic states of BH 3 in its D/sub 3h/ geometry. The theoretical approach involved Hartree--Fock SCF calculations followed by single and double substitution CI calculations, both of which employed double-zeta plus polarization quality basis sets

  11. HORIZONTAL WELL DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  12. Horizontal bridges in polar dielectric liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisetschläger, Jakob; Wexler, Adam D.; Holler, Gert; Eisenhut, Mathias; Gatterer, Karl; Fuchs, Elmar C.

    2012-01-01

    When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with polar liquid dielectrica like water or methanol, a horizontal bridge forms between the two beakers. By repeating a version of Pellat's experiment, it is shown that a horizontal bridge is stable by the action of electrohydrodynamic pressure. Thus, the static and dynamic properties of the phenomenon called a `floating water bridge' can be explained by the gradient of Maxwell pressure, replenishing the liquid within the bridge against any drainage mechanism. It is also shown that a number of liquids can form stable and long horizontal bridges. The stability of such a connection, and the asymmetry in mass flow through such bridges caused by the formation of ion clouds in the vicinity of the electrodes, is also discussed by two further experiments.

  13. Horizontal bridges in polar dielectric liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woisetschlaeger, Jakob [Graz University of Technology, Experimental Turbomachinery Research and Optical Measurement Group, Institute for Thermal Turbomachinery and Machine Dynamics, Graz (Austria); Wexler, Adam D.; Fuchs, Elmar C. [Wetsus, Center of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Holler, Gert [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Electrical Measurement and Measurement Signal Processing, Graz (Austria); Eisenhut, Mathias [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Analytical Chemistry and Food Chemistry, Graz (Austria); Gatterer, Karl [Graz University of Technology, Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz (Austria)

    2012-01-15

    When a high-voltage direct-current is applied to two beakers filled with polar liquid dielectrica like water or methanol, a horizontal bridge forms between the two beakers. By repeating a version of Pellat's experiment, it is shown that a horizontal bridge is stable by the action of electrohydrodynamic pressure. Thus, the static and dynamic properties of the phenomenon called a 'floating water bridge' can be explained by the gradient of Maxwell pressure, replenishing the liquid within the bridge against any drainage mechanism. It is also shown that a number of liquids can form stable and long horizontal bridges. The stability of such a connection, and the asymmetry in mass flow through such bridges caused by the formation of ion clouds in the vicinity of the electrodes, is also discussed by two further experiments. (orig.)

  14. Target-space duality between simple compact Lie groups and Lie algebras under the Hamiltonian formalism. Pt. 1. Remnants of duality at the classic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, O.; Liu Chienhao

    1996-01-01

    It has been suggested that a possible classical remnant of the phenomenon of target-space duality (T-duality) would be the equivalence of the classical string Hamiltonian systems. Given a simple compact Lie group G with a bi-invariant metric and a generating function Γ suggested in the physics literature, we follow the above line of thought and work out the canonical transformation Φ generated by Γ together with an Ad-invariant metric and a B-field on the associated Lie algebra g of G so that G and g form a string target-space dual pair at the classical level under the Hamiltonian formalism. In this article, some general features of this Hamiltonian setting are discussed. We study properties of the canonical transformation Φ including a careful analysis of its domain and image. The geometry of the T-dual structure on g is lightly touched. We leave the task of tracing back the Hamiltonian formalism at the quantum level to the sequel of this paper. (orig.). With 4 figs

  15. Heavy crude production from shallow formations: long horizontal wells versus horizontal fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valko, P.; Economides, M. J. [Texas A and M Univ., TX (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility of producing heavy oil from shallow formations using either horizontal wells or short horizontal wells fractured horizontally is demonstrated. The problem of optimum proppant placement is solved in two steps. In step one, the finite productivity performance is considered in general terms showing that the performance is a function of two dimensionless parameters. Following derivation of optimum conditions, the solution is applied to the horizontal fracture consideration. The limiting factor is that to create an effective finite conductivity fracture, the dimensionless fracture conductivity must be on the order of unity, a fracture that is difficult to realize in higher permeability formations. The best candidates for the suggested configuration are shallow or moderate formations, or formations otherwise proven to accept horizontal fractures, and formations with low permeability/viscosity ratio. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs., 2 appendices.

  16. Analysis of variationfor horizontal deviation in the primary position after the inferior oblique muscle weakening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yu Si

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyse the variation of horizontal deviation in the primary position after the inferior oblique muscle weakening, and to explore the effect of the inferior oblique muscle recession on horizontal deviations in primary position.METHODS:, In the study, 30 cases in the Department of ophthalmology of our hospital from January 2014 to September 2014 underwent the inferior oblique muscle recession as the sole without horizontal muscles surgery, who were superior obliquer paralysis and V pattern strabismus with small angle of horizontal strabismus, were analyzed. Of the 30 patients, 25 had unilateral inferior oblique muscle surgery, and then 5 had bilateral surgeries.Followed up for three to six mo, all patients were received full ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, including measurement of the deviation in the diagnostic positions of gaze at near 33cm and at distance 6m by prism and alternate cover test, synoptophore, Titmus stereo graph examination, Worth four lighting inspection, eye movement examination, and fundus photography preoperatively and postoperatively. The changes of horizontal deviations in the primary position after procedures were investigated. RESULT:(1The comparison of horizontal deviation showed significant difference pre- and post-operation in the exotropia group(P=0.00. It was postoperative respectively to reduce the original in external oblique average 3.35±2.87△ and 4.37±2.65△.(2The comparison of horizontal deviation showed significant difference pre-and post-operation in the esotropia group(P=0.02, and it decreased postoperatively in average 2.43±1.99△. There was no significant difference for horizontal deviation position between pre- and post-operation(P=0.089. CONCLUSION:The horizontal deviation in primary position, either exotropia or esotropia, will decrease after the Inferior oblique muscle recession. This change can be compensated by the gradually improving and establishing the fusion function.

  17. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H. [ed.] [IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H. [ed.] [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V. [ed.] [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  18. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, H [ed.; IVO Group, Vantaa (Finland); Purhonen, H [ed.; VTT, Espoo (Finland); Kouhia, V [ed.; Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries.

  19. Fourth international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomisto, H.; Purhonen, H.; Kouhia, V.

    1997-01-01

    The general objective of the International Seminars of Horizontal Steam Generator Modelling has been the improvement in understanding of realistic thermal hydraulic behaviour of the generators when performing safety analyses for VVER reactors. The main topics presented in the fourth seminar were: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, feedwater distributor replacement, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents and new developments in the VVER safety technology. The number of participants, representing designers and manufacturers of the horizontal steam generators, plant operators, engineering companies, research organizations, universities and regulatory authorities, was 70 from 10 countries

  20. Quantum isometry groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jyotishman Bhowmick

    2015-11-07

    Nov 7, 2015 ... Classical. Quantum. Background. Compact Hausdorff space. Unital C∗ algebra. Gelfand-Naimark. Compact Group. Compact Quantum Group. Woronowicz. Group Action. Coaction. Woronowicz. Riemannian manifold. Spectral triple. Connes. Isometry group. Quantum Isometry Group. To be discussed.

  1. Involutional ectropion and entropion: clinicopathologic correlation between horizontal eyelid laxity and eyelid extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Renato Wendell; Osaki, Midori Hentona; Dantas, Paulo Elias Correa; Belfort, Rubens

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the clinicopathologic correlation between horizontal eyelid laxity and extracellular matrix components, such as collagen and elastic fibers, in involutional ectropion and entropion. Another goal was to compare the differences between involutional ectropion and entropion in regard to extracellular matrix content using computer-assisted morphometry. This clinicopathologic study included 20 consecutive patients with involutional ectropion (group 1) and 20 consecutive patients with involutional entropion (group 2). The pinch test was performed to measure horizontal eyelid laxity in both groups. Full-thickness eyelid biopsy specimens were examined by light microscopy and computer-assisted morphometry. The Mann-Whitney U test, the Pearson chi-square test, the Pearson correlation coefficient calculation, and a linear regression analysis were performed. All sections of specimens from patients in groups 1 and 2 revealed abnormal collagen and elastic fibers. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significant negative correlation between horizontal eyelid laxity and extracellular matrix content in the eyelid skin, the pretarsal orbicularis oculi muscle, the perimeibomian tarsal stroma, and the intermeibomian tarsal stroma. Linear regression demonstrated that horizontal eyelid laxity is dependent upon extracellular matrix components in all eyelid regions. Collagen fiber content was significantly increased in specimens from patients in group 1 compared with specimens from patients in group 2. The present findings suggest that a reduction of collagen and elastic fibers may contribute to the development of excessive horizontal eyelid laxity in patients with involutional ectropion and entropion of the lower eyelid.

  2. Face Inversion Disproportionately Disrupts Sensitivity to Vertical over Horizontal Changes in Eye Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookes, Kate; Hayward, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Presenting a face inverted (upside down) disrupts perceptual sensitivity to the spacing between the features. Recently, it has been shown that this disruption is greater for vertical than horizontal changes in eye position. One explanation for this effect proposed that inversion disrupts the processing of long-range (e.g., eye-to-mouth distance)…

  3. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I. [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  4. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  5. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues

  6. Electroluminescence from completely horizontally oriented dye molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komino, Takeshi [Education Center for Global Leaders in Molecular System for Devices, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Sagara, Yuta [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Oki, Yuji [Japan Science and Technology Agency, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Department of Electronics, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nakamura, Nozomi [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fujimoto, Hiroshi [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Fukuoka i" 3-Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (i3-OPERA), Fukuoka 819-0388 (Japan); and others

    2016-06-13

    A complete horizontal molecular orientation of a linear-shaped thermally activated delayed fluorescent guest emitter 2,6-bis(4-(10Hphenoxazin-10-yl)phenyl)benzo[1,2-d:5,4-d′] bis(oxazole) (cis-BOX2) was obtained in a glassy host matrix by vapor deposition. The orientational order of cis-BOX2 depended on the combination of deposition temperature and the type of host matrix. Complete horizontal orientation was obtained when a thin film with cis-BOX2 doped in a 4,4′-bis(N-carbazolyl)-1,1′-biphenyl (CBP) host matrix was fabricated at 200 K. The ultimate orientation of guest molecules originates from not only the kinetic relaxation but also the kinetic stability of the deposited guest molecules on the film surface during film growth. Utilizing the ultimate orientation, a highly efficient organic light-emitting diode with the external quantum efficiency of 33.4 ± 2.0% was realized. The thermal stability of the horizontal orientation of cis-BOX2 was governed by the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) of the CBP host matrix; the horizontal orientation was stable unless the film was annealed above T{sub g}.

  7. Rectifying Horizontal Inequalities: Lessons from African Conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and demonstrate the link between horizontal inequalities and conflict. Section two will ... the US race riots in the 1960's and the 2005 Paris riots to the genocides that .... be seen as a combination of ethnic fighting between the black population.

  8. Flow mapping for ESS horizontal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Y.; Kikura, H.; Taishi, T. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Flow behaviour for ESS horizontal target is studied experimentally using two dimensional water model. A velocity field of stationary flow in reaction zone has been obtained. Three dimensional effect was also studied as a spanwise flow structure. (author) 3 figs., 3 refs.

  9. Determinants Of Vertical And Horizontal Export Diversification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also reveals domestic investment plays an important role to enhance vertical as well as horizontal export diversification for East Asia, while it only ... resource-based industries and gradually shift production and exports from customary products to more dynamic ones by developing competitive advantage in the ...

  10. Modelling Nitrogen Transformation in Horizontal Subsurface Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mathematical model was developed to permit dynamic simulation of nitrogen interaction in a pilot horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland receiving effluents from primary facultative pond. The system was planted with Phragmites mauritianus, which was provided with root zone depth of 75 cm. The root zone was ...

  11. Parametric study for horizontal steam generator modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovtcharova, I [Energoproekt, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    In the presentation some of the calculated results of horizontal steam generator PGV - 440 modelling with RELAP5/Mod3 are described. Two nodalization schemes have been used with different components in the steam dome. A study of parameters variation on the steam generator work and calculated results is made in cases with separator and branch.

  12. Third international seminar on horizontal steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The Third International Seminar on Horizontal Steam Generators held on October 18-20, 1994 in Lappeenranta, consisted of six sessions dealing with the topics: thermal hydraulic experiments and analyses, primary collector integrity, management of primary-to-secondary leakage accidents, feedwater collector replacement and discussion of VVER-440 steam generator safety issues.

  13. The horizontal plane appearances of scoliosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illés, Tamás S.; Burkus, Máté; Somoskeőy, Szabolcs

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two-/three-dimen......Purpose: A posterior-anterior vertebral vector is proposed to facilitate visualization and understanding of scoliosis. The aim of this study was to highlight the interest of using vertebral vectors, especially in the horizontal plane, in clinical practice. Methods: We used an EOS two...... cases of a normal spine and a thoracic scoliosis are presented. Results: For a normal spine, vector projections in the transverse plane are aligned with the posterior-anterior anatomical axis. For a scoliotic spine, vector projections in the horizontal plane provide information on the lateral...... decompensation of the spine and the lateral displacement of vertebrae. In the horizontal plane view, vertebral rotation and projections of the sagittal curves can also be analyzed simultaneously. Conclusions: The use of posterior-anterior vertebral vector facilitates the understanding of the 3D nature...

  14. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    manipulated in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis of sound in the horizontal plane. The manipulation of cues resulted in HRTFs with cues ranging from correct combinations of spectral information and ITDs to combinations with severely conflicting cues. Both the ITD and the spectral information seem...

  15. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  16. Analysis of vocal and swallowing functions after horizontal glottectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloğlu, İlhan; Bal, Muhlis; Salturk, Ziya; Berkiten, Güler; Atar, Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess vocal and swallowing functions after horizontal glottectomy. Our study population was made up of 22 men aged 45 to 72 years (mean: 58.3) who underwent horizontal glottectomy and completed at least 1 year of follow-up. To compare postoperative results, 20 similarly aged men were included as a control group; all glottectomy patients and all controls were smokers. We used three methods-acoustic and aerodynamic voice analyses, the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenicity, and strain) scale, and the voice handicap index-30 (VHI-30)-to assess vocal function objectively, perceptually, and subjectively, respectively. We also assessed swallowing function objectively by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and subjectively with the M.D. Anderson dysphagia inventory (MDADI). The 22 patients were also subcategorized into three groups according to the extent of their arytenoid cartilage resection, and their outcomes were compared. Acoustic and aerodynamic analyses showed that the mean maximum phonation time was significantly shorter and the fundamental frequency was significantly lower in the glottectomy group than in the controls (p = 0.001 for both), and that the mean jitter and shimmer values and the mean harmonics-to-noise ratio were all significantly higher (p = 0.001 for all); there were no significant differences among the three arytenoid subgroups. Self-assessments revealed that there were no statistically significant differences among the three subgroups in GRBAS scale scores except for the breathiness score (p = 0.045), which was lower in the arytenoid preservation subgroup than in the total resection subgroup; there were no statistically significant differences among the three subgroups in VHI-30 scores. Finally, swallow testing found no statistically significant differences in FEES scores or MDADI scores. We conclude that horizontal glottectomy caused a deterioration in vocal function, but

  17. Evacuation of children - movement on stairs and on Horizontal Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larusdottir, Aldis Run; Dederichs, Anne

    2012-01-01

    in full scale evacuation experiments where two age groups 0-2 years and 3-6 years were analyzed separately. It was found that flow through doors, walking speeds and densities were age-dependent and differed strongly from the data in existing literature. The results showed higher walking speeds in spiral...... slower in horizontal plane than adults, however they were keen to run during the evacuations, in the latter case their travel speed increased and exceeded the adults’. Since the evacuation characteristics of children differ in many ways from those of adults, nowadays models badly comprehend...

  18. Response of Voronezh reactor type to horizontal ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pecinka, L.

    1983-01-01

    For the purposes of vibration monitoring of PWR's the well known 'double pendulum model' has been developed and experimentally verified. It is shown, that this model is possible to use for response calculations of Voronezh reactor pressure vessel and its internals to horizontal ground motion. The equation of motion is given in usual matrix form, the damping matrix is calculated by Rayleigh formula. Driving force is given by vector of ground motion in horizontal direction. For the numerical integration of equation of motion is possible to use following methods - matrix exponential in state space; - modal analysis; - one-step direct integration. For our purposes the last one has been chosen and related computer code TRANS has been developed. The results of calculations are given in the graphically form using generalized angular coordinates and its second derivatives, which describes the displacement or acceleration of reactor pressure vessel to ground and the core barrel to reactor pressure vessel. The driving vector is given in the form of artificially generated accelerogram. (orig./HP)

  19. Synthetic horizontal branch models for globular clusters - the luminosity of the horizontal branch and the Oosterhoff effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.W.; Demarque, P.; Zinn, R.

    1987-01-01

    The variation of horizontal-branch (HB) luminosities with metal abundances is analyzed on the basis of HB models synthesized from theoretical HB evolutionary tracks. The focus is on the Oosterhoff effect, as related to period shifts in globular-cluster RR Lyr variables. The construction of the models and the Oosterhoff period groups is explained in detail, and the implications for globular-cluster ages are considered. The ratio of Delta M(bol) (RR) to Delta Fe/H for the HB is calculated as 0.24, slightly steeper than that found by Sandage (1981 and 1982). 35 references

  20. Effects of Training on the Concepts of Water Level and Horizontality in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Melissa Starbuck

    This experiment was designed to see if classroom instruction in the concept of water level and horizontality can improve students' knowledge of these concepts. The sample consisted of a kindergarten and a second grade class from one school and a first grade class from another school. Each class was divided into three groups. The first group was…

  1. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... quite well with the Epstein's formula ratio are presented. In some cases the measured airflow rates fit quite well with the Epstein's formula but in other cases the measured data show clear deviations from the Epstein's formula. Thus, revised formulas for natural ventilation are proposed....

  2. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... quite well with the Epstein's formula but in other cases the measured data show clear deviations from the Epstein's formula. Thus, revised formulas for natural ventilation are proposed....

  3. Horizontal modular dry irradiated fuel storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Larry E.; McInnes, Ian D.; Massey, John V.

    1988-01-01

    A horizontal, modular, dry, irradiated fuel storage system (10) includes a thin-walled canister (12) for containing irradiated fuel assemblies (20), which canister (12) can be positioned in a transfer cask (14) and transported in a horizontal manner from a fuel storage pool (18), to an intermediate-term storage facility. The storage system (10) includes a plurality of dry storage modules (26) which accept the canister (12) from the transfer cask (14) and provide for appropriate shielding about the canister (12). Each module (26) also provides for air cooling of the canister (12) to remove the decay heat of the irradiated fuel assemblies (20). The modules (26) can be interlocked so that each module (26) gains additional shielding from the next adjacent module (26). Hydraulic rams (30) are provided for inserting and removing the canisters (12) from the modules (26).

  4. Improving horizontal completions on heterogeneous tight shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Rivera, Roberto; Deenadayalu, Chaitanya; Chertov, Maxim; Novalo Hartanto, Ricardo; Gathogo, Patrick [Schlumberger (United States); Kunjir, Rahul [University of Utah (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Evaluation of the two formation characteristics conducive to economic well production is important when tight shale formation characterization and completion design are being considered. This paper presents the basic understanding required to improve the efficiency of horizontal completions in oil and gas producing shales. Guidelines are defined for effective perforation and fracturing to improve the efficiency and sustainability of horizontal completions using extensive laboratory characterization of mechanical properties on core, core/log integration and continuous mapping of these properties by logging-while-drilling (LWD) methods. The objective is to improve completion design efficiency. This is accomplished by suitable selection of perforation intervals based on an understanding of the relevant physical processes and rock characterization. Conditions at two reservoir regions, the near-wellbore and the far-wellbore, are outlined and are essential to completion design. From the study, it can be concluded that tight shales are strongly anisotropic and cannot be approximated using isotropic models.

  5. Formation evaluation of a horizontal well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najia, W.K.; Habib, K.H.; Asada, J.

    1991-01-01

    In Upper Zakum Field, the interest in horizontal drilling has continued. A second horizontal well was drilled during the second half of 1989. This necessitated running logging tools for well control and to evaluate the reservoir characteristics. The logging tool selected for this well is that of Sperry-Sun. Tools configuration and tolerance were found to fulfil SADCO's requirements and specifications. This paper reports on the services produced which included Measurement While Drilling (MWD) directional services and RLL (Recorded Lithology Logging). The RLL services cover Dual Gamma Ray (DGR), Electromagnetic Wave Resistivity (EWR) and Compensated Neutron Porosity (CN porosity). All the RLL tools were an integrated part of the Bottom Hole Drilling Assembly. Data acquired while surveying was recorded in a recording sub down-hole and retrieved when the tools were up at the surface. A PC assisted quick look interpretation was carried out using Archie's equation in shale free limestone to calculate: Effective porosity, Water Saturation and, Bulk water volume

  6. Conservative management of displaced horizontal root fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kunhappan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injuries of teeth are the main cause of emergency treatment in dental practice. Radicular fractures in permanent teeth are uncommon, being only 0.5-7% of the cases. Horizontal root fractures are more frequently observed in the maxillary anterior region of young male patients and vary in severity from enamel fractures to avulsions. Fracture occurs often in the middle-third of the root followed by apical and coronal third. The present case report describes a clinical case of a horizontal root fracture located at the middle third of a maxillary left-central incisor treated endodontically after approximating fracture segment with the help of orthodontic appliance. After 6 months follow-up, the tooth was asymptomatic with normal periodontal health.

  7. Active vibration suppression of helicopter horizontal stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Simone; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio

    2017-04-01

    Helicopters are among the most complex machines ever made. While ensuring high performance from the aeronautical point of view, they are not very comfortable due to vibration mainly created by the main rotor and by the interaction with the surrounding air. One of the most solicited structural elements of the vehicle are the horizontal stabilizers. These elements are particularly stressed because of their composite structure which, while guaranteeing lightness and strength, is characterized by a low damping. This work makes a preliminary analysis on the dynamics of the structure and proposes different solutions to actively suppress vibrations. Among them, the best in terms of the relationship between performance and weight / complexity of the system is that based on inertial actuators mounted on the inside of the horizontal stabilizers. The work addresses the issue of the design of the device and its use in the stabilizer from both the numerical and the experimental points of view.

  8. Horizontal-view interferometer on TEXT-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Y.; Brower, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    The first experimental results from the horizontal-view, multichannel, heterodyne FIR interferometer system on TEXT-Upgrade are reported. The system employs parabolic beam-expansion optics and a 15 cm array with minimum channel spacing of 1.5 cm. Profiles of the plasma electron density will be presented. In addition, small-amplitude density perturbations resulting from sawteeth and tearing modes are examined. Due to the double-pass of the laser beam through the plasma and the large distance of the detector array [2.5 m] from the plasma, refractive effects must be addressed for densities greater than 2 x 10 13 cm -3 . A ray tracing code is developed to correct the measured profiles

  9. Search for horizontal bosons at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, C.H.; Deshpande, N.G.; Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The production process anti p p → l - l' + + X, where the leptons belong to two different generations and X refers to spectator jets, provides a clear signature for horizontal (generation-changing) bosons when the leptons are emitted nearly back-to-back and p/sub T//sup miss/ = 0. Cross sections and p/sub T/ distributions for each lepton are presented, and discovery limits on M/sub H/ are extracted for several different channels

  10. Improving steamflood effectiveness by horizontal producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, B. [Wintershall AG, Barnstorf (Germany)

    2001-12-01

    The Emlichheim oilfield is located in North-West-Germany on the Dutch-German border being the Southern downdip part of the Schoonebeek anticline. The field was discovered in 1943 and came on production in 1944. Since production startup, Wintershall operates the field as owner of the concession (90% share of interest) in a joint venture with Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GmbH (10%). For more than 50 years an average crude oil production of 150.000 t/year has been maintained. Starting with huff ''n'' puff and hot water flooding in the late 60's, the first steam flood project was implemented in 1981. Further steamflood projects started in 1989, 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1998 in different areas of the field. Until 1997, only vertical production wells were drilled in the field. Wellbore stability seemed to be a major problem for drilling horizontal wells in the unconsolidated sandstone reservoir at that time. In 1999 an innovative steamflood project was started with three newly drilled horizontal producers surrounding a vertical steam injector. First results are showing a significant improvement in the performance as compared to the earlier projects and offer new chances for further development of the field. Today, the field could no longer be operated without the steam projects as roughly 95% of the field production is coming from thermal EOR. This paper gives a brief overview of the field and its production history, the planning and realization of a current steamflood project using horizontal well technology as well as its performance compared to the earlier projects. It also describes the experience of drilling horizontal wells in the unconsolidated sandstone. A brief outlook to the future field development is given. (orig.)

  11. Horizontal infiltration and trace element measurements for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory investigations of horizontal infiltration were carried out on three Zaria soils (Samaru, Tudun Wada and the Kubanni river basin Fadama wet-land soils) in Nigeria, which are principally alfisols. Diffusivity was found to be -77.5 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1, -8.4 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 and -117.0 x 10 -2 cm 2 s-1 respectively for the ...

  12. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Spatial localization of sound is often described as unconscious evaluation of cues given by the interaural time difference (ITD) and the spectral information of the sound that reaches the two ears. Our present knowledge suggests the hypothesis that the ITD roughly determines the cone of the perce...... independently in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis. The ITD seems to be dominant for localization in the horizontal plane even when the spectral information is severely degraded....

  13. Horizontal vibrations of piles in a centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdin, B.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is the study of soil dynamics for important structures like nuclear power plants, offshore platforms, dams etc. Experimental results of horizontal vibrations on a pile partially anchored in a soil scale model put into a centrifuge are presented. Mechanical similitude conditions from equilibrium equations or rheologic laws are described. After a description of testing equipment (centrifuge, electrodynamic excitator) experimental results are interpreted with a model. Non-linearities on frequency response curves are characterized [fr

  14. Natural convection in horizontal fluid layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo-Antilla, A.J.

    1977-02-01

    The experimental work includes developing and using a thermal convection cell to obtain measurements of the heat flux and turbulent core temperature of a horizontal layer of fluid heated internally and subject to both stabilizing and destabilizing temperature differences. The ranges of Rayleigh numbers tested were 10 7 equal to or less than R/sub I/ equal to or less than 10 13 and -10 10 equal to or less than R/sub E/ equal to or less than 10 10 . Power integral methods were found to be adequate for interpolating and extrapolating the data. The theoretical work consists of the derivation, solution and use of the mean field equations for study of thermally driven convection in horizontal layers of infinite extent. The equations were derived by a separation of variables technique where the horizontal directions were described by periodic structures and the vertical being some function of z. The derivation resulted in a coupled set of momentum and energy equations. The equations were simplified by using the infinite Prandtl number limit and neglecting direct intermodal interaction. Solutions to these equations are used to predict the existence of multi-wavenumber flows at all supercritical Rayleigh numbers. Subsequent inspection of existing experimental photographs of convecting fluids confirms their existence. The onset of time dependence is found to coincide with the onset of the second convective mode. Each mode is found to consist of two wavenumbers and typically the velocity and temperature fields of the right modal branch are found to be out of phase

  15. Thermal transient analysis applied to horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, A.N. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery process used to recover bitumen and heavy oil. This paper presented a newly developed model to estimate cooling time and formation thermal diffusivity by using a thermal transient analysis along the horizontal wellbore under a steam heating process. This radial conduction heating model provides information on the heat influx distribution along a horizontal wellbore or elongated steam chamber, and is therefore important for determining the effectiveness of the heating process in the start-up phase in SAGD. Net heat flux estimation in the target formation during start-up can be difficult to measure because of uncertainties regarding heat loss in the vertical section; steam quality along the horizontal segment; distribution of steam along the wellbore; operational conditions; and additional effects of convection heating. The newly presented model can be considered analogous to pressure transient analysis of a buildup after a constant pressure drawdown. The model is based on an assumption of an infinite-acting system. This paper also proposed a new concept of a heating ring to measure the heat storage in the heated bitumen at the time of testing. Field observations were used to demonstrate how the model can be used to save heat energy, conserve steam and enhance bitumen recovery. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 appendices.

  16. Vertical and horizontal seismometric observations of tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambotte, S.; Rivera, L.; Hinderer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tidal signals have been largely studied with gravimeters, strainmeters and tiltmeters, but can also be retrieved from digital records of the output of long-period seismometers, such as STS-1, particularly if they are properly isolated. Horizontal components are often noisier than the vertical ones, due to sensitivity to tilt at long periods. Hence, horizontal components are often disturbed by local effects such as topography, geology and cavity effects, which imply a strain-tilt coupling. We use series of data (duration larger than 1 month) from several permanent broadband seismological stations to examine these disturbances. We search a minimal set of observable signals (tilts, horizontal and vertical displacements, strains, gravity) necessary to reconstruct the seismological record. Such analysis gives a set of coefficients (per component for each studied station), which are stable over years and then can be used systematically to correct data from these disturbances without needing heavy numerical computation. A special attention is devoted to ocean loading for stations close to oceans (e.g. Matsushiro station in Japon (MAJO)), and to pressure correction when barometric data are available. Interesting observations are made for vertical seismometric components; in particular, we found a pressure admittance between pressure and data 10 times larger than for gravimeters for periods larger than 1 day, while this admittance reaches the usual value of -3.5 nm/s 2/mbar for periods below 3 h. This observation may be due to instrumental noise, but the exact mechanism is not yet understood.

  17. Hydrajet fracturing: an effective method for placing many fractures in openhole horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surjaatmadja, J. B.; Grundmann, S. R.; McDaniel, B.; Deeg, W. F. J.; Brumley, J. L.; Swor, L. C.

    1998-12-31

    A new method for openhole horizontal well fracturing that combines hydrajetting and fracturing techniques, which was developed on the basis of Bernoulli`s theorem, is described. This theorem has been effectively proven in many applications such as jet pumps, additive injection systems and jet aircraft engines. By using this method, operators can position a jetting tool, without the use of sealing elements, at the exact point where fracture is required. The method also permits the use of multiple fractures in the same well, which can be spaced evenly or unevenly as prescribed by the fracturing program. Damage can be avoided by placing hundreds of small fractures in a long horizontal section, or operators can use acid and/or propped sand techniques to place a combination of two fracture types in the well. The paper describes the basic principles of horizontal hydrajet fracturing, and elements of a laboratory model which was developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method.

  18. Horizontal transfer of short and degraded DNA has evolutionary implications for microbes and eukaryotic sexual reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Willerslev, Eske

    2014-10-01

    Horizontal gene transfer in the form of long DNA fragments has changed our view of bacterial evolution. Recently, we discovered that such processes may also occur with the massive amounts of short and damaged DNA in the environment, and even with truly ancient DNA. Although it presently remains unclear how often it takes place in nature, horizontal gene transfer of short and damaged DNA opens up the possibility for genetic exchange across distinct species in both time and space. In this essay, we speculate on the potential evolutionary consequences of this phenomenon. We argue that it may challenge basic assumptions in evolutionary theory; that it may have distant origins in life's history; and that horizontal gene transfer should be viewed as an evolutionary strategy not only preceding but causally underpinning the evolution of sexual reproduction. © 2014 The Authors. BioEssays Published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Horizontal Multinational Firms, Vertical Multinational Firms and Domestic Investment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Emami Namini (Julian); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe build a dynamic general equilibrium model with 2 countries, horizontal and vertical multinational activity and endogenous domestic and foreign investment. It is found that horizontal multinational activity always leads to a complementary relationship between domestic and foreign

  20. Implications of Nash Bargaining for Horizontal Industry Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Just; Siddhartha Mitra; Sinaia Netanyahu

    2005-01-01

    This article shows how horizontal industry integration can arise from transferable asymmetry of technologies and endowments. The Nash bargaining solution suggests that greater technological diversity among coordinating parties yields greater gains from horizontal integration. The framework fits the case where a firm with a superior technology franchises the technology by horizontal integration. The results appear to fit hog production where integration has been primarily horizontal and, in pa...

  1. Study of the Local Horizon. (Spanish Title: Estudio del Horizonte Local.) Estudo do Horizonte Local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.

    2009-12-01

    The study of the horizon is fundamental to easy the first observations of the students at any education center. A simple model, to be developed in each center, allows to easy the study and comprehension of the rudiments of astronomy. The constructed model is presented in turn as a simple equatorial clock, other models (horizontal and vertical) may be constructed starting from it. El estudio del horizonte es fundamental para poder facilitar las primeras observaciones de los alumnos en un centro educativo. Un simple modelo, que debe realizarse para cada centro, nos permite facilitar el estudio y la comprensión de los primeros rudimentos astronómicos. El modelo construido se presenta a su vez como un sencillo modelo de reloj ecuatorial y a partir de él se pueden construir otros modelos (horizontal y vertical). O estudo do horizonte é fundamental para facilitar as primeiras observações dos alunos num centro educativo. Um modelo simples, que deve ser feito para cada centro, permite facilitar o estudo e a compreensão dos primeiros rudimentos astronômicos. O modelo construído apresenta-se, por sua vez, como um modelo simples de relógio equatorial e a partir dele pode-se construir outros modelos (horizontal e vertical)

  2. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Målqvist

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective: The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design: Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results: Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion: Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a

  3. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Thorson, Anna; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not

  4. Sidewall containment of liquid metal with horizontal alternating magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareg, Walter F.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus for confining molten metal with a horizontal alternating magnetic field. In particular, this invention employs a magnet that can produce a horizontal alternating magnetic field to confine a molten metal at the edges of parallel horizontal rollers as a solid metal sheet is cast by counter-rotation of the rollers.

  5. GABA sensitivity of spectrally classified horizontal cells in goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Kamermans, M.; Negishi, K.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the GABA sensitivity of horizontal cells in the isolated goldfish retina. After the glutamatergic input to the horizontal cells was blocked with DNQX, GABA depolarized the monophasic and biphasic horizontal cells. The pharmacology of these GABA-induced depolarizations was tested with the

  6. Kinetic Analysis of Horizontal Plyometric Exercise Intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossow, Andrew J; Ebben, William P

    2018-05-01

    Kossow, AJ, DeChiara, TG, Neahous, SM, and Ebben, WP. Kinetic analysis of horizontal plyometric exercise intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1222-1229, 2018-Plyometric exercises are frequently performed as part of a strength and conditioning program. Most studies assessed the kinetics of plyometric exercises primarily performed in the vertical plane. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the multiplanar kinetic characteristics of a variety of plyometric exercises, which have a significant horizontal component. This study also sought to assess sex differences in the intensity progression of these exercises. Ten men and 10 women served as subjects. The subjects performed a variety of plyometric exercises including the double-leg hop, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, bounding, skipping, power skipping, cone hops, and 45.72-cm hurdle hops. Subjects also performed the countermovement jump for comparison. All plyometric exercises were evaluated using a force platform. Dependent variables included the landing rate of force development and landing ground reaction forces for each exercise in the vertical, frontal, and sagittal planes. A 2-way mixed analysis of variance with repeated-measures for plyometric exercise type demonstrated main effects for exercise type for all dependent variables (p ≤ 0.001). There was no significant interaction between plyometric exercise type and sex for any of the variable assessed. Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise comparisons identified a number of differences between the plyometric exercises for the dependent variables assessed (p ≤ 0.05). These findings should be used to guide practitioners in the progression of plyometric exercise intensity, and thus program design, for those who require significant horizontal power in their sport.

  7. Horizontal well geosteering: planning, monitoring and geosteering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottahedeh, R.

    2008-11-15

    The geosteering process should not be seen as a process solely designated for the most expensive or highest profile horizontal wells. It can be regarded as another tool for improving the odds of success by remaining in the productive zone for longer periods of drilling. Also, it can be used to optimize the positioning of a horizontal wellbore in the sweet spots within the reservoir. The current process has been successfully applied to large infill drilling programs at over 40 wells for heavy oil, tight gas, conventional oil and gas plays and for Mannville coalbed methane (CBM) in Alberta. The service has been provided irrespective of location, as long as the Wellsite Information Transfer Standard Markup Language (WITSML)/Pason Satellite service is available. Exploration and production (E&P) companies are continuously being driven to reduce the cost per barrel of oil equivalent (BOE). E&P needs and technologies related to advanced and accurate directional drilling, communication of vital data in real-time through the internet, as well as reduced cycle time associated with advanced forward-looking 3D geo-modelling and visualization technologies, are currently converging. The motivation to reduce costs has been responsible for advancing the horizontal well geosteering process by incorporating the Measurement While Drilling (MWD) tool into mainstream drilling practices. The universal economic benefits gained can be found in all resource play types (conventional oil and gas, heavy oil, tight gas and coalbed methane). It is important to note that the process described here is essentially collaborative. For best results, there must be cooperation between the E&P operational geologist, wellsite geologist, directional driller and geo-modelling staff, as well as the engineering consultants involved in the project (i.e. the team as a whole).

  8. Decontamination of large horizontal concrete surfaces outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, M.M.; Chester, C.V.

    1980-01-01

    A study is being conducted of the resources and planning that would be required to clean up an extensive contamination of the outdoor environment. As part of this study, an assessment of the fleet of machines needed for decontaminating large outdoor surfaces of horizontal concrete will be attempted. The operations required are described. The performance of applicable existing equipment is analyzed in terms of area cleaned per unit time, and the comprehensive cost of decontamination per unit area is derived. Shielded equipment for measuring directional radiation and continuously monitoring decontamination work are described. Shielding of drivers' cabs and remote control vehicles is addressed

  9. Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    OpenAIRE

    Heiselberg, Per

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions...

  10. Sea water desalination by horizontal tubes evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, H.K.; Mohit, M.

    1986-01-01

    Desalinated water supplies are one of the problems of the nuclear power plants located by the seas. This paper explains saline water desalination by a Horizontal Tube Evaporator (HTE) and compares it with flash evaporation. A thermo compressor research project using HTE method has been designed, constructed, and operated at the Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center ENTC. The poject's ultimate goal is to obtain empirical formulae based on data gathered during operation of the unit and its subsequent development towards design and construction of desalination plants on an industrial scale

  11. Horizontal, floating, plastic hose oil skimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    A horizontal, floating, plastic hose oil skimmer operates at -20/sup 0/ to +100/sup 0/C as a moving belt driven by a motor at 0.7 kw at 1400 rpm to pick up oil by adhesion from a surface such as that of used cooling water or cutting oil for subsequent stripping and collection by gravity flow. Two models provide collection rates of 10-45 l./hr for diesel oil, 35-115 l./hr for hydraulic oil, and 170-455 l./hr for gear oils and heavy heating oils.

  12. A horizontal multi-purpose microbeam system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Marino, S. A.; Garty, G.; Harken, A.; Brenner, D. J.

    2018-04-01

    A horizontal multi-purpose microbeam system with a single electrostatic quadruplet focusing lens has been developed at the Columbia University Radiological Research Accelerator Facility (RARAF). It is coupled with the RARAF 5.5 MV Singleton accelerator (High Voltage Engineering Europa, the Netherlands) and provides micrometer-size beam for single cell irradiation experiments. It is also used as the primary beam for a neutron microbeam and microPIXE (particle induced x-ray emission) experiment because of its high particle fluence. The optimization of this microbeam has been investigated with ray tracing simulations and the beam spot size has been verified by different measurements.

  13. Polarized proton target with horizontal spin orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyatova, Eh.I.; Kiselev, Yu.F.; Kozlenko, N.G.

    1988-01-01

    Proton target, the polarization vector of which may be arbitrary oriented in horizontal plane relatively to the beam, is developed and tested. 70% value of polarization is obtained. 0.6 K temperature is acquired through 3 He pumping out continuous cycle. 1.2-propylene glycol - Cr(V) was used as working medium. Magnetic system is made in the form of Helmholtz sperconducting coils with working curren close to critical one. Target polarization is measured by NMR technique using original system of proton signal processing

  14. Bifurcation in a buoyant horizontal laminar jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Jaywant H.; Das, Debopam; Srinivasan, J.

    2000-06-01

    The trajectory of a laminar buoyant jet discharged horizontally has been studied. The experimental observations were based on the injection of pure water into a brine solution. Under certain conditions the jet has been found to undergo bifurcation. The bifurcation of the jet occurs in a limited domain of Grashof number and Reynolds number. The regions in which the bifurcation occurs has been mapped in the Reynolds number Grashof number plane. There are three regions where bifurcation does not occur. The various mechanisms that prevent bifurcation have been proposed.

  15. Pork consumer market in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, I.G.; Ferreira, J.M.; Garcia, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se o comportamento do mercado consumidor de carne suína e seus derivados em Belo Horizonte. Foram entrevistados 401 consumidores, homens e mulheres, maiores de 19 anos de idade, mantendo-se a proporcionalidade observada no censo populacional. Além de sexo e faixa etária, escolaridade, ocupação e renda familiar foram levantadas para compor os fatores condicionantes da pesquisa. A carne suína in natura é consumida até três vezes por semana pela maioria da população (61,6%), em função de...

  16. Utility Independent Privacy Preserving Data Mining - Horizontally Partitioned Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Poovammal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro data is a valuable source of information for research. However, publishing data about individuals for research purposes, without revealing sensitive information, is an important problem. The main objective of privacy preserving data mining algorithms is to obtain accurate results/rules by analyzing the maximum possible amount of data without unintended information disclosure. Data sets for analysis may be in a centralized server or in a distributed environment. In a distributed environment, the data may be horizontally or vertically partitioned. We have developed a simple technique by which horizontally partitioned data can be used for any type of mining task without information loss. The partitioned sensitive data at 'm' different sites are transformed using a mapping table or graded grouping technique, depending on the data type. This transformed data set is given to a third party for analysis. This may not be a trusted party, but it is still allowed to perform mining operations on the data set and to release the results to all the 'm' parties. The results are interpreted among the 'm' parties involved in the data sharing. The experiments conducted on real data sets prove that our proposed simple transformation procedure preserves one hundred percent of the performance of any data mining algorithm as compared to the original data set while preserving privacy.

  17. Horizontal transfers of Mariner transposons between mammals and insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Sarah G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active transposable elements (TEs can be passed between genomes of different species by horizontal transfer (HT. This may help them to avoid vertical extinction due to elimination by natural selection or silencing. HT is relatively frequent within eukaryotic taxa, but rare between distant species. Findings Closely related Mariner-type DNA transposon families, collectively named as Mariner-1_Tbel families, are present in the genomes of two ants and two mammalian genomes. Consensus sequences of the four families show pairwise identities greater than 95%. In addition, mammalian Mariner1_BT family shows a close evolutionary relationship with some insect Mariner families. Mammalian Mariner1_BT type sequences are present only in species from three groups including ruminants, tooth whales (Odontoceti, and New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae. Conclusions Horizontal transfer accounts for the presence of Mariner_Tbel and Mariner1_BT families in mammals. Mariner_Tbel family was introduced into hedgehog and tree shrew genomes approximately 100 to 69 million years ago (MYA. Most likely, these TE families were transferred from insects to mammals, but details of the transfer remain unknown.

  18. Horizontal transfers of Mariner transposons between mammals and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sarah G; Bao, Weidong; Martins, Cesar; Jurka, Jerzy

    2012-09-26

    Active transposable elements (TEs) can be passed between genomes of different species by horizontal transfer (HT). This may help them to avoid vertical extinction due to elimination by natural selection or silencing. HT is relatively frequent within eukaryotic taxa, but rare between distant species. Closely related Mariner-type DNA transposon families, collectively named as Mariner-1_Tbel families, are present in the genomes of two ants and two mammalian genomes. Consensus sequences of the four families show pairwise identities greater than 95%. In addition, mammalian Mariner1_BT family shows a close evolutionary relationship with some insect Mariner families. Mammalian Mariner1_BT type sequences are present only in species from three groups including ruminants, tooth whales (Odontoceti), and New World leaf-nosed bats (Phyllostomidae). Horizontal transfer accounts for the presence of Mariner_Tbel and Mariner1_BT families in mammals. Mariner_Tbel family was introduced into hedgehog and tree shrew genomes approximately 100 to 69 million years ago (MYA). Most likely, these TE families were transferred from insects to mammals, but details of the transfer remain unknown.

  19. Prediction of Vestibular Imbalance in Acute Peripheral Vestibulopathy by Measuring Horizontal Ocular Deviation on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yeon-Jun; Kim, Kun Woo; Choi, Ji Eun; Lee, Min Young; Yoo, Dong Soo; Jung, Jae Yun

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate whether horizontal ocular deviation (OD) from MR imaging in the emergency room (ER) reflects vestibular imbalance, by comparing the horizontal OD in patients with acute vestibulopathy to controls. Retrospective review. A total of 69 patients with acute unilateral peripheral vestibulopathy and 30 healthy subjects were included. Horizontal OD was quantified by using the axial T2-weighted fast-spin echo (FSE) images of the brain at 1.5 T. In the study group, the results of VFTs (videonystagmography [VNG], caloric test, rotary chair test, and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials [cVEMP]) were also reviewed. The averaged angle of right and left horizontal ODs was compared between patients with acute unilateral vestibulopathy and healthy controls. Also, the correlation between horizontal OD and results of VFTs was analyzed in the study group. The averaged angle of horizontal OD in study group (23.7° ± 11.6°) was significantly greater than that of control group (4.27° ± 3.7°) (p < 0.05). Horizontal OD significantly correlated with slow phase velocity of spontaneous nystagmus (SN), the value of caloric paresis (CP) on caloric testing, rotary chair gain, asymmetry ratio of rotary chair test and interaural difference (IAD) of cVEMP, regardless of time intervals between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and VFTs. Horizontal OD significantly correlated with parameters of VFT which reflect the vestibular imbalance. Therefore, horizontal OD can be used as an indicator of unilateral peripheral vestibular weakness.

  20. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, T.C.; Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Franck, M.M.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  1. Horizontal Gene Transfers in Mycoplasmas (Mollicutes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citti, C; Dordet-Frisoni, E; Nouvel, L X; Kuo, C H; Baranowski, E

    2018-04-12

    The class Mollicutes (trivial name "mycoplasma") is composed of wall-less bacteria with reduced genomes whose evolution was long thought to be only driven by gene losses. Recent evidences of massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within and across species provided a new frame to understand the successful adaptation of these minimal bacteria to a broad range of hosts. Mobile genetic elements are being identified in a growing number of mycoplasma species, but integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are emerging as pivotal in HGT. While sharing common traits with other bacterial ICEs, such as their chromosomal integration and the use of a type IV secretion system to mediate horizontal dissemination, mycoplasma ICEs (MICEs) revealed unique features: their chromosomal integration is totally random and driven by a DDE recombinase related to the Mutator-like superfamily. Mycoplasma conjugation is not restricted to ICE transmission, but also involves the transfer of large chromosomal fragments that generates progenies with mosaic genomes, nearly every position of chromosome being mobile. Mycoplasmas have thus developed efficient ways to gain access to a considerable reservoir of genetic resources distributed among a vast number of species expanding the concept of minimal cell to the broader context of flowing information.

  2. Plankton bloom controlled by horizontal stirring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiver, W.; Neufeld, Z.; Scheuring, I.

    2009-10-01

    Here we show a simple mechanism in which changes in the rate of horizontal stirring by mesoscale ocean eddies can trigger or suppress plankton blooms and can lead to an abrupt change in the average plankton density. We consider a single species phytoplankton model with logistic growth, grazing and a spatially non-uniform carrying capacity. The local dynamics have multiple steady states for some values of the carrying capacity that can lead to localized blooms as fluid moves across the regions with different properties. We show that for this model even small changes in the ratio of biological timescales relative to the flow timescales can greatly enhance or reduce the global plankton productivity. Thus, this may be a possible mechanism in which changes in horizontal mixing can trigger plankton blooms or cause regime shifts in some oceanic regions. Comparison between the spatially distributed model and Lagrangian simulations considering temporal fluctuations along fluid trajectories, demonstrates that small scale transport processes also play an important role in the development of plankton blooms with a significant influence on global biomass.

  3. The development of Canadian leadership in horizontal drilling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, J R

    1989-01-01

    Horizontal wells are of increasing interest in the oil and gas industry, as is evident from the increase in the numbers of such wells being drilled. Horizontal well technology is used to improve production rates, notably in low permeability formations; to capture reserves if a reservoir is not economic using non-horizontal wells; to manage breakthrough of sweep fluids and increase sweep efficiency; and to extend the areal reach from a single surface location, especially in offshore production. The types of horizontal wells, differentiated on the basis of how quickly the well becomes horizontal, are briefly outlined and a short history of horizontal wells is presented. Canadian accomplishments in this field are then described, including steerable drilling systems, measurement-while-drilling systems, management of hole drag and torque, and well completion techniques. About 25 horizontal wells are forecast to be drilled in Canada in 1989, indicating the favorable future of this technology. 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  5. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  6. Spectral intensities: The emission spectra for the Cs2NaScCl6: MoCl63- system in the Fm3m space group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acevedo, R.; Meruane, T.; Navarro, G.

    2000-01-01

    Taking advantage of the data reported by Flint and Paulusz, we have undertaken a theoretical investigation of the intensity mechanism for the various emissions; Γ 8 ( 2 T 2g ) → Γ 8 ( 4 A 2g ), Γ 8 ( 2 E g ), Γ 8 ( 2 T 1g ), Γ 6 ( 2 T 1g ) for the Cs 2 NaScCl 6 :MoCl 6 3- system in the Fm3m-space group. The experimental data reported by these authors, refer to the visible and near infrared luminescence spectra of MoCl 3- 6 complex ion in different host, such as Cs 2 NaMCl 6 (M = Sc, Y, In), measured between 15,000 cm -1 and 3,000 cm -1 at liquid helium temperatures. At least, five luminescence transitions have been identified and assigned and each of them show extensive vibronic structure, which was analyzed to yield the vibrational frequencies of the MoX 3- 6 (X -1 = Cl -1 Br -1 ) ion in each excitation. A careful analysis of the experimental data reported shows that for the various observed electronic transitions, the vibration frequencies do change only slightly, and therefore there is no indication that the system undergoes a Jahn-Teller distortion (along an active coordinate) of some importance to be taken into account in the current work. There is, though clear evidence that for the chloro-elpasolites, there is a strong resonance interaction between ν 3 (τ 1u : stretching) of the MoX 6 3- , complex ion and that of the host when M = In, Y. Thus for M = Sc, the slighter higher host ν 3 , wavenumber is likely to minimizes the effect of this coupling. This experimental evidence, will allow us for the Cs 2 NaScCl 6 3- system to neglect to first order approximation, the coupling among the internal and the external vibrations and to proceed using a both a molecular model and the independent system model (ISM)

  7. Space dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical methods for Space Dynamics of fission reactors, are presented. It is shown how a few sample problems in space dynamics can be solved, within the one and two group diffusion model, by purely analytical tools, essentially based on Laplace transform and complex Green function techniques. A quite suggestive generalization of this approach, applicable to the fluid core reactors, whose fuel is undergoing a violent mixing, is reported and briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Towards a virtual platform for aerodynamic design, performance assessment and optimization of horizontal axis wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Valdivieso, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study and improvement of the techniques involved on a virtual platform for the simulation of the Aerodynamics of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines, with the ultimate objective of making Wind Energy more competitive. Navier-Stokes equations govern Aerodynamics, which is an unresolved and very active field of research due to the current inability to capture the relevant the scales both in time and space for nowadays industrial-size machines (with rotors over 100 m...

  9. NUMERICAL DETERMINATION OF HORIZONTAL SETTLERS PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose.Horizontal settlers are one of the most important elements in the technological scheme of water purification. Their use is associated with the possibility to pass a sufficiently large volume of water. The important task at the stage of their designing is evaluating of their effectiveness. Calculation of the efficiency of the settler can be made by mathematical modeling. Empirical, analytical models and techniques that are currently used to solve the problem, do not allow to take into account the shape of the sump and various design features that significantly affects the loyalty to a decision on the choice of the size of the settling tank and its design features. The use of analytical models is limited only to one-dimensional solutions, does not allow accounting for nonuniform velocity field of the flow in the settler. The use of advanced turbulence models for the calculation of the hydrodynamics in the settler complex forms now requires very powerful computers. In addition, the calculation of one variant of the settler may last for dozens of hours. The aim of the paper is to build a numerical model to evaluate the effectiveness of horizontal settling tank modified design. Methodology. Numerical models are based on: 1 equation of potential flow; 2 equation of inviscid fluid vortex flow; 3 equation of viscous fluid dynamics; 4 mass transfer equation. For numerical simulation the finite difference schemes are used. The numerical calculation is carried out on a rectangular grid. For the formation of the computational domain markers are used. Findings.The models allow calculating the clarification process in the settler with different form and different configuration of baffles. Originality. A new approach to investigate the mass transfer process in horizontal settler was proposed. This approach is based on the developed CFD models. Three fluid dynamics models were used for the numerical investigation of flows and waste waters purification

  10. Horizontal single-trip gravel pack and selective simulation system for deep water extended reach wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda, Francisco [BJ Services Company, Houston, TX (United States); Vilela, Alvaro; Montanha, Roberto; Acosta, Marco; Farias, Rodrigo [BJ Services do Brasil Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Most of the reservoirs located in the deep water and ultra-deep water offshore South America are described as unconsolidated sandstone that require sand control on both producers and water injection wells. Horizontal Open Hole Gravel Pack completions are the preferred method of development. If completing heavy oil reservoirs, there is a necessity of longer horizontal open hole sections. Low fracture gradients may limit the length of gravel pack in the open hole section because of the pressure increase during the Beta wave proppant deposition phase. This system allows the gravel pack assembly to be installed and the gravel pack to be pumped during the alpha and beta wave deposition phases without the limitation of high pressures that could fracture the well. The benefits of the Horizontal Single-Trip Gravel Pack and Selective Stimulation System (HSTSSS) using the differential valve include the ability to complete longer horizontal intervals, valuable rig-time savings and, efficient mechanical diversion of the stimulation fluid. This paper outlines the application of the HSTSSS system using a differential valve to complete a horizontal well in offshore deep waters. The need for a differential valve is primarily in horizontal gravel packing operations when normal circulating rates and pressures around the open hole would exceed formation break down pressure. The valve is intended to be easily spaced out and run in the wash pipe. At a predetermined differential pressure the valve opens and the return flow path distance around the bottom of the tailpipe is shortened, thus reducing back pressure preventing filter cake damage without slowing the pump rate. In addition the said valve has to close to allow the selective stimulation to take place. Economic considerations along with completion efficiencies are especially important on deep water, subsea completions. The utilization of differential valves allows completion of extended-reach open hole wells and/or low fracture

  11. Horizontal Bone Reconstruction on sites with different amounts of native bone: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Antonio Pelegrine

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The lack of guidelines for bone augmentation procedures might compromise decision making in implantology. The objective of this study was to perform a retrospective study to verify the outcomes of horizontal bone reconstruction in implant dentistry with different types of materials and amounts of native bone in the recipient bed to allow for a new guideline for horizontal bone reconstruction. One hundred preoperative CT scans were retrospectively evaluated and categorized in accordance to horizontal bone defects as presence (Group P or absence (Group A of cancellous bone in the recipient bed. Different approaches were used to treat the edentulous ridge and the outcomes were defined either as satisfactory or unsatisfactory regarding the possibility of implant placement. The percentage distribution of the patients according to the presence or absence of cancellous bone was 92% for Group P and 8% for Group A. In Group P, 98% of the patients had satisfactory outcomes, and the use of autografts had 100% of satisfactory outcomes in this group. In Group A, 37.5% of the patients had satisfactory outcomes, and the use of autografts also yielded 100% of satisfactory outcomes. The use of allografts and xenografts in Group A had 0% and 33.3% of satisfactory outcomes, respectively. Therefore, it seems reasonable to speculate that the presence of cancellous bone might be predictive and predictable when the decision includes bone substitutes. In cases of absence of cancellous bone in the recipient bed, the use of a vitalized graft seems to be mandatory.

  12. Modelling the horizontal steam generator with APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylijoki, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palsinajaervi, C.; Porkholm, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the capability of the five- and six-equation models of the simulation code APROS to simulate the behaviour of the horizontal steam generator is discussed. Different nodalizations are used in the modelling and the results of the stationary state runs are compared. Exactly the same nodalizations have been created for the five- and six-equation models. The main simulation results studied in this paper are void fraction and mass flow distributions in the secondary side of the steam generator. It was found that quite a large number of simulation volumes is required to simulate the distributions with a reasonable accuracy. The simulation results of the different models are presented and their validity is discussed. (orig.). 4 refs.

  13. Automating horizontal boring and milling machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, S.A.R.; Mahmood, T.; Choudhry, M.A.; Hanif, A.

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the requirements of modification for many old import machine tools in industry, the schemes suited to the renovation are presented in this paper. A horizontal boring and milling machine (HBM) involved in machining of tank Al-Khalid has been modified using Mitsubishi FX-1N and FX-2N PLC. The developed software is for control of all the functions of the said machine. These functions include power on/off oil pump, spindle rotation and machine movement in all axes. All the decisions required by the machine for actuation of instructions are based on the data acquired from the control panel, timers and limit switches. Also the developed software minimize the down time, safety of operator and error free actuation of instructions. (author)

  14. Mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Lj.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed convection flow past a horizontal plate being aligned through a small angle of attack to a uniform free stream will be considered in the limit of large Reynolds number and small Richardson number. Even a small angle of inclination of the wake is sufficient for the buoyancy force to accelerate the flow in the wake which causes a velocity overshoot in the wake. Moreover a hydrostatic pressure difference across the wake induces a correction to the potential flow which influences the inclination of the wake. Thus the wake and the correction of the potential flow have to be determined simultaneously. However, it turns out that solutions exist only if the angle of attack is sufficiently large. Solutions are computed numerically and the influence of the buoyancy on the lift coefficient is determined.

  15. Modelling the horizontal steam generator with APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ylijoki, J [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Palsinajaervi, C; Porkholm, K [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the capability of the five- and six-equation models of the simulation code APROS to simulate the behaviour of the horizontal steam generator is discussed. Different nodalizations are used in the modelling and the results of the stationary state runs are compared. Exactly the same nodalizations have been created for the five- and six-equation models. The main simulation results studied in this paper are void fraction and mass flow distributions in the secondary side of the steam generator. It was found that quite a large number of simulation volumes is required to simulate the distributions with a reasonable accuracy. The simulation results of the different models are presented and their validity is discussed. (orig.). 4 refs.

  16. Horizontal beam tubes in FRM-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coors, D.; Vanvor, D.

    2001-01-01

    The new research reactor in Garching FRM-II is equipped with 10 leak tight horizontal beam tubes (BT1 - BT10), each of them consisting of a beam tube structure taking an insert with neutron channels. The design of all beam tube structures is similar whereas the inserts are adapted to the special requirements of the using of each beam tube. Inside the reflector tank the beam tube structures are shaped by the inner cones which are made of Al-alloy with circular and rectangular cross sections. They are located in the region of maximum neutron flux (exception BT10), they are directly connected to the flanges of the reflector tank, their lengths are about 1.5 m (exception BT10) and their axes are directed tagentially to the core centre thus contributing to a low γ-noise at the experiments. (orig.)

  17. A horizontal dilution refrigerator for polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isagawa, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Masaike, A.; Morimoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal dilution refrigerator was constructed with a view to the spin frozen target and the deuteron polarized target. High cooling power at high temperature such as 3.7 mW at 400 mK serves for overcoming a heat load of microwave to polarize the nuclear spins in the target material. The cooling power at 50 mK was 50 μW, which is sufficient to hold the high nuclear polarization for long time. The lowest temperature reached was 26 mK. The refrigerator has rather simple heat exchangers, a long stainless steel double tube heat exchanger and two coaxial type heat exchangers with sintered copper. The mixing chamber is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and demountable so that the target material can be easily put into it. (Auth.)

  18. Flame spread along thermally thick horizontal rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, F. J.

    2002-06-01

    An analysis is carried out of the spread of a flame along a horizontal solid fuel rod, for which a weak aiding natural convection flow is established in the underside of the rod by the action of the axial gradient of the pressure variation that gravity generates in the warm gas surrounding the flame. The spread rate is determined in the limit of infinitely fast kinetics, taking into account the effect of radiative losses from the solid surface. The effect of a small inclination of the rod is discussed, pointing out a continuous transition between upward and downward flame spread. Flame spread along flat-bottomed solid cylinders, for which the gradient of the hydrostatically generated pressure drives the flow both along and across the direction of flame propagation, is also analysed.

  19. In situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazen, T.C.; Looney, B.B.; Enzien, M.; Dougherty, J.M.; Wear, J.; Fliermans, C.B.; Eddy, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The test consisted of methane mixed with air into the contaminated aquifer via a horizontal well and extraction from the vadose zone via a parallel horizontal well. This configuration has the advantage of simultaneously stimulating methanotrophic activity in both the groundwater and vadose zone, and inhibiting spread of the contaminant plume. Groundwater was monitored biweekly from 13 wells for a variety of chemical and microbiological parameters. Groundwater from wells in affected areas showed increases in methanotrophs of more than 1 order of magnitude every 2 weeks for several weeks after 1% methane-in-air injection was started. Some wells had increases as much as 7 orders of magnitude. Simultaneous with the increase in methanotrophs was a decrease in water and soil gas concentrations of trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethane (PCE). Two wells declined in TCE/PCE concentration in the water by more than 90% to below 2 ppb. All of the wells in the affected zone showed significant decreases in contaminants in less than one month. Chloride concentrations in the water were inversely correlated with TCE/PCE concentration. Four of five vadose zone piezometers declined from concentration as high as 10,000 ppm to less than 5 ppm in less than 6 weeks. The fifth cluster also declined by more than 95%. After only three months on injection, a decline in TCE/PCE in the sediment of more than 30% was also observed, with TCE/PCE being undetectable in most sediments at the end of the 14-month test. Gene probes and direct isolation from the water and sediment revealed that the right types of methanotrophs were being stimulated and that isolates could degrade TCE at a high rate

  20. Working memory and individual differences in the encoding of vertical, horizontal and diagonal symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia; Pieroni, Laura; Spataro, Pietro; Baddeley, Alan

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies, using a modified version of the sequential Corsi block task to examine the impact of symmetry on visuospatial memory, showed an advantage of vertical symmetry over non-symmetrical sequences, but no effect of horizontal or diagonal symmetry. The present four experiments investigated the mechanisms underlying the encoding of vertical, horizontal and diagonal configurations using simultaneous presentation and a dual-task paradigm. Results indicated that the recall of vertically symmetric arrays was always better than that of all other patterns and was not influenced by any of the concurrent tasks. Performance with horizontally or diagonally symmetrical patterns differed, with high performing participants showing little effect of concurrent tasks, while low performers were disrupted by concurrent visuospatial and executive tasks. A verbal interference had no effect on either group. Implications for processes involved in the encoding of symmetry are discussed, together with the crucial importance of individual differences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Refined discrete and empirical horizontal gradients in VLBI analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landskron, Daniel; Böhm, Johannes

    2018-02-01

    Missing or incorrect consideration of azimuthal asymmetry of troposphere delays is a considerable error source in space geodetic techniques such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) or Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). So-called horizontal troposphere gradients are generally utilized for modeling such azimuthal variations and are particularly required for observations at low elevation angles. Apart from estimating the gradients within the data analysis, which has become common practice in space geodetic techniques, there is also the possibility to determine the gradients beforehand from different data sources than the actual observations. Using ray-tracing through Numerical Weather Models (NWMs), we determined discrete gradient values referred to as GRAD for VLBI observations, based on the standard gradient model by Chen and Herring (J Geophys Res 102(B9):20489-20502, 1997. https://doi.org/10.1029/97JB01739) and also for new, higher-order gradient models. These gradients are produced on the same data basis as the Vienna Mapping Functions 3 (VMF3) (Landskron and Böhm in J Geod, 2017.https://doi.org/10.1007/s00190-017-1066-2), so they can also be regarded as the VMF3 gradients as they are fully consistent with each other. From VLBI analyses of the Vienna VLBI and Satellite Software (VieVS), it becomes evident that baseline length repeatabilities (BLRs) are improved on average by 5% when using a priori gradients GRAD instead of estimating the gradients. The reason for this improvement is that the gradient estimation yields poor results for VLBI sessions with a small number of observations, while the GRAD a priori gradients are unaffected from this. We also developed a new empirical gradient model applicable for any time and location on Earth, which is included in the Global Pressure and Temperature 3 (GPT3) model. Although being able to describe only the systematic component of azimuthal asymmetry and no short-term variations at all, even these

  2. Effect of Vertical, Horizontal, and Combined Plyometric Training on Explosive, Balance, and Endurance Performance of Young Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Gallardo, Francisco; Henriquez-Olguín, Carlos; Meylan, Cesar M P; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cadore, Eduardo L; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of vertical, horizontal, or combined vertical and horizontal plyometric training on muscle explosive, endurance, and balance performance. Forty young soccer players aged between 10 and 14 years were randomly divided into control (CG; n = 10), vertical plyometric group (VG; n = 10), horizontal plyometric group (HG; n = 10), and combined vertical and horizontal plyometric group (VHG; n = 10). Players performance in the vertical and horizontal countermovement jump with arms, 5 multiple bounds test (MB5), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1), and balance was measured. No significant or meaningful changes in the CG, apart from small change in the Yo-Yo IR1, were observed while all training programs resulted in meaningful changes in explosive, endurance, and balance performance. However, only VHG showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in all performance test and most meaningful training effect difference with the CG across tests. Although no significant differences in performance changes were observed between experimental groups, the VHG program was more effective compared with VG (i.e., jumps, MKV, sprint, CODS, and balance performance) and HG (i.e., sprint, CODS, and balance performance) to small effect. The study demonstrated that vertical, horizontal, and combined vertical and horizontal jumps induced meaningful improvement in explosive actions, balance, and intermittent endurance capacity. However, combining vertical and horizontal drills seems more advantageous to induce greater performance improvements.

  3. Performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, K.H.; Roseberg, N.D.; Edlund, K.M.

    1994-06-01

    Vapor extraction wells used for site remediation of volatile organic chemicals in the vadose zone are typically vertical wells. Over the past few years, there has been an increased interest in horizontal wells for environmental remediation. Despite the interest and potential benefits of horizontal wells, there has been little study of the relative performance of horizontal and vertical vapor extraction wells. This study uses numerical simulations to investigate the relative performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells under a variety of conditions. The most significant conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that in a homogeneous medium, a single, horizontal vapor extraction well outperforms a single, vertical vapor extraction well (with surface capping) only for long, linear plumes. Guidelines are presented regarding the use of horizontal wells

  4. Topological properties of the limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minggang; Vilela, André L. M.; Du, Ruijin; Zhao, Longfeng; Dong, Gaogao; Tian, Lixin; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2018-05-01

    The limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph algorithm was recently introduced to map time series in complex networks. In this work, we extend this algorithm to create a directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph and an image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph. We define two algorithms and provide theoretical results on the topological properties of these graphs associated with different types of real-value series. We perform several numerical simulations to check the accuracy of our theoretical results. Finally, we present an application of the directed-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph to measure real-value time series irreversibility and an application of the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph that discriminates noise from chaos. We also propose a method to measure the systematic risk using the image-limited penetrable horizontal visibility graph, and the empirical results show the effectiveness of our proposed algorithms.

  5. Realizing spaces as path-component spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras; Brazas, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    The path component space of a topological space $X$ is the quotient space $\\pi_0(X)$ whose points are the path components of $X$. We show that every Tychonoff space $X$ is the path-component space of a Tychonoff space $Y$ of weight $w(Y)=w(X)$ such that the natural quotient map $Y\\to \\pi_0(Y)=X$ is a perfect map. Hence, many topological properties of $X$ transfer to $Y$. We apply this result to construct a compact space $X\\subset \\mathbb{R}^3$ for which the fundamental group $\\pi_1(X,x_0)$ is...

  6. Effectiveness of Horizontal Rebar on Concrete Block Retaining Wall Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Krishpersad Manohar; Rikhi Ramkissoon

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of including a horizontal rebar compared to only a vertical rebar in concrete filled core interlocking concrete block retaining wall sections was investigated with respect to the horizontal retaining force. Experimental results for three specimens of interlocking blocks with vertical rebar and concrete filled cores showed an average horizontal retaining force of 24546 N ± 5.7% at an average wall deflection of 13.3 mm. Experimental results for three wall specimens of interloc...

  7. Horizontal and Vertical Rule Bases Method in Fuzzy Controllers

    OpenAIRE

    Aminifar, Sadegh; bin Marzuki, Arjuna

    2013-01-01

    Concept of horizontal and vertical rule bases is introduced. Using this method enables the designers to look for main behaviors of system and describes them with greater approximations. The rules which describe the system in first stage are called horizontal rule base. In the second stage, the designer modulates the obtained surface by describing needed changes on first surface for handling real behaviors of system. The rules used in the second stage are called vertical rule base. Horizontal...

  8. Widespread of horizontal gene transfer in the human genome

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenze; Tsai, Lillian; Li, Yulong; Hua, Nan; Sun, Chen; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-01

    Background A fundamental concept in biology is that heritable material is passed from parents to offspring, a process called vertical gene transfer. An alternative mechanism of gene acquisition is through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which involves movement of genetic materials between different species. Horizontal gene transfer has been found prevalent in prokaryotes but very rare in eukaryote. In this paper, we investigate horizontal gene transfer in the human genome. Results From the pa...

  9. Errors induced by different approximations in handling horizontal atmospheric inhomogeneities in MIPAS/ENVISAT retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Castelli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding is a mid-infrared limb emission sounder that operated on board the polar satellite ENVISAT from 2002 to 2012. The retrieval algorithm used by the European Space Agency to process MIPAS measurements exploits the assumption that the atmosphere is horizontally homogeneous. However, previous studies highlighted how this assumption causes significant errors on the retrieved profiles of some MIPAS target species.In this paper we quantify the errors induced by this assumption and evaluate the performances of three different algorithms that can be used to mitigate the problem. We generate synthetic observations with a high spatial resolution atmospheric model and carry out the retrievals with four alternative methods. The first assumes horizontal homogeneity (1-D retrieval, the second includes a model of the horizontal gradient of atmospheric temperature (1-D plus temperature gradient retrieval, the third accounts for an horizontal gradient of temperature and composition (1-D plus temperature and composition gradient retrieval, while the fourth is the full two-dimensional (2-D inversion approach.Our results highlight that the 1-D retrieval implies errors that are significant for averages of profiles. Furthermore, for some targets (e.g. T, CH4 and N2O below 10 hPa the error induced by the 1-D approximation also becomes visible in the individual retrieved profiles. The inclusion of any kind of horizontal variability model improves all the targets with respect to the horizontal homogeneity assumption. For temperature, HNO3 and CFC-11, the inclusion of an horizontal temperature gradient leads to a significant reduction of the error. For other targets, such as H2O, O3, N2O, CH4, the improvements due to the inclusion of an horizontal temperature gradient are minor. In these cases, the inclusion of a gradient in the target volume mixing ratio leads to significant improvements. Among all the

  10. Benefits of obtaining log data in horizontal wells in the WCSB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, D. [Reeves Wireline Technologies Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-11-01

    A Compact Memory Logging (CML) system developed by Reeves Wireline Technologies was presented. It can be used to obtain log data from horizontal wells to get a better understanding of how to enhance production or completion techniques. The methods that are commonly used to obtain data from horizontal wells include measurement while drilling (MWD), logging while drilling (LWD), wet connect pipe conveyed wireline logging and CML. Each method has its unique benefits that range from information on lithology, rock parameters and fluid interfaces. Reeves has been using wireless pipe conveyed CML over the past two years. The log data includes array induction, dual spaced neutron and photo density porosity, Pe, gamma ray, compensated sonic and hose size caliper. Reeves CML is smaller, easily conveyed and has an unprecedented capability to bend and is considered to be well suited for both newly and previously drilled horizontal wells that require remedial assessment. The tool can be used to determine reservoir quality and boundaries, establish zone structures, or identify fluid interfaces for strategic planning of completions and stimulations. This paper presented examples of logs on some horizontal wells that indicate the value of obtaining log data. Reeves CML is considered to be economically and operationally ideal, particularly since data from the CML includes depth of investigation. 5 figs.

  11. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L.; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.)

  12. Spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in athletes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaerd, L.; Hellstroem, M.; Jacobsson, B.; Peterson, L. (Oestra Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Orthopaedics; Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiology)

    The frequency of spondylolysis and the relationship between spondylolysis and the sacro-horizontal angle in 143 athletes and 30 non-athletes is reported. Athletes had a larger sacro-horizontal angle than non-athletes. The sacro-horizontal angle was larger in athletes with spondylolysis as compared with those without. An increased incidence of spondylolysis with an increased angle was demonstrated. It is suggested that an increased sacro-horizontal angle may predispose to spondylolysis, especially in combination with the high mechanical loads sustained in certain sports. (orig.).

  13. Small horizontal emittance in the TESLA damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decking, W.

    2001-01-01

    The present TESLA damping ring is designed for a normalized horizontal emittance of 8x10 -6 m. γ-γ collisions at the TESLA linear collider will benefit from a further decrease of the horizontal emittance. This paper reviews the processes which limit the horizontal emittance in the damping ring. Preliminary estimates on the smallest horizontal emittance for the present TESLA damping ring design as well as an ultimate limit of the emittance reachable with the TESLA damping ring concept will be given

  14. The Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford Phase Spaces with a Lower and Upper Length Scales and Clifford Group Geometric Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    We construct the Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford-Phase spaces with an upper and lower length scales (infrared/ultraviolet cutoff). The invariance symmetry leads naturally to the real Clifford algebra Cl (2, 6, R ) and complexified Clifford Cl_C ( 4 ) algebra related to Twistors. We proceed with an extensive review of Smith's 8D model based on the Clifford algebra Cl ( 1 ,7) that reproduces at low energies the physics of the Standard Model and Gravity; including the derivation of all the coupling constants, particle masses, mixing angles, ....with high precision. Further results by Smith are discussed pertaining the interplay among Clifford, Jordan, Division and Exceptional Lie algebras within the hierarchy of dimensions D = 26, 27, 28 related to bosonic string, M, F theory. Two Geometric actions are presented like the Clifford-Space extension of Maxwell's Electrodynamics, Brandt's action related the 8D spacetime tangent-bundle involving coordinates and velocities (Finsler geometries) followed by a...

  15. Demonstration of a utility industry horizontal drilling system: Horizontal well AMH-5 installation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development initiated an integrated demonstration of innovative technologies and systems for cleanup of VOCs in soils and groundwater at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1989. The overall goal of the program is demonstration of multiple technologies and systems in the fields of drilling, characterization, monitoring, and remediation at a single test bed. Innovative technologies are compared to one another and to baseline technologies in terms of technical performance and cost effectiveness. Transfer of successfully demonstrated technologies and systems to DOE environmental restoration organizations, to other government agencies, and to industry is a critical part of the program. Directional drilling has been shown to be a successful technique for enhancing access to the subsurface, thus improving remediation systems, especially remediation systems which perform in situ. Demonstration of an innovative directional drilling system at the Integrated Demonstration Site at the SRS, was initiated in June of 1992. The directional drilling system was designed to install an in situ remediation system. The drilling system is an experimental compaction/dry drilling technique developed by Charles Machine Works (Ditch Witch reg-sign) of Perry, Oklahoma. A horizontal well was installed in the M Area of the SRS below and parallel to an abandoned tile process sewer line. The installation of the horizontal well was a two-part process. Part one consisted of drilling the borehole, and part two was the horizontal well completion

  16. Horizontal transfer of potential mobile units in phytoplasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Chuan; Lo, Wen-Sui; Kuo, Chih-Horng

    2013-09-01

    Phytoplasmas are uncultivated phytopathogenic bacteria that cause diseases in a wide range of economically important plants. Through secretion of effector proteins, they are able to manipulate their plant hosts to facilitate their multiplication and dispersal by insect vectors. The genome sequences of several phytoplasmas have been characterized to date and a group of putative composite transposons called potential mobile units (PMUs) are found in these highly reduced genomes. Recently, our team reported the genome sequence and comparative analysis of a peanut witches' broom (PnWB) phytoplasma, the first representative of the phytoplasma 16SrII group. Comparisons between the species phylogeny and the phylogenies of the PMU genes revealed that the PnWB PMU is likely to have been transferred from the 16SrI group. This indicates that PMUs are not only the DNA unit for transposition within a genome, but also for horizontal transfer among divergent phytoplasma lineages. Given the association of PMUs with effector genes, the mobility of PMUs across genomes has important implications for phytoplasma ecology and evolution.

  17. The normal holonomy group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, C.

    1990-05-01

    The restricted holonomy group of a Riemannian manifold is a compact Lie group and its representation on the tangent space is a product of irreducible representations and a trivial one. Each one of the non-trivial factors is either an orthogonal representation of a connected compact Lie group which acts transitively on the unit sphere or it is the isotropy representation of a single Riemannian symmetric space of rank ≥ 2. We prove that, all these properties are also true for the representation on the normal space of the restricted normal holonomy group of any submanifold of a space of constant curvature. 4 refs

  18. Influence of cultural mechanisms on horizontal inter-firm collaborations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón Vilana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of organizations that work in multinational environments has considerably altered their production strategies. One of the consequences has been the appearance of Horizontal Inter-firm Collaborations (HICs, which include all kinds of enterprises and production centres and establish a new type of horizontal collaborations and relations between independent companies or even competitors who establish occasional collaborations on projects they could not take on individually. HICs are dynamically changing organizations formed by Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs, Contract Manufacturers (CMs, turn-key and component suppliers, R+D centres and distributors. The dynamic relations that exist within the HICs allow them a very permeable organization easy to connect and disconnect from one to each other as well as to choose a set of partners with specific attributes. The result is a highly flexible system characterized by low barriers to entry and exit, geographic flexibility, low costs, rapid technological diffusion, high diversification through contract manufacturers and exceptional economies of scale. This study of organizational culture at the network level includes aspects such as cultural similarity among its actors, social embeddedness, tacit knowledge transfer or the importance of trust atinter-firm collaborations. The presence, under a systemic perspective, of homogeneous cultural values and practices in which collaboration actors can be identified may strengthen the group membership or establish a social network that underlies the own HIC and facilitates interactions among its members. The feasibility of this approach would facilitate the formation of new HICsby establishing, ex ante, a cultural prescriptive model at the network level. Finally, to validate the proposed model, the case methodology have been applied to an example within the aeronautical industry that has been one of the most successful relationships within HICs, the

  19. Group Dynamics in Long -term blind endeavors on Earth as an analog for Remote Space Missions (Lewis & Clark Expedition, 1803 - 1806, Dynamic Analysis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allner, M.; Rygalov, V.; Reilly, J.

    In 1803 President Thomas Jefferson set fourth a military expedition led by Captains newline M Lewis and W Clark L C Expedition on an exploration to learn more about the large territory of land the U S had just purchased from France Cavan 1991 Their mission was to find a direct water route to the Pacific Ocean for the purpose of commerce and further industrial development Edwards 1999 Looking back at the events of this exploration there are many similarities to the experiences future human space explorers will face as we look to colonize the Moon and travel to Mars and beyond NASA Vision for Space Exploration 2004 - The L C Expedition lasted almost three years and involved a crew of 43 men traveling up the Missouri River to explore the unknown lands and a possible water route to the Pacific Ocean newline - The expedition took place far away from customary comfortable environments known to European settlers in early 18th century newline - The expedition involved a remotely confined high-perceived risk environment with high levels of uncertainty providing stresses and every day challenges for the crew newline - Supplies brought on the mission were limited mainly a mass weight issue rather than cost therefore the discovery and use of environmental resources In-Situ Resource Utilization approach including info-resources to mitigate uncertainty was necessary for crew survival The environments astronauts will encounter in space and on the Moon and Mars due to high risk and uncertainty will be in many aspects similar

  20. Geometric group theory

    CERN Document Server

    Druţu, Cornelia

    2018-01-01

    The key idea in geometric group theory is to study infinite groups by endowing them with a metric and treating them as geometric spaces. This applies to many groups naturally appearing in topology, geometry, and algebra, such as fundamental groups of manifolds, groups of matrices with integer coefficients, etc. The primary focus of this book is to cover the foundations of geometric group theory, including coarse topology, ultralimits and asymptotic cones, hyperbolic groups, isoperimetric inequalities, growth of groups, amenability, Kazhdan's Property (T) and the Haagerup property, as well as their characterizations in terms of group actions on median spaces and spaces with walls. The book contains proofs of several fundamental results of geometric group theory, such as Gromov's theorem on groups of polynomial growth, Tits's alternative, Stallings's theorem on ends of groups, Dunwoody's accessibility theorem, the Mostow Rigidity Theorem, and quasiisometric rigidity theorems of Tukia and Schwartz. This is the f...

  1. The space-time cube revisited it potential to visualize mobile data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Kraak, Menno-Jan

    2010-01-01

    and analyse the complex movement patterns (COST - MOVE, 2009; Keim et al., 2008). This results in the development of new visual analytical and exploratory tools, while existing solutions receive new attention (Andrienko et al., 2007). Among the last the Space Time Cube (STC) can be grouped. It has the ability...... to provide information about spatial and temporal relationships. The original idea of STC was introduced by Hägerstrand (1970). It represents an elegant framework to study spatio-temporal characteristics of human activity (Kraak and Koussoulakou, 2005). The vertical dimension of cube represents time (t......), while horizontal axes represent space (x, y). Basic elements represented in the cube are the Space-time Path (STP), Stations, and the Space Time Prism (STP). The STP represents the continuous activities of movements undertaken in space and time displayed as trajectory. It has been studied...

  2. Simplified analysis of laterally loaded pile groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Abdrabbo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of laterally loaded pile groups is a complicated soil–structure interaction problem. Although fairly reliable methods are developed to predicate the lateral behavior of single piles, the lateral response of pile groups has attracted less attention due to the required high cost and complication implication. This study presents a simplified method to analyze laterally loaded pile groups. The proposed method implements p-multiplier factors in combination with the horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction. Shadowing effects in closely spaced piles in a group were taken into consideration. It is proven that laterally loaded piles embedded in sand can be analyzed within the working load range assuming a linear relationship between lateral load and lateral displacement. The proposed method estimates the distribution of lateral loads among piles in a pile group and predicts the safe design lateral load of a pile group. The benefit of the proposed method is in its simplicity for the preliminary design stage with a little computational effort.

  3. Horizontal Air-Water Flow Analysis with Wire Mesh Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Salve, M; Monni, G; Panella, B

    2012-01-01

    A Wire Mesh Sensor, based on the measurement of the local instantaneous conductivity of the two-phase mixture, has been used to characterize the fluid dynamics of the gas–liquid interface in a horizontal pipe flow. Experiments with a pipe of a nominal diameter of 19.5 mm and total length of 6 m, have been performed with air/water mixtures, at ambient conditions. The flow quality ranges from 0.00016 to 0.22 and the superficial velocities range from 0.1 to 10.5 m/s for air and from 0.02 to 1.7 m/s for water; the flow pattern is stratified, slug/plug and annular. A sensor (WMS200) with an inner diameter of 19.5 mm and a measuring matrix of 16×16 points equally distributed over the cross-section has been chosen for the measurements. From the analysis of the Wire Mesh Sensor digital signals the average and the local void fraction are evaluated and the flow patterns are identified with reference to space, time and flow rate boundary conditions.

  4. Axisymmetric, Ventilated Supercavitation in Unsteady, Horizontal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ellison; Lee, Seung-Jae; Arndt, Roger

    2012-11-01

    Drag reduction and/or speed augmentation of marine vehicles by means of supercavitation is a topic of great interest. During the initial launch of a supercavitating vehicle, an artificial supercavity is required until the vehicle can reach conditions at which a natural supercavity can be sustained. Previous studies at Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL) focused on the behavior of ventilated supercavities in steady horizontal flows. In open waters, vehicles can encounter unsteady flows, especially when traveling under waves. A study has been carried out at SAFL to investigate the effects of unsteady flow on axisymmetric supercavities. An attempt is made to duplicate sea states seen in open waters. In an effort to track cavity dimensions throughout a wave cycle, an automated cavity tracking script has been developed. Using a high speed camera and the proper software, it is possible to synchronize cavity dimensions with pressure measurements taken inside the cavity. Results regarding supercavity shape, ventilation demand, cavitation parameters and closure methods are presented. It was found that flow unsteadiness caused a decrease in the overall length of the supercavity while having only a minimal effect on the maximum diameter. The supercavity volume varied with cavitation number and a possible relationship between the two is being explored. (Supported by ONR)

  5. Sheared bioconvection in a horizontal tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croze, O. A.; Ashraf, E. E.; Bees, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The recent interest in using microorganisms for biofuels is motivation enough to study bioconvection and cell dispersion in tubes subject to imposed flow. To optimize light and nutrient uptake, many microorganisms swim in directions biased by environmental cues (e.g. phototaxis in algae and chemotaxis in bacteria). Such taxes inevitably lead to accumulations of cells, which, as many microorganisms have a density different to the fluid, can induce hydrodynamic instabilites. The large-scale fluid flow and spectacular patterns that arise are termed bioconvection. However, the extent to which bioconvection is affected or suppressed by an imposed fluid flow and how bioconvection influences the mean flow profile and cell transport are open questions. This experimental study is the first to address these issues by quantifying the patterns due to suspensions of the gravitactic and gyrotactic green biflagellate alga Chlamydomonas in horizontal tubes subject to an imposed flow. With no flow, the dependence of the dominant pattern wavelength at pattern onset on cell concentration is established for three different tube diameters. For small imposed flows, the vertical plumes of cells are observed merely to bow in the direction of flow. For sufficiently high flow rates, the plumes progressively fragment into piecewise linear diagonal plumes, unexpectedly inclined at constant angles and translating at fixed speeds. The pattern wavelength generally grows with flow rate, with transitions at critical rates that depend on concentration. Even at high imposed flow rates, bioconvection is not wholly suppressed and perturbs the flow field.

  6. Horizontal gene transfer in silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori, is the model insect for the order Lepidoptera, has economically important values, and has gained some representative behavioral characteristics compared to its wild ancestor. The genome of B. mori has been fully sequenced while function analysis of BmChi-h and BmSuc1 genes revealed that horizontal gene transfer (HGT) maybe bestow a clear selective advantage to B. mori. However, the role of HGT in the evolutionary history of B. mori is largely unexplored. In this study, we compare the whole genome of B. mori with those of 382 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species to investigate the potential HGTs. Results Ten candidate HGT events were defined in B. mori by comprehensive sequence analysis using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian method combining with EST checking. Phylogenetic analysis of the candidate HGT genes suggested that one HGT was plant-to- B. mori transfer while nine were bacteria-to- B. mori transfer. Furthermore, functional analysis based on expression, coexpression and related literature searching revealed that several HGT candidate genes have added important characters, such as resistance to pathogen, to B. mori. Conclusions Results from this study clearly demonstrated that HGTs play an important role in the evolution of B. mori although the number of HGT events in B. mori is in general smaller than those of microbes and other insects. In particular, interdomain HGTs in B. mori may give rise to functional, persistent, and possibly evolutionarily significant new genes. PMID:21595916

  7. Yaw dynamics of horizontal axis wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.C. (Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States))

    1992-05-01

    Designers of a horizontal axis wind turbine yaw mechanism are faced with a difficult decision. They know that if they elect to use a yaw- controlled rotor then the system will suffer increased initial cost and increased inherent maintenance and reliability problems. On the other hand, if they elect to allow the rotor to freely yaw they known they will have to account for unknown and random, though bounded, yaw rates. They will have a higher-risk design to trade-off against the potential for cost savings and reliability improvement. The risk of a yaw-free system could be minimized if methods were available for analyzing and understanding yaw behavior. The complexity of yaw behavior has, until recently, discouraged engineers from developing a complete yaw analysis method. The objectives of this work are to (1) provide a fundamental understanding of free-yaw mechanics and the design concepts most effective at eliminating yaw problems, and (2) provide tested design tools and guidelines for use by free-yaw wind systems manufacturers. The emphasis is on developing practical and sufficiently accurate design methods.

  8. Fusion reactor horizontal versus vertical maintenance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charruyer, Ph.; Djerassi, H.; Leger, D.; Maupou, M.; Rouillard, J.; Salpietro, E.; Holloway, C.; Suppan, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper concerns the comparison of horizontal versus vertical maintenance options of internal components (blanket and segment) of fusion reactors NET (Next European Torus) and INTOR Design. The described mechanical options are taken to ensure the handling of internals with the required precision, taking into account the problems raised by the safety and confinement requirements. Handling is obviously performed remotely. The option comparisons are performed according to the criteria of feasibility, building size, duration of maintenance operations, safety, flexibility, availability and cost. The first conclusions point on that the vertical handling option offers advantages, as regards the ease of handling and confinement possibilities. From the building size point of view, the two solutions are almost equivalent, while other criteria do not provide a basis for choice. It is emphasized that the confinement option C.T.U. (Containment Transfer Unit) or T.I.C. (Tight Intermediate Confinement) should be the major factor in determining the best options. In additions, a cost comparative analysis emphasizes the best cost/benefit ratio for the different options studied

  9. Optimization of the key geological target parameters of shale-gas horizontal wells in the Changning Block, Sichuan Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, great progress has been made in geologic evaluation, engineering test and development optimization of the Lower Cambrian Wufeng Fm–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Fm shale gas in the Sichuan Basin, and the main shale gas exploitation technologies have been understood preliminarily. In addition, scale productivity construction has been completed in Jiaoshiba, Changning and Weiyuan blocks. In this paper, the Wufeng Fm–Longmaxi Fm shale gas wells in Changning Block were taken as the study object to provide technical reference for the development design of similar shale-gas horizontal wells. The technology combining geology with engineering, dynamic with static, and statistical analysis with simulation prediction was applied to quantify the main factors controlling shale-gas well productivity, develop the shale-gas well production prediction model, and optimize the key technical parameters of geologic target of shale-gas horizontal wells in the block (e.g. roadway orientation, location and spacing, horizontal section length and gas well production index. In order to realize high productivity of shale gas wells, it is necessary to maximize the included angle between the horizontal section orientation and the maximum major stress and fracture development direction, deploy horizontal-well roadway in top-quality shale layers, and drill the horizontal section in type I reservoirs over 1000 m long. It is concluded that high productivity of shale gas wells is guaranteed by the horizontal-well wellbore integrity and the optimized low-viscosity slickwater and ceramsite fracturing technology for complex fracture creation. Based on the research results, the technical policies for shale gas development of Changning Block are prepared and a guidance and reference are provided for the shale gas development and productivity construction in the block and the development design of similar shale-gas horizontal wells.

  10. Integrated hydraulic booster/tool string technology for unfreezing of stuck downhole strings in horizontal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Q. Z.

    2017-12-01

    It is common to use a jarring tool to unfreeze stuck downhole string. However, in a horizontal well, influenced by the friction caused by the deviated section, jarring effect is poor; on the other hand, the forcing point can be located in the horizontal section by a hydraulic booster and the friction can be reduced, but it is time-consuming and easy to break downhole string using a large-tonnage and constant pull force. A hydraulic booster - jar tool string has been developed for unfreezing operation in horizontal wells. The technical solution involves three elements: a two-stage parallel spring cylinder structure for increasing the energy storage capacity of spring accelerators; multiple groups of spring accelerators connected in series to increase the working stroke; a hydraulic booster intensifying jarring force. The integrated unfreezing tool string based on these three elements can effectively overcome the friction caused by a deviated borehole, and thus unfreeze a stuck string with the interaction of the hydraulic booster and the mechanical jar which form an alternatively dynamic load. Experimental results show that the jarring performance parameters of the hydraulic booster-jar unfreezing tool string for the horizontal wells are in accordance with original design requirements. Then field technical parameters were developed based on numerical simulation and experimental data. Field application shows that the hydraulic booster-jar unfreezing tool string is effective to free stuck downhole tools in a horizontal well, and it reduces hook load by 80% and lessens the requirement of workover equipment. This provides a new technology to unfreeze stuck downhole string in a horizontal well.

  11. Growth and characterization of horizontally suspended CNTs across TiN electrode gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Claudia A; Cott, Daire J; Romo-Negreira, Ainhoa; Gendt, Stefan De; Groeseneken, Guido; Vereecken, Philippe M [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Capraro, Bernard D [Intel Ireland Limited, Collinstown Industrial Park, Leixlip, County Kildare (Ireland); Sanseverino, Stefano Riva, E-mail: claudia.santini@fys.kuleuven.be, E-mail: vereeck@imec.be [Department of Electrical, Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, University of Palermo (Italy)

    2010-06-18

    A technique is proposed to grow horizontal carbon nanotubes (CNTs) bridging metal electrodes and to assess their electrical properties. A test structure was utilized that allows for selective electrochemical sidewall catalyst placement. The selectivity of the technique is based on the connection of the desired metal electrodes to the silicon substrate where the potential for electrochemical deposition was applied. Control over the Ni catalyst size (15-30 nm) and density (up to 3 x 10{sup 11} particles cm{sup -2}) is demonstrated. Horizontal CNTs with controlled diameter and density were obtained by CVD growth perpendicular to the sidewalls of patterned TiN electrode structures. Electrode gaps with spacings from 200 nm up to 5 {mu}m could be bridged by both direct CNT-electrode contact and CNT-CNT entanglement. The TiN-CNT-TiN and TiN-CNT-CNT-TiN bridges were electrically characterized without any further post-growth contacting. Resistance values as low as 40 {Omega} were measured for the smallest gap spacing and depended mainly on the number and configuration of the CNT bridges. The proposed method could be implemented for CNT-based horizontal interconnections and be a route to make different nanoelectronic devices such as chemical and electromechanical sensors.

  12. Growth and characterization of horizontally suspended CNTs across TiN electrode gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santini, Claudia A; Cott, Daire J; Romo-Negreira, Ainhoa; Gendt, Stefan De; Groeseneken, Guido; Vereecken, Philippe M; Capraro, Bernard D; Sanseverino, Stefano Riva

    2010-01-01

    A technique is proposed to grow horizontal carbon nanotubes (CNTs) bridging metal electrodes and to assess their electrical properties. A test structure was utilized that allows for selective electrochemical sidewall catalyst placement. The selectivity of the technique is based on the connection of the desired metal electrodes to the silicon substrate where the potential for electrochemical deposition was applied. Control over the Ni catalyst size (15-30 nm) and density (up to 3 x 10 11 particles cm -2 ) is demonstrated. Horizontal CNTs with controlled diameter and density were obtained by CVD growth perpendicular to the sidewalls of patterned TiN electrode structures. Electrode gaps with spacings from 200 nm up to 5 μm could be bridged by both direct CNT-electrode contact and CNT-CNT entanglement. The TiN-CNT-TiN and TiN-CNT-CNT-TiN bridges were electrically characterized without any further post-growth contacting. Resistance values as low as 40 Ω were measured for the smallest gap spacing and depended mainly on the number and configuration of the CNT bridges. The proposed method could be implemented for CNT-based horizontal interconnections and be a route to make different nanoelectronic devices such as chemical and electromechanical sensors.

  13. Studies of social group dynamics under isolated conditions. Objective summary of the literature as it relates to potential problems of long duration space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Scientific literature which deals with the study of human behavior and crew interaction in situations simulating long term space flight is summarized and organized. A bibliography of all the pertinent U.S. literature available is included, along with definitions of the behavioral characteristics terms employed. The summarized studies are analyzed according to behavioral factors and environmental conditions. The analysis consist of two matrices. (1) The matrix of factors studied correlates each research study area and individual study with the behavioral factors that were investigated in the study. (2) The matrix of conclusions identifies those studies whose investigators appeared to draw specific conclusions concerning questions of importance to NASA.

  14. Horizontal effect of the surgical weakening of the oblique muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Souza-Dias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of the oblique muscles surgical weakening on the horizontal alignment in the primary position (PP and its efficacy on the correction of the "A" and "V" anisotropies. METHODS: In order to study the influence of bilateral superior oblique muscles (SO weakening on the horizontal alignment in PP, we analyzed the files of 12 patients who underwent only that operation; no other muscle was operated on. We took the opportunity of those 12 patients to analyze the effect of their operation on the correction of "A" incomitance. For evaluating the effect of the inferior oblique muscles (IO weakening on the correction of the "V" pattern, we analyzed retrospectively the files of 67 anisotropic patients who underwent a bilateral SO weakening. In 10 of them, the only operation was the oblique muscles weakening and, in 57 patients, the horizontal recti were also operated on for the horizontal deviations in primary position. These patients were divided into two groups: 50 were esotropic and 17 exotropic. There was not any mixed anisotropy. RESULTS: The mean value of the preoperative "V" incomitance of the 50 esotropic patients was 24.25∆ ± 10.15∆; the mean postoperative correction was 15.56 ∆ ± 8.74∆. The mean correction between the PP and upgaze was 7.52∆ ± 7.47∆ and from the PP to downgaze was 8.56∆ ± 9.21∆. The same values of the 17 exotropic patients was: preoperative 31.88∆ ± 9.4∆; primary position to upgaze was 13.11∆ ± 4.9∆ and primary position to downgaze 14.11∆ ± 12.48∆. The mean preoperative value of the "A" incomitance among the 12 patients who underwent isolated SO weakening was 30.50∆ ± 19.25∆ and the postoperative was of 9,92∆, therefore a mean correction of 22.58∆ ± 17.54∆. Among these ones, in 5 there was no alteration of the deviation in primary position, in 4 there was an exo-effect and in 3 there was an eso-effect. The mean alteration of the deviation in PP was an

  15. SCOTCH: a program for solution of the one-dimensional, two-group, space-time neutron diffusion equations with temperature feedback of multi-channel fluid dynamics for HTGR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezaki, Masahiro; Mitake, Susumu; Ozawa, Tamotsu

    1979-06-01

    The SCOTCH program solves the one-dimensional (R or Z), two-group reactor kinetics equations with multi-channel temperature transients and fluid dynamics. Sub-program SCOTCH-RX simulates the space-time neutron diffusion in radial direction, and sub-program SCOTCH-AX simulates the same in axial direction. The program has about 8,000 steps of FORTRAN statement and requires about 102 kilo-words of computer memory. (author)

  16. Horizontally viscous effects in a tidal basin: extending Taylor's problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Pieter C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The classical problem of Taylor (Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., vol. 20, 1921, pp. 148–181) of Kelvin wave reflection in a semi-enclosed rectangular basin of uniform depth is extended to account for horizontally viscous effects. To this end, we add horizontally viscous terms to the hydrodynamic model

  17. The Interplay of Different Types of Governance in Horizontal Cooperations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raue, Jan Simon; Wieland, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Over the last decades, horizontal cooperations between logistics service providers (LSPs) have become a well-established organizational form and their use is expected to grow even further in the future. In spite of this increasing importance of horizontal LSP cooperations, little research...

  18. Vertical vs. Horizontal Integration: Pre-emptive Merging.

    OpenAIRE

    Colangelo, Giuseppe

    1995-01-01

    Preemption plays a crucial role in arms merger decisions. The author studies whether and under which circumstances preemptive merging occurs in vertically related industries. He finds that vertical mergers often preempt horizontal mergers and are dominant outcomes. Preempting the threat of a detrimental horizontal integration may be the main reason for vertically integrating. Copyright 1995 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikonomou, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a study for the horizontal and vertical seismic isolation of a nuclear power plant with a base isolation system, developed by the author, called the Alexisismon. This system -- which comprises different schemes for horizontal or vertical or both horizontal and vertical isolation -- is a linear system based on the principle of separation of functions. That is, horizontal and vertical isolation are realized through different components and act independently from each other. As far as horizontal isolation is concerned, the role of transmitting vertical loads is uncoupled from the role of inducing horizontal restoring forces so that both functions can be performed without instability. It is possible either to provide both horizontal and vertical isolation to the whole nuclear plant or to isolate the whole plant horizontally and to provide vertical isolation to sensitive and costly equipment only. When the fundamental period of the plant or equipment is 2 seconds and when the vertical displacements are of the order of + or - 20 inches, the structure or equipment are protected against earthquakes up to 1.10 and 1.30 g for actual and 0.60 and 1.50 g for artificial accelerograms. In both cases all the isolation elements behave elastically up to these acceleration limits as well as the superstructure and equipment

  20. Analysis of the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdemir Ozdemir

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial length in premature infants. Methods: Infants with a birth weight of less than 2,500 g or with a gestation period of less than 36 weeks were included in the study. Infants with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP were allocated to Group 1 (n=138, while those without ROP were allocated to Group 2 (n=236. All infants underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including corneal diameter measurements, pachymetry, biometry, and fundoscopy. Between-group comparisons of horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, and axial lengths were performed. Independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: Data was obtained from 374 eyes of 187 infants (102 female, 85 male. The mean gestational age at birth was 30.7 ± 2.7 weeks (range 25-36 weeks, the mean birth weight was 1,514 ± 533.3 g (range 750-1,970 g, and the mean postmenstrual age at examination was 40.0 ± 4.8 weeks. The mean gestational age and the mean birth weight of Group 1 were statistically lower than Group 2 (p0.05. Conclusions: The presence of ROP in premature infants does not alter the horizontal corneal diameter, central corneal thickness, or axial length.

  1. Warm-Core Intensification of a Hurricane Through Horizontal Eddy Heat Transports Inside the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.; Montgomery, Michael T.; Fulton, John; Nolan, David S.

    2001-01-01

    A simulation of Hurricane Bob (1991) using the PSU/NCAR MM5 mesoscale model with a finest mesh spacing of 1.3 km is used to diagnose the heat budget of the hurricane. Heat budget terms, including latent and radiative heating, boundary layer forcing, and advection terms were output directly from the model for a 6-h period with 2-min frequency. Previous studies of warm core formation have emphasized the warming associated with gentle subsidence within the eye. The simulation of Hurricane Bob also identifies subsidence warming as a major factor for eye warming, but also shows a significant contribution from horizontal advective terms. When averaged over the area of the eye, excluding the eyewall (at least in an azimuthal mean sense), subsidence is found to strongly warm the mid-troposphere (2-9 km) while horizontal advection warms the mid to upper troposphere (5-13 km) with about equal magnitude. Partitioning of the horizontal advective terms into azimuthal mean and eddy components shows that the mean radial circulation cannot, as expected, generally contribute to this warming, but that it is produced almost entirely by the horizontal eddy transport of heat into the eye. A further breakdown of the eddy components into azimuthal wave numbers 1, 2, and higher indicates that the warming is dominated by wave number 1 asymmetries, with smaller contributions coming from higher wave numbers. Warming by horizontal eddy transport is consistent with idealized modeling of vortex Rossby waves and work is in progress to identify and clarify the role of vortex Rossby waves in warm-core intensification in both the full-physics model and idealized models.

  2. An electron diffraction and bond valence sum study of the space group symmetries and structures of the photocatalytic 1:1 ordered A2InNbO6 double perovskites (A=Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, V.; Liu, Y.; Withers, R.L.; Krausz, E.

    2004-01-01

    A careful investigation has been carried out into the space group symmetries, structures and crystal chemistries of the 1:1 B-site ordered double perovskites A 2 InNbO 6 (A=Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ ) using a combination of bond valence sum calculations, powder XRD and electron diffraction. A recent investigation of these compounds by Yin et al. reported a random distribution of In 3+ and Nb 5+ ions onto the perovskite B-site positions of these compounds and hence Pm3-barm (a=a p , subscript p for parent perovskite sub-structure) space group symmetry for the A=Ba and Sr compounds and Pnma (a=a p +b p , b=-a p +b p , c=2c p ) space group symmetry for the A=Ca compound. A careful electron diffraction study, however, shows that both the A=Ca and Sr compounds occur at room temperature in P12 1 /n1 (a=a p +b p , b=-a p +b p , c=2c p ) perovskite-related superstructure phases while the A=Ba compound occurs in the Fm3-barm, a=2a p , elpasolite structure type. Bond valence sum calculations are used to explain why this should be so as well as to provide a useful first-order approximation to the structures of each of the compounds

  3. HORIZONTAL BRANCH MORPHOLOGY OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: A MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jogesh Babu, G.; Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar; Mondal, Saptarshi

    2009-01-01

    The proper interpretation of horizontal branch (HB) morphology is crucial to the understanding of the formation history of stellar populations. In the present study a multivariate analysis is used (principal component analysis) for the selection of appropriate HB morphology parameter, which, in our case, is the logarithm of effective temperature extent of the HB (log T effHB ). Then this parameter is expressed in terms of the most significant observed independent parameters of Galactic globular clusters (GGCs) separately for coherent groups, obtained in a previous work, through a stepwise multiple regression technique. It is found that, metallicity ([Fe/H]), central surface brightness (μ v ), and core radius (r c ) are the significant parameters to explain most of the variations in HB morphology (multiple R 2 ∼ 0.86) for GGC elonging to the bulge/disk while metallicity ([Fe/H]) and absolute magnitude (M v ) are responsible for GGC belonging to the inner halo (multiple R 2 ∼ 0.52). The robustness is tested by taking 1000 bootstrap samples. A cluster analysis is performed for the red giant branch (RGB) stars of the GGC belonging to Galactic inner halo (Cluster 2). A multi-episodic star formation is preferred for RGB stars of GGC belonging to this group. It supports the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) model in three episodes instead of two as suggested by Carretta et al. for halo GGC while AGB model is suggested to be revisited for bulge/disk GGC.

  4. Benefits of a horizontal well in sandstone waterflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    This is a case study which describes the planning and results of a horizontal well in a shallow Wilcox sandstone waterflood unit in central Louisiana. The Tremont H-13-1 was OXY USA Inc.'s first horizontal well. Analysis will include examination of the selection criteria, planning, execution, completion, and production. A variety of well and field data is presented and reviewed to access the value of this information as it applies towards other applications. The Cruse Waterflood Unit is a 2100 ft. Wilcox formation in central Louisiana. Production improvements have been 500% or greater for the horizontal well versus adjacent vertical wells. The horizontal well paid out in less than 4 months Results from this well indicate that not only was this project an economic success, but that other fields will similar conditions can be produced in a more profitable manner with horizontal wells

  5. A horizontal well analysis from a view of its productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Sciranková

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1990s may become known in the oil field as the decade of the horizontal well. Horizontal wells can increase the production rate and the ultimate recovery, and can reduce the number of platforms on wells required to develop a reservoir.An empirical equation to calculate the inflow performance of two-phase flow for a vertical and a horizontal well in regime of dissolved gas presented by Vogel in 1968. His equation was based on the results of reservoir simulation. The created model whore result (output is the ratio of the productivity of a horizontal well to the productivity of a vertical well for a given area expressed by anumber of vertical wells the replaced by one horizontal well. The model is applied for a concrete ideological model.

  6. Characteristics of Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhigang

    through horizontal openings. Two cases of full-scale measurements of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings are performed: one horizontal opening and one horizontal opening combined with one vertical opening. For the case of one horizontal opening, the measurements are made....... Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to study these two air flow cases. The air flow rate and air flow pattern are predicted and compared with the full-scale measurements. The measurement data are used to compare two CFD models: standard k- ε model and large eddy simulation (LES) model. The cases...... transient, unstable and complex, and the air flow rates oscillate with time. Correlations between the Froude number Fr and the opening ratio L/D are obtained, which is reasonable agreement with Epstein's formula derived from brine-water measurements, but the obtained Fr values show considerable deviations...

  7. Spatial judgments in the horizontal and vertical planes from different vantage points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytz, Erik; Scerbo, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    Todorović (2008 Perception 37 106-125) reported that there are systematic errors in the perception of 3-D space when viewing 2-D linear perspective drawings depending on the observer's vantage point. Because these findings were restricted to the horizontal plane, the current study was designed to determine the nature of these errors in the vertical plane. Participants viewed an image containing multiple colonnades aligned on parallel converging lines receding to a vanishing point. They were asked to judge where, in the physical room, the next column should be placed. The results support Todorović in that systematic deviations in the spatial judgments depended on vantage point for both the horizontal and vertical planes. However, there are also marked differences between the two planes. While judgments in both planes failed to compensate adequately for the vantage-point shift, the vertical plane induced greater distortions of the stimulus image itself within each vantage point.

  8. Prevalence of remaining horizontal instability in high-grade acromioclavicular joint injuries surgically managed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Luis Natera; Reiriz, Juan Sarasquete

    2017-04-01

    To determine the prevalence of remaining horizontal instability in high-grade acromioclavicular joint (ACJ) injuries surgically managed by means of four different surgical strategies and to assess its relation to the clinical outcomes and the quality of life. In this multicentric non-randomized retrospective study, 53 patients with high-grade ACJ injuries surgically managed (by means of open or arthroscopic surgery) were clinically and radiographically assessed at 24 months or more after shoulder surgery. The presence of post-surgical remaining horizontal instability was evaluated by means of Alexander or axillary X-ray views. The study population was divided into two groups: patients with evidence of post-surgical remaining horizontal instability and patients without evidence of post-surgical remaining horizontal instability at the last follow-up visit. The relationship between remaining horizontal instability and the quality-of-life questionnaires was analyzed. 18.87% (10/53) of the Alexander or axillary X-rays views showed post-surgical remaining horizontal instability at the last follow-up visit (INSTAB-group). Results of the questionnaires were: (1) physical SF36 score (INSTAB-group 57.02 ± 3.17  and NO-INSTAB-group 57.66 ± 3.30, p = 0.583); (2) mental SF36 score (INSTAB-group 53.95 ± 3.98  and NO-INSTAB-group 55.71 ± 3.30, p = 0.150); (3) NRS for pain (INSTAB-group 1.30 ± 1.49 and NO-INSTAB-group 0.83  ± 1.08, p = 0.260); (4) DASH questionnaire (INSTAB-group 5.27 ± 5.42 and NO-INSTAB-group 3.06 ± 2.30, p = 0.049); (5) Constant score (INSTAB-group 93.4 ± 3.5 and NO-INSTAB-group 94.83  ± 4.3, p = 0.333); and Global satisfaction (INSTAB-group 8.7  ± 0.95 and NO-INSTAB-group 8.64 ± 1.03, p = 0.874). Independently of the type of procedure, post-surgical remaining horizontal instability was present in almost one-fifth of the patients, and this group of patients showed a significantly worse DASH score. The

  9. Space Robotics Challenge

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Space Robotics Challenge seeks to infuse robot autonomy from the best and brightest research groups in the robotics community into NASA robots for future...

  10. The Hutsul Ethnicity (Ethnic Group with Medieval Origins in the Romanian Space. The Transfer of Hutsul Households in the National Village Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Dumitrache

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the ethnographic natives, the attention of the Village Museum in Bucharest was focused, from the outset, on minority representation in the Romanian space, with their traits of life and the evolution of their material culture, spiritual experiences and last, but not least, with links regarding mutual cultural connections with the native population and other inhabitant minorities. Although a modest share and a hard custom culture, Guzuls’ ethnicity is real from a historical and folkloric point of view that could not be ignored by specialized museums and research institutes in history. The motivation for this research has been undertaken in Northern Moldavia, an area where the minority has been most present, the results of this research can be pursued today in exhibitions open in our museum and in specialized publications.

  11. 3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Yun, Cheol-Min; Yoo, Eun-Joo; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Yoonae A

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r = 0.034, p = 0.33; headache, r = 0.320, p = 0.119; eye fatigue, r = 0.135, p = 0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to esodeviation. This may

  12. Wind tunnel experiments on the effects of tillage ridge features on wind erosion horizontal fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kardous

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the well-known soil factors which control wind erosion on flat, unridged surfaces, two specific processes affect the susceptibility of tillage ridged surfaces to wind erosion: ridge-induced roughness and ridge- trapping efficiency. In order to parameterize horizontal soil fluxes produced by wind over tillage ridges, eight-ridge configurations composed of sandy soil and exhibiting ridge heights to ridge spacing (RH/RS ratios ranging from 0.18 to 0.38 were experimented in a wind tunnel. These experiments are used to develop a parameterization of the horizontal fluxes over tillage ridged surfaces based only on the geometric characteristics of the ridges. Indeed, the key parameters controlling the horizontal flux, namely the friction velocity, threshold friction velocity and the adjustment coefficient, are derived through specific expressions, from ridge heights (RH and ridge spacing (RS. This parameterization was evaluated by comparing the results of the simulations to an additional experimental data set and to the data set obtained by Hagen and Armbrust (1992. In both cases, predicted and measured values are found to be in a satisfying agreement. This parameterization was used to evaluate the efficiency of ridges in reducing wind erosion. The results show that ridged surfaces, when compared to a loose, unridged soil surface, lead to an important reduction in the horizontal fluxes (exceeding 60%. Moreover, the effect of ridges in trapping particles contributes for more than 90% in the flux reduction while the ridge roughness effect is weak and decreases when the wind velocity increases.

  13. Wind tunnel experiments on the effects of tillage ridge features on wind erosion horizontal fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kardous

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the well-known soil factors which control wind erosion on flat, unridged surfaces, two specific processes affect the susceptibility of tillage ridged surfaces to wind erosion: ridge-induced roughness and ridge- trapping efficiency.

    In order to parameterize horizontal soil fluxes produced by wind over tillage ridges, eight-ridge configurations composed of sandy soil and exhibiting ridge heights to ridge spacing (RH/RS ratios ranging from 0.18 to 0.38 were experimented in a wind tunnel. These experiments are used to develop a parameterization of the horizontal fluxes over tillage ridged surfaces based only on the geometric characteristics of the ridges. Indeed, the key parameters controlling the horizontal flux, namely the friction velocity, threshold friction velocity and the adjustment coefficient, are derived through specific expressions, from ridge heights (RH and ridge spacing (RS. This parameterization was evaluated by comparing the results of the simulations to an additional experimental data set and to the data set obtained by Hagen and Armbrust (1992. In both cases, predicted and measured values are found to be in a satisfying agreement.

    This parameterization was used to evaluate the efficiency of ridges in reducing wind erosion. The results show that ridged surfaces, when compared to a loose, unridged soil surface, lead to an important reduction in the horizontal fluxes (exceeding 60%. Moreover, the effect of ridges in trapping particles contributes for more than 90% in the flux reduction while the ridge roughness effect is weak and decreases when the wind velocity increases.

  14. Effect of Leukocyte-Rich and Platelet-Rich Plasma on Healing of a Horizontal Medial Meniscus Tear in a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyun Ho Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited reports on the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP on meniscus healing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP on potential healing of the horizontal medial meniscus tears in a rabbit model. A horizontal medial meniscus tear was created in both knees of nine skeletally mature adult rabbits. Left or right knees were randomly assigned to a L-PRP group, or a control group. 0.5 mL of L-PRP from 10 mL of each rabbit’s whole blood was prepared and injected into the horizontal tears in a L-PRP group. None was applied to the horizontal tears in a control group. The histological assessment of meniscus healing was performed at two, four, and six weeks after surgery. We found that there were no significant differences of quantitative histologic scoring between two groups at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after surgery (p>0.05. This study failed to show the positive effect of single injection of L-PRP on enhancing healing of the horizontal medial meniscus tears in a rabbit model. Single injection of L-PRP into horizontal meniscus tears may not effectively enhance healing of horizontal medial meniscus tears.

  15. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at the Earth Science Constellation (ESC) Mission Operations Working Group (MOWG) Meeting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guit, Bill

    2017-01-01

    This presentation at the Earth Science Constellation Mission Operations Working Group meeting at KSC in December 2017 to discuss EOS (Earth Observing System) Aqua Earth Science Constellation status. Reviewed and approved by Eric Moyer, ESMO (Earth Science Mission Operations) Deputy Project Manager.

  16. Large-scale parallel configuration interaction. II. Two- and four-component double-group general active space implementation with application to BiH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knecht, Stefan; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Fleig, Timo

    2010-01-01

    We present a parallel implementation of a large-scale relativistic double-group configuration interaction CIprogram. It is applicable with a large variety of two- and four-component Hamiltonians. The parallel algorithm is based on a distributed data model in combination with a static load balanci...

  17. [The features of high and low-frequency function of horizontal, semicircular canal in Meniere's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Zhongxin; Zhuang, Jianhua; Xie, Xuewei; Jin, Zhe; Li, Fei

    2015-05-01

    To analyze the feature of horizontal semicircular canal function at high and low-frequencies in Meniere's disease. Thirty patients suffering from unilateral Meniere's disease were included in the research from 2013 June to 2014 June. Caloric test and video head impulse test were performed to evaluate the high low-frequency function of horizontal semicircular canal. these patients were devided by the severity of unilateral weakness in caloric test. The gain value in video head impulse test, which reflects the high-frequency function of semicircular canal, were not different between the normal and mild abnormal group (P > 0.05), but were obviously different between the normal and mild-severe abnormal group, slight abnormal and mild-severe abnormal group (P frequency function of both side, has no difference between three groups (P > 0.05). A part of Meniere's disease may have normal high, low-frequency function of horizontal semicircular canal. As patient suffering slight injury of low-frequency function, the high-frequency function keeps normal. As the injury of low-frequency function become mildly to severely, the damage of high-frequency function appears, but the symmetry still keeps balance.

  18. Shear horizontal wave excitation and reception with shear horizontal piezoelectric wafer active sensor (SH-PWAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, A; Giurgiutiu, V

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses shear horizontal (SH) guided-waves that can be excited with shear type piezoelectric wafer active sensor (SH-PWAS). The paper starts with a review of state of the art SH waves modelling and their importance in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). The basic piezoelectric sensing and actuation equations for the case of shear horizontal piezoelectric wafer active sensor (SH-PWAS) with electro-mechanical coupling coefficient d 35 are reviewed. Multiphysics finite element modelling (MP-FEM) was performed on a free SH-PWAS to show its resonance modeshapes. The actuation mechanism of the SH-PWAS is predicted by MP-FEM, and modeshapes of excited structure are presented. The structural resonances are compared with experimental measurements and showed good agreement. Analytical prediction of SH waves was performed. SH wave propagation experimental study was conducted between different combinations of SH-PWAS and regular in-plane PWAS transducers. Experimental results were compared with analytical predictions for aluminium plates and showed good agreement. 2D wave propagation effects were studied by MP-FEM. An analytical model was developed for SH wave power and energy. The normal mode expansion (NME) method was used to account for superpositioning multimodal SH waves. Modal participation factors were presented to show the contribution of every mode. Power and energy transfer between SH-PWAS and the structure was analyzed. Finally, we present simulations of our developed wave power and energy analytical models. (paper)

  19. Wake of inertial waves of a horizontal cylinder in horizontal translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machicoane, Nathanaël; Labarre, Vincent; Voisin, Bruno; Moisy, Frédéric; Cortet, Pierre-Philippe

    2018-03-01

    We analyze theoretically and experimentally the wake behind a horizontal cylinder of diameter d horizontally translated at constant velocity U in a fluid rotating about the vertical axis at a rate Ω . Using particle image velocimetry measurements in the rotating frame, we show that the wake is stabilized by rotation for Reynolds number Re =U d /ν much larger than in a nonrotating fluid. Over the explored range of parameters, the limit of stability is Re ≃(275 ±25 )/Ro , with Ro =U /2 Ω d the Rossby number, indicating that the stabilizing process is governed by the Ekman pumping in the boundary layer. At low Rossby number, the wake takes the form of a stationary pattern of inertial waves, similar to the wake of surface gravity waves behind a ship. We compare this steady wake pattern to a model, originally developed by Johnson [E. R. Johnson, J. Fluid Mech. 120, 359 (1982), 10.1017/S0022112082002808], assuming a free-slip boundary condition and a weak streamwise perturbation. Our measurements show quantitative agreement with this model for Ro ≲0.3 . At larger Rossby number, the phase pattern of the wake is close to the prediction for an infinitely small line object. However, the wake amplitude and phase origin are not correctly described by the weak-streamwise-perturbation model, calling for an alternative model for the boundary condition at moderate rotation rate.

  20. Space Van system update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Len

    1992-07-01

    The Space Van is a proposed commercial launch vehicle that is designed to carry 1150 kg to a space-station orbit for a price of $1,900,000 per flight in 1992 dollars. This price includes return on preoperational investment. Recurring costs are expected to be about $840,000 per flight. The Space Van is a fully reusable, assisted-single-stage-to orbit system. The most innovative new feature of the Space Van system is the assist-stage concept. The assist stage uses only airbreathing engines for vertical takeoff and vertical landing in the horizontal attitude and for launching the rocket-powered orbiter stage at mach 0.8 and an altitude of about 12 km. The primary version of the orbiter is designed for cargo-only without a crew. However, a passenger version of the Space Van should be able to carry a crew of two plus six passengers to a space-station orbit. Since the Space Van is nearly single-stage, performance to polar orbit drops off significantly. The cargo version should be capable of carrying 350 kg to a 400-km polar orbit. In the passenger version, the Space Van should be able to carry two crew members - or one crew member plus a passenger.

  1. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  2. Horizontal versus familial transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schwarz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Helicobacter pylori is thought to occur mainly during childhood, and predominantly within families. However, due to the difficulty of obtaining H. pylori isolates from large population samples and to the extensive genetic diversity between isolates, the transmission and spread of H. pylori remain poorly understood. We studied the genetic relationships of H. pylori isolated from 52 individuals of two large families living in a rural community in South Africa and from 43 individuals of 11 families living in urban settings in the United Kingdom, the United States, Korea, and Colombia. A 3,406 bp multilocus sequence haplotype was determined for a total of 142 H. pylori isolates. Isolates were assigned to biogeographic populations, and recent transmission was measured as the occurrence of non-unique isolates, i.e., isolates whose sequences were identical to those of other isolates. Members of urban families were almost always infected with isolates from the biogeographic population that is common in their location. Non-unique isolates were frequent in urban families, consistent with familial transmission between parents and children or between siblings. In contrast, the diversity of H. pylori in the South African families was much more extensive, and four distinct biogeographic populations circulated in this area. Non-unique isolates were less frequent in South African families, and there was no significant correlation between kinship and similarity of H. pylori sequences. However, individuals who lived in the same household did have an increased probability of carrying the same non-unique isolates of H. pylori, independent of kinship. We conclude that patterns of spread of H. pylori under conditions of high prevalence, such as the rural South African families, differ from those in developed countries. Horizontal transmission occurs frequently between persons who do not belong to a core family, blurring the pattern of familial

  3. Horizontal drilling in Miocene thin sand of Lake Maracaibo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partidas, C. [PDVSA Exploration and Production (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    Horizontal drilling in the mature Lake Maracaibo field in Venezuela as a means of stimulating production are discussed. The Miocene sand where the horizontal well technology was applied, presented a number of intervals of unconsolidated sand of varied continuity, pay intervals at ten to twenty feet thickness, and reservoir pressures mostly at hydrostatic or below hydrostatic values. This paper evaluates a horizontal drilling program in the Lagunallis Lago Production Unit of Maracaibo, involving 91 wells to date (since 1995). When assessed in economic terms, results indicate that horizontal wells are a better economic alternative than vertical wells. The same results also showed that drainage from thin sand reservoirs resulted in better production with horizontal well technology than production from vertical wells. Payout was less than two years for 50 per cent of the horizontal wells while 40 per cent had payouts of between two and four years. Profit to investment ratio was greater than two in the case of about 70 per cent of the horizontal wells drilled in 1996. 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Cultural differences in asymmetric beliefs of interpersonal knowledge in vertical and horizontal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yohan; Otani, Hajime; Han, Kyunghee; Van Horn, K Roger

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that our interpersonal knowledge shows an asymmetry; that is, we tend to believe that we know and understand other people's thoughts and feelings better than other people know and understand our own thoughts and feelings. In the present study, the authors compared American (114 men, 192 women) and Korean (99 men and 98 women) students to examine whether the asymmetry is greater in collectivistic than in individualistic culture in two types of relationships: horizontal (with best friends) and vertical (with parents). On all three items--Know, Understand, and Visibility--asymmetry was found for both horizontal and vertical relationships. Further, the Understand and Visibility items showed greater asymmetry for the Korean group than for the American group. It was concluded that asymmetry is greater in collectivistic than in individualistic culture. The cultural differences can be explained by self-consistency, sensitivity to social consequences, parent-child interaction, and living arrangement.

  5. Selectively placing many fractures in openhole horizontal wells improves production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, T. G.; McCarty, R. A. [Chevron USA Inc (United States); Suraatmadja, J. B.; Chambers, R. W.; Grundmann, S. R.

    1998-12-31

    Result of a simulation of an openhole horizontal well that was treated with hydrajet fracturing, a new fracturing process wherein fractures are placed at different locations in a horizontal well without using sectional isolation techniques, are discussed. The process uses high-pressure jetting to concentrate fracturing energy at a precise fracture location, and data is obtained by means of surface and downhole pressure recorders, flow recorders, and tracers. This technique was used in a substantially depleted horizontal well in New Mexico with good results. The new process is reported to be expensive to implement which prevents widespread application at the present time. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Vertical-horizontal wells for depletion and sweep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraikhi, A. J.; Pham, T. R.; Liu, J. S.; Khatib, M. R.; Muhaish, A. S. [Saudi Aramco (Saudi Arabia)

    1998-12-31

    A well completion scheme currently in use in a thick, large, elongated carbonate anticline Middle-East oil reservoir is described. This method of well completion calls for a combination of an open hole horizontal section penetrating the top 10 feet of the reservoir and a cased or undisturbed vertical segment through the thick formation. The horizontal section is used for producing and the vertical segment is used for monitoring purposes. Field experience and supported reservoir simulation exercises have shown that the horizontal application is superior to conventional vertical completion both from the economic and from the sweep point of view. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Remediation of a contaminated thin aquifer by horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breh, W.; Suttheimer, J.; Hoetzl, H. [Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany); Frank, K. [GEO-Service GmbH, Rheinmuenster (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    At an industrial site in Bruchsal (Germany) a huge trichloroethene contamination was found. After common remedial actions proved to be widely ineffective, new investigations led to a highly contaminated thin aquifer above the main aquifer. The investigation and the beginning of the remediation of the thin aquifer by two horizontal wells is described in this paper. Special attention was given to the dependence between precipitation and the flow direction in the thin aquifer and to hydraulic connections between the thin and the main aquifer. Also a short introduction into a new remedial technique by horizontal wells and first results of the test phase of the horizontal wells are given.

  8. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  9. Determinants of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevalence in homosexual and bisexual men screened for admission to a cohort study of HIV negatives in Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Project Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro Mariângela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Project Horizonte, an open cohort of homosexual and bisexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 negative men, is a component of the AIDS Vaccine Program, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The objective of this study was to compare volunteers testing HIV positive at cohort entry with a sample of those who tested HIV negative in order to identify risk factors for prevalent HIV infection, in a population being screened for enrollment at Project Horizonte. A nested case-control study was conducted. HIV positive volunteers at entry (cases were matched by age and admission date to three HIV negative controls each. Selected variables used for the current analysis included demographic factors, sexual behavior and other risk factors for HIV infection. During the study period (1994-2001, among the 621 volunteers screened, 61 tested positive for HIV. Cases were matched to 183 HIV negative control subjects. After adjustments, the main risk factors associated with HIV infection were unprotected sex with an occasional partners, OR = 3.7 (CI 95% 1.3-10.6, receptive anal intercourse with an occasional partner, OR = 2.8 (95% CI 0.9-8.9 and belonging to the negro racial group, OR = 3.4 (CI 95% 1.1-11.9. These variables were associated with an increase in the risk of HIV infection among men who have sex with men at the screening for admission to an open HIV negative cohort.

  10. Large top quark Yukawa coupling and horizontal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1997-05-01

    We consider the maximal U(3) horizontal scheme as a handle on fermion masses and mixings. In particular, we attempt to explain the large top Yukawa coupling and the masses and mixing in the two heaviest generations. A simple model is constructed by enlarging the matter content of the Standard Model with that of a 10 + 10-bar pair of SU(5). The third generation particles get their masses when (U(3) is broken to U(2). Top quark mass is naturally of order one. Bottom and tau masses are suppressed because of a hierarchy in the effective Yukawa couplings and not from the hierarchy in the Higgs doublet vacuum expectation values. The hierarchy is a consequence of the fact that the particle spectrum contains an incomplete vector-like generation and can come from hierarchies between scales of breaking of different grand unified groups. Hierarchies and mixings between the second and third generation are obtained by introducing a single parameters is an element' representing the breaking U(2) → U(1). As a consequence, we show that the successful (and previously obtained) relations V cb approx. m s /m b approx. √ m c /m t easily follow from our scheme. (author). 39 refs, 5 figs

  11. Horizontal transfer of transposons between and within crustaceans and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupeyron, Mathilde; Leclercq, Sébastien; Cerveau, Nicolas; Bouchon, Didier; Gilbert, Clément

    2014-01-29

    Horizontal transfer of transposable elements (HTT) is increasingly appreciated as an important source of genome and species evolution in eukaryotes. However, our understanding of HTT dynamics is still poor in eukaryotes because the diversity of species for which whole genome sequences are available is biased and does not reflect the global eukaryote diversity. In this study we characterized two Mariner transposable elements (TEs) in the genome of several terrestrial crustacean isopods, a group of animals particularly underrepresented in genome databases. The two elements have a patchy distribution in the arthropod tree and they are highly similar (>93% over the entire length of the element) to insect TEs (Diptera and Hymenoptera), some of which were previously described in Ceratitis rosa (Crmar2) and Drosophila biarmipes (Mariner-5_Dbi). In addition, phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of TE versus orthologous gene distances at various phylogenetic levels revealed that the taxonomic distribution of the two elements is incompatible with vertical inheritance. We conclude that the two Mariner TEs each underwent at least three HTT events. Both elements were transferred once between isopod crustaceans and insects and at least once between isopod crustacean species. Crmar2 was also transferred between tephritid and drosophilid flies and Mariner-5 underwent HT between hymenopterans and dipterans. We demonstrate that these various HTTs took place recently (most likely within the last 3 million years), and propose iridoviruses and/or Wolbachia endosymbionts as potential vectors of these transfers.

  12. Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rare occurrence of the left maxillary horizontal third molar impaction, the right maxillary third molar vertical impaction and the left mandibular third molar vertical impaction with inferior alveolar nerve proximity in a 30 year old female: a case report.

  13. Horizontal transfer of facultative endosymbionts is limited by host relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukasik, P.; Guo, H.; van Asch, M.; Henry, L.; Godfray, H.C.J.; Ferrari, J.

    2015-01-01

    Heritable microbial symbionts can have important effects on many aspects of their hosts' biology. Acquisition of a novel symbiont strain can provide fitness benefits to the host, with significant ecological and evolutionary consequences. We measured barriers to horizontal transmission by

  14. Logging while drilling keeps horizontal well on small target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leake, J.; Shray, F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurement to two resistivities of different characteristics had led to a new interpretation method for the analysis of horizontal wells. By logging deep and shallow resistivity in real-time, marker beds were identified to help maintain well bore trajectory. The resistivity measurements were split into vertical and horizontal components to provide additional information of formation evaluation. In 1945, Ark Fuel Co. discovered and began developing the Olla field on the crest of the La Salle arch in La Salle Parish, La. Oil production comes from the Wilcox formation from alluvial sand packages that range in thickness from 3 ft to 120 ft. Now operated by Oxy U.S.A. Inc., Olla field was chosen in 1990 for a horizontal well pilot project. It was hoped that a horizontal well could alleviate water coming in one of the field's more productive sand packages- the 40-ft Cruse sand

  15. Horizontal-Longitudinal Correlations of Acoustic Field in Deep Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun; Li Zheng-Lin; Ren Yun; Li Wen; Zhang Ren-He

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal-longitudinal correlations of the acoustic field in deep water are investigated based on the experimental data obtained in the South China Sea. It is shown that the horizontal-longitudinal correlation coefficients in the convergence zone are high, and the correlation length is consistent with the convergence zone width, which depends on the receiver depth and range. The horizontal-longitudinal correlation coefficients in the convergence zone also have a division structure for the deeper receiver. The signals from the second part of the convergence zone are still correlated with the reference signal in the first part. The horizontal-longitudinal correlation coefficients in the shadow zone are lower than that in the convergence zone, and the correlation length in the shadow zone is also much shorter than that in the convergence zone. The numerical simulation results by using the normal modes theory are qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. (paper)

  16. Horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobzheva, Ya.V.; Krasnov, V.M.; Sokolova, O.I.

    2001-01-01

    The horizontal dimensions of ionosphere agitation provoked by underground nuclear explosions have been experimentally determined for 13 explosions conducted at the Balapan test site of the Semipalatinsk test site. (author)

  17. Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This report summarizes the Horizontal Curve Virtual Peer Exchange sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safetys Roadway Safety Professional Capacity Building Program on June 17, 2014. This virtual peer exchange was the f...

  18. Condensation of steam in horizontal pipes: model development and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szijarto, R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich presents the development and validation of a model for the condensation of steam in horizontal pipes. Condensation models were introduced and developed particularly for the application in the emergency cooling system of a Gen-III+ boiling water reactor. Such an emergency cooling system consists of slightly inclined horizontal pipes, which are immersed in a cold water tank. The pipes are connected to the reactor pressure vessel. They are responsible for a fast depressurization of the reactor core in the case of accident. Condensation in horizontal pipes was investigated with both one-dimensional system codes (RELAP5) and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics software (ANSYS FLUENT). The performance of the RELAP5 code was not sufficient for transient condensation processes. Therefore, a mechanistic model was developed and implemented. Four models were tested on the LAOKOON facility, which analysed direct contact condensation in a horizontal duct

  19. Scanning anisotropy parameters in horizontal transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil; Stovas, Alexey; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2016-01-01

    in reservoir characterisation, specifically in terms of fracture delineation. We propose a travel-time-based approach to estimate the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ of a horizontal transversely isotropic medium, given an inhomogeneous

  20. Structural elements of collapses in shallow water flows with horizontally nonuniform density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, V. P., E-mail: v.goncharov@rambler.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics (Russian Federation); Pavlov, V. I., E-mail: Vadim.Pavlov@univ-lille1.fr [Universite de Lille 1, UFR de Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees-LML UMR 8107 (France)

    2013-10-15

    The mechanisms and structural elements of instability whose evolution results in the occurrence of the collapse are studied in the scope of the rotating shallow water model with a horizontally nonuniform density. The diagram stability based on the integral collapse criterion is suggested to explain system behavior in the space of constants of motion. Analysis of the instability shows that two collapse scenarios are possible. One scenario implies anisotropic collapse during which the contact area of a collapsing drop-like fragment with the bottom contracts into a rotating segment. The other implies isotropic contraction of the area into a point.

  1. First successful multistage hydraulic fracture monitoring for a horizontal well in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, Guillermo; Rios, Austreberto; Riano, Juan M. [PEMEX, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Sanchez, Adrian; Bustos, Tomas [Schlumberger, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    In their constant effort to increase the production from Chicontepec, PEMEX drilled a multilateral well with three horizontal lateral sections; the intention was to increase the production in comparison with vertical wells. In the second arm of this well four intervals were identified to be fractured, this was a new approach since it was the first occasion that multiple fractures were planned in a horizontal well. An important part of the project was the evaluation of the effectiveness of the hydraulic fracturing. This evaluation was performed by micro seismic monitoring during the treatment. This technology allows the detection of events generated during the fluid injection in the reservoir, with receivers located in a nearby monitoring well. The interpretation of this data allows the identification in 3 D space of the fracture locations. This information is valuable for optimization of subsequent treatments and for planning the field development. The data is recorded in real time and can be used to make decisions during the fracturing operation. In this paper we describe the results of the hydraulic fracturing monitoring performed in four intervals in a horizontal well showing the geometry and direction of each one of the fractures. (author)

  2. Numerical Modeling and Experimental Analysis of Scale Horizontal Axis Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Stelzenmuller, Nick; Seydel, Joseph; Aliseda, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    We investigate, through a combination of scale model experiments and numerical simulations, the evolution of the flow field around the rotor and in the wake of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. Understanding the dynamics of this flow field is the key to optimizing the energy conversion of single devices and the arrangement of turbines in commercially viable arrays. This work presents a comparison between numerical and experimental results from two different case studies of scaled horizontal axis MHK turbines (45:1 scale). In the first case study, we investigate the effect of Reynolds number (Re = 40,000 to 100,000) and Tip Speed Ratio (TSR = 5 to 12) variation on the performance and wake structure of a single turbine. In the second case, we study the effect of the turbine downstream spacing (5d to 14d) on the performance and wake development in a coaxial configuration of two turbines. These results provide insights into the dynamics of Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines, and by extension to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines in close proximity to each other, and highlight the capabilities and limitations of the numerical models. Once validated at laboratory scale, the numerical model can be used to address other aspects of MHK turbines at full scale. Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center.

  3. Two-phase flow patterns in horizontal rectangular minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron’shin Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-phase flow in a short horizontal channel of rectangular cross-section of 1 × 19 mm2 has been studied experimentally. Five conventional two-phase flow patterns have been detected (bubble, churn, stratified, annular and jet and transitions between them have been determined. It is shown that a change in the width of the horizontal channels has a substantial effect on the boundaries between the flow regimes.

  4. A method for evaluating horizontal well pumping tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, David E; Smyth, Andrew H; May, James

    2004-01-01

    Predicting the future performance of horizontal wells under varying pumping conditions requires estimates of basic aquifer parameters, notably transmissivity and storativity. For vertical wells, there are well-established methods for estimating these parameters, typically based on either the recovery from induced head changes in a well or from the head response in observation wells to pumping in a test well. Comparable aquifer parameter estimation methods for horizontal wells have not been presented in the ground water literature. Formation parameter estimation methods based on measurements of pressure in horizontal wells have been presented in the petroleum industry literature, but these methods have limited applicability for ground water evaluation and are based on pressure measurements in only the horizontal well borehole, rather than in observation wells. This paper presents a simple and versatile method by which pumping test procedures developed for vertical wells can be applied to horizontal well pumping tests. The method presented here uses the principle of superposition to represent the horizontal well as a series of partially penetrating vertical wells. This concept is used to estimate a distance from an observation well at which a vertical well that has the same total pumping rate as the horizontal well will produce the same drawdown as the horizontal well. This equivalent distance may then be associated with an observation well for use in pumping test algorithms and type curves developed for vertical wells. The method is shown to produce good results for confined aquifers and unconfined aquifers in the absence of delayed yield response. For unconfined aquifers, the presence of delayed yield response increases the method error.

  5. Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis: CT and MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bomfim, Rodrigo C.; Tavora, Daniel G.F.; Nakayama, Mauro; Gama, Romulo L. [Sarah Network of Rehabilitation Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Ceara (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis (HGPPS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by absence of conjugate horizontal eye movements and progressive scoliosis developing in childhood and adolescence. We present a child with clinical and neuroimaging findings typical of HGPPS. CT and MRI of the brain demonstrated pons hypoplasia, absence of the facial colliculi, butterfly configuration of the medulla and a deep midline pontine cleft. We briefly discuss the imaging aspects of this rare entity in light of the current literature. (orig.)

  6. A horizontal vane radiometer: experiment, theory and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, David; Lazarra, Andres; Garcia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The existence of two motive forces on a Crookes radiometer has complicated the investigation of either force independently. The thermal creep shear force in particular has been subject to differing interpretations of the direction in which it acts and its order of magnitude. In this article we provide a horizontal vane radiometer design which isolates the thermal creep shear force. The horizontal vane radiometer is explored through experiment, kinetic theory, and the Direct Simulation Monte C...

  7. The role of vertical shear on the horizontal oceanic dispersion

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Lanotte; R. Corrado; G. Lacorata; L. Palatella; C. Pizzigalli; I. Schipa; R. Santoleri

    2015-01-01

    The effect of vertical shear on the horizontal dispersion properties of passive tracer particles on the continental shelf of South Mediterranean is investigated by means of observative and model data. In-situ current measurements reveal that vertical velocity gradients in the upper mixed layer decorrelate quite fast (∼ 1 day), whereas basin-scale ocean circulation models tend to overestimate such decorrelation time because of finite resolution effects. Horizontal dispers...

  8. Widespread of horizontal gene transfer in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenze; Tsai, Lillian; Li, Yulong; Hua, Nan; Sun, Chen; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-04-04

    A fundamental concept in biology is that heritable material is passed from parents to offspring, a process called vertical gene transfer. An alternative mechanism of gene acquisition is through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), which involves movement of genetic materials between different species. Horizontal gene transfer has been found prevalent in prokaryotes but very rare in eukaryote. In this paper, we investigate horizontal gene transfer in the human genome. From the pair-wise alignments between human genome and 53 vertebrate genomes, 1,467 human genome regions (2.6 M bases) from all chromosomes were found to be more conserved with non-mammals than with most mammals. These human genome regions involve 642 known genes, which are enriched with ion binding. Compared to known horizontal gene transfer regions in the human genome, there were few overlapping regions, which indicated horizontal gene transfer is more common than we expected in the human genome. Horizontal gene transfer impacts hundreds of human genes and this study provided insight into potential mechanisms of HGT in the human genome.

  9. Marcos, horizontes visuales y experiencia del lugar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique de Teresa

    2012-12-01

    Voyage to the East

    From the early date of 1911, in which he makes his trip to the East, Le Corbusier shows us the mediating capacity found within Architecture that allows it to link spaces together, visually connect interior and exterior, or make us rediscover nature by  emphasizing our conscious perception. His drawings of Hadrian’s  Villa, Pompeii, Athens, etc. are an example of how architectural  observations can be perceived and conveyed through sketches,  and of how the relationship between Architecture and its location  can be captured.
    In his earlier texts, especially in "Vers une architecture" (1923,  as well as through his experience in the houses he designed in  the 1920s, he will show us the value of operations that  measure,  frame and provide a special dimension with regards  to spaces and the landscape. He does this explicitly and  precisely in "Une petite maison" (1923.
    Alvar Aalto, and later Álvaro Siza, will pick up this capacity of   mediation between Architecture and place, seeking to stimulate  our vision and motivate our conscience and enjoyment of spaces and nature. These architects, especially in the case of Siza, link  the visual strategies that they propose to their commitment to  teach us to appreciate and experiment with Land Art.
    More than just expressive images and the language used, it is  about trying to see, through specific examples, how Architecture is configured as a vehicle for a renovated and motivating  perception of spaces and their place.

    Key Words

    perception, architecture, mediation, place, space

  10. ERRÂNCIA E EXÍLIO NA SOUL MUSIC: do movimento Black-Rio nos anos 70 ao Quarteirão do Soul em Belo Horizonte, 2010WANDERING AND EXILE IN SOUL MUSIC: the Black-Rio movement in the 70’s to the Quarteirão do Soul in Belo Horizonte, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Aparecida da Conceição Ribeiro

    2010-12-01

    The twentieth century witnessed several diasporas. Some of them clearly addressed by the vehicles of mass communication, others less so. This study addresses the emergence of a movement of affirmation of black identity in Brazil, the movement Black-Rio, which appeared in the mid-70s. It suffered persecution, not only on the political side, but also from the media, until its extinction in the same decade. The importance of the Black-Rio was confirmed thirty years later, with the constitution of the Quarteirão do Soul in Belo Horizonte, a movement with similar ideology. It started downtown in 2004 with a group of friends, became a space of sociability and affirmation of black identity and, like its predecessor, begins to suffer harassment. Keywords: Black identity. Soul music. Mass culture.

  11. The patterning of retinal horizontal cells: normalizing the regularity index enhances the detection of genomic linkage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Keeley

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Retinal neurons are often arranged as non-random distributions called mosaics, as their somata minimize proximity to neighboring cells of the same type. The horizontal cells serve as an example of such a mosaic, but little is known about the developmental mechanisms that underlie their patterning. To identify genes involved in this process, we have used three different spatial statistics to assess the patterning of the horizontal cell mosaic across a panel of genetically distinct recombinant inbred strains. To avoid the confounding effect cell density, which varies two-fold across these different strains, we computed the real/random regularity ratio, expressing the regularity of a mosaic relative to a randomly distributed simulation of similarly sized cells. To test whether this latter statistic better reflects the variation in biological processes that contribute to horizontal cell spacing, we subsequently compared the genetic linkage for each of these two traits, the regularity index and the real/random regularity ratio, each computed from the distribution of nearest neighbor (NN distances and from the Voronoi domain (VD areas. Finally, we compared each of these analyses with another index of patterning, the packing factor. Variation in the regularity indexes, as well as their real/random regularity ratios, and the packing factor, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL to the distal ends of Chromosomes 1 and 14. For the NN and VD analyses, we found that the degree of linkage was greater when using the real/random regularity ratio rather than the respective regularity index. Using informatic resources, we narrow the list of prospective genes positioned at these two intervals to a small collection of six genes that warrant further investigation to determine their potential role in shaping the patterning of the horizontal cell mosaic.

  12. Intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer for geriatric and stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori; Kawaguchi, Saori; Uemura, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the appropriate number of measurements and the intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD) for geriatric and stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 inpatients, who were divided into two groups: 20 stroke patients in the stroke group (SG), and 20 geriatric patients in the no-stroke group (N-SG). Measurements were performed three times using an HHD with a...

  13. [Comparison of dentomaxillary pantomography and periapical radiographs with horizontal tube shift in localizing the impacted teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sun; Fan, Lin-feng

    2005-04-01

    To compare the clinic value between dentomaxillary pantomography and periapical radiographs in localization of the impacted teeth. 43 impacted teeth were localized with both dentomaxillary pantomography technique and periapical radiographs with horizontal tube shift which is clinically widely used. And a comparison between the two methods was carried out using Chi square test. Both dentomaxillary pantomography and periapical radiographs with horizontal tube shift can relatively precisely demonstrate the position of the impacted teeth. The percentage of the cases which the image and the result of surgery was consistent in the two methods was 93.02% and 95.35% (P>0.05) respectively. There was no statistical difference between the two groups. Dentomaxillary pantomography can precisely localize the impacted teeth.

  14. Horizontal cryostat for polarized proton targets; Cryostat horizontal pour cibles de protons polarises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roubeau, P M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-11-15

    Continuously fed horizontal cryostat to be used for polarized proton targets; includes: 1 standard storage dewar commercially available; 2 shifting of dewar requiring 10 minutes, without any warming of the target; 3 no conventional nitrogen cooled shield but rather taking advantage of the cold helium vapours evaporated in the transfer line and/or the helium evaporated to cool the polarized crystal; 4 a heat exchanger which reduces by a factor of two the consumption of helium lowering in the same ratio the transfer line and/or the helium evaporated to cool the polarized crystal; 5 regulation of the temperature by means of a needle valve included in the superfluid helium line. This cryostat, used in conjunction with a 1000 l/s pump allows one to maintain at 1.06 deg. K a target, in which is dissipated 1 watt hyper frequency power, with an helium consumption of 40 litres/day (measured directly in the storage dewar). (author) [French] Description d'un cryostat horizontal, a alimentation continue, pour cible de protons polarises, presentant les caracteristiques suivantes: 1 utilisation de vases de stockage de modele commercial; 2 echange de vase en 10 minutes sans rechauffement; 3 absence d'azote liquide remplace par les vapeurs froides de l'helium evapore dans la canalisation de transfert et/ou les vapeurs de l'helium evapore pour refroidir le cristal polarise; 4 utilisation d'un echangeur qui aboutit a reduire de moitie la consommation d'helium, donc la pression d'evaporation, et qui permet, pour une pompe donnee, d'abaisser la temperature de fonctionnement de 0.1 degre environ; 5 reglage de la temperature au moyen d'une vanne a aiguille placee sur le circuit d'helium prerefroidi (superfluide). Ce cryostat, utilise avec une pompe de 1000 l/s permet de maintenir a une temperature de 1.06 deg. K une cible dans laquelle est dissipee une puissance d'hyperfrequence de 1 watt, moyennant une consommation d'helium de 40 litres/jour (mesuree dans le vase de stockage). (auteur)

  15. Factorizable sheaves and quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Bezrukavnikov, Roman; Schechtman, Vadim

    1998-01-01

    The book is devoted to the geometrical construction of the representations of Lusztig's small quantum groups at roots of unity. These representations are realized as some spaces of vanishing cycles of perverse sheaves over configuration spaces. As an application, the bundles of conformal blocks over the moduli spaces of curves are studied. The book is intended for specialists in group representations and algebraic geometry.

  16. Should tsunami simulations include a nonzero initial horizontal velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Gabriel C.; Nava, Gabriel; Dunham, Eric M.

    2017-08-01

    Tsunami propagation in the open ocean is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require initial conditions on sea surface height and depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting tsunami height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and tsunami model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and tsunamis (with dispersion at short wavelengths). Full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and tsunamis in geometries with a sloping seafloor confirm that substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean. However, almost all of that initial momentum is carried away by ocean acoustic waves, with negligible momentum imparted to the tsunami. We also compare tsunami propagation in each simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial velocity. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the tsunami amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine tsunami initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the tsunami waves from ocean acoustic and seismic waves at some final time, and backpropagating the tsunami waves to their initial state by solving the

  17. Natural R parity conservation with horizontal symmetries: A four generation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.; Nardi, E.

    1995-01-01

    In most supersymmetric models the stability of the proton is ensured by invoking R parity. A necessary ingredient to enforce R parity is the possibility of distinguishing the lepton superfields from the Higgs ones. This is generally achieved either by assuming different charges under some matter parity, or by assigning the superfields to different representations of a unified gauge group. We want to put forward the idea that the replica of the fermion generations, which constitute an intrinsic difference between the fermions and the Higgs superfields, can give a clue to understanding R parity as an accidental symmetry. More ambitiously, we suggest a possible relation between proton stability and the actual number of fermion generations. We carry out our investigation in the framework of non-Abelian horizontal gauge symmetries. We identify SU(4) H as the only acceptable horizontal gauge group which can naturally ensure the absence of R-parity-violating operators, without conflicting with other theoretical and phenomenological constraints. We analyze a version of the supersymmetric standard model equipped with a gauged horizontal SU(4) H , in which R parity is accidental. The model predicts four families of fermions, it allows for the dynamical generation of a realistic hierarchy of fermion masses without any ad hoc choice of small Yukawa couplings; it ensures in a natural way the heaviness of all the fourth family fermions (including the neutrino), and it predicts a lower limit for the τ-neutrino mass of a few eV. The scale of the breaking of the horizontal symmetry can be constrained rather precisely in a narrow window around ∼10 11 GeV. Some interesting astrophysical and cosmological implications of the model are addressed as well

  18. The past and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Christian

    2013-01-01

    of legitimate forms of land control, complex combinations of claims emerge. The ubiquity of ‘the past’ in African politics and the increasing competition over space suggest that the naturalness with which some refer to the past and others conceive of space should be under constant scrutiny. Based on work...... that competing social elite groups instrumentalize. Each group sees its interests best served by a particular reading of the past and a particular conception of space....

  19. Communication spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  20. Influence of pavement condition on horizontal curve safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhavarapu, Prasad; Banerjee, Ambarish; Prozzi, Jorge A

    2013-03-01

    Crash statistics suggest that horizontal curves are the most vulnerable sites for crash occurrence. These crashes are often severe and many involve at least some level of injury due to the nature of the collisions. Ensuring the desired pavement surface condition is one potentially effective strategy to reduce the occurrence of severe accidents on horizontal curves. This study sought to develop crash injury severity models by integrating crash and pavement surface condition databases. It focuses on developing a causal relationship between pavement condition indices and severity level of crashes occurring on two-lane horizontal curves in Texas. In addition, it examines the suitability of the existing Skid Index for safety maintenance of two-lane curves. Significant correlation is evident between pavement condition and crash injury severity on two-lane undivided horizontal curves in Texas. Probability of a crash becoming fatal is appreciably sensitive to certain pavement indices. Data suggested that road facilities providing a smoother and more comfortable ride are vulnerable to severe crashes on horizontal curves. In addition, the study found that longitudinal skid measurement barely correlates with injury severity of crashes occurring on curved portions. The study recommends exploring the option of incorporating lateral friction measurement into Pavement Management System (PMS) databases specifically at curved road segments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Condensation Analysis of Steam/Air Mixtures in Horizontal Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwon Yeong; Bae, Sung Won; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2008-01-01

    Perhaps the most common flow configuration in which a convective condensation occurs is a flow in a horizontal circular tube. This configuration is encountered in air-conditioning and refrigeration condensers as well as condensers in Rankine power cycles. Although a convective condensation is also sometimes contrived to occur in a co-current vertical downward flow, a horizontal flow is often preferred because the flow can be repeatedly passed through the heat exchanger core in a serpentine fashion without trapping liquid or vapor in the return bends. Many researchers have investigated a in-tube condensation for horizontal heat exchangers. However, almost all of them obtained tube section-averaged data without a noncondensable gas. Recently, Wu and Vierow have experimentally studied the condensation of steam in a horizontal heat exchanger with air present. In order to measure the condenser tube inner surface temperatures and to calculate the local heat fluxes, they developed an innovative thermocouple design that allowed for nonintrusive measurements. Here we developed a theoretical model using the heat and mass analogy to analyze a steam condensation with a noncondensable gas in horizontal tubes

  2. Oriented cluster perforating technology and its application in horizontal wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huabin Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An oriented cluster perforating technology, which integrates both advantages of cluster and oriented perforating, will help solve a series of technical complexities in horizontal well drilling. For realizing its better application in oil and gas development, a series of technologies were developed including perforator self-weight eccentricity, matching of the electronic selective module codes with the surface program control, axial centralized contact signal transmission, and post-perforation intercluster sealing insulation. In this way, the following functions could be realized, such as cable-transmission horizontal well perforator self-weight orientation, dynamic signal transmission, reliable addressing & selective perforation and post-perforation intercluster sealing. The combined perforation and bridge plug or the multi-cluster perforation can be fulfilled in one trip of perforation string. As a result, the horizontal-well oriented cluster perforating technology based on cable conveying was developed. This technology was successfully applied in unconventional gas reservoir exploitation, such as shale gas and coalbed methane, with accurate orientation, reliable selective perforation and satisfactory inter-cluster sealing. The horizontal-well oriented cluster perforating technology benefits the orientation of horizontal well drilling with a definite target and direction, which provides a powerful support for the subsequent reservoir stimulation. It also promotes the fracturing fluid to sweep the principal pay zones to the maximum extent. Moreover, it is conductive to the formation of complex fracture networks in the reservoirs, making quality and efficient development of unconventional gas reservoirs possible.

  3. Summary of Research 1997, Interdisciplinary Academic Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boger, Dan

    1999-01-01

    This report contains information of research projects in the interdisciplinary groups, Command, Control, and Communications Academic Group, Information Warfare Academic Group, Space Systems Academic...

  4. Activism in Brazil: hacker spaces as spaces of resistance and free education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Renno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many emerging cultural practices assisted or constituted by digital media were fostered in Brazil by the Cultural Points Project (Pontos de Cultura, initially proposed by the former Brazilian Minister of Culture of President Lula da Silva’s, Gilberto Gil. With Dilma Rousseff, Pontos de Cultura was considered of lesser importance, but the same cannot be said of the group of activists that are working across the country disseminating and building knowledge from digital culture. Groups that were organized horizontally and composed in a large sense by youngsters, developed e-waste recovery projects and computer programming (mainly based on free software in permanent or ephemeral workshops and hackerspaces that were assembled in unique spaces such as offices in malls, classrooms, indigenous villages, Umbanda worship places (Afro-Brazilian worship houses and houses in slums (favelas. Some initiatives in different cities in Brazil (Porto Alegre, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Recife were analysed in the present paper. The selected examples show different ways of sharing knowledge that update the democratization of the education proposal based on a horizontal communication and conjoint experience. In these spaces, the hierarchical spatial structure of the typical classroom was replaced to the shared space of the workshop; the image of the teacher was replaced by the image of the colleague with whom we can learn and teach at the same time; there are no homogeneous age groups, gender or social class; activities are not conducted according to the content or skills instead of that they are based on the projects and objectives defined by the student. At the same time, a space is created in which the traditional and digital culture are not in opposite positions, but instead of that, they complement each other. The use of free software and technological waste recovery questions the relationship between the access to technology and the power consumption, the

  5. Estudio comparativo de microsutura vascular en ratas: punto simple y punto de colchonero horizontal Comparative study about vascular microsurgery on rats: classic interrupted suture versus horizontal mattress suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Casado Sánchez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La Microcirugía es la técnica empleada para la realización de la microanastomosis vascular. El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar dos tipos de técnicas de microsutura: los puntos simples clásicos, de empleo habitual en la microcirugía vascular, y los puntos de colchonero horizontales, no evaluados habitualmente para este tipo de cirugía. Fueron intervenidas 20 ratas albinas de la cepa Wistar (peso medio de 250 - 300 gr. bajo anestesia general; realizamos sección transversal en la arteria femoral, procediendo a su reparación microquirúrgica inmediata. Se establecieron 2 grupos de animales: en el grupo A (n=10, la microsutura se hizo mediante 6 puntos sueltos simples, y en el grupo B (n=10, empleando 3 puntos de colchonero horizontal. Comprobamos la patencia en el desclampado inmediato y tras una hora del desclampado (para ambas técnicas fue positiva en el 100% de los casos, y la hemorragia en ambos tiempos (se registró un único caso de sangrado en el postoperatorio inmediato en el grupo B, que requirió la revisión de la microsutura. El tiempo medio de ejecución de la sutura en el grupo B, 15 minutos aproximadamente, fue más corto que en el grupo A, 21 minutos aproximadamente, diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p Microsurgery is the procedure of choice for vascular microanastamoses. The objective of this study was to compare two types of suture techniques: classic interrupted suture anastomoses, commonly used for vascular anastamoses in microsurgery, and another technique using horizontal mattress sutures, rarely evaluated in this type of surgery. Twenty albino Wistar rats were operated (average weight: 250 - 300 gr. under general anaesthesia. A transverse section of the femoral artery was performed and immediately followed by an anastamoses. The animals were placed into two groups of ten. The classic 6 interrupted suture anastomoses technique was performed in group A (n = 10 and another technique using 3

  6. Space groups for solid state scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Glazer, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensively revised - essentially rewritten - new edition of the 1990 edition (described as ""extremely useful"" by MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS and as ""understandable and comprehensive"" by Scitech) guides readers through the dense array of mathematical information in the International Tables Volume A. Thus, most scientists seeking to understand a crystal structure publication can do this from this book without necessarily having to consult the International Tables themselves. This remains the only book aimed at non-crystallographers devoted to teaching them about crystallogr

  7. Some incorrect space groups: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, R.E. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena); Schomaker, V.

    1981-01-01

    This update covers Nb/sub 2/Br/sub 6/ (SC/sub 4/H/sub 8/)/sub 3/, Ta/sub 2/Br/sub 6/ (SC/sub 4/H/sub 8/)/sub 3/, (Ru/sub 2/(O/sub 2/CCH/sub 3/)/sub 4/(H/sub 2/O)/sub 2/) BF/sub 4/, Ru/sub 2/O/sub 2/(CC/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 4/Cl, and catena-bis (..mu..-N-methylpiperidinium-4-thiolato))-cadmium (II) perchlorate dihydrate.

  8. The evolution of a horizontal scale for oscillatory magnetoconvection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, J O [Monash Univ., Clayton (Australia). Dept. of Mathematics; Lopez, J M [Aeronautical Research Labs., Port Melbourne (Australia). Aerodynamics Div.

    1989-01-01

    Oscillatory convective motions have been observed in the umbrae of sunspots and, in the past, the linear theory of overstability has been used for sunspot models. Here a non-linear model for oscillatory convection has been used to investigate the possibility of a preferred horizontal cell size for these motions, in the presence of a magnetic field. The integration forward in time, from the conductive state, of the non-linear multimode equations governing magnetoconvection when the magnetic Prandtl number is less than one portrays a complex interaction between the evolving magnetic and vertical velocity horizontal scales. Preferred horizontal scales for the convective cells have been established by identifying the modes that substantially contribute to the overall convective heat transport. All other modes, although initially perturbed, in time essentially decay to zero through self interaction. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Horizontal information drives the behavioural signatures of face processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Goffaux

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent psychophysical evidence indicates that the vertical arrangement of horizontal information is particularly important for encoding facial identity. In this paper we extend this notion to examine the role that information at different (particularly cardinal orientations might play in a number of established phenomena each a behavioural “signature” of face processing. In particular we consider (a the face inversion effect (FIE, (b the facial identity after-effect, (c face-matching across viewpoint, and (d interactive, so-called holistic, processing of face parts. We report that filtering faces to remove all but the horizontal information largely preserves these effects but conversely, retaining vertical information generally diminishes or abolishes them. We conclude that preferential processing of horizontal information is a central feature of human face processing that supports many of the behavioural signatures of this critical visual operation.

  10. Sand control in open horizontal wells - case histories and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovina, P. S. [Petrobras (Brazil); Filho, E. L.

    1998-12-31

    A number of unconventional sand control completion techniques have been adopted by Petrobras to achieve higher productivity, delay gas/water conning, and to support unconsolidated formations in water injection wells in recently discovered new fields in the Amazon forest and in the deep water offshore Campos Basin. Experiences acquired running screens on 23 horizontal open wells are described. Horizontal wells confirmed the expectations in both locations, i;e. in the Amazon forests water conning was delayed, and in the Marlim field productivity increase to three times that of conventional wells. It was also observed that the API threads used in the screen basepipe for horizontal wells with long radius and short open hole section were adequate, but in the new deep water fields where extended reach wells and long open hole section are likely to be common, it is necessary to use premium threads. 2 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  11. Horizontal antimicrobial resistance transfer drives epidemics of multiple Shigella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate S; Dallman, Timothy J; Field, Nigel; Childs, Tristan; Mitchell, Holly; Day, Martin; Weill, François-Xavier; Lefèvre, Sophie; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Hughes, Gwenda; Jenkins, Claire; Thomson, Nicholas

    2018-04-13

    Horizontal gene transfer has played a role in developing the global public health crisis of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). However, the dynamics of AMR transfer through bacterial populations and its direct impact on human disease is poorly elucidated. Here, we study parallel epidemic emergences of multiple Shigella species, a priority AMR organism, in men who have sex with men to gain insight into AMR emergence and spread. Using genomic epidemiology, we show that repeated horizontal transfer of a single AMR plasmid among Shigella enhanced existing and facilitated new epidemics. These epidemic patterns contrasted with slighter, slower increases in disease caused by organisms with vertically inherited (chromosomally encoded) AMR. This demonstrates that horizontal transfer of AMR directly affects epidemiological outcomes of globally important AMR pathogens and highlights the need for integration of genomic analyses into all areas of AMR research, surveillance and management.

  12. Simulation of Solar Radiation Incident on Horizontal and Inclined Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Basunia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A computer model was developed to simulate the hourly, daily and monthly average of daily solar radiation on horizontal and inclined surfaces. The measured hourly and daily solar radiation was compared with simulated radiation, and favourable agreement was observed for the measured and predicted values on clear days. The measured and simulated monthly averages of total (diffuse and beam daily solar radiation were compared and a reasonable agreement was observed for a number of stations in Japan. The simulation showed that during the rice harvesting season, September to October, there is a daily average of 14.7 MJ/m2 of solar irradiation on a horizontal surface in Matsuyama, Japan. There is a similar amount of solar radiation on a horizontal surface during the major rice harvesting season, November to December, in Bangladesh. This radiation can be effectively utilized for drying rough rice and other farm crops.

  13. Statistical Estimation of Subgrade Reaction Coefficient For Horizontally Loaded Piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honjo, Yusuke; Zaika, Yulvi; Pokharel, Gyaneswor

    2002-01-01

    Appropriate horizontal subgrade reaction (k h ) is required to evaluate stress and displacement in horizontal loading pile. In order to obtain more accurate prediction of pile behavior, statistical analysis is employed. Based on 21 data set gathered on horizontal loading piles, inverse analysis and regression analysis are carried out. The main value and uncertainty are obtained by inverse analysis, could be employed in the regression analysis. The relationship between the lateral resistant constant (k c ) and SPT N value takes into account in correlated and uncorrelated condition. The results are compared with Port and Harbor Technical Research Institute (JPHA, 1999) and Japan Highway Bridge Specification IV (JRA, 1996). The computed values are found to be very close to the JPHA line and within the range of JRA lines in diameter 0.5 m and 2 m

  14. The interconnection between biofilm formation and horizontal gene transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Burmølle, Mette; Hansen, Lars H.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has revealed that horizontal gene transfer and biofilm formation are connected processes. Although published research investigating this interconnectedness is still limited, we will review this subject in order to highlight the potential of these observations because....... Biofilms, furthermore, promote plasmid stability and may enhance the host range of mobile genetic elements that are transferred horizontally. Plasmids, on the other hand, are very well suited to promote the evolution of social traits such as biofilm formation. This, essentially, transpires because plasmids...... of their believed importance in the understanding of the adaptation and subsequent evolution of social traits in bacteria. Here, we discuss current evidence for such interconnectedness centred on plasmids. Horizontal transfer rates are typically higher in biofilm communities compared with those in planktonic states...

  15. Effects of mercury intoxication on the response of horizontal cells of the retina of thraira fish (Hoplias malabaricus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. Tanan

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Methyl mercury (MeHg is highly neurotoxic, affecting visual function in addition to other central nervous system functions. The effect of mercury intoxication on the amplitude of horizontal cell responses to light was studied in the retina of the fish Hoplias malabaricus. Intracellular responses were recorded from horizontal cells of fish previously intoxicated with MeHg by intraperitoneal injection (IP group or by trophic exposure (T group. Only one retina per fish was used. The doses of MeHg chloride administered to the IP group were 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1.0, 2.0, and 6.0 mg/kg. The amplitudes of the horizontal cell responses were lower than control in individuals exposed to 0.01 (N = 4 retinas, 0.05 (N = 2 retinas and 0.1 mg/kg (N = 1 retina, whereas no responses were recorded in the 1.0, 2.0, and 6.0 mg/kg groups. T group individuals were fed young specimens of Astyanax sp previously injected with MeHg corresponding to 0.75 (N = 1 retina, 0.075 (N = 8 retinas or 0.0075 (N = 4 retinas mg/kg fish body weight. After 14 doses, one every 5 days, the amplitude of the horizontal cell response was higher than control in individuals exposed to 0.075 and 0.0075 mg/kg, and lower in individuals exposed to 0.75 mg/kg. We conclude that intoxication with MeHg affects the electrophysiological response of the horizontal cells in the retina, either reducing or increasing its amplitude compared to control, and that these effects are related to the dose and/or to the mode of administration.

  16. Experimental investigation on the droplet entrainment from interfacial waves in air-water horizontal stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Byeong Geon; Yun, Byong Jo; Kim, Kyoung Du

    2014-01-01

    It was mainly due to the fact that droplet entrainment affects the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the nuclear fuel rod in the Postulated accident conditions of NPP. Recently, droplet entrainment in the horizontally arranged primary piping system for the NPP is of interest because it affects directly the steam binding phenomena in the steam generators. Pan and Hanratty correlation is the only applicable one for the droplet entrainment rate model for horizontal flow. Moreover, there are no efforts for the model development on the basis of the droplet entrainment principal and physics phenomena. More recently, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) proposed a new mechanistic droplet generation model applicable in the horizontal pipe for the SPACE code. However, constitutive relations in this new model require three model coefficients which have not yet been decided. The purpose of present work is determining three model coefficients by visualization experiment. For these model coefficients, the major physical parameters regarding the interfacial disturbance wave should be measured in this experiments. There are the wave slope, liquid fraction, wave hypotenuse length, wave velocity, wave frequency, and wavelength in the major physical parameters. The experiment was conducted at an air water horizontal rectangular channel with the PIV system. In this study, the experimental conditions were stratified-way flow during the droplet generation. Three coefficients were determined based on several data related to the interfacial wave. Additionally, we manufactured the parallel wire conductance probe to measure the fluctuating water level over time, and compared the wave height measured by the parallel wire conductance probe and image processing from images taken by high speed camera. Experimental investigation was performed for droplet entrainment from phase interface wave in an air-water stratified flow. In the experiments, we measured major physical parameters

  17. Composite Coiled Tubing for Extended Reach in Horizontal Oil Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Conventional steel coiled tubing cannot reach along the entire length of very long horizontal oil wells. A lighter and more buoyant coiled tube is made possible using composite materials. The high stiffness to weight ratio of fiber reinforced polymers, coupled with a lower coefficient of friction......, has the potential of greatly extending the reach in horizontal oil wells. This study shows how to design composite coiled tubing and gives a comprehensive discussion about the most influential parameters. Several solutions, using glass-fiber and carbon are considered. Finite element models are used...

  18. A statistical model for horizontal mass flux of erodible soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiker, A.G.A.G.; Eltayeb, I.A.; Hassan, M.H.A.

    1986-11-01

    It is shown that the mass flux of erodible soil transported horizontally by a statistically distributed wind flow has a statistical distribution. Explicit expression for the probability density function, p.d.f., of the flux is derived for the case in which the wind speed has a Weibull distribution. The statistical distribution for a mass flux characterized by a generalized Bagnold formula is found to be Weibull for the case of zero threshold speed. Analytic and numerical values for the average horizontal mass flux of soil are obtained for various values of wind parameters, by evaluating the first moment of the flux density function. (author)

  19. Los 'Horizontes poéticos' (1881) de Francisca Sarasate

    OpenAIRE

    Mata-Induráin, C. (Carlos)

    1999-01-01

    Francisca Sarasate supone una excepción notable en el área de las letras navarras, por la escasez de mujeres en el ámbito literario. Cultivó, entre otros, la novela, el cuento, el teatro y la poesía. Destaca su obra 'Horizontes poéticos'. ------------------ Francisca Sarasate is a notable exception in the area of the letters of Navarra, by the scarcity of women in the literary field. She cultivated the novel, short stories, drama and poetry. She wrote, among others, 'Horizontes poéticos'....

  20. FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN A SOLAR COLLECTOR PANEL WITH HORIZONTAL FINS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work is to theoretically and experimentally investigate the flow and temperature distribution in a solar collector panel with an absorber consisting of horizontal fins. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the collector panel are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics...... (CFD) calculations. Further, experimental investigations of a 12.5 m² solar collector panel with 16 parallel connected horizontal fins are carried out. The flow distribution through the absorber is evaluated by means of temperature measurements on the backside of the absorber tubes. The measured...

  1. Muon number violation in some horizontal gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, O.

    1980-11-01

    Horizontal gauge models have been studied which have a mechanism for suppressing flavour changing processes involving only two flavours, i.e., processes like μ→eγ, μ→ ee anti e and the K 0 - anti K 0 transition. It is found that the rates for some muon-number violating processes, in particular for μe conversion and kaon decays, can be close to experimental upper limits. This is in contrast to horizontal gauge models in which the K 0 - anti K 0 transition is not suppressed. (auth)

  2. The 'horizontal direct effect' of EU international agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at a less discussed topic in European legal scholarship: the horizontal direct effect of EU international agreements and the Court of Justice’s apparent reluctance to expressly confirm it. It is argued that the direct effect of EU international agreements has been confirmed...... in proceedings involving private individuals/professionals against the private regulatory bodies of a profession or a State owned and controlled entity. However, direct effect has not yet been expressly confirmed in cases involving veritable horizontal relationships, between private parties of equal positions...

  3. New evaluation index for the retainability of a swimmer's horizontal posture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Watanabe

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of changes in buoyancy when a swimmer respires in a horizontal posture. We attempted to evaluate the levelness of swimmers' streamline posture by simultaneously measuring the lung capacity and buoyancy under water. The buoyancy was measured based on the changes in the vertical loads of the upper and lower limbs on the subjects' streamline posture under water. The horizontal x-axis as lung ventilation and the vertical y-axis as buoyancy forms a linear equation y = ax + b. The relation between hand (upper-limb buoyancy and lung ventilation is defined as y = a1x + b1 and that between foot (lower-limb buoyancy and lung ventilation as y = a2x + b2. Horizontal levelness was calculated as a ratio by dividing a2 by a1 using the inclination (a values from these formulas for an underwater streamline posture. We defined this ratio as the breathing-balance (BB ratio. Although the performance levels in the present study did not show any difference in the absolute quantity of air that humans can inhale in a streamline posture, the BB ratio was higher in a statistically significant manner in junior swimmers competing at international levels compared with the other groups of subjects (P < 0.001. This statistical difference in horizontal levelness, despite the absence of a noticeable difference in the absolute quantity of inhaled air, may be attributable to the way in which each person inhales and exhales air. Top-level junior swimmers that exhibited a high BB ratio might have inhaled in a way that would counteract the sinking of the lower limbs, for example, through abdominal respiration. When exhaling, on the other hand, they might have let out air gradually to mitigate the acceleration force involved in submerging the lower limbs.

  4. H-NS Facilitates Sequence Diversification of Horizontally Transferred DNAs during Their Integration in Host Chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Higashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria can acquire new traits through horizontal gene transfer. Inappropriate expression of transferred genes, however, can disrupt the physiology of the host bacteria. To reduce this risk, Escherichia coli expresses the nucleoid-associated protein, H-NS, which preferentially binds to horizontally transferred genes to control their expression. Once expression is optimized, the horizontally transferred genes may actually contribute to E. coli survival in new habitats. Therefore, we investigated whether and how H-NS contributes to this optimization process. A comparison of H-NS binding profiles on common chromosomal segments of three E. coli strains belonging to different phylogenetic groups indicated that the positions of H-NS-bound regions have been conserved in E. coli strains. The sequences of the H-NS-bound regions appear to have diverged more so than H-NS-unbound regions only when H-NS-bound regions are located upstream or in coding regions of genes. Because these regions generally contain regulatory elements for gene expression, sequence divergence in these regions may be associated with alteration of gene expression. Indeed, nucleotide substitutions in H-NS-bound regions of the ybdO promoter and coding regions have diversified the potential for H-NS-independent negative regulation among E. coli strains. The ybdO expression in these strains was still negatively regulated by H-NS, which reduced the effect of H-NS-independent regulation under normal growth conditions. Hence, we propose that, during E. coli evolution, the conservation of H-NS binding sites resulted in the diversification of the regulation of horizontally transferred genes, which may have facilitated E. coli adaptation to new ecological niches.

  5. H-NS Facilitates Sequence Diversification of Horizontally Transferred DNAs during Their Integration in Host Chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Koichi; Tobe, Toru; Kanai, Akinori; Uyar, Ebru; Ishikawa, Shu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Ogasawara, Naotake; Kurokawa, Ken; Oshima, Taku

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria can acquire new traits through horizontal gene transfer. Inappropriate expression of transferred genes, however, can disrupt the physiology of the host bacteria. To reduce this risk, Escherichia coli expresses the nucleoid-associated protein, H-NS, which preferentially binds to horizontally transferred genes to control their expression. Once expression is optimized, the horizontally transferred genes may actually contribute to E. coli survival in new habitats. Therefore, we investigated whether and how H-NS contributes to this optimization process. A comparison of H-NS binding profiles on common chromosomal segments of three E. coli strains belonging to different phylogenetic groups indicated that the positions of H-NS-bound regions have been conserved in E. coli strains. The sequences of the H-NS-bound regions appear to have diverged more so than H-NS-unbound regions only when H-NS-bound regions are located upstream or in coding regions of genes. Because these regions generally contain regulatory elements for gene expression, sequence divergence in these regions may be associated with alteration of gene expression. Indeed, nucleotide substitutions in H-NS-bound regions of the ybdO promoter and coding regions have diversified the potential for H-NS-independent negative regulation among E. coli strains. The ybdO expression in these strains was still negatively regulated by H-NS, which reduced the effect of H-NS-independent regulation under normal growth conditions. Hence, we propose that, during E. coli evolution, the conservation of H-NS binding sites resulted in the diversification of the regulation of horizontally transferred genes, which may have facilitated E. coli adaptation to new ecological niches.

  6. New modelling of transient well test and rate decline analysis for a horizontal well in a multiple-zone reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Ren-Shi; Guo, Jian-Chun; Jia, Yong-Lu; Zhu, Shui-Qiao; Rao, Zheng; Zhang, Chun-Guang

    2011-01-01

    The no-type curve with negative skin of a horizontal well has been found in the current research. Negative skin is very significant to transient well test and rate decline analysis. This paper first presents the negative skin problem where the type curves with negative skin of a horizontal well are oscillatory. In order to solve the problem, we propose a new model of transient well test and rate decline analysis for a horizontal well in a multiple-zone composite reservoir. A new dimensionless definition of r D is introduced in the dimensionless mathematical modelling under different boundaries. The model is solved using the Laplace transform and separation of variables techniques. In Laplace space, the solutions for both constant rate production and constant wellbore pressure production are expressed in a unified formula. We provide graphs and thorough analysis of the new standard type curves for both well test and rate decline analysis; the characteristics of type curves are the reflections of horizontal well production in a multiple-zone reservoir. An important contribution of our paper is that our model removed the oscillation in type curves and thus solved the negative skin problem. We also show that the characteristics of type curves depend heavily on the properties of different zones, skin factor, well length, formation thickness, etc. Our research can be applied to a real case study

  7. Vertical and Horizontal Jump Capacity in International Cerebral Palsy Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reina, Raúl; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Sabido, Rafael; Campayo-Piernas, Maria; Yanci, Javier

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of vertical and horizontal jump tests in football players with cerebral palsy (FPCP) and to analyze the jump performance differences between current International Federation for Cerebral Palsy Football functional classes (ie, FT5-FT8). A total of 132 international parafootballers (25.8 [6.7] y; 70.0 [9.1] kg; 175.7 [7.3] cm; 22.8 [2.8] kg·m -2 ; and 10.7 [7.5] y training experience) participated in the study. The participants were classified according to the International Federation for Cerebral Palsy Football classification rules, and a group of 39 players without cerebral palsy was included in the study as a control group. Football players' vertical and horizontal jump performance was assessed. All the tests showed good to excellent relative intrasession reliability scores, both in FPCP and in the control group (intraclass correlation = .78-.97, SEM jump, standing broad jump, 4 bounds for distance, and triple hop for distance dominant leg and nondominant leg. The control group performed higher/farther jumps with regard to all the FPCP classes, obtaining significant differences and moderate to large effect sizes (ESs) (.85 jump tests than players in the lower classes (ES = moderate to large, P jump tests performed in this study could be applied to the classification procedures and protocols for FPCP.

  8. Causal symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces

  9. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  10. L’Ancrage géographique de la délinquance des adolescents infracteurs à Belo Horizonte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Delarre

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ce document présente les résultats d’une exploitation statistique faite à partir de sources administratives de la ville de Belo Horizonte sur les actes délinquants commis par des adolescents. Chose rare, ces données comprennent des indications géographiques suffisamment fines pour que les auteurs testent des hypothèses – le rôle du voisinage, le rapport des adolescents aux territoires et les points de concentration d’actes indépendants du voisinage – relevées lors de campagnes d’enquêtes ethnographiques de terrain dans le cadre du Projet ANR SpaceControl. Les méthodes employées reposent principalement sur des matrices de contiguïtés.Mots-clés: Belo Horizonte, gangs, territoire, trafics, statistiques Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma análise estatística feita a partir de fontes administrativas da cidade de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, sobre atos de delinquência cometidos por adolescentes. Fato raro, esses dados incluem indicações geográficas finas o suficiente para que sejam testadas pelos autores certas hipóteses – o papel da vizinhança, a relação dos adolescentes com os territórios e os pontos de concentração de atos independentemente da vizinhança – identificados durante as pesquisas de campo etnográficas no âmbito do Projeto ANR SpaceControl. Os métodos utilizados são baseados principalmente em matrizes de contiguidade.Palavras-chave: Belo Horizonte, gangues, território, tráficos, estatísticas The article Geographic Referencing of the Delin­quent Adolescent Offenders presents the results of a statistical analysis in administrative sources of the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, on acts of delinquency committed by teenagers. The data include unusual fine geographical indications that enables the testing of certain hypothesis - neighborhood role, the relation­ship of adolescents with the territories and the points of concentration of acts independently of the neigh

  11. Coolant rate distribution in horizontal steam generator under natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagovechtchenski, A.; Leontieva, V.; Mitrioukhin, A.

    1997-01-01

    In the presentation the major factors determining the conditions of NCC (Natural Coolant Circulation) in the primary circuit and in particular conditions of coolant rate distribution on the horizontal tubes of PGV-1000 in NPP with VVER-1000 under NCC are considered

  12. The Horizontal Branch of the Sculptor Dwarf galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salaris, Maurizio; de Boer, Thomas; Tolstoy, Eline; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Cassisi, Santi

    2013-01-01

    We have performed the first detailed simulation of the horizontal branch of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy by means of synthetic modelling techniques, taking consistently into account the star formation history and metallicity evolution as determined from the main sequence and red giant branch

  13. Performance of a Horizontal Triple Cylinder Type Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Pulping process usually uses a machine which constructed by wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processing. One of the weaknesses of a horizontal single cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine is higher in broken beans. Broken bean is one of mayor aspects in defect system that contribute to low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine which resulted in 12.6—21.4% of broken beans. To reduce percentage of broken beans, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and tested a horizontal triple cylinder type of fresh coffee cherries pulping machine. Material tested was fresh mature Robusta coffee cherries, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content; has classified on 3 levels i.e. unsorted, small and medium, and clean from metal and foreign materials. The result showed that the machine produced 6,340 kg/h in optimal capacity for operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 55.5% whole parchment coffee, 3.66% broken beans, and 1% beans in wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  14. Changes in intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide, 1% atropine sulphate and 10% phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions on intraocular pressure (IOP) and horizontal pupil diameter (HPD) in the dog during the first hour after treatment. Forty clinically and ophthalmologically ...

  15. An irradiation facility with a horizontal beam for radiobiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czub, J.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Choinski, J.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Szeflinski, Z.; Wojcik, A.

    2006-01-01

    A facility with a horizontal beam for radiobiological experiments with heavy ions has been designed and constructed at the Heavy Ion Laboratory in Warsaw Univ.. The facility is optimal to investigate the radiobiological effects of charged heavy particles on a cellular or molecular level as in the region of the Bragg peak. (authors)

  16. Numerical modeling of secondary side thermohydraulics of horizontal steam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melikhov, V.I.; Melikhov, O.I.; Nigmatulin, B.I. [Research and Engineering Centre of LWR Nuclear Plants Safety, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A mathematical model for the transient three-dimensional secondary side thermal hydraulics of the horizontal steam generator has been developed. The calculations of the steam generator PGV-1000 and PGV-4 nominal regimes and comparison of numerical and experimental results have been carried out. 7 refs.

  17. Prediction of radiant heat flux from horizontal propane jet fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Kuibin; Liu, Jiaoyan; Jiang, Juncheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Line source model for the radiant heat flux from horizontal jet fire is proposed. • A review on the difference between horizontal and vertical jet fires is conducted. • Effects of lift-off distance and flame shape are discussed for the line source model. • Line source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system. - Abstract: Jet fires are often reported to occur in process industry with lots of hazardous heat energy released. A line source model describing the flame emissive power and subsequent heat flux radiated from a horizontal propane jet fire is evaluated through a testing against experimental fire data and comparison against other models. By a review on the jet flame behavior, the correlations of the lift-off distance, flame length and radiative fraction are proposed to close the line source model in theory. It is found that the fuel jet direction holds a considerable effect on the flame behavior by comparison between horizontal and vertical jet fires. Results indicate that the lift-off distance and the flame shape influence the model prediction to some extent. Comparison of model predictions against data collected in the near field and predictions from the point source model and multipoint source model gives encouraging results relative to the validity of model system.

  18. Nitrogen Transformation and Removal in Horizontal Surface Flow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential use of Constructed Mangrove Wetlands (CMWs) as a cheaper, effective and appropriate method for Nitrogen removal from domestic sewage of coastal zone in peri-urban cities was investigated from August 2007 to. September, 2008. Field investigations were made on horizontal surface flow constructed ...

  19. Technology transfer in a horizontally differentiated product-market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.; Balasubramanian, N.

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers technology transfer in a Cournot-duopoly market where the firms produce horizontally differentiated products. It turns out that without the threat of imitation from the licensee, the licenser always transfers its best technology. However, the patent licensing contract consists

  20. Potential Effects of Horizontal Gene Exchange in the Human Gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Aaron; Matthias, Torsten; Aminov, Rustam

    2017-01-01

    Many essential functions of the human body are dependent on the symbiotic microbiota, which is present at especially high numbers and diversity in the gut. This intricate host-microbe relationship is a result of the long-term coevolution between the two. While the inheritance of mutational changes in the host evolution is almost exclusively vertical, the main mechanism of bacterial evolution is horizontal gene exchange. The gut conditions, with stable temperature, continuous food supply, constant physicochemical conditions, extremely high concentration of microbial cells and phages, and plenty of opportunities for conjugation on the surfaces of food particles and host tissues, represent one of the most favorable ecological niches for horizontal gene exchange. Thus, the gut microbial system genetically is very dynamic and capable of rapid response, at the genetic level, to selection, for example, by antibiotics. There are many other factors to which the microbiota may dynamically respond including lifestyle, therapy, diet, refined food, food additives, consumption of pre- and probiotics, and many others. The impact of the changing selective pressures on gut microbiota, however, is poorly understood. Presumably, the gut microbiome responds to these changes by genetic restructuring of gut populations, driven mainly via horizontal gene exchange. Thus, our main goal is to reveal the role played by horizontal gene exchange in the changing landscape of the gastrointestinal microbiome and potential effect of these changes on human health in general and autoimmune diseases in particular.