WorldWideScience

Sample records for spaced calculation points

  1. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Ployzou, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most precise tools for studying the dynamics of nuclei. Our research program consists of a careful theoretical study of the nuclear few-body systems. During the past year we have completed several aspects of this program. We have continued our program of using the trinucleon system to investigate the validity of various realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials. Also, the effects of meson-exchange currents in nuclear systems have been studied. Initial calculations using the configuration-space Faddeev equations for nucleon-deuteron scattering have been completed. With modifications to treat relativistic systems, few-body methods can be applied to phenomena that are sensitive to the structure of the individual hadrons. We have completed a review of Relativistic Hamiltonian Dynamics in Nuclear and Particle Physics for Advances in Nuclear Physics. Although it is called a review, it is a large document that contains a significant amount of new research

  2. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1992-12-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most precise tools for studying the dynamics of nuclei and nucleons. This research program consists of a careful theoretical study of few-body systems and methods for modeling these systems. During the past year several aspects of this program were completed. Brief summaries are given of work on the following topics: The relativistic three quark problem; the relativistic Balian-Brezin method; spin in light front quantum mechanical models; proton-deutron scattering and reactions; point form relativistic quantum mechanics of constituents; solutions of quantum mechanical anharmonic oscillators; shift operators and the U(N) multiplicity problem

  3. Configuration space Faddeev calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most effective means for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For few-body systems the model equations can be solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. We have used such systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Complete calculations for momentum-dependent potentials have been performed, and the properties of the three-body bound state for these potentials have been studied. Few-body calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron and pion have been carried out using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The decomposition of the operators transforming convariantly under the Poincare group into kinematical and dynamical parts has been studies. New ways for constructing interactions between particles, as well as interactions which lead to the production of particles, have been constructed in the context of a relativistic quantum mechanics. To compute scattering amplitudes in a nonperturbative way, classes of operators have been generated out of which the phase operator may be constructed. Finally, we have worked out procedures for computing Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients on a computer, as well as giving procedures for dealing with the multiplicity problem

  4. Characterization of finite spaces having dispersion points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bsoul, A. T

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we shall characterize the finite spaces having dispersion points. Also, we prove that the dispersion point of a finite space with a dispersion points fixed under all non constant continuous functions which answers the question raised by J. C obb and W. Voxman in 1980 affirmatively for finite space. Some open problems are given. (author). 16 refs

  5. Zero-point field in curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacyan, S.; Sarmiento, A.; Cocho, G.; Soto, F.

    1985-01-01

    Boyer's conjecture that the thermal effects of acceleration are manifestations of the zero-point field is further investigated within the context of quantum field theory in curved spaces. The energy-momentum current for a spinless field is defined rigorously and used as the basis for investigating the energy density observed in a noninertial frame. The following examples are considered: (i) uniformly accelerated observers, (ii) two-dimensional Schwarzschild black holes, (iii) the Einstein universe. The energy spectra which have been previously calculated appear in the present formalism as an additional contribution to the energy of the zero-point field, but particle creation does not occur. It is suggested that the radiation produced by gravitational fields or by acceleration is a manifestation of the zero-point field and of the same nature (whether real or virtual)

  6. General Case in Determining Center-To-Center Spacing Between the Screw and the Roller in a Roller Drive, and Initial Contact Point of Their Mating Thread Turns. Development of Calculation Method and Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Blinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important trends in development of machine engineering is to improve load capacity of mechanisms, assemblies and parts without increasing their overall dimensions and weight. This is also relevant to the most promising items so far, i.e. orbital roller drives (ORD, which are the rotational-to-progressive motion converters widely used in vehicles. The previously published article suggested increasing a load capacity (by about 15% through reducing a thread turn section angle of the threaded ORD components and change of the radius of roller thread turn section outline. Due to such ORD modification, a number of the most critical ORD parameters are to be changed thereby demanding further research. Further, the article published suggests a method considering the abovementioned changes to calculate the dimensions of ORD main components and their tolerance ranges.Though this method being not complete as the increment of ORD center-to-center spacing in relation to its rated value, required for assembly, is unknown; and to determine the ORD center-to-center spacing increment, outer diameters of the roller and screw threads are to be known. Hence, these two methods are interconnected.This article presents the numerical calculation method, mathematical support and method to determine the increment of ORD center-to-center spacing and initial contact point of the mating roller and screw thread turns. Due to considerable scope of calculations, the method was turned into the software.Similar calculation methods and techniques were developed to a particular case, where the thread turn section angle of the threaded components was of 90°, and the roller thread turn section outline was a circular arc centered to the roller axis. Hence the developed numerical calculation method, mathematical support and technique refer to the general case which is to determine the ORD center-to-center spacing increment and initial contact point of the mating roller

  7. Visualisations and Calculations of Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harty, Chris; Tryggestad, Kjell; Holm Jacobsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    There is a complex relationship between the use of visualisations, and the production of both designs and physical spaces. In the case of hospitals, technical, aesthetic and practice-based requirements are incorporated into negotiations around facilities, layout and operation, and a plethora...

  8. Calculation of melting points of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobkova, O.S.; Voskobojnikov, V.G.; Kozin, A.I.

    1975-01-01

    The correlation between the melting point and thermodynamic parameters characterizing the strength of oxides and compounds is given. Such thermodynamic paramters include the energy and antropy of atomization

  9. Hybrid fixed point in CAT(0 spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an ultrapower approach to prove fixed point theorems for $H^{+}$-nonexpansive multi-valued mappings in the setting of CAT(0 spaces and prove several hybrid fixed point results in CAT(0 spaces for families of single-valued nonexpansive or quasinonexpansive mappings and multi-valued upper semicontinuous, almost lower semicontinuous or $H^{+}$-nonexpansive mappings which are weakly commuting. We also establish a result about structure of the set of fixed points of $H^{+}$-quasinonexpansive mapping on a CAT(0 space.

  10. Fixed point theory in metric type spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Ravi P; O’Regan, Donal; Roldán-López-de-Hierro, Antonio Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Written by a team of leading experts in the field, this volume presents a self-contained account of the theory, techniques and results in metric type spaces (in particular in G-metric spaces); that is, the text approaches this important area of fixed point analysis beginning from the basic ideas of metric space topology. The text is structured so that it leads the reader from preliminaries and historical notes on metric spaces (in particular G-metric spaces) and on mappings, to Banach type contraction theorems in metric type spaces, fixed point theory in partially ordered G-metric spaces, fixed point theory for expansive mappings in metric type spaces, generalizations, present results and techniques in a very general abstract setting and framework. Fixed point theory is one of the major research areas in nonlinear analysis. This is partly due to the fact that in many real world problems fixed point theory is the basic mathematical tool used to establish the existence of solutions to problems which arise natur...

  11. PKI, Gamma Radiation Reactor Shielding Calculation by Point-Kernel Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhuai; Zhang Liwu; Zhang Yuqin; Zhang Chuanxu; Niu Xihua

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: This code calculates radiation shielding problem of gamma-ray in geometric space. 2 - Method of solution: PKI uses a point kernel integration technique, describes radiation shielding geometric space by using geometric space configuration method and coordinate conversion, and makes use of calculation result of reactor primary shielding and flow regularity in loop system for coolant

  12. Set point calculations for RAPID project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    This change modifies accuracies of the water skid temperature indicators and controllers TIC-410. TI-412, TI-413, TIC-413, TIC-414, TIC-415. Acknowledges ability to calibrate PQIT-367 and modifies the accuracy of that instrument loop. Adjusts the allowable dilution dater temperature from 110-130F to 102-130F based on PCP Rev.2 and adjusts alarm and other points to reflect that change. Removes revision numbers for all references. Numerous additional changes (fixing typos, more detailed explanations etc.) throughout

  13. The calculation of CSF spaces in CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, H.; Artmann, H.

    1978-01-01

    Objective digital determination of CSF spaces is discussed, with ventricular and subarachnoid spaces handled separately. This method avoids the difficulty of visual definition of ventricular borders in planimetric measurements. The principle is to count automatically all pixels corresponding to CSF in a given region with a Hounsfield unit and to multiply this number by the pixel size. This will give the total surface area of CSF spaces in square millimeters. The calculation of pixel values for CSF spaces and brain tissue is experimentally formulated taking the intersection of the Gaussian curves for ventricular content and brain tissue. In practice, the determination of CSF spaces is done by first calculating a histogram of the total brain in a given slice defining all CSF spaces. Next a histogram of a region including ventricles with adjoining tissue is calculated and the ventricular size is calculated. By subtraction of the ventricle value from the total CSF space value, the subarachnoid space size is obtained. The advantages of this mehtod will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  14. Calculation of CSF spaces in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, H; Artmann, H [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie

    1978-01-01

    Objective digital determination of CSF spaces is discussed, with ventricular and subarachnoid spaces handled separately. This method avoids the difficulty of visual definition of ventricular borders in planimetric measurements. The principle is to count automatically all pixels corresponding to CSF in a given region with a Hounsfield unit and to multiply this number by the pixel size. This will give the total surface area of CSF spaces in square millimeters. The calculation of pixel values for CSF spaces and brain tissue is experimentally formulated taking the intersection of the Gaussian curves for ventricular content and brain tissue. In practice, the determination of CSF spaces is done by first calculating a histogram of the total brain in a given slice defining all CSF spaces. Next a histogram of a region including ventricles with adjoining tissue is calculated and the ventricular size is calculated. By subtraction of the ventricle value from the total CSF space value, the subarachnoid space size is obtained. The advantages of this mehtod will be discussed.

  15. Fixed point theorems in spaces and -trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk WA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that if is a bounded open set in a complete space , and if is nonexpansive, then always has a fixed point if there exists such that for all . It is also shown that if is a geodesically bounded closed convex subset of a complete -tree with , and if is a continuous mapping for which for some and all , then has a fixed point. It is also noted that a geodesically bounded complete -tree has the fixed point property for continuous mappings. These latter results are used to obtain variants of the classical fixed edge theorem in graph theory.

  16. Space Telescope Pointing Control System software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, H.; Rodoni, C.; Rossini, R.; Tompetrini, K.; Nakashima, A.; Bradley, A.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Telescope Pointing Control System software is in the advanced development stage, having been tested on both the airbearing and the static simulator. The overall structure of the software is discussed, along with timing and sizing evaluations. The interaction between the controls analysts and software designer is described.

  17. Bubble and Dew Point Calculations in Multicomponent and Multireactive Mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla-Petriciolet, A.; Acosta-Martínez, A.; Bravo-Sánchez, U. I.; Segovia-Hernández, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    Bubble and dew point calculations are useful in chemical engineering and play an important role in the study of separation equipments for non-reactive and reactive mixtures. To the best of the authors’s knowledge, few methods have been proposed for these calculations in systems with several chemical reactions. The objective of this paper is to introduce new conditions for performing bubble and dew point calculations in reactive mixtures. We have developed these conditions based on the a...

  18. Effective hamiltonian calculations using incomplete model spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, S.; Mukherjee, D.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that the danger of encountering ''intruder states'' is substantially reduced if an effective hamiltonian formalism is developed for incomplete model spaces (IMS). In a Fock-space approach, the proof a ''connected diagram theorem'' is fairly straightforward with exponential-type of ansatze for the wave-operator W, provided the normalization chosen for W is separable. Operationally, one just needs a suitable categorization of the Fock-space operators into ''diagonal'' and ''non-diagonal'' parts that is generalization of the corresponding procedure for the complete model space. The formalism is applied to prototypical 2-electron systems. The calculations have been performed on the Cyber 205 super-computer. The authors paid special attention to an efficient vectorization for the construction and solution of the resulting coupled non-linear equations

  19. Three-dimensional space charge calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.; Wadlinger, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for calculating space-charge forces suitable for use in a particle tracing code. Poisson's equation is solved in three dimensions with boundary conditions specified on an arbitrary surface by using a weighted residual method. Using a discrete particle distribution as our source input, examples are shown of off-axis, bunched beams of noncircular crosssection in radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and drift-tube linac geometries

  20. Space-charge calculations in synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machida, S.

    1993-05-01

    One obvious bottleneck of achieving high luminosity in hadron colliders, such as the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), is the beam emittance growth, due to space-charge effects in low energy injector synchrotrons. Although space-charge effects have been recognized since the alternating-gradient synchrotron was invented, and the Laslett tune shift usually calculated to quantify these effects, our understanding of the effects is limited, especially when the Laslett tune shift becomes a large fraction of the integer. Using the Simpsons tracking code, which we developed to study emittance preservation issues in proton synchrotrons, we investigated space-charge effects in the SSC Low Energy Booster (LEB). We observed detailed dependence on parameters such as beam intensity, initial emittance, injection energy, lattice function, and longitudinal motion. A summary of those findings, as well as the tracking technique we developed for the study, are presented.

  1. A computational framework for automation of point defect calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, Anuj; Gorai, Prashun; Peng, Haowei

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a complete and rigorously validated open-source Python framework to automate point defect calculations using density functional theory. Furthermore, the framework provides an effective and efficient method for defect structure generation, and creation of simple yet customizable workflows to analyze defect calculations. This package provides the capability to compute widely-accepted correction schemes to overcome finite-size effects, including (1) potential alignment, (2) image-charge correction, and (3) band filling correction to shallow defects. Using Si, ZnO and In2O3 as test examples, we demonstrate the package capabilities and validate the methodology.

  2. One group neutron flux at a point in a cylindrical reactor cell calculated by Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocic, A [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1974-01-15

    Mean values of the neutron flux over material regions and the neutron flux at space points in a cylindrical annular cell (one group model) have been calculated by Monte Carlo. The results are compared with those obtained by an improved collision probability method (author)

  3. Some fixed point theorems in fuzzy reflexive Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeqi, I.; Solaty kia, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first show that there are some gaps in the fixed point theorems for fuzzy non-expansive mappings which are proved by Bag and Samanta, in [Bag T, Samanta SK. Fixed point theorems on fuzzy normed linear spaces. Inf Sci 2006;176:2910-31; Bag T, Samanta SK. Some fixed point theorems in fuzzy normed linear spaces. Inform Sci 2007;177(3):3271-89]. By introducing the notion of fuzzy and α- fuzzy reflexive Banach spaces, we obtain some results which help us to establish the correct version of fuzzy fixed point theorems. Second, by applying Theorem 3.3 of Sadeqi and Solati kia [Sadeqi I, Solati kia F. Fuzzy normed linear space and it's topological structure. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, in press] which says that any fuzzy normed linear space is also a topological vector space, we show that all topological version of fixed point theorems do hold in fuzzy normed linear spaces.

  4. Modified intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces and some fixed point theorems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadati, R.; Sedghi, S.; Shobe, N.

    2008-01-01

    Since the intuitionistic fuzzy metric space has extra conditions (see [Gregori V, Romaguera S, Veereamani P. A note on intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;28:902-5]). In this paper, we consider modified intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces and prove some fixed point theorems in these spaces. All the results presented in this paper are new

  5. Probabilistic G-Metric space and some fixed point results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Janfada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this note we introduce the notions of generalized probabilistic metric spaces and generalized Menger probabilistic metric spaces. After making our elementary observations and proving some basic properties of these spaces, we are going to prove some fixed point result in these spaces.

  6. Partial rectangular metric spaces and fixed point theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Satish

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of partial rectangular metric spaces as a generalization of rectangular metric and partial metric spaces. Some properties of partial rectangular metric spaces and some fixed point results for quasitype contraction in partial rectangular metric spaces are proved. Some examples are given to illustrate the observed results.

  7. Fixed Points of Expansive Type Mappings in 2-Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabha Chouhan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In present paper, we define expansive mappings in 2-Banach space and prove some common unique fixed point theorems which are the extension of results of Wang et al. [12] and Rhoades [9] in 2-Banach space.

  8. Injection space charge: enlargements of flux density functioning point choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropert, A.

    In Saturne, injection consists of a synchrobetatron filling of the chamber, with the goal of providing a beam with the following characteristics circulating in the machine: horizontal flux density 90 πmm mrd, vertical flux density 210 πmm mrd, dispersion in moments +- 7 x 10 -3 , and number of particles 2 x 10 12 . The determination of the principal injection parameters was made by means of GOC calculation programs. The goal of this study is to show a certain number of phenomena induced by the forces due to space charge and left suspended up to this point: variations in the intensity injectable into the machine extension of the beam occupation zone in the ν/sub x'/ ν/sub z/ diagram, and turn-turn interactions. The effects of the space charge lead to a deterioration of the injected beam for certain functioning points leading to the selection of a zone in the ν/sub x'/ ν/sub z/ diagram that is particularly suitable for beam injection

  9. A relativistic point coupling model for nuclear structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buervenich, T.; Maruhn, J.A.; Madland, D.G.; Reinhard, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    A relativistic point coupling model is discussed focusing on a variety of aspects. In addition to the coupling using various bilinear Dirac invariants, derivative terms are also included to simulate finite-range effects. The formalism is presented for nuclear structure calculations of ground state properties of nuclei in the Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations. Different fitting strategies for the determination of the parameters have been applied and the quality of the fit obtainable in this model is discussed. The model is then compared more generally to other mean-field approaches both formally and in the context of applications to ground-state properties of known and superheavy nuclei. Perspectives for further extensions such as an exact treatment of the exchange terms using a higher-order Fierz transformation are discussed briefly. (author)

  10. A common fixed point for operators in probabilistic normed spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaemi, M.B.; Lafuerza-Guillen, Bernardo; Razani, A.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic Metric spaces was introduced by Karl Menger. Alsina, Schweizer and Sklar gave a general definition of probabilistic normed space based on the definition of Menger [Alsina C, Schweizer B, Sklar A. On the definition of a probabilistic normed spaces. Aequationes Math 1993;46:91-8]. Here, we consider the equicontinuity of a class of linear operators in probabilistic normed spaces and finally, a common fixed point theorem is proved. Application to quantum Mechanic is considered.

  11. New buildup factor data for point kernel calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubey, D.K.; Harima, Y.

    1986-01-01

    An American Nuclear Society Standards Committee Working Group, identified as ANS-6.4.3, is developing a set of evaluated gamma-ray isotropic point-source buildup factors and attenuation coefficients for a standard reference data base. As a first step, a largely unpublished set of buildup factors calculated with the moments method has been evaluated by recalculating key values with Monte Carlo, integral transport, and discrete ordinates methods. Attention is being given to frequently-neglected processes such as bremsstrahlung and the effect of introducing a tissue phantom behind the shield. The proposed standard contains data for a source energy range from 15 keV to 15 MeV and for approximately 19 elements and 3 mixtures (water, air, and concrete). The data will also be represented as coefficients for the G-P fitting function. The 1985 data base was released as part of the CCC-493B/QAD-CGGP code package available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC)

  12. Topological Vector Space-Valued Cone Metric Spaces and Fixed Point Theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenović Stojan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop the theory of topological vector space valued cone metric spaces with nonnormal cones. We prove three general fixed point results in these spaces and deduce as corollaries several extensions of theorems about fixed points and common fixed points, known from the theory of (normed-valued cone metric spaces. Examples are given to distinguish our results from the known ones.

  13. Excited state artefacts in calculations of hadron 3-point functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    High energy particle physics experiments, as presently conducted, e.g., at LHC, CERN, Geneva are among the most expensive human research efforts. At LHC protons are collided at very high energy resulting in the production of very many hadrons and a few rare particles, like the Higgs boson, the decay products of which one tries to identify reliably. For any such effort it is crucial to understand well the structure of protons and the interactions between its constituents, quarks and gluons. In addition, investigating hadron structure is also a prominent research area in its own right because QCD is one of the fundamental interactions of the standard model and its non-perturbative aspects are still only little understood. Lattice QCD has the potential to provide this information and in many aspects is complementary to direct experiments which can not address all aspects unambiguously. However, lattice QCD requires to take the combined limit of large volume, small lattice spacing, huge statistics and physical quark masses. The very substantial increase of computing power in recent years has allowed to reach the large volume and large statistics limit and in this project also the physical mass limit. (Other lattice collaborations addressing similar physics questions have reached the same limits in parallel, but this is not a problem, because one needs anyway independent confirmation with several lattice actions to be sure that the remaining artifacts are really under control.) The only limit which could not be reached so far is that of small enough lattice constants, see below. Let us note that there is a fundamental difference between lattice simulations which calculate known quantities, like masses, which are thus tests of QCD and the ideas of lattice QCD (which are already generally accepted) and lattice calculations for, e.g. Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs), Transverse Momentum Parton distributions (TMDs), Double Distributions (DDs), Distribution Amplitudes

  14. Tripled Fixed Point in Ordered Multiplicative Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laishram Shanjit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present some triple fixed point theorems in partially ordered multiplicative metric spaces depended on another function. Our results generalise the results of [6] and [5].

  15. New fixed and periodic point results on cone metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Soleimani Rad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, several xed point theorems for T-contraction of two maps on cone metric spaces under normality condition are proved. Obtained results extend and generalize well-known comparable results in the literature.

  16. Accelerated successive substitution schemes for bubble-point and dew-point calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, D.-Y. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada))

    1991-08-01

    Phase equilibrium calculations form an important part of the process design operations in the hydrocarbon and petroleum industry. The accelerated successive substitution (SS) algorithms developed by Mehra et al. (1983) for flash calculations have been extended to the prediction of saturation points. A transformation matrix which is used to calculate the acceleration parameter has been rewritten in a form that is applicable at the saturation conditions. Simple equations for estimating the initial values and recursive formulae according to which the iterates can be updated are presented. The proposed schemes were compared with the conventional SS method and a multivariate Newton's method. The comparison suggests that the accelerated SS schemes are more tolerant of poor initial values and sometimes more efficient than Newton's method. The features of the acceleration schemes and those of the empirical equations developed in this study are illustrated using three hydrocarbon mixtures: a 5-component mixture of n-alkanes, a typical natural gas system, and a volatile oil. 19 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Neutron point-flux calculation by Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A survey of the usual methods for estimating flux at a point is given. The associated variance-reducing techniques in direct Monte Carlo games are explained. The multigroup Monte Carlo codes MC for critical systems and PUNKT for point source-point detector-systems are represented, and problems in applying the codes to practical tasks are discussed. (author)

  18. Best Proximity Point Results in Complex Valued Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binayak S. Choudhury

    2014-01-01

    complex valued metric spaces. We treat the problem as that of finding the global optimal solution of a fixed point equation although the exact solution does not in general exist. We also define and use the concept of P-property in such spaces. Our results are illustrated with examples.

  19. Fixed points for weak contractions in metric type spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we prove some fixed point theorems in metric type spaces. This article is just a generalization some results previously proved in \\cite{niyi-gaba}. In particular, we give some coupled common fixed points theorems under weak contractions. These results extend well known similar results existing in the literature.

  20. Use of libration-point orbits for space observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Robert W.; Dunham, David W.

    1990-01-01

    The sun-earth libration points, L1 and L2, are located 1.5 million kilometers from the earth toward and away from the sun. Halo orbits about these points have significant advantages for space observatories in terms of viewing geometry, thermal and radiation environment, and delta-V expediture.

  1. Accuracy of micro four-point probe measurements on inhomogeneous samples: A probe spacing dependence study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a probe spacing dependence study in order to estimate the accuracy of micro four-point probe measurements on inhomogeneous samples. Based on sensitivity calculations, both sheet resistance and Hall effect measurements are studied for samples (e.g. laser annealed samples...... the probe spacing is smaller than 1/40 of the variation wavelength, micro four-point probes can provide an accurate record of local properties with less than 1% measurement error. All the calculations agree well with previous experimental results.......) with periodic variations of sheet resistance, sheet carrier density, and carrier mobility. With a variation wavelength of ¿, probe spacings from 0.0012 to 1002 have been applied to characterize the local variations. The calculations show that the measurement error is highly dependent on the probe spacing. When...

  2. Coupling-reducing k-points for photonic crystal fibre calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Maja; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Barkou Libori, Stig Eigil

    2003-01-01

    When describing localized electromagnetic modes in dielectric waveguides by the planewave method, a supercell geometry must necessarily be adopted. We demonstrate in the present work that the convergence of the calculations with respect to supercell size depends strongly on the choice of the tran......When describing localized electromagnetic modes in dielectric waveguides by the planewave method, a supercell geometry must necessarily be adopted. We demonstrate in the present work that the convergence of the calculations with respect to supercell size depends strongly on the choice...... of the transverse Bloch wave vector, k. We describe a method to derive k-points that minimize the coupling between repeated images of the guided modes in real space. Calculations have been done for a quadratic and a triangular photonic crystal fiber structure. With the new coupling reducing (CR) k...

  3. Singular points in moduli spaces of Yang-Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticciati, R.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the metric dependence of the moduli spaces of Yang-Mills fields of an SU(2) principal bundle P with chern number -1 over a four-dimensional, simply-connected, oriented, compact smooth manifold M with positive definite intersection form. The purpose of this investigation is to suggest that the surgery class of the moduli space of irreducible connections is, for a generic metric, a Z 2 topological invariant of the smooth structure on M. There are three main parts. The first two parts are local analysis of singular points in the moduli spaces. The last part is global. The first part shows that the set of metrics for which the moduli space of irreducible connections has only non-degenerate singularities has codimension at least one in the space of all metrics. The second part shows that, for a one-parameter family of moduli spaces in a direction transverse to the set of metrics for which the moduli spaces have singularities, passing through a non-degenerate singularity of the simplest type changes the moduli space by a cobordism. The third part shows that generic one-parameter families of metrics give rise to six-dimensional manifolds, the corresponding family of moduli spaces of irreducible connections. It is shown that when M is homeomorphic to S 4 the six-dimensional manifold is a proper cobordism, thus establishing the independence of the surgery class of the moduli space on the metric on M

  4. Beaconless Pointing for Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Aaron J.; Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Le, Dzu K.; Sands, Obed S.; Wroblewski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Free space optical communication is of interest to NASA as a complement to existing radio frequency communication methods. The potential for an increase in science data return capability over current radio-frequency communications is the primary objective. Deep space optical communication requires laser beam pointing accuracy on the order of a few microradians. The laser beam pointing approach discussed here operates without the aid of a terrestrial uplink beacon. Precision pointing is obtained from an on-board star tracker in combination with inertial rate sensors and an outgoing beam reference vector. The beaconless optical pointing system presented in this work is the current approach for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communication (iROC) project.

  5. Noise and intercept point calculation for modern radio receiver planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Christian Rye; Kolding, T. E.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents analytical expressions for determining noise and intercept points for cascaded radio receiver stages. The theory allows for active receiver stages with frequency selectivity and flexible impedance levels. This makes the method highly usable for planning of modem receivers where...

  6. Calculational models of close-spaced thermionic converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVey, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Two new calculational models have been developed in conjunction with the SAVTEC experimental program. These models have been used to analyze data from experimental close-spaced converters, providing values for spacing, electrode work functions, and converter efficiency. They have also been used to make performance predictions for such converters over a wide range of conditions. Both models are intended for use in the collisionless (Knudsen) regime. They differ from each other in that the simpler one uses a Langmuir-type formulation which only considers electrons emitted from the emitter. This approach is implemented in the LVD (Langmuir Vacuum Diode) computer program, which has the virtue of being both simple and fast. The more complex model also includes both Saha-Langmuir emission of positive cesium ions from the emitter and collector back emission. Computer implementation is by the KMD1 (Knudsen Mode Diode) program. The KMD1 model derives the particle distribution functions from the Vlasov equation. From these the particle densities are found for various interelectrode motive shapes. Substituting the particle densities into Poisson's equation gives a second order differential equation for potential. This equation can be integrated once analytically. The second integration, which gives the interelectrode motive, is performed numerically by the KMD1 program. This is complicated by the fact that the integrand is often singular at one end point of the integration interval. The program performs a transformation on the integrand to make it finite over the entire interval. Once the motive has been computed, the output voltage, current density, power density, and efficiency are found. The program is presently unable to operate when the ion richness ratio β is between about .8 and 1.0, due to the occurrence of oscillatory motives

  7. On the calculation of soft phase space integral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Hua Xing

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of the Higgs boson at the LHC attracts much attention to the precise calculation of its production cross section in quantum chromodynamics. In this work, we discuss the calculation of soft triple-emission phase space integral, which is an essential ingredient in the recently calculated soft-virtual corrections to Higgs boson production at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order. The main techniques used this calculation are method of differential equation for Feynman integral, and integration of harmonic polylogarithms.

  8. FUEL HANDLING FACILITY BACKUP CENTRAL COMMUNICATIONS ROOM SPACE REQUIREMENTS CALCULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SZALEWSKI, B.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Fuel Handling Facility Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements Calculation is to determine a preliminary estimate of the space required to house the backup central communications room in the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF). This room provides backup communications capability to the primary communication systems located in the Central Control Center Facility. This calculation will help guide FHF designers in allocating adequate space for communications system equipment in the FHF. This is a preliminary calculation determining preliminary estimates based on the assumptions listed in Section 4. As such, there are currently no limitations on the use of this preliminary calculation. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Design and Engineering and are intended solely for the use of Design and Engineering in its work regarding the FHF Backup Central Communications Room Space Requirements. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from Design and Engineering should be consulted before the use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Design and Engineering

  9. EXTRACTING TOPOLOGICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN INDOOR SPACES FROM POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available 3D models of indoor environments are essential for many application domains such as navigation guidance, emergency management and a range of indoor location-based services. The principal components defined in different BIM standards contain not only building elements, such as floors, walls and doors, but also navigable spaces and their topological relations, which are essential for path planning and navigation. We present an approach to automatically reconstruct topological relations between navigable spaces from point clouds. Three types of topological relations, namely containment, adjacency and connectivity of the spaces are modelled. The results of initial experiments demonstrate the potential of the method in supporting indoor navigation.

  10. Three-dimensional space-charge calculation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.; Wadlinger, E.A.

    1980-09-01

    A method is presented for calculating space-charge forces on individual particles in a particle tracing simulation code. Poisson's equation is solved in three dimensions with boundary conditions specified on an arbitrary surface. When the boundary condition is defined by an impressed radio-frequency field, the external electric fields as well as the space-charge fields are determined. A least squares fitting procedure is used to calculate the coefficients of expansion functions, which need not be orthogonal nor individually satisfy the boundary condition

  11. Stability of common fixed points in uniform spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Shyam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stability results for a pair of sequences of mappings and their common fixed points in a Hausdorff uniform space using certain new notions of convergence are proved. The results obtained herein extend and unify several known results. AMS(MOS Subject classification 2010: 47H10; 54H25.

  12. Fast space travel by vacuum zero-point field perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froning, H. D. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Forces acting upon an accelerating vehicle that is 'warping' its surrounding space are estimated, using the techniques of computational gas/fluid dynamics. Disturbances corresponding to perturbation of spacetime metric and vacuum zero-point fields by electromagnetic discharges are modeled as changes in the electric permittivity and magnetic permeability characteristics of the vacuum of space. And it is assumed that resistance to acceleration (vehicle inertia) is, in part, a consequence of zero-point radiation pressure field anisotropy in the warped space region surrounding the craft. The paper shows that resistance to vehicle acceleration can be diminished by spacetime warping that increases light propagation speed within the warped region. If sufficient warping is achieved, ship speed is slower than light speed within the region that surrounds it-even if it is moving faster-than-light with respect to earth

  13. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C.; Verschuur, Dirk Jacob Eric

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from

  14. Calculation of 3D Coordinates of a Point on the Basis of a Stereoscopic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussabayev, R. R.; Kalimoldayev, M. N.; Amirgaliyev, Ye. N.; Tairova, A. T.; Mussabayev, T. R.

    2018-05-01

    The solution of three-dimensional (3D) coordinate calculation task for a material point is considered. Two flat images (a stereopair) which correspond to the left and to the right viewpoints of a 3D scene are used for this purpose. The stereopair is obtained using two cameras with parallel optical axes. The analytical formulas for calculating 3D coordinates of a material point in the scene were obtained on the basis of analysis of the stereoscopic system optical and geometrical schemes. The detailed presentation of the algorithmic and hardware realization of the given method was discussed with the the practical. The practical module was recommended for the determination of the optical system unknown parameters. The series of experimental investigations were conducted for verification of theoretical results. During these experiments the minor inaccuracies were occurred by space distortions in the optical system and by it discrecity. While using the high quality stereoscopic system, the existing calculation inaccuracy enables to apply the given method for the wide range of practical tasks.

  15. Ion trajectories calculation in a three dimensional beam subjected to a space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauth, T.

    1978-04-01

    Physical and geometrical conditions allowing a first approximation of necessary sizes to numerical integration of the ions movement equations subjected to electrical and magnetic crossed fields and space charge action are investigated here. To take into consideration the effect of the last one, two artifices are put forward: replacing charged particles by equivalent particles in calculating the coulomb force, electrical field calculation produced in different points situated on the beam envelope by the uniform charges distribution [fr

  16. Fixed point theorems in complex valued metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naval Singh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to establish and prove several results on common fixed point for a pair of mappings satisfying more general contraction conditions portrayed by rational expressions having point-dependent control functions as coefficients in complex valued metric spaces. Our results generalize and extend the results of Azam et al. (2011 [1], Sintunavarat and Kumam (2012 [2], Rouzkard and Imdad (2012 [3], Sitthikul and Saejung (2012 [4] and Dass and Gupta (1975 [5]. To substantiate the authenticity of our results and to distinguish them from existing ones, some illustrative examples are also furnished.

  17. Power Absorption by Closely Spaced Point Absorbers in Constrained Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, G.; Vantorre, M.; Beels, C.

    2010-01-01

    The performance of an array of closely spaced point absorbers is numerically assessed in a frequency domain model Each point absorber is restricted to the heave mode and is assumed to have its own linear power take-off (PTO) system Unidirectional irregular incident waves are considered......, representing the wave climate at Westhinder on the Belgian Continental Shelf The impact of slamming, stroke and force restrictions on the power absorption is evaluated and optimal PTO parameters are determined For multiple bodies optimal control parameters (CP) are not only dependent on the incoming waves...

  18. Fixed Point in Topological Vector Space-Valued Cone Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arshad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain common fixed points of a pair of mappings satisfying a generalized contractive type condition in TVS-valued cone metric spaces. Our results generalize some well-known recent results in the literature.

  19. Fixed Points of Multivalued Contractive Mappings in Partial Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present fixed point results of multivalued mappings in the framework of partial metric spaces. Some examples are presented to support the results proved herein. Our results generalize and extend various results in the existing literature. As an application of our main result, the existence and uniqueness of bounded solution of functional equations arising in dynamic programming are established.

  20. Quantum phase space points for Wigner functions in finite-dimensional spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Aina, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    We introduce quantum states associated with single phase space points in the Wigner formalism for finite-dimensional spaces. We consider both continuous and discrete Wigner functions. This analysis provides a procedure for a direct practical observation of the Wigner functions for states and transformations without inversion formulas.

  1. Quantum phase space points for Wigner functions in finite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, Alfredo

    2004-01-01

    We introduce quantum states associated with single phase space points in the Wigner formalism for finite-dimensional spaces. We consider both continuous and discrete Wigner functions. This analysis provides a procedure for a direct practical observation of the Wigner functions for states and transformations without inversion formulas

  2. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.

  3. Point splitting in a curved space-time background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    A prescription is given for point splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current that can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four-dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g., to spin-3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  4. Space trajectory calculation based on G-sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Biya; Zhan, Yinwei; Shao, Yang

    2017-08-01

    At present, without full use of the mobile phone around us, most of the research in human body posture recognition field is use camera or portable acceleration sensor to collect data. In this paper, G-sensor built-in mobile phone is use to collect data. After processing data with the way of moving average filter and acceleration integral, joint point's space three-dimensional coordinates can be abtained accurately.

  5. Calculation of dose point kernels for five radionuclides used in radio-immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okigaki, S.; Ito, A.; Uchida, I.; Tomaru, T.

    1994-01-01

    With the recent interest in radioimmunotherapy, attention has been given to calculation of dose distribution from beta rays and monoenergetic electrons in tissue. Dose distribution around a point source of a beta ray emitting radioisotope is referred to as a beta dose point kernel. Beta dose point kernels for five radionuclides such as 131 I, 186 Re, 32 P, 188 Re, and 90 Y appropriate for radioimmunotherapy are calculated by Monte Carlo method using the EGS4 code system. Present results were compared with the published data of experiments and other calculations. Accuracy and precisions of beta dose point kernels are discussed. (author)

  6. Approximating fixed points for nonself mappings in CAT(0) spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Razani Abdolrahman; Shabani Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Suppose K is a nonempty closed convex subset of a complete CAT(0) space X with the nearest point projection P from X onto K. Let T : K → X be a nonself mapping, satisfying Condition (E) with F(T): = {x ∈ K : Tx = x} ≠ ∅. Suppose {xn} is generated iteratively by x1 ∈ K, xn+1 = P ((1 - αn)xn ⊕ αnTP [(1 - βn)xn ⊕ βnTxn]),n ≥ 1, where {αn} and {βn} are real sequences in [ε, 1 - ε] for some ε W...

  7. Point kinetics improvements to evaluate three-dimensional effects in transients calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellotti, U.

    1987-01-01

    A calculation method, which considers the flux axial perturbations in the parameters related to the reactivity within a point kinetics model, is described. The method considered uses axial factors of consideration which act on the thermohydraulic variables included in the reactivity calculation. The PUMA three-dimensional code as reference model for the comparisons, is used. The limitations inherent to the reactivity balance of the point models used in the transients calculation, are given. (Author)

  8. Point-to-point people with purpose—Exploring the possibility of a commercial traveler market for point-to-point suborbital space transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Derek

    2013-12-01

    An argument was made at the First Arcachon Conference on Private Human Access to Space in 2008 [1] that some systematic market research should be conducted into potential market segments for point-to-point suborbital space transportation (PtP), in order to understand whether a commercial market exists which might augment possible government use for such a vehicle. The cargo market potential was subsequently addressed via desk research, and the results, which resulted in a pessimistic business case outlook, were presented in [2]. The same desk research approach is now used in this paper to address the potential business and wealthy individual passenger traveler market segment ("point-to-point people with purpose"). The results, with the assumed ticket pricing, are not encouraging.

  9. Space vector modulation strategy for neutral-point voltage balancing in three-level inverter systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Lee, Kyo Beum

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a space vector modulation (SVM) strategy to balance the neutral-point voltage of three-level inverter systems. The proposed method is implemented by combining conventional symmetric SVM with nearest three-vector (NTV) modulation. The conventional SVM is converted to NTV...... modulation by properly adding or subtracting a minimum gate-on time. In addition, using this method, the switching frequency is reduced and a decrease of switching loss would be yielded. The neutral-point voltage is balanced by the proposed SVM strategy without additional hardware or complex calculations....... Simulation and experimental results are shown to verify the validity and feasibility of the proposed SVM strategy....

  10. Calculation of dose for β point and sphere sources in soft tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuyin; Yuan Shuyu; Tan Jian

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To compare the results of the distribution of dose rate calculated by three typical methods for point source and sphere source of β nuclide. Methods: Calculating and comparing the distributions of dose rate from 32 P β point and sphere sources in soft tissue calculated by the three methods published in references, [1]. [2] and [3], respectively. Results: For the point source of 3.7 x 10 7 Bq (1mCi), the variations of the calculation results of the three formulas are within 10% if r≤0.35 g/cm 2 , r being the distance from source, and larger than 10% if r > 0.35 g/cm 2 . For the sphere source whose volume is 50 μl and activity is 3.7 x 10 7 Bq(1 mCi), the variations are within 10% if z≤0.15 g/cm 2 , z being the distance from the surface of the sphere source to a point outside the sphere. Conclusion: The agreement of the distributions of the dose rate calculated by the three methods mentioned above for point and sphere β source are good if the distances from point source or the surface of sphere source to the points observed are small, and poor if they are large

  11. Fast calculation method of computer-generated hologram using a depth camera with point cloud gridding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Shi, Chen-Xiao; Kwon, Ki-Chul; Piao, Yan-Ling; Piao, Mei-Lan; Kim, Nam

    2018-03-01

    We propose a fast calculation method for a computer-generated hologram (CGH) of real objects that uses a point cloud gridding method. The depth information of the scene is acquired using a depth camera and the point cloud model is reconstructed virtually. Because each point of the point cloud is distributed precisely to the exact coordinates of each layer, each point of the point cloud can be classified into grids according to its depth. A diffraction calculation is performed on the grids using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtain a CGH. The computational complexity is reduced dramatically in comparison with conventional methods. The feasibility of the proposed method was confirmed by numerical and optical experiments.

  12. Calculations of the stress intensity factor on a specimen for a four-point bend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauerova, D.

    1995-02-01

    The stress intensity factor K I was calculated in dependence on the crack length in a sample for a (non-standard) four-point bend assuming elastic properties of the material. It is shown that the SYSTUS code gives the best results when calculating the K I value from the J-integral. 4 tabs., 12 figs., 4 refs

  13. MAGNETIC NULL POINTS IN KINETIC SIMULATIONS OF SPACE PLASMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshevsky, Vyacheslav; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Cazzola, Emanuele; Lapenta, Giovanni; Deca, Jan; Divin, Andrey; Peng, Ivy Bo; Markidis, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic attempt to study magnetic null points and the associated magnetic energy conversion in kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of various plasma configurations. We address three-dimensional simulations performed with the semi-implicit kinetic electromagnetic code iPic3D in different setups: variations of a Harris current sheet, dipolar and quadrupolar magnetospheres interacting with the solar wind, and a relaxing turbulent configuration with multiple null points. Spiral nulls are more likely created in space plasmas: in all our simulations except lunar magnetic anomaly (LMA) and quadrupolar mini-magnetosphere the number of spiral nulls prevails over the number of radial nulls by a factor of 3–9. We show that often magnetic nulls do not indicate the regions of intensive energy dissipation. Energy dissipation events caused by topological bifurcations at radial nulls are rather rare and short-lived. The so-called X-lines formed by the radial nulls in the Harris current sheet and LMA simulations are rather stable and do not exhibit any energy dissipation. Energy dissipation is more powerful in the vicinity of spiral nulls enclosed by magnetic flux ropes with strong currents at their axes (their cross sections resemble 2D magnetic islands). These null lines reminiscent of Z-pinches efficiently dissipate magnetic energy due to secondary instabilities such as the two-stream or kinking instability, accompanied by changes in magnetic topology. Current enhancements accompanied by spiral nulls may signal magnetic energy conversion sites in the observational data

  14. Point kernels and superposition methods for scatter dose calculations in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Point kernels have been generated and applied for calculation of scatter dose distributions around monoenergetic point sources for photon energies ranging from 28 to 662 keV. Three different approaches for dose calculations have been compared: a single-kernel superposition method, a single-kernel superposition method where the point kernels are approximated as isotropic and a novel 'successive-scattering' superposition method for improved modelling of the dose from multiply scattered photons. An extended version of the EGS4 Monte Carlo code was used for generating the kernels and for benchmarking the absorbed dose distributions calculated with the superposition methods. It is shown that dose calculation by superposition at and below 100 keV can be simplified by using isotropic point kernels. Compared to the assumption of full in-scattering made by algorithms currently in clinical use, the single-kernel superposition method improves dose calculations in a half-phantom consisting of air and water. Further improvements are obtained using the successive-scattering superposition method, which reduces the overestimates of dose close to the phantom surface usually associated with kernel superposition methods at brachytherapy photon energies. It is also shown that scatter dose point kernels can be parametrized to biexponential functions, making them suitable for use with an effective implementation of the collapsed cone superposition algorithm. (author)

  15. Quantum phase space theory for the calculation of v·j vector correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    The quantum state-counting phase space theory commonly used to describe barrierless dissociation is recast in a helicity basis to calculate photofragment v·j correlations. Counting pairs of fragment states with specific angular momentum projection numbers on the relative velocity provides a simple connection between angular momentum conservation and the v·j correlation, which is not so evident in the conventional basis for phase space state counts. The upper bound on the orbital angular momentum, l, imposed by the centrifugal barrier cannot be included simply in the helicity basis, where l is not a good quantum number. Two approaches for a quantum calculation of the v·j correlation are described to address this point. An application to the photodissociation of NCCN is consistent with recent classical phase space calculations of Cline and Klippenstein. The observed vector correlation exceeds the phase space theory prediction. The authors take this as evidence of incomplete mixing of the K states of the linear parent molecule at the transition state, corresponding to an evolution of the body-fixed projection number K into the total helicity of the fragment pair state. The average over a thermal distribution of parent angular momentum in the special case of a linear molecule does not significantly reduce the v·j correlation below that computed for total J = 0

  16. ptchg: A FORTRAN program for point-charge calculations of electric field gradients (EFGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Dane R.

    1994-05-01

    ptchg, a FORTRAN program, has been developed to calculate electric field gradients (EFG) around an atomic site in crystalline solids using the point-charge direct-lattice summation method. It uses output from the crystal structure generation program Atoms as its input. As an application of ptchg, a point-charge calculation of the EFG quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite is demonstrated. Although point-charge calculations of electric field gradients generally are limited to ionic compounds, the computed quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite, a highly covalent material, are in good agreement with the experimentally determined values from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  17. Determination and characterization of the Hubble Space Telescope pointing stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, A. J.; Connor, C. T.; del Toro, Y.; Andersen, G. C.; Bely, Pierre Y.; Decker, J.; Franz, O. G.; Wasserman, L. H.; van Altena, William F.

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was designed to maintian a pointing stability (jitter) of 0.007 arc seconds rms throughout every observing period, which can last from a few seconds to several orbits. On-orbit measurements indicate that the hardware excitation induced by the reaction wheels. gyros, high gain antennae, science instrument mechanisms and tape recorders are well within specifications. Unexpectedly, the solar arrays because the dominant source of jitter. Every passage through an orbital terminator produces vibrations which emanate from the solar arrays due to thermal effects, which affect the relative positional stability. Broadband frequencies centered about 0.11 and 0.65 Hz were detected in the frequency content of the vehicle jitter. On-board modifications to the control law have attenuated the disturbance torques and reduced the vehicle jitter close to specification. Replacement of the solar arrays in December, 1993, should eliminate the torque distubances. Astrometric science observations are extremely susceptible to corruption from vehicle jitter. The removal of vehicle jitter from astrometric Transfer function scans of binary stars is explained in detail. A binary star separation of 16 milli-seconds of arc has been achieved, a separation resolution of 10 to 12 milli-seconds of arc appears feasible, with a binary star magnitude of 9 m(sub V). The achievement of this resolution is in part due to vehicle jitter removal. Comparison of vehicle jitter measurements from the position path of the vehicle control law, or from the guiding Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS), are shown to be equivalent to approximately 0.001 arc second.

  18. Molecular dynamics calculations of the thermal expansion properties and melting points of Si and Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timon, V; Brand, S; Clark, S J; Abram, R A

    2006-01-01

    The thermal expansion properties and melting points of silicon and germanium are calculated using molecular dynamics simulations within the density functional theory framework. An isothermal-isobaric (NPT) ensemble is considered in a periodic system with a relatively small number of particles per unit cell to obtain the thermal expansion data over a range of temperatures, and it is found that the calculated thermal expansion coefficients and bond lengths agree well with experimental data. Also, the positions of discontinuities in the potential energy as a function of temperature are in good agreement with the experimental melting points

  19. Discrete Approximations of Determinantal Point Processes on Continuous Spaces: Tree Representations and Tail Triviality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Hirofumi; Osada, Shota

    2018-01-01

    We prove tail triviality of determinantal point processes μ on continuous spaces. Tail triviality has been proved for such processes only on discrete spaces, and hence we have generalized the result to continuous spaces. To do this, we construct tree representations, that is, discrete approximations of determinantal point processes enjoying a determinantal structure. There are many interesting examples of determinantal point processes on continuous spaces such as zero points of the hyperbolic Gaussian analytic function with Bergman kernel, and the thermodynamic limit of eigenvalues of Gaussian random matrices for Sine_2 , Airy_2 , Bessel_2 , and Ginibre point processes. Our main theorem proves all these point processes are tail trivial.

  20. Dual keel Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Class, Brian F.; Bauer, Frank H.; Lebair, Deborah A.

    1988-01-01

    A Space Station attached Payload Pointing System (PPS) has been designed and analyzed. The PPS is responsible for maintaining fixed payload pointing in the presence of disturbance applied to the Space Station. The payload considered in this analysis is the Solar Optical Telescope. System performance is evaluated via digital time simulations by applying various disturbance forces to the Space Station. The PPS meets the Space Station articulated pointing requirement for all disturbances except Shuttle docking and some centrifuge cases.

  1. Multi-scale calculation based on dual domain material point method combined with molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhakal, Tilak Raj [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-27

    This dissertation combines the dual domain material point method (DDMP) with molecular dynamics (MD) in an attempt to create a multi-scale numerical method to simulate materials undergoing large deformations with high strain rates. In these types of problems, the material is often in a thermodynamically non-equilibrium state, and conventional constitutive relations are often not available. In this method, the closure quantities, such as stress, at each material point are calculated from a MD simulation of a group of atoms surrounding the material point. Rather than restricting the multi-scale simulation in a small spatial region, such as phase interfaces, or crack tips, this multi-scale method can be used to consider non-equilibrium thermodynamic e ects in a macroscopic domain. This method takes advantage that the material points only communicate with mesh nodes, not among themselves; therefore MD simulations for material points can be performed independently in parallel. First, using a one-dimensional shock problem as an example, the numerical properties of the original material point method (MPM), the generalized interpolation material point (GIMP) method, the convected particle domain interpolation (CPDI) method, and the DDMP method are investigated. Among these methods, only the DDMP method converges as the number of particles increases, but the large number of particles needed for convergence makes the method very expensive especially in our multi-scale method where we calculate stress in each material point using MD simulation. To improve DDMP, the sub-point method is introduced in this dissertation, which provides high quality numerical solutions with a very small number of particles. The multi-scale method based on DDMP with sub-points is successfully implemented for a one dimensional problem of shock wave propagation in a cerium crystal. The MD simulation to calculate stress in each material point is performed in GPU using CUDA to accelerate the

  2. Calculating the flue gas dew point for raw brown coal fired steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinkel, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper analyzes parameters influencing the sulfuric acid dew point in flue gas of steam generators. Sulfur content and alkaline earths content in the fuel air ratio during combustion, fly ash content in the flue gas (which absorbs sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide) and combustion conditions in steam generators are relevant parameters in the combustion process. A thermodynamic and reaction kinetic calculation of the sulfuric acid dew point is, however, not yet possible. A statistical evaluation of dew point measurements in steam generators is, therefore, employed. Various diagrams show results of dew point measurements carried out at generators with steam capacities ranging from 40 to 660 t/h, which demonstrate relations of these parameters to flue gas dew points, in particular the relative sulfur content (sulfur content in the raw brown coal compared to coal ash content and alkaline earths content). A function is derived for the conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfur trioxide. A diagram presents the relation of the flue gas dew point to partial pressures of sulfuric acid and steam. Direct calculation of the flue gas dew point was achieved by the proposed method. It is applied in steam generator design. (17 refs.)

  3. Zero-point energy constraint in quasi-classical trajectory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhen; Bowman, Joel M

    2006-04-27

    A method to constrain the zero-point energy in quasi-classical trajectory calculations is proposed and applied to the Henon-Heiles system. The main idea of this method is to smoothly eliminate the coupling terms in the Hamiltonian as the energy of any mode falls below a specified value.

  4. Optimization Algorithms for Calculation of the Joint Design Point in Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1992-01-01

    In large structures it is often necessary to estimate the reliability of the system by use of parallel systems. Optimality criteria-based algorithms for calculation of the joint design point in a parallel system are described and efficient active set strategies are developed. Three possible...

  5. Documenting Student Performance: An Alternative to the Traditional Calculation of Grade Point Averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volwerk, Johannes J.; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, students in secondary and postsecondary education have grade point averages (GPA) calculated, and a cumulative GPA computed to summarize overall performance at their institutions. GPAs are used for acknowledgement and awards, as partial evidence for admission to other institutions (colleges and universities), and for awarding…

  6. Performance of Closely Spaced Point Absorbers with Constrained Floater Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Backer, G.; Vantorre, M.; Beels, C.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a wave energy converter array of twelve heaving point absorbers has been assessed numerically in a frequency domain model. Each point absorber is assumed to have its own linear power take-off. The impact of slamming, stroke and force restrictions on the power absorption...

  7. Six-point remainder function in multi-Regge-kinematics: an efficient approach in momentum space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,IRIS Adlershof, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Sprenger, Martin [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2016-05-10

    Starting from the known all-order expressions for the BFKL eigenvalue and impact factor, we establish a formalism allowing the direct calculation of the six-point remainder function in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory in momentum space to — in principle — all orders in perturbation theory. Based upon identities which relate different integrals contributing to the inverse Fourier-Mellin transform recursively, the formalism allows to easily access the full remainder function in multi-Regge kinematics up to 7 loops and up to 10 loops in the fourth logarithmic order. Using the formalism, we prove the all-loop formula for the leading logarithmic approximation proposed by Pennington and investigate the behavior of several newly calculated functions.

  8. Point-like Particles in Fuzzy Space-time

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Charles

    1999-01-01

    This paper is withdrawn as I am no longer using the term "fuzzy space- time" to describe the uncertainty in co-ordinate systems implicit in quantum logic. Nor am I using the interpretation that quantum logic can be regarded as a special case of fuzzy logic. This is because there are sufficient differences between quantum logic and fuzzy logic that the explanation is confusing. I give an interpretation of quantum logic in "A Theory of Quantum Space-time"

  9. Energetics of intrinsic point defects in uranium dioxide from electronic-structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerikar, Pankaj; Watanabe, Taku; Tulenko, James S.; Phillpot, Simon R.; Sinnott, Susan B.

    2009-01-01

    The stability range of intrinsic point defects in uranium dioxide is determined as a function of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and non-stoichiometry. The computational approach integrates high accuracy ab initio electronic-structure calculations and thermodynamic analysis supported by experimental data. In particular, the density functional theory calculations are performed at the level of the spin polarized, generalized gradient approximation and includes the Hubbard U term; as a result they predict the correct anti-ferromagnetic insulating ground state of uranium oxide. The thermodynamic calculations enable the effects of system temperature and partial pressure of oxygen on defect formation energy to be determined. The predicted equilibrium properties and defect formation energies for neutral defect complexes match trends in the experimental literature quite well. In contrast, the predicted values for charged complexes are lower than the measured values. The calculations predict that the formation of oxygen interstitials becomes increasingly difficult as higher temperatures and reducing conditions are approached

  10. Common Fixed Points of Mappings and Set-Valued Mappings in Symmetric Spaces with Application to Probabilistic Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    M. Aamri; A. Bassou; S. Bennani; D. El Moutawakil

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to give some common fixed point theorems of mappings and set-valued mappings of a symmetric space with some applications to probabilistic spaces. In order to get these results, we define the concept of E-weak compatibility between set-valued and single-valued mappings of a symmetric space.

  11. Geant4 calculations for space radiation shielding material Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capali, Veli; Acar Yesil, Tolga; Kaya, Gokhan; Kaplan, Abdullah; Yavuz, Mustafa; Tilki, Tahir

    2015-07-01

    Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 is the most widely used material in the engineering applications. It is significant aluminium metal, because of its hardness and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. This material has several engineering applications in diverse fields such as, ballistic armour systems, wear components, electrical and electronic substrates, automotive parts, components for electric industry and aero-engine. As well, it is used as a dosimeter for radiation protection and therapy applications for its optically stimulated luminescence properties. In this study, stopping powers and penetrating distances have been calculated for the alpha, proton, electron and gamma particles in space radiation shielding material Al2O3 for incident energies 1 keV - 1 GeV using GEANT4 calculation code.

  12. Geant4 calculations for space radiation shielding material Al2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capali Veli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium Oxide, Al2O3 is the most widely used material in the engineering applications. It is significant aluminium metal, because of its hardness and as a refractory material owing to its high melting point. This material has several engineering applications in diverse fields such as, ballistic armour systems, wear components, electrical and electronic substrates, automotive parts, components for electric industry and aero-engine. As well, it is used as a dosimeter for radiation protection and therapy applications for its optically stimulated luminescence properties. In this study, stopping powers and penetrating distances have been calculated for the alpha, proton, electron and gamma particles in space radiation shielding material Al2O3 for incident energies 1 keV – 1 GeV using GEANT4 calculation code.

  13. Calculation of the solid angle subtended by a cylinder at a point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryka, S.

    2012-01-01

    An analytical formula for calculating the solid angle subtended by a cylinder at a point has been derived from the general solid angle equation. The formula is expressed by double line integrals and by single integrals of simple elementary functions. These functions were then integrated and the formula was represented by products of some elementary functions and the incomplete Lagrange–Jacobi elliptic integrals of the third kind. The final formula was used to calculate representative values of solid angles and compare them with literature data.

  14. The extension of quadrupled xed point results in K-metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Soleimani Rad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Rahimi et al. [Comp. Appl. Math. 2013, In press] dened the conceptof quadrupled xed point in K-metric spaces and proved several quadrupled  xed point theorems for solid cones on K-metric spaces. In this paper some quadrupled xed point results for T-contraction on K-metric spaces without normality condition are proved. Obtained results extend and generalize well-known comparable results in the literature.

  15. Fixed point theorems for generalized α -β-weakly contraction mappings in metric spaces and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Abdul; Mongkolkeha, Chirasak; Sintunavarat, Wutiphol

    2014-01-01

    We extend the notion of generalized weakly contraction mappings due to Choudhury et al. (2011) to generalized α-β-weakly contraction mappings. We show with examples that our new class of mappings is a real generalization of several known classes of mappings. We also establish fixed point results for such mappings in metric spaces. Applying our new results, we obtain fixed point results on ordinary metric spaces, metric spaces endowed with an arbitrary binary relation, and metric spaces endowed with graph.

  16. Measurement and estimation of dew point for SNG. [Comparison of calculated and measured values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuyama, Y.

    1974-08-01

    Toho Gas measured and estimated SNG dew points in high-pressure deliveries by calculating the theoretical values by the high-pressure gas-liquid equilibrium theory using the pressure-extrapolation method to reach K = 1, and the BWR method to estimate fugacity, then verifying these values experimentally. The experimental values were measured at 161.7 to 367.5 psi using the conventional static and circulation methods, in addition to a newly developed method consisting of circulating a known composition of gas mixtures, partially freezing them, and monitoring the dew point by observing the droplets on a mirror cooled by blowing liquid nitrogen. Good agreement was found between the calculated and the experimental values.

  17. Calculation of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays for water and lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. H.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available   Exposure buildup factors for water and lead have been calculated by the Monte-Carlo method for an isotropic point source in an infinite homogeneous medium, using the latest cross secions available on the Internet. The types of interactions considered are ,photoelectric effect, incoherent (or bound-electron Compton. Scattering, coherent (or Rayleigh scattering and pair production. Fluorescence radiations have also been taken into acount for lead. For each material, calculations were made at 10 gamma ray energies in the 40 keV to 10 MeV range and up to penetration depths of 10 mean free paths at each energy point. The results presented in this paper can be considered as modified gamma ray exposure buildup factors and be used in radiation shielding designs.

  18. Common fixed points for generalized contractive mappings in cone metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Aydi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish coincidence point and common fixed point results for four maps satisfying generalized weak contractions in cone metric spaces. Also, an example is given to illustrate our results.

  19. From Point Clouds to Definitions of Architectural Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Blümel, Ina; Ochmann, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Regarding interior building topology as an important aspect in building design and management, several approaches to indoor point cloud structuring have been introduced recently. Apart from a high-level semantic segmentation of the formerly unstructured point clouds into stories and rooms...... possible applications of these approaches in architectural design and building management and comment on the possible benefits for the building profession. While contemporary practice of spatial arrangement is predominantly based on the manual iteration of spatial topologies, we show that the segmentation...

  20. Spent Fuel Pool Dose Rate Calculations Using Point Kernel and Hybrid Deterministic-Stochastic Shielding Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijevic, M.; Grgic, D.; Jecmenica, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents comparison of the Krsko Power Plant simplified Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) dose rates using different computational shielding methodologies. The analysis was performed to estimate limiting gamma dose rates on wall mounted level instrumentation in case of significant loss of cooling water. The SFP was represented with simple homogenized cylinders (point kernel and Monte Carlo (MC)) or cuboids (MC) using uranium, iron, water, and dry-air as bulk region materials. The pool is divided on the old and new section where the old one has three additional subsections representing fuel assemblies (FAs) with different burnup/cooling time (60 days, 1 year and 5 years). The new section represents the FAs with the cooling time of 10 years. The time dependent fuel assembly isotopic composition was calculated using ORIGEN2 code applied to the depletion of one of the fuel assemblies present in the pool (AC-29). The source used in Microshield calculation is based on imported isotopic activities. The time dependent photon spectra with total source intensity from Microshield multigroup point kernel calculations was then prepared for two hybrid deterministic-stochastic sequences. One is based on SCALE/MAVRIC (Monaco and Denovo) methodology and another uses Monte Carlo code MCNP6.1.1b and ADVANTG3.0.1. code. Even though this model is a fairly simple one, the layers of shielding materials are thick enough to pose a significant shielding problem for MC method without the use of effective variance reduction (VR) technique. For that purpose the ADVANTG code was used to generate VR parameters (SB cards in SDEF and WWINP file) for MCNP fixed-source calculation using continuous energy transport. ADVATNG employs a deterministic forward-adjoint transport solver Denovo which implements CADIS/FW-CADIS methodology. Denovo implements a structured, Cartesian-grid SN solver based on the Koch-Baker-Alcouffe parallel transport sweep algorithm across x-y domain blocks. This was first

  1. An adaptive Monte Carlo method under emission point as sampling station for deep penetration calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruihong; Yang, Shulin; Pei, Lucheng

    2011-01-01

    Deep penetration problem has been one of the difficult problems in shielding calculation with Monte Carlo method for several decades. In this paper, an adaptive technique under the emission point as a sampling station is presented. The main advantage is to choose the most suitable sampling number from the emission point station to get the minimum value of the total cost in the process of the random walk. Further, the related importance sampling method is also derived. The main principle is to define the importance function of the response due to the particle state and ensure the sampling number of the emission particle is proportional to the importance function. The numerical results show that the adaptive method under the emission point as a station could overcome the difficulty of underestimation to the result in some degree, and the related importance sampling method gets satisfied results as well. (author)

  2. An Effective Method to Accurately Calculate the Phase Space Factors for β"-β"- Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Neacsu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Accurate calculations of the electron phase space factors are necessary for reliable predictions of double-beta decay rates and for the analysis of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. We present an effective method to calculate these phase space factors that takes into account the distorted Coulomb field of the daughter nucleus, yet it allows one to easily calculate the phase space factors with good accuracy relative to the most exact methods available in the recent literature.

  3. Use of the ''Lagrangian and Eulerian points of view'' in the transient critical heat flux calculations for BWR rod bundles and experimental verifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, V.; Pellei, A.; Vallero, P.; Vitanza, C.

    1975-01-01

    The calculations performed in comparison of the ''Lagrangian point of view'', by means of the DOLCE computer code with the local space--time approach of the ''Eulerian point of view'' indicate that the two methods give substantially equivalent results and predict satisfactorily the onset of the transient CHF for the Centro Informazioni Studi Esperienze annuli experimental data and General Electric Company 16-rod bundles data under typical boiling water reactor transients, including loss-of-coolant accident simulations. 9 references

  4. Utilization of MAX and FAX human phantoms for space radiation exposure calculations using HZETRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Garry; Slaba, Tony; Clowdsley, Martha; Blattnig, Steve; Walker, Steven; Simonsen, Lisa

    To estimate astronaut health risk due to space radiation, one must have the ability to calculate, for known radiation environments external to the body, particle spectra, LET spectra, dose, dose equivalent, or gray equivalent that are averaged over specific organs or tissue types. This may be accomplished using radiation transport software and computational human body tissue models. Historically, NASA scientists have used the HZETRN software to calculate radiation transport through both vehicle shielding materials and body tissue. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) and the Computerized Anatomical Female (CAF) body models, combined with the CAMERA software, have been used for body tissue self-shielding calculations. The CAM and CAF, which were developed in 1973 and 1992, respectively, model the 50th percentile U.S. Air Force male and female and are constructed using individual quadric surfaces that combine to form thousands of solid regions that represent specific tissues and structures within the body. In order to transport an external radiation environment to a point within one of the body models using HZETRN, a directional distribution of the tissues surrounding that point is needed. The CAMERA software is used to "ray trace" the CAM and CAF models, providing the thickness of each tissue type traversed along each of a large number of rays originating at a dose point. More recently, R. Kramer of the Departmento de Energia Nuclear, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco in Brazil and his co-workers developed the Male Adult voXel (MAX) model and the Female Adult voXel (FAX). These voxel-based body models were developed using segmented Computed Tomography (CT) scans of adult cadavers, and the quantities and distributions of various body tissues have been adjusted to match those specified in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference adult male and female. A new set of tools has been developed to facilitate space radiation exposure

  5. A first look at maximally twisted mass lattice QCD calculations at the physical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Rehim, A. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). CaSToRC; Boucaud, P. [Paris XI Univ., Orsay (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique; Carrasco, N. [Valencia-CSIC Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; IFIC, Valencia (Spain); and others

    2013-11-15

    In this contribution, a first look at simulations using maximally twisted mass Wilson fermions at the physical point is presented. A lattice action including clover and twisted mass terms is presented and the Monte Carlo histories of one run with two mass-degenerate flavours at a single lattice spacing are shown. Measurements from the light and heavy-light pseudoscalar sectors are compared to previous N{sub f}=2 results and their phenomenological values. Finally, the strategy for extending simulations to N{sub f}=2+1+1 is outlined.

  6. A first look at maximally twisted mass lattice QCD calculations at the physical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Rehim, A.

    2013-11-01

    In this contribution, a first look at simulations using maximally twisted mass Wilson fermions at the physical point is presented. A lattice action including clover and twisted mass terms is presented and the Monte Carlo histories of one run with two mass-degenerate flavours at a single lattice spacing are shown. Measurements from the light and heavy-light pseudoscalar sectors are compared to previous N f =2 results and their phenomenological values. Finally, the strategy for extending simulations to N f =2+1+1 is outlined.

  7. A common fixed point theorem for weakly compatible mappings in Menger probabilistic quasi metric space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badridatt Pant

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we prove a common fixed point theorem for finite number of self mappings in Menger probabilistic quasi metric space. Our result improves and extends the results of Rezaiyan et al. [A common fixed point theorem in Menger probabilistic quasi-metric spaces, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 37 (2008 1153-1157.], Miheţ [A note on a fixed point theorem in Menger probabilistic quasi-metric spaces, Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 40 (2009 2349-2352], Pant and Chauhan [Fixed points theorems in Menger probabilistic quasi metric spaces using weak compatibility, Internat. Math. Forum 5 (6 (2010 283-290] and Sastry et al. [A fixed point theorem in Menger PQM-spaces using weak compatibility, Internat. Math. Forum 5 (52 (2010 2563-2568

  8. Some Nonunique Fixed Point Theorems of Ćirić Type on Cone Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Karapınar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some results of (Ćirić, 1974 on a nonunique fixed point theorem on the class of metric spaces are extended to the class of cone metric spaces. Namely, nonunique fixed point theorem is proved in orbitally complete cone metric spaces under the assumption that the cone is strongly minihedral. Regarding the scalar weight of cone metric, we are able to remove the assumption of strongly minihedral.

  9. An Improved Computational Method for the Calculation of Mixture Liquid-Vapor Critical Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis; Jia, Wenlong; Li, Changjun

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge of critical points is important to determine the phase behavior of a mixture. This work proposes a reliable and accurate method in order to locate the liquid-vapor critical point of a given mixture. The theoretical model is developed from the rigorous definition of critical points, based on the SRK equation of state (SRK EoS) or alternatively, on the PR EoS. In order to solve the resulting system of nonlinear equations, an improved method is introduced into an existing Newton-Raphson algorithm, which can calculate all the variables simultaneously in each iteration step. The improvements mainly focus on the derivatives of the Jacobian matrix, on the convergence criteria, and on the damping coefficient. As a result, all equations and related conditions required for the computation of the scheme are illustrated in this paper. Finally, experimental data for the critical points of 44 mixtures are adopted in order to validate the method. For the SRK EoS, average absolute errors of the predicted critical-pressure and critical-temperature values are 123.82 kPa and 3.11 K, respectively, whereas the commercial software package Calsep PVTSIM's prediction errors are 131.02 kPa and 3.24 K. For the PR EoS, the two above mentioned average absolute errors are 129.32 kPa and 2.45 K, while the PVTSIM's errors are 137.24 kPa and 2.55 K, respectively.

  10. Simple and efficient way of speeding up transmission calculations with k-point sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Toft Falkenberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The transmissions as functions of energy are central for electron or phonon transport in the Landauer transport picture. We suggest a simple and computationally “cheap” post-processing scheme to interpolate transmission functions over k-points to get smooth well-converged average transmission functions. This is relevant for data obtained using typical “expensive” first principles calculations where the leads/electrodes are described by periodic boundary conditions. We show examples of transport in graphene structures where a speed-up of an order of magnitude is easily obtained.

  11. Suitability of point kernel dose calculation techniques in brachytherapy treatment planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminarayanan Thilagam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachytherapy treatment planning system (TPS is necessary to estimate the dose to target volume and organ at risk (OAR. TPS is always recommended to account for the effect of tissue, applicator and shielding material heterogeneities exist in applicators. However, most brachytherapy TPS software packages estimate the absorbed dose at a point, taking care of only the contributions of individual sources and the source distribution, neglecting the dose perturbations arising from the applicator design and construction. There are some degrees of uncertainties in dose rate estimations under realistic clinical conditions. In this regard, an attempt is made to explore the suitability of point kernels for brachytherapy dose rate calculations and develop new interactive brachytherapy package, named as BrachyTPS, to suit the clinical conditions. BrachyTPS is an interactive point kernel code package developed to perform independent dose rate calculations by taking into account the effect of these heterogeneities, using two regions build up factors, proposed by Kalos. The primary aim of this study is to validate the developed point kernel code package integrated with treatment planning computational systems against the Monte Carlo (MC results. In the present work, three brachytherapy applicators commonly used in the treatment of uterine cervical carcinoma, namely (i Board of Radiation Isotope and Technology (BRIT low dose rate (LDR applicator and (ii Fletcher Green type LDR applicator (iii Fletcher Williamson high dose rate (HDR applicator, are studied to test the accuracy of the software. Dose rates computed using the developed code are compared with the relevant results of the MC simulations. Further, attempts are also made to study the dose rate distribution around the commercially available shielded vaginal applicator set (Nucletron. The percentage deviations of BrachyTPS computed dose rate values from the MC results are observed to be within plus/minus 5

  12. Combining different types of scale space interest points using canonical sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanters, F.M.W.; Denton, T.; Shokoufandeh, A.; Florack, L.M.J.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Sgallari, F.; Murli, A.; Paragios, N.

    2007-01-01

    Scale space interest points capture important photometric and deep structure information of an image. The information content of such points can be made explicit using image reconstruction. In this paper we will consider the problem of combining multiple types of interest points used for image

  13. Exposition index calculation from different points in a gamma sterilization plant radiation room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, A.H.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation fields produced by a JS-6500 rectangular irradiator source were evaluated. Knowledge of the values of these fields is necessary in irradiation and health physics processes. Techniques for evaluating the dose rates from puntual, linear and plane sources were applied and computer programs for the three sources designed. Fricke, cupric-ferrous and red acrilic dosimetric systems were used, to verify the eight points located along the interior walls of the irradiation room, around the source with 936, 987 Ci of Co-60 (1st-March 1980). When considering the distance between the source and each point of interest the calculated exposition indexes obtained were practically the same for the three source types and were up to 35% greater than the experimental values; in contrast when absorption and buildup of the source were taken in to account, the experimental values were higher than the calculated ones by up to 16%, this in estimating the produced exposition index for a rectangular source at least there two parameters should be included. (author)

  14. GUI2QAD, Graphical Interface for QAD-CGPIC, Point Kernel for Shielding Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: GUI2QAD is an aid in preparation of input for the included QAD-CGPIC program, which is based on CCC-493/QAD-CGGP and PICTURE. QAD-CGPIC, which is included in this distribution, is a Fortran code for neutron and gamma-ray shielding calculations by the point kernel method. Provision is available to interactively view the geometry of the system. QAD-CG calculates fast-neutron and gamma-ray penetration through various shield configurations defined by combinatorial geometry specifications. The code can use the ANS-6.4.3 1990 buildup factor compilation (26 materials). 2 - Methods:The code QAD-CGPIC is based on point kernel method and has a provision to select either GP or Capo's build up factors. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Details on restrictions and limitations are available in the RSICC code manual CCC-493/QAD-CGGP. Because CCC-493 was obsoleted by CCC-645/QAD-CGGP-A, the CCC-493 documentation is not online but is included with this package. This package includes a Graphical User Interface to facilitate use

  15. Nonlinear Dynamics, Fixed Points and Coupled Fixed Points in Generalized Gauge Spaces with Applications to a System of Integral Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Petruşel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We will discuss discrete dynamics generated by single-valued and multivalued operators in spaces endowed with a generalized metric structure. More precisely, the behavior of the sequence (fn(xn∈N of successive approximations in complete generalized gauge spaces is discussed. In the same setting, the case of multivalued operators is also considered. The coupled fixed points for mappings t1:X1×X2→X1 and t2:X1×X2→X2 are discussed and an application to a system of nonlinear integral equations is given.

  16. Common fixed point theorems for weakly compatible mappings in fuzzy metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem for a pair of weakly compatible mappings in fuzzy metric space by using the (CLRg property. An example is also furnished which demonstrates the validity of our main result. As an application to our main result, we present a fixed point theorem for two finite families of self mappings in fuzzy metric space by using the notion of pairwise commuting. Our results improve the results of Sedghi, Shobe and Aliouche [A common fixed point theorem for weakly compatible mappings in fuzzy metric spaces, Gen. Math. 18(3 (2010, 3-12 MR2735558].

  17. Fixed Point Theorems for Generalized α-β-Weakly Contraction Mappings in Metric Spaces and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the notion of generalized weakly contraction mappings due to Choudhury et al. (2011 to generalized α-β-weakly contraction mappings. We show with examples that our new class of mappings is a real generalization of several known classes of mappings. We also establish fixed point results for such mappings in metric spaces. Applying our new results, we obtain fixed point results on ordinary metric spaces, metric spaces endowed with an arbitrary binary relation, and metric spaces endowed with graph.

  18. CETF Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study. [Critical Evaluation Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave

    1988-01-01

    The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.

  19. Magnox fuel inventories. Experiment and calculation using a point source model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, S.

    1978-08-01

    The results of calculations of Magnox fuel inventories using the point source code RICE and associated Magnox reactor data set have been compared with experimental measurements for the actinide isotopes 234 , 235 , 236 , 238 U, 238 , 239 , 240 , 241 , 242 Pu, 241 , 243 Am and 242 , 244 Cm and the fission product isotopes 142 , 143 , 144 , 145 , 146 , 150 Nd, 95 Zr, 134 , 137 Cs, 144 Ce and daughter 144 Pr produced in four samples of spent Magnox fuel spanning the burnup range 3000 to 9000 MWd/Te. The neutron emissions from a further two samples were also measured and compared with RICE predictions. The results of the comparison were such as to justify the use of the code RICE for providing source terms for environmental impact studies, for the isotopes considered in the present work. (author)

  20. Some common random fixed point theorems for contractive type conditions in cone random metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saluja Gurucharan S.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish some common random fixed point theorems for contractive type conditions in the setting of cone random metric spaces. Our results unify, extend and generalize many known results from the current existing literature.

  1. A Flexible VHDL Floating Point Module for Control Algorithm Implementation in Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padierna, A.; Nicoleau, C.; Sanchez, J.; Hidalgo, I.; Elvira, S.

    2012-08-01

    The implementation of control loops for space applications is an area with great potential. However, the characteristics of this kind of systems, such as its wide dynamic range of numeric values, make inadequate the use of fixed-point algorithms.However, because the generic chips available for the treatment of floating point data are, in general, not qualified to operate in space environments and the possibility of using an IP module in a FPGA/ASIC qualified for space is not viable due to the low amount of logic cells available for these type of devices, it is necessary to find a viable alternative.For these reasons, in this paper a VHDL Floating Point Module is presented. This proposal allows the design and execution of floating point algorithms with acceptable occupancy to be implemented in FPGAs/ASICs qualified for space environments.

  2. Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Cheng, Julian

    2015-01-01

    A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed

  3. Some calculation formulae for the candu 6 hypoid gearing. a physical point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doca, C.; Paunoiu, C.

    2015-01-01

    The CANDU 6 reactor.s Adjuster Unit consists of a tubular, stainless steel, neutron absorbing element which is raised and lowered within a guide tube. The Adjuster Unit is suspended from a cable which is wound around the sheave of a drive mechanism. To provide a very fine ''up-down'' displacement of the absorbing element, the adjuster drive mechanism incorporates a hypoid-gearing containing a conical spiroid pinion and a conical spiroid gear , having their axes at rights angle. Here represents the gear.s teeth number. By its conical spiroid pinion, its spiroid gear with double-involute teeth, and its reduction (transmission) ratio , this hypoid-gearing seems to be a special type mechanism, not encountered (by the authors, at least) in the classical engineering textbooks, where the most analyzed examples only are for and . Elaborated from a physical point of view, the paper demonstrates and proposes a number of calculation formulae for the main geometrical elements of a same CANDU 6 hypoid-gearing. Finally, the paper presents a very good (exact, practically) superposition between the values obtained using the proposed calculation formulae, and the known CANDU 6 hypoid-gearing.s geometrical values. Al these general calculation formulae are helpful for well understanding the dynamics and kinematics of the adjuster drive mechanism, and represent the minimum needed knowledge for some possible applications, in other mechanical systems, of the hypoid-gearing with a so large reduction rate . 11N1502NiN15012NNi51N10050i150i. (authors)

  4. Generalized fixed point theorems for compatible mappings with some types in fuzzy metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeol Je; Sedghi, Shaban; Shobe, Nabi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give some new definitions of compatible mappings of types (I) and (II) in fuzzy metric spaces and prove some common fixed point theorems for four mappings under the condition of compatible mappings of types (I) and (II) in complete fuzzy metric spaces. Our results extend, generalize and improve the corresponding results given by many authors.

  5. Fixed Point of Generalized Eventual Cyclic Gross in Fuzzy Norm Spaces for Contractive Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. M. Mohsenialhosseini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We define generalized eventual cyclic gross contractive mapping in fuzzy norm spaces, which is a generalization of the eventual cyclic gross contractions. Also we prove the existence of a fixed point for this type of contractive mapping on fuzzy norm spaces.

  6. Anomalies in Ward identities revisited. Explicit calculation of the three point functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalmolin, Fabricio Tronco

    2007-01-01

    others already performed within the same issue. In particular, in one of such investigation a pioneer and traditional reference has been revisited by using the alternative strategy mentioned above. In such study, a systematic treatment of purely fermionic one, two and three point functions, associated to scalar, pseudo-scalar, vector and axial-vector densities, has done. There, however, only the explicit expressions for one and two point functions were developed. The conclusions pointed out, in a very clear way, that the association between intrinsic ambiguities of the perturbative calculation and violations in symmetry properties is not consistent. At the same time, it was concluded that only in an investigation where the explicit forms for the three point functions involved are considered clean and sound conclusions can be extracted. This is due to the fact that, in the relevant symmetry properties, it is involved three ward identities and a low energy limit. This is precisely the main purpose of the present work: to promote a detailed investigation of the relations among green functions and ward identities, within the context of a model having only one specie of 1/2 spin fermionic field, that consider all the amplitudes having superficial degree of divergence higher than the logarithmic one, in a similar way as that made in the work of Gerstein and Jackiw, taking however the explicit form for the three point functions. This is one to get in the analysis, simultaneously, the ward identities and the low energy limits involved in the anomalous amplitudes as required by the Sutherland-Veltman theorem, in order to get an adequate understanding of the anomaly phenomena. We will show that our final results can be mapped in those found with the use of the Dimensional Regularization, in situation where this technique can be applied, or in those of Gerstein and Jackiw, however with conflicting interpretations. Finally, we will show that in the context of the adopted technique

  7. Fixed point iterations for quasi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1992-05-01

    Two well-known fixed point iteration methods are applied to approximate fixed points of quasi-contractive maps in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. While our theorems generalize important known results, our method is of independent interest. (author). 25 refs

  8. Fixed point results for contractions involving generalized altering distances in ordered metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Bessem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we establish coincidence point and common fixed point theorems for mappings satisfying a contractive inequality which involves two generalized altering distance functions in ordered complete metric spaces. As application, we study the existence of a common solution to a system of integral equations. 2000 Mathematics subject classification. Primary 47H10, Secondary 54H25

  9. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Cocyclic Mappings in Complex Valued Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present fixed point results of mappings satisfying generalized contractive conditions in complex valued metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of generalized contractive-type mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a complex valued metric space are also obtained. Some examples are also presented to support the results proved herein. These results extend and generalize many results in the existing literature.

  10. Common Fixed Points of Generalized Rational Type Cocyclic Mappings in Multiplicative Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujahid Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present fixed point result of mappings satisfying a generalized rational contractive condition in the setup of multiplicative metric spaces. As an application, we obtain a common fixed point of a pair of weakly compatible mappings. Some common fixed point results of pair of rational contractive types mappings involved in cocyclic representation of a nonempty subset of a multiplicative metric space are also obtained. Some examples are presented to support the results proved herein. Our results generalize and extend various results in the existing literature.

  11. A compressive sensing approach to the calculation of the inverse data space

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Babar Hasan; Saragiotis, Christos; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Seismic processing in the Inverse Data Space (IDS) has its advantages like the task of removing the multiples simply becomes muting the zero offset and zero time data in the inverse domain. Calculation of the Inverse Data Space by sparse inversion

  12. Common fixed point theorems in intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces and L-fuzzy metric spaces with nonlinear contractive condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesic, Sinisa N.; Babacev, Natasa A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove some common fixed point theorems for a pair of R-weakly commuting mappings defined on intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces [Park JH. Intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:1039-46] and L-fuzzy metric spaces [Saadati R, Razani A, Adibi H. A common fixed point theorem in L-fuzzy metric spaces. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals, doi:10.1016/j.chaos.2006.01.023], with nonlinear contractive condition, defined with function, first observed by Boyd and Wong [Boyd DW, Wong JSW. On nonlinear contractions. Proc Am Math Soc 1969;20:458-64]. Following Pant [Pant RP. Common fixed points of noncommuting mappings. J Math Anal Appl 1994;188:436-40] we define R-weak commutativity for a pair of mappings and then prove the main results. These results generalize some known results due to Saadati et al., and Jungck [Jungck G. Commuting maps and fixed points. Am Math Mon 1976;83:261-3]. Some examples and comments according to the preceding results are given

  13. Point defects in hexagonal germanium carbide monolayer: A first-principles calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersan, Fatih; Gökçe, Aytaç Gürhan; Aktürk, Ethem

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Semiconductor GeC turns into metal by introducing a carbon vacancy. • Semiconductor GeC becomes half-metal by a single Ge vacancy. • Band gap value of GeC system can be tuned in the range of 0.308–1.738 eV by antisite or Stone–Wales defects. - Abstract: On the basis of first-principles plane-wave calculations, we investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of various point defects including single Ge and C vacancies, Ge + C divacancy, Ge↔C antisites and the Stone–Wales (SW) defects in a GeC monolayer. We found that various periodic vacancy defects in GeC single layer give rise to crucial effects on the electronic and magnetic properties. The band gaps of GeC monolayer vary significantly from 0.308 eV to 1.738 eV due to the presence of antisites and Stone–Wales defects. While nonmagnetic ground state of semiconducting GeC turns into metal by introducing a carbon vacancy, it becomes half-metal by a single Ge vacancy with high magnetization (4 μ_B) value per supercell. All the vacancy types have zero net magnetic moments, except single Ge vacancy.

  14. Point defects in hexagonal germanium carbide monolayer: A first-principles calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersan, Fatih [Department of Physics, Adnan Menderes University, 09100 Aydın (Turkey); Gökçe, Aytaç Gürhan [Department of Physics, Adnan Menderes University, 09100 Aydın (Turkey); Department of Physics, Dokuz Eylül University, 35160 İzmir (Turkey); Aktürk, Ethem, E-mail: ethem.akturk@adu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Adnan Menderes University, 09100 Aydın (Turkey); Nanotechnology Application and Research Center, Adnan Menderes University, 09100 Aydın (Turkey)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Semiconductor GeC turns into metal by introducing a carbon vacancy. • Semiconductor GeC becomes half-metal by a single Ge vacancy. • Band gap value of GeC system can be tuned in the range of 0.308–1.738 eV by antisite or Stone–Wales defects. - Abstract: On the basis of first-principles plane-wave calculations, we investigated the electronic and magnetic properties of various point defects including single Ge and C vacancies, Ge + C divacancy, Ge↔C antisites and the Stone–Wales (SW) defects in a GeC monolayer. We found that various periodic vacancy defects in GeC single layer give rise to crucial effects on the electronic and magnetic properties. The band gaps of GeC monolayer vary significantly from 0.308 eV to 1.738 eV due to the presence of antisites and Stone–Wales defects. While nonmagnetic ground state of semiconducting GeC turns into metal by introducing a carbon vacancy, it becomes half-metal by a single Ge vacancy with high magnetization (4 μ{sub B}) value per supercell. All the vacancy types have zero net magnetic moments, except single Ge vacancy.

  15. Common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under φ-contraction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Donia, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Some common fixed point theorems for multi-valued mappings under φ-contraction condition have been studied by Rashwan [Rashwan RA, Ahmed MA. Fixed points for φ-contraction type multivalued mappings. J Indian Acad Math 1995;17(2):194-204]. Butnariu [Butnariu D. Fixed point for fuzzy mapping. Fuzzy Sets Syst 1982;7:191-207] and Helipern [Hilpern S. Fuzzy mapping and fixed point theorem. J Math Anal Appl 1981;83:566-9] also, discussed some fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in the category of metric spaces. In this paper, we discussed some common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under φ-contraction condition. Our investigation are related to the fuzzy form of Hausdorff metric which is a basic tool for computing Hausdorff dimensions. These dimensions help in understanding ε ∞ -space [El-Naschie MS. On the unification of the fundamental forces and complex time in the ε ∞ -space. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2000;11:1149-62] and are used in high energy physics [El-Naschie MS. Wild topology hyperbolic geometry and fusion algebra of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2002;13:1935-45

  16. Common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under {phi}-contraction condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Donia, H.M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Zagazig (Egypt)

    2007-10-15

    Some common fixed point theorems for multi-valued mappings under {phi}-contraction condition have been studied by Rashwan [Rashwan RA, Ahmed MA. Fixed points for {phi}-contraction type multivalued mappings. J Indian Acad Math 1995;17(2):194-204]. Butnariu [Butnariu D. Fixed point for fuzzy mapping. Fuzzy Sets Syst 1982;7:191-207] and Helipern [Hilpern S. Fuzzy mapping and fixed point theorem. J Math Anal Appl 1981;83:566-9] also, discussed some fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in the category of metric spaces. In this paper, we discussed some common fixed point theorems for fuzzy mappings in metric space under {phi}-contraction condition. Our investigation are related to the fuzzy form of Hausdorff metric which is a basic tool for computing Hausdorff dimensions. These dimensions help in understanding {epsilon} {sup {infinity}}-space [El-Naschie MS. On the unification of the fundamental forces and complex time in the {epsilon} {sup {infinity}}-space. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2000;11:1149-62] and are used in high energy physics [El-Naschie MS. Wild topology hyperbolic geometry and fusion algebra of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2002;13:1935-45].

  17. Expanded uncertainty associated with determination of isotope enrichment factors: Comparison of two point calculation and Rayleigh-plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Maxime; Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Robins, Richard J; Höhener, Patrick; Yoshida, Naohiro; Remaud, Gérald S

    2018-01-01

    The enrichment factor (ε) is a common way to express Isotope Effects (IEs) associated with a phenomenon. Many studies determine ε using a Rayleigh-plot, which needs multiple data points. More recent articles describe an alternative method using the Rayleigh equation that allows the determination of ε using only one experimental point, but this method is often subject to controversy. However, a calculation method using two points (one experimental point and one at t 0 ) should lead to the same results because the calculation is derived from the Rayleigh equation. But, it is frequently asked "what is the valid domain of use of this two point calculation?" The primary aim of the present work is a systematic comparison of results obtained with these two methodologies and the determination of the conditions required for the valid calculation of ε. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the two approaches, the expanded uncertainty (U) associated with determining ε has been calculated using experimental data from three published articles. The second objective of the present work is to describe how to determine the expanded uncertainty (U) associated with determining ε. Comparative methodologies using both Rayleigh-plot and two point calculation are detailed and it is clearly demonstrated that calculation of ε using a single data point can give the same result as a Rayleigh-plot provided one strict condition is respected: that the experimental value is measured at a small fraction of unreacted substrate (f < 30%). This study will help stable isotope users to present their results in a more rigorous expression: ε ± U and therefore to define better the significance of an experimental results prior interpretation. Capsule: Enrichment factor can be determined through two different methods and the calculation of associated expanded uncertainty allows checking its significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantum dynamics calculations using symmetrized, orthogonal Weyl-Heisenberg wavelets with a phase space truncation scheme. III. Representations and calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Bill; Salam, A

    2004-07-22

    In a previous paper [J. Theo. Comput. Chem. 2, 65 (2003)], one of the authors (B.P.) presented a method for solving the multidimensional Schrodinger equation, using modified Wilson-Daubechies wavelets, and a simple phase space truncation scheme. Unprecedented numerical efficiency was achieved, enabling a ten-dimensional calculation of nearly 600 eigenvalues to be performed using direct matrix diagonalization techniques. In a second paper [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 1690 (2004)], and in this paper, we extend and elaborate upon the previous work in several important ways. The second paper focuses on construction and optimization of the wavelength functions, from theoretical and numerical viewpoints, and also examines their localization. This paper deals with their use in representations and eigenproblem calculations, which are extended to 15-dimensional systems. Even higher dimensionalities are possible using more sophisticated linear algebra techniques. This approach is ideally suited to rovibrational spectroscopy applications, but can be used in any context where differential equations are involved.

  19. Prediction of high-temperature point defect formation in TiO2 from combined ab initio and thermodynamic calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, J.; Behera, R.K.; Finnis, M.W.; Li, X.; Dickey, E.C.; Phillpot, S.R.; Sinnott, S.B.

    2007-01-01

    A computational approach that integrates ab initio electronic structure and thermodynamic calculations is used to determine point defect stability in rutile TiO 2 over a range of temperatures, oxygen partial pressures and stoichiometries. Both donors (titanium interstitials and oxygen vacancies) and acceptors (titanium vacancies) are predicted to have shallow defect transition levels in the electronic-structure calculations. The resulting defect formation energies for all possible charge states are then used in thermodynamic calculations to predict the influence of temperature and oxygen partial pressure on the relative stabilities of the point defects. Their ordering is found to be the same as temperature increases and oxygen partial pressure decreases: titanium vacancy → oxygen vacancy → titanium interstitial. The charges on these defects, however, are quite sensitive to the Fermi level. Finally, the combined formation energies of point defect complexes, including Schottky, Frenkel and anti-Frenkel defects, are predicted to limit the further formation of point defects

  20. Optimizing the calculation of point source count-centroid in pixel size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Luyi; Kuang Anren; Su Xianyu

    2004-01-01

    Pixel size is an important parameter of gamma camera and SPECT. A number of methods are used for its accurate measurement. In the original count-centroid method, where the image of a point source (PS) is acquired and its count-centroid calculated to represent PS position in the image, background counts are inevitable. Thus the measured count-centroid (X m ) is an approximation of the true count-centroid (X p ) of the PS, i.e. X m =X p + (X b -X p )/(1+R p /R b ), where Rp is the net counting rate of the PS, X b the background count-centroid and Rb the background counting. To get accurate measurement, R p must be very big, which is unpractical, resulting in the variation of measured pixel size. R p -independent calculation of PS count-centroid is desired. Methods: The proposed method attempted to eliminate the effect of the term (X b -X p )/(1 + R p /R b ) by bringing X b closer to X p and by reducing R b . In the acquired PS image, a circular ROI was generated to enclose the PS, the pixel with the maximum count being the center of the ROI. To choose the diameter (D) of the ROI, a Gaussian count distribution was assumed for the PS, accordingly, K=1-(0.5) D/R percent of the total PS counts was in the ROI, R being the full width at half maximum of the PS count distribution. D was set to be 6*R to enclose most (K=98.4%) of the PS counts. The count-centroid of the ROI was calculated to represent X p . The proposed method was tested in measuring the pixel size of a well-tuned SPECT, whose pixel size was estimated to be 3.02 mm according to its mechanical and electronic setting (128 x 128 matrix, 387 mm UFOV, ZOOM=1). For comparison, the original method, which was use in the former versions of some commercial SPECT software, was also tested. 12 PSs were prepared and their image acquired and stored. The net counting rate of the PSs increased from 10 cps to 1183 cps. Results: Using the proposed method, the measured pixel size (in mm) varied only between 3.00 and 3.01 (mean

  1. Optimizing the calculation of point source count-centroid in pixel size measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Luyi; Kuang Anren; Su Xianyu

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Pixel size is an important parameter of gamma camera and SPECT. A number of Methods are used for its accurate measurement. In the original count-centroid method, where the image of a point source(PS) is acquired and its count-centroid calculated to represent PS position in the image, background counts are inevitable. Thus the measured count-centroid (Xm) is an approximation of the true count-centroid (Xp) of the PS, i.e. Xm=Xp+(Xb-Xp)/(1+Rp/Rb), where Rp is the net counting rate of the PS, Xb the background count-centroid and Rb the background counting rate. To get accurate measurement, Rp must be very big, which is unpractical, resulting in the variation of measured pixel size. Rp-independent calculation of PS count-centroid is desired. Methods: The proposed method attempted to eliminate the effect of the term (Xb-Xp)/(1+Rp/Rb) by bringing Xb closer to Xp and by reducing Rb. In the acquired PS image, a circular ROI was generated to enclose the PS, the pixel with the maximum count being the center of the ROI. To choose the diameter (D) of the ROI, a Gaussian count distribution was assumed for the PS, accordingly, K=I-(0.5)D/R percent of the total PS counts was in the ROI, R being the full width at half maximum of the PS count distribution. D was set to be 6*R to enclose most (K=98.4%) of the PS counts. The count-centroid of the ROI was calculated to represent Xp. The proposed method was tested in measuring the pixel size of a well-tuned SPECT, whose pixel size was estimated to be 3.02 mm according to its mechanical and electronic setting (128*128 matrix, 387 mm UFOV, ZOOM=1). For comparison, the original method, which was use in the former versions of some commercial SPECT software, was also tested. 12 PSs were prepared and their image acquired and stored. The net counting rate of the PSs increased from 10cps to 1183cps. Results: Using the proposed method, the measured pixel size (in mm) varied only between 3.00 and 3.01( mean= 3.01±0.00) as Rp increased

  2. Calculation and analysis of the non-point source pollution in the upstream watershed of the Panjiakou Reservoir, People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Tang, L.

    2007-05-01

    Panjiakou Reservoir is an important drinking water resource in Haihe River Basin, Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The upstream watershed area is about 35,000 square kilometers. Recently, the water pollution in the reservoir is becoming more serious owing to the non-point pollution as well as point source pollution on the upstream watershed. To effectively manage the reservoir and watershed and develop a plan to reduce pollutant loads, the loading of non-point and point pollution and their distribution on the upstream watershed must be understood fully. The SWAT model is used to simulate the production and transportation of the non-point source pollutants in the upstream watershed of the Panjiakou Reservoir. The loadings of non-point source pollutants are calculated for different hydrologic years and the spatial and temporal characteristics of non-point source pollution are studied. The stream network and topographic characteristics of the stream network and sub-basins are all derived from the DEM by ArcGIS software. The soil and land use data are reclassified and the soil physical properties database file is created for the model. The SWAT model was calibrated with observed data of several hydrologic monitoring stations in the study area. The results of the calibration show that the model performs fairly well. Then the calibrated model was used to calculate the loadings of non-point source pollutants for a wet year, a normal year and a dry year respectively. The time and space distribution of flow, sediment and non-point source pollution were analyzed depending on the simulated results. The comparison of different hydrologic years on calculation results is dramatic. The loading of non-point source pollution in the wet year is relatively larger but smaller in the dry year since the non-point source pollutants are mainly transported through the runoff. The pollution loading within a year is mainly produced in the flood season. Because SWAT is a

  3. Common Fixed Point Theorems in Fuzzy Metric Spaces Satisfying -Contractive Condition with Common Limit Range Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to emphasize the role of “common limit range property” to ascertain the existence of common fixed point in fuzzy metric spaces. Some illustrative examples are furnished which demonstrate the validity of the hypotheses and degree of utility of our results. We derive a fixed point theorem for four finite families of self-mappings which can be utilized to derive common fixed point theorems involving any finite number of mappings. As an application to our main result, we prove an integral-type fixed point theorem in fuzzy metric space. Our results improve and extend a host of previously known results including the ones contained in Imdad et al. (2012.

  4. Automated calculation of point A coordinates for CT-based high-dose-rate brachytherapy of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyejoo Kang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal is to develop a stand-alone application, which automatically and consistently computes the coordinates of the dose calculation point recommended by the American Brachytherapy Society (i.e., point A based solely on the implanted applicator geometry for cervical cancer brachytherapy. Material and methods: The application calculates point A coordinates from the source dwell geometries in the computed tomography (CT scans, and outputs the 3D coordinates in the left and right directions. The algorithm was tested on 34 CT scans of 7 patients treated with high-dose-rate (HDR brachytherapy using tandem and ovoid applicators. A single experienced user retrospectively and manually inserted point A into each CT scan, whose coordinates were used as the “gold standard” for all comparisons. The gold standard was subtracted from the automatically calculated points, a second manual placement by the same experienced user, and the clinically used point coordinates inserted by multiple planners. Coordinate differences and corresponding variances were compared using nonparametric tests. Results: Automatically calculated, manually placed, and clinically used points agree with the gold standard to < 1 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm, respectively. When compared to the gold standard, the average and standard deviation of the 3D coordinate differences were 0.35 ± 0.14 mm from automatically calculated points, 0.38 ± 0.21 mm from the second manual placement, and 0.71 ± 0.44 mm from the clinically used point coordinates. Both the mean and standard deviations of the 3D coordinate differences were statistically significantly different from the gold standard, when point A was placed by multiple users (p < 0.05 but not when placed repeatedly by a single user or when calculated automatically. There were no statistical differences in doses, which agree to within 1-2% on average for all three groups. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that the automated algorithm

  5. Distribution of flux vacua around singular points in Calabi-Yau moduli space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Tohru; Tachikawa, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    We study the distribution of type-IIB flux vacua in the moduli space near various singular loci, e.g. conifolds, ADE singularities on P 1 , Argyres-Douglas point etc, using the Ashok-Douglas density det (R+ω). We find that the vacuum density is integrable around each of them, irrespective of the type of the singularities. We study in detail an explicit example of an Argyres-Douglas point embedded in a compact Calabi-Yau manifold

  6. Multidimensional coincidence point results for generalized $(\\psi ,\\theta ,\\varphi$-contraction on ordered metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Deshpande

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research article is to establish some coincidence point theorem for $g$-non-decreasing mappings under generalized $(\\psi ,\\theta ,\\varphi $-contraction on a partially ordered metric space. Furthermore, we show how multidimensional results can be seen as a simple consequences of our unidimensional coincidence point theorem. Our results modify, improve, sharpen, enrich and generalize various known results.

  7. Fixed point iterations for strictly hemi-contractive maps in uniformly smooth Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.; Osilike, M.O.

    1993-05-01

    It is proved that the Mann iteration process converges strongly to the fixed point of a strictly hemi-contractive map in real uniformly smooth Banach spaces. The class of strictly hemi-contractive maps includes all strictly pseudo-contractive maps with nonempty fixed point sets. A related result deals with the Ishikawa iteration scheme when the mapping is Lipschitzian and strictly hemi-contractive. Our theorems generalize important known results. (author). 29 refs

  8. Strong Convergence Iterative Algorithms for Equilibrium Problems and Fixed Point Problems in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghua Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We first introduce the concept of Bregman asymptotically quasinonexpansive mappings and prove that the fixed point set of this kind of mappings is closed and convex. Then we construct an iterative scheme to find a common element of the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem and the set of common fixed points of a countable family of Bregman asymptotically quasinonexpansive mappings in reflexive Banach spaces and prove strong convergence theorems. Our results extend the recent ones of some others.

  9. Three-point Green's function of massless QED in position space to lowest order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    The transverse part of the three-point Green's function of massless QED is determined to the lowest order in position space. Taken together with the evaluation of the longitudinal part in Mitra (2008) (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 41 315401), this gives a relation for QED which is analogous to the star-triangle relation. We relate our result to conformal-invariant three-point functions

  10. A new method for calculation of traces of Dirac γ-matrices in Minkowski space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarev, Alexander L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents some relations for orthonormal bases in the Minkowski space and isotropic tetrads constructed from the vectors of these bases. As an example of an application of the obtained formulae, in particular recursion relations, a new method is proposed to calculate traces of Dirac γ-matrices in the Minkowski space. Compared to the classical algorithms, the new method results in more compact expressions for the traces. Specifically, it may be easily implemented as a simple yet efficient computer algorithm

  11. Non-Abelian monopole in the parameter space of point-like interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We study non-Abelian geometric phase in N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics for a free particle on a circle with two point-like interactions at antipodal points. We show that non-Abelian Berry’s connection is that of SU(2) magnetic monopole discovered by Moody, Shapere and Wilczek in the context of adiabatic decoupling limit of diatomic molecule. - Highlights: • Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is an ideal playground for studying geometric phase. • We determine the parameter space of supersymmetric point-like interactions. • Berry’s connection is given by a Wu–Yang-like magnetic monopole in SU(2) Yang–Mills

  12. Efficient implementation of the Monte Carlo method for lattice gauge theory calculations on the floating point systems FPS-164

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, K.J.M.; Blackshaw, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The computer program calculates the average action per plaquette for SU(6)/Z 6 lattice gauge theory. By considering quantum field theory on a space-time lattice, the ultraviolet divergences of the theory are regulated through the finite lattice spacing. The continuum theory results can be obtained by a renormalization group procedure. Making use of the FPS Mathematics Library (MATHLIB), we are able to generate an efficient code for the Monte Carlo algorithm for lattice gauge theory calculations which compares favourably with the performance of the CDC 7600. (orig.)

  13. Simplified methodology for control cell constant calculations of the reactor cores for the space kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rubens Souza dos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques

    2002-01-01

    In this work is presented a methodology which focuses the distribution of neutron absorber rods in nuclear reactor power plants, for utilizing in space kinetic calculations, principally in the cluster ejection transients of control rods. A numerical model for macroscopic constant calculations based on the knowledge of the neutron flux without the control rods is proposed, as alternative to the analytical models, based on the hypothesis of the null current on the cell super boundaries. The proposed model in this work has itself showed adequate to deal with problems with strong space dependence, once that the model showed consistence in the global average built in the analytical model. (author)

  14. A Coupled Fixed Point Theorem in Fuzzy Metric Space Satisfying ϕ-Contractive Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Pant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to prove a coupled fixed point theorem for two pairs of compatible and subsequentially continuous (alternately subcompatible and reciprocally continuous mappings, satisfying ϕ-contractive conditions in a fuzzy metric space. We also furnish some illustrative examples to support our results.

  15. Two fixed point theorems on quasi-metric spaces via mw- distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alegre, C.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we prove a Banach-type fixed point theorem and a Kannan-type theorem in the setting of quasi-metric spaces using the notion of mw-distance. These theorems generalize some results that have recently appeared in the literature. (Author)

  16. Common Fixed Points via λ-Sequences in G-Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaé Ulrich Gaba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We use λ-sequences in this article to derive common fixed points for a family of self-mappings defined on a complete G-metric space. We imitate some existing techniques in our proofs and show that the tools employed can be used at a larger scale. These results generalize well known results in the literature.

  17. A Contraction Fixed Point Theorem in Partially Ordered Metric Spaces and Application to Fractional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangbing Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We generalize a fixed point theorem in partially ordered complete metric spaces in the study of A. Amini-Harandi and H. Emami (2010. We also give an application on the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution of a multipoint boundary value problem with fractional derivatives.

  18. Some Fixed Point Results for Caristi Type Mappings in Modular Metric Spaces with an Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Turkoglu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give Caristi type fixed point theorem in complete modular metric spaces. Moreover we give a theorem which can be derived from Caristi type. Also an application for the bounded solution of funcional equations is investigated.

  19. Gamma-point lattice free energy estimates from O(1) force calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Johannes; Vegge, Tejs

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method for estimating the vibrational free energy of crystal (and molecular) structures employing only a single force calculation, for a particularly displaced configuration, in addition to the calculation of the ground state configuration. This displacement vector is the sum...

  20. A compressive sensing approach to the calculation of the inverse data space

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Babar Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Seismic processing in the Inverse Data Space (IDS) has its advantages like the task of removing the multiples simply becomes muting the zero offset and zero time data in the inverse domain. Calculation of the Inverse Data Space by sparse inversion techniques has seen mitigation of some artifacts. We reformulate the problem by taking advantage of some of the developments from the field of Compressive Sensing. The seismic data is compressed at the sensor level by recording projections of the traces. We then process this compressed data directly to estimate the inverse data space. Due to the smaller number of data set we also gain in terms of computational complexity.

  1. A brief comparison between grid based real space algorithms and spectrum algorithms for electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lin-Wang

    2006-01-01

    Quantum mechanical ab initio calculation constitutes the biggest portion of the computer time in material science and chemical science simulations. As a computer center like NERSC, to better serve these communities, it will be very useful to have a prediction for the future trends of ab initio calculations in these areas. Such prediction can help us to decide what future computer architecture can be most useful for these communities, and what should be emphasized on in future supercomputer procurement. As the size of the computer and the size of the simulated physical systems increase, there is a renewed interest in using the real space grid method in electronic structure calculations. This is fueled by two factors. First, it is generally assumed that the real space grid method is more suitable for parallel computation for its limited communication requirement, compared with spectrum method where a global FFT is required. Second, as the size N of the calculated system increases together with the computer power, O(N) scaling approaches become more favorable than the traditional direct O(N 3 ) scaling methods. These O(N) methods are usually based on localized orbital in real space, which can be described more naturally by the real space basis. In this report, the author compares the real space methods versus the traditional plane wave (PW) spectrum methods, for their technical pros and cons, and the possible of future trends. For the real space method, the author focuses on the regular grid finite different (FD) method and the finite element (FE) method. These are the methods used mostly in material science simulation. As for chemical science, the predominant methods are still Gaussian basis method, and sometime the atomic orbital basis method. These two basis sets are localized in real space, and there is no indication that their roles in quantum chemical simulation will change anytime soon. The author focuses on the density functional theory (DFT), which is the

  2. A point-kernel shielding code for calculations of neutron and secondary gamma-ray 1cm dose equivalents: PKN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotegawa, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shun-ichi

    1991-09-01

    A point-kernel integral technique code, PKN, and the related data library have been developed to calculate neutron and secondary gamma-ray dose equivalents in water, concrete and iron shields for neutron sources in 3-dimensional geometry. The comparison between calculational results of the present code and those of the 1-dimensional transport code ANISN = JR, and the 2-dimensional transport code DOT4.2 showed a sufficient accuracy, and the availability of the PKN code has been confirmed. (author)

  3. Study The Validity of The Direct Mathematical Method For Calculation The Total Efficiency Using Point And Disk Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagag, O.M.; Nafee, S.S.; Naeem, M.A.; El Khatib, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The direct mathematical method has been developed for calculating the total efficiency of many cylindrical gamma detectors, especially HPGe and NaI detector. Different source geometries are considered (point and disk). Further into account is taken of gamma attenuation from detector window or any interfacing absorbing layer. Results are compared with published experimental data to study the validity of the direct mathematical method to calculate total efficiency for any gamma detector size.

  4. Vibration isolation and dual-stage actuation pointing system for space precision payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yongfang; Huang, Hai

    2018-02-01

    Pointing and stability requirements for future space missions are becoming more and more stringent. This work follows the pointing control method which consists of a traditional spacecraft attitude control system and a payload active pointing loop, further proposing a vibration isolation and dual-stage actuation pointing system for space precision payloads based on a soft Stewart platform. Central to the concept is using the dual-stage actuator instead of the traditional voice coil motor single-stage actuator to improve the payload active pointing capability. Based on a specified payload, the corresponding platform was designed to be installed between the spacecraft bus and the payload. The performance of the proposed system is demonstrated by preliminary closed-loop control investigations in simulations. With the ordinary spacecraft bus, the line-of-sight pointing accuracy can be controlled to below a few milliarcseconds in tip and tilt. Meanwhile, utilizing the voice coil motor with the softening spring in parallel, which is a portion of the dual-stage actuator, the system effectively achieves low-frequency motion transmission and high-frequency vibration isolation along the other four degree-of-freedom directions.

  5. On a new point kernel for use in gamma radiation calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindel, Laurent; Gamess, Andre; Lejeune, Eric [Societe Generale pour les techniques Nouvelles, Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France)

    2000-03-01

    The present paper demonstrate the existence of a new formulation for the transport point kernel, the principal characteristic of which lies in a two-dimensional integration over the surfaces that deliminate a source. (author)

  6. On a new point kernel for use in gamma radiation calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindel, Laurent; Gamess, Andre; Lejeune, Eric

    2000-01-01

    The present paper demonstrate the existence of a new formulation for the transport point kernel, the principal characteristic of which lies in a two-dimensional integration over the surfaces that deliminate a source. (author)

  7. Multigrid Algorithms for the Fast Calculation of Space-Charge Effects in Accelerator Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöplau, G.; Rienen, van U.; Geer, van der S.B.; Loos, de M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical prediction of charged particle dynamics in accelerators is essential for the design and understanding of these machines. Methods to calculate the self-fields of the bunch, the so-called space-charge forces, become increasingly important as the demand for high-quality bunches increases. We

  8. Numerical Calculation of the Phase Space Density for the Strong-Strong Beam-Beam Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobol, A.; Ellison, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We developed a parallel code to calculate the evolution of the 4D phase space density of two colliding beams, which are coupled via the collective strong-strong beam-beam interaction, in the absence of diffusion and damping, using the Perron-Frobenius (PF) operator technique

  9. Calculation Method for Equilibrium Points in Dynamical Systems Based on Adaptive Sinchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Prian Rodríguez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a control system is proposed as an equivalent numerical procedure whose aim is to obtain the natural equilibrium points of a dynamical system. These equilibrium points may be employed later as setpoint signal for different control techniques. The proposed procedure is based on the adaptive synchronization between an oscillator and a reference model driven by the oscillator state variables. A stability analysis is carried out and a simplified algorithm is proposed. Finally, satisfactory simulation results are shown.

  10. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations.

  11. Reflected kinetics model for nuclear space reactor kinetics and control scoping calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, K.E.

    1986-05-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a model that offers an alternative to the point kinetics (PK) modelling approach in the analysis of space reactor kinetics and control studies. Modelling effort will focus on the explicit treatment of control drums as reactivity input devices so that the transition to automatic control can be smoothly done. The proposed model is developed for the specific integration of automatic control and the solution of the servo mechanism problem. The integration of the kinetics model with an automatic controller will provide a useful tool for performing space reactor scoping studies for different designs and configurations. Such a tool should prove to be invaluable in the design phase of a space nuclear system from the point of view of kinetics and control limitations

  12. SU-E-T-154: Calculation of Tissue Dose Point Kernels Using GATE Monte Carlo Simulation Toolkit to Compare with Water Dose Point Kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaee, M [shahid beheshti university, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asl, A Kamali [Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran., Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Geramifar, P [Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran., Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: the objective of this study was to assess utilizing water dose point kernel (DPK)instead of tissue dose point kernels in convolution algorithms.to the best of our knowledge, in providing 3D distribution of absorbed dose from a 3D distribution of the activity, the human body is considered equivalent to water. as a Result tissue variations are not considered in patient specific dosimetry. Methods: In this study Gate v7.0 was used to calculate tissue dose point kernel. the beta emitter radionuclides which have taken into consideration in this simulation include Y-90, Lu-177 and P-32 which are commonly used in nuclear medicine. the comparison has been performed for dose point kernels of adipose, bone, breast, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung and spleen versus water dose point kernel. Results: In order to validate the simulation the Result of 90Y DPK in water were compared with published results of Papadimitroulas et al (Med. Phys., 2012). The results represented that the mean differences between water DPK and other soft tissues DPKs range between 0.6 % and 1.96% for 90Y, except for lung and bone, where the observed discrepancies are 6.3% and 12.19% respectively. The range of DPK difference for 32P is between 1.74% for breast and 18.85% for bone. For 177Lu, the highest difference belongs to bone which is equal to 16.91%. For other soft tissues the least discrepancy is observed in kidney with 1.68%. Conclusion: In all tissues except for lung and bone, the results of GATE for dose point kernel were comparable to water dose point kernel which demonstrates the appropriateness of applying water dose point kernel instead of soft tissues in the field of nuclear medicine.

  13. SU-E-T-154: Calculation of Tissue Dose Point Kernels Using GATE Monte Carlo Simulation Toolkit to Compare with Water Dose Point Kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khazaee, M; Asl, A Kamali; Geramifar, P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: the objective of this study was to assess utilizing water dose point kernel (DPK)instead of tissue dose point kernels in convolution algorithms.to the best of our knowledge, in providing 3D distribution of absorbed dose from a 3D distribution of the activity, the human body is considered equivalent to water. as a Result tissue variations are not considered in patient specific dosimetry. Methods: In this study Gate v7.0 was used to calculate tissue dose point kernel. the beta emitter radionuclides which have taken into consideration in this simulation include Y-90, Lu-177 and P-32 which are commonly used in nuclear medicine. the comparison has been performed for dose point kernels of adipose, bone, breast, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, lung and spleen versus water dose point kernel. Results: In order to validate the simulation the Result of 90Y DPK in water were compared with published results of Papadimitroulas et al (Med. Phys., 2012). The results represented that the mean differences between water DPK and other soft tissues DPKs range between 0.6 % and 1.96% for 90Y, except for lung and bone, where the observed discrepancies are 6.3% and 12.19% respectively. The range of DPK difference for 32P is between 1.74% for breast and 18.85% for bone. For 177Lu, the highest difference belongs to bone which is equal to 16.91%. For other soft tissues the least discrepancy is observed in kidney with 1.68%. Conclusion: In all tissues except for lung and bone, the results of GATE for dose point kernel were comparable to water dose point kernel which demonstrates the appropriateness of applying water dose point kernel instead of soft tissues in the field of nuclear medicine

  14. Automatic Generation of Indoor Navigable Space Using a Point Cloud and its Scanner Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, B. R.; Diakité, A. A.; Voûte, R. L.; Zlatanova, S.

    2017-09-01

    Automatic generation of indoor navigable models is mostly based on 2D floor plans. However, in many cases the floor plans are out of date. Buildings are not always built according to their blue prints, interiors might change after a few years because of modified walls and doors, and furniture may be repositioned to the user's preferences. Therefore, new approaches for the quick recording of indoor environments should be investigated. This paper concentrates on laser scanning with a Mobile Laser Scanner (MLS) device. The MLS device stores a point cloud and its trajectory. If the MLS device is operated by a human, the trajectory contains information which can be used to distinguish different surfaces. In this paper a method is presented for the identification of walkable surfaces based on the analysis of the point cloud and the trajectory of the MLS scanner. This method consists of several steps. First, the point cloud is voxelized. Second, the trajectory is analysing and projecting to acquire seed voxels. Third, these seed voxels are generated into floor regions by the use of a region growing process. By identifying dynamic objects, doors and furniture, these floor regions can be modified so that each region represents a specific navigable space inside a building as a free navigable voxel space. By combining the point cloud and its corresponding trajectory, the walkable space can be identified for any type of building even if the interior is scanned during business hours.

  15. Calculation of point-contact spectra for a simple heavy-fermion Hamiltonian by two approaches. Comparison of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupka, M.; Farkasovsky, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    Point-contact spectra have been calculated for normal metal -heavy-fermion metal system (described by means of a simplified model Hamiltonian). Two approaches are used: one of them states that the differential conductance reflects an energy-dependent quasi-particle density of states, and 2. one drives the differential conductance are compared

  16. On 0-Complete Partial Metric Spaces and Quantitative Fixed Point Techniques in Denotational Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shahzad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1994, Matthews introduced the notion of partial metric space with the aim of providing a quantitative mathematical model suitable for program verification. Concretely, Matthews proved a partial metric version of the celebrated Banach fixed point theorem which has become an appropriate quantitative fixed point technique to capture the meaning of recursive denotational specifications in programming languages. In this paper we show that a few assumptions in statement of Matthews fixed point theorem can be relaxed in order to provide a quantitative fixed point technique useful to analyze the meaning of the aforementioned recursive denotational specifications in programming languages. In particular, we prove a new fixed point theorem for self-mappings between partial metric spaces in which the completeness has been replaced by 0-completeness and the contractive condition has been weakened in such a way that the new one best fits the requirements of practical problems in denotational semantics. Moreover, we provide examples that show that the hypothesis in the statement of our new result cannot be weakened. Finally, we show the potential applicability of the developed theory by means of analyzing a few concrete recursive denotational specifications, some of them admitting a unique meaning and others supporting multiple ones.

  17. Phase space measurements at non-accessible point on the beam path of an accelerator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.

    2004-01-01

    The optimization of beam lines for particles extracted from accelerator facilities requires the knowledge of beam parameters. A method for the measurement of phase space and beam intensity distribution is represented. This method depends on the setting of quadrupole lenses that allows the imaging of beam profiles at arbitrary positions along the beam path on the same multi-wire proportional chamber, where the intensity distribution can be evaluated. The necessary focusing powers for a certain imaging task are calculated in a thin lens approximation. The corresponding focusing power for thick quadrupole lenses are calculated using the PC transport program. A comparison of the calculated focusing powers for thin and thick lenses reveals deviations at the highest field strengths, due to saturation effect. The position of the beam waist in normal and angular space is directly calculated and visualized. The horizontal and vertical waist positions are found to be rather independent of the beam energy. Extensive calculation was done to study the effect of a reduced aperture on the maximum beam emittances aa x and aa y of the extracted particles. The main result shows that the maximum emittance passing through depends on the waist distant and the diameter of the reduced aperture. (orig.)

  18. Equilibrium points of the tilted perfect fluid Bianchi VIh state space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S.

    2005-05-01

    We present the full set of evolution equations for the spatially homogeneous cosmologies of type VIh filled with a tilted perfect fluid and we provide the corresponding equilibrium points of the resulting dynamical state space. It is found that only when the group parameter satisfies h > -1 a self-similar solution exists. In particular we show that for h > -{1/9} there exists a self-similar equilibrium point provided that γ ∈ ({2(3+sqrt{-h})/5+3sqrt{-h}},{3/2}) whereas for h VIh.

  19. Fourier-space TEM reconstructions with symmetry adapted functions for all rotational point groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapani, Stefano; Navaza, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    A general-purpose and simple expression for the coefficients of symmetry adapted functions referred to conveniently oriented symmetry axes is given for all rotational point groups. The expression involves the computation of reduced Wigner-matrix elements corresponding to an angle specific to each group and has the computational advantage of leading to Fourier-space TEM (transmission electron microscopy) reconstruction procedures involving only real valued unknowns. Using this expression, a protocol for ab initio view and center assignment and reconstruction so far used for icosahedral particles has been tested with experimental data in other point groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Simple and efficient way of speeding up transmission calculations with k-point sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Jesper Toft; Brandbyge, Mads

    2015-01-01

    The transmissions as functions of energy are central for electron or phonon transport in the Landauer transport picture. We suggest a simple and computationally "cheap" post-processing scheme to interpolate transmission functions over k-points to get smooth well-converged average transmission...

  1. Point kernel technique for calculating dose rates due to cobalt-60 hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornhill, M.J.; McCarthy, J.T.; Morrissette, R.R.; Leach, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a computer code called BETA that has been developed by health physicists at the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station which accounts for the mass and size of hot particles of Cobalt-60, and therefore corrects the Loevinger-based dose calculation for self-absorption

  2. Calculations of received dose for different points in the enrichment uranium oxide warehouse at 4%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso V, G.

    1990-06-01

    In order to verifying that the received dose so much inside as outside of the warehouse of enriched uranium dioxide to 4% it doesn't represent risk to the personnel, the modelling of this and the corresponding calculations for the extreme case of dose at contact are made. (Author)

  3. Nuclear dynamics of zero point fluctuations in ordinary and in gauge space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broglia, R.A.; Barranco, F.; Gallardo, M.

    1985-01-01

    The change of the nuclear density due to the zero point fluctuations associated with surface modes are calculated making use of field theoretical many-body techniques. For medium heavy nuclei the density renormalizations (vertex corrections) are much smaller than the potential renormalizations (self-energy contributions). The microscopic results agree well with the results of the collective model. Zero point fluctuations associated with pairing vibrations renormalize the properties of strongly rotating nuclei around the critical frequency at which the pairing phase transition takes place. Fluctuations of the pairing field play also an important role in the sub-barrier fusion cross section associated with the 58 Ni+ 64 Ni reaction. (orig.)

  4. Neutron shielding point kernel integral calculation code for personal computer: PKN-pc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotegawa, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yukio; Nakane, Yoshihiro; Tomita, Ken-ichi; Kurosawa, Naohiro.

    1994-07-01

    A personal computer version of PKN code, PKN-pc, has been developed to calculate neutron and secondary gamma-ray 1cm depth dose equivalents in water, ordinary concrete and iron for neutron source. Characteristics of PKN code are, to able to calculate dose equivalents in multi-layer three-dimensional system, which are described with two-dimensional surface, for monoenergetic neutron source from 0.01 to 14.9 MeV, 252 Cf fission and 241 Am-Be neutron source quick and easily. In addition to these features, the PKN-pc is possible to process interactive input and to get graphical system configuration and graphical results easily. (author)

  5. Distribution of degrees of polymerization in statistically branched polymers with tetrafunctional branch points: model calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Netopilík, Miloš; Kratochvíl, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2006), s. 196-203 ISSN 0959-8103 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100500501; GA AV ČR IAA4050403; GA AV ČR IAA4050409; GA ČR GA203/03/0617 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : statistical branching * tetrafunctional branch points * molecular-weight distribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.475, year: 2006

  6. Comparison of U.S. and Swedish calculation economic transition points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.S.; Parker, M.B.; Omberg, R.P.

    1979-03-01

    This paper was prepared in response to the view of the Swedish delegation that the U.S. calculation of the economic transitions was in error. The report analyzed the principle differences between the U.S. approach and Swedish approach and concluded that the Swedish results can be reproduced using the U.S. method and Swedish data. Conversely, the U.S. results should be reproducible by Sweden

  7. Synergies in the space of control variables within the equilibrium-point hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambike, S; Mattos, D; Zatsiorsky, V M; Latash, M L

    2016-02-19

    We use an approach rooted in the recent theory of synergies to analyze possible co-variation between two hypothetical control variables involved in finger force production based on the equilibrium-point (EP) hypothesis. These control variables are the referent coordinate (R) and apparent stiffness (C) of the finger. We tested a hypothesis that inter-trial co-variation in the {R; C} space during repeated, accurate force production trials stabilizes the fingertip force. This was expected to correspond to a relatively low amount of inter-trial variability affecting force and a high amount of variability keeping the force unchanged. We used the "inverse piano" apparatus to apply small and smooth positional perturbations to fingers during force production tasks. Across trials, R and C showed strong co-variation with the data points lying close to a hyperbolic curve. Hyperbolic regressions accounted for over 99% of the variance in the {R; C} space. Another analysis was conducted by randomizing the original {R; C} data sets and creating surrogate data sets that were then used to compute predicted force values. The surrogate sets always showed much higher force variance compared to the actual data, thus reinforcing the conclusion that finger force control was organized in the {R; C} space, as predicted by the EP hypothesis, and involved co-variation in that space stabilizing total force. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unfolding and effective bandstructure calculations as discrete real- and reciprocal-space operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boykin, Timothy B., E-mail: boykin@ece.uah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Ajoy, Arvind [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ilatikhameneh, Hesameddin; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard [Network for Computational Nanotechnology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    In recent years, alloy electronic structure calculations based on supercell Brillouin zone unfolding have become popular. There are a number of formulations of the method which on the surface might appear different. Here we show that a discrete real-space description, based on discrete Fourier transforms, is fully general. Furthermore, such an approach can more easily show the effects of alloy scattering. We present such a method for treating the random alloy problem. This treatment features straightforward mathematics and a transparent physical interpretation of the calculated effective (i.e., approximate) energy bands.

  9. Space-charge calculation for bunched beams with 3-D ellipsoidal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, R.W.; Wangler, T.P.

    1991-01-01

    A method for calculating 3-D space-charge forces has been developed that is suitable for bunched beams of either ions or relativistic electrons. The method is based on the analytic relations between charge-density and electric fields for a distribution with 3-D ellipsoidal symmetry in real space. At each step we use a Fourier-series representation for the smooth particle-density function obtained from the distribution of the macroparticles being tracked through the elements of the system. The resulting smooth electric fields reduce the problem of noise from artificial collisions, associated with small numbers of interacting macroparticles. Example calculations will be shown for comparison with other methods. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Particulate emissions calculations from fall tillage operations using point and remote sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kori D; Wojcik, Michael D; Martin, Randal S; Marchant, Christian C; Bingham, Gail E; Pfeiffer, Richard L; Prueger, John H; Hatfield, Jerry L

    2013-07-01

    Soil preparation for agricultural crops produces aerosols that may significantly contribute to seasonal atmospheric particulate matter (PM). Efforts to reduce PM emissions from tillage through a variety of conservation management practices (CMPs) have been made, but the reductions from many of these practices have not been measured in the field. A study was conducted in California's San Joaquin Valley to quantify emissions reductions from fall tillage CMP. Emissions were measured from conventional tillage methods and from a "combined operations" CMP, which combines several implements to reduce tractor passes. Measurements were made of soil moisture, bulk density, meteorological profiles, filter-based total suspended PM (TSP), concentrations of PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM) and PM with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM), and aerosol size distribution. A mass-calibrated, scanning, three-wavelength light detection and ranging (LIDAR) procedure estimated PM through a series of algorithms. Emissions were calculated via inverse modeling with mass concentration measurements and applying a mass balance to LIDAR data. Inverse modeling emission estimates were higher, often with statistically significant differences. Derived PM emissions for conventional operations generally agree with literature values. Sampling irregularities with a few filter-based samples prevented calculation of a complete set of emissions through inverse modeling; however, the LIDAR-based emissions dataset was complete. The CMP control effectiveness was calculated based on LIDAR-derived emissions to be 29 ± 2%, 60 ± 1%, and 25 ± 1% for PM, PM, and TSP size fractions, respectively. Implementation of this CMP provides an effective method for the reduction of PM emissions. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Calculation and decomposition of spot price using interior point nonlinear optimisation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, K.; Song, Y.H.

    2004-01-01

    Optimal pricing for real and reactive power is a very important issue in a deregulation environment. This paper summarises the optimal pricing problem as an extended optimal power flow problem. Then, spot prices are decomposed into different components reflecting various ancillary services. The derivation of the proposed decomposition model is described in detail. Primary-Dual Interior Point method is applied to avoid 'go' 'no go' gauge. In addition, the proposed approach can be extended to cater for other types of ancillary services. (author)

  12. Review and calculation of Mott scattering cross section by unscreened point nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idoeta, R.; Legarda, F.

    1992-01-01

    A new tabulation of the ratio of the ''exact'' Mott cross section for unscreened point nuclei to the classical Rutherford cross section for electrons and positions has been made. Because of the infinite slowly converging series appearing in this ratio we have made two series transformations. With this evaluation the ratio reached convergence within six significant figures after less than a hundred terms and very low computing time. So the ratios evaluated have less relative error than those in the literature and covers a greater range of energy and atomic number. (orig.)

  13. Analytical calculation of the solid angle subtended by an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid to a point source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitz, Eric

    2017-01-01

    We present a geometric method for computing an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid. With this method we can extend existing analytical solid-angle calculations of ellipses to ellipsoids. Our idea consists of applying a linear transformation on the ellipsoid such that it is transformed into a sphere from which a disk that covers the same solid-angle domain can be computed. We demonstrate that by applying the inverse linear transformation on this disk we obtain an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as the ellipsoid. We provide a MATLAB implementation of our algorithm and we validate it numerically.

  14. Analytical calculation of the solid angle subtended by an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid to a point source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heitz, Eric, E-mail: eheitz.research@gmail.com

    2017-04-21

    We present a geometric method for computing an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as an arbitrarily positioned ellipsoid. With this method we can extend existing analytical solid-angle calculations of ellipses to ellipsoids. Our idea consists of applying a linear transformation on the ellipsoid such that it is transformed into a sphere from which a disk that covers the same solid-angle domain can be computed. We demonstrate that by applying the inverse linear transformation on this disk we obtain an ellipse that subtends the same solid-angle domain as the ellipsoid. We provide a MATLAB implementation of our algorithm and we validate it numerically.

  15. Calculation of the relative efficiency of thermoluminescent detectors to space radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilski, P.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoluminescent (TL) detectors are often used for measurements of radiation doses in space. While space radiation is composed of a mixture of heavy charged particles, the relative TL efficiency depends on ionization density. The question therefore arises: what is the relative efficiency of TLDs to the radiation present in space? In the attempt to answer this question, the relative TL efficiency of two types of lithium fluoride detectors for space radiation has been calculated, based on the theoretical space spectra and the experimental values of TL efficiency to ion beams. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Ti detectors for radiation encountered at typical low-Earth’s orbit was found to be close to unity, justifying a common application of these TLDs to space dosimetry. The TL efficiency of LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors is significantly lower. It was found that a shielding may have a significant influence on the relative response of TLDs, due to changes caused in the radiation spectrum. In case of application of TLDs outside the Earth’s magnetosphere, one should expect lower relative efficiency than at the low-Earth’s orbit.

  16. Calculating point of origin of blood spatter using laser scanning technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Nashad; Liscio, Eugene

    2015-03-01

    The point of origin of an impact pattern is important in establishing the chain of events in a bloodletting incident. In this study, the accuracy and reproducibility of the point of origin estimation using the FARO Scene software with the FARO Focus(3D) laser scanner was determined. Five impact patterns were created for each of three combinations of distances from the floor (z) and the front wall (x). Fifteen spatters were created using a custom impact rig, scanned using the laser scanner, photographed using a DSLR camera, and processed using the Scene software. Overall results gave a SD = 3.49 cm (p < 0.0001) in the x-direction, SD = 1.14 cm (p = 0.9291) in the y-direction, and SD = 9.08 cm (p < 0.0115) in the z-direction. The technique performs within literature ranges of accepted accuracy and reproducibility and is comparable to results reported for other virtual stringing software. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Phonon vibrational frequencies of all single-wall carbon nanotubes at the lambda point: reduced matrix calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufang; Wu, Yanzhao; Feng, Min; Wang, Hui; Jin, Qinghua; Ding, Datong; Cao, Xuewei

    2008-12-01

    With a simple method-the reduced matrix method, we simplified the calculation of the phonon vibrational frequencies according to SWNTs structure and their phonon symmetric property and got the dispersion properties of all SWNTs at Gamma point in Brillouin zone, whose diameters lie between 0.6 and 2.5 nm. The calculating time is shrunk about 2-4 orders. A series of the dependent relationships between the diameters of SWNTs and the frequencies of Raman and IR active modes are given. Several fine structures including "glazed tile" structures in omega approximately d figures are found, which might predict a certain macro-quantum phenomenon of the phonons in SWNTs.

  18. The dimensionality of stellar chemical space using spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price-Jones, Natalie; Bovy, Jo

    2018-03-01

    Chemical tagging of stars based on their similar compositions can offer new insights about the star formation and dynamical history of the Milky Way. We investigate the feasibility of identifying groups of stars in chemical space by forgoing the use of model derived abundances in favour of direct analysis of spectra. This facilitates the propagation of measurement uncertainties and does not pre-suppose knowledge of which elements are important for distinguishing stars in chemical space. We use ˜16 000 red giant and red clump H-band spectra from the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) and perform polynomial fits to remove trends not due to abundance-ratio variations. Using expectation maximized principal component analysis, we find principal components with high signal in the wavelength regions most important for distinguishing between stars. Different subsamples of red giant and red clump stars are all consistent with needing about 10 principal components to accurately model the spectra above the level of the measurement uncertainties. The dimensionality of stellar chemical space that can be investigated in the H band is therefore ≲10. For APOGEE observations with typical signal-to-noise ratios of 100, the number of chemical space cells within which stars cannot be distinguished is approximately 1010±2 × (5 ± 2)n - 10 with n the number of principal components. This high dimensionality and the fine-grained sampling of chemical space are a promising first step towards chemical tagging based on spectra alone.

  19. A fixed point theorem for uniformly locally contractive mappings in a C-chainable cone rectangular metric space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessem Samet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Azam, Arshad and Beg [ Banach contraction principle on cone rectangular metric spaces, Appl. Anal. Discrete Math. 2009] introduced the notion of cone rectangular metric spaces by replacing the triangular inequality of a cone metric space by a rectangular inequality. In this paper, we introduce the notion of c-chainable cone rectangular metric space and we establish a fixed point theorem for uniformly locally contractive mappings in such spaces. An example is given to illustrate our obtained result.

  20. Improvement of Thrust Bearing Calculation Considering the Convectional Heating within the Space between the Pads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Chmielowiec-Jablczyk

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A modern thrust bearing tool is used to estimate the behavior of tilting pad thrust bearings not only in the oil film between pad and rotating collar, but also in the space between the pads. The oil flow in the space significantly influences the oil film inlet temperature and the heating of pad and collar. For that reason, it is necessary to define an oil mixing model for the space between the pads. In the bearing tool, the solutions of the Reynolds equation including a cavitation model, the energy equation and the heat transfer equation are done iteratively with the finite volume method by considering a constant flow rate. Both effects—laminar/turbulent flow and centrifugal force—are considered. The calculation results are compared with measurements done for a flooded thrust bearing with nominal eight tilting pads with an outer diameter of 180 mm. The heat convection coefficients for the pad surfaces mainly influence the pad temperature field and are adjusted to the measurement results. In the following paper, the calculation results for variable space distances, influence of different parameters on the bearing behavior and operating condition at high load are presented.

  1. Ab initio calculation of the zero-point energy in dense hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takezawa, Tomoki [Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Nagara, Hitose [Division of Materials Physics, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Nagao, Kazutaka [Laboratory of Atomic and Solid State Physics, Cornel University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2002-11-11

    We have studied the vibrational modes and their frequencies in both atomic and molecular phases of dense hydrogen to find the stable structures and evaluated the zero-point energies (ZPEs) and the effect on molecular dissociation. The most probable structure in the atomic phase is Cs IV whose vibrational modes have real frequencies over the whole Brillouin zone. And the structure in the molecular phase is very close to Cmca, whose vibrational modes with imaginary frequencies work as guides to the stable structure. Our estimates of the ZPE are very close to those of Kagan et al (Kagan Yu, Pushkarev V V and Kholas A 1977 Sov. Phys.-JETP 46 511). Adding the ZPE to the static energy, we estimated its effect on the pressure of the molecular dissociation. The reduction of the dissociation pressure due to the inclusion of the ZPE becomes over 100 GPa.

  2. Ab initio calculation of the zero-point energy in dense hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, Tomoki; Nagara, Hitose; Nagao, Kazutaka

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the vibrational modes and their frequencies in both atomic and molecular phases of dense hydrogen to find the stable structures and evaluated the zero-point energies (ZPEs) and the effect on molecular dissociation. The most probable structure in the atomic phase is Cs IV whose vibrational modes have real frequencies over the whole Brillouin zone. And the structure in the molecular phase is very close to Cmca, whose vibrational modes with imaginary frequencies work as guides to the stable structure. Our estimates of the ZPE are very close to those of Kagan et al (Kagan Yu, Pushkarev V V and Kholas A 1977 Sov. Phys.-JETP 46 511). Adding the ZPE to the static energy, we estimated its effect on the pressure of the molecular dissociation. The reduction of the dissociation pressure due to the inclusion of the ZPE becomes over 100 GPa

  3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CALCULATION MODEL FOR THE ESTIMATION OF THE BOILING POINT OF THE ­POLYMER-SOLVENT MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matseevich Andrey Vyacheslavovich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of the study: one of the most promising areas in the field of polymer physics is the development of the calculation models allowing to quantify the properties of polymers. This work provides the calculation model for the quantitative assessment of the boiling point of solutions of polymer in the organic solvent. The model is based on the chemical structure of polymer and solvent. For the components the Hildebrand solubility parameter, the latent heat of vaporization and the boiling point of the solvent are calculated. Objectives: to generate the equation connecting the boiling point of polymer solution in the chosen solvent with the boiling point of the pure solvent, the molecular weights of the repeating unit of polymer and the molecule of solvent, the weight fraction of polymer in solution, the Hildebrand solubility parameter and the molar volume of the repeating unit of polymer. Materials and methods: the Hildebrand solubility parameter of solutions and polymers and also the van der Waals volume were calculated using the method of A.A. Askadsky; the enthalpy of vaporization of the solvent at the boiling point was expressed through the Hildebrand solubility parameter. The dependence of the enthalpy of vaporization from the temperature was taken into consideration. The computerization of the method was implemented, according to which all calculations are performed automatically after entering the information on the chemical structure of polymer and solvent into the computer. Results: the equation connecting the ebulliometric constant of the low concentration polymer solution with the boiling point of the solvent, the molar volume of the solvent and the Hildebrand parameter was generated. The results of the analysis were checked with regard to the system of polystyrene/toluene; the possibility of practical application of the offered method was shown. Conclusions: the method presented in this article allows to predict the ebulliometric

  4. Analytical formulae to calculate the solid angle subtended at an arbitrarily positioned point source by an elliptical radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Mahmoud I.; Hammoud, Sami; Ibrahim, Tarek; Sakr, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a direct analytical mathematical method for calculating the solid angle, Ω, subtended at a point by closed elliptical contours. The solid angle is required in many areas of optical and nuclear physics to estimate the flux of particle beam of radiation and to determine the activity of a radioactive source. The validity of the derived analytical expressions was successfully confirmed by the comparison with some published data (Numerical Method)

  5. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with FLUKA Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Mairani, A; Valente, M; Battistoni, G; Botta, F; Pedroli, G; Ferrari, A; Cremonesi, M; Di Dia, A; Ferrari, M; Fasso, A

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, FLUKA has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. Methods: FLUKA DPKS have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10-3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy ((89)Sr, (90)Y, (131)I, (153)Sm, (177)Lu, (186)Re, and (188)Re). Point isotropic...

  6. A simplified computer code based on point Kernel theory for calculating radiation dose in packages of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-03-01

    A study on radiation dose control in packages of radioactive waste from nuclear facilities, hospitals and industries, such as sources of Ra-226, Co-60, Ir-192 and Cs-137, is presented. The MAPA and MAPAM computer codes, based on point Kernel theory for calculating doses of several source-shielding type configurations, aiming to assure the safe transport conditions for these sources, was developed. The validation of the code for point sources, using the values provided by NCRP, for the thickness of lead and concrete shieldings, limiting the dose at 100 Mrem/hr for several distances from the source to the detector, was carried out. The validation for non point sources was carried out, measuring experimentally radiation dose from packages developed by Brazilian CNEN/S.P. for removing the sources. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations in Cartesian coordinates: accurate reduction in zero-point energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issack, Bilkiss B; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2005-08-22

    An approach for the inclusion of geometric constraints in semiclassical initial value representation calculations is introduced. An important aspect of the approach is that Cartesian coordinates are used throughout. We devised an algorithm for the constrained sampling of initial conditions through the use of multivariate Gaussian distribution based on a projected Hessian. We also propose an approach for the constrained evaluation of the so-called Herman-Kluk prefactor in its exact log-derivative form. Sample calculations are performed for free and constrained rare-gas trimers. The results show that the proposed approach provides an accurate evaluation of the reduction in zero-point energy. Exact basis set calculations are used to assess the accuracy of the semiclassical results. Since Cartesian coordinates are used, the approach is general and applicable to a variety of molecular and atomic systems.

  8. Impact of field of study, college and year on calculation of cumulative grade point average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail, Carla; Reiter, Harold I; Bridge, Michelle; Stefanowska, Patricia; Schmuck, Marylou; Norman, Geoff

    2008-08-01

    A consistent finding from many reviews is that undergraduate Grade Point Average (uGPA) is a key predictor of academic success in medical school. Curiously, while uGPA has established predictive validity, little is known about its reliability. For a variety of reasons, medical schools use different weighting schemas to combine years of study. Additional concerns relate to the equivalence of grades obtained from different fields of study and institutions, with little hard data to guide conclusions. At the Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine Class of 2007 at McMaster University, every undergraduate grade of 2,138 applicants, along with field of study and post-secondary educational institution, was analyzed. Individual grades were aggregated into an overall uGPA using published algorithms from several medical school, and correlated with a non-weighted sum. Correlations of the different schemas with equal weights ranged from 0.973 to 0.990. The extent of the difference between fields of study was small, accounting for only 1.5% of the variance. However, differences among 16 Ontario universities were larger, and accounted for 9.3% of the variance. The results of this study suggest that all weighting schemas are virtually equivalent, making any formulation reasonable. Differences by field of study are small, but do not show any bias against non-science students. Differences by institution are larger, amounting to a range in average score from 78.7 to 84.6; however it is not clear whether this reflects candidate ability or institutional policy, so attempts to correct for institution may be difficult.

  9. Evenly spaced Detrended Fluctuation Analysis: Selecting the number of points for the diffusion plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Joshua J.; Haddad, Jeffrey M.

    2018-02-01

    Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) has become a widely-used tool to examine the correlation structure of a time series and provided insights into neuromuscular health and disease states. As the popularity of utilizing DFA in the human behavioral sciences has grown, understanding its limitations and how to properly determine parameters is becoming increasingly important. DFA examines the correlation structure of variability in a time series by computing α, the slope of the log SD- log n diffusion plot. When using the traditional DFA algorithm, the timescales, n, are often selected as a set of integers between a minimum and maximum length based on the number of data points in the time series. This produces non-uniformly distributed values of n in logarithmic scale, which influences the estimation of α due to a disproportionate weighting of the long-timescale regions of the diffusion plot. Recently, the evenly spaced DFA and evenly spaced average DFA algorithms were introduced. Both algorithms compute α by selecting k points for the diffusion plot based on the minimum and maximum timescales of interest and improve the consistency of α estimates for simulated fractional Gaussian noise and fractional Brownian motion time series. Two issues that remain unaddressed are (1) how to select k and (2) whether the evenly-spaced DFA algorithms show similar benefits when assessing human behavioral data. We manipulated k and examined its effects on the accuracy, consistency, and confidence limits of α in simulated and experimental time series. We demonstrate that the accuracy and consistency of α are relatively unaffected by the selection of k. However, the confidence limits of α narrow as k increases, dramatically reducing measurement uncertainty for single trials. We provide guidelines for selecting k and discuss potential uses of the evenly spaced DFA algorithms when assessing human behavioral data.

  10. Approximation of fixed points of Lipschitz pseudo-contractive mapping in Banach spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidume, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Let K be a subset of a real Banach space X. A mapping T:K → X is called pseudo-contractive if the inequality ||x-y|| ≤ ||(1+r)(x-y)-r(Tx-Ty)|| holds for all x,y in K and r > 0. Fixed points of Lipschitz pseudo-contractive maps are approximated under appropriate conditions, by an iteration process of the type introduced by W.R. Mann. This gives an affirmative answer to the problem stated by T.L. Hicks and J.R. Rubicek (J. Math. Anal. Appl. 59 (1977) 504). (author). 28 refs

  11. The motion of a classical spinning point particle in a Riemann-Cartan space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, R.

    1983-01-01

    A consistent set of equations of motion for classical charged point particles with spin and magnetic dipole moment in a Riemann-Cartan space-time is generated from a generalized Lagrangean formalism. The equations avoid the spurius free helicoidal solutions and at the same time conserve the canonical condition of normalization of the 4-velocity. The 4-velocity and the mechanical moment are paralell in this theory, where the condition of orthogonality between the spin and the 4-velocity is treated as a non-holonomic one. (Author) [pt

  12. A heterogeneous CPU+GPU Poisson solver for space charge calculations in beam dynamics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dawei; Rienen, Ursula van [University of Rostock, Institute of General Electrical Engineering (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In beam dynamics studies in accelerator physics, space charge plays a central role in the low energy regime of an accelerator. Numerical space charge calculations are required, both, in the design phase and in the operation of the machines as well. Due to its efficiency, mostly the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is chosen for the space charge calculation. Then, the solution of Poisson's equation for the charge distribution in the rest frame is the most prominent part within the solution process. The Poisson solver directly affects the accuracy of the self-field applied on the charged particles when the equation of motion is solved in the laboratory frame. As the Poisson solver consumes the major part of the computing time in most simulations it has to be as fast as possible since it has to be carried out once per time step. In this work, we demonstrate a novel heterogeneous CPU+GPU routine for the Poisson solver. The novel solver also benefits from our new research results on the utilization of a discrete cosine transform within the classical Hockney and Eastwood's convolution routine.

  13. First principles calculation of point defects and mobility degradation in bulk AlSb for radiation detection application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lordi, V; Aberg, D; Erhart, P; Wu, K J

    2007-01-01

    The development of high resolution, room temperature semiconductor radiation detectors requires the introduction of materials with increased carrier mobility-lifetime (μτ) product, while having a band gap in the 1.4-2.2 eV range. AlSb is a promising material for this application. However, systematic improvements in the material quality are necessary to achieve an adequate μτ product. We are using a combination of simulation and experiment to develop a fundamental understanding of the factors which affect detector material quality. First principles calculations are used to study the microscopic mechanisms of mobility degradation from point defects and to calculate the intrinsic limit of mobility from phonon scattering. We use density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the formation energies of native and impurity point defects, to determine their equilibrium concentrations as a function of temperature and charge state. Perturbation theory via the Born approximation is coupled with Boltzmann transport theory to calculate the contribution toward mobility degradation of each type of point defect, using DFT-computed carrier scattering rates. A comparison is made to measured carrier concentrations and mobilities from AlSb crystals grown in our lab. We find our predictions in good quantitative agreement with experiment, allowing optimized annealing conditions to be deduced. A major result is the determination of oxygen impurity as a severe mobility killer, despite the ability of oxygen to compensation dope AlSb and reduce the net carrier concentration. In this case, increased resistivity is not a good indicator of improved material performance, due to the concomitant sharp reduction in μτ

  14. Scattering and the Point Spread Function of the New Generation Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreur, Julian J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary design work on the New Generation Space Telescope (NGST) is currently under way. This telescope is envisioned as a lightweight, deployable Cassegrain reflector with an aperture of 8 meters, and an effective focal length of 80 meters. It is to be folded into a small-diameter package for launch by an Atlas booster, and unfolded in orbit. The primary is to consist of an octagon with a hole at the center, and with eight segments arranged in a flower petal configuration about the octagon. The comers of the petal-shaped segments are to be trimmed so that the package will fit atop the Atlas booster. This mirror, along with its secondary will focus the light from a point source into an image which is spread from a point by diffraction effects, figure errors, and scattering of light from the surface. The distribution of light in the image of a point source is called a point spread function (PSF). The obstruction of the incident light by the secondary mirror and its support structure, the trimmed corners of the petals, and the grooves between the segments all cause the diffraction pattern characterizing an ideal point spread function to be changed, with the trimmed comers causing the rings of the Airy pattern to become broken up, and the linear grooves causing diffraction spikes running radially away from the central spot, or Airy disk. Any figure errors the mirror segments may have, or any errors in aligning the petals with the central octagon will also spread the light out from the ideal point spread function. A point spread function for a mirror the size of the NGST and having an incident wavelength of 900 nm is considered. Most of the light is confined in a circle with a diameter of 0.05 arc seconds. The ring pattern ranges in intensity from 10(exp -2) near the center to 10(exp -6) near the edge of the plotted field, and can be clearly discerned in a log plot of the intensity. The total fraction of the light scattered from this point spread function is called

  15. Spacing distribution functions for the one-dimensional point-island model with irreversible attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Einstein, T. L.

    2011-07-01

    We study the configurational structure of the point-island model for epitaxial growth in one dimension. In particular, we calculate the island gap and capture zone distributions. Our model is based on an approximate description of nucleation inside the gaps. Nucleation is described by the joint probability density pnXY(x,y), which represents the probability density to have nucleation at position x within a gap of size y. Our proposed functional form for pnXY(x,y) describes excellently the statistical behavior of the system. We compare our analytical model with extensive numerical simulations. Our model retains the most relevant physical properties of the system.

  16. An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-07-01

    Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function and by constraining the 1 norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Common Fixed Points for Asymptotic Pointwise Nonexpansive Mappings in Metric and Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pasom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Let C be a nonempty bounded closed convex subset of a complete CAT(0 space X. We prove that the common fixed point set of any commuting family of asymptotic pointwise nonexpansive mappings on C is nonempty closed and convex. We also show that, under some suitable conditions, the sequence {xk}k=1∞ defined by xk+1=(1-tmkxk⊕tmkTmnky(m-1k, y(m-1k=(1-t(m-1kxk⊕t(m-1kTm-1nky(m-2k,y(m-2k=(1-t(m-2kxk⊕t(m-2kTm-2nky(m-3k,…,y2k=(1-t2kxk⊕t2kT2nky1k,y1k=(1-t1kxk⊕t1kT1nky0k,y0k=xk,  k∈N, converges to a common fixed point of T1,T2,…,Tm where they are asymptotic pointwise nonexpansive mappings on C, {tik}k=1∞ are sequences in [0,1] for all i=1,2,…,m, and {nk} is an increasing sequence of natural numbers. The related results for uniformly convex Banach spaces are also included.

  18. All-sky-imaging capabilities for ionospheric space weather research using geomagnetic conjugate point observing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinis, C.; Baumgardner, J.; Wroten, J.; Mendillo, M.

    2018-04-01

    Optical signatures of ionospheric disturbances exist at all latitudes on Earth-the most well known case being visible aurora at high latitudes. Sub-visual emissions occur equatorward of the auroral zones that also indicate periods and locations of severe Space Weather effects. These fall into three magnetic latitude domains in each hemisphere: (1) sub-auroral latitudes ∼40-60°, (2) mid-latitudes (20-40°) and (3) equatorial-to-low latitudes (0-20°). Boston University has established a network of all-sky-imagers (ASIs) with sites at opposite ends of the same geomagnetic field lines in each hemisphere-called geomagnetic conjugate points. Our ASIs are autonomous instruments that operate in mini-observatories situated at four conjugate pairs in North and South America, plus one pair linking Europe and South Africa. In this paper, we describe instrument design, data-taking protocols, data transfer and archiving issues, image processing, science objectives and early results for each latitude domain. This unique capability addresses how a single source of disturbance is transformed into similar or different effects based on the unique "receptor" conditions (seasonal effects) found in each hemisphere. Applying optical conjugate point observations to Space Weather problems offers a new diagnostic approach for understanding the global system response functions operating in the Earth's upper atmosphere.

  19. Lattice dynamics calculations based on density-functional perturbation theory in real space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Honghui; Carbogno, Christian; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    A real-space formalism for density-functional perturbation theory (DFPT) is derived and applied for the computation of harmonic vibrational properties in molecules and solids. The practical implementation using numeric atom-centered orbitals as basis functions is demonstrated exemplarily for the all-electron Fritz Haber Institute ab initio molecular simulations (FHI-aims) package. The convergence of the calculations with respect to numerical parameters is carefully investigated and a systematic comparison with finite-difference approaches is performed both for finite (molecules) and extended (periodic) systems. Finally, the scaling tests and scalability tests on massively parallel computer systems demonstrate the computational efficiency.

  20. Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Calculations Using the Modified Space-Time CESE Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chau-lyan

    2007-01-01

    The space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is modified to address the robustness issues of high-aspect-ratio, viscous, near-wall meshes. In this new approach, the dependent variable gradients are evaluated using element edges and the corresponding neighboring solution elements while keeping the original flux integration procedure intact. As such, the excellent flux conservation property is retained and the new edge-based gradients evaluation significantly improves the robustness for high-aspect ratio meshes frequently encountered in three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes calculations. The order of accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated for oblique acoustic wave propagation, shock-wave interaction, and hypersonic flows over a blunt body. The confirmed second-order convergence along with the enhanced robustness in handling hypersonic blunt body flow calculations makes the proposed approach a very competitive CFD framework for 3D Navier-Stokes simulations.

  1. A massively-parallel electronic-structure calculations based on real-space density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Jun-Ichi; Takahashi, Daisuke; Oshiyama, Atsushi; Boku, Taisuke; Shiraishi, Kenji; Okada, Susumu; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Based on the real-space finite-difference method, we have developed a first-principles density functional program that efficiently performs large-scale calculations on massively-parallel computers. In addition to efficient parallel implementation, we also implemented several computational improvements, substantially reducing the computational costs of O(N 3 ) operations such as the Gram-Schmidt procedure and subspace diagonalization. Using the program on a massively-parallel computer cluster with a theoretical peak performance of several TFLOPS, we perform electronic-structure calculations for a system consisting of over 10,000 Si atoms, and obtain a self-consistent electronic-structure in a few hundred hours. We analyze in detail the costs of the program in terms of computation and of inter-node communications to clarify the efficiency, the applicability, and the possibility for further improvements.

  2. A Practical Computational Method for the Anisotropic Redshift-Space 3-Point Correlation Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Zachary; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2018-04-01

    We present an algorithm enabling computation of the anisotropic redshift-space galaxy 3-point correlation function (3PCF) scaling as N2, with N the number of galaxies. Our previous work showed how to compute the isotropic 3PCF with this scaling by expanding the radially-binned density field around each galaxy in the survey into spherical harmonics and combining these coefficients to form multipole moments. The N2 scaling occurred because this approach never explicitly required the relative angle between a galaxy pair about the primary galaxy. Here we generalize this work, demonstrating that in the presence of azimuthally-symmetric anisotropy produced by redshift-space distortions (RSD) the 3PCF can be described by two triangle side lengths, two independent total angular momenta, and a spin. This basis for the anisotropic 3PCF allows its computation with negligible additional work over the isotropic 3PCF. We also present the covariance matrix of the anisotropic 3PCF measured in this basis. Our algorithm tracks the full 5-D redshift-space 3PCF, uses an accurate line of sight to each triplet, is exact in angle, and easily handles edge correction. It will enable use of the anisotropic large-scale 3PCF as a probe of RSD in current and upcoming large-scale redshift surveys.

  3. Precise and efficient evaluation of gravimetric quantities at arbitrarily scattered points in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Kamen G.; Pavlis, Nikolaos K.; Petrushev, Pencho

    2017-12-01

    Gravimetric quantities are commonly represented in terms of high degree surface or solid spherical harmonics. After EGM2008, such expansions routinely extend to spherical harmonic degree 2190, which makes the computation of gravimetric quantities at a large number of arbitrarily scattered points in space using harmonic synthesis, a very computationally demanding process. We present here the development of an algorithm and its associated software for the efficient and precise evaluation of gravimetric quantities, represented in high degree solid spherical harmonics, at arbitrarily scattered points in the space exterior to the surface of the Earth. The new algorithm is based on representation of the quantities of interest in solid ellipsoidal harmonics and application of the tensor product trigonometric needlets. A FORTRAN implementation of this algorithm has been developed and extensively tested. The capabilities of the code are demonstrated using as examples the disturbing potential T, height anomaly ζ , gravity anomaly Δ g , gravity disturbance δ g , north-south deflection of the vertical ξ , east-west deflection of the vertical η , and the second radial derivative T_{rr} of the disturbing potential. After a pre-computational step that takes between 1 and 2 h per quantity, the current version of the software is capable of computing on a standard PC each of these quantities in the range from the surface of the Earth up to 544 km above that surface at speeds between 20,000 and 40,000 point evaluations per second, depending on the gravimetric quantity being evaluated, while the relative error does not exceed 10^{-6} and the memory (RAM) use is 9.3 GB.

  4. Mathematical model for calculation of the heat-hydraulic modes of heating points of heat-supplying systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaginova, Z. I.

    2016-03-01

    The mathematical model and calculation method of the thermal-hydraulic modes of heat points, based on the theory of hydraulic circuits, being developed at the Melentiev Energy Systems Institute are presented. The redundant circuit of the heat point was developed, in which all possible connecting circuits (CC) of the heat engineering equipment and the places of possible installation of control valve were inserted. It allows simulating the operating modes both at central heat points (CHP) and individual heat points (IHP). The configuration of the desired circuit is carried out automatically by removing the unnecessary links. The following circuits connecting the heating systems (HS) are considered: the dependent circuit (direct and through mixing elevator) and independent one (through the heater). The following connecting circuits of the load of hot water supply (HWS) were considered: open CC (direct water pumping from pipelines of heat networks) and a closed CC with connecting the HWS heaters on single-level (serial and parallel) and two-level (sequential and combined) circuits. The following connecting circuits of the ventilation systems (VS) were also considered: dependent circuit and independent one through a common heat exchanger with HS load. In the heat points, water temperature regulators for the hot water supply and ventilation and flow regulators for the heating system, as well as to the inlet as a whole, are possible. According to the accepted decomposition, the model of the heat point is an integral part of the overall heat-hydraulic model of the heat-supplying system having intermediate control stages (CHP and IHP), which allows to consider the operating modes of the heat networks of different levels connected with each other through CHP as well as connected through IHP of consumers with various connecting circuits of local systems of heat consumption: heating, ventilation and hot water supply. The model is implemented in the Angara data

  5. Adhesion strength of Ni film on Ti substrate characterized by three-point bend test, peel test and theoretic calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, F.Z.; Liu, P.; Jia, S.G.; Tian, B.H.; Su, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Electroplating was employed to fabricate the Ni film on the Ti substrate. Adhesion strength of Ni film on Ti substrate was determined using the three-point bend technique that was proposed in standard mechanics test. The experimental results demonstrate that the interface fracture energies obviously increase with the roughness of Ti substrates, and are independence with the thickness of Ni films. Moreover, the adhesion strength of Ni film on Ti substrate was also measured by peel test, and was evaluated by Miedema model of experiential electron theory. The intrinsic interface fracture energy measured by three-point bend test is reasonable agreement with that obtained by theoretical calculation of Miedema model, and is roughly comparable to that by peel test

  6. Impact of mesh points number on the accuracy of deterministic calculations of control rods worth for Tehran research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boustani, Ehsan; Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran; Khakshournia, Samad

    2016-01-01

    In this paper two different computational approaches, a deterministic and a stochastic one, were used for calculation of the control rods worth of the Tehran research reactor. For the deterministic approach the MTRPC package composed of the WIMS code and diffusion code CITVAP was used, while for the stochastic one the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was applied. On comparing our results obtained by the Monte Carlo approach and those previously reported in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of Tehran research reactor produced by the deterministic approach large discrepancies were seen. To uncover the root cause of these discrepancies, some efforts were made and finally was discerned that the number of spatial mesh points in the deterministic approach was the critical cause of these discrepancies. Therefore, the mesh optimization was performed for different regions of the core such that the results of deterministic approach based on the optimized mesh points have a good agreement with those obtained by the Monte Carlo approach.

  7. Impact of mesh points number on the accuracy of deterministic calculations of control rods worth for Tehran research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boustani, Ehsan [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Energy Engineering and Physics Dept.; Khakshournia, Samad [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Energy Engineering and Physics Dept.

    2016-12-15

    In this paper two different computational approaches, a deterministic and a stochastic one, were used for calculation of the control rods worth of the Tehran research reactor. For the deterministic approach the MTRPC package composed of the WIMS code and diffusion code CITVAP was used, while for the stochastic one the Monte Carlo code MCNPX was applied. On comparing our results obtained by the Monte Carlo approach and those previously reported in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of Tehran research reactor produced by the deterministic approach large discrepancies were seen. To uncover the root cause of these discrepancies, some efforts were made and finally was discerned that the number of spatial mesh points in the deterministic approach was the critical cause of these discrepancies. Therefore, the mesh optimization was performed for different regions of the core such that the results of deterministic approach based on the optimized mesh points have a good agreement with those obtained by the Monte Carlo approach.

  8. Quantum-Chemical Calculation and Visualization of the Vibrational Modes of Graphene in Different Points of the Brillouin Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedieva, Tetiana; Gubanov, Victor; Dovbeshko, Galyna; Pidhirnyi, Denys

    2015-12-01

    Different notations of graphene irreducible representations and optical modes could be found in the literature. The goals of this paper are to identify the correspondence between available notations, to calculate the optical modes of graphene in different points of the Brillouin zone, and to compare them with experimental data obtained by Raman and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. The mechanism of the resonance enhancement of vibration modes of the molecules adsorbed on graphene in CARS experiments is proposed. The possibility of appearance of the discrete breathing modes is discussed.

  9. Low pO2 Contributes to Potential Error in Oxygen Saturation Calculations Using a Point-of-Care Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsolus, Ian L; Love, Sara A; Kohl, Louis P; Schmidt, Martin; Apple, Fred S

    2017-12-20

    The present study addressed the accuracy of calculated oxygen saturation (sO2) using point-of-care (POC) testing compared with measured values on a blood gas analyzer. In total, 3,323 sO2 values were measured in 1,180 patients using a CO-oximeter (ABL 800 Flex; Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark). Measured parameters were then used to calculate an expected sO2 for the POC method (Abbott i-STAT; Abbott POC, Princeton, NJ). Cases in which calculated sO2 differed from measured sO2 by 10% or more were analyzed. Of the 3,323 comparisons performed, 260 (8%) showed discrepancies (± ≥10%) between measured and calculated sO2 values. Ninety-four of discrepant measurements (245 of 260) occurred when pO2 was less than 50 mm Hg. pH and bicarbonate distributions shifted to lower values in discrepant vs nondiscrepant cases. Our results suggest that the likelihood of discrepant sO2 is 27% among patients with pO2 less than 50 mm Hg. Direct measurement of sO2 by CO-oximetry is strongly suggested in this clinical scenario. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. The validation of organ dose calculations using voxel phantoms and Monte Carlo methods applied to point and water immersion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, J G; da Silva, F C A; Mauricio, C L P; dos Santos, D S

    2004-01-01

    The Monte Carlo program 'Visual Monte Carlo-dose calculation' (VMC-dc) uses a voxel phantom to simulate the body organs and tissues, transports photons through this phantom and reports the absorbed dose received by each organ and tissue relevant to the calculation of effective dose as defined in ICRP Publication 60. This paper shows the validation of VMC-dc by comparison with EGSnrc and with a physical phantom containing TLDs. The validation of VMC-dc by comparison with EGSnrc was made for a collimated beam of 0.662 MeV photons irradiating a cube of water. For the validation by comparison with the physical phantom, the case considered was a whole body irradiation with a point 137Cs source placed at a distance of 1 m from the thorax of an Alderson-RANDO phantom. The validation results show good agreement for the doses obtained using VMC-dc and EGSnrc calculations, and from VMC-dc and TLD measurements. The program VMC-dc was then applied to the calculation of doses due to immersion in water containing gamma emitters. The dose conversion coefficients for water immersion are compared with their equivalents in the literature.

  11. The validation of organ dose calculations using voxel phantoms and Monte Carlo methods applied to point and water immersion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J. G.; Da Silva, F. C. A.; Mauricio, C. L. P.; Dos Santos, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Monte Carlo program 'Visual Monte Carlo-dose calculation' (VMC-dc) uses a voxel phantom to simulate the body organs and tissues, transports photons through this phantom and reports the absorbed dose received by each organ and tissue relevant to the calculation of effective dose as defined in ICRP Publication 60. This paper shows the validation of VMC-dc by comparison with EGSnrc and with a physical phantom containing TLDs. The validation of VMC-dc by comparison with EGSnrc was made for a collimated beam of 0.662 MeV photons irradiating a cube of water. For the validation by comparison with the physical phantom, the case considered was a whole body irradiation with a point 137 Cs source placed at a distance of 1 m from the thorax of an Alderson-RANDO phantom. The validation results show good agreement for the doses obtained using VMC-dc and EGSnrc calculations, and from VMC-dc and TLD measurements. The program VMC-dc was then applied to the calculation of doses due to immersion in water containing gamma emitters. The dose conversion coefficients for water immersion are compared with their equivalents in the literature. (authors)

  12. Cylindrical angular spectrum using Fourier coefficients of point light source and its application to fast hologram calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seungtaik; Jeong, Il Kwon

    2015-11-16

    We will introduce a new simple analytic formula of the Fourier coefficient of the 3D field distribution of a point light source to generate a cylindrical angular spectrum which captures the object wave in 360° in the 3D Fourier space. Conceptually, the cylindrical angular spectrum can be understood as a cylindrical version of the omnidirectional spectral approach of Sando et al. Our Fourier coefficient formula is based on an intuitive observation that a point light radiates uniformly in all directions. Our formula is defined over all frequency vectors lying on the entire sphere in the 3D Fourier space and is more natural and computationally more efficient for all around recording of the object wave than that of the previous omnidirectional spectral method. A generalized frequency-based occlusion culling method for an arbitrary complex object is also proposed to enhance the 3D quality of a hologram. As a practical application of the cylindrical angular spectrum, an interactive hologram example is presented together with implementation details.

  13. Implementation of an algorithm for absorbed dose calculation in high energy photon beams at off axis points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, M.F.; Alvarez, G.D.; Sanz, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A semiempirical algorithm for absorbed dose calculation at off-axis points in irregular beams was implemented. It is well known that semiempirical methods are very useful because of their easy implementation and its helpfulness in dose calculation in the clinic. These methods can be used as independent tools for dosimetric calculation in many applications of quality assurance. However, the applicability of such methods has some limitations, even in homogeneous media, specially at off axis points, near beam fringes or outside the beam. Only methods derived from tissue-air-ratio (TAR) or scatter-maximum-ratio (SMR) have been devised for those situations, many years ago. Despite there have been improvements for these manual methods, like the Sc-Sp ones, no attempt has been made to extend their usage at off axis points. In this work, a semiempirical formalism was introduced, based on the works of Venselaar et al. (1999) and Sanz et al. (2004), aimed to the Sc-Sp separation. This new formalism relies on the separation of primary and secondary components of the beam although in a relative way. The data required by the algorithm are reduced to a minimal, allowing for experimental easy. According to modern recommendations, reference measurements in water phantom are performed at 10 cm depth, keeping away electron contamination. Air measurements are done using a mini phantom instead of the old equilibrium caps. Finally, the calculation at off-axis points are done using data measured on the central beam axis; but correcting the results with the introduction of a measured function which depends on the location of the off axis point. The measurements for testing the algorithm were performed in our Siemens MXE linear accelerator. The algorithm was used to determine specific dose profiles for a great number of different beam configurations, and the results were compared with direct measurements to validate the accuracy of the algorithm. Additionally, the results were

  14. Space telescope phase B definition study. Volume 2A: Science instruments, high speed point/area photometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary design of a high speed point/area photometer for the space telescope are summarized. The scientific objectives, photometer requirements, and design concepts are presented.

  15. Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-04-01

    A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed in this work. More specifically, an exact closed-form expression for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system is presented in terms of well-known elementary functions. Capitalizing on these new moments expressions, we present approximate and simple closedform results for the ergodic capacity at high and low SNR regimes. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  16. Application of Pettis integration to differential inclusions with three-point boundary conditions in Banach spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Boutana

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provide some applications of Pettis integration to differential inclusions in Banach spaces with three point boundary conditions of the form $$ ddot{u}(t in F(t,u(t,dot u(t+H(t,u(t,dot u(t,quad hbox{a.e. } t in [0,1], $$ where $F$ is a convex valued multifunction upper semicontinuous on $Eimes E$ and $H$ is a lower semicontinuous multifunction. The existence of solutions is obtained under the non convexity condition for the multifunction $H$, and the assumption that $F(t,x,ysubset Gamma_{1}(t$, $H(t,x,ysubset Gamma_{2}(t$, where the multifunctions $Gamma_{1},Gamma_{2}:[0,1] ightrightarrows E$ are uniformly Pettis integrable.

  17. Testing the consistency of three-point halo clustering in Fourier and configuration space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K.; Gaztañaga, E.; Scoccimarro, R.; Crocce, M.

    2018-05-01

    We compare reduced three-point correlations Q of matter, haloes (as proxies for galaxies) and their cross-correlations, measured in a total simulated volume of ˜100 (h-1 Gpc)3, to predictions from leading order perturbation theory on a large range of scales in configuration space. Predictions for haloes are based on the non-local bias model, employing linear (b1) and non-linear (c2, g2) bias parameters, which have been constrained previously from the bispectrum in Fourier space. We also study predictions from two other bias models, one local (g2 = 0) and one in which c2 and g2 are determined by b1 via approximately universal relations. Overall, measurements and predictions agree when Q is derived for triangles with (r1r2r3)1/3 ≳60 h-1 Mpc, where r1 - 3 are the sizes of the triangle legs. Predictions for Qmatter, based on the linear power spectrum, show significant deviations from the measurements at the BAO scale (given our small measurement errors), which strongly decrease when adding a damping term or using the non-linear power spectrum, as expected. Predictions for Qhalo agree best with measurements at large scales when considering non-local contributions. The universal bias model works well for haloes and might therefore be also useful for tightening constraints on b1 from Q in galaxy surveys. Such constraints are independent of the amplitude of matter density fluctuation (σ8) and hence break the degeneracy between b1 and σ8, present in galaxy two-point correlations.

  18. Effect of point defects on the electronic density states of SnC nanosheets: First-principles calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleyman Majidi

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated the electronic and structural properties of various defects including single Sn and C vacancies, double vacancy of the Sn and C atoms, anti-sites, position exchange and the Stone–Wales (SW defects in SnC nanosheets by using density-functional theory (DFT. We found that various vacancy defects in the SnC monolayer can change the electronic and structural properties. Our results show that the SnC is an indirect band gap compound, with the band gap of 2.10 eV. The system turns into metal for both structure of the single Sn and C vacancies. However, for the double vacancy contained Sn and C atoms, the structure remains semiconductor with the direct band gap of 0.37 eV at the G point. We also found that for anti-site defects, the structure remains semiconductor and for the exchange defect, the structure becomes indirect semiconductor with the K-G point and the band gap of 0.74 eV. Finally, the structure of SW defect remains semiconductor with the direct band gap at K point with band gap of 0.54 eV. Keywords: SnC nanosheets, Density-functional theory, First-principles calculations, Electronic density of states, Band gap

  19. Acousto-optic pointing and tracking systems for free-space laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, V.; Khandekar, R.; Sofka, J.; Tartakovsky, G.

    2005-08-01

    Implementation of long-range laser communication systems holds great promise for high-bandwidth applications. They are viewed as a technology that in the nearest future will handle most of the "last mile" communication traffic for the individual subscribers, corporate offices, military, and possibly deep space probes. Indeed, lasers allow for concentration of energy within tightly focused beams and narrow spectral interval, thus offering high throughput, information security, weight and size of components and power requirements that could not be matched by RF systems. However, the advantages of optical communication systems come in the same package with several major challenges. In particular, high data rates should be complemented by high-precision wide-bandwidth position control of a laser beam. In many applications the ability to maintain a link is affected by the complex maneuvers performed by mobile communication platforms, resident vibrations, and atmospheric effects. The search for the most effective and reliable way to shape and steer the laser beam is an on-going effort. This paper is focused on the application of acousto-optic technology as an alternative to electro-mechanical devices. With realization that an acousto-optic Bragg cell is only a component of the entire communication system, which should perform complex tasks of acquisition, pointing, and tracking of the remote terminal, we present an attempt to consider this problem from the "systems" point of view.

  20. Space Technology 5 Multi-point Measurements of Near-Earth Magnetic Fields: Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.; Le, G.; Strangeway, R. L.; Wang, Y.; Boardsen, S.A.; Moldwin, M. B.; Spence, H. E.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) mission successfully placed three micro-satellites in a 300 x 4500 km dawn-dusk orbit on 22 March 2006. Each spacecraft carried a boom-mounted vector fluxgate magnetometer that returned highly sensitive and accurate measurements of the geomagnetic field. These data allow, for the first time, the separation of temporal and spatial variations in field-aligned current (FAC) perturbations measured in low-Earth orbit on time scales of approximately 10 sec to 10 min. The constellation measurements are used to directly determine field-aligned current sheet motion, thickness and current density. In doing so, we demonstrate two multi-point methods for the inference of FAC current density that have not previously been possible in low-Earth orbit; 1) the "standard method," based upon s/c velocity, but corrected for FAC current sheet motion, and 2) the "gradiometer method" which uses simultaneous magnetic field measurements at two points with known separation. Future studies will apply these methods to the entire ST-5 data set and expand to include geomagnetic field gradient analyses as well as field-aligned and ionospheric currents.

  1. Spacing distribution functions for 1D point island model with irreversible attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Diego; Einstein, Theodore; Pimpinelli, Alberto

    2011-03-01

    We study the configurational structure of the point island model for epitaxial growth in one dimension. In particular, we calculate the island gap and capture zone distributions. Our model is based on an approximate description of nucleation inside the gaps. Nucleation is described by the joint probability density p xy n (x,y), which represents the probability density to have nucleation at position x within a gap of size y. Our proposed functional form for p xy n (x,y) describes excellently the statistical behavior of the system. We compare our analytical model with extensive numerical simulations. Our model retains the most relevant physical properties of the system. This work was supported by the NSF-MRSEC at the University of Maryland, Grant No. DMR 05-20471, with ancillary support from the Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials (CNAM).

  2. Common fixed point theorems for finite number of mappings without continuity and compatibility on intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sushil; Deshpande, Bhavana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove some common fixed point theorems for finite number of discontinuous, noncompatible mappings on noncomplete intuitionistic fuzzy metric spaces. Our results extend, generalize and intuitionistic fuzzify several known results in fuzzy metric spaces. We give an example and also give formulas for total number of commutativity conditions for finite number of mappings.

  3. Embeddings of graphs into Euclidean space under which the number of points that belong to a hyperplane is minimal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblakov, Konstantin I; Oblakova, Tat' yana A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-31

    The paper is devoted to the characteristic of a graph that is the minimal (over all embeddings of the graph into a space of given dimension) number of points that belong to the same hyperplane. Upper and lower estimates for this number are given that linearly depend on the dimension of the space. For trees a more precise upper estimate is obtained, which asymptotically coincides with the lower one for large dimension of the space. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  4. Computer program to fit a hyperellipse to a set of phase-space points in as many as six dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadlinger, E.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program that will fit a hyperellipse to a set of phase-space points in as many as 6 dimensions was written and tested. The weight assigned to the phase-space points can be varied as a function of their distance from the centroid of the distribution. Varying the weight enables determination of whether there is a difference in ellipse orientation between inner and outer particles. This program should be useful in studying the effects of longitudinal and transverse phase-space couplings

  5. Phase-space path-integral calculation of the Wigner function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J H

    2003-01-01

    The Wigner function W(q, p) is formulated as a phase-space path integral, whereby its sign oscillations can be seen to follow from interference between the geometrical phases of the paths. The approach has similarities to the path-centroid method in the configuration-space path integral. Paths can be classified by the midpoint of their ends; short paths where the midpoint is close to (q, p) and which lie in regions of low energy (low P function of the Hamiltonian) will dominate, and the enclosed area will determine the sign of the Wigner function. As a demonstration, the method is applied to a sequence of density matrices interpolating between a Poissonian number distribution and a number state, each member of which can be represented exactly by a discretized path integral with a finite number of vertices. Saddle-point evaluation of these integrals recovers (up to a constant factor) the WKB approximation to the Wigner function of a number state

  6. KOBRA 3 - a code for the calculation of space-charge-influenced trajectories in 3-dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaedtke, P.; Wipf, S.

    1989-06-01

    KOBRA3 is a three-dimensional multi-purpose program, written in standard FORTRAN77. The main purpose of the program is to calculate the trajectories of charged particles through a static electro-magnetic field in three dimensions. If space charge is not negligible its influence is taken into account by an iterative process. The Laplace equation is solved for the scalar potential. During the ray tracing, in which the equations of motion for charged particles are solved, the space charge term in the Poisson equation is distributed onto the mesh. By repeating this procedure the steady-state Vlasov equation is solved: ∇ 2 φ+∫∫∫f p dxdydz = 0, where φ is the electro-static potential and f p (r vector, v vector) describes the distribution of the charged particles in space. KOBRA3 can handle finite plasma boundaries, which are found by the program automatically. Special features are included within the program to investigate the beam quality (emittance, transverse energy), and to display the geometry, the trajectories and the potential and magnetic fields graphically. The modular structure of the program enables the user to create his (her) own diagnostic programs or interfaces to the main program. This report is intended to facilitate the use of KOBRA3 by describing the theory, structure and numerical methods used. At GSI (Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung) the program runs on an IBM 3090-40E. The program has been installed on other machines e.g. CRAY XM-P, CRAY II, VAX 8600, IBM 3090-200, IBM 3033, ATARI ST, IBM-AT. (orig./HSI)

  7. Calculation of electron and isotopes dose point kernels with FLUKA Monte Carlo code for dosimetry in nuclear medicine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, F; Mairani, A; Battistoni, G; Cremonesi, M; Di Dia, A; Fassò, A; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, M; Paganelli, G; Pedroli, G; Valente, M

    2011-07-01

    The calculation of patient-specific dose distribution can be achieved by Monte Carlo simulations or by analytical methods. In this study, FLUKA Monte Carlo code has been considered for use in nuclear medicine dosimetry. Up to now, FLUKA has mainly been dedicated to other fields, namely high energy physics, radiation protection, and hadrontherapy. When first employing a Monte Carlo code for nuclear medicine dosimetry, its results concerning electron transport at energies typical of nuclear medicine applications need to be verified. This is commonly achieved by means of calculation of a representative parameter and comparison with reference data. Dose point kernel (DPK), quantifying the energy deposition all around a point isotropic source, is often the one. FLUKA DPKS have been calculated in both water and compact bone for monoenergetic electrons (10-3 MeV) and for beta emitting isotopes commonly used for therapy (89Sr, 90Y, 131I 153Sm, 177Lu, 186Re, and 188Re). Point isotropic sources have been simulated at the center of a water (bone) sphere, and deposed energy has been tallied in concentric shells. FLUKA outcomes have been compared to PENELOPE v.2008 results, calculated in this study as well. Moreover, in case of monoenergetic electrons in water, comparison with the data from the literature (ETRAN, GEANT4, MCNPX) has been done. Maximum percentage differences within 0.8.RCSDA and 0.9.RCSDA for monoenergetic electrons (RCSDA being the continuous slowing down approximation range) and within 0.8.X90 and 0.9.X90 for isotopes (X90 being the radius of the sphere in which 90% of the emitted energy is absorbed) have been computed, together with the average percentage difference within 0.9.RCSDA and 0.9.X90 for electrons and isotopes, respectively. Concerning monoenergetic electrons, within 0.8.RCSDA (where 90%-97% of the particle energy is deposed), FLUKA and PENELOPE agree mostly within 7%, except for 10 and 20 keV electrons (12% in water, 8.3% in bone). The

  8. SREM - WRS system module number 3348 for calculating the removal flux due to point, line or disc sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimstone, M.J.

    1978-06-01

    The WRS Modular Programming System has been developed as a means by which programmes may be more efficiently constructed, maintained and modified. In this system a module is a self-contained unit typically composed of one or more Fortran routines, and a programme is constructed from a number of such modules. This report describes one WRS module, the function of which is to calculate the uncollided flux and first-collision source from a disc source in a slab geometry system, a line source at the centre of a cylindrical system or a point source at the centre of a spherical system. The information given in this manual is of use both to the programmer wishing to incorporate the module in a programme, and to the user of such a programme. (author)

  9. Calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends based on the grouping of triacylglycerol melting points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. P. Nusantoro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends has been developed based on grouping TAG melting points. This procedure offered more flexibility in choosing the initial fats and oils and eventually gave deeper insight into the existing chemical compositions and better prediction on the physicochemical properties and microstructure of the fat blends. The amount of high, medium and low melting TAGs could be adjusted using the given calculation procedure to obtain the desired functional properties in the fat blends. Solid fat contents and melting behavior of formulated fat blends showed particular patterns with respect to ratio adjustments of the melting TAG groups. These outcomes also suggested that both TAG species and their quantity had a significant influence on the crystallization behavior of the fat blends. Palmitic fat blends, in general, were found to exhibit higher SFC values than those of Lauric fat blends. Instead of the similarity in crystal microstructure, lauric fat blends were stabilized at β polymorph while palmitic fat blends were stabilized at β’ polymorph.

  10. Calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends based on the grouping of triacylglycerol melting points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusantoro, B.P.; Yanty, N.A.M.; Van de Walle, D.; Hidayat, C.; Danthine, S.; Dewettinck, K.

    2017-01-01

    A calculation procedure for formulating lauric and palmitic fat blends has been developed based on grouping TAG melting points. This procedure offered more flexibility in choosing the initial fats and oils and eventually gave deeper insight into the existing chemical compositions and better prediction on the physicochemical properties and microstructure of the fat blends. The amount of high, medium and low melting TAGs could be adjusted using the given calculation procedure to obtain the desired functional properties in the fat blends. Solid fat contents and melting behavior of formulated fat blends showed particular patterns with respect to ratio adjustments of the melting TAG groups. These outcomes also suggested that both TAG species and their quantity had a significant influence on the crystallization behavior of the fat blends. Palmitic fat blends, in general, were found to exhibit higher SFC values than those of Lauric fat blends. Instead of the similarity in crystal microstructure, lauric fat blends were stabilized at β polymorph while palmitic fat blends were stabilized at β’ polymorph. [es

  11. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Joan-Pau; McInnes, Colin R

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes.

  12. Optimal Sunshade Configurations for Space-Based Geoengineering near the Sun-Earth L1 Point.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan-Pau Sánchez

    Full Text Available Within the context of anthropogenic climate change, but also considering the Earth's natural climate variability, this paper explores the speculative possibility of large-scale active control of the Earth's radiative forcing. In particular, the paper revisits the concept of deploying a large sunshade or occulting disk at a static position near the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange equilibrium point. Among the solar radiation management methods that have been proposed thus far, space-based concepts are generally seen as the least timely, albeit also as one of the most efficient. Large occulting structures could potentially offset all of the global mean temperature increase due to greenhouse gas emissions. This paper investigates optimal configurations of orbiting occulting disks that not only offset a global temperature increase, but also mitigate regional differences such as latitudinal and seasonal difference of monthly mean temperature. A globally resolved energy balance model is used to provide insights into the coupling between the motion of the occulting disks and the Earth's climate. This allows us to revise previous studies, but also, for the first time, to search for families of orbits that improve the efficiency of occulting disks at offsetting climate change on both global and regional scales. Although natural orbits exist near the L1 equilibrium point, their period does not match that required for geoengineering purposes, thus forced orbits were designed that require small changes to the disk attitude in order to control its motion. Finally, configurations of two occulting disks are presented which provide the same shading area as previously published studies, but achieve reductions of residual latitudinal and seasonal temperature changes.

  13. Determination of space-energy distribution of resonance neutrons in reactor lattice cell and calculation of resonance integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmijarevic, I.

    1980-01-01

    Space-energy distribution of resonance neutrons in reactor lattice cell was determined by solving the Boltzmann equation by spherical harmonics method applying P-3 approximation. Computer code SPLET used for these calculations is described. Resonance absorption and calculation of resonance integrals are described as well. Effective resonance integral values for U-238 resonance at 6.7 Ev are calculated for heavy water reactor cell with metal, oxide and carbide fuel elements

  14. Large surface scintillators as base of impact point detectors and their application in Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Sindulfo; Medina, José; Gómez-Herrero, Raul; José Blanco, Juan; García-Tejedor, Ignacio; García-Población, Oscar; Díaz-Romeral, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    The use of a pile of two 100 cm x 100 cm x 5 cm BC-400 organic scintillators is proposed as ground-based cosmic ray detector able to provide directional information on the incident muons. The challenge is to get in real time the muon impact point on the scintillator and its arrival direction using as few Photomultiplier Tubes (PMTs) as possible. The instrument is based on the dependence of attenuation of light with the traversed distance in each scintillator. For the time being, four photomultiplier tubes gather the light through the lateral faces (100 cm x 5 cm) of the scintillator. Several experiments have already been carried out. The results show how data contain information about the muon trajectory through the scintillator. This information can be extracted using the pulse heights collected by the PMTs working in coincidence mode. Reliability and accuracy of results strongly depend on the number of PMTs used and mainly on their appropriate geometrical arrangement with regard to the scintillator. In order to determine the optimal position and the minimum number of PMTs required, a Montecarlo simulation code has been developed. Preliminary experimental and simulation results are presented and the potential of the system for space weather monitoring is discussed.

  15. Multi-Regge kinematics and the moduli space of Riemann spheres with marked points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duca, Vittorio Del [Institute for Theoretical Physics, ETH Zürich,Hönggerberg, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Druc, Stefan; Drummond, James [School of Physics & Astronomy, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Duhr, Claude [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,Route de Meyrin, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Center for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3),Université catholique de Louvain,Chemin du Cyclotron 2, 1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Dulat, Falko [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Marzucca, Robin [Center for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3),Université catholique de Louvain,Chemin du Cyclotron 2, 1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Papathanasiou, Georgios [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Verbeek, Bram [Center for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3),Université catholique de Louvain,Chemin du Cyclotron 2, 1348 Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)

    2016-08-25

    We show that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 Super Yang-Mills in multi-Regge kinematics can naturally be expressed in terms of single-valued iterated integrals on the moduli space of Riemann spheres with marked points. As a consequence, scattering amplitudes in this limit can be expressed as convolutions that can easily be computed using Stokes’ theorem. We apply this framework to MHV amplitudes to leading-logarithmic accuracy (LLA), and we prove that at L loops all MHV amplitudes are determined by amplitudes with up to L+4 external legs. We also investigate non-MHV amplitudes, and we show that they can be obtained by convoluting the MHV results with a certain helicity flip kernel. We classify all leading singularities that appear at LLA in the Regge limit for arbitrary helicity configurations and any number of external legs. Finally, we use our new framework to obtain explicit analytic results at LLA for all MHV amplitudes up to five loops and all non-MHV amplitudes with up to eight external legs and four loops.

  16. Harnessing solar pressure to slew and point large infrared space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errico, Simona; Angel, Roger P.; Calvert, Paul D.; Woof, Neville

    2003-03-01

    Large astronomical Gossamer telescopes in space will need to employ large solar shields to safeguard the optics from solar radiation. These types of telescopes demand accurate controls to maintain telescope pointing over long integration periods. We propose an active solar shield system that harnesses radiation pressure to accurately slew and acquire new targets without the need for reaction wheels or thrusters. To provide the required torques, the solar shield is configured as an inverted, 4-sided pyramidal roof. The sloped roof interior surfaces are covered with hinged “tiles” made from piezoelectric film bimorphs with specular metallized surfaces. Nominally, the tiles lie flat against the roof and the sunlight is reflected outward equally from all sloped surfaces. However, when the tiles on one roof pitch are raised, the pressure balance is upset and the sunshade is pushed to one side. By judicious selection of the tiles and control of their lift angle, the solar pressure can be harvested to stabilize the spacecraft orientation or to change its angular momentum. A first order conceptual design performance analysis and the results from the experimental design, fabrication and testing of piezoelectric bimorph hinge elements will be presented. Next phase challenges in engineering design, materials technology, and systems testing will be discussed.

  17. First-principles real-space tight-binding LMTO calculation of electronic structures for atomic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.L.; Dy, K.S.; Wu, S.Y.

    1997-01-01

    A real-space scheme has been developed for a first-principles calculation of electronic structures and total energies of atomic clusters. The scheme is based on the combination of the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (TBLMTO) method and the method of real-space Green close-quote s function. With this approach, the local electronic density of states can be conveniently determined from the real-space Green close-quote s function. Furthermore, the full electron density of a cluster can be directly calculated in real space. The scheme has been shown to be very efficient due to the incorporation of the method of real-space Green close-quote s function and Delley close-quote s method of evaluating multicenter integrals. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. [The model of geometrical human body phantom for calculating tissue doses in the service module of the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V A; Mitrikas, V G

    2007-01-01

    The model of a geometrical human body phantom developed for calculating the shielding functions of representative points of the body organs and systems is similar to the anthropomorphic phantom. This form of phantom can be integrated with the shielding model of the ISS Russian orbital segment to make analysis of radiation loading of crewmembers in different compartments of the vehicle. Calculation of doses absorbed by the body systems in terms of the representative points makes it clear that doses essentially depend on the phantom spatial orientation (eye direction). It also enables the absorbed dose evaluation from the shielding functions as the mean of the representative points and phantom orientation.

  19. Space Mission Design in the Vicinity of Small Bodies and Libration Points, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for applying advanced dynamical theories to space mission design and analysis, especially in the context of unstable orbital trajectories in...

  20. Simulation and Calibration of the ALICE TPC including innovative Space Charge Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Rossegger, S; Riegler, W; Betev, L

    2009-01-01

    ALICE is one of the four main particle detectors located around the LHC accelerator at CERN. It is particularly designed to study the physics of the quark-gluon plasma by means of nucleus--nucleus collisions at center-of-mass energies up to 5.5 TeV per nucleon pair. A Time-Projection Chamber (TPC) was chosen to be its central-sub-detector due to its low mass properties and its capabilities to provide a robust and accurate Particle Identification even within ultra-high multiplicity environments (up to 8000 tracks per unit of eta). To achieve the required physics performance, the space point resolution of the TPC must be in the order of 0.2 mm. Due to its gigantic size of 5~m in diameter and 5~m in length, corrections for static as well as dynamic effects are indispensable in order to accomplish the design goal. The research presented covers all major issues relevant for the final calibration and therefore the enhancement of the TPC performance in terms of resolution. The main focus was to distinguish between t...

  1. Configuration space Faddeev calculations: Progress report for period 1 January 1986-31 December 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1987-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body nuclear systems provides a powerful tool to identify the relevant degrees of freedom in the nucleus. For these systems one can perform detailed and accurate numerical calculations which can be used to study the interactions between the various degrees of freedom. We have used these systems to investigate the size of the relativistic effects, the role of meson exchange currents, and the importance of the quark degrees of freedom in the nuclear system. New computational tools have been developed to treat relativistic operators. The effects of the Coulomb polarization potential on the low-energy scattering parameters have been investigated, and the effects of the Coulomb interaction on charge symmetry breaking have been studied. We have continued our project to find representations for multiparticle scattering amplitudes which satisfy certain physical properties. Finally, we have extended our work on the realization of the irreducible representations of compact groups as spaces of polynomials. These realizations can then be used in a symbolic manipulation program to generate Clebsch-Gordan and Racah coefficients for groups important in nuclear physics applications. 37 refs

  2. Configuration space Faddeev calculations. Progress report, 1 January 1987-31 December 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1988-01-01

    The detailed study of few-body systems provides one of the most sensitive tools for studying nuclear physics at subnucleon distance scales. For these systems the model equations can solved numerically with errors less than the experimental uncertainties. The author have used these systems to investigate the size of relativistic effects, the role of meson-exchange currents, and the importance of quark degrees of freedom in the nucleus. Detailed calculations of the electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron have been done using a front-form formulation of relativistic quantum mechanics. The structure of the most general Poincare covariant electromagnetic current operators and general tensor operators consistent with the dynamical constraints of special relativity was derived. The techniques for constructing scattering amplitudes for multiparticle production reactions have been developed. We have completed a detailed study of the properties of the bound trinucleon system. The solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger in configuration space has been studied. Finally, new computational and analytic tools have been developed

  3. Cosmiclike domain walls in superfluid 3He-B: Instantons and diabolical points in (k,r) space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomaa, M.M.; Volovik, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    The possible planar superfluid B-B boundaries between inequivalent B-phase vacua are considered; such B-B interfaces provide an analogy with the cosmic domain walls that are believed to have precipitated in the phase transitions of the early Universe. Several of them display nontrivial structure in (k,r) space (i.e., the union of the momentum and real spaces). Such a wall represents an instanton connecting two B-phase vacua with different k-space topology. The transition between the vacua occurs through the formation of a pointlike defect either in the (k,r) space, or in the (k,t) space. These defects are so-called diabolical points of codimension 4, at which the fermionic energy tends to zero, thus providing the fermionic zero modes. Such points are new examples (within condensed-matter physics) of the peculiar diabolical points, which are characterized by the occurrence of a contact between the different branches of the quasiparticle spectra; in the present case, the branches of particles and holes, respectively. These points are here discussed for the case of the superfluid phases of liquid 3 He in close analogy with the quantum field theory of fermions interacting with classical bosonic fields. The cosmiclike domain walls in superfluid 3 He-B are observable in principle; in particular, the motion of the superfluid A-B interface is governed at low temperatures by the periodical emission of these topological excitation planes

  4. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links Over Malaga (M) Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Yilmaz, Ferkan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closedform expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer’s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the scintillation index (SI), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where we present closed-form lower bound results), all in terms of Meijer’s G functions except for the SI that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer’s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  5. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links Over Malaga (M) Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-08-12

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closedform expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer’s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the scintillation index (SI), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where we present closed-form lower bound results), all in terms of Meijer’s G functions except for the SI that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer’s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer’s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  6. Space nuclear reactor concepts for avoidance of a single point failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents three space nuclear reactor concepts for future exploration missions requiring electrical power of 10's to 100's kW, for 7-10 years. These concepts avoid a single point failure in reactor cooling; and they could be used with a host of energy conversion technologies. The first is lithium or sodium heat pipes cooled reactor. The heat pipes operate at a fraction of their prevailing capillary or sonic limit. Thus, when a number of heat pipes fail, those in the adjacent modules remove their heat load, maintaining reactor core adequately cooled. The second is a reactor with a circulating liquid metal coolant. The reactor core is divided into six identical sectors, each with a separate energy conversion loop. The sectors in the reactor core are neurotically coupled, but hydraulically decoupled. Thus, when a sector experiences a loss of coolant, the fission power generated in it will be removed by the circulating coolant in the adjacent sectors. In this case, however, the reactor fission power would have to decrease to avoid exceeding the design temperature limits in the sector with a failed loop. These two reactor concepts are used with energy conversion technologies, such as advanced Thermoelectric (TE), Free Piston Stirling Engines (FPSE), and Alkali Metal Thermal-to- Electric Conversion (AMTEC). Gas cooled reactors are a better choice to use with Closed Brayton Cycle engines, such as the third reactor concept to be presented in the paper. It has a sectored core that is cooled with a binary mixture of He-Xe (40 gm/mole). Each of the three sectors in the reactor has its own CBC and neutronically, but not hydraulically, coupled to the other sectors

  7. Algorithm for calculating synthetic seismograms in a layered half-space with application of matrix impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, V. M.

    2013-01-01

    A new algorithm is proposed for calculating the complete synthetic seismograms from a point source in the form of the sum of a single force and a dipole with an arbitrary seismic moment tensor in a plane layered medium composed of homogenous elastic isotropic layers. Following the idea of (Alekseev and Mikhailenko, 1978), an artificial cylindrical boundary is introduced, on which the boundary conditions are specified. For this modified problem, the exact solution (in terms of the displacements and stresses on the horizontal plane areal element) in the frequency domain is derived and substantiated. The unknown depth-dependent coefficients form the motion-stress vector, whose components satisfy the known system of ordinary differential equations. This system is solved by the method that involves the matrix impedance and propagator for the vector of motion, as previously suggested by the author in (Pavlov, 2009). In relation to the initial problem, the reflections from the artificial boundary are noise, which, to a certain degree, can be suppressed by selecting a long enough distance to this boundary and owing to the presence of a purely imaginary addition to the frequency. The algorithm is not constrained by the thickness of the layers, is applicable for any frequency range, and is suitable for computing the static offset.

  8. The optimal shape of an object for generating maximum gravity field at a given point in space

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiao-Wei; Su, Yue

    2014-01-01

    How can we design the shape of an object, in the framework of Newtonian gravity, in order to generate maximum gravity at a given point in space? In this work we present a study on this interesting problem. We obtain compact solutions for all dimensional cases. The results are commonly characterized by a simple "physical" feature that any mass element unit on the object surface generates the same gravity strength at the considered point, in the direction along the rotational symmetry axis.

  9. Optimal auxiliary Hamiltonians for truncated boson-space calculations by means of a maximal-decoupling variational principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.

    1991-01-01

    A new method based on a maximal-decoupling variational principle is proposed to treat the Pauli-principle constraints for calculations of nuclear collective motion in a truncated boson space. The viability of the method is demonstrated through an application to the multipole form of boson Hamiltonians for the single-j and nondegenerate multi-j pairing interactions. While these boson Hamiltonians are Hermitian and contain only one- and two-boson terms, they are also the worst case for truncated boson-space calculations because they are not amenable to any boson truncations at all. By using auxiliary Hamiltonians optimally determined by the maximal-decoupling variational principle, however, truncations in the boson space become feasible and even yield reasonably accurate results. The method proposed here may thus be useful for doing realistic calculations of nuclear collective motion as well as for obtaining a viable interacting-boson-model type of boson Hamiltonian from the shell model

  10. Automated Reconstruction of Building LoDs from Airborne LiDAR Point Clouds Using an Improved Morphological Scale Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisheng Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructing building models at different levels of detail (LoDs from airborne laser scanning point clouds is urgently needed for wide application as this method can balance between the user’s requirements and economic costs. The previous methods reconstruct building LoDs from the finest 3D building models rather than from point clouds, resulting in heavy costs and inflexible adaptivity. The scale space is a sound theory for multi-scale representation of an object from a coarser level to a finer level. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel method to reconstruct buildings at different LoDs from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR point clouds based on an improved morphological scale space. The proposed method first extracts building candidate regions following the separation of ground and non-ground points. For each building candidate region, the proposed method generates a scale space by iteratively using the improved morphological reconstruction with the increase of scale, and constructs the corresponding topological relationship graphs (TRGs across scales. Secondly, the proposed method robustly extracts building points by using features based on the TRG. Finally, the proposed method reconstructs each building at different LoDs according to the TRG. The experiments demonstrate that the proposed method robustly extracts the buildings with details (e.g., door eaves and roof furniture and illustrate good performance in distinguishing buildings from vegetation or other objects, while automatically reconstructing building LoDs from the finest building points.

  11. The development of a collapsing method for the mixed group and point cross sections and its application on multi-dimensional deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor-Jing Chang; Yen-Wan H. Liu

    1992-01-01

    The HYBRID, or mixed group and point, method was developed to solve the neutron transport equation deterministically using detailed treatment at cross section minima for deep penetration calculations. Its application so far is limited to one-dimensional calculations due to the enormous computing time involved in multi-dimensional calculations. In this article, a collapsing method is developed for the mixed group and point cross section sets to provide a more direct and practical way of using the HYBRID method in the multi-dimensional calculations. A testing problem is run. The method is then applied to the calculation of a deep penetration benchmark experiment. It is observed that half of the window effect is smeared in the collapsing treatment, but it still provide a better cross section set than the VITAMIN-C cross sections for the deep penetrating calculations

  12. SPLET - A program for calculating the space-lethargy distribution of epithermal neutrons in a reactor lattice cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matausek, M.V.; Zmijatevic, I.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure to solve the space-single-lethargy dependent transport equation for epithermal neutrons in a cylindricised multi-region reactor lattice cell has been developed and proposed in the earlier papers. Here, the computational algorithm is comprised and the computing program SPLET, which calculates the space-lethargy distribution of the spherical harmonics neutron flux moments, as well as the related integral quantities as reaction rates and resonance integrals, is described. (author)

  13. Final Report for 'Design calculations for high-space-charge beam-to-RF conversion'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smithe, David N.

    2008-01-01

    Accelerator facility upgrades, new accelerator applications, and future design efforts are leading to novel klystron and IOT device concepts, including multiple beam, high-order mode operation, and new geometry configurations of old concepts. At the same time, a new simulation capability, based upon finite-difference 'cut-cell' boundaries, has emerged and is transforming the existing modeling and design capability with unparalleled realism, greater flexibility, and improved accuracy. This same new technology can also be brought to bear on a difficult-to-study aspect of the energy recovery linac (ERL), namely the accurate modeling of the exit beam, and design of the beam dump for optimum energy efficiency. We have developed new capability for design calculations and modeling of a broad class of devices which convert bunched beam kinetic energy to RF energy, including RF sources, as for example, klystrons, gyro-klystrons, IOT's, TWT's, and other devices in which space-charge effects are important. Recent advances in geometry representation now permits very accurate representation of the curved metallic surfaces common to RF sources, resulting in unprecedented simulation accuracy. In the Phase I work, we evaluated and demonstrated the capabilities of the new geometry representation technology as applied to modeling and design of output cavity components of klystron, IOT's, and energy recovery srf cavities. We identified and prioritized which aspects of the design study process to pursue and improve in Phase II. The development and use of the new accurate geometry modeling technology on RF sources for DOE accelerators will help spark a new generational modeling and design capability, free from many of the constraints and inaccuracy associated with the previous generation of 'stair-step' geometry modeling tools. This new capability is ultimately expected to impact all fields with high power RF sources, including DOE fusion research, communications, radar and other

  14. Clifford Space as a Generalization of Spacetime: Prospects for QFT of Point Particles and Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Pavsic, Matej

    2005-01-01

    The idea that spacetime has to be replaced by Clifford space (C-space) is explored. Quantum field theory (QFT) and string theory are generalized to C-space. It is shown how one can solve the cosmological constant problem and formulate string theory without central terms in the Virasoro algebra by exploiting the peculiar pseudo-Euclidean signature of C-space and the Jackiw definition of the vacuum state. As an introduction into the subject, a toy model of the harmonic oscillator in pseudo-Eucl...

  15. Some Common Fixed Point Theorems for F-Contraction Type Mappings in 0-Complete Partial Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Shukla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove some common fixed point theorems for F-contractions in 0-complete partial metric spaces. Our results extend, generalize, and unify several known results in the literature. Some examples are included which show that the generalization is proper.

  16. A postprocessing method based on chirp Z transform for FDTD calculation of point defect states in two-dimensional phononic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Xiaoxing; Wang Yuesheng

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new postprocessing method for the finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculation of the point defect states in two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystals (PNCs) is developed based on the chirp Z transform (CZT), one of the frequency zooming techniques. The numerical results for the defect states in 2D solid/liquid PNCs with single or double point defects show that compared with the fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based postprocessing method, the method can improve the estimation accuracy of the eigenfrequencies of the point defect states significantly when the FDTD calculation is run with relatively few iterations; and furthermore it can yield the point defect bands without calculating all eigenfrequencies outside the band gaps. The efficiency and accuracy of the FDTD method can be improved significantly with this new postprocessing method.

  17. A postprocessing method based on chirp Z transform for FDTD calculation of point defect states in two-dimensional phononic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Xiaoxing, E-mail: xxsu@bjtu.edu.c [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Wang Yuesheng [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, a new postprocessing method for the finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculation of the point defect states in two-dimensional (2D) phononic crystals (PNCs) is developed based on the chirp Z transform (CZT), one of the frequency zooming techniques. The numerical results for the defect states in 2D solid/liquid PNCs with single or double point defects show that compared with the fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based postprocessing method, the method can improve the estimation accuracy of the eigenfrequencies of the point defect states significantly when the FDTD calculation is run with relatively few iterations; and furthermore it can yield the point defect bands without calculating all eigenfrequencies outside the band gaps. The efficiency and accuracy of the FDTD method can be improved significantly with this new postprocessing method.

  18. Global phase equilibrium calculations: Critical lines, critical end points and liquid-liquid-vapour equilibrium in binary mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cismondi, Martin; Michelsen, Michael Locht

    2007-01-01

    A general strategy for global phase equilibrium calculations (GPEC) in binary mixtures is presented in this work along with specific methods for calculation of the different parts involved. A Newton procedure using composition, temperature and Volume as independent variables is used for calculation...

  19. Fixed Points of α-Admissible Mappings in Cone Metric Spaces with Banach Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Malhotra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the $\\alpha$-admissible mappings in the setting of cone metric spaces equipped with Banach algebra and solid cones. Our results generalize and extend several known results of metric and cone metric spaces. An example is presented which illustrates and shows the significance of results proved herein.

  20. EXISTENCE THEOREM FOR THE PRICES FIXED POINT PROBLEM OF THE OVERLAPPING GENERATIONS MODEL, VIA METRIC SPACES ENDOWED WITH A GRAPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnolia Tilca

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the existence of the solution for the overlapping generations model, using fixed point theorems in metric spaces endowed with a graph. The overlapping generations model has been introduced and developed by Maurice Allais (1947, Paul Samuelson (1958, Peter Diamond (1965 and so on. The present paper treats the case presented by Edmond (2008 in (Edmond, 2008 for a continuous time. The theorem of existence of the solution for the prices fixed point problem derived from the overlapping generations model gives an approximation of the solution via the graph theory. The tools employed in this study are based on applications of the Jachymski fixed point theorem on metric spaces endowed with a graph (Jachymski, 2008

  1. Influence of cusps and intersections on the calculation of the Wilson loop in ν-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, V.B.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion is given about the influence of cusps and intersections on the calculation of the Wilson Loop in ν-dimensional space. In particular, for the two-dimensional case, it is shown that there are no divergences. (Author) [pt

  2. Using a space filling curve approach for the management of dynamic point clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Psomadaki, S; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Tijssen, T.P.M.; Baart, F.

    2016-01-01

    Point cloud usage has increased over the years. The development of low-cost sensors makes it now possible to acquire frequent point cloud measurements on a short time period (day, hour, second). Based on the requirements coming from the coastal monitoring domain, we have developed, implemented and

  3. Evaluating methods for estimating space-time paths of individuals in calculating long-term personal exposure to air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Oliver; Soenario, Ivan; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Strak, Maciek; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Dijst, Martin; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the major concerns for human health. Associations between air pollution and health are often calculated using long-term (i.e. years to decades) information on personal exposure for each individual in a cohort. Personal exposure is the air pollution aggregated along the space-time path visited by an individual. As air pollution may vary considerably in space and time, for instance due to motorised traffic, the estimation of the spatio-temporal location of a persons' space-time path is important to identify the personal exposure. However, long term exposure is mostly calculated using the air pollution concentration at the x, y location of someone's home which does not consider that individuals are mobile (commuting, recreation, relocation). This assumption is often made as it is a major challenge to estimate space-time paths for all individuals in large cohorts, mostly because limited information on mobility of individuals is available. We address this issue by evaluating multiple approaches for the calculation of space-time paths, thereby estimating the personal exposure along these space-time paths with hyper resolution air pollution maps at national scale. This allows us to evaluate the effect of the space-time path and resulting personal exposure. Air pollution (e.g. NO2, PM10) was mapped for the entire Netherlands at a resolution of 5×5 m2 using the land use regression models developed in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE, http://escapeproject.eu/) and the open source software PCRaster (http://www.pcraster.eu). The models use predictor variables like population density, land use, and traffic related data sets, and are able to model spatial variation and within-city variability of annual average concentration values. We approximated space-time paths for all individuals in a cohort using various aggregations, including those representing space-time paths as the outline of a persons' home or associated parcel

  4. Real-space local polynomial basis for solid-state electronic-structure calculations: A finite-element approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pask, J.E.; Klein, B.M.; Fong, C.Y.; Sterne, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    We present an approach to solid-state electronic-structure calculations based on the finite-element method. In this method, the basis functions are strictly local, piecewise polynomials. Because the basis is composed of polynomials, the method is completely general and its convergence can be controlled systematically. Because the basis functions are strictly local in real space, the method allows for variable resolution in real space; produces sparse, structured matrices, enabling the effective use of iterative solution methods; and is well suited to parallel implementation. The method thus combines the significant advantages of both real-space-grid and basis-oriented approaches and so promises to be particularly well suited for large, accurate ab initio calculations. We develop the theory of our approach in detail, discuss advantages and disadvantages, and report initial results, including electronic band structures and details of the convergence of the method. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. Normed Orlicz function spaces which can be quasi-renormed with easily calculable quasinorms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foralewski, P.; Hudzik, H.; Kaczmarek, R.; Krbec, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2017), s. 636-660 ISSN 1735-8787 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : embeddings into Lebesgue and weighted Lebesgue spaces * Orlicz spaces * quasinorms Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.833, year: 2016 http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.bjma/1496973700

  6. Remote sensing optical instrumentation for enhanced space weather monitoring from the L1 and L5 Lagrange points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, S.; Puschmann, K. G.; Luntama, J. P.

    2017-09-01

    As part of the Space Situational Awareness Programme (SSA), ESA has initiated the assessment of two missions currently foreseen to be implemented to enable enhanced space weather monitoring. These missions utilize the positioning of satellites at the Lagrangian L1 and L5 points. These Phase 0 or Pre-Phase A mission studies are about to be completed and will thereby have soon passed the Mission Definition Review. Phase A studies are planned to start in 2017. The space weather monitoring system currently considers four remote sensing optical instruments and several in-situ instruments to analyse the Sun and the solar wind conditions, in order to provide early warnings of increased solar activity and to identify and mitigate potential threats to society and ground, airborne and space based infrastructure. The suggested optical instruments take heritage from ESA and NASA science missions like SOHO, STEREO and Solar Orbiter, but the instruments are foreseen to be optimized for operational space weather monitoring purposes with high reliability and robustness demands. The instruments are required to provide high quality measurements particularly during severe space weather events. The program intends to utilize the results of the on-going ESA instrument prototyping and technology development activities, and to initiate pre-developments of the operational space weather instruments to ensure the required maturity before the mission implementation.

  7. RESEND, Infinitely Dilute Point Cross-Sections Calculation from ENDF/B Resonance Parameter. ADLER, ENDF/B Adler-Adler Resonance Parameter to Point Cross-Sections with Doppler Broadening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.; Ozer, O.

    1982-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: RESEND generates infinitely- dilute, un-broadened, point cross sections in the ENDF format by combining ENDF File 3 background cross sections with points calculated from ENDF File 2 resonance parameter data. ADLER calculates total, capture, and fission cross sections from the corresponding Adler-Adler parameters in the ENDF/B File 2 Version II data and also Doppler-broadens cross sections. 2 - Method of solution: RESEND calculations are done in two steps by two separate sections of the program. The first section does the resonance calculation and stores the results on a scratch file. The second section combines the data from the scratch file with background cross sections and prints the results. ADLER uses the Adler-Adler formalism. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: RESEND expects its input to be a standard mode BCD ENDF file (Version II/III). Since the output is also a standard mode BCD ENDF file, the program is limited by the six significant figure accuracy inherent in the ENDF formats. (If the cross section has been calculated at two points so close in energy that only their least significant figures differ, that interval is assumed to have converged, even if other convergence criteria may not be satisfied.) In the unresolved range the cross sections have been averaged over a Porter-Thomas distribution. In some regions the calculated resonance cross sections may be negative. In such cases the standard convergence criterion would cause an unnecessarily large number of points to be produced in the region where the cross section becomes zero. For this reason an additional input convergence criterion (AVERR) may be used. If the absolute value of the cross section at both ends of an interval is determined to be less than AVERR then the interval is assumed to have converged. There are no limitations on the total number of points generated. The present ENDF (Version II/III) formats restrict the total number of

  8. Early Mission Maneuver Operations for the Deep Space Climate Observatory Sun-Earth L1 Libration Point Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Craig; Case, Sara; Reagoso, John; Webster, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    The Deep Space Climate Observatory mission launched on February 11, 2015, and inserted onto a transfer trajectory toward a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This paper presents an overview of the baseline transfer orbit and early mission maneuver operations leading up to the start of nominal science orbit operations. In particular, the analysis and performance of the spacecraft insertion, mid-course correction maneuvers, and the deep-space Lissajous orbit insertion maneuvers are discussed, com-paring the baseline orbit with actual mission results and highlighting mission and operations constraints..

  9. A real space calculation of absolutely unstable modes for two-plasmon decay in inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, L.V.; Berger, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Growth rates for absolute modes of two-plasmon decay are obtained by solving for eigenmodes of the coupled mode equations for obliquely scattered Langmuir waves in real space. This analysis establishes a connection both to previous analysis in Fourier transform space and to other parametric instabilities, the analysis of which is commonly done in real space. The essential feature of the instability which admits absolute modes in an inhomogeneous plasma is the strong spatial dependence of the coupling coefficients. Landau damping limits the perpendicular wavenumbers of the most unstable modes and raises the instability thresholds for background plasma temperatures above 1 keV. (author)

  10. Improvement of Thrust Bearing Calculation Considering the Convectional Heating within the Space between the Pads

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Chmielowiec-Jablczyk; Andreas Schubert; Christian Kraft; Hubert Schwarze; Michal Wodtke; Michal Wasilczuk

    2018-01-01

    A modern thrust bearing tool is used to estimate the behavior of tilting pad thrust bearings not only in the oil film between pad and rotating collar, but also in the space between the pads. The oil flow in the space significantly influences the oil film inlet temperature and the heating of pad and collar. For that reason, it is necessary to define an oil mixing model for the space between the pads. In the bearing tool, the solutions of the Reynolds equation including a cavitation model, the ...

  11. Considerations on private human access to space from an institutional point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufenbach, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to space as discussed in this article addresses two market segments: suborbital flight and crew flights to Low Earth Orbit. The role of entrepreneurs, the technical complexity, the customers, the market conditions as well as the time to market in these two segments differ significantly. Space agencies take currently a very different approach towards private human access to space in both segments. Analysing the outcome of broader inter-agency deliberations on the future of human spaceflight and exploration, performed e.g. in the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, enables to derive some common general views on this topic. Various documents developed by inter-agency working groups recognise the general strategic importance for enabling private human access to space for ensuring a sustainable future of human spaceflight, although the specific definition of private human access and approaches vary. ESA has performed some reflections on this subject throughout the last 5 years. While it gained through these reflections a good understanding on the opportunities and implications resulting from the development of capabilities and markets for Private Human Access, limited concrete activities have been initiated in relation to this topic as of today.

  12. MAN IN THE “POINTS OF INTENSITY”: GARDEN AS A SPACE OF SELF-IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Brazgovskaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of semiotic and cognitive potential of a garden as a compositional form (“Ogrody” by Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz. Silva rerum, florilegia, hortus act as its genre presupposition in European artistic tradition. We define the semiotic potential of a “garden” through the system of symbolic meanings: garden as a collection, locus amoenus, sphere of potentiality or ordering, garden as a memory space, intellectual space, etc. The garden via a compositional form of this text and the space of thought functions as an iconic sign of memory. Each object of the past, being replaced by a sign, receives localization in our memory and becomes a “text”. This allows us “to read” the past in the absence of an immediate reception. Garden acquires the properties of textuality and a semiotic object. Hence Iwaszkiewicz considers six gardens in “Ogrody” as a model of his life. Memory is a nonlinear space. Therefore, transitions between gardens are only arbitrary, associative. At the same time garden as a compositional form becomes the cognitive tool of identity. Topology of this memory space (configuration of people, books, music, which become signs is the cognitive map of the “self (selfhood, selfness. The self-referent structures create the illusion: I (the one who writes is combined with that person from the past (also I, which he recalls. Nonetheless, all narratives about selfhood are only “the map, but not a territory” (A. Korzybski.

  13. On Probabilistic Alpha-Fuzzy Fixed Points and Related Convergence Results in Probabilistic Metric and Menger Spaces under Some Pompeiu-Hausdorff-Like Probabilistic Contractive Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    De la Sen, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of complete probabilistic metric spaces and, in particular, in probabilistic Menger spaces, this paper investigates some relevant properties of convergence of sequences to probabilistic α-fuzzy fixed points under some types of probabilistic contractive conditions.

  14. Group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization of organic compounds at the normal boiling point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenying, Wei; Jinyu, Han; Wen, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The specific position of a group in the molecule has been considered, and a group vector space method for estimating enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point of organic compounds has been developed. Expression for enthalpy of vaporization Delta(vap)H(T(b)) has been established and numerical values of relative group parameters obtained. The average percent deviation of estimation of Delta(vap)H(T(b)) is 1.16, which show that the present method demonstrates significant improvement in applicability to predict the enthalpy of vaporization at the normal boiling point, compared the conventional group methods.

  15. The optimal shape of an object for generating maximum gravity field at a given point in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiao-Wei; Su, Yue

    2015-01-01

    How can we design the shape of an object, in the framework of Newtonian gravity, in order to generate maximum gravity at a given point in space? In this work we present a study on this interesting problem. We obtain compact solutions for all dimensional cases. The results are commonly characterized by a simple ‘physical’ feature that any mass element unit on the object surface generates the same gravity strength at the considered point, in the direction along the rotational symmetry axis. (paper)

  16. Communication: A new ab initio potential energy surface for HCl-H2O, diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of D0 and a delocalized zero-point wavefunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, John S; Bowman, Joel M

    2013-03-28

    We report a global, full-dimensional, ab initio potential energy surface describing the HCl-H2O dimer. The potential is constructed from a permutationally invariant fit, using Morse-like variables, to over 44,000 CCSD(T)-F12b∕aug-cc-pVTZ energies. The surface describes the complex and dissociated monomers with a total RMS fitting error of 24 cm(-1). The normal modes of the minima, low-energy saddle point and separated monomers, the double minimum isomerization pathway and electronic dissociation energy are accurately described by the surface. Rigorous quantum mechanical diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) calculations are performed to determine the zero-point energy and wavefunction of the complex and the separated fragments. The calculated zero-point energies together with a De value calculated from CCSD(T) with a complete basis set extrapolation gives a D0 value of 1348 ± 3 cm(-1), in good agreement with the recent experimentally reported value of 1334 ± 10 cm(-1) [B. E. Casterline, A. K. Mollner, L. C. Ch'ng, and H. Reisler, J. Phys. Chem. A 114, 9774 (2010)]. Examination of the DMC wavefunction allows for confident characterization of the zero-point geometry to be dominant at the C(2v) double-well saddle point and not the C(s) global minimum. Additional support for the delocalized zero-point geometry is given by numerical solutions to the 1D Schrödinger equation along the imaginary-frequency out-of-plane bending mode, where the zero-point energy is calculated to be 52 cm(-1) above the isomerization barrier. The D0 of the fully deuterated isotopologue is calculated to be 1476 ± 3 cm(-1), which we hope will stand as a benchmark for future experimental work.

  17. An application of sparse inversion on the calculation of the inverse data space of geophysical data

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C.; Verschuur, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Multiple reflections as observed in seismic reflection measurements often hide arrivals from the deeper target reflectors and need to be removed. The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples

  18. Steady-State Calculation of the ATLAS Test Facility Using the SPACE Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Choi, Ki Yong; Kim, Kyung Doo

    2011-01-01

    The Korean nuclear industry is developing a thermalhydraulic analysis code for safety analysis of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The new code is called the Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants (SPACE). Several research and industrial organizations including KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) are participating in the collaboration for the development of the SPACE code. One of the main tasks of KAERI is to carry out separate effect tests (SET) and integral effect tests (IET) for code verification and validation (V and V). The IET has been performed with ATLAS (Advanced Thermalhydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) based on the design features of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor of 1400MWe). In the present work the SPACE code input-deck for ATLAS is developed and used for simulation of the steady-state conditions of ATLAS as a preliminary work for IET V and V of the SPACE code

  19. Fixed points for some non-obviously contractive operators defined in a space of continuous functions

    OpenAIRE

    C. Avramescu; Cristian Vladimirescu

    2004-01-01

    Let $X$ be an arbitrary (real or complex) Banach space, endowed with the norm $\\left| \\cdot \\right| .$ Consider the space of the continuous functions $C\\left( \\left[ 0,T\\right] ,X\\right) $ $\\left( T>0\\right) $, endowed with the usual topology, and let $M$ be a closed subset of it. One proves that each operator $A:M\\rightarrow M$ fulfilling for all $x,y\\in M$ and for all $t\\in \\left[ 0,T\\right] $ the condition \\begin{eqnarray*} \\left| \\left( Ax\\right) \\left( t\\right) -\\left( Ay\\right) \\l...

  20. Design of a Software for Calculating Isoelectric Point of a Polypeptide According to Their Net Charge Using the Graphical Programming Language LabVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Glomen

    2018-01-01

    A software to calculate the net charge and to predict the isoelectric point (pI) of a polypeptide is developed in this work using the graphical programming language LabVIEW. Through this instrument the net charges of the ionizable residues of the chains of the proteins are calculated at different pH values, tabulated, pI is predicted and an Excel…

  1. Extension of Kirk-Saliga Fixed Point Theorem in a Metric Space with a Reflexive Digraph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Chaira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the result of Kirk-Saliga and we generalize Alfuraidan and Khamsi theorem for reflexive graphs. As a consequence, we obtain the ordered version of Caristi’s fixed point theorem. Some concrete examples are given to support the obtained results.

  2. Point-splitting in a curved space-time background. 1 -gravitational contribution to the axial anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liggatt, P.A.J.; Macfarlane, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    A prescription is given for point-splitting in a curved space-time background which is a natural generalization of that familiar in quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills theory. It is applied (to establish its validity) to the verification of the gravitational anomaly in the divergence of a fermion axial current. Notable features of the prescription are that it defines a point-split current which can be differentiated straightforwardly, and that it involves a natural way of averaging (four dimensionally) over the directions of point splitting. The method can extend directly from the spin-1/2 fermion case treated to other cases, e.g. to spin -3/2 Rarita-Schwinger fermions. (author)

  3. Post-Newtonian equations of motion for LEO debris objects and space-based acquisition, pointing and tracking laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, J. M.; García del Pino, M. L.; Gschwindl, J.; Weinmüller, E. B.

    2017-12-01

    This paper deals with the problem of throwing middle-sized low Earth orbit debris objects into the atmosphere via laser ablation. The post-Newtonian equations here provided allow (hypothetical) space-based acquisition, pointing and tracking systems endowed with very narrow laser beams to reach the pointing accuracy presently prescribed. In fact, whatever the orbital elements of these objects may be, these equations will allow the operators to account for the corrections needed to balance the deviations of the line of sight directions due to the curvature of the paths the laser beams are to travel along. To minimize the respective corrections, the systems will have to perform initial positioning manoeuvres, and the shooting point-ahead angles will have to be adapted in real time. The enclosed numerical experiments suggest that neglecting these measures will cause fatal errors, due to differences in the actual locations of the objects comparable to their size.

  4. Fixed Point Theorems for T-Ciric Quasi-contractive Operator in CAT(0 Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Saluja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper to study a three-step iterative algorithm for T-Ciric quasi-contractive (TCQC operator in the framework of CAT(0 spaces and establish strong convergence theorems for above said scheme and operator. Our results improve and extend the recent corresponding results from the existing literature (see, e.g., [28, 29, 30] and some others.

  5. On the estimation of the current density in space plasmas: Multi- versus single-point techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Silvia; Valentini, Francesco; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Reda, Antonio; Malara, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Thanks to multi-spacecraft mission, it has recently been possible to directly estimate the current density in space plasmas, by using magnetic field time series from four satellites flying in a quasi perfect tetrahedron configuration. The technique developed, commonly called ;curlometer; permits a good estimation of the current density when the magnetic field time series vary linearly in space. This approximation is generally valid for small spacecraft separation. The recent space missions Cluster and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) have provided high resolution measurements with inter-spacecraft separation up to 100 km and 10 km, respectively. The former scale corresponds to the proton gyroradius/ion skin depth in ;typical; solar wind conditions, while the latter to sub-proton scale. However, some works have highlighted an underestimation of the current density via the curlometer technique with respect to the current computed directly from the velocity distribution functions, measured at sub-proton scales resolution with MMS. In this paper we explore the limit of the curlometer technique studying synthetic data sets associated to a cluster of four artificial satellites allowed to fly in a static turbulent field, spanning a wide range of relative separation. This study tries to address the relative importance of measuring plasma moments at very high resolution from a single spacecraft with respect to the multi-spacecraft missions in the current density evaluation.

  6. Calculation and measurement of space charge in MV-size xxtruded cables systems under load conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshuis, P.H.F.; Bodega, R.; Fabiani, D.; Montanari, G.C.; Dissado, L.A.; Smit, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A load current in dc high voltage cables results in a temperature drop across the insulation and hence a radial distribution of the insulation conductivity is found. Direct consequence is an accumulation of space charge in the bulk of the nsulation, that may significantly affect its reliability.

  7. Progress in 3D Space-charge Calculations in the GPT Code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pöplau, G.; Rienen, van U.; Loos, de M.J.; Geer, van der S.B.

    2004-01-01

    The mesh-based 3D space-charge routine in the GPT (General Particle Tracer, Pulsar Physics) code scales linearly with the number of particles in terms of CPU time and allows a million particles to be tracked on a normal PC. The crucial ingredient of the routine is a non-equidistant multi-grid

  8. n-Tupled Coincidence Point Theorems in Partially Ordered Metric Spaces for Compatible Mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitra Dalal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to introduce the notion of compatible mappings for n-tupled coincidence points due to (Imdad et al. (2013. Related examples are also given to support our main results. Our results are the generalizations of the results of (Gnana Bhaskar and Lakshmikantham (2006, Lakshmikantham and Ćirić (2009, Choudhury and Kundu (2010, and Choudhary et al. (2013.

  9. Evaluating space station applications of automation and robotics technologies from a human productivity point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, J. F.

    1986-01-01

    The role that automation, robotics, and artificial intelligence will play in Space Station operations is now beginning to take shape. Although there is only limited data on the precise nature of the payoffs that these technologies are likely to afford there is a general consensus that, at a minimum, the following benefits will be realized: increased responsiveness to innovation, lower operating costs, and reduction of exposure to hazards. Nevertheless, the question arises as to how much automation can be justified with the technical and economic constraints of the program? The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology which can be used to evaluate and rank different approaches to automating the functions and tasks planned for the Space Station. Special attention is given to the impact of advanced automation on human productivity. The methodology employed is based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This permits the introduction of individual judgements to resolve the confict that normally arises when incomparable criteria underly the selection process. Because of the large number of factors involved in the model, the overall problem is decomposed into four subproblems individually focusing on human productivity, economics, design, and operations, respectively. The results from each are then combined to yield the final rankings. To demonstrate the methodology, an example is developed based on the selection of an on-orbit assembly system. Five alternatives for performing this task are identified, ranging from an astronaut working in space, to a dexterous manipulator with sensory feedback. Computational results are presented along with their implications. A final parametric analysis shows that the outcome is locally insensitive to all but complete reversals in preference.

  10. Modeling the TrueBeam linac using a CAD to Geant4 geometry implementation: Dose and IAEA-compliant phase space calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantin, Magdalena; Perl, Joseph; LoSasso, Tom; Salop, Arthur; Whittum, David; Narula, Anisha; Svatos, Michelle; Keall, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To create an accurate 6 MV Monte Carlo simulation phase space for the Varian TrueBeam treatment head geometry imported from cad (computer aided design) without adjusting the input electron phase space parameters. Methods: geant4 v4.9.2.p01 was employed to simulate the 6 MV beam treatment head geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac. The electron tracks in the linear accelerator were simulated with Parmela, and the obtained electron phase space was used as an input to the Monte Carlo beam transport and dose calculations. The geometry components are tessellated solids included in geant4 as gdml (generalized dynamic markup language) files obtained via STEP (standard for the exchange of product) export from Pro/Engineering, followed by STEP import in Fastrad, a STEP-gdml converter. The linac has a compact treatment head and the small space between the shielding collimator and the divergent arc of the upper jaws forbids the implementation of a plane for storing the phase space. Instead, an IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) compliant phase space writer was implemented on a cylindrical surface. The simulation was run in parallel on a 1200 node Linux cluster. The 6 MV dose calculations were performed for field sizes varying from 4 x 4 to 40 x 40 cm 2 . The voxel size for the 60x60x40 cm 3 water phantom was 4x4x4 mm 3 . For the 10x10 cm 2 field, surface buildup calculations were performed using 4x4x2 mm 3 voxels within 20 mm of the surface. Results: For the depth dose curves, 98% of the calculated data points agree within 2% with the experimental measurements for depths between 2 and 40 cm. For depths between 5 and 30 cm, agreement within 1% is obtained for 99% (4x4), 95% (10x10), 94% (20x20 and 30x30), and 89% (40x40) of the data points, respectively. In the buildup region, the agreement is within 2%, except at 1 mm depth where the deviation is 5% for the 10x10 cm 2 open field. For the lateral dose profiles, within the field size for fields up to 30x30 cm 2

  11. Modeling the TrueBeam linac using a CAD to Geant4 geometry implementation: Dose and IAEA-compliant phase space calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantin, Magdalena; Perl, Joseph; LoSasso, Tom; Salop, Arthur; Whittum, David; Narula, Anisha; Svatos, Michelle; Keall, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Physics Division, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94304 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York 10021 (United States); Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Radiation Physics Division, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94304 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To create an accurate 6 MV Monte Carlo simulation phase space for the Varian TrueBeam treatment head geometry imported from cad (computer aided design) without adjusting the input electron phase space parameters. Methods: geant4 v4.9.2.p01 was employed to simulate the 6 MV beam treatment head geometry of the Varian TrueBeam linac. The electron tracks in the linear accelerator were simulated with Parmela, and the obtained electron phase space was used as an input to the Monte Carlo beam transport and dose calculations. The geometry components are tessellated solids included in geant4 as gdml (generalized dynamic markup language) files obtained via STEP (standard for the exchange of product) export from Pro/Engineering, followed by STEP import in Fastrad, a STEP-gdml converter. The linac has a compact treatment head and the small space between the shielding collimator and the divergent arc of the upper jaws forbids the implementation of a plane for storing the phase space. Instead, an IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) compliant phase space writer was implemented on a cylindrical surface. The simulation was run in parallel on a 1200 node Linux cluster. The 6 MV dose calculations were performed for field sizes varying from 4 x 4 to 40 x 40 cm{sup 2}. The voxel size for the 60x60x40 cm{sup 3} water phantom was 4x4x4 mm{sup 3}. For the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field, surface buildup calculations were performed using 4x4x2 mm{sup 3} voxels within 20 mm of the surface. Results: For the depth dose curves, 98% of the calculated data points agree within 2% with the experimental measurements for depths between 2 and 40 cm. For depths between 5 and 30 cm, agreement within 1% is obtained for 99% (4x4), 95% (10x10), 94% (20x20 and 30x30), and 89% (40x40) of the data points, respectively. In the buildup region, the agreement is within 2%, except at 1 mm depth where the deviation is 5% for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} open field. For the lateral dose profiles, within the field size

  12. The Case for Using the Spherical Model to Calculate the Interpolated Points in the Connectivity Software Deployment Module

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Still, G. W; Nealon, James F

    2008-01-01

    .... The developers must decide which model of the earth to use as the basis of the calculations. Thus, a comparison was made between the National Geodetic Survey-provided computer programs Forward an Inverse based on the WGS84 Oblate Spheroid (OS...

  13. ColorFull: a C++ library for calculations in SU(Nc) color space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sjoedahl, Malin [Lund University, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund (Sweden)

    2015-05-15

    ColorFull, a C++ package for treating QCD color structure, is presented. ColorFull, which utilizes the trace basis approach, is intended for interfacing with event generators, but can also be used as a stand-alone package for squaring QCD amplitudes, calculating interferences, and describing the effect of gluon emission and gluon exchange. (orig.)

  14. Real-space calculations of nonspherically averaged charge densities for substitutionally disordered alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.P.; Gonis, A.

    1993-01-01

    Based on screening transformations of muffin-tin orbitals introduced by Andersen and Jepsen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 2571 (1984)], we have developed a formalism for calculating the nonspherically averaged charge densities of substitutionally disordered alloys using the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential-approximation (KKR CPA) method in the atomic-sphere approximation (ASA). We have validated our method by calculating charge densities for ordered structures, where we find that our approach yields charge densities that are essentially indistinguishable from the results of full-potential methods. Calculations and comparisons are reported for Si, Al, and Li. For substitutionally disordered alloys, where full-potential methods have not been implemented so far, our approach can be used to calculate reliable nonspherically averaged charge densities from spherically symmetric one-electron potentials obtained from the KKR-ASA CPA. We report on our study of differences in charge density between ordered AlLi in the L1 0 phase and substitutionally disordered Al 0.5 Li 0.5 on a face-centered-cubic lattice

  15. Simulation of Space Charge Effects in Electron Optical System Based on the Calculations of Current Density

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zelinka, Jiří; Oral, Martin; Radlička, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, S4 (2015), s. 246-251 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : electron optical system * calculations of current density Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  16. Pointing Knowledge for SPARCLE and Space-Based Doppler Wind Lidars in General

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmitt, G. D.; Miller, T.; Spiers, G.

    1999-01-01

    The SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment (SPARCLE) will fly on a space shuttle to demonstrate the use of a coherent Doppler wind lidar to accurately measure global tropospheric winds. To achieve the LOS (Line of Sight) accuracy goal of approx. m/s, the lidar system must be able to account for the orbiter's velocity (approx. 7750 m/s) and the rotational component of the earth's surface motion (approx. 450 m/s). For SPARCLE this requires knowledge of the attitude (roll, pitch and yaw) of the laser beam axis within an accuracy of 80 microradians. (approx. 15 arcsec). Since SPARCLE can not use a dedicated star tracker from its earth-viewing orbiter bay location, a dedicated GPS/INS (Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System) will be attached to the lidar instrument rack. Since even the GPS/INS has unacceptable drifts in attitude information, the SPARCLE team has developed a way to periodically scan the instrument itself to obtain less than 10 microradian (2 arcsec) attitude knowledge accuracy that can then be used to correct the GPS/INS output on a 30 minute basis.

  17. Boomerang project: structural calculations and verifications of mechanical support of space cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchini, A.; Orsi, R.

    1995-12-01

    The Boomerang (Ballon Observations of Millimetric Extragalactic radiation ANd Geophysics) experiment is an international effort to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropy on angular scales of 20' to 4x, with unprecedent sensitivity, sky and spectral coverage. The telescope will be flown from Antarctica by NASA-NSBF with a long duration stratospheric balloon (1-3 weeks), and is scheduled for flight in 1996. Space cryogenic systems need adeguate mechanical support to survive the large accelerations and vibrations induced during launch and landing. Static and modal analyses were carried out in order to assist the design of the mechanical support of the space cryogenic system. This report describes the models and the results of the FEM analyses carried out for different design solutions (kevlar cords or fiber-glass cylinders) of the cryostat support structure

  18. Thermodynamic and real-space structural evidence of a 2D critical point in phospholipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars K.; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    2007-01-01

    The two-dimensional phase diagram of phospholipid monolayers at air-water interfaces has been constructed from Langmuir compression isotherms. The coexistence region between the solid and fluid phases of the monolayer ends at the critical temperature of the transition. The small-scale lateral...... structure of the monolayers has been imaged by atomic force microscopy in the nm to mu m range at distinct points in the phase diagram. The lateral structure is immobilized by transferring the monolayer from an air-water interface to a solid mica support using Langmuir-Blodgett techniques. A transfer...

  19. 3D Modeling of Building Indoor Spaces and Closed Doors from Imagery and Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Díaz-Vilariño

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 3D models of indoor environments are increasingly gaining importance due to the wide range of applications to which they can be subjected: from redesign and visualization to monitoring and simulation. These models usually exist only for newly constructed buildings; therefore, the development of automatic approaches for reconstructing 3D indoors from imagery and/or point clouds can make the process easier, faster and cheaper. Among the constructive elements defining a building interior, doors are very common elements and their detection can be very useful either for knowing the environment structure, to perform an efficient navigation or to plan appropriate evacuation routes. The fact that doors are topologically connected to walls by being coplanar, together with the unavoidable presence of clutter and occlusions indoors, increases the inherent complexity of the automation of the recognition process. In this work, we present a pipeline of techniques used for the reconstruction and interpretation of building interiors based on point clouds and images. The methodology analyses the visibility problem of indoor environments and goes in depth with door candidate detection. The presented approach is tested in real data sets showing its potential with a high door detection rate and applicability for robust and efficient envelope reconstruction.

  20. Scattering in particle-hole space: simple approximations to nuclear RPA calculations in the continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de.

    1987-01-01

    The Random Phase Approximation (RPA) treatment of nuclear small amplitude vibrations including particle-hole continua is handled in terms of previously developed techniques to treat single-particle resonances in a reaction theoretical framework. A hierarchy of interpretable approximations is derived and a simple working approximation is proposed which involves a numerical effort no larger than that involved in standard, discrete RPA calculations. (Author) [pt

  1. Space charge and working point studies in the CERN Low Energy Ion Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Huschauer, A; Hancock, S; Kain, V

    2017-01-01

    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) is at the heart ofCERN’s heavy ion physics programme and was designed toprovide the high phase space densities required by the exper-iments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). LEIR is the firstsynchrotron of the LHC ion injector chain and it receives aquasi-continuous pulse of lead ions (Pb54+) from Linac3, ex-ploiting a sophisticated multi-turn injection scheme in bothtransverse and longitudinal planes. Seven of these pulses areinjected and accumulated, which requires continuous elec-tron cooling (EC) at low energy to decrease the phase spacevolume of the circulating beam in between two injections.Subsequently, the coasting beam is adiabatically capturedin two bunches, which are then accelerated and extractedtowards the Proton Synchrotron (PS). Figure 1 shows theLEIR magnetic cycle and the different steps required forbeam production.

  2. Kuang's Semi-Classical Formalism for Calculating Electron Capture Cross Sections: A Space- Physics Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of electroncapture cross sections at energies relevant to the modeling of the transport, acceleration, and interaction of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in space (approximately few MeV per nucleon) and especially for multi-electron ions must rely on detailed, but computationally expensive, quantum-mechanical description of the collision process. Kuang's semi-classical approach is an elegant and efficient way to arrive at these estimates. Motivated by ENA modeling efforts for apace applications, we shall briefly present this approach along with sample applications and report on current progress.

  3. Green Grape Detection and Picking-Point Calculation in a Night-Time Natural Environment Using a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD Vision Sensor with Artificial Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Xiong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Night-time fruit-picking technology is important to picking robots. This paper proposes a method of night-time detection and picking-point positioning for green grape-picking robots to solve the difficult problem of green grape detection and picking in night-time conditions with artificial lighting systems. Taking a representative green grape named Centennial Seedless as the research object, daytime and night-time grape images were captured by a custom-designed visual system. Detection was conducted employing the following steps: (1 The RGB (red, green and blue. Color model was determined for night-time green grape detection through analysis of color features of grape images under daytime natural light and night-time artificial lighting. The R component of the RGB color model was rotated and the image resolution was compressed; (2 The improved Chan–Vese (C–V level set model and morphological processing method were used to remove the background of the image, leaving out the grape fruit; (3 Based on the character of grape vertical suspension, combining the principle of the minimum circumscribed rectangle of fruit and the Hough straight line detection method, straight-line fitting for the fruit stem was conducted and the picking point was calculated using the stem with an angle of fitting line and vertical line less than 15°. The visual detection experiment results showed that the accuracy of grape fruit detection was 91.67% and the average running time of the proposed algorithm was 0.46 s. The picking-point calculation experiment results showed that the highest accuracy for the picking-point calculation was 92.5%, while the lowest was 80%. The results demonstrate that the proposed method of night-time green grape detection and picking-point calculation can provide technical support to the grape-picking robots.

  4. Calculation of charged fusion product distributions in space, energy, and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schivell, J.; Monticello, D.A.; Zweben, S.J.

    1992-02-01

    The equation for the radial diffusion and slowing down of fast ions in a plasma is solved by a finite-difference technique. The terms included are ion source, radial diffusion, electron and ion drag. From the ion density at the radial boundary, the loss flux is calculated and used to model the signals in a lost-ion diagnostic. The code is also used to model the density of α-particles in future DT experiments. This information is used to predict the features to be seen by alpha diagnostics

  5. Renormalization group flows and fixed points for a scalar field in curved space with nonminimal F (ϕ )R coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikin, Boris S.; Shapiro, Ilya L.; Wipf, Andreas; Zanusso, Omar

    2017-12-01

    Using covariant methods, we construct and explore the Wetterich equation for a nonminimal coupling F (ϕ )R of a quantized scalar field to the Ricci scalar of a prescribed curved space. This includes the often considered nonminimal coupling ξ ϕ2R as a special case. We consider the truncations without and with scale- and field-dependent wave-function renormalization in dimensions between four and two. Thereby the main emphasis is on analytic and numerical solutions of the fixed point equations and the behavior in the vicinity of the corresponding fixed points. We determine the nonminimal coupling in the symmetric and spontaneously broken phases with vanishing and nonvanishing average fields, respectively. Using functional perturbative renormalization group methods, we discuss the leading universal contributions to the RG flow below the upper critical dimension d =4 .

  6. Radiation transport simulation in gamma irradiator systems using E G S 4 Monte Carlo code and dose mapping calculations based on point kernel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raisali, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    A series of computer codes based on point kernel technique and also Monte Carlo method have been developed. These codes perform radiation transport calculations for irradiator systems having cartesian, cylindrical and mixed geometries. The monte Carlo calculations, the computer code 'EGS4' has been applied to a radiation processing type problem. This code has been acompanied by a specific user code. The set of codes developed include: GCELLS, DOSMAPM, DOSMAPC2 which simulate the radiation transport in gamma irradiator systems having cylinderical, cartesian, and mixed geometries, respectively. The program 'DOSMAP3' based on point kernel technique, has been also developed for dose rate mapping calculations in carrier type gamma irradiators. Another computer program 'CYLDETM' as a user code for EGS4 has been also developed to simulate dose variations near the interface of heterogeneous media in gamma irradiator systems. In addition a system of computer codes 'PRODMIX' has been developed which calculates the absorbed dose in the products with different densities. validation studies of the calculated results versus experimental dosimetry has been performed and good agreement has been obtained

  7. Realtime Knowledge Management (RKM): From an International Space Station (ISS) Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter I.; McDermott, William; Alena, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing automated methods to provide realtime access to spacecraft domain knowledge relevant a spacecraft's current operational state. The method is based upon analyzing state-transition signatures in the telemetry stream. A key insight is that documentation relevant to a specific failure mode or operational state is related to the structure and function of spacecraft systems. This means that diagnostic dependency and state models can provide a roadmap for effective documentation navigation and presentation. Diagnostic models consume the telemetry and derive a high-level state description of the spacecraft. Each potential spacecraft state description is matched against the predictions of models that were developed from information found in the pages and sections in the relevant International Space Station (ISS) documentation and reference materials. By annotating each model fragment with the domain knowledge sources from which it was derived we can develop a system that automatically selects those documents representing the domain knowledge encapsulated by the models that compute the current spacecraft state. In this manner, when the spacecraft state changes, the relevant documentation context and presentation will also change.

  8. Calculation of null points in SPAIR, FLAIR, and STIR. Part 2. Application to pelvic diffusion-weighted imaging with SPAIR at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Miho; Kawano, Kazuhiro; Kometani, Katsuya; Kondo, Toshihiko; Shimamoto, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Humihiro; Oda, Hideyuki; Kojima, Akihiro; Sato, Morio

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) requires adequate fat suppression because of its sensitivity to chemical shift artifacts, especially at 3 Tesla (T). We investigated the utility of calculating the inversion time of the null point (TI null ) in pelvic DWI with spectral attenuated inversion recovery (SPAIR) at 3 T for obtaining adequate fat suppression. Thirteen volunteers underwent pelvic SPAIR-DWI using various SPAIR inversion delay times (TI) at 5-ms intervals in the range of the calculated TI null ±25 ms. The degree of fat suppression was evaluated into 3 grades and was compared among the various SPAIR-TIs with the calculated TI null . In 65 cases of prostatic disease, we evaluated the ratio of adequate fat suppression obtained using the calculated TI null . We obtained adequate fat suppression in all 13 volunteers and in 61 (94%) of the 65 patients using the calculated TI null . Fat suppression was best when the calculated TI null was used (P null (P null increased. In conclusion, this method of calculating the TI null may be useful for obtaining adequate fat suppression for pelvic SPAIR-DWI at 3T. (author)

  9. LEAP: Looking beyond pixels with continuous-space EstimAtion of Point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hanjie; Simeoni, Matthieu; Hurley, Paul; Blu, Thierry; Vetterli, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Context. Two main classes of imaging algorithms have emerged in radio interferometry: the CLEAN algorithm and its multiple variants, and compressed-sensing inspired methods. They are both discrete in nature, and estimate source locations and intensities on a regular grid. For the traditional CLEAN-based imaging pipeline, the resolution power of the tool is limited by the width of the synthesized beam, which is inversely proportional to the largest baseline. The finite rate of innovation (FRI) framework is a robust method to find the locations of point-sources in a continuum without grid imposition. The continuous formulation makes the FRI recovery performance only dependent on the number of measurements and the number of sources in the sky. FRI can theoretically find sources below the perceived tool resolution. To date, FRI had never been tested in the extreme conditions inherent to radio astronomy: weak signal / high noise, huge data sets, large numbers of sources. Aims: The aims were (i) to adapt FRI to radio astronomy, (ii) verify it can recover sources in radio astronomy conditions with more accurate positioning than CLEAN, and possibly resolve some sources that would otherwise be missed, (iii) show that sources can be found using less data than would otherwise be required to find them, and (iv) show that FRI does not lead to an augmented rate of false positives. Methods: We implemented a continuous domain sparse reconstruction algorithm in Python. The angular resolution performance of the new algorithm was assessed under simulation, and with visibility measurements from the LOFAR telescope. Existing catalogs were used to confirm the existence of sources. Results: We adapted the FRI framework to radio interferometry, and showed that it is possible to determine accurate off-grid point-source locations and their corresponding intensities. In addition, FRI-based sparse reconstruction required less integration time and smaller baselines to reach a comparable

  10. GAMMA-CLOUD: a computer code for calculating gamma-exposure due to a radioactive cloud released from a point source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, O [Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan); Sawaguchi, Y; Kaneko, M

    1979-03-01

    A computer code, designated GAMMA-CLOUD, has been developed by specialists of electric power companies to meet requests from the companies to have a unified means of calculating annual external doses from routine releases of radioactive gaseous effluents from nuclear power plants, based on the Japan Atomic Energy Commission's guides for environmental dose evaluation. GAMMA-CLOUD is written in FORTRAN language and its required capacity is less than 100 kilobytes. The average ..gamma..-exposure at an observation point can be calculated within a few minutes with comparable precision to other existing codes.

  11. Tool for evaluating the evolution Space Weather Regional Warning Centers under the innovation point of view: the Case Study of the Embrace Space Weather Program Early Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a tool for measuring the evolutional stage of the space weather regional warning centers using the approach of the innovative evolution starting from the perspective presented by Figueiredo (2009, Innovation Management: Concepts, metrics and experiences of companies in Brazil. Publisher LTC, Rio de Janeiro - RJ). It is based on measuring the stock of technological skills needed to perform a certain task that is (or should) be part of the scope of a space weather center. It also addresses the technological capacity for innovation considering the accumulation of technological and learning capabilities, instead of the usual international indices like number of registered patents. Based on this definition, we have developed a model for measuring the capabilities of the Brazilian Study and Monitoring Program Space Weather (Embrace), a program of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE), which has gone through three national stages of development and an international validation step. This program was created in 2007 encompassing competence from five divisions of INPE in order to carry out the data collection and maintenance of the observing system in space weather; to model processes of the Sun-Earth system; to provide real-time information and to forecast space weather; and provide diagnostic their effects on different technological systems. In the present work, we considered the issues related to the innovation of micro-processes inherent to the nature of the Embrace program, not the macro-economic processes, despite recognizing the importance of these. During the development phase, the model was submitted to five scientists/managers from five different countries member of the International Space Environment Service (ISES) who presented their evaluations, concerns and suggestions. It was applied to the Embrace program through an interview form developed to be answered by professional members of regional warning centers. Based on the returning

  12. Technique for sensitivity analysis of space- and energy-dependent burn-up calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; White, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A practical method is presented for sensitivity analysis of the very complex, space-energy dependent burn-up equations, in which the neutron and nuclide fields are coupled nonlinearly. The adjoint burn-up equations that are given are in a form which can be directly implemented into multi-dimensional depletion codes, such as VENTURE/BURNER. The data sensitivity coefficients can be used to determine the effect of data uncertainties on time-dependent depletion responses. Initial condition sensitivity coefficients provide a very effective method for computing the change in end of cycle parameters (such as k/sub eff/, fissile inventory, etc.) due to changes in nuclide concentrations at beginning of cycle

  13. Mobile viewer system for virtual 3D space using infrared LED point markers and camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Taneji, Shoto

    2006-09-01

    The authors have developed a 3D workspace system using collaborative imaging devices. A stereoscopic display enables this system to project 3D information. In this paper, we describe the position detecting system for a see-through 3D viewer. A 3D display system is useful technology for virtual reality, mixed reality and augmented reality. We have researched spatial imaging and interaction system. We have ever proposed 3D displays using the slit as a parallax barrier, the lenticular screen and the holographic optical elements(HOEs) for displaying active image 1)2)3)4). The purpose of this paper is to propose the interactive system using these 3D imaging technologies. The observer can view virtual images in the real world when the user watches the screen of a see-through 3D viewer. The goal of our research is to build the display system as follows; when users see the real world through the mobile viewer, the display system gives users virtual 3D images, which is floating in the air, and the observers can touch these floating images and interact them such that kids can make play clay. The key technologies of this system are the position recognition system and the spatial imaging display. The 3D images are presented by the improved parallax barrier 3D display. Here the authors discuss the measuring method of the mobile viewer using infrared LED point markers and a camera in the 3D workspace (augmented reality world). The authors show the geometric analysis of the proposed measuring method, which is the simplest method using a single camera not the stereo camera, and the results of our viewer system.

  14. Space and time in the context of equilibrium-point theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2011-05-01

    Advances to the equilibrium-point (EP) theory and solutions to several classical problems of action and perception are suggested and discussed. Among them are (1) the posture-movement problem of how movements away from a stable posture can be made without evoking resistance of posture-stabilizing mechanisms resulting from intrinsic muscle and reflex properties; (2) the problem of kinesthesia or why our sense of limb position is fairly accurate despite ambiguous positional information delivered by proprioceptive and cutaneous signals; (3) the redundancy problems in the control of multiple muscles and degrees of freedom. Central to the EP hypothesis is the notion that there are specific neural structures that represent spatial frames of reference (FRs) selected by the brain in a task-specific way from a set of available FRs. The brain is also able to translate or/and rotate the selected FRs by modifying their major attributes-the origin, metrics, and orientation-and thus substantially influence, in a feed-forward manner, action and perception. The brain does not directly solve redundancy problems: it only limits the amount of redundancy by predetermining where, in spatial coordinates, a task-specific action should emerge and allows all motor elements, including the environment, to interact to deliver a unique action, thus solving the redundancy problem (natural selection of action). The EP theory predicts the existence of specific neurons associated with the control of different attributes of FRs and explains the role of mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus and place cells in the hippocampus. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 287-304 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.108 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Comparison of IBM-2 calculations with X(5) critical point symmetry for low lying states in 128-140Nd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uluer, I.; Olgun, D.; Inan, S.; Tuerkan, N.

    2006-01-01

    The X(5) would take place when moving continuously from the pure U(5) symmetry to the SU(3) symmetry and it implies a definite relations among the level energies and among the E2 transition strengths. It was recently shown that a signature of phase transition is observed in the chain of Sm, Mo and Nd isotopes, where 1 52Sm, 1 04Mo and 1 50Nd display the predicted features of the X(5) symmetry and mark therefore the critical point. However, more detailed studies and experiments are needed to get ideas about this signature. Without entering into detail we have firstly compared the results obtained in our previous study of 1 28- 1 40Nd with that of the limits in X(5) symmetry and then given a clear description about the validity of the Hamiltonian parameters used in the study. At the end, we have concluded that some of Nd isotopes display X(5) symmetry features

  16. Zero-point Energy is Needed in Molecular Dynamics Calculations to Access the Saddle Point for H+HCN→H2CN* and cis/trans-HCNH* on a New Potential Energy Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Bowman, Joel M

    2013-02-12

    We calculate the probabilities for the association reactions H+HCN→H2CN* and cis/trans-HCNH*, using quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) and classical trajectory (CT) calculations, on a new global ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for H2CN including the reaction channels. The surface is a linear least-squares fit of roughly 60 000 CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVDZ electronic energies, using a permutationally invariant basis with Morse-type variables. The reaction probabilities are obtained at a variety of collision energies and impact parameters. Large differences in the threshold energies in the two types of dynamics calculations are traced to the absence of zero-point energy in the CT calculations. We argue that the QCT threshold energy is the realistic one. In addition, trajectories find a direct pathway to trans-HCNH, even though there is no obvious transition state (TS) for this pathway. Instead the saddle point (SP) for the addition to cis-HCNH is evidently also the TS for direct formation of trans-HCNH.

  17. Real-space, mean-field algorithm to numerically calculate long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhe, A.; Costa, B. V.

    2016-02-01

    Long-range interactions are known to be of difficult treatment in statistical mechanics models. There are some approaches that introduce a cutoff in the interactions or make use of reaction field approaches. However, those treatments suffer the illness of being of limited use, in particular close to phase transitions. The use of open boundary conditions allows the sum of the long-range interactions over the entire system to be done, however, this approach demands a sum over all degrees of freedom in the system, which makes a numerical treatment prohibitive. Techniques like the Ewald summation or fast multipole expansion account for the exact interactions but are still limited to a few thousands of particles. In this paper we introduce a novel mean-field approach to treat long-range interactions. The method is based in the division of the system in cells. In the inner cell, that contains the particle in sight, the 'local' interactions are computed exactly, the 'far' contributions are then computed as the average over the particles inside a given cell with the particle in sight for each of the remaining cells. Using this approach, the large and small cells limits are exact. At a fixed cell size, the method also becomes exact in the limit of large lattices. We have applied the procedure to the two-dimensional anisotropic dipolar Heisenberg model. A detailed comparison between our method, the exact calculation and the cutoff radius approximation were done. Our results show that the cutoff-cell approach outperforms any cutoff radius approach as it maintains the long-range memory present in these interactions, contrary to the cutoff radius approximation. Besides that, we calculated the critical temperature and the critical behavior of the specific heat of the anisotropic Heisenberg model using our method. The results are in excellent agreement with extensive Monte Carlo simulations using Ewald summation.

  18. Composite space charge density functions for the calculation of gamma sensitivity of self-powered neutron detectors, using Warren's model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahant, A. K.; Rao, P. S.; Misra, S. C.

    1994-07-01

    In the calculational model developed by Warren and Shah for the computation of the gamma sensitivity ( Sγ) it has been observed that the computed Sγ value is quite sensitive to the space charge distribution function assumed for the insulator region and the energy of the gamma photons. The Sγ of SPNDs with Pt, Co and V emitters (manufactured by Thermocoax, France) has been measured at 60Co photon energy and a good correlation between the measured and computed values has been obtained using a composite space charge density function (CSCD), the details of which are presented in this paper. The arguments are extended for evaluating the Sγ values of several SPNDs for which Warren and Shah reported the measured values for a prompt fission gamma spectrum obtained in a swimming pool reactor. These results are also discussed.

  19. Efficient methods for including quantum effects in Monte Carlo calculations of large systems: extension of the displaced points path integral method and other effective potential methods to calculate properties and distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven L; Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Siepmann, J Ilja; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-01-07

    We present a procedure to calculate ensemble averages, thermodynamic derivatives, and coordinate distributions by effective classical potential methods. In particular, we consider the displaced-points path integral (DPPI) method, which yields exact quantal partition functions and ensemble averages for a harmonic potential and approximate quantal ones for general potentials, and we discuss the implementation of the new procedure in two Monte Carlo simulation codes, one that uses uncorrelated samples to calculate absolute free energies, and another that employs Metropolis sampling to calculate relative free energies. The results of the new DPPI method are compared to those from accurate path integral calculations as well as to results of two other effective classical potential schemes for the case of an isolated water molecule. In addition to the partition function, we consider the heat capacity and expectation values of the energy, the potential energy, the bond angle, and the OH distance. We also consider coordinate distributions. The DPPI scheme performs best among the three effective potential schemes considered and achieves very good accuracy for all of the properties considered. A key advantage of the effective potential schemes is that they display much lower statistical sampling variances than those for accurate path integral calculations. The method presented here shows great promise for including quantum effects in calculations on large systems.

  20. Adjusted NIEL calculations for estimating proton-induced degradation of GaInP/GaAs/Ge space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ming; Wang Rong; Liu Yunhong; Hu Wentao; Feng Zhao; Han Zhaolei

    2011-01-01

    The non-ionizing energy loss (NIEL) values for protons in solar cells should be modified by taking into account the distribution of the Bragg damage peak in the active region to calculate the corresponding displacement damage dose. In this paper, based upon a thin target approximation, a new approach is presented to modify NIEL values for protons on a GaAs sub-cell. Adjusted NIEL values can be used to estimate the degradation induced by protons on GaInP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction space solar cells.

  1. Determining Plane-Sweep Sampling Points in Image Space Using the Cross-Ratio for Image-Based Depth Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, B.; Erdnuess, B.; Weinmann, M.

    2017-08-01

    With the emergence of small consumer Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), the importance and interest of image-based depth estimation and model generation from aerial images has greatly increased in the photogrammetric society. In our work, we focus on algorithms that allow an online image-based dense depth estimation from video sequences, which enables the direct and live structural analysis of the depicted scene. Therefore, we use a multi-view plane-sweep algorithm with a semi-global matching (SGM) optimization which is parallelized for general purpose computation on a GPU (GPGPU), reaching sufficient performance to keep up with the key-frames of input sequences. One important aspect to reach good performance is the way to sample the scene space, creating plane hypotheses. A small step size between consecutive planes, which is needed to reconstruct details in the near vicinity of the camera may lead to ambiguities in distant regions, due to the perspective projection of the camera. Furthermore, an equidistant sampling with a small step size produces a large number of plane hypotheses, leading to high computational effort. To overcome these problems, we present a novel methodology to directly determine the sampling points of plane-sweep algorithms in image space. The use of the perspective invariant cross-ratio allows us to derive the location of the sampling planes directly from the image data. With this, we efficiently sample the scene space, achieving higher sampling density in areas which are close to the camera and a lower density in distant regions. We evaluate our approach on a synthetic benchmark dataset for quantitative evaluation and on a real-image dataset consisting of aerial imagery. The experiments reveal that an inverse sampling achieves equal and better results than a linear sampling, with less sampling points and thus less runtime. Our algorithm allows an online computation of depth maps for subsequences of five frames, provided that the relative

  2. DETERMINING PLANE-SWEEP SAMPLING POINTS IN IMAGE SPACE USING THE CROSS-RATIO FOR IMAGE-BASED DEPTH ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ruf

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the emergence of small consumer Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, the importance and interest of image-based depth estimation and model generation from aerial images has greatly increased in the photogrammetric society. In our work, we focus on algorithms that allow an online image-based dense depth estimation from video sequences, which enables the direct and live structural analysis of the depicted scene. Therefore, we use a multi-view plane-sweep algorithm with a semi-global matching (SGM optimization which is parallelized for general purpose computation on a GPU (GPGPU, reaching sufficient performance to keep up with the key-frames of input sequences. One important aspect to reach good performance is the way to sample the scene space, creating plane hypotheses. A small step size between consecutive planes, which is needed to reconstruct details in the near vicinity of the camera may lead to ambiguities in distant regions, due to the perspective projection of the camera. Furthermore, an equidistant sampling with a small step size produces a large number of plane hypotheses, leading to high computational effort. To overcome these problems, we present a novel methodology to directly determine the sampling points of plane-sweep algorithms in image space. The use of the perspective invariant cross-ratio allows us to derive the location of the sampling planes directly from the image data. With this, we efficiently sample the scene space, achieving higher sampling density in areas which are close to the camera and a lower density in distant regions. We evaluate our approach on a synthetic benchmark dataset for quantitative evaluation and on a real-image dataset consisting of aerial imagery. The experiments reveal that an inverse sampling achieves equal and better results than a linear sampling, with less sampling points and thus less runtime. Our algorithm allows an online computation of depth maps for subsequences of five frames, provided that

  3. Calculation of gamma ray dose buildup factors in water for isotropic point, plane mono directional and line sources using MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atak, H.; Celikten, O. S.; Tombakoglu, M.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma ray dose buildup factors in water for isotropic point, plane mono directional and infinite/finite line sources were calculated using the MCNP code. The buildup factors are determined for gamma ray energies of 1, 2, 3 and 4 Mev and for shield thicknesses of 1, 2, 4 and 7 mean free paths. The calculated buildup factors were then fitted in the Taylor and Berger forms. For the line sources a buildup factor table was also constructed using the Sievert function and the constants in Taylor form derived in this study to compare with the Monte Carlo results. All buildup factors were compared with the tabulated data given in literature. In order to reduce the statistical errors on buildup factors, 'forced collision' option was used in the MCNP calculations.

  4. Configuration space Faddeev calculations. Progress report, 1 January 1983-31 December 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, G.L.; Klink, W.H.; Polyzou, W.N.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear three-body problem can be used as a tool to test our basic understanding of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. Also, accurate three-body wave functions can be used to test various approximations used in nuclear reaction theories. During the past year we have developed the computer codes to solve the trinucleon problem with realistic potentials, both for the bound-state and the zero-energy scattering problem. We have demonstrated that our noncompact kernel equation can be used for three-body scattering for energies below the three-body breakup energy. The p-d scattering length calculated with realistic interactions showed that the experimental value for the doublet scattering length should be reevaluated. In order to interpret the results of new experiments in terms of quarks exchanging gluons, we have constructed a framework for constructing models of a baryon with a three-quark core and a quark-antiquark cloud. We have derived the properties of the interactions which ensure both a well-defined scattering theory and a mass spectrum with a finite number of physical baryons. Finally, we have shown that any multiparticle scattering amplitude can be related to the scattering amplitude for the crossed reaction, and as a consequence, derived functional equations for a single-particle production scattering amplitudes. Publications are listed

  5. SPANDE, Stress Analysis of General Space-frame and Pipework. SPATAM, Tilt Angle Calculation of Framework for Program SPANDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.C.; Enderby, J.A.; Knowles, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: The programme is intended to analyse almost any type of space-frame. Members of the frame may be either straight or of constant curvature between nodes provided that, in the case of curved members, one of the principal axes of the cross-section of the member lies in the same plane as the member. Loading may comprise concentrated loads, distributed loads, thermal loads or may take the form of specified displacements. The programme calculates the forces and moments in all the members of the framework, the reactions at all external restraints and the displacements of all the nodes. For pipework problems, the maximum stress difference in the pipe, calculated in accordance with the code of practice, is also quoted. 2 - Method of solution: The framework is solved by displacement methods involving stiffness matrices, making it possible to analyse space-frames with virtually any number of redundancies. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: For ICL 4/70, the framework is limited to 1000 nodes, 2000 members, 100 different member types or 200 specified nodal displacements

  6. Restricted active space calculations of L-edge X-ray absorption spectra: from molecular orbitals to multiplet states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2014-09-28

    The metal L-edge (2p → 3d) X-ray absorption spectra are affected by a number of different interactions: electron-electron repulsion, spin-orbit coupling, and charge transfer between metal and ligands, which makes the simulation of spectra challenging. The core restricted active space (RAS) method is an accurate and flexible approach that can be used to calculate X-ray spectra of a wide range of medium-sized systems without any symmetry constraints. Here, the applicability of the method is tested in detail by simulating three ferric (3d(5)) model systems with well-known electronic structure, viz., atomic Fe(3+), high-spin [FeCl6](3-) with ligand donor bonding, and low-spin [Fe(CN)6](3-) that also has metal backbonding. For these systems, the performance of the core RAS method, which does not require any system-dependent parameters, is comparable to that of the commonly used semi-empirical charge-transfer multiplet model. It handles orbitally degenerate ground states, accurately describes metal-ligand interactions, and includes both single and multiple excitations. The results are sensitive to the choice of orbitals in the active space and this sensitivity can be used to assign spectral features. A method has also been developed to analyze the calculated X-ray spectra using a chemically intuitive molecular orbital picture.

  7. Upper Incisor Changes Due to Modifying the Point of Application of Forces during Space Closure in MBT Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ravanmehr

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: A recent technique (MBT has been introduced for easy and efficient orthodontic treatment by means of straight wire fixed appliances. Although this technique has many advantages, in space closure stage causes up righting problem in upper incisors, which should be adjusted by applying additional torque in anterior region.Purpose: The purpose of this clinical trial was to determine whether there is a significant difference in final incisor inclination (torque of two groups one treated with MBT technique and the other by changing the point of application of the closing force (in anterior region.Materials and Methods: Twelve patients (8 girls, 4 boys with Cl I malocclusion and crowding, whom were candidate for first premolars extraction, were selected.For space closure, 6 anterior teeth (canine to canine in upper and lower jaws ligated and the applied force was from the hooks on canines to hooks on the first molars.After space closure the results compared with the results of a previous study which treatment plan was according to original MBT technique (anterior hooks soldered to arch wire. Forces applied randomly among quadrants by NiTi coil spring (American Orthodontics Co. or active tie backs with elastic modules (Dentaurum Co.Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference between final torques of two techniques (P=0.0001. Also, the rate of space closure with NiTi coils was significantly greater than active tie back (P=0.0001.Conclusion: Anchorage loss in two groups compared and the results indicated significantly lower anchorage loss in NiTi coil spring group (P=0.035.

  8. Genealogical electronic coupling procedure incorporating the Hartree--Fock interacting space and suitable for degenerate point groups. Application to excited states of BH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swope, W.C.; Schaefer, H.F. III; Yarkony, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of Clebsch--Gordan-type coupling coefficients for finite point groups is applied to the problem of constructing symmetrized N-electron wave functions (configurations) for use by the Hartree--Fock SCF and CI methods of determining electronic wave functions for molecular systems. The configurations are eigenfunctions of electronic spin operators, and transform according to a particular irreducible representation of the relevant group of spatial operations which leave the Born--Oppenheimer Hamiltonian invariant. The method proposed for constructing the configurations involves a genealogical coupling procedure. It is particularly useful for studies of molecules which belong to a group which has multiply degenerate irreducible representations. The advantage of the method is that it results in configurations which are real linear combinations of determinants of real symmetry orbitals. This procedure for constructing configurations also allows for the identification of configurations which have no matrix element of the Hamiltonian with a reference configuration. It is therefore possible to construct a Hartree--Fock interacting space of configurations which can speed the convergence of a CI wave function. The coupling method is applied to a study of the ground and two excited electronic states of BH 3 in its D/sub 3h/ geometry. The theoretical approach involved Hartree--Fock SCF calculations followed by single and double substitution CI calculations, both of which employed double-zeta plus polarization quality basis sets

  9. A technical basis to relax the dew point specification for the environment in the vapor space in DWPF canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1995-05-01

    This memorandum establishes the technical basis to conclude that relaxing, from 0 C to 20 C, the dew point specification for the atmosphere in the vapor space (free volume) of a DWPF canister will not provide an environment that will cause significant amounts of corrosion induced degradation of the canister wall. The conclusion is based on engineering analysis, experience and review of the corrosion literature. The basic assumptions underlying the conclusion are: (1) the canister was fabricated from Type 304L stainless steel; (2) the corrosion behavior of the canister material, including base metal, fusion zones and heat effected zones, is typified by literature data for, and industrial experience with, 300 series austenitic stainless steels; and (3) the glass-metal crevices created during the pouring operation will not alter the basic corrosion resistance of the steel although such crevices might serve as sites for the initiation of minor amounts of corrosion on the canister wall

  10. Design Development of a Combined Deployment and Pointing System for the International Space Station Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinoff, Jason; Gendreau, Keith; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Baker, Charles; Berning, Robert; Colangelo, TOdd; Holzinger, John; Lewis, Jesse; Liu, Alice; Mitchell, Alissa; hide

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a unique suite of mechanisms that make up the Deployment and Pointing System (DAPS) for the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER/SEXTANT) instrument, an X-Ray telescope, which will be mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). The DAPS system uses four stepper motor actuators to deploy the telescope box, latch it in the deployed position, and allow it to track sky targets. The DAPS gimbal architecture provides full-hemisphere coverage, and is fully re-stowable. The compact design of the mechanism allowed the majority of total instrument volume to be used for science. Override features allow DAPS to be stowed by ISS robotics.

  11. Performance analysis of multihop heterodyne free-space optical communication over general Malaga turbulence channels with pointing error

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2017-09-21

    This work investigates the end-to-end performance of a free space optical amplify-and-forward (AF) channel-state-information (CSI)-assisted relaying system using heterodyne detection over Malaga turbulence channels at the presence of pointing error employing rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation (R-QAM). More specifically, we present exact closed-form expressions for average bit-error rate for adaptive/non-adaptive modulation, achievable spectral efficiency, and ergodic capacity by utilizing generalized power series of Meijer\\'s G-function. Moreover, asymptotic closed form expressions are provided to validate our work at high power regime. In addition, all the presented analytical results are illustrated using a selected set of numerical results. Moreover, we applied the bisection method to find the optimum beam width for the proposed FSO system.

  12. Approximate Fixed Point Theorems for the Class of Almost S-KKM𝒞 Mappings in Abstract Convex Uniform Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Huei Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a concept of abstract convexity to define the almost S-KKM𝒞 property, al-S-KKM𝒞(X,Y family, and almost Φ-spaces. We get some new approximate fixed point theorems and fixed point theorems in almost Φ-spaces. Our results extend some results of other authors.

  13. Boundary stress tensor and asymptotically AdS3 non-Einstein spaces at the chiral point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribet, Gaston; Goya, Andres; Leston, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Chiral gravity admits asymptotically AdS 3 solutions that are not locally equivalent to AdS 3 ; meaning that solutions do exist which, while obeying the strong boundary conditions usually imposed in general relativity, happen not to be Einstein spaces. In topologically massive gravity (TMG), the existence of non-Einstein solutions is particularly connected to the question about the role played by complex saddle points in the Euclidean path integral. Consequently, studying (the existence of) nonlocally AdS 3 solutions to chiral gravity is relevant to understanding the quantum theory. Here, we discuss a special family of nonlocally AdS 3 solutions to chiral gravity. In particular, we show that such solutions persist when one deforms the theory by adding the higher-curvature terms of the so-called new massive gravity. Moreover, the addition of higher-curvature terms to the gravity action introduces new nonlocally AdS 3 solutions that have no analogues in TMG. Both stationary and time-dependent, axially symmetric solutions that asymptote AdS 3 space without being locally equivalent to it appear. Defining the boundary stress tensor for the full theory, we show that these non-Einstein geometries have associated vanishing conserved charges.

  14. Calculation programs as a didactic generator of the discipline “Fundamentals of rocket and space techniques”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin P. Baslyk

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of teaching the subject “Fundamentals of rocket and space techniques” was suggested in the paper. This method is using the specialized calculation programs as a didactic tool for forming the educational material not only for practical training, but for the theoretical course too. A brief review of the educational literature on rocket and space techniques, published over the past decades was made. Organizational and methodological problems, associated with the teaching discipline are indicated: to define the educational material volume and content, the need to establish interdisciplinary connections, the search of tasks, which have numerical initial data and solution.The overview of pedagogical technologies and the requirements for modern didactic tools is made. On the basis of this analysis the principles of developing a new didactic tool are formulated. The educational technology with the educational process formation on the ahead basis is used. The knowledge is represented in a collapsed form. The combination of procedures for modeling and analysis of the knowledge is realized. The visualization of knowledge is achieved by considering of numerical illustration. The inductive synthesis and deductive analysis are used as psychological and pedagogical methods, as well as the formation of problematic situations.Three specialized calculation programs are used in the implementation of this didactic tool. The programs are: TERRA (B.Trusov – the calculation of chemical and phase equilibrium of multicomponent systems; RK1 (N.Generalov – the calculation of flight characteristics and geometrical parameters of the single-stage ballistic missile with liquid rocket engine; TRIJ1 (N.Generalov – the calculation of trajectory for leading out the payload of the single-stage ballistic missile. The study of the subject begins with the programs interfaces studying and tests performing. After that, the content of programs TERRA, RK1 and TRIJ1

  15. Calculations on the development in space and time of the temperature field around a repository of medium and high active wastes in a salt formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delisle, G.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of nuclear waste disposal of th of the Federal Republic of Germany calls for the burial of the wastes within a salt formation. A small portion of the wastes will generate heat after the disposal procedure. A temperature rise within the salt formation, in space and time limited, will be the consequence. The temperature change at any point in the near or far field of the disporal area can be calculated with the aid of numerical models. The thermal parameters representative for the bulk material of the Zechstein formation in NW-Germany, on which the calculations are based, will be discussed in detail. The interrelation between the concentration of heat producing wastes in the disposal field and the maximum average temperature in the salt formation will be treated. By defining numerical models, which are based on assumed shapes of a salt dome and a disposal area, the temperature development in the near and far field of a nuclear repository are shown. (orig.) [de

  16. Evaluation of magnetic helicity density in the wave number domain using multi-point measurements in space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We develop an estimator for the magnetic helicity density, a measure of the spiral geometry of magnetic field lines, in the wave number domain as a wave diagnostic tool based on multi-point measurements in space. The estimator is numerically tested with a synthetic data set and then applied to an observation of magnetic field fluctuations in the Earth foreshock region provided by the four-point measurements of the Cluster spacecraft. The energy and the magnetic helicity density are determined in the frequency and the wave number domain, which allows us to identify the wave properties in the plasma rest frame correcting for the Doppler shift. In the analyzed time interval, dominant wave components have parallel propagation to the mean magnetic field, away from the shock at about Alfvén speed and a left-hand spatial rotation sense of helicity with respect to the propagation direction, which means a right-hand temporal rotation sense of polarization. These wave properties are well explained by the right-hand resonant beam instability as the driving mechanism in the foreshock. Cluster observations allow therefore detailed comparisons with various theories of waves and instabilities.

  17. Study by electronic structure calculations of the radiation damage in the UO2 nuclear fuel: behaviour of the point defects and fission gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vathonne, Emerson

    2014-01-01

    Uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) is worldwide the most widely used fuel in nuclear plants in the world and in particular in pressurized water reactors (PWR). In-pile the fission of uranium nuclei creates fission products and point defects in the fuel. The understanding of the evolution of these radiation damages requires a multi-scale modelling approach of the nuclear fuel, from the scale of the pellet to the atomic scale. We used an electronic structure calculation method based on the density functional theory (DFT) to model radiation damage in UO 2 at the atomic scale. A Hubbard-type Coulomb interaction term is added to the standard DFT formalism to take into account the strong correlations of the 5f electrons in UO 2 . This method is used to study point defects with various charge states and the incorporation and diffusion of krypton in uranium dioxide. This study allowed us to obtain essential data for higher scale models but also to interpret experimental results. In parallel of this study, three ways to improve the state of the art of electronic structure calculations of UO 2 have been explored: the consideration of the spin-orbit coupling neglected in current point defect calculations, the application of functionals allowing one to take into account the non-local interactions such as van der Waals interactions important for rare gases and the use of the Dynamical Mean Field Theory combined to the DFT method in order to take into account the dynamical effects in the 5f electron correlations. (author) [fr

  18. Design of a software for calculating isoelectric point of a polypeptide according to their net charge using the graphical programming language LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Glomen

    2018-01-01

    A software to calculate the net charge and to predict the isoelectric point (pI) of a polypeptide is developed in this work using the graphical programming language LabVIEW. Through this instrument the net charges of the ionizable residues of the polypeptide chains of the proteins are calculated at different pH values, tabulated, pI is predicted and an Excel (-xls) type file is generated. In this work, the experimental values of the pIs (pI) of different proteins are compared with the values of the pIs (pI) calculated graphically, achieving a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.934746 which represents a good reliability for a p program can constitute an instrument applicable in the laboratory, facilitating the calculation to graduate students and junior researchers. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(1):39-46, 2018. © 2017 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Comparison between airborne pollution measurement and calculation at 14 measuring points in the Federal State of Brandenburg; Vergleich Immissionsmessung - Immissionsberechnung fuer 14 verkehrsnahe Messpunkte im Land Brandenburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, U. [Landesumweltamt Brandenburg, Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Immissionsschutz; Schierbaum, I. [Landesumweltamt Brandenburg, Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Immissionsschutz

    1997-02-01

    Airborne pollution measurements for the pollutants benzene and soot were carried out at 14 inner-city measuring points, close to traffic, in the Federal State of Brandenburg, using a distribution model for ideal build-up streets (CPB model) and a model assuming missing fringe buildings (Gauss model). The calculated annual mean values were compared with the measured annual mean values. Benzene: The annual mean values calculated with the help of the CPB model diverged from the measured annual mean values by {+-}25%, apart from one exception. Soot: The calculated annual mean values were always lower than the measured annual mean values. Emission-sources not considered in the calculation (tyre abrasion, secondary dust) are assumed to be the main cause for this difference. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wurden an 14 innerstaedtischen verkehrsnahen Messpunkten im Land Brandenburg mit einem Ausbreitungsmodell fuer ideale Strassenschluchten (CPB-Modell) und einem Modell unter der Annahme fehlender Randbebauung (Gauss-Modell) Immissionsberechnungen fuer die Schadstoffe Benzol und Russ durchgefuehrt. Benzol: Die mittels CPB-Modell berechneten Jahresmittelwerte wichen bis auf eine Ausnahme maximal um {+-}25% von den Jahresmitteln der Messergebnisse ab. Russ: Die berechneten Jahremittel wiesen stets geringere Werte als die Jahresmittelwerte der Messung auf. Als Hauptursache fuer diese Differenz werden Emissionsquellen vermutet, die nicht bei der Berechnung beruecksichtigt wurden (Reifenabrieb, Sekundaerstaub). (orig.)

  20. The structure and properties of vacancies in Si nano-crystals calculated by real space pseudopotential methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, S.P.; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The structure and properties of vacancies in a 2 nm Si nano-crystal are studied using a real space density functional theory/pseudopotential method. It is observed that a vacancy's electronic properties and energy of formation are directly related to the local symmetry of the vacancy site. The formation energy for vacancies and Frenkel pair are calculated. It is found that both defects have lower energy in smaller crystals. In a 2 nm nano-crystal the energy to form a Frenkel pair is 1.7 eV and the energy to form a vacancy is no larger than 2.3 eV. The energy barrier for vacancy diffusion is examined via a nudged elastic band algorithm

  1. On the Calculation of Quantum Mechanical Ground States from Classical Geodesic Motion on Certain Spaces of Constant Negative Curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1989-01-01

    We consider geodesic motion on three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of constant negative curvature, topologically equivalent to S x ]0,1[, S a compact surface of genus two. To those trajectories which are bounded and recurrent in both directions of the time evolution a fractal limit set is associated whose Hausdorff dimension is intimately connected with the quantum mechanical energy ground state, determined by the Schrodinger operator on the manifold. We give a rather detailed and pictorial description of the hyperbolic spaces we have in mind, discuss various aspects of classical and quantum mechanical motion on them as far as they are needed to establish the connection between energy ground state and Hausdorff dimension and give finally some examples of ground state calculations in terms of Hausdorff dimensions of limit sets of classical trajectories.

  2. Calculating the flow of two-phase mixture in the ring space of pump-compressor tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R S; Dadash-zade, M A

    1979-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for calculating tension deformation in pipelines manufactured from elastic material. This method takes into consideration the constructed pipeline weight with regard to both air and water suspension. A linear solution to these equations is found based on the assumption that the horizontal tube projection is equal to the tube length. A special test bench was constructed for measuring the actual gas content and pressure loss resulting from friction in components such as ejector-mixers, gas meters, separators, centrifugal pumps and gas air lines. The research results indicate that during very small expenditures of air in the ring space, small bubbles rise to the surface and cause gas charges. The air goes on to fill the ring area and, together with the mixture of bubbles, becomes non-opaque. Following this, the entire structure transfers over to a rachidal regime.

  3. On the calculation of quantum mechanical ground states from classical geodesic motion on certain spaces of constant negative curvature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschitz, R.

    1989-01-01

    We consider geodesic motion on three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds of constant negative curvature, topologically equivalent to S x ]0,1[, S a compact surface of genus two. To those trajectories which are recurrent in both directions of the time evolution t → +∞, t → -∞ a fractal limit set is associated whose Hausdorff dimension is intimately connected with the quantum mechanical energy ground state, determined by the Schroedinger operator on the manifold. We give a rather detailed and pictorial description of the hyperbolic spaces we have in mind, discuss various aspects of classical and quantum mechanical motion on them as far as they are needed to establish the connection between energy ground state and Hausdorff dimension and give finally some examples of ground state calculations in terms of Hausdorff dimensions of limit sets of classical trajectories. (orig.)

  4. Molecular recognition in a diverse set of protein-ligand interactions studied with molecular dynamics simulations and end-point free energy calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liwei; Hurley, Thomas D; Meroueh, Samy O

    2013-10-28

    End-point free energy calculations using MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA provide a detailed understanding of molecular recognition in protein-ligand interactions. The binding free energy can be used to rank-order protein-ligand structures in virtual screening for compound or target identification. Here, we carry out free energy calculations for a diverse set of 11 proteins bound to 14 small molecules using extensive explicit-solvent MD simulations. The structure of these complexes was previously solved by crystallography and their binding studied with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data enabling direct comparison to the MM-GBSA and MM-PBSA calculations. Four MM-GBSA and three MM-PBSA calculations reproduced the ITC free energy within 1 kcal·mol(-1) highlighting the challenges in reproducing the absolute free energy from end-point free energy calculations. MM-GBSA exhibited better rank-ordering with a Spearman ρ of 0.68 compared to 0.40 for MM-PBSA with dielectric constant (ε = 1). An increase in ε resulted in significantly better rank-ordering for MM-PBSA (ρ = 0.91 for ε = 10), but larger ε significantly reduced the contributions of electrostatics, suggesting that the improvement is due to the nonpolar and entropy components, rather than a better representation of the electrostatics. The SVRKB scoring function applied to MD snapshots resulted in excellent rank-ordering (ρ = 0.81). Calculations of the configurational entropy using normal-mode analysis led to free energies that correlated significantly better to the ITC free energy than the MD-based quasi-harmonic approach, but the computed entropies showed no correlation with the ITC entropy. When the adaptation energy is taken into consideration by running separate simulations for complex, apo, and ligand (MM-PBSAADAPT), there is less agreement with the ITC data for the individual free energies, but remarkably good rank-ordering is observed (ρ = 0.89). Interestingly, filtering MD snapshots by prescoring

  5. Cost and sensitivity of restricted active-space calculations of metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinjari, Rahul V; Delcey, Mickaël G; Guo, Meiyuan; Odelius, Michael; Lundberg, Marcus

    2016-02-15

    The restricted active-space (RAS) approach can accurately simulate metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra of first-row transition metal complexes without the use of any fitting parameters. These characteristics provide a unique capability to identify unknown chemical species and to analyze their electronic structure. To find the best balance between cost and accuracy, the sensitivity of the simulated spectra with respect to the method variables has been tested for two models, [FeCl6 ](3-) and [Fe(CN)6 ](3-) . For these systems, the reference calculations give deviations, when compared with experiment, of ≤1 eV in peak positions, ≤30% for the relative intensity of major peaks, and ≤50% for minor peaks. When compared with these deviations, the simulated spectra are sensitive to the number of final states, the inclusion of dynamical correlation, and the ionization potential electron affinity shift, in addition to the selection of the active space. The spectra are less sensitive to the quality of the basis set and even a double-ζ basis gives reasonable results. The inclusion of dynamical correlation through second-order perturbation theory can be done efficiently using the state-specific formalism without correlating the core orbitals. Although these observations are not directly transferable to other systems, they can, together with a cost analysis, aid in the design of RAS models and help to extend the use of this powerful approach to a wider range of transition metal systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Self-consistent DFT +U method for real-space time-dependent density functional theory calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancogne-Dejean, Nicolas; Oliveira, Micael J. T.; Rubio, Angel

    2017-12-01

    We implemented various DFT+U schemes, including the Agapito, Curtarolo, and Buongiorno Nardelli functional (ACBN0) self-consistent density-functional version of the DFT +U method [Phys. Rev. X 5, 011006 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevX.5.011006] within the massively parallel real-space time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) code octopus. We further extended the method to the case of the calculation of response functions with real-time TDDFT+U and to the description of noncollinear spin systems. The implementation is tested by investigating the ground-state and optical properties of various transition-metal oxides, bulk topological insulators, and molecules. Our results are found to be in good agreement with previously published results for both the electronic band structure and structural properties. The self-consistent calculated values of U and J are also in good agreement with the values commonly used in the literature. We found that the time-dependent extension of the self-consistent DFT+U method yields improved optical properties when compared to the empirical TDDFT+U scheme. This work thus opens a different theoretical framework to address the nonequilibrium properties of correlated systems.

  7. A Monte Carlo simulation framework for electron beam dose calculations using Varian phase space files for TrueBeam Linacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anna; Sawkey, Daren; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Qiuwen

    2015-05-01

    To develop a framework for accurate electron Monte Carlo dose calculation. In this study, comprehensive validations of vendor provided electron beam phase space files for Varian TrueBeam Linacs against measurement data are presented. In this framework, the Monte Carlo generated phase space files were provided by the vendor and used as input to the downstream plan-specific simulations including jaws, electron applicators, and water phantom computed in the EGSnrc environment. The phase space files were generated based on open field commissioning data. A subset of electron energies of 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV and open and collimated field sizes 3 × 3, 4 × 4, 5 × 5, 6 × 6, 10 × 10, 15 × 15, 20 × 20, and 25 × 25 cm(2) were evaluated. Measurements acquired with a CC13 cylindrical ionization chamber and electron diode detector and simulations from this framework were compared for a water phantom geometry. The evaluation metrics include percent depth dose, orthogonal and diagonal profiles at depths R100, R50, Rp, and Rp+ for standard and extended source-to-surface distances (SSD), as well as cone and cut-out output factors. Agreement for the percent depth dose and orthogonal profiles between measurement and Monte Carlo was generally within 2% or 1 mm. The largest discrepancies were observed within depths of 5 mm from phantom surface. Differences in field size, penumbra, and flatness for the orthogonal profiles at depths R100, R50, and Rp were within 1 mm, 1 mm, and 2%, respectively. Orthogonal profiles at SSDs of 100 and 120 cm showed the same level of agreement. Cone and cut-out output factors agreed well with maximum differences within 2.5% for 6 MeV and 1% for all other energies. Cone output factors at extended SSDs of 105, 110, 115, and 120 cm exhibited similar levels of agreement. We have presented a Monte Carlo simulation framework for electron beam dose calculations for Varian TrueBeam Linacs. Electron beam energies of 6 to 20 MeV for open and collimated

  8. Shielding calculations and collective dose estimations with the point-kernel-code VISIPLAN registered for the example of the project ZENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehlke, S.; Niegoth, H.

    2012-01-01

    In the nuclear power plant Leibstadt (KKL) during the next year large components will be dismantled and stored for final disposal within the interim storage facility ZENT at the NPP site. Before construction of ZENT appropriate estimations of the local dose rate inside and outside the building and the collective dose for the normal operation have to be performed. The shielding calculations are based on the properties of the stored components and radiation sources and on the concepts for working place requirements. The installation of control and monitoring areas will depend on these calculations. For the determination of the shielding potential of concrete walls and steel doors with the defined boundary conditions point-kernel codes like MICROSHIELd registered are used. Complex problems cannot be modeled with this code. Therefore the point-kernel code VISIPLAN registered was developed for the determination of the local dose distribution functions in 3D models. The possibility of motion sequence inputs allows an optimization of collective dose estimations for the operational phases of a nuclear facility.

  9. Identifying space for offshore wind energy in the North Sea. Consequences of scenario calculations for interactions with other marine uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongbloed, R.H.; Wal, J.T. van der; Lindeboom, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for renewable energy drives the development of offshore wind energy (OWE) leading to competing claims with other human and nature related uses of the North Sea. This paper investigates possibilities to identify space for new OWE while minimising effects on other uses. An inventory is made of the major uses in the Central and Southern North Sea, including the expected development towards 2030. The spatial distribution of non-wind uses is determined as well as the possibilities for differentiation based on density, economic value or nature value and co-existence. These possibilities are translated into calculation rules quantifying the relative importance. These calculation rules have been incorporated in a Decision Support System (DSS) to analyse how the priority of OWE development could impact non-wind uses. In a low OWE priority scenario consequences for other use was found to be very limited, with fisheries and wildlife affected most. In a high OWE priority scenario a considerable amount of OWE may be developed with substantial claims on sand extraction and military use areas and a shift towards higher value categories for shipping and fisheries. Relocation and co-existence of uses are important means to reduce the impact of increased OWE development. - Highlights: • A new method for minimising effects of new Offshore Wind Energy on other uses. • Calculation rules are based on density, economic or nature values of major marine activities. • Most activities are concentrated near the coast and expected to increase. • Increasing priority for OWE claims more and higher value area from other uses. • Relocation and co-use of areas reduce negative consequences

  10. Comparisons between a new point kernel-based scheme and the infinite plane source assumption method for radiation calculation of deposited airborne radionuclides from nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaole; Efthimiou, George; Wang, Yan; Huang, Meng

    2018-04-01

    Radiation from the deposited radionuclides is indispensable information for environmental impact assessment of nuclear power plants and emergency management during nuclear accidents. Ground shine estimation is related to multiple physical processes, including atmospheric dispersion, deposition, soil and air radiation shielding. It still remains unclear that whether the normally adopted "infinite plane" source assumption for the ground shine calculation is accurate enough, especially for the area with highly heterogeneous deposition distribution near the release point. In this study, a new ground shine calculation scheme, which accounts for both the spatial deposition distribution and the properties of air and soil layers, is developed based on point kernel method. Two sets of "detector-centered" grids are proposed and optimized for both the deposition and radiation calculations to better simulate the results measured by the detectors, which will be beneficial for the applications such as source term estimation. The evaluation against the available data of Monte Carlo methods in the literature indicates that the errors of the new scheme are within 5% for the key radionuclides in nuclear accidents. The comparisons between the new scheme and "infinite plane" assumption indicate that the assumption is tenable (relative errors within 20%) for the area located 1 km away from the release source. Within 1 km range, the assumption mainly causes errors for wet deposition and the errors are independent of rain intensities. The results suggest that the new scheme should be adopted if the detectors are within 1 km from the source under the stable atmosphere (classes E and F), or the detectors are within 500 m under slightly unstable (class C) or neutral (class D) atmosphere. Otherwise, the infinite plane assumption is reasonable since the relative errors induced by this assumption are within 20%. The results here are only based on theoretical investigations. They should

  11. Stochastic LMP (Locational marginal price) calculation method in distribution systems to minimize loss and emission based on Shapley value and two-point estimate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad-Farsani, Ehsan; Agah, S.M.M.; Askarian-Abyaneh, Hossein; Abedi, Mehrdad; Hosseinian, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    LMP (Locational marginal price) calculation is a serious impediment in distribution operation when private DG (distributed generation) units are connected to the network. A novel policy is developed in this study to guide distribution company (DISCO) to exert its control over the private units when power loss and green-house gases emissions are minimized. LMP at each DG bus is calculated according to the contribution of the DG to the reduced amount of loss and emission. An iterative algorithm which is based on the Shapley value method is proposed to allocate loss and emission reduction. The proposed algorithm will provide a robust state estimation tool for DISCOs in the next step of operation. The state estimation tool provides the decision maker with the ability to exert its control over private DG units when loss and emission are minimized. Also, a stochastic approach based on the PEM (point estimate method) is employed to capture uncertainty in the market price and load demand. The proposed methodology is applied to a realistic distribution network, and efficiency and accuracy of the method are verified. - Highlights: • Reduction of the loss and emission at the same time. • Fair allocation of loss and emission reduction. • Estimation of the system state using an iterative algorithm. • Ability of DISCOs to control DG units via the proposed policy. • Modeling the uncertainties to calculate the stochastic LMP.

  12. High-resolution wave number spectrum using multi-point measurements in space – the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Narita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A new analysis method is presented that provides a high-resolution power spectrum in a broad wave number domain based on multi-point measurements. The analysis technique is referred to as the Multi-point Signal Resonator (MSR and it benefits from Capon's minimum variance method for obtaining the proper power spectral density of the signal as well as the MUSIC algorithm (Multiple Signal Classification for considerably reducing the noise part in the spectrum. The mathematical foundation of the analysis method is presented and it is applied to synthetic data as well as Cluster observations of the interplanetary magnetic field. Using the MSR technique for Cluster data we find a wave in the solar wind propagating parallel to the mean magnetic field with relatively small amplitude, which is not identified by the Capon spectrum. The Cluster data analysis shows the potential of the MSR technique for studying waves and turbulence using multi-point measurements.

  13. Printing line/space patterns on nonplanar substrates using a digital micromirror device-based point-array scanning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hung-Fei; Kao, Guan-Hsuan; Zhu, Liang-Xiu; Hung, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yu-Hsin

    2018-02-01

    This study used a digital micromirror device (DMD) to produce point-array patterns and employed a self-developed optical system to define line-and-space patterns on nonplanar substrates. First, field tracing was employed to analyze the aerial images of the lithographic system, which comprised an optical system and the DMD. Multiobjective particle swarm optimization was then applied to determine the spot overlapping rate used. The objective functions were set to minimize linewidth and maximize image log slope, through which the dose of the exposure agent could be effectively controlled and the quality of the nonplanar lithography could be enhanced. Laser beams with 405-nm wavelength were employed as the light source. Silicon substrates coated with photoresist were placed on a nonplanar translation stage. The DMD was used to produce lithographic patterns, during which the parameters were analyzed and optimized. The optimal delay time-sequence combinations were used to scan images of the patterns. Finally, an exposure linewidth of less than 10 μm was successfully achieved using the nonplanar lithographic process.

  14. Density functional theory calculations of the lowest energy quintet and triplet states of model hemes: role of functional, basis set, and zero-point energy corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khvostichenko, Daria; Choi, Andrew; Boulatov, Roman

    2008-04-24

    We investigated the effect of several computational variables, including the choice of the basis set, application of symmetry constraints, and zero-point energy (ZPE) corrections, on the structural parameters and predicted ground electronic state of model 5-coordinate hemes (iron(II) porphines axially coordinated by a single imidazole or 2-methylimidazole). We studied the performance of B3LYP and B3PW91 with eight Pople-style basis sets (up to 6-311+G*) and B97-1, OLYP, and TPSS functionals with 6-31G and 6-31G* basis sets. Only hybrid functionals B3LYP, B3PW91, and B97-1 reproduced the quintet ground state of the model hemes. With a given functional, the choice of the basis set caused up to 2.7 kcal/mol variation of the quintet-triplet electronic energy gap (DeltaEel), in several cases, resulting in the inversion of the sign of DeltaEel. Single-point energy calculations with triple-zeta basis sets of the Pople (up to 6-311G++(2d,2p)), Ahlrichs (TZVP and TZVPP), and Dunning (cc-pVTZ) families showed the same trend. The zero-point energy of the quintet state was approximately 1 kcal/mol lower than that of the triplet, and accounting for ZPE corrections was crucial for establishing the ground state if the electronic energy of the triplet state was approximately 1 kcal/mol less than that of the quintet. Within a given model chemistry, effects of symmetry constraints and of a "tense" structure of the iron porphine fragment coordinated to 2-methylimidazole on DeltaEel were limited to 0.3 kcal/mol. For both model hemes the best agreement with crystallographic structural data was achieved with small 6-31G and 6-31G* basis sets. Deviation of the computed frequency of the Fe-Im stretching mode from the experimental value with the basis set decreased in the order: nonaugmented basis sets, basis sets with polarization functions, and basis sets with polarization and diffuse functions. Contraction of Pople-style basis sets (double-zeta or triple-zeta) affected the results

  15. Symplectic approach to calculation of magnetic field line trajectories in physical space with realistic magnetic geometry in divertor tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2008-12-01

    A new approach to integration of magnetic field lines in divertor tokamaks is proposed. In this approach, an analytic equilibrium generating function (EGF) is constructed in natural canonical coordinates (ψ,θ) from experimental data from a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium solver for a tokamak. ψ is the toroidal magnetic flux and θ is the poloidal angle. Natural canonical coordinates (ψ,θ,φ) can be transformed to physical position (R,Z,φ) using a canonical transformation. (R,Z,φ) are cylindrical coordinates. Another canonical transformation is used to construct a symplectic map for integration of magnetic field lines. Trajectories of field lines calculated from this symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can be transformed to trajectories in real physical space. Unlike in magnetic coordinates [O. Kerwin, A. Punjabi, and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072504 (2008)], the symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can integrate trajectories across the separatrix surface, and at the same time, give trajectories in physical space. Unlike symplectic maps in physical coordinates (x,y) or (R,Z), the continuous analog of a symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates does not distort trajectories in toroidal planes intervening the discrete map. This approach is applied to the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The EGF for the DIII-D gives quite an accurate representation of equilibrium magnetic surfaces close to the separatrix surface. This new approach is applied to demonstrate the sensitivity of stochastic broadening using a set of perturbations that generically approximate the size of the field errors and statistical topological noise expected in a poloidally diverted tokamak. Plans for future application of this approach are discussed.

  16. Symplectic approach to calculation of magnetic field line trajectories in physical space with realistic magnetic geometry in divertor tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2008-01-01

    A new approach to integration of magnetic field lines in divertor tokamaks is proposed. In this approach, an analytic equilibrium generating function (EGF) is constructed in natural canonical coordinates (ψ,θ) from experimental data from a Grad-Shafranov equilibrium solver for a tokamak. ψ is the toroidal magnetic flux and θ is the poloidal angle. Natural canonical coordinates (ψ,θ,φ) can be transformed to physical position (R,Z,φ) using a canonical transformation. (R,Z,φ) are cylindrical coordinates. Another canonical transformation is used to construct a symplectic map for integration of magnetic field lines. Trajectories of field lines calculated from this symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can be transformed to trajectories in real physical space. Unlike in magnetic coordinates [O. Kerwin, A. Punjabi, and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 072504 (2008)], the symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates can integrate trajectories across the separatrix surface, and at the same time, give trajectories in physical space. Unlike symplectic maps in physical coordinates (x,y) or (R,Z), the continuous analog of a symplectic map in natural canonical coordinates does not distort trajectories in toroidal planes intervening the discrete map. This approach is applied to the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. E. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)]. The EGF for the DIII-D gives quite an accurate representation of equilibrium magnetic surfaces close to the separatrix surface. This new approach is applied to demonstrate the sensitivity of stochastic broadening using a set of perturbations that generically approximate the size of the field errors and statistical topological noise expected in a poloidally diverted tokamak. Plans for future application of this approach are discussed.

  17. Shell model calculation of the nuclear moments of 9Li in a 2hω space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.; Meder, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    A recent measurement of the magnitude of quadrupole moment of the ground state of 9 Li, Q( 9 Li), finds that Vertical BarQ( 9 Li)/Q( 7 Li)Vertical Bar = 0.88 +- 0.18. A variety of shell-model calculations, using p-shell wave functions, predict Q( 9 Li)approx. =1.3Q( 7 Li) and yield quadrupole moments whose magnitudes are approximately half the experimental values. Agreement between theory and experiment is improved when effective charges are used, although the results are still not completely satisfactory. A calculation of the wave functions of the low-lying states of 7 Li and 9 Li using a modified version of the Sussex matrix elements in a model space, including all 0hω and 2hω excitations, has been performed. The resulting value for Q( 9 Li) was -3.46 fm 2 as ray transitions in /sup 52,53/Cr and /sup 54,55/Mn have been observed using 7 Li( 51 V,xn yp zα γ) fusion-evaporation reactions and γ-particle coincidence techniques. The experiment involved the same reaction at the same center-of-mass energy as the earlier work of Poletti et al., but with target and projectile interchanged. In the present work, eight additional transitions have been identified as occurring in 52 Cr. This provides corroboration of results obtained more recently via 50 Ti(α,2nγ) 52 Cr reaction studies. A simple, efficient approach to the spectroscopy of weakly populated nuclear states which provides for unambiguous isotopic assignments is thus demonstrated

  18. Electronic structure and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene calculated via time evolution of states in real space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, H. Anh; Do, V. Nam

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the electronic and optical properties of twisted bilayer graphene with arbitrary twist angles θ . Our results are based on a method of evolving in time quantum states in lattice space. We propose an efficient scheme of sampling lattice nodes that helps to reduce significantly computational cost, particularly for tiny twist angles. We demonstrate the continuous variation of the density of states and the optical conductivity with respect to the twist angle. It indicates that the commensurability between the two graphene layers does not play an essential role in governing the electronic and optical properties. We point out that, for the twist angles roughly in the range 0 .1∘energy exhibits the typical W shape with a small peak locating at the Fermi energy. This peak is formed as the merging of two van Hove peaks and reflects the appearance of states strongly localized in the AA-like region of moiré zones. When decreasing the twist angle to zero, the W shape is gradually transformed to the U shape, which is seen as the behavior of the density of states in the limit of θ →0∘ .

  19. Standard Test Method for Calculation of Stagnation Enthalpy from Heat Transfer Theory and Experimental Measurements of Stagnation-Point Heat Transfer and Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the calculation from heat transfer theory of the stagnation enthalpy from experimental measurements of the stagnation-point heat transfer and stagnation pressure. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 A value of stagnation enthalpy can be obtained at the location in the stream where the model is tested. This value gives a consistent set of data, along with heat transfer and stagnation pressure, for ablation computations. 1.2.2 This computation of stagnation enthalpy does not require the measurement of any arc heater parameters. 1.3 Limitations and ConsiderationsThere are many factors that may contribute to an error using this type of approach to calculate stagnation enthalpy, including: 1.3.1 TurbulenceThe turbulence generated by adding energy to the stream may cause deviation from the laminar equilibrium heat transfer theory. 1.3.2 Equilibrium, Nonequilibrium, or Frozen State of GasThe reaction rates and expansions may be such that the gas is far from thermodynamic equilibrium. 1.3.3 Noncat...

  20. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Bing; Xue, Jia-Dan; Zheng, Xuming; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2014-01-01

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S 2 (A′), S 6 (A′), and S 7 (A′) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S 2 (A′), S 6 (A′), and S 7 (A′) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S 2 /S 1 ) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S 2 (A′) state: the radiative S 2,min → S 0 transition and the nonradiative S 2 → S 1 internal conversion via CI(S 2 /S 1 ). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S 1 /T 1 ) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated

  1. A new frequency-domain criterion for elimination of limit cycles in fixed-point state-space digital filters using saturation arithmetic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Vimal

    2007-01-01

    In [Singh V. Elimination of overflow oscillations in fixed-point state-space digital filters using saturation arithmetic. IEEE Trans Circ Syst 1990;37(6):814-8], a frequency-domain criterion for the suppression of limit cycles in fixed-point state-space digital filters using saturation overflow arithmetic was presented. The passivity property owing to the presence of multiple saturation nonlinearities was exploited therein. In the present paper, a new notion of passivity, namely, that involving the state variables is considered, thereby arriving at an entirely new frequency-domain criterion for the suppression of limit cycles in such filters

  2. A Unified Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links over Gamma-Gamma Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2013-11-13

    In this work, we present a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/direct detection as well as heterodyne detection). More specifically, we present unified exact closed-form expressions for the cumulative distribution function, the probability density function, the moment generating function, and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system, all in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. We then capitalize on these unified results to offer unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems, such as, the outage probability, the higher-order amount of fading (AF), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity, all in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions except for the higher-order AF that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we derive the asymptotic results for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of Meijer\\'s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer\\'s G function. We also derive new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  3. Some fixed point theorems for weakly compatible mappings in Non-Archimedean Menger probabilistic metric spaces via common limit range property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Chauhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we utilize the notion of common limit range property in Non-Archimedean Menger PM-spaces and prove some fixed point theorems for two pairs of weakly compatible mappings. Some illustrative examples are furnished to support our results. As an application to our main result, we present a common fixed point theorem for four finite families of self mappings. Our results improve and extend several known results existing in the literature.

  4. Anomalies in Ward identities revisited. Explicit calculation of the three point functions; Anomalias em identidades de Ward revisitadas. Calculo explicito das funcoes de tres pontos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalmolin, Fabricio Tronco

    2007-07-01

    others already performed within the same issue. In particular, in one of such investigation a pioneer and traditional reference has been revisited by using the alternative strategy mentioned above. In such study, a systematic treatment of purely fermionic one, two and three point functions, associated to scalar, pseudo-scalar, vector and axial-vector densities, has done. There, however, only the explicit expressions for one and two point functions were developed. The conclusions pointed out, in a very clear way, that the association between intrinsic ambiguities of the perturbative calculation and violations in symmetry properties is not consistent. At the same time, it was concluded that only in an investigation where the explicit forms for the three point functions involved are considered clean and sound conclusions can be extracted. This is due to the fact that, in the relevant symmetry properties, it is involved three ward identities and a low energy limit. This is precisely the main purpose of the present work: to promote a detailed investigation of the relations among green functions and ward identities, within the context of a model having only one specie of 1/2 spin fermionic field, that consider all the amplitudes having superficial degree of divergence higher than the logarithmic one, in a similar way as that made in the work of Gerstein and Jackiw, taking however the explicit form for the three point functions. This is one to get in the analysis, simultaneously, the ward identities and the low energy limits involved in the anomalous amplitudes as required by the Sutherland-Veltman theorem, in order to get an adequate understanding of the anomaly phenomena. We will show that our final results can be mapped in those found with the use of the Dimensional Regularization, in situation where this technique can be applied, or in those of Gerstein and Jackiw, however with conflicting interpretations. Finally, we will show that in the context of the adopted technique

  5. Van Allen Probes Science Gateway: Single-Point Access to Long-Term Radiation Belt Measurements and Space Weather Nowcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, G.; Barnes, R. J.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sotirelis, T.; Stephens, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Science Gateway gives single-point access to over 4.5 years of comprehensive wave and particle measurements from the Van Allen Probes NASA twin-spacecraft mission. The Gateway provides a set of visualization and data analysis tools including: HTML5-based interactive visualization of high-level data products from all instrument teams in the form of: line plots, orbital content plots, dynamical energy spectra, L-shell context plots (including two-spacecraft plotting), FFT spectra of wave data, solar wind and geomagnetic indices data, etc.; download custom multi-instrument CDF data files of selected data products; publication quality plots of digital data; combined orbit predicts for mission planning and coordination including: Van Allen Probes, MMS, THEMIS, Arase (ERG), Cluster, GOES, Geotail, FIREBIRD; magnetic footpoint calculator for coordination with LEO and ground-based assets; real-time computation and processing of empirical magnetic field models - computation of magnetic ephemeris, computation of adiabatic invariants. Van Allen Probes is the first spacecraft mission to provide a nowcast of the radiation environment in the heart of the radiation belts, where the radiation levels are the highest and most dangerous for spacecraft operations. For this purpose, all instruments continuously broadcast a subset of their science data in real time. Van Allen Probes partners with four foreign institutions who operate ground stations that receive the broadcast: Korea (KASI), the Czech republic (CAS), Argentina (CONAE), and Brazil (INPE). The SpWx broadcast is then collected at APL and delivered to the community via the Science Gateway.

  6. Using Paraffin with -10 deg C to 10 deg C Melting Point for Payload Thermal Energy Storage in SpaceX Dragon Trunk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    A concept of using paraffin wax phase change material (PCM) with a melting point between -10 deg C and 10 deg C for payload thermal energy storage in a Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) Dragon trunk is presented. It overcomes the problem of limited heater power available to a payload with significant radiators when the Dragon is berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). It stores adequate thermal energy to keep a payload warm without power for 6 hours during the transfer from the Dragon to an ExPRESS logistics carrier (ELC) on the ISS.

  7. The project of documentary space 'ExploRe' Opened pluri-disciplinary exploration of reversibility: multiple-point of view access to exploratory works of Andra on reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahier, Jean-Pierre; Desfriches, Orelie; Zacklad, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    The authors present a digital space (a web site - 'ExploRe') which would allows a community to share a set of pluri-disciplinary information items concerning reversibility, and in which the community members describe the items by using attributes and themes belonging to different points of view

  8. Calculation of absorbed dose and biological effectiveness from photonuclear reactions in a bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, I; Brahme, A; Andreo, P; Gudowski, W; Kierkegaard, J

    1999-09-01

    The absorbed dose due to photonuclear reactions in soft tissue, lung, breast, adipose tissue and cortical bone has been evaluated for a scanned bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV from a racetrack accelerator. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B was used to determine the photon source spectrum from the bremsstrahlung target and to simulate the transport of photons through the treatment head and the patient. Photonuclear particle production in tissue was calculated numerically using the energy distributions of photons derived from the Monte Carlo simulations. The transport of photoneutrons in the patient and the photoneutron absorbed dose to tissue were determined using MCNP4B; the absorbed dose due to charged photonuclear particles was calculated numerically assuming total energy absorption in tissue voxels of 1 cm3. The photonuclear absorbed dose to soft tissue, lung, breast and adipose tissue is about (0.11-0.12)+/-0.05% of the maximum photon dose at a depth of 5.5 cm. The absorbed dose to cortical bone is about 45% larger than that to soft tissue. If the contributions from all photoparticles (n, p, 3He and 4He particles and recoils of the residual nuclei) produced in the soft tissue and the accelerator, and from positron radiation and gammas due to induced radioactivity and excited states of the nuclei, are taken into account the total photonuclear absorbed dose delivered to soft tissue is about 0.15+/-0.08% of the maximum photon dose. It has been estimated that the RBE of the photon beam of 50 MV acceleration potential is approximately 2% higher than that of conventional 60Co radiation.

  9. Calculation of absorbed dose and biological effectiveness from photonuclear reactions in a bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudowska, I.; Brahme, A.; Andreo, P.; Gudowski, W.; Kierkegaard, J.

    1999-01-01

    The absorbed dose due to photonuclear reactions in soft tissue, lung, breast, adipose tissue and cortical bone has been evaluated for a scanned bremsstrahlung beam of end point 50 MeV from a racetrack accelerator. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4B was used to determine the photon source spectrum from the bremsstrahlung target and to simulate the transport of photons through the treatment head and the patient. Photonuclear particle production in tissue was calculated numerically using the energy distributions of photons derived from the Monte Carlo simulations. The transport of photoneutrons in the patient and the photoneutron absorbed dose to tissue were determined using MCNP4B; the absorbed dose due to charged photonuclear particles was calculated numerically assuming total energy absorption in tissue voxels of 1 cm 3 . The photonuclear absorbed dose to soft tissue, lung, breast and adipose tissue is about (0.11-0.12)±0.05% of the maximum photon dose at a depth of 5.5 cm. The absorbed dose to cortical bone is about 45% larger than that to soft tissue. If the contributions from all photoparticles (n, p, 3 He and 4 He particles and recoils of the residual nuclei) produced in the soft tissue and the accelerator, and from positron radiation and gammas due to induced radioactivity and excited states of the nuclei, are taken into account the total photonuclear absorbed dose delivered to soft tissue is about 0.15±0.08% of the maximum photon dose. It has been estimated that the RBE of the photon beam of 50 MV acceleration potential is approximately 2% higher than that of conventional 60 Co radiation. (author)

  10. A Small Mission Concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 Point for Innovative Solar, Heliospheric and Space Weather Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J.-C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a concept for a small mission to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science. The proposed INvestigation of Solar-Terrestrial Activity aNd Transients (INSTANT) mission is designed to identify how solar coronal magnetic fields drive eruptions, mass transport and particle acceleration that impact the Earth and the heliosphere. INSTANT is the first mission designed to (1) obtain measurements of coronal magnetic fields from space and (2) determine coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics with unparalleled accuracy. Thanks to innovative instrumentation at a vantage point that provides the most suitable perspective view of the Sun-Earth system, INSTANT would uniquely track the whole chain of fundamental processes driving space weather at Earth. We present the science requirements, payload and mission profile that fulfill ambitious science objectives within small mission programmatic boundary conditions.

  11. On the Performance of Free-Space Optical Systems over Generalized Atmospheric Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-03-01

    Generalized fading has been an imminent part and parcel of wireless communications. It not only characterizes the wireless channel appropriately but also allows its utilization for further performance analysis of various types of wireless communication systems. Under the umbrella of generalized fading channels, a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link over the Malaga (M) atmospheric turbulence channel that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. indirect modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection) is presented. Specifically, unified exact closed-form expressions for the probability density function (PDF), the cumulative distribution function (CDF), the moment generating function (MGF), and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system are presented, all in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Then capitalizing on these unified results, unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems are offered, such as, the outage probability (OP), the higher-order amount of fading (AF), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where closed-form lower bound results are presented), all in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions except for the higher-order AF that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, the asymptotic results are derived for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer\\'s G function. Furthermore, new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes are derived in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are

  12. Inertially Stabilized Platforms for Precision Pointing Applications to Directed-Energy Weapons and Space-Based Lasers (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Negro, J; Griffin, S

    2006-01-01

    .... This article addresses directed-energy-weapon (DEW) precision pointing requirements and implementation alternatives in the context of strapdown and stable-platform inertial-reference technologies...

  13. Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4 : Calculated dehydrogenation enthalpy, including zero point energy, and the structure of the phonon spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marashdeh, A.; Frankcombe, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    The dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4 have been calculated using density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation level. Harmonic phonon zero point energy (ZPE) corrections have been included using Parlinski’s direct method. The

  14. Use of a Spreadsheet to Calculate the Net Charge of Peptides and Proteins as a Function of pH: An Alternative to Using "Canned" Programs to Estimate the Isoelectric Point of These Important Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    An approach is presented that utilizes a spreadsheet to allow students to explore different means of calculating and visualizing how the charge on peptides and proteins varies as a function of pH. In particular, the concept of isoelectric point is developed to allow students to compare the results of their spreadsheet calculations with those of…

  15. Fixed point theorems in locally convex spaces—the Schauder mapping method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cobzaş

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In the appendix to the book by F. F. Bonsal, Lectures on Some Fixed Point Theorems of Functional Analysis (Tata Institute, Bombay, 1962 a proof by Singbal of the Schauder-Tychonoff fixed point theorem, based on a locally convex variant of Schauder mapping method, is included. The aim of this note is to show that this method can be adapted to yield a proof of Kakutani fixed point theorem in the locally convex case. For the sake of completeness we include also the proof of Schauder-Tychonoff theorem based on this method. As applications, one proves a theorem of von Neumann and a minimax result in game theory.

  16. Space- and time-resolved diagnostic of line emission from the separatrix region in JET X-point plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabert, P.; Breton, C.; DeMichelis, C.; Mattioli, M.; Ramette, J.; Saoutic, B.; Denne, B.; Giannella, R.; Gottardi, N.; Magyar, G.

    1989-01-01

    The SPEX GISMO VUV spectrometer installed on JET has appeared to be appropriate to study the impurities radiation during X-point operation. Preliminary results have been obtained with 2 of the 3 spectrometers. They concern mainly the light impurities emission, CIII, O VI in the vicinity of the X-point during the transition from L to H mode. The results are reported for both single X and double X discharges and future prospects are assessed. (author) 4 refs., 6 figs

  17. Can crawl space temperature and moisture conditions be calculated with a whole-building hygrothermal simulation tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Morelli, Martin; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2017-01-01

    of measurements was compared with simulations of temperature and moisture condition in the floor structure and crawl space. The measurements showed that the extra 50 mm insulation placed below the beams reduced moisture content in the beams below 20 weight% all year. A reasonable agreement between......The hygrothermal behaviour of an outdoor ventilated crawl space with two different designs of the floor structure was investigated. The first design had 250 mm insulation and visible wooden beams towards the crawl space. The second design had 300 mm insulation and no visible wooden beams. One year...... the measurements and simulations was found; however, the evaporation from the soil was a dominant parameter affecting the hygrothermal response in the crawl space and floor structure....

  18. Identification of Critical Design Points for the EAP of a Space-based Doppler Lidar Wind Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmitt, G. D.; Wood, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of making tropospheric wind measurements with a space-based Doppler lidar was studied by a number of agencies over the past 10-15 years. Currently NASA has a plan to launch such an instrument, the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), within the next decade. The design of the LAWS continues to undergo a series of iterations common to most instruments targeted for a space platform. In general, the constraints of available platform power, weight allowance, and project funds continue to change. With these changes the performance and design specifications also must change.

  19. Points of Transition: Understanding the Constructed Identities of L2 Learners/Users across Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawu, Anthony; Martin-Beltran, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Using sociocultural and poststructuralist theoretical lenses, this study examines the narrative construction of language-learner identity across time and space. We applied cross-narrative methodologies to analyze language-learning autobiographies and interview data from three English users who had recently transitioned to a U.S. context for…

  20. Calculation methods for estimating the prospects of a space experiment by means of impact by asteroid Apophis on the Moon surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrik, A. V.; Kazantsev, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    The problem of principal change of asteroid 99952 (Apophis) orbit is formulated. Aim of this change is the termination of asteroid motion in Solar system. Instead of the passive rescue tactics from asteroid threat, an option is proposed for using the asteroid for setting up a large-scale space experiment on the impact interaction of the asteroid with the Moon. The scientific and methodical apparatus for calculating the possibility of realization, searching and justification the scientific uses of this space experiment is considered.

  1. KINETIC-J: A computational kernel for solving the linearized Vlasov equation applied to calculations of the kinetic, configuration space plasma current for time harmonic wave electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David L.; Berry, Lee A.; Simpson, Adam B.; Younkin, Timothy R.

    2018-04-01

    We present the KINETIC-J code, a computational kernel for evaluating the linearized Vlasov equation with application to calculating the kinetic plasma response (current) to an applied time harmonic wave electric field. This code addresses the need for a configuration space evaluation of the plasma current to enable kinetic full-wave solvers for waves in hot plasmas to move beyond the limitations of the traditional Fourier spectral methods. We benchmark the kernel via comparison with the standard k →-space forms of the hot plasma conductivity tensor.

  2. A Unique Coupled Common Fixed Point Theorem for Symmetric (φ,ψ-Contractive Mappings in Ordered G-Metric Spaces with Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish the existence and uniqueness of coupled common fixed point for symmetric (φ,ψ-contractive mappings in the framework of ordered G-metric spaces. Present work extends, generalize, and enrich the recent results of Choudhury and Maity (2011, Nashine (2012, and Mohiuddine and Alotaibi (2012, thereby, weakening the involved contractive conditions. Our theoretical results are accompanied by suitable examples and an application to integral equations.

  3. Free-Electron Laser (FEL) Utilization in Space Applications (Ship-Borne Pointing Accuracy, Deep-Space Communications, and Orbital Debris Tracking)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    the energy to the target. From the stand point of weapon system considerations, the amount of available ammunition and the cost of running the...fired repeatedly for a minimal total cost . 7 Figure 1.3 FEL Efficiency. From [1] D. SHIP-BORNE EMPLOYMENT There are currently two primary possible...provided in [32]. This method requires three different geocentric vectors and their associated elevation angles with respect to the laser bore sight

  4. Phase space barriers and dividing surfaces in the absence of critical points of the potential energy: Application to roaming in ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauguière, Frédéric A. L., E-mail: frederic.mauguiere@bristol.ac.uk; Collins, Peter, E-mail: peter.collins@bristol.ac.uk; Wiggins, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.wiggins@mac.com [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Kramer, Zeb C., E-mail: zebcolterkramer@gmail.com; Ezra, Gregory S., E-mail: gse1@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Carpenter, Barry K., E-mail: carpenterb1@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Farantos, Stavros C., E-mail: farantos@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, and Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Iraklion 711 10, Crete (Greece)

    2016-02-07

    We examine the phase space structures that govern reaction dynamics in the absence of critical points on the potential energy surface. We show that in the vicinity of hyperbolic invariant tori, it is possible to define phase space dividing surfaces that are analogous to the dividing surfaces governing transition from reactants to products near a critical point of the potential energy surface. We investigate the problem of capture of an atom by a diatomic molecule and show that a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold exists at large atom-diatom distances, away from any critical points on the potential. This normally hyperbolic invariant manifold is the anchor for the construction of a dividing surface in phase space, which defines the outer or loose transition state governing capture dynamics. We present an algorithm for sampling an approximate capture dividing surface, and apply our methods to the recombination of the ozone molecule. We treat both 2 and 3 degrees of freedom models with zero total angular momentum. We have located the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold from which the orbiting (outer) transition state is constructed. This forms the basis for our analysis of trajectories for ozone in general, but with particular emphasis on the roaming trajectories.

  5. Increasing Update Rates in the Building Walkthrough System with Automatic Model-Space Subdivision and Potentially Visible Set Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    34 ACM Computing Surveys. 6(1): 1- 55. [Syzmanski85] Syzmanski, T. G. and C. J. V. Wyk. (1985). " GOALIE : A Space Efficient System for VLSI Artwork...this. Essentially we initialize a stack with the root. We then pull an element of this stack and if it is a cell we run the occlusion operation on the

  6. Electronic structure calculations with GPAW: a real-space implementation of the projector augmented-wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkovaara, J.; Rostgaard, Carsten; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations have become an indispensable tool in many areas of materials science and quantum chemistry. Even though the Kohn-Sham formulation of the density-functional theory (DFT) simplifies the many-body problem significantly, one is still confronted with several numerical...

  7. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of the Disk Cluster Population of M31. II. Advanced Camera for Surveys Pointings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krienke, O. K.; Hodge, P. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a survey of star clusters in M31 based on archival images from the Hubble Space Telescope. Paper I reported results from images obtained with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and this paper reports results from the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). The ACS survey has yielded a total of 339 star clusters, 52 of which—mostly globular clusters—were found to have been cataloged previously. As for the previous survey, the luminosity function of the clusters drops steeply for absolute magnitudes fainter than MV = -3 the implied cluster mass function has a turnover for masses less than a few hundred solar masses. The color-integrated magnitude diagram of clusters shows three significant features: (1) a group of very red, luminous objects: the globular clusters, (2) a wide range in color for the fainter clusters, representing a considerable range in age and reddening, and (3) a maximum density of clusters centered approximately at V = 21, B - V = 0.30, V - I = 0.50, where there are intermediate-age, intermediate-mass clusters with ages close to 500 million years and masses of about 2000 solar masses. We give a brief qualitative interpretation of the distribution of clusters in the CMDs in terms of their formation and destruction rates. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for research in astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  8. Beam-envelope calculations of space-charge loaded beams in MeV dc ion-implantation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanus, W.H.; Bannenberg, J.G.; Doorn, S.; Saris, F.W.; Koudijs, R.; Dubbelman, P.; Koelewijn, W.

    1989-01-01

    MeV dc ion accelerators are being developed that can deliver a beam current up to several hundred micro-amperes. At the low-energy part of the accelerator, the beam transport is space-charge dominated rather than emittance dominated. A system of differential equations has been derived, based on the Kapchinski-Vladimirski equations, which describe the envelope of a space-charge loaded ion beam, taking a longitudinal electrical field in an accelerating tube into account. The equations have been used to design the accelerator of a high-current 1 MV heavy-ion implantation facility. Furthermore, the design of a 2 MV accelerator is presented, which is used for analyzing techniques such as RBS and PIXE. Both facilities are based on single-ended Van de Graaff accelerators. (orig.)

  9. Do you see what I hear? Vantage point preference and visual dominance in a time-space synaesthete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarick, Michelle; Stewart, Mark T; Smilek, Daniel; Dixon, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Time-space synaesthetes "see" time units organized in a spatial form. While the structure might be invariant for most synaesthetes, the perspective by which some view their calendar is somewhat flexible. One well-studied synaesthete L adopts different viewpoints for months seen vs. heard. Interestingly, L claims to prefer her auditory perspective, even though the month names are represented visually upside down. To verify this, we used a spatial-cueing task that included audiovisual month cues. These cues were either congruent with L's preferred "auditory" viewpoint (auditory-only and auditory + month inverted) or incongruent (upright visual-only and auditory + month upright). Our prediction was that L would show enhanced cueing effects (larger response time difference between valid and invalid targets) following the audiovisual congruent cues since both elicit the "preferred" auditory perspective. Also, when faced with conflicting cues, we predicted L would choose the preferred auditory perspective over the visual perspective. As we expected, L did show enhanced cueing effects following the audiovisual congruent cues that corresponded with her preferred auditory perspective, but that the visual perspective dominated when L was faced with both viewpoints simultaneously. The results are discussed with relation to the reification hypothesis of sequence space synaesthesia (Eagleman, 2009).

  10. Bit error rate analysis of free-space optical communication over general Malaga turbulence channels with pointing error

    KAUST Repository

    Alheadary, Wael Ghazy

    2016-12-24

    In this work, we present a bit error rate (BER) and achievable spectral efficiency (ASE) performance of a freespace optical (FSO) link with pointing errors based on intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) and heterodyne detection over general Malaga turbulence channel. More specifically, we present exact closed-form expressions for adaptive and non-adaptive transmission. The closed form expressions are presented in terms of generalized power series of the Meijer\\'s G-function. Moreover, asymptotic closed form expressions are provided to validate our work. In addition, all the presented analytical results are illustrated using a selected set of numerical results.

  11. Observations from Space: A Unique Vantage Point for the Study of the Environment and Possible Associations with Disease Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, S.; Haynes, J.; Hamdan, M. Al; Estes, M.; Sprigg, W.

    2009-01-01

    Health providers/researchers need environmental data to study and understand the geographic, environmental, and meteorological differences in disease. Satellite remote sensing of the environment offers a unique vantage point that can fill in the gaps of environmental, spatial, and temporal data for tracking disease. The field of geospatial health remains in its infancy, and this program will demonstrate the need for collaborations between multi-disciplinary research groups to develop the full potential. NASA will discuss the Public Health Projects developed to work with Grantees and the CDC while providing them with information on opportunities for future collaborations with NASA for future research.

  12. A practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wu; Xu, Wenjie; Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin

    2017-11-01

    The settlement of any position of the municipal solid waste (MSW) body during the landfilling process and after its closure has effects on the integrity of the internal structure and storage capacity of the landfill. This paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process. The MSW body in the landfill was divided into independent column units, and the filling process of each column unit was determined by a simplified complete landfilling process. The settlement of a position in the landfill was calculated with the compression of each MSW layer in every column unit. Then, the simultaneous settlement of all the column units was integrated to obtain the settlement of the landfill and storage capacity of all the column units; this allowed to obtain the storage capacity of the landfill based on the layer-wise summation method. When the compression of each MSW layer was calculated, the effects of the fluctuation of the main leachate level and variation in the unit weight of the MSW on the overburdened effective stress were taken into consideration by introducing the main leachate level's proportion and the unit weight and buried depth curve. This approach is especially significant for MSW with a high kitchen waste content and landfills in developing countries. The stress-biodegradation compression model was used to calculate the compression of each MSW layer. A software program, Settlement and Storage Capacity Calculation System for Landfills, was developed by integrating the space and time discretization of the landfilling process and the settlement and storage capacity algorithms. The landfilling process of the phase IV of Shanghai Laogang Landfill was simulated using this software. The maximum geometric volume of the landfill error between the calculated and measured values is only 2.02%, and the accumulated filling weight error between the

  13. Quantum dynamics calculations using symmetrized, orthogonal Weyl-Heisenberg wavelets with a phase space truncation scheme. II. Construction and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, Bill; Salam, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we extend and elaborate upon a wavelet method first presented in a previous publication [B. Poirier, J. Theo. Comput. Chem. 2, 65 (2003)]. In particular, we focus on construction and optimization of the wavelet functions, from theoretical and numerical viewpoints, and also examine their localization properties. The wavelets used are modified Wilson-Daubechies wavelets, which in conjunction with a simple phase space truncation scheme, enable one to solve the multidimensional Schroedinger equation. This approach is ideally suited to rovibrational spectroscopy applications, but can be used in any context where differential equations are involved

  14. A Fixed Point Approach to the Stability of a General Mixed AQCQ-Functional Equation in Non-Archimedean Normed Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhou Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the fixed point methods, we prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of the general mixed additive-quadratic-cubic-quartic functional equation f(x+ky+f(x−ky=k2f(x+y+k2f(x−y+2(1−k2f(x+((k4−k2/12[f(2y+f(−2y−4f(y−4f(−y] for a fixed integer k with k≠0,±1 in non-Archimedean normed spaces.

  15. Economical effectiveness of wind energy systems. Calculation model for the determination of the effectiveness under variable starting points. Economische rentabiliteit windenergiesystemen. Rekenmodel voor de rentabiliteitsbepaling onder varierende uitgangspunten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wees, F G; Bakema, G F

    1988-12-01

    A model is described for economic analysis of wind energy systems which calculates the internal rate of return and the costs of the electricity produced for various system configurations and management options. Calculations have been made for the economics of four types of wind turbines (16, 25, 34 and 45 m rotor diameter). Different types of windfarms (isolated wind turbine and 10 or 40 wind turbines in line or cluster) are distinguished. The electricity production, investments- and exploitation costs are estimated for the years 1990 and 2000. The economic calculations present results for two forms of management: by private enterprise or public utilities. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out with respect to differences in wind regime, electricity prices, investments costs and economic lifetime. A data-base on the parameters used is included. 31 figs., 13 tabs., 5 apps.

  16. Integrating Wind Profiling Radars and Radiosonde Observations with Model Point Data to Develop a Decision Support Tool to Assess Upper-Level Winds for Space Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Flinn, Clay

    2013-01-01

    On the day of launch, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) Launch Weather Officers (LWOs) monitor the upper-level winds for their launch customers. During launch operations, the payload/launch team sometimes asks the LWOs if they expect the upper-level winds to change during the countdown. The LWOs used numerical weather prediction model point forecasts to provide the information, but did not have the capability to quickly retrieve or adequately display the upper-level observations and compare them directly in the same display to the model point forecasts to help them determine which model performed the best. The LWOs requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will plot upper-level wind speed and direction observations from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Automated Meteorological Profiling System (AMPS) rawinsondes with point forecast wind profiles from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) North American Mesoscale (NAM), Rapid Refresh (RAP) and Global Forecast System (GFS) models to assess the performance of these models. The AMU suggested adding observations from the NASA 50 MHz wind profiler and one of the US Air Force 915 MHz wind profilers, both located near the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility, to supplement the AMPS observations with more frequent upper-level profiles. Figure 1 shows a map of KSC/CCAFS with the locations of the observation sites and the model point forecasts.

  17. Numerically Calculated 3D Space-Weighting Functions to Image Crustal Volcanic Structures Using Diffuse Coda Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Del Pezzo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seismic coda measurements retrieve parameters linked to the physical characteristics of rock volumes illuminated by high frequency scattered waves. Space weighting functions (SWF and kernels are different tools that model the spatial sensitivity of coda envelopes to scattering and absorption anomalies in these rock matrices, allowing coda-wave attenuation ( Q c o d a imaging. This note clarifies the difference between SWF and sensitivity kernels developed for coda wave imaging. It extends the SWF previously developed in 2D to the third dimension by using radiative transfer and the diffusion equation, based on the assumption that variations of Q c o d a depend solely on variations of the extinction length. When applied to active data (Deception Island, Antarctica, 3D SWF images strongly resemble 2D images, making this 3D extension redundant. On the other hand, diffusion does not efficiently model coda waveforms when using earthquake datasets spanning depths between 0 and 20 km, such as at Mount St. Helens volcano. In this setting, scattering attenuation and absorption suffer tradeoffs and cannot be separated by fitting a single seismogram energy envelope for SWF imaging. We propose that an approximate analytical 3D SWF, similar in shape to the common coda kernels used in literature, can still be used in a space weighted back-projection approach. While Q c o d a is not a physical parameter of the propagation medium, its spatially-dependent modeling allows improved reconstruction of crustal-scale tectonic and geological features. It is even more efficient as a velocity independent imaging tool for magma and fluid storage when applied to deep volcanism.

  18. Bayesian inference as a tool for analysis of first-principles calculations of complex materials: an application to the melting point of Ti2GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    We present a systematic implementation of the recently developed Z-method for computing melting points of solids, augmented by a Bayesian analysis of the data obtained from molecular dynamics simulations. The use of Bayesian inference allows us to extract valuable information from limited data, reducing the computational cost of drawing the isochoric curve. From this Bayesian Z-method we obtain posterior distributions for the melting temperature T m , the critical superheating temperature T LS and the slopes dT/dE of the liquid and solid phases. The method therefore gives full quantification of the errors in the prediction of the melting point. This procedure is applied to the estimation of the melting point of Ti 2 GaN (one of the so-called MAX phases), a complex, laminar material, by density functional theory molecular dynamics, finding an estimate T m of 2591.61 ± 89.61 K, which is in good agreement with melting points of similar ceramics. (paper)

  19. The Mollier diagram in theory and practice. Part 3. Examples on Calculation of Dew Point Cooling; Het Mollierdiagram in theorie en praktijk. Deel 3. Rekenvoorbeelden Dauwpuntkoeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouwenhoven, H.J.L. [Frigidarium, Driebergen-Rijsenburg (Netherlands); Huizinga, H.T. [Heat Transfer Holland HTH, Zuidwolde (Netherlands); Bootsveld, N.R. [YNO, Delft (Netherlands); Janssen, M. [Re-gent, Helmond (Netherlands); Uges, P.G.H. [StatiqCooling, Deventer (Netherlands)

    2007-04-15

    The use of direct and indirect adiabatic cooling, and recently in particular indirect diabatic cooling (dew point cooling) require knowledge of the Mollier diagram. [Dutch] Het gebruik van direct en indirect werkende adiabatische koeling en recentlijk vooral de indirect werkende systemen zoals diabatische koeling (dauwpuntkoeling, al of niet uitgevoerd als statische koeling) vragen om kennis van het Mollierdiagram.

  20. Calculation of radiation dose rate above water layer of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Jaslovske Bohunice by the point Kernels (VISIPLAN) and Monte Carlo (MCNP4C) methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Kucharova, D.; Listjak, M.; Fueloep, M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate maximal dose rate (DR) of gamma radiation above different configurations of reservoirs with spent nuclear fuel with cooling period 1.8 year and to compare by buildup factor method (Visiplan) and Monte Carlo simulations and to appreciate influence of scattered photons in the case of calculation of fully filled fuel transfer storage (FTS). On the ground of performed accounts it was shown, that relative contributions of photons from adjacent reservoirs are in the case buildup factor method (Visiplan) similar to Monte Carlo simulations. It means, that Visiplan can be used also for valuation of contributions of of dose rates from neighbouring reservoirs. It was shown, that calculations of DR by Visiplan are conservatively overestimated for this source of radiation and thickness of shielding approximately 2.6 - 3 times. Also following these calculations resulted, that by storage of reservoirs with cooling period 1.8 years in FTS is not needed any additional protection measures for workers against primal safety report. Calculated DR also above fully filled FTS by these reservoirs in Jaslovske Bohunice is very low on the level 0.03 μSv/h. (authors)

  1. Calculation of radiation dose rate above water layer of Interim Spent Fuel Storage Jaslovske Bohunice by the point Kernels (VISIPLAN) and Monte Carlo (MCNP4C) methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavik, O.; Kucharova, D.; Listjak, M.; Fueloep, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate maximal dose rate (DR) of gamma radiation above different configurations of reservoirs with spent nuclear fuel with cooling period 1.8 year and to compare by buildup factor method (Visiplan) and Monte Carlo simulations and to appreciate influence of scattered photons in the case of calculation of fully filled fuel transfer storage (FTS). On the ground of performed accounts it was shown, that relative contributions of photons from adjacent reservoirs are in the case buildup factor method (Visiplan) similar to Monte Carlo simulations. It means, that Visiplan can be used also for valuation of contributions of of dose rates from neighbouring reservoirs. It was shown, that calculations of DR by Visiplan are conservatively overestimated for this source of radiation and thickness of shielding approximately 2.6 - 3 times. Also following these calculations resulted, that by storage of reservoirs with cooling period 1.8 years in FTS is not needed any additional protection measures for workers against primal safety report. Calculated DR also above fully filled FTS by these reservoirs in Jaslovske Bohunice is very low on the level 0.03 μSv/h. (authors)

  2. SECTIONAL AREA CALCULATION OF MATERIAL REMOVED FROM BLANK WHILE FORMING SPACE BETWEEN TWO TEETH OF SATELLITE GEAR OF PLANETARY PIN TOOTH REDUCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Yankevich

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important values while forming gear wheels is a material section area Sс which is to be removed by a tool in the process of forming a space between two teeth in one pass. Cutting resistance which is proportional  to section area of  the layer to be cut and, correspondingly, a thermodynamic intensity in the polishing zone depend on Sс value.The paper proposes relations for calculation of a material section area Sс which is to be removed from a blank while forming a space between two teeth of a satellite gear of a planetary pin tooth reducer.Measurements being made in the AutoCAD packet have shown that any corrections of the profile do not make a significant influence on a section area Sс.

  3. A different outlook on time: visual and auditory month names elicit different mental vantage points for a time-space synaesthete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarick, Michelle; Dixon, Mike J; Stewart, Mark T; Maxwell, Emily C; Smilek, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Synaesthesia is a fascinating condition whereby individuals report extraordinary experiences when presented with ordinary stimuli. Here we examined an individual (L) who experiences time units (i.e., months of the year and hours of the day) as occupying specific spatial locations (January is 30 degrees to the left of midline). This form of time-space synaesthesia has been recently investigated by Smilek et al. (2007) who demonstrated that synaesthetic time-space associations are highly consistent, occur regardless of intention, and can direct spatial attention. We extended this work by showing that for the synaesthete L, her time-space vantage point changes depending on whether the time units are seen or heard. For example, when L sees the word JANUARY, she reports experiencing January on her left side, however when she hears the word "January" she experiences the month on her right side. L's subjective reports were validated using a spatial cueing paradigm. The names of months were centrally presented followed by targets on the left or right. L was faster at detecting targets in validly cued locations relative to invalidly cued locations both for visually presented cues (January orients attention to the left) and for aurally presented cues (January orients attention to the right). We replicated this difference in visual and aural cueing effects using hour of the day. Our findings support previous research showing that time-space synaesthesia can bias visual spatial attention, and further suggest that for this synaesthete, time-space associations differ depending on whether they are visually or aurally induced.

  4. Ca(AlH4)2, CaAlH5, and CaH2+6LiBH4: Calculated dehydrogenation enthalpy, including zero point energy, and the structure of the phonon spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashdeh, Ali; Frankcombe, Terry J

    2008-06-21

    The dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) have been calculated using density functional theory calculations at the generalized gradient approximation level. Harmonic phonon zero point energy (ZPE) corrections have been included using Parlinski's direct method. The dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2) is exothermic, indicating a metastable hydride. Calculations for CaAlH(5) including ZPE effects indicate that it is not stable enough for a hydrogen storage system operating near ambient conditions. The destabilized combination of LiBH(4) with CaH(2) is a promising system after ZPE-corrected enthalpy calculations. The calculations confirm that including ZPE effects in the harmonic approximation for the dehydrogenation of Ca(AlH(4))(2), CaAlH(5), and CaH(2)+6LiBH(4) has a significant effect on the calculated reaction enthalpy. The contribution of ZPE to the dehydrogenation enthalpies of Ca(AlH(4))(2) and CaAlH(5) calculated by the direct method phonon analysis was compared to that calculated by the frozen-phonon method. The crystal structure of CaAlH(5) is presented in the more useful standard setting of P2(1)c symmetry and the phonon density of states of CaAlH(5), significantly different to other common complex metal hydrides, is rationalized.

  5. Calculation of total counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector by hybrid Monte-Carlo method for point and disk sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yalcin, S. [Education Faculty, Kastamonu University, 37200 Kastamonu (Turkey)], E-mail: yalcin@gazi.edu.tr; Gurler, O.; Kaynak, G. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Uludag University, Gorukle Campus, 16059 Bursa (Turkey); Gundogdu, O. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte-Carlo techniques and the photon path lengths in the detector were determined by analytic equations depending on photon directions. This is called the hybrid Monte-Carlo method where analytical expressions are incorporated into the Monte-Carlo simulations. A major advantage of this technique is the short computation time compared to other techniques on similar computational platforms. Another advantage is the flexibility for inputting detector-related parameters (such as source-detector distance, detector radius, source radius, detector linear attenuation coefficient) into the algorithm developed, thus making it an easy and flexible method to apply to other detector systems and configurations. The results of the total counting efficiency model put forward for point and disc sources were compared with the previous work reported in the literature.

  6. Calculation of total counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector by hybrid Monte-Carlo method for point and disk sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcin, S.; Gurler, O.; Kaynak, G.; Gundogdu, O.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents results on the total gamma counting efficiency of a NaI(Tl) detector from point and disk sources. The directions of photons emitted from the source were determined by Monte-Carlo techniques and the photon path lengths in the detector were determined by analytic equations depending on photon directions. This is called the hybrid Monte-Carlo method where analytical expressions are incorporated into the Monte-Carlo simulations. A major advantage of this technique is the short computation time compared to other techniques on similar computational platforms. Another advantage is the flexibility for inputting detector-related parameters (such as source-detector distance, detector radius, source radius, detector linear attenuation coefficient) into the algorithm developed, thus making it an easy and flexible method to apply to other detector systems and configurations. The results of the total counting efficiency model put forward for point and disc sources were compared with the previous work reported in the literature

  7. Dynamic aperture calculation for 100 GeV Au-Au and 250 GeV pp lattices with near third order resonance working point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, X.; Luo, Y.; Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    In the preparation for the 2011 RHIC 250 GeV polarized proton (pp) run, both experiment and simulation were carried out to investigate the possibility to accelerate the proton beam with a vertical tune near 2/3. It had been found experimentally in Run-9 that accelerating the proton beam with a vertical tune close to 2/3 will greatly benefit the transmission of the proton polarization. In this note, we report the calculated dynamic apertures with the 100 GeV Au run and 250 GeV proton run lattices with vertical tunes close to the third order resonance. We will compare the third order resonance band width between the beam experiment and the simulation with the 100 GeV Au lattices. And we also will compare the calculated resonance band width between the 100 GeV Au and 250 GeV proton run lattices.

  8. The SPACE 1.0 model: a Landlab component for 2-D calculation of sediment transport, bedrock erosion, and landscape evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Charles M.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Barnhart, Katherine R.

    2017-12-01

    Models of landscape evolution by river erosion are often either transport-limited (sediment is always available but may or may not be transportable) or detachment-limited (sediment must be detached from the bed but is then always transportable). While several models incorporate elements of, or transition between, transport-limited and detachment-limited behavior, most require that either sediment or bedrock, but not both, are eroded at any given time. Modeling landscape evolution over large spatial and temporal scales requires a model that can (1) transition freely between transport-limited and detachment-limited behavior, (2) simultaneously treat sediment transport and bedrock erosion, and (3) run in 2-D over large grids and be coupled with other surface process models. We present SPACE (stream power with alluvium conservation and entrainment) 1.0, a new model for simultaneous evolution of an alluvium layer and a bedrock bed based on conservation of sediment mass both on the bed and in the water column. The model treats sediment transport and bedrock erosion simultaneously, embracing the reality that many rivers (even those commonly defined as bedrock rivers) flow over a partially alluviated bed. SPACE improves on previous models of bedrock-alluvial rivers by explicitly calculating sediment erosion and deposition rather than relying on a flux-divergence (Exner) approach. The SPACE model is a component of the Landlab modeling toolkit, a Python-language library used to create models of Earth surface processes. Landlab allows efficient coupling between the SPACE model and components simulating basin hydrology, hillslope evolution, weathering, lithospheric flexure, and other surface processes. Here, we first derive the governing equations of the SPACE model from existing sediment transport and bedrock erosion formulations and explore the behavior of local analytical solutions for sediment flux and alluvium thickness. We derive steady-state analytical solutions for

  9. Exploratory space-time analysis of dengue incidence in Trinidad: a retrospective study using travel hubs as dispersal points, 1998-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Karmesh D; Mahabir, Ron S; Curtin, Kevin M; Sutherland, Joan M; Agard, John B; Chadee, Dave D

    2014-07-22

    Dengue is an acute arboviral disease responsible for most of the illness and death in tropical and subtropical regions. Over the last 25 years there has been increase epidemic activity of the disease in the Caribbean, with the co-circulation of multiple serotypes. An understanding of the space and time dynamics of dengue could provide health agencies with important clues for reducing its impact. Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) cases observed for the period 1998-2004 were georeferenced using Geographic Information System software. Spatial clustering was calculated for individual years and for the entire study period using the Nearest Neighbor Index. Space and time interaction between DHF cases was determined using the Knox Test while the Nearest Neighbor Hierarchical method was used to extract DHF hot spots. All space and time distances calculated were validated using the Pearson r significance test. Results shows that (1) a decrease in mean distance between DHF cases correlates with activity leading up to an outbreak, (2) a decrease in temporal distance between DHF cases leads to increased geographic spread of the disease, with an outbreak occurrence about every 2 years, and (3) a general pattern in the movement of dengue incidents from more rural to urban settings leading up to an outbreak with hotspot areas associated with transportation hubs in Trinidad. Considering only the spatial dimension of the disease, results suggest that DHF cases become more concentrated leading up to an outbreak. However, with the additional consideration of time, results suggest that when an outbreak occurs incidents occur more rapidly in time leading to a parallel increase in the rate of distribution of the disease across space. The results of this study can be used by public health officers to help visualize and understand the spatial and temporal patterns of dengue, and to prepare warnings for the public. Dengue space-time patterns and hotspot detection will provide useful

  10. TRAJ - a FORTRAN 77 computer program for the calculation of trajectories on the basis of space and time varying velocity fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, J.

    1986-09-01

    The computation of three dimensional trajectories is described in this report. Since measurements of the position and velocity of individual fluid parcels are difficult to be carried out and analytic solutions applicable to the trajectory problem are not available, trajectories have to be calculated by successive observations of the corresponding velocity fields using a method of successive approximation. The application is restricted to cartesian grid coordinate system with equidistant grid points. This model was developed for meteorological purposes (transport of pollutants) but can also be used for other fluids and scales. (orig./PW) [de

  11. Metric space construction for the boundary of space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    A distance function between points in space-time is defined and used to consider the manifold as a topological metric space. The properties of the distance function are investigated: conditions under which the metric and manifold topologies agree, the relationship with the causal structure of the space-time and with the maximum lifetime function of Wald and Yip, and in terms of the space of causal curves. The space-time is then completed as a topological metric space; the resultant boundary is compared with the causal boundary and is also calculated for some pertinent examples

  12. On the Performance Analysis of Hybrid ARQ With Incremental Redundancy and With Code Combining Over Free-Space Optical Channels With Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna; Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) and with code combining (CC) from an information-theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce new closed-form expressions for the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function, the moment generating function, and the moments of an FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading channel subject to pointing errors and using intensity modulation with direct detection technique at the receiver. Based on these formulas, we derive exact results for the average bit error rate and the capacity in terms of Meijer's G functions. Moreover, we present asymptotic expressions by utilizing the Meijer's G function expansion and using the moments method, too, for the ergodic capacity approximations. Then, we provide novel analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. Besides, we offer asymptotic expressions for these results in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we compare the performance of HARQ with IR and HARQ with CC. Our analysis demonstrates that HARQ with IR outperforms HARQ with CC.

  13. On the Performance Analysis of Hybrid ARQ With Incremental Redundancy and With Code Combining Over Free-Space Optical Channels With Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2014-07-16

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) and with code combining (CC) from an information-theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce new closed-form expressions for the probability density function, the cumulative distribution function, the moment generating function, and the moments of an FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading channel subject to pointing errors and using intensity modulation with direct detection technique at the receiver. Based on these formulas, we derive exact results for the average bit error rate and the capacity in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions. Moreover, we present asymptotic expressions by utilizing the Meijer\\'s G function expansion and using the moments method, too, for the ergodic capacity approximations. Then, we provide novel analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. Besides, we offer asymptotic expressions for these results in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, we compare the performance of HARQ with IR and HARQ with CC. Our analysis demonstrates that HARQ with IR outperforms HARQ with CC.

  14. QSPR Calculation of Normal Boiling Points of Organic Molecules Based on the Use of Correlation Weighting of Atomic Orbitals with Extended Connectivity of Zero- and First-Order Graphs of Atomic Orbitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Castro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a calculation of the normal boiling points of a representative set of 200 organic molecules through the application of QSPR theory. For this purpose we have used a particular set of flexible molecular descriptors, the so called Correlation Weighting of Atomic Orbitals with Extended Connectivity of Zero- and First-Order Graphs of Atomic Orbitals. Although in general the results show suitable behavior to predict this physical chemistry property, the existence of some deviant behaviors points to a need to complement this index with some other sort of molecular descriptors. Some possible extensions of this study are discussed.

  15. Development of a computer software based on geographic information for calculating voltage drop and brake points in half tension networks; Desarrollo informatico georreferenciado para calculos de caida de tension y puntos de corte en redes de media tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertole, Hector; Aguero, Carlos A.; Prado, Pedro O.; Suarez, Juan A. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    1997-12-31

    This development is a group of tools of calculations and analysis thought to be used in the technical area of an electric power company. It allows the realization of calculations of voltage drop in the networks of half tension and the determination of the break points. It is possible to analyze the readiness of power in the distribution centers and the state of load of the conductors. (author) 8 refs., 7 figs.; e-mail: hbertole at fi.mdp.edu.ar; poprado at fi.mdp.edu.ar

  16. The Wait Calculation: The Broader Consequences of the Minimum Time from Now to Interstellar Destinations and its Significance to the Space Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, A.

    This paper summarises the wait calculation [1] of interstellar voyagers which finds the minimum time to destination given exponential growth in the rate of travel available to a civilisation. The minimum time obliges stellar system colonisers to consider departure times a significant risk factor in their voyages since a departure then to a destination will beat a departure made at any other time before or after. Generalised conclusions will be drawn about the significant impact that departures to interstellar destinations before, at, or after the minimum time will have on the economic potential of missions and on the inevitability of competition between them. There will be no international law operating in interstellar space and an ability to escape predatory actions en route, or at the destination, can only be done by precise calculations of departure times. Social and economic forces affecting the factors in the growth equation are discussed with reference to the probability of accelerating growth reaching the technological Singularity and strengthening the growth incentive trap. Islamic banking practices are discussed as a credible alternative to compounding interest bearing paper for funding the space economy in the long term and for supporting stakeholder investment in such long term mission development. The paper considers the essential free productivity of the Earth's biosphere and the capital accumulations made possible by land productivity are essential components to a viable long term space economy and that research into re-creating the costless productivity of the biosphere at a destination will determine both the mission's ultimate success and provide means of returns for stakeholders during the long build up. Conclusions of these arguments suggest that the Icarus project should ignore a robotic interstellar mission concept and develop a manned colonising mission from now.

  17. Methods for the analysis of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/S in flue gas and the calculation of the acid dew point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertyn, C.H.

    1986-02-01

    Methods are given for the analysis of SO/sub 2/, SO/sub 3/, and H/sub 2/S in flue gas. Two methods are described for the determination of SO/sub 2/. The method to be used depends on whether or not H/sub 2/S is present in the gas stream. An equation for the calculation of acid dew point is given as well.

  18. Least-squares gradient calculation from multi-point observations of scalar and vector fields: methodology and applications with Cluster in the plasmasphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Keyser

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a general-purpose algorithm for computing the gradients in space and time of a scalar field, a vector field, or a divergence-free vector field, from in situ measurements by one or more spacecraft. The algorithm provides total error estimates on the computed gradient, including the effects of measurement errors, the errors due to a lack of spatio-temporal homogeneity, and errors due to small-scale fluctuations. It also has the ability to diagnose the conditioning of the problem. Optimal use is made of the data, in terms of exploiting the maximum amount of information relative to the uncertainty on the data, by solving the problem in a weighted least-squares sense. The method is illustrated using Cluster magnetic field and electron density data to compute various gradients during a traversal of the inner magnetosphere. In particular, Cluster is shown to cross azimuthal density structure, and the existence of field-aligned currents in the plasmasphere is demonstrated.

  19. Investigation of 3C-SiC/SiO2 interfacial point defects from ab initio g-tensor calculations and electron paramagnetic resonance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, T. A.; Rohrmueller, M.; Gerstmann, U.; Greulich-Weber, S.; Stellhorn, A.; Cantin, J. L.; von Bardeleben, J.; Schmidt, W. G.; Wippermann, S.

    SiC is widely used in high-power, high-frequency electronic devices. Recently, it has also been employed as a building block in nanocomposites used as light absorbers in solar energy conversion devices. Analogous to Si, SiC features SiO2 as native oxide that can be used for passivation and insulating layers. However, a significant number of defect states are reported to form at SiC/SiO2 interfaces, limiting mobility and increasing recombination of free charge carriers. We investigated the growth of oxide on different 3C-SiC surfaces from first principles. Carbon antisite Csi defects are found to be strongly stabilized in particular at the interface, because carbon changes its hybridization from sp3 in the SiC-bulk to sp2 at the interface, creating a dangling bond inside a porous region of the SiO2 passivating layer. Combining ab initio g-tensor calculations and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements, we show that Csi defects explain the measured EPR signatures, while the hyperfine structure allows to obtain local structural information of the oxide layer. Financial support from BMBF NanoMatFutur Grant 13N12972 and DFG priority program SPP-1601 is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. Sequence polymorphism in an insect RNA virus field population: A snapshot from a single point in space and time reveals stochastic differences among and within individual hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenger, Drake C., E-mail: drake.stenger@ars.usda.gov [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States); Krugner, Rodrigo [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States); Nouri, Shahideh; Ferriol, Inmaculada; Falk, Bryce W. [Department of Plant Pathology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Sisterson, Mark S. [USDA, Agricultural Research Service, San Joaquin Valley Agricultural Sciences Center, 9611 South Riverbend Ave., Parlier, CA 93648-9757 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Population structure of Homalodisca coagulata Virus-1 (HoCV-1) among and within field-collected insects sampled from a single point in space and time was examined. Polymorphism in complete consensus sequences among single-insect isolates was dominated by synonymous substitutions. The mutant spectrum of the C2 helicase region within each single-insect isolate was unique and dominated by nonsynonymous singletons. Bootstrapping was used to correct the within-isolate nonsynonymous:synonymous arithmetic ratio (N:S) for RT-PCR error, yielding an N:S value ~one log-unit greater than that of consensus sequences. Probability of all possible single-base substitutions for the C2 region predicted N:S values within 95% confidence limits of the corrected within-isolate N:S when the only constraint imposed was viral polymerase error bias for transitions over transversions. These results indicate that bottlenecks coupled with strong negative/purifying selection drive consensus sequences toward neutral sequence space, and that most polymorphism within single-insect isolates is composed of newly-minted mutations sampled prior to selection. -- Highlights: •Sampling protocol minimized differential selection/history among isolates. •Polymorphism among consensus sequences dominated by negative/purifying selection. •Within-isolate N:S ratio corrected for RT-PCR error by bootstrapping. •Within-isolate mutant spectrum dominated by new mutations yet to undergo selection.

  1. Model-based testing for space-time interaction using point processes: An application to psychiatric hospital admissions in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sebastian; Warnke, Ingeborg; Rössler, Wulf; Held, Leonhard

    2016-05-01

    Spatio-temporal interaction is inherent to cases of infectious diseases and occurrences of earthquakes, whereas the spread of other events, such as cancer or crime, is less evident. Statistical significance tests of space-time clustering usually assess the correlation between the spatial and temporal (transformed) distances of the events. Although appealing through simplicity, these classical tests do not adjust for the underlying population nor can they account for a distance decay of interaction. We propose to use the framework of an endemic-epidemic point process model to jointly estimate a background event rate explained by seasonal and areal characteristics, as well as a superposed epidemic component representing the hypothesis of interest. We illustrate this new model-based test for space-time interaction by analysing psychiatric inpatient admissions in Zurich, Switzerland (2007-2012). Several socio-economic factors were found to be associated with the admission rate, but there was no evidence of general clustering of the cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A 3D-Space Vector Modulation Algorithm for Three Phase Four Wire Neutral Point Clamped Inverter Systems as Power Quality Compensator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Ramasamy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC is designed using a Neutral Point Clamped (NPC multilevel inverter to improve the power quality. When designed for high/medium voltage and power applications, the voltage stress across the switches and harmonic content in the output voltage are increased. A 3-phase 4-wire NPC inverter system is developed as Power Quality Conditioner using an effectual three dimensional Space Vector Modulation (3D-SVM technique. The proposed system behaves like a UPQC with shunt and series active filter under balanced and unbalanced loading conditions. In addition to the improvement of the power quality issues, it also balances the neutral point voltage and voltage balancing across the capacitors under unbalanced condition. The hardware and simulation results of proposed system are compared with 2D-SVM and 3D-SVM. The proposed system is stimulated using MATLAB and the hardware is designed using FPGA. From the results it is evident that effectual 3D-SVM technique gives better performance compared to other control methods.

  3. Calcul de trajectoires d'ions dans un faisceau a trois dimensions soumis a la charge d'space. Application aux sources d'ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauth, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the space charge effects suffered by an ionic beam of homogeneous density, composed with ions of various charges and submitted to crossed electric and magnetic fields. We consider the physical and geometric conditions in the region between an ion source and the extraction electrode. We propose two different methods that allow to reach a numerical solution of the problem. The first one is founded on the idea that the large number of particles of the beam can be replaced in the calculations by a reduced number of highly charged particles. The second one consists in considering the widening of the beam through the evolution of the beam envelope. We apply these two methods to physical situations found in published experimental data. (Author)

  4. On the calculation of complete dissociation curves of closed-shell pseudo-onedimensional systems via the complete active space method of increments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fertitta, E.; Paulus, B. [Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Barcza, G.; Legeza, Ö. [Strongly Correlated Systems “Lendület” Research Group, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O. Box 49, Budapest (Hungary)

    2015-09-21

    The method of increments (MoI) has been employed using the complete active space formalism in order to calculate the dissociation curve of beryllium ring-shaped clusters Be{sub n} of different sizes. Benchmarks obtained through different quantum chemical methods including the ab initio density matrix renormalization group were used to verify the validity of the MoI truncation which showed a reliable behavior for the whole dissociation curve. Moreover we investigated the size dependence of the correlation energy at different interatomic distances in order to extrapolate the values for the periodic chain and to discuss the transition from a metal-like to an insulator-like behavior of the wave function through quantum chemical considerations.

  5. Close coupling calculations of magnetic transitions for He + H/sub 2/ in an uncoupled space frame. [Cross sections, T matrices, orbital angular momentum, elastic and inelastic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoni, Y; Kouri, D J; Kumar, A [Houston Univ., Tex. (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1977-12-01

    Full close coupling calculations of magnetic transitions in He + H/sub 2/ collisions are reported. The results are analyzed using the coupling space frame approach of Kouri and Shimoni. This enables one to study the magnetic transition T-matrices as a function of orbital angular momentum number l. The results for transitions which are elastic in rotor state j are found to be dominated by j/sub z/-conserving transitions. Those which are inelastic in j are dominated by j/sub z/-conserving transitions for very low l but at higher l values, the non-j/sub z/-conserving transitions dominate. The results for He + H/sub 2/ are consistent with the recent studies of Shimoni and Kouri of the coupled states approximation.

  6. Transport dynamics calculated under the full Mie scattering theory for micron and submicron lunar ejecta in selenocentric, cislunar, and geocentric space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, T. W.; Alexander, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1967, Lunar Explorer 35 was launched from the earth and placed into a stable orbit around the moon. The data from the dust particle experiment on this spacecraft were essentially continuous over a 5-yr period from the time of insertion in lunar orbit. Analysis of this data has been interpreted to show that micron-sized lunar ejecta leave the moon and traverse through selenocentric and cislunar space and obtain either interplanetary/heliocentric orbits or intercept the earth's magnetosphere and move into geocentric orbits. Extensive studies of the orbital trajectories of lunar particles in this size range have now been conducted that include a calculation of the solar radiation force using the full Mie scattering theory. A significant flux of particles with radii less than 0.1 micron are found to intercept the earth's magnetopause surface. This flux is shown to be strongly dependent upon both the particle's density and its index of refraction.

  7. HAMMER, 1-D Multigroup Neutron Transport Infinite System Cell Calculation for Few-Group Diffusion Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeck, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: HAMMER performs infinite lattice, one-dimensional cell multigroup calculations, followed (optionally) by one-dimensional, few-group, multi-region reactor calculations with neutron balance edits. 2 - Method of solution: Infinite lattice parameters are calculated by means of multigroup transport theory, composite reactor parameters by few-group diffusion theory. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: - Cell calculations - maxima of: 30 thermal groups; 54 epithermal groups; 20 space points; 20 regions; 18 isotopes; 10 mixtures; 3 thermal up-scattering mixtures; 200 resonances per group; no overlap or interference; single level only. - Reactor calculations - maxima of : 40 regions; 40 mixtures; 250 space points; 4 groups

  8. Computer program to fit a hyperellipse to a set of phase-space points in as many as six dimensions. [HELIPS, and COFAC to determine derivatives of determinants, in FORTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadlinger, E.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer program that will fit a hyperellipse to a set of phase-space points in as many as 6 dimensions was written and tested. The weight assigned to the phase-space points can be varied as a function of their distance from the centroid of the distribution. Varying the weight enables determination of whether there is a difference in ellipse orientation between inner and outer particles. This program should be useful in studying the effects of longitudinal and transverse phase-space couplings.

  9. An ab initio potential energy surface for the formic acid dimer: zero-point energy, selected anharmonic fundamental energies, and ground-state tunneling splitting calculated in relaxed 1-4-mode subspaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Chen; Bowman, Joel M

    2016-09-14

    We report a full-dimensional, permutationally invariant potential energy surface (PES) for the cyclic formic acid dimer. This PES is a least-squares fit to 13475 CCSD(T)-F12a/haTZ (VTZ for H and aVTZ for C and O) energies. The energy-weighted, root-mean-square fitting error is 11 cm -1 and the barrier for the double-proton transfer on the PES is 2848 cm -1 , in good agreement with the directly-calculated ab initio value of 2853 cm -1 . The zero-point vibrational energy of 15 337 ± 7 cm -1 is obtained from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations. Energies of fundamentals of fifteen modes are calculated using the vibrational self-consistent field and virtual-state configuration interaction method. The ground-state tunneling splitting is computed using a reduced-dimensional Hamiltonian with relaxed potentials. The highest-level, four-mode coupled calculation gives a tunneling splitting of 0.037 cm -1 , which is roughly twice the experimental value. The tunneling splittings of (DCOOH) 2 and (DCOOD) 2 from one to three mode calculations are, as expected, smaller than that for (HCOOH) 2 and consistent with experiment.

  10. Observation of superconducting fluxons by transmission electron microscopy: A Fourier space approach to calculate the electron optical phase shifts and images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beleggia, M.; Pozzi, G.

    2001-01-01

    An approach is presented for the calculation of the electron optical phase shift experienced by high-energy electrons in a transmission electron microscope, when they interact with the magnetic field associated with superconducting fluxons in a thin specimen tilted with respect to the beam. It is shown that by decomposing the vector potential in its Fourier components and by calculating the phase shift of each component separately, it is possible to obtain the Fourier transform of the electron optical phase shift, which can be inverted either analytically or numerically. It will be shown how this method can be used to recover the result, previously obtained by the real-space approach, relative to the case of a straight flux tube perpendicular to the specimen surfaces. Then the method is applied to the case of a London fluxon in a thin film, where the bending and the broadening of the magnetic-field lines due to the finite specimen thickness are now correctly taken into account and not treated approximately by means of a parabolic fit. Finally, it will be shown how simple models for the pancake structure of the fluxon can be analyzed within this framework and the main features of electron transmission images predicted

  11. GRUNCLE, 1. Collision Source Calculation for Program DOT. DOT-3.5, 2-D Neutron Transport, Gamma Transport Program DOT with New Space-Scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A - Nature of problem or function: DOT solves the Boltzmann transport equation in two-dimensional geometries. Principal applications are to neutron and/or photon transport, although the code can be applied to transport problems for any particles not subject to external force fields. Both homogeneous and external-source problems can be solved. Searches on multiplication factor, time absorption, nuclide concentration, and zone thickness are available for reactor problems. Numerous edits and output data sets for subsequent use are available. DOT-3.5 improves the space-scaling algorithm. DOT-3.5/CAB contains group by group UPSCATTER scaling method. DUCT calculates perturbations to the scalar flux caused by the presence of ducts filled with coolant. VIP is a program for cross section sensitivity analysis using two- dimensional discrete ordinates transport calculations. DGRAD calculates the directional flux gradients from DOT-3 diffusion theory flux tapes. In conjunction with VIP and TPERT, it allows the use of diffusion theory fluxes to obtain exact and first-order perturbation reactivity changes. In order to calculate the reactivity associated with changes in reactor compositions using diffusion theory, it is necessary to fold not only the scalar fluxes with the appropriate cross sections, but also the average flux gradients with the diffusion coefficients. Since DOT diffusion theory does not directly calculate these gradients, it was necessary to calculate the needed quantities external to the DOT code. TPERT is a perturbation code to obtain exact and first-order reactivity changes. TPERT is coupled to VIP which generates adjoint forward flux tables using DOT-3 scalar flux tape information. GRTUNCL calculates an analytical first-collision source for subsequent use in DOT. B - Method of solution: The method of discrete ordinates is used. Balance equations are solved for the density of particles moving along discrete directions in each cell of a two-dimensional spatial

  12. Evaluation of latent variances in Monte Carlo dose calculations with Varian TrueBeam photon phase-spaces used as a particle source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhakeem, Eyad; Zavgorodni, Sergei

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the latent variance (LV) of Varian TrueBeam photon phase-space files (PSF) for open 10  ×  10 cm2 and small stereotactic fields and estimate the number of phase spaces required to be summed up in order to maintain sub-percent LV in Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc software was used to transport particles from Varian phase-space files (PSFA) through the secondary collimators. Transported particles were scored into another phase-space located under the jaws (PSFB), or transported further through the cone collimators and scored straight below, forming PSFC. Phase-space files (PSFB) were scored for 6 MV-FFF, 6 MV, 10 MV-FFF, 10 MV and 15 MV beams with 10  ×  10 cm2 field size, and PSFC were scored for 6 MV beam under circular cones of 0.13, 0.25, 0.35, and 1 cm diameter. Both PSFB and PSFC were transported into a water phantom with particle recycling number ranging from 10 to 1000. For 10  ×  10 cm2 fields 0.5  ×  0.5  ×  0.5 cm3 voxels were used to score the dose, whereas the dose was scored in 0.1  ×  0.1  ×  0.5 cm3 voxels for beams collimated with small cones. In addition, for small 0.25 cm diameter cone-collimated 6 MV beam, phantom voxel size varied as 0.02  ×  0.02  ×  0.5 cm3, 0.05  ×  0.05  ×  0.5 cm3 and 0.1  ×  0.1  ×  0.5 cm3. Dose variances were scored in all cases and LV evaluated as per Sempau et al. For the 10  ×  10 cm2 fields calculated LVs were greatest at the phantom surface and decreased with depth until they reached a plateau at 5 cm depth. LVs were found to be 0.54%, 0.96%, 0.35%, 0.69% and 0.57% for the 6 MV-FFF, 6 MV, 10 MV-FFF, 10 MV and 15 MV energies, respectively at the depth of 10 cm. For the 6 MV phase-space collimated with cones of 0.13, 0.25, 0.35, 1.0 cm diameter, the LVs calculated at 1.5 cm depth were 75.6%, 25.4%, 17

  13. High-Performance Reaction Wheel Optimization for Fine-Pointing Space Platforms: Minimizing Induced Vibration Effects on Jitter Performance plus Lessons Learned from Hubble Space Telescope for Current and Future Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasha, Martin D.

    2016-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) applies large-diameter optics (2.5-m primary mirror) for diffraction-limited resolution spanning an extended wavelength range (approx. 100-2500 nm). Its Pointing Control System (PCS) Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWAs), in the Support Systems Module (SSM), acquired an unprecedented set of high-sensitivity Induced Vibration (IV) data for 5 flight-certified RWAs: dwelling at set rotation rates. Focused on 4 key ratios, force and moment harmonic values (in 3 local principal directions) are extracted in the RWA operating range (0-3000 RPM). The IV test data, obtained under ambient lab conditions, are investigated in detail, evaluated, compiled, and curve-fitted; variational trends, core causes, and unforeseen anomalies are addressed. In aggregate, these values constitute a statistically-valid basis to quantify ground test-to-test variations and facilitate extrapolations to on-orbit conditions. Accumulated knowledge of bearing-rotor vibrational sources, corresponding harmonic contributions, and salient elements of IV key variability factors are discussed. An evolved methodology is presented for absolute assessments and relative comparisons of macro-level IV signal magnitude due to micro-level construction-assembly geometric details/imperfections stemming from both electrical drive and primary bearing design parameters. Based upon studies of same-size/similar-design momentum wheels' IV changes, upper estimates due to transitions from ground tests to orbital conditions are derived. Recommended HST RWA choices are discussed relative to system optimization/tradeoffs of Line-Of-Sight (LOS) vector-pointing focal-plane error driven by higher IV transmissibilities through low-damped structural dynamics that stimulate optical elements. Unique analytical disturbance results for orbital HST accelerations are described applicable to microgravity efforts. Conclusions, lessons learned, historical context/insights, and perspectives on future applications

  14. Flat-space singletons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronsdal, C.

    1987-01-01

    Singletons exist, as particles and as local fields, only in 3+2 de Sitter space. Their kinematical properties make them natural candidates for constituents of massless fields, and perhaps for quarks. It is interesting to find out how to describe this type of compositeness in flat space. A theory of interacting singleton fields in de Sitter space is now available, and in this paper we study the flat-space limit of the Green's functions of that theory. The flat-space limit is an autonomous theory of Green's functions, but is not an operator field theory. The three-point function is calculated and its flat-space limit is found to reveal glimpses of a physical interpretation. Causal and spectral properties are in accord with the tenets of axiomatic field theory. The theory is a generalization of local field theory, in which photons appear as composite objects although the physical S matrix is the same as in conventional QED

  15. Investigation on iterative multiuser detection physical layer network coding in two-way relay free-space optical links with turbulences and pointing errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Almaalie, Zina; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Bhatnagar, Manav R; Le-Minh, Hoa; Aslam, Nauman; Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Lee, It Ee

    2016-11-20

    Physical layer network coding (PNC) improves the throughput in wireless networks by enabling two nodes to exchange information using a minimum number of time slots. The PNC technique is proposed for two-way relay channel free space optical (TWR-FSO) communications with the aim of maximizing the utilization of network resources. The multipair TWR-FSO is considered in this paper, where a single antenna on each pair seeks to communicate via a common receiver aperture at the relay. Therefore, chip interleaving is adopted as a technique to separate the different transmitted signals at the relay node to perform PNC mapping. Accordingly, this scheme relies on the iterative multiuser technique for detection of users at the receiver. The bit error rate (BER) performance of the proposed system is examined under the combined influences of atmospheric loss, turbulence-induced channel fading, and pointing errors (PEs). By adopting the joint PNC mapping with interleaving and multiuser detection techniques, the BER results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a significant performance improvement against the degrading effects of turbulences and PEs. It is also demonstrated that a larger number of simultaneous users can be supported with this new scheme in establishing a communication link between multiple pairs of nodes in two time slots, thereby improving the channel capacity.

  16. Comparison of Laser and Stereo Optical, SAR and InSAR Point Clouds from Air- and Space-Borne Sources in the Retrieval of Forest Inventory Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is anticipated that many of the future forest mapping applications will be based on three-dimensional (3D point clouds. A comparison study was conducted to verify the explanatory power and information contents of several 3D remote sensing data sources on the retrieval of above ground biomass (AGB, stem volume (VOL, basal area (G, basal-area weighted mean diameter (Dg and Lorey’s mean height (Hg at the plot level, utilizing the following data: synthetic aperture radar (SAR Interferometry, SAR radargrammetry, satellite-imagery having stereo viewing capability, airborne laser scanning (ALS with various densities (0.8–6 pulses/m2 and aerial stereo imagery. Laser scanning is generally known as the primary source providing a 3D point cloud. However, photogrammetric, radargrammetric and interferometric techniques can be used to produce 3D point clouds from space- and air-borne stereo images. Such an image-based point cloud could be utilized in a similar manner as ALS providing that accurate digital terrain model is available. In this study, the performance of these data sources for providing point cloud data was evaluated with 91 sample plots that were established in Evo, southern Finland within a boreal forest zone and surveyed in 2014 for this comparison. The prediction models were built using random forests technique with features derived from each data sources as independent variables and field measurements of forest attributes as response variable. The relative root mean square errors (RMSEs varied in the ranges of 4.6% (0.97 m–13.4% (2.83 m for Hg, 11.7% (3.0 cm–20.6% (5.3 cm for Dg, 14.8% (4.0 m2/ha–25.8% (6.9 m2/ha for G, 15.9% (43.0 m3/ha–31.2% (84.2 m3/ha for VOL and 14.3% (19.2 Mg/ha–27.5% (37.0 Mg/ha for AGB, respectively, depending on the data used. Results indicate that ALS data achieved the most accurate estimates for all forest inventory attributes. For image-based 3D data, high-altitude aerial images and WorldView-2

  17. DETERMINATION OF ANALYTICAL CALCULATION ERROR OF MAGNETIC FIELD OF HIGH-VOLTAGE CABLE LINES WITH TWO-POINT BONDED CABLE SHIELDS CAUSED BY NON-UNIFORM CURRENT DISTRIBUTION IN THE SHIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2017-06-01

    examined HVCAS. Originality. New engineering approach is developed for the approximate calculation and estimation of energy dissipation and electric erosion of basic metallic electrodes in HVCAS. A formula is firstly got for approximate calculation unchanging in the process of swaying or aperiodic discharge of CSE HVES on the electric loading of active resistance of impulsive air spark between the electrodes of probed HVCAS. Practical value. Drawing on the got results in a high-voltage impulsive technique provides operative implementation of calculation of balance of electric energy in the high-current circuit of HVES with powerful CSE and point electric load, and also prognostication of the technical state of workings surfaces of massive basic metallic electrodes of HVCAS.

  18. Shielding calculations and collective dose estimations with the point-kernel-code VISIPLAN {sup registered} for the example of the project ZENT; Abschirmberechnungen und Kollektivdosisabschaetzungen mit dem Punkt-Kern-Code VISIPLAN {sup registered} am Beispiel des Projektes ZENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlke, S.; Niegoth, H. [STEAG Energy Services GmbH, Essen (Germany). Nuclear Technologies; Stalder, I. [Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt AG, Leibstadt (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    In the nuclear power plant Leibstadt (KKL) during the next year large components will be dismantled and stored for final disposal within the interim storage facility ZENT at the NPP site. Before construction of ZENT appropriate estimations of the local dose rate inside and outside the building and the collective dose for the normal operation have to be performed. The shielding calculations are based on the properties of the stored components and radiation sources and on the concepts for working place requirements. The installation of control and monitoring areas will depend on these calculations. For the determination of the shielding potential of concrete walls and steel doors with the defined boundary conditions point-kernel codes like MICROSHIELd {sup registered} are used. Complex problems cannot be modeled with this code. Therefore the point-kernel code VISIPLAN {sup registered} was developed for the determination of the local dose distribution functions in 3D models. The possibility of motion sequence inputs allows an optimization of collective dose estimations for the operational phases of a nuclear facility.

  19. Calculation of the counting efficiency for extended sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korun, M.; Vidmar, T.

    2002-01-01

    A computer program for calculation of efficiency calibration curves for extended samples counted on gamma- and X ray spectrometers is described. The program calculates efficiency calibration curves for homogeneous cylindrical samples placed coaxially with the symmetry axis of the detector. The method of calculation is based on integration over the sample volume of the efficiencies for point sources measured in free space on an equidistant grid of points. The attenuation of photons within the sample is taken into account using the self-attenuation function calculated with a two-dimensional detector model. (author)

  20. Systematic design of active spaces for multi-reference calculations of singlet-triplet gaps of organic diradicals, with benchmarks against doubly electron-attached coupled-cluster data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneburner, Samuel J.; Shen, Jun; Ajala, Adeayo O.; Piecuch, Piotr; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gagliardi, Laura

    2017-10-01

    Singlet-triplet gaps in diradical organic π-systems are of interest in many applications. In this study, we calculate them in a series of molecules, including cyclobutadiene and its derivatives and cyclopentadienyl cation, by using correlated participating orbitals within the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) self-consistent field frameworks, followed by second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2 and RASPT2). These calculations are evaluated by comparison with the results of doubly electron-attached (DEA) equation-of-motion (EOM) coupled-cluster (CC) calculations with up to 4-particle-2-hole (4p-2h) excitations. We find active spaces that can accurately reproduce the DEA-EOMCC(4p-2h) data while being small enough to be applicable to larger organic diradicals.

  1. Approximation of a Common Element of the Fixed Point Sets of Multivalued Strictly Pseudocontractive-Type Mappings and the Set of Solutions of an Equilibrium Problem in Hilbert Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Isiogugu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong convergence of a hybrid algorithm to a common element of the fixed point sets of multivalued strictly pseudocontractive-type mappings and the set of solutions of an equilibrium problem in Hilbert spaces is obtained using a strict fixed point set condition. The obtained results improve, complement, and extend the results on multivalued and single-valued mappings in the contemporary literature.

  2. Ewald Electrostatics for Mixtures of Point and Continuous Line Charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antila, Hanne S; Tassel, Paul R Van; Sammalkorpi, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Many charged macro- or supramolecular systems, such as DNA, are approximately rod-shaped and, to the lowest order, may be treated as continuous line charges. However, the standard method used to calculate electrostatics in molecular simulation, the Ewald summation, is designed to treat systems of point charges. We extend the Ewald concept to a hybrid system containing both point charges and continuous line charges. We find the calculated force between a point charge and (i) a continuous line charge and (ii) a discrete line charge consisting of uniformly spaced point charges to be numerically equivalent when the separation greatly exceeds the discretization length. At shorter separations, discretization induces deviations in the force and energy, and point charge-point charge correlation effects. Because significant computational savings are also possible, the continuous line charge Ewald method presented here offers the possibility of accurate and efficient electrostatic calculations.

  3. Simplified methodology for control cell constant calculations of the reactor cores for the space kinetics; Metodologia simplificada para calculos das constantes das celulas de controles dos nucleos de reatores para a cinetica espacial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rubens Souza dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    In this work is presented a methodology which focuses the distribution of neutron absorber rods in nuclear reactor power plants, for utilizing in space kinetic calculations, principally in the cluster ejection transients of control rods. A numerical model for macroscopic constant calculations based on the knowledge of the neutron flux without the control rods is proposed, as alternative to the analytical models, based on the hypothesis of the null current on the cell super boundaries. The proposed model in this work has itself showed adequate to deal with problems with strong space dependence, once that the model showed consistence in the global average built in the analytical model. (author)

  4. Full-dimensional quantum calculations of the dissociation energy, zero-point, and 10 K properties of H7+/D7+ clusters using an ab initio potential energy surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, Patricia; Pérez de Tudela, Ricardo; Qu, Chen; Prosmiti, Rita; Bowman, Joel M

    2013-07-14

    Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) and path-integral Monte Carlo computations of the vibrational ground state and 10 K equilibrium state properties of the H7 (+)/D7 (+) cations are presented, using an ab initio full-dimensional potential energy surface. The DMC zero-point energies of dissociated fragments H5 (+)(D5 (+))+H2(D2) are also calculated and from these results and the electronic dissociation energy, dissociation energies, D0, of 752 ± 15 and 980 ± 14 cm(-1) are reported for H7 (+) and D7 (+), respectively. Due to the known error in the electronic dissociation energy of the potential surface, these quantities are underestimated by roughly 65 cm(-1). These values are rigorously determined for first time, and compared with previous theoretical estimates from electronic structure calculations using standard harmonic analysis, and available experimental measurements. Probability density distributions are also computed for the ground vibrational and 10 K state of H7 (+) and D7 (+). These are qualitatively described as a central H3 (+)/D3 (+) core surrounded by "solvent" H2/D2 molecules that nearly freely rotate.

  5. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  6. Gravity mediated Dark Matter models in the de Sitter space

    OpenAIRE

    Vancea, Ion V.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the simplified Dark Matter models with graviton mediator to the curved space-time, in particular to the de Sitter space. We obtain the generating functional of the Green's functions in the Euclidean de Sitter space for the covariant free gravitons. We determine the generating functional of the interacting theory between Dark Matter particles and the covariant gravitons. Also, we calculate explicitly the 2-point and 3-point interacting Green's functions for the sym...

  7. A small mission concept to the Sun-Earth Lagrangian L5 point for innovative solar, heliospheric and space weather science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lavraud, B.; Liu, Y.; Segura, K.; He, J.; Qin, G.; Temmer, M.; Vial, J. C.; Xiong, M.; Davies, J. A.; Rouillard, A. P.; Pinto, R.; Auchere, F.; Harrison, R. A.; Eyles, C.; Gan, W.; Lamy, P.; Xia, L.; Eastwood, J. P.; Kong, L.; Wang, J.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Zhang, S.; Zong, Q.; Souček, Jan; An, J.; Přech, J.; Zhang, A.; Rochus, P.; Bothmer, V.; Janvier, M.; Maksimovic, M.; Escoubet, C. P.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Tappin, J.; Vainio, R.; Poedts, S.; Dunlop, M. W.; Savani, N.; Gopalswamy, N.; Bale, S. D.; Howard, T.; DeForest, C.; Webb, D.; Lugaz, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; Dalmasse, K.; Tallineau, J.; Vranken, D.; Fernández, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 146, August (2016), s. 171-185 ISSN 1364-6826 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH15304 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : space mission * coronal mass ejections * instrumentation * space weather Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364682616301456

  8. OECD/NEZ Main Steam Line Break Benchmark Problem Exercise I Simulation Using the SPACE Code with the Point Kinetics Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yohan; Kim, Seyun; Ha, Sangjun

    2014-01-01

    The Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants (SPACE) has been developed in recent years by the Korea Nuclear Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP) through collaborative works with other Korean nuclear industries. The SPACE is a best-estimated two-phase three-field thermal-hydraulic analysis code to analyze the safety and performance of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SPACE code has sufficient features to replace outdated vendor supplied codes and to be used for the safety analysis of operating PWRs and the design of advanced reactors. As a result of the second phase of the development, the 2.14 version of the code was released through the successive various V and V works. The topical reports on the code and related safety analysis methodologies have been prepared for license works. In this study, the OECD/NEA Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) Benchmark Problem Exercise I was simulated as a V and V work. The results were compared with those of the participants in the benchmark project. The OECD/NEA MSLB Benchmark Problem Exercise I was simulated using the SPACE code. The results were compared with those of the participants in the benchmark project. Through the simulation, it was concluded that the SPACE code can effectively simulate PWR MSLB accidents

  9. High resolution measurements supported by electronic structure calculations of two naphthalene derivatives: [1,5]- and [1,6]-naphthyridine—Estimation of the zero point inertial defect for planar polycyclic aromatic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruet, S., E-mail: sebastien.gruet@synchrotron-soleil.fr, E-mail: manuel.goubet@univ-lille1.fr; Pirali, O. [AILES Beamline, Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Institut des Sciences Moléculaires d’Orsay, UMR 8214 CNRS – Université Paris Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Goubet, M., E-mail: sebastien.gruet@synchrotron-soleil.fr, E-mail: manuel.goubet@univ-lille1.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molécules, UMR 8523 CNRS – Université Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex (France)

    2014-06-21

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) molecules are suspected to be present in the interstellar medium and to participate to the broad and unresolved emissions features, the so-called unidentified infrared bands. In the laboratory, very few studies report the rotationally resolved structure of such important class of molecules. In the present work, both experimental and theoretical approaches provide the first accurate determination of the rotational energy levels of two diazanaphthalene: [1,5]- and [1,6]-naphthyridine. [1,6]-naphthyridine has been studied at high resolution, in the microwave (MW) region using a Fourier transform microwave spectrometer and in the far-infrared (FIR) region using synchrotron-based Fourier transform spectroscopy. The very accurate set of ground state (GS) constants deduced from the analysis of the MW spectrum allowed the analysis of the most intense modes in the FIR (ν{sub 38}-GS centered at about 483 cm{sup −1} and ν{sub 34}-GS centered at about 842 cm{sup −1}). In contrast with [1,6]-naphthyridine, pure rotation spectroscopy of [1,5]-naphthyridine cannot be performed for symmetry reasons so the combined study of the two intense FIR modes (ν{sub 22}-GS centered at about 166 cm{sup −1} and ν{sub 18}-GS centered at about 818 cm{sup −1}) provided the GS and the excited states constants. Although the analysis of the very dense rotational patterns for such large molecules remains very challenging, relatively accurate anharmonic density functional theory calculations appeared as a highly relevant supporting tool to the analysis for both molecules. In addition, the good agreement between the experimental and calculated infrared spectrum shows that the present theoretical approach should provide useful data for the astrophysical models. Moreover, inertial defects calculated in the GS (Δ{sub GS}) of both molecules exhibit slightly negative values as previously observed for planar species of this molecular family. We adjusted

  10. The Lagrangian Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, J. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    There are five unique points in a star/planet system where a satellite can be placed whose orbital period is equal to that of the planet. Simple methods for calculating the positions of these points, or at least justifying their existence, are developed.

  11. Point Genetics: A New Concept to Assess Neutron Kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein Meulekamp, R.; Kuijper, J.C.; Schikorr, M.

    2005-01-01

    Point genetic equations are introduced. These equations are similar to the well-known point kinetic equations but characterize and couple individual fission generations in subcritical systems. Point genetic equations are able to describe dynamic behavior of source-driven subcritical systems on shorter timescales than is possible with point kinetic equations. Point genetic parameters can be used as a first-order characterization of the system and can be calculated using standard Monte Carlo techniques; the implementation in other calculational schemes seems straightforward. A Godiva sphere is considered to show the applicability of the point genetic equations in describing a detector response on short timescales. For this system the point genetic parameters are calculated and compared with reference calculations. Typical dynamic source behavior is considered by studying a transient in which the neutron source energy decreases from 20 to 1 MeV. For all cases studied, the point genetic equations are compared to full space-time kinetic solutions, and it is shown that point genetics performs well

  12. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  13. Calculation of exact vibrational spectra for P{sub 2}O and CH{sub 2}NH using a phase space wavelet basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Thomas, E-mail: tom.halverson@ttu.edu; Poirier, Bill [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, P.O. Box 41061, Lubbock, Texas 79409-1061 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    ‘‘Exact” quantum dynamics calculations of vibrational spectra are performed for two molecular systems of widely varying dimensionality (P{sub 2}O and CH{sub 2}NH), using a momentum-symmetrized Gaussian basis. This basis has been previously shown to defeat exponential scaling of computational cost with system dimensionality. The calculations were performed using the new “SWITCHBLADE” black-box code, which utilizes both dimensionally independent algorithms and massive parallelization to compute very large numbers of eigenstates for any fourth-order force field potential, in a single calculation. For both molecules considered here, many thousands of vibrationally excited states were computed, to at least an “intermediate” level of accuracy (tens of wavenumbers). Future modifications to increase the accuracy to “spectroscopic” levels, along with other potential future improvements of the new code, are also discussed.

  14. Methods for Melting Temperature Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Qi-Jun

    Melting temperature calculation has important applications in the theoretical study of phase diagrams and computational materials screenings. In this thesis, we present two new methods, i.e., the improved Widom's particle insertion method and the small-cell coexistence method, which we developed in order to capture melting temperatures both accurately and quickly. We propose a scheme that drastically improves the efficiency of Widom's particle insertion method by efficiently sampling cavities while calculating the integrals providing the chemical potentials of a physical system. This idea enables us to calculate chemical potentials of liquids directly from first-principles without the help of any reference system, which is necessary in the commonly used thermodynamic integration method. As an example, we apply our scheme, combined with the density functional formalism, to the calculation of the chemical potential of liquid copper. The calculated chemical potential is further used to locate the melting temperature. The calculated results closely agree with experiments. We propose the small-cell coexistence method based on the statistical analysis of small-size coexistence MD simulations. It eliminates the risk of a metastable superheated solid in the fast-heating method, while also significantly reducing the computer cost relative to the traditional large-scale coexistence method. Using empirical potentials, we validate the method and systematically study the finite-size effect on the calculated melting points. The method converges to the exact result in the limit of a large system size. An accuracy within 100 K in melting temperature is usually achieved when the simulation contains more than 100 atoms. DFT examples of Tantalum, high-pressure Sodium, and ionic material NaCl are shown to demonstrate the accuracy and flexibility of the method in its practical applications. The method serves as a promising approach for large-scale automated material screening in which

  15. First principles calculations of point defect diffusion in CdS buffer layers: Implications for Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(Se,S){sub 4}-based thin-film photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varley, J. B.; Lordi, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); He, X.; Rockett, A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We investigate point defects in CdS buffer layers that may arise from intermixing with Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGSe) or Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S,Se){sub 4} (CZTSSe) absorber layers in thin-film photovoltaics (PV). Using hybrid functional calculations, we characterize the migration barriers of Cu, In, Ga, Se, Sn, Zn, Na, and K impurities and assess the activation energies necessary for their diffusion into the bulk of the buffer. We find that Cu, In, and Ga are the most mobile defects in CIGS-derived impurities, with diffusion expected to proceed into the buffer via interstitial-hopping and cadmium vacancy-assisted mechanisms at temperatures ∼400 °C. Cu is predicted to strongly favor migration paths within the basal plane of the wurtzite CdS lattice, which may facilitate defect clustering and ultimately the formation of Cu-rich interfacial phases as observed by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic elemental maps in real PV devices. Se, Zn, and Sn defects are found to exhibit much larger activation energies and are not expected to diffuse within the CdS bulk at temperatures compatible with typical PV processing temperatures. Lastly, we find that Na interstitials are expected to exhibit slightly lower activation energies than K interstitials despite having a larger migration barrier. Still, we find both alkali species are expected to diffuse via an interstitially mediated mechanism at slightly higher temperatures than enable In, Ga, and Cu diffusion in the bulk. Our results indicate that processing temperatures in excess of ∼400 °C will lead to more interfacial intermixing with CdS buffer layers in CIGSe devices, and less so for CZTSSe absorbers where only Cu is expected to significantly diffuse into the buffer.

  16. ZOCO VI - a computer code to calculate the time- and space-dependent pressure distribution in full pressure containments of water-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfeld, G.

    1974-12-01

    ZOCO VI is a computer code to investigate the time and space dependent pressure distribution in full pressure containment of water cooled nuclear power reactors following a loss-of-coolant accident, which is caused by the rupture of a main coolant or steam line. ZOCO VI is an improved version of the computer code ZOCO V with enlarged description of condensing events. (orig.) [de

  17. An examination of the concept of driving point receptance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, X.; He, Y.; Zhong, T.

    2018-04-01

    In the field of vibration, driving point receptance is a well-established and widely applied concept. However, as demonstrated in this paper, when a driving point receptance is calculated using the finite element (FE) method with solid elements, it does not converge as the FE mesh becomes finer, suggesting that there is a singularity. Hence, the concept of driving point receptance deserves a rigorous examination. In this paper, it is firstly shown that, for a point harmonic force applied on the surface of an elastic half-space, the Boussinesq formula can be applied to calculate the displacement amplitude of the surface if the response point is sufficiently close to the load. Secondly, by applying the Betti reciprocal theorem, it is shown that the displacement of an elastic body near a point harmonic force can be decomposed into two parts, with the first one being the displacement of an elastic half-space. This decomposition is useful, since it provides a solid basis for the introduction of a contact spring between a wheel and a rail in interaction. However, according to the Boussinesq formula, this decomposition also leads to the conclusion that a driving point receptance is infinite (singular), and would be undefinable. Nevertheless, driving point receptances have been calculated using different methods. Since the singularity identified in this paper was not appreciated, no account was given to the singularity in these calculations. Thus, the validity of these calculation methods must be examined. This constructs the third part of the paper. As the final development of the paper, the above decomposition is utilised to define and determine driving point receptances required for dealing with wheel/rail interactions.

  18. Declination Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Declination is calculated using the current International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) model. Declination is calculated using the current World Magnetic Model...

  19. Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas

    2006-01-01

    We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....

  20. Dose calculations at high altitudes and in deep space with GEANT4 using BIC and JQMD models for nucleus-nucleus reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihver, L; Mancusi, D; Matthiae, D; Koi, T

    2008-01-01

    Radiation exposure of aircrew is more and more recognized as an occupational hazard. The ionizing environment at standard commercial aircraft flight altitudes consists mainly of secondary particles, of which the neutrons give a major contribution to the dose equivalent. Accurate estimations of neutron spectra in the atmosphere are therefore essential for correct calculations of aircrew doses. Energetic solar particle events (SPE) could also lead to significantly increased dose rates, especially at routes close to the North Pole, e.g. for flights between Europe and USA. It is also well known that the radiation environment encountered by personnel aboard low Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft or aboard a spacecraft traveling outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere is much harsher compared with that within the atmosphere since the personnel are exposed to radiation from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPE. The relative contribution to the dose from GCR when traveling outside the Earth's magnetosphere, e.g. to the Moon or Mars, is even greater, and reliable and accurate particle and heavy ion transport codes are essential to calculate the radiation risks for both aircrew and personnel on spacecraft. We have therefore performed calculations of neutron distributions in the atmosphere, total dose equivalents, and quality factors at different depths in a water sphere in an imaginary spacecraft during solar minimum in a geosynchronous orbit. The calculations were performed with the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) code using both the binary cascade (BIC) model, which is part of the standard GEANT4 package, and the JQMD model, which is used in the particle and heavy ion transport code PHITS GEANT4.

  1. Dose calculations at high altitudes and in deep space with GEANT4 using BIC and JQMD models for nucleus nucleus reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihver, L.; Matthiä, D.; Koi, T.; Mancusi, D.

    2008-10-01

    Radiation exposure of aircrew is more and more recognized as an occupational hazard. The ionizing environment at standard commercial aircraft flight altitudes consists mainly of secondary particles, of which the neutrons give a major contribution to the dose equivalent. Accurate estimations of neutron spectra in the atmosphere are therefore essential for correct calculations of aircrew doses. Energetic solar particle events (SPE) could also lead to significantly increased dose rates, especially at routes close to the North Pole, e.g. for flights between Europe and USA. It is also well known that the radiation environment encountered by personnel aboard low Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft or aboard a spacecraft traveling outside the Earth's protective magnetosphere is much harsher compared with that within the atmosphere since the personnel are exposed to radiation from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and SPE. The relative contribution to the dose from GCR when traveling outside the Earth's magnetosphere, e.g. to the Moon or Mars, is even greater, and reliable and accurate particle and heavy ion transport codes are essential to calculate the radiation risks for both aircrew and personnel on spacecraft. We have therefore performed calculations of neutron distributions in the atmosphere, total dose equivalents, and quality factors at different depths in a water sphere in an imaginary spacecraft during solar minimum in a geosynchronous orbit. The calculations were performed with the GEANT4 Monte Carlo (MC) code using both the binary cascade (BIC) model, which is part of the standard GEANT4 package, and the JQMD model, which is used in the particle and heavy ion transport code PHITS GEANT4.

  2. Lagrangian Investigation of Auto-ignition in a Hydrogen Jet Flame in a Vitiated Co-flow: Animations of Particle Trajectories in Composition Space from PDF Model Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haifeng; Pope, Stephen B.

    2007-01-01

    PDF model calculations have been performed of the Cabra lifted hydrogen flame in a vitiated co-flow. Particle trajectories are extracted from the Lagrangian particle method used to solve the modeled PDF equation. The particle trajectories in the mixture fraction-temperature plane reveal (at successive downstream locations): essentially inert mixing between the cold fuel jet and the hot co-flow; the auto-ignition of very lean particles; and, subsequent mixing and reaction, leading to near-equi...

  3. Assessment of time-dependent density functional theory with the restricted excitation space approximation for excited state calculations of large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson-Heine, Magnus W. D.; George, Michael W.; Besley, Nicholas A.

    2018-06-01

    The restricted excitation subspace approximation is explored as a basis to reduce the memory storage required in linear response time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is shown that excluding the core orbitals and up to 70% of the virtual orbitals in the construction of the excitation subspace does not result in significant changes in computed UV/vis spectra for large molecules. The reduced size of the excitation subspace greatly reduces the size of the subspace vectors that need to be stored when using the Davidson procedure to determine the eigenvalues of the TDDFT equations. Furthermore, additional screening of the two-electron integrals in combination with a reduction in the size of the numerical integration grid used in the TDDFT calculation leads to significant computational savings. The use of these approximations represents a simple approach to extend TDDFT to the study of large systems and make the calculations increasingly tractable using modest computing resources.

  4. Optimal configuration of spatial points in the reactor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, T.

    1968-01-01

    Optimal configuration of spatial points was chosen in respect to the total number needed for integration of reactions in the reactor cell. Previously developed code VESTERN was used for numerical verification of the method on a standard reactor cell. The code applies the collision probability method for calculating the neutron flux distribution. It is shown that the total number of spatial points is twice smaller than the respective number of spatial zones needed for determination of number of reactions in the cell, with the preset precision. This result shows the direction for further condensing of the procedure for calculating the space-energy distribution of the neutron flux in a reactors cell [sr

  5. Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculated...... using a fit of the measured four-point resistances to an analytical two-sheet model. The validity of the approximation involved in the two-sheet model is verified by a comparison to finite element model calculations....

  6. Photoacoustic Point Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calasso, Irio G.; Craig, Walter; Diebold, Gerald J.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the photoacoustic effect generated by heat deposition at a point in space in an inviscid fluid. Delta-function and long Gaussian optical pulses are used as sources in the wave equation for the displacement potential to determine the fluid motion. The linear sound-generation mechanism gives bipolar photoacoustic waves, whereas the nonlinear mechanism produces asymmetric tripolar waves. The salient features of the photoacoustic point source are that rapid heat deposition and nonlinear thermal expansion dominate the production of ultrasound

  7. Accumulation patterns of proper point defects in thermo-regulating coatings based on ZnO for space vehicles under electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.M.; Sharafutdinova, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The expansion of the band of the induced absorption of zinc oxide powders and thermo-regulating coatings based on ZnO for space vehicles is carried out after the 30 keV electron irradiation. Singularities of the growth of the intensity of individual components as a function of the accelerated electron flow are studied. It is found that power and exponential dependences with one or two components are characteristic for different color centers and different thermo-regulating coatings. The kinetics of the accumulation of free electrons is characterized by the maximum value of the electron flows at which the generation of color centers on pre-radiation defects is realized by the radiolysis of the pigment lattice

  8. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emission Rates from strong Point Sources by Space-borne IPDA Lidar Measurements: Results from a Sensitivity Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, G.; Kiemle, C.; Rapp, M.

    2017-12-01

    The practical implementation of the Paris Agreement (COP21) vastly profit from an independent, reliable and global measurement system of greenhouse gas emissions, in particular of CO2, in order to complement and cross-check national efforts. Most fossil-fuel CO2 emitters emanate from large sources such as cities and power plants. These emissions increase the local CO2 abundance in the atmosphere by 1-10 parts per million (ppm) which is a signal that is significantly larger than the variability from natural sources and sinks over the local source domain. Despite these large signals, they are only sparsely sampled by the ground-based network which calls for satellite measurements. However, none of the existing and forthcoming passive satellite instruments, operating in the NIR spectral domain, can measure CO2 emissions at night time or in low sunlight conditions and in high latitude regions in winter times. The resulting sparse coverage of passive spectrometers is a serious limitation, particularly for the Northern Hemisphere, since these regions exhibit substantial emissions during the winter as well as other times of the year. In contrast, CO2 measurements by an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Lidar are largely immune to these limitations and initial results from airborne application look promising. In this study, we discuss the implication for a space-borne IPDA Lidar system. A Gaussian plume model will be used to simulate the CO2-distribution of large power plants downstream to the source. The space-borne measurements are simulated by applying a simple forward model based on Gaussian error distribution. Besides the sampling frequency, the sampling geometry (e.g. measurement distance to the emitting source) and the error of the measurement itself vastly impact on the flux inversion performance. We will discuss the results by incorporating Gaussian plume and mass budget approaches to quantify the emission rates.

  9. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  11. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  12. Yield calculation of agricultural non-point source pollutants in Huntai River Basin based on SWAT model%基于SWAT模型的浑太河流域农业面源污染物产生量估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付意成; 臧文斌; 董飞; 付敏; 张剑

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of non-point source pollutants output load model under the mode of rainfall-runoff and land use, the analog calculation of agricultural non-point source pollutants in the process of migration and transformation, and the systematic analysis of non-point source pollutants discharge quantity, distribution and composition characteristics are based on actual monitoring data, calibration and validation model, in consideration of underlying surface, hydrology and meteorology, and physical features of Huntai River basin. The areas 1 km away from each side of master stream Huntai River, Taizihe River and Daliaohe River and 5 km away from reservoir were defined as buffer zone, where the mode of land use was transformed so as to restore the natural ecosystem. The process of pollutant migration and conversion was simulated based on the calibration of key hydrological parameters, and the causes as well as the migratory features of non-point source pollution were investigated. The primary area of water environment pollution was mainly distributed along both sides of the water channel of the mainstreams of Huntai River. The point-source pollutant was mainly related to the distribution of industry and the amount of discharged wastewater. The risk of non-point pollution was mainly related to the pattern of agricultural plantation and farmland utilization. The secondary area of water environment pollution was mainly distributed along both sides of the water channel of tributaries. Therefore, the situation of pollutant production corresponding to the intra-regional regulation of industrial structure, land utilization pattern surrounding the water channel should be highlighted. The non-point pollution in Huntai watershed was dominated by farmland pollution, and the main indices of pollutants were total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P). The contribution rate of pollutants was farmland runoff > livestock and poultry breeding > urban runoff > water and soil erosion

  13. Model calculations of the space and time distribution of cooling tower clouds on the basis of aerological data delivered by the German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudolf, B.

    1983-01-01

    Based on a large amount of aerological data, the simulation model for cooling tower cloud propagation Smoka has been used to allow for a statistical evaluation of the influence of cooling towers. In addition to local differences, the annual and daily variations in the formation of clouds can be obtained together with the dependence on the cloud coverage conditions and the cooling tower characteristics. With these model calculations of the cooling tower clouds, the respective decrease in sunshine duration can be evaluated. (orig.) [de

  14. Dew Point

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Shelly

    1999-01-01

    Dew Point was a solo exhibition originating at PriceWaterhouseCoopers Headquarters Gallery, London, UK and toured to the Centre de Documentacio i Museu Textil, Terrassa, Spain and Gallery Aoyama, Tokyo, Japan.

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  16. Tipping Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash ...

  17. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  18. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  19. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ... about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The force of a ...

  20. Computational analysis of the maximum power point for GaAs sub-cells in InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction space solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelletti, M A; Cédola, A P; Peltzer y Blancá, E L

    2014-01-01

    The radiation resistance in InGaP/GaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cells is limited by that of the middle GaAs sub-cell. In this work, the electrical performance degradation of different GaAs sub-cells under 1 MeV electron irradiation at fluences below 4 × 10 15 cm −2 has been analyzed by means of a computer simulation. The numerical simulations have been carried out using the one-dimensional device modeling program PC1D. The effects of the base and emitter carrier concentrations of the p- and n-type GaAs structures on the maximum power point have been researched using a radiative recombination lifetime, a damage constant for the minority carrier lifetime and carrier removal rate models. An analytical model has been proposed, which is useful to either determine the maximum exposure time or select the appropriate device in order to ensure that the electrical parameters of different GaAs sub-cells will have a satisfactory response to radiation since they will be kept above 80% with respect to the non-irradiated values. (paper)