WorldWideScience

Sample records for spacecraft sterilization technology

  1. Internet Technology on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project has shown that Internet technology works in space missions through a demonstration using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. An Internet Protocol (IP) stack was installed on the orbiting UoSAT-12 spacecraft and tests were run to demonstrate Internet connectivity and measure performance. This also forms the basis for demonstrating subsequent scenarios. This approach provides capabilities heretofore either too expensive or simply not feasible such as reconfiguration on orbit. The OMNI project recognized the need to reduce the risk perceived by mission managers and did this with a multi-phase strategy. In the initial phase, the concepts were implemented in a prototype system that includes space similar components communicating over the TDRS (space network) and the terrestrial Internet. The demonstration system includes a simulated spacecraft with sample instruments. Over 25 demonstrations have been given to mission and project managers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), contractor technologists and other decisions makers, This initial phase reached a high point with an OMNI demonstration given from a booth at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Inspection Day 99 exhibition. The proof to mission managers is provided during this second phase with year 2000 accomplishments: testing the use of Internet technologies onboard an actual spacecraft. This was done with a series of tests performed using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. This spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 6 months! On board software was modified to add an IP stack to support basic IP communications. Also added was support for ping, traceroute and network timing protocol (NTP) tests. These tests show that basic Internet functionality can be used onboard spacecraft. The performance of data was measured to show no degradation from current

  2. Radiation Fusion Technology for Sewage Sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M. J.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, S. H.; Jung, I. H.; Lee, O. M.; Kim, T. H.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental regulation for effluent of sewage and wastewater treatment plant is going to be reinforced in terms of ecology toxicity and number of E.coli from 2011. Besides, it has been known that UV technology is not enough to be a sterilization tool due to regrowth of E.coli even after treatment with UV. Therefore it needs a novel technology for both restriction of E.coli regrowth and treatment of toxic materials in order to meet the environmental regulation being enforced. Electron beam has unique capabilities on destruction of chemicals and sterilization of microbial. In this study, field study on destruction of antibiotics and endocrine disruptors, reduction ecological toxicity and E.Coli regrowth was carried out using by mobile electron beam accelerator. Experimental results showed that irradiation on effluent could effectively reduce not only ecology toxicity but regrowth of E.coli by destruction of chemicals and complete sterilization

  3. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  4. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    recently acquired a NASA field office within the Technology Lenter; that is staffed by Mr. Wa~ne Hudson. We take our guidance from Air Force...apogee of 4.6 % geocentric and a perigee of 650 )a altitude. The DR-1 Nigh Altitude Plama instrument (DAPI) consists of five electrostatic analyzers

  5. Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    A NASA engineer with the Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP) at Stennis Space Center works with students from W.P. Daniels High School in New Albany, Miss., through NASA's Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Program. CRSP is teaching students to use remote sensing to locate a potential site for a water reservoir to offset a predicted water shortage in the community's future.

  6. Spacecraft computer technology at Southwest Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed and delivered spacecraft computers for a number of different near-Earth-orbit spacecraft including shuttle experiments and SDIO free-flyer experiments. We describe the evolution of the basic SwRI spacecraft computer design from those weighing in at 20 to 25 lb and using 20 to 30 W to newer models weighing less than 5 lb and using only about 5 W, yet delivering twice the processing throughput. Because of their reduced size, weight, and power, these newer designs are especially applicable to planetary instrument requirements. The basis of our design evolution has been the availability of more powerful processor chip sets and the development of higher density packaging technology, coupled with more aggressive design strategies in incorporating high-density FPGA technology and use of high-density memory chips. In addition to reductions in size, weight, and power, the newer designs also address the necessity of survival in the harsh radiation environment of space. Spurred by participation in such programs as MSTI, LACE, RME, Delta 181, Delta Star, and RADARSAT, our designs have evolved in response to program demands to be small, low-powered units, radiation tolerant enough to be suitable for both Earth-orbit microsats and for planetary instruments. Present designs already include MIL-STD-1750 and Multi-Chip Module (MCM) technology with near-term plans to include RISC processors and higher-density MCM's. Long term plans include development of whole-core processors on one or two MCM's.

  7. Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology (SMART) Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Jaime; Flatley, Thomas P.; Bull, James B.; Buckley, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Department of Defense Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office are exercising a multi-year collaborative agreement focused on a redefinition of the way space missions are designed and implemented. A much faster, leaner and effective approach to space flight requires the concerted effort of a multi-agency team tasked with developing the building blocks, both programmatically and technologically, to ultimately achieve flights within 7-days from mission call-up. For NASA, rapid mission implementations represent an opportunity to find creative ways for reducing mission life-cycle times with the resulting savings in cost. This in tum enables a class of missions catering to a broader audience of science participants, from universities to private and national laboratory researchers. To that end, the SMART (Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology) micro-spacecraft prototype demonstrates an advanced avionics system with integrated GPS capability, high-speed plug-and-playable interfaces, legacy interfaces, inertial navigation, a modular reconfigurable structure, tunable thermal technology, and a number of instruments for environmental and optical sensing. Although SMART was first launched inside a sounding rocket, it is designed as a free-flyer.

  8. The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiating; Li Zhengkui; Zhao Yongfu; Zhang Weidong; Jin Jie; Wu Lei; Wang Xinghai

    2003-01-01

    The processing technology of bread crumbs sterilization by irradiation was studied. The results demonstrated that dose heterogeneity had osculatory connection with pile height and turning, sterilization effect had positive correlation with the irradiation dose and negative correlation with colour. Compared with the CK, the content of crud protein, fat, carbohydrate, microelement and amino acid in irradiated bread crumbs had no obvious change. It is recommended that the range of best sterilization dose be 6-10 kGy and the shelf time of bread crumbs be extended to one year

  9. A Technology Program that Rescues Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Lesh, J. R.

    2004-03-01

    There has never been a long-duration deep space mission that did not have unexpected problems during operations. JPL's Interplanetary Network Directorate (IND) Technology Program was created to develop new and improved methods of communication, navigation, and operations. A side benefit of the program is that it maintains a cadre of human talent and experimental systems that can be brought to bear on unexpected problems that may occur during mission operations. Solutions fall into four categories: applying new technology during operations to enhance science performance, developing new operational strategies, providing domain experts to help find solutions, and providing special facilities to trouble-shoot problems. These are illustrated here using five specific examples of spacecraft anomalies that have been solved using, at least in part, expertise or facilities from the IND Technology Program: Mariner 10, Voyager, Galileo, SOHO, and Cassini/Huygens. In this era of careful cost management, and emphasis on returns-on-investment, it is important to recognize this crucial additional benefit from such technology program investments.

  10. Belgian experience with radiation technologies for sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Dardenne, P.; Herier, A.

    1998-01-01

    Belgium pioneered in non energetic applications of nuclear science. In 1970, the National Institute for Radioisotopes (IRE) was founded on the ground of the experience acquired at the CEN/SCK, for developing nuclear techniques oriented to the well-being of population. In 1978 IRE started operation of 2 γ-irradiation units with a 2.25 million Ci Co 60 , source having a capacity for sterilization of more than 100 m 3 of product per day. this installation is currently operated by Griffith-Mediris (Group Griffith Micro Science) and has accumulated 20 years of experience for irradiation of foodstuffs, medical appliances and pharmaceuticals. In 1986, IRE was producing radioisotopes from accelerators and joined UCL for founding Ion Beam Applications (IBA) company which shortly became the world leader for design and delivery of cyclotrons. More recently, on the basis of French CEA patent, IBA developed the Rhodotron, an e-beam accelerator, with an X-ray option, which is now facing commercial success i area of ionization of food and medical appliances. IRE developed also expertise for the back-end of these activities i.e. final disposal of radioactive sealed source and dismantling of the installations. (author)

  11. The edible gelatin irradiation sterilization technology and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Junjie; Shi Jianjun; Shen Weiqiao

    2000-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray irradiation sterilization technology was used in treating edible gelatin and the irradiation effects on viscosity, protein and amino acid were studied. The results demonstrated that the irradiation dose had negative correlation with viscosity, and there were no damage effects on the gelatin with 360 days storage under room temperature. According to D 10 Value, the suitable irradiation dose should be 3-5 kGy

  12. The Manned Spacecraft Center and medical technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. S.; Pool, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    A number of medically oriented research and hardware development programs in support of manned space flights have been sponsored by NASA. Blood pressure measuring systems for use in spacecraft are considered. In some cases, complete new bioinstrumentation systems were necessary to accomplish a specific physiological study. Plans for medical research during the Skylab program are discussed along with general questions regarding space-borne health service systems and details concerning the Health Services Support Control Center.

  13. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C.; Condon, Kirsty C.; Dafa'alla, Tarig H.; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M.; Nimmo, Derric D.; O'Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E.; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander; Burton, Rosemary S.; Epton, Matthew J.; Gong, Peng

    2006-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  14. Genetic technologies to enhance the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphey, Luke; Baker, Pam; Condon, George C; Condon, Kirsty C; Dafa' alla, Tarig H; Fu, Guoliang; Jin, Li; Labbe, Genevieve; Morrison, Neil M; Nimmo, Derric D; O' Connell, Sinead; Phillips, Caroline E; Plackett, Andrew; Scaife, Sarah; Woods, Alexander [Oxitec Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Burton, Rosemary S; Epton, Matthew J; Gong, Peng [University of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Zoology

    2006-07-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) has been used very successfully against range of pest insects, including various tephritid fruit flies, several moths and a small number of livestock pests. However, modern genetics could potentially provide several improvements that would increase the cost-effectiveness of SIT, and extend the range of suitable species. These include improved identification of released individuals by incorporation of a stable, heritable, genetic marker; built-in sex separation (genetic sexing); reduction of the hazard posed by non-irradiated accidental releases from mass-rearing facility (fail-safe); elimination of the need for sterilization by irradiation (genetic sterilization). We discuss applications of these methods and the state of the art, at the time of this meeting, in developing suitable strains. We have demonstrated, in several key pest species, that the required strains can be constructed by introducing a repressible dominant lethal genetic system, a method known as RIDL(trade mark). Based on field experience with Medfly, incorporation of a genetic sexing system into SIT programs for other tephritids could potentially provide a very significant improvement in cost-effectiveness. We have now been able to make efficient female-lethal strains for Medfly. One advantage of our approach is that it should be possible rapidly to extend this technology to other fruit fly species; indeed we have recently been able also to make genetic sexing strains of Medfly (Anastrepha ludens). (author)

  15. Ad hoc laser networks component technology for modular spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiujun; Shi, Dele; Shen, Jingshi

    2017-10-01

    Distributed reconfigurable satellite is a new kind of spacecraft system, which is based on a flexible platform of modularization and standardization. Based on the module data flow analysis of the spacecraft, this paper proposes a network component of ad hoc Laser networks architecture. Low speed control network with high speed load network of Microwave-Laser communication mode, no mesh network mode, to improve the flexibility of the network. Ad hoc Laser networks component technology was developed, and carried out the related performance testing and experiment. The results showed that ad hoc Laser networks components can meet the demand of future networking between the module of spacecraft.

  16. Spacecraft TT&C and information transmission theory and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiaxing

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft TT&C and Information Transmission Theory and Technologies introduces the basic theory of spacecraft TT&C (telemetry, track and command) and information transmission. Combining TT&C and information transmission, the book presents several technologies for continuous wave radar including measurements for range, range rate and angle, analog and digital information transmissions, telecommand, telemetry, remote sensing and spread spectrum TT&C. For special problems occurred in the channels for TT&C and information transmission, the book represents radio propagation features and its impact on orbit measurement accuracy, and the effects caused by rain attenuation, atmospheric attenuation and multi-path effect, and polarization composition technology. This book can benefit researchers and engineers in the field of spacecraft TT&C and communication systems. Liu Jiaxing is a professor at The 10th Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation.

  17. Sterilization processes. Meeting the demands of today's health care technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, S

    1993-09-01

    Universal Precautions dictate sterilization for all invasive equipment that break the blood barrier; however, current methods of sterilization, such as steam and ethylene oxide gas (ETO), are not compatible with many of the delicate, heat-sensitive surgical instruments used in modern health care. In addition, traditional sterilization methods are often too time consuming for practical use in the operating room. Clearly, new sterilization processes need to be developed. In this article, the criteria modern sterilization processes must meet and how some manufacturers plan to meet this challenge are discussed. In addition, the pros and cons of using peracetic acid (the newest sterilization process currently available) are examined.

  18. Project Overview of the Naval Postgraduate School Spacecraft Architecture and Technology Demonstration Experiment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reuer, Charles

    2001-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School's current attempt at getting another spacecraft into orbit is focusing on Naval Postgraduate School Spacecraft Architecture and Technology Demonstration Experiment (NPSAT1...

  19. Fieldbus: technology application in a 60Co sterilization plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, D.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.

    2000-01-01

    Process instrumentation was made by pressure signals in the 1940s. In the 1960s, 4-20 mA analogue signals were introduced. The development of digital processors in the 1970s sparked the use of computers to monitor and control instruments from a central point. In the 1980s smart sensors were developed and implemented in digital control, microprocessor environments. Fieldbus is a generic-term that describes a new digital communications network. The network is a digital, bi-directional, multidrop, serial-bus, and communications network used to link isolated field devices, such as controllers, transducers, actuators and sensors. Fieldbus technology may improve quality, reduce costs and increase efficiency because information is transmitted digitally without analog to digital or digital to analog converters, which also minimizes hardware errors. Fieldbus communication is based on two-wire communication, interconnecting all the components in the system. This paper introduces Fieldbus technology in a 60 Co sterilization plant

  20. Update application and development of radiation sterilization technology on pharmacy eutical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Nanjing Univ., Nanjing; Wang Changbao; Wang Chao

    2006-01-01

    Since 'Standard of Radiation Sterilization by 60 Co Irradiator on Chinese Medicine' has been cleared, radiation sterilization technology obtains the widespread application on pharmacy. In this paper, the newest application and development of this technology on pharmacy are introduced from several aspects, such as dose control, drugs packing, the influence of radiation on functional ingredients and so on. Aimed at the current problem of radiation sterilization on pharmacy of our country, concrete measure is proposed. And the application of radiation sterilization on health food, enzyme preparation and controlled-release capsule is specially introduced. (authors)

  1. Customizing graphical user interface technology for spacecraft control centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Edward; Giancola, Peter; Gibson, Steven; Mahmot, Ronald

    1993-01-01

    The Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) project is applying the latest in graphical user interface technology to the spacecraft control center environment. This project of the Mission Operations Division's (MOD) Control Center Systems Branch (CCSB) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed an architecture for control centers which makes use of a distributed processing approach and the latest in Unix workstation technology. The TPOCC project is committed to following industry standards and using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware and software components wherever possible to reduce development costs and to improve operational support. TPOCC's most successful use of commercial software products and standards has been in the development of its graphical user interface. This paper describes TPOCC's successful use and customization of four separate layers of commercial software products to create a flexible and powerful user interface that is uniquely suited to spacecraft monitoring and control.

  2. Application of software technology to a future spacecraft computer design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labaugh, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine how major improvements in spacecraft computer systems can be obtained from recent advances in hardware and software technology. Investigations into integrated circuit technology indicated that the CMOS/SOS chip set being developed for the Air Force Avionics Laboratory at Wright Patterson had the best potential for improving the performance of spaceborne computer systems. An integral part of the chip set is the bit slice arithmetic and logic unit. The flexibility allowed by microprogramming, combined with the software investigations, led to the specification of a baseline architecture and instruction set.

  3. Study of fieldbus technology confiability when applied in a Sterilization plant control and safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karma, D.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.

    2001-01-01

    Several sterilization processes have been used in these years for treatment of countless products. Some processes use high temperatures, thermal shocks and chemical agents. With the discovery of the ionizing radiation and its posterior technological developments turned possible the application of that process, in 1960, also in the sterilization, denominated radiation sterilization. This process became also applied in another areas of health and industrial as food conservation, gemstones enhancement and others. The radiation sterilization requests an effective control and it needs a high level of safety. The commercial use of the computers applied in industrial automation provides and the domain of new technologies in this field provides news applications then new designs now is possible. The Fieldbus technology, a new digital communication protocol, like a Local Area Network, can be an alternative in the cobalt-60 irradiation plant. This paper show preliminary study about confiability in systems using Fieldbus technology. This technology was simulated in sterilization plant control and safety systems and the fail probability was quantified using Fail Tree Analysis Method. Fieldbus technology can be used in sterilization plants because the confiability in this systems is like PLCs and relays systems, was the conclusion

  4. Study of fieldbus technology applied in a sterilization plant control and safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam Junior, Dib

    2000-01-01

    Several sterilization processes have been used in these years for treatment of countless products. Some processes use high temperatures, thermal shocks and chemical agents. With the discovery of the ionizing radiation and its posterior technological developments turned possible application of that process, in 1960, also in the the sterilization, denominated radiation sterilization. This process became also applied in another areas of health and industrial as food conservation, gemstones enhancement and others. The radiation sterilization requests an effective control and it needs a high level of safety. The commercial use of the computers applied in industrial automation provides and the domain of new technologies in this field provides new applications then new designs now is possible. The Fieldbus technology, a new digital communication protocol, like a Local Area Network, can be an alternative in the cobalt-60 irradiation plant. The present work suggests, evaluates, qualifies and quantifies this possibility. (author)

  5. System Critical Design Audit (CDA). Books 1, 2 and 3; [Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI Lewis Spacecraft Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) Lewis Spacecraft Program is evaluated. Spacecraft integration, test, launch, and spacecraft bus are discussed. Payloads and technology demonstrations are presented. Mission data management system and ground segment are also addressed.

  6. Conceptual Design of an Electric Sail Technology Demonstration Mission Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2017-01-01

    , 3) Controllability of the space-craft via a voltage bias to steer itself through the solar system to destinations of discovery. These activities once demonstrated analytically, will require a technology demonstration mission (TDM) around the year2020 to demonstrate that all systems work together seamlessly before a Heliophysics Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) mission could be initiated. A notional TDM spacecraft that meets the requirements of such a mission will be showcased in this paper.

  7. Evaluation of Brine Processing Technologies for Spacecraft Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Hali L.; Flynn, Michael; Wisniewski, Richard; Lee, Jeffery; Jones, Harry; Delzeit, Lance; Shull, Sarah; Sargusingh, Miriam; Beeler, David; Howard, Jeanie; hide

    2015-01-01

    Brine drying systems may be used in spaceflight. There are several advantages to using brine processing technologies for long-duration human missions including a reduction in resupply requirements and achieving high water recovery ratios. The objective of this project was to evaluate four technologies for the drying of spacecraft water recycling system brine byproducts. The technologies tested were NASA's Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD), Paragon's Ionomer Water Processor (IWP), NASA's Brine Evaporation Bag (BEB) System, and UMPQUA's Ultrasonic Brine Dewatering System (UBDS). The purpose of this work was to evaluate the hardware using feed streams composed of brines similar to those generated on board the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. The brine formulations used for testing were the ISS Alternate Pretreatment and Solution 2 (Alt Pretreat). The brines were generated using the Wiped-film Rotating-disk (WFRD) evaporator, which is a vapor compression distillation system that is used to simulate the function of the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). Each system was evaluated based on the results from testing and Equivalent System Mass (ESM) calculations. A Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix was also developed as a method to compare the different technologies based on customer and engineering requirements.

  8. Evaluation of spacecraft technology programs (effects on communication satellite business ventures), volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenburg, J. S.; Kaplan, M.; Fishman, J.; Hopkins, C.

    1985-01-01

    The computational procedures used in the evaluation of spacecraft technology programs that impact upon commercial communication satellite operations are discussed. Computer programs and data bases are described.

  9. Development of sterilized porridge for patients by combined treatment of food technology with radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; Song, Beomseok

    2010-09-01

    This research was conducted to develop patient foods of high quality using a radiation fusion technology with food processing. Radiation technique to increase calorie of porridge was established, and it was investigated that radiation effects on functional materials, which can could be added to increase functionality of patient foods. Moreover, sterilized semi-fluid meal (milk porridge) for patients with higher calorie was developed by a sterilization process by gamma irradiation, combined treatments to improve the sensory qualities, and fortification with various nutrients. Also, sensory survey on irradiated commercial patient foods was performed to find the problems and improvement points of the developed products. Optimal packaging material was selected by evaluation of effect of irradiation in packaging materials and a convenient package for consuming by patients was decided. Safety of the irradiated milk porridge was confirmed by in-vivo genotoxicological test, and its nutritional composition for patients was evaluated by nutritional analysis. Finally, the milk porridge was developed as liquid, dried, powdered, and pellet type products. This research may contribute to improve life quality of patients by supplement of various foods with high quality to immuno-compromised patients. Furthermore, economic profits and technological advances are expected by commercialization of the patient foods

  10. Development of sterilized porridge for patients by combined treatment of food technology with radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaehun; Choi, Jongil; Song, Beomseok; and others

    2010-09-15

    This research was conducted to develop patient foods of high quality using a radiation fusion technology with food processing. Radiation technique to increase calorie of porridge was established, and it was investigated that radiation effects on functional materials, which can could be added to increase functionality of patient foods. Moreover, sterilized semi-fluid meal (milk porridge) for patients with higher calorie was developed by a sterilization process by gamma irradiation, combined treatments to improve the sensory qualities, and fortification with various nutrients. Also, sensory survey on irradiated commercial patient foods was performed to find the problems and improvement points of the developed products. Optimal packaging material was selected by evaluation of effect of irradiation in packaging materials and a convenient package for consuming by patients was decided. Safety of the irradiated milk porridge was confirmed by in-vivo genotoxicological test, and its nutritional composition for patients was evaluated by nutritional analysis. Finally, the milk porridge was developed as liquid, dried, powdered, and pellet type products. This research may contribute to improve life quality of patients by supplement of various foods with high quality to immuno-compromised patients. Furthermore, economic profits and technological advances are expected by commercialization of the patient foods.

  11. Better health care: Ghana uses radiation technology to sterilize medical items

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2015-01-01

    Infections acquired from improperly sterilized equipment are recognized as a major impediment to safe health care delivery, with consequences that are often deadly for patients. Radiation technology plays a major role in many countries in making medical equipment safer. “The use of nuclear applications, such as exposing medical items to gamma radiation, helps Ghana protect its people from avoidable sicknesses that can occur if items like syringes are not properly sterilized,” said Abraham Adu-Gyamfi, Manager of the Radiation Technology Centre of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission’s Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute in Accra.

  12. A Comparison of Learning Technologies for Teaching Spacecraft Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The development of software for spacecraft represents a particular challenge and is, in many ways, a worst case scenario from a design perspective. Spacecraft software must be "bulletproof" and operate for extended periods of time without user intervention. If the software fails, it cannot be manually serviced. Software failure may…

  13. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvez, M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  14. The Physics and Technology of Solar Sail Spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, B. N.; McInnes, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of the solar sail spacecraft such as solar sailing, solar sail design, navigation with solar sails, solar sail mission applications and future prospects for solar sailing are described. Several possible student projects are suggested. (KR)

  15. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  16. 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China collects selected papers from the 26th Conference of Spacecraft TT&C Technology in China held in Nanjing on October 16-19, 2012. The book features state-of-the-art studies on spacecraft TT&C in China with the theme of “Shared and Flexible TT&C Systems”. The selected works can help  promote development of spacecraft TT&C technology towards interconnectivity, resource sharing, flexibility and high efficiency. Researchers and engineers in the field of aerospace engineering and communication engineering can benefit from the book. Rongjun Shen is the Academician of Chinese Academy of Engineering; Weiping Qian is the Director General of Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunications Technology.

  17. Investigation of nickel hydrogen battery technology for the RADARSAT spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, D. A.; Lackner, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The low Earth orbit (LEO) operations of the RADARSAT spacecraft require high performance batteries to provide energy to the payload and platform during eclipse period. Nickel Hydrogen cells are currently competing with the more traditional Nickel Cadmium cells for high performance spacecraft applications at geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and Leo. Nickel Hydrogen cells appear better suited for high power applications where high currents and high Depths of Discharge are required. Although a number of GEO missions have flown with Nickel Hydrogen batteries, it is not readily apparent that the LEO version of the Nickel Hydrogen cell is able to withstand the extended cycle lifetime (5 years) of the RADARSAT mission. The problems associated with Nickel Hydrogen cells are discussed in the contex of RADARSAT mission and a test program designed to characterize cell performance is presented.

  18. Spacecraft Conceptual Design for the 8-Meter Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Randall C.; Capizzo, Peter; Fincher, Sharon; Hornsby, Linda S.; Jones, David

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at Marshall Space Flight Center completed a brief spacecraft design study for the 8-meter monolithic Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m). This spacecraft concept provides all power, communication, telemetry, avionics, guidance and control, and thermal control for the observatory, and inserts the observatory into a halo orbit about the second Sun-Earth Lagrange point. The multidisciplinary design team created a simple spacecraft design that enables component and science instrument servicing, employs articulating solar panels for help with momentum management, and provides precise pointing control while at the same time fast slewing for the observatory.

  19. Flexible spacecraft dynamics, control and guidance technologies by giovanni campolo

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzini, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date compendium on spacecraft attitude and orbit control (AOC) that offers a systematic and complete treatment of the subject with the aim of imparting the theoretical and practical knowledge that is required by designers, engineers, and researchers. After an introduction on the kinematics of the flexible and agile space vehicles, the modern architecture and functions of an AOC system are described and the main AOC modes reviewed with possible design solutions and examples. The dynamics of the flexible body in space are then considered using an original Lagrangian approach suitable for the control applications of large space flexible structures. Subsequent chapters address optimal control theory, attitude control methods, and orbit control applications, including the optimal orbital transfer with finite and infinite thrust. The theory is integrated with a description of current propulsion systems, with the focus especially on the new electric propulsion systems and state of the art senso...

  20. Evaluation of spacecraft technology programs (effects on communication satellite business ventures), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenburg, J. S.; Gaelick, C.; Kaplan, M.; Fishman, J.; Hopkins, C.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial organizations as well as government agencies invest in spacecraft (S/C) technology programs that are aimed at increasing the performance of communications satellites. The value of these programs must be measured in terms of their impacts on the financial performane of the business ventures that may ultimately utilize the communications satellites. An economic evaluation and planning capability was developed and used to assess the impact of NASA on-orbit propulsion and space power programs on typical fixed satellite service (FSS) and direct broadcast service (DBS) communications satellite business ventures. Typical FSS and DBS spin and three-axis stabilized spacecraft were configured in the absence of NASA technology programs. These spacecraft were reconfigured taking into account the anticipated results of NASA specified on-orbit propulsion and space power programs. In general, the NASA technology programs resulted in spacecraft with increased capability. The developed methodology for assessing the value of spacecraft technology programs in terms of their impact on the financial performance of communication satellite business ventures is described. Results of the assessment of NASA specified on-orbit propulsion and space power technology programs are presented for typical FSS and DBS business ventures.

  1. Application of Autonomous Spacecraft Power Control Technology to Terrestrial Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry M.; Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of the power campus located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio for microgrid development. First, the benefits provided by microgrids to the terrestrial power grid are described, and an overview of Technology Needs for microgrid development is presented. Next, GRC's work on development of autonomous control for manned deep space vehicles, which are essentially islanded microgrids, is covered, and contribution of each of these developments to the microgrid Technology Needs is detailed. Finally, a description is provided of GRC's existing physical assets which can be applied to microgrid technology development, and a phased plan for development of a microgrid test facility is presented.

  2. Postpartum Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ052 CONTRACEPTION Postpartum Sterilization • What is sterilization? • What is postpartum sterilization? • How is postpartum sterilization performed? • What kind of anesthesia is used for postpartum sterilization? • How ...

  3. Materials and structures technology insertion into spacecraft systems: Successes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Suraj

    2018-05-01

    Over the last 30 years, significant advancements have led to the use of multifunctional materials and structures technologies in spacecraft systems. This includes the integration of adaptive structures, advanced composites, nanotechnology, and additive manufacturing technologies. Development of multifunctional structures has been directly influenced by the implementation of processes and tools for adaptive structures pioneered by Prof. Paolo Santini. Multifunctional materials and structures incorporating non-structural engineering functions such as thermal, electrical, radiation shielding, power, and sensors have been investigated. The result has been an integrated structure that offers reduced mass, packaging volume, and ease of integration for spacecraft systems. Current technology development efforts are being conducted to develop innovative multifunctional materials and structures designs incorporating advanced composites, nanotechnology, and additive manufacturing. However, these efforts offer significant challenges in the qualification and acceptance into spacecraft systems. This paper presents a brief overview of the technology development and successful insertion of advanced material technologies into spacecraft structures. Finally, opportunities and challenges to develop and mature next generation advanced materials and structures are presented.

  4. Got risk? risk-centric perspective for spacecraft technology decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.; Cornford, Steven L.; Moran, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    A risk-based decision-making methodology conceived and developed at JPL and NASA has been used to aid in decision making for spacecraft technology assessment, adoption, development and operation. It takes a risk-centric perspective, through which risks are used as a reasoning step to interpose between mission objectives and risk mitigation measures.

  5. Solar Power System Options for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Haraburda, Francis M.; Riehl, John P.

    2000-01-01

    The Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission has the primary objective of demonstrating high-power (10 kilowatts) electric thruster technologies in Earth orbit. This paper discusses the conceptual design of the RTD spacecraft photovoltaic (PV) power system and mission performance analyses. These power system studies assessed multiple options for PV arrays, battery technologies and bus voltage levels. To quantify performance attributes of these power system options, a dedicated Fortran code was developed to predict power system performance and estimate system mass. The low-thrust mission trajectory was analyzed and important Earth orbital environments were modeled. Baseline power system design options are recommended on the basis of performance, mass and risk/complexity. Important findings from parametric studies are discussed and the resulting impacts to the spacecraft design and cost.

  6. A Survey of LIDAR Technology and Its Use in Spacecraft Relative Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, John A.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) sensors from a perspective of how they can be used for spacecraft relative navigation. In addition to LIDAR technology commonly used in space applications today (e.g. scanning, flash), this paper reviews emerging LIDAR technologies gaining traction in other non-aerospace fields. The discussion will include an overview of sensor operating principles and specific pros/cons for each type of LIDAR. This paper provides a comprehensive review of LIDAR technology as applied specifically to spacecraft relative navigation. HE problem of orbital rendezvous and docking has been a consistent challenge for complex space missions since before the Gemini 8 spacecraft performed the first successful on-orbit docking of two spacecraft in 1966. Over the years, a great deal of effort has been devoted to advancing technology associated with all aspects of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) flight phase. After years of perfecting the art of crewed rendezvous with the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle programs, NASA began investigating the problem of autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR&D) to support a host of different mission applications. Some of these applications include autonomous resupply of the International Space Station (ISS), robotic servicing/refueling of existing orbital assets, and on-orbit assembly.1 The push towards a robust AR&D capability has led to an intensified interest in a number of different sensors capable of providing insight into the relative state of two spacecraft. The present work focuses on exploring the state-of-the-art in one of these sensors - LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) sensors. It should be noted that the military community frequently uses the acronym LADAR (LAser Detection And Ranging) to refer to what this paper calls LIDARs. A LIDAR is an active remote sensing device that is typically used in space applications to obtain the range to one or more

  7. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  8. Comparison of technologies for deorbiting spacecraft from low-earth-orbit at end of mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Arriaga, G.; Sanmartín, J. R.; Lorenzini, E. C.

    2017-09-01

    An analytical comparison of four technologies for deorbiting spacecraft from Low-Earth-Orbit at end of mission is presented. Basic formulas based on simple physical models of key figures of merit for each device are found. Active devices - rockets and electrical thrusters - and passive technologies - drag augmentation devices and electrodynamic tethers - are considered. A basic figure of merit is the deorbit device-to-spacecraft mass ratio, which is, in general, a function of environmental variables, technology development parameters and deorbit time. For typical state-of-the-art values, equal deorbit time, middle inclination and initial altitude of 850 km, the analysis indicates that tethers are about one and two orders of magnitude lighter than active technologies and drag augmentation devices, respectively; a tether needs a few percent mass-ratio for a deorbit time of a couple of weeks. For high inclination, the performance drop of the tether system is moderate: mass ratio and deorbit time increase by factors of 2 and 4, respectively. Besides collision risk with other spacecraft and system mass considerations, such as main driving factors for deorbit space technologies, the analysis addresses other important constraints, like deorbit time, system scalability, manoeuver capability, reliability, simplicity, attitude control requirement, and re-entry and multi-mission capability (deorbit and re-boost) issues. The requirements and constraints are used to make a critical assessment of the four technologies as functions of spacecraft mass and initial orbit (altitude and inclination). Emphasis is placed on electrodynamic tethers, including the latest advances attained in the FP7/Space project BETs. The superiority of tape tethers as compared to round and multi-line tethers in terms of deorbit mission performance is highlighted, as well as the importance of an optimal geometry selection, i.e. tape length, width, and thickness, as function of spacecraft mass and initial

  9. Radiation sterilization of medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurshid, S.J.; Hussain, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is the best method of sterilization, essentially for single use medical and surgical products. Pakistan has established a commercial gamma irradiation plant for this purpose. This article overviews the advantages and benefits of radiation sterilization to stimulate the interest of industrialists and the users in this technology. This technology can give a better medical care in the country and the growing demand can only be met by bulk sterilization. The radiation sterilized medical products can also compete well with the products sterilized by other methods in the international market, gamma sterilization is accepted internationally and if adopted it can boost our export of medical products. (author)

  10. Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sterilization? Sterilization is a permanent form of birth control. What is tubal sterilization? Sterilization procedures for women are ... is quicker than from other types of sterilization. What are the risks of ... on for birth control. • There is a risk of injury to the ...

  11. A Brief History of Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Shielding Technology for US Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Michael D.; Hyde, James L.

    2008-01-01

    Meteoroid and orbital debris shielding has played an important role from the beginning of manned spaceflight. During the early 60 s, meteoroid protection drove requirements for new meteor and micrometeoroid impact science. Meteoroid protection also stimulated advances in the technology of hypervelocity impact launchers and impact damage assessment methodologies. The first phase of meteoroid shielding assessments closed in the early 70 s with the end of the Apollo program. The second phase of meteoroid protection technology began in the early 80 s when it was determined that there is a manmade Earth orbital debris belt that poses a significant risk to LEO manned spacecraft. The severity of the Earth orbital debris environment has dictated changes in Space Shuttle and ISS operations as well as driven advances in shielding technology and assessment methodologies. A timeline of shielding technology and assessment methodology advances is presented along with a summary of risk assessment results.

  12. A methodology for spacecraft technology insertion analysis balancing benefit, cost, and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, David Allen

    Emerging technologies are changing the way space missions are developed and implemented. Technology development programs are proceeding with the goal of enhancing spacecraft performance and reducing mass and cost. However, it is often the case that technology insertion assessment activities, in the interest of maximizing performance and/or mass reduction, do not consider synergistic system-level effects. Furthermore, even though technical risks are often identified as a large cost and schedule driver, many design processes ignore effects of cost and schedule uncertainty. This research is based on the hypothesis that technology selection is a problem of balancing interrelated (and potentially competing) objectives. Current spacecraft technology selection approaches are summarized, and a Methodology for Evaluating and Ranking Insertion of Technology (MERIT) that expands on these practices to attack otherwise unsolved problems is demonstrated. MERIT combines the modern techniques of technology maturity measures, parametric models, genetic algorithms, and risk assessment (cost and schedule) in a unique manner to resolve very difficult issues including: user-generated uncertainty, relationships between cost/schedule and complexity, and technology "portfolio" management. While the methodology is sufficiently generic that it may in theory be applied to a number of technology insertion problems, this research focuses on application to the specific case of small (<500 kg) satellite design. Small satellite missions are of particular interest because they are often developed under rigid programmatic (cost and schedule) constraints and are motivated to introduce advanced technologies into the design. MERIT is demonstrated for programs procured under varying conditions and constraints such as stringent performance goals, not-to-exceed costs, or hard schedule requirements. MERIT'S contributions to the engineering community are its: unique coupling of the aspects of performance

  13. Space Technology Game Changing Development- Next Generation Life Support: Spacecraft Oxygen Recovery (SCOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan; Barta, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The Next Generation Life Support Spacecraft Oxygen Recovery (SCOR) project element is dedicated to developing technology that enables oxygen recovery from metabolically produced carbon dioxide in space habitats. The state-of-the-art system on the International Space Station uses Sabatier technology to recover (is) approximately 50% oxygen from carbon dioxide. The remaining oxygen required for crew respiration is supplied from Earth. For long duration manned missions beyond low-Earth orbit, resupply of oxygen becomes economically and logistically prohibitive. To mitigate these challenges, the SCOR project element is targeting development of technology to increase the recovery of oxygen to 75% or more, thereby reducing the total oxygen resupply required for future missions.

  14. Systems Engineering Using Heritage Spacecraft Technology: Lessons Learned from Discovery and New Frontiers Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2011-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced or heritage systems and the system environment identifies unanticipated issues that result in cost overruns or schedule impacts. The Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays resulting from advanced technology or heritage assumptions for 6 D&NF missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that the cost and schedule growth did not result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. Instead, systems engineering processes did not identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement the heritage or advanced technology. This presentation summarizes the study s findings and offers suggestions for improving the project s ability to identify and manage the risks inherent in the technology and heritage design solution.

  15. Factors involved in planning radiation-sterilization practices and technology in the developing countries, and the Agency's promotional role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, R.N.; Yuan, H.C.

    1975-01-01

    The application of ionizing radiation for sterilizing ready-to-use medical supplies, sutures and grafts provides a broad scope for the up-grading of public health care and family planning programmes in the developing countries. Sterile ready-to-use medical supplies become particularly important for improving the standard of those services given through the improvised camp-hospitals and mobile medical units for the remote areas of such countries, if needed. The practices generated in the technologically advanced countries will form the basis of the planning, but the necessary adjustments should be made in their implementation to suit best the local conditions and needs and to promote utilization of local raw materials. Necessary research and development and an effective infrastructure should be emphasized. Plastic materials are among the major pollutants of the environment. Timely parallel practical steps need be adopted and an action programme planned to preserve the quality of the human environment. (author)

  16. Medical technology integration: CT, angiography, imaging-capable OR-table, navigation and robotics in a multifunctional sterile suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, A L; Regazzoni, P; Bilecen, D; Rasmus, M; Huegli, R W; Messmer, P

    2007-01-01

    Technology integration is an enabling technological prerequisite to achieve a major breakthrough in sophisticated intra-operative imaging, navigation and robotics in minimally invasive and/or emergency diagnosis and therapy. Without a high degree of integration and reliability comparable to that achieved in the aircraft industry image guidance in its different facets will not ultimately succeed. As of today technology integration in the field of image-guidance is close to nonexistent. Technology integration requires inter-departmental integration of human and financial resources and of medical processes in a dialectic way. This expanded techno-socio-economic integration has profound consequences for the administration and working conditions in hospitals. At the university hospital of Basel, Switzerland, a multimodality multifunction sterile suite was put into operation after a substantial pre-run. We report the lessons learned during our venture into the world of medical technology integration and describe new possibilities for similar integration projects in the future.

  17. Ka-band Technologies for Small Spacecraft Communications via Relays and Direct Data Downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Niederhaus, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Downey, Joe; Roberts, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    As the scientific capabilities and number of small spacecraft missions in the near Earth region increase, standard yet configurable user spacecraft terminals operating in Ka-band are needed to lower mission cost and risk and enable significantly higher data return than current UHF or S-band terminals. These compact Ka-band terminals are intended to operate with both the current and next generation of Ka-band relay satellites and via direct data communications with near Earth tracking terminals. This presentation provides an overview of emerging NASA-sponsored and commercially provided technologies in software defined radios (SDRs), transceivers, and electronically steered antennas that will enable data rates from hundreds of kbps to over 1 Gbps and operate in multiple frequency bands (such as S- and X-bands) and expand the use of NASA's common Ka-bands frequencies: 22.55-23.15 GHz for forward data or uplink; and 25.5-27.0 GHz for return data or downlink. Reductions in mass, power and volume come from integration of multiple radio functions, operations in Ka-band, high efficiency amplifiers and receivers, and compact, flat and vibration free electronically steered narrow beam antennas for up to + 60 degrees field of regard. The software defined near Earth space transceiver (SD-NEST) described in the presentation is intended to be compliant with NASA's space telecommunications radio system (STRS) standard for communications waveforms and hardware interoperability.

  18. Audits of radiation sterilization facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Prabhakar M.

    2001-01-01

    Johnson and Johnson is the world leader in sterilization science and technology. A special group of scientists and technologists are engaged in the development of new methods of sterilization, worldwide monitoring of sterilization processes, equipment and approvals for all types of sterilization processes. Kilmer Conference in the alternate year for the benefit of all those involved in improvement in sterilization science is held. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation for sterilization of medical products on commercial scale is used. This kind of mammoth task can only be achieved through systematic method of planning, auditing, expert review and approval of facilities

  19. Materials Surfaces and sterility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.

    2001-04-01

    A question of great interest in sterile and clean room technology is how can we devise a standard for the guarantee of sterility? Sterility is of widespread importance: it gives the life-time of our daily milk or yogurt, dominates the nature of food packing, and determines the feasibility of the miniaturization of biotechnology plants. All these phenomena are based on the principle of bioadhesion. Bioadhesion is also the basis of the biomimetic material technologies, like the attachment of selected protein layers that can be used for nanomasking. (orig.)

  20. Genetic engineering technology for the improvement of the sterile insect technique. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of the joint FAO/IAEA programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the sterile insect technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on production of food and fibre. For several insect species SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control. This includes the New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorox), the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) and one tsetse fly species (Glossina austeni). Improvements of the SIT are possible, especially through the use of molecular techniques. The final report of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on ``Genetic Engineering Technology for the Improvement of the Sterile Insect Technique`` highlights the progress made towards the development of transformation systems for non-drosophilid insects and the research aimed at the identification and engineering of potential target genes or traits. Refs, figs, tabs.

  1. Genetic engineering technology for the improvement of the sterile insect technique. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of the joint FAO/IAEA programme on the research and development of insect pest control methodology, emphasis has been placed on the basic and applied aspects of implementing the sterile insect technique (SIT). Special emphasis has always been directed at the assembly of technological progress into workable systems that can be implemented in developing countries. The general intention is to solve problems associated with insect pests that have an adverse impact on production of food and fibre. For several insect species SIT has proven to be a powerful method for control. This includes the New World screwworm fly (Cochliomyia hominivorox), the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni) and one tsetse fly species (Glossina austeni). Improvements of the SIT are possible, especially through the use of molecular techniques. The final report of the Co-ordinated Research Programme on ''Genetic Engineering Technology for the Improvement of the Sterile Insect Technique'' highlights the progress made towards the development of transformation systems for non-drosophilid insects and the research aimed at the identification and engineering of potential target genes or traits

  2. Metal hydride hydrogen and heat storage systems as enabling technology for spacecraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissner, Alexander, E-mail: reissner@fotec.at [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pawelke, Roland H.; Hummel, Stefan; Cabelka, Dusan [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gerger, Joachim [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Farnes, Jarle, E-mail: Jarle.farnes@prototech.no [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Schautz, Max, E-mail: max.schautz@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands); Geneste, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.geneste@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • A metal hydride tank concept for heat and hydrogen storage is presented. • The tank is part of a closed-loop reversible fuel cell system for space application. • For several engineering issues specific to the spacecraft application, solutions have been developed. • The effect of water contamination has been approximated for Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. • A novel heat exchanger design has been realized by Selective Laser Melting. - Abstract: The next generation of telecommunication satellites will demand a platform payload performance in the range of 30+ kW within the next 10 years. At this high power output, a Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (RFCS) offers an efficiency advantage in specific energy density over lithium ion batteries. However, a RFCS creates a substantial amount of heat (60–70 kJ per mol H{sub 2}) during fuel cell operation. This requires a thermal hardware that accounts for up to 50% of RFCS mass budget. Thus the initial advantage in specific energy density is reduced. A metal hydride tank for combined storage of heat and hydrogen in a RFCS may overcome this constraint. Being part of a consortium in an ongoing European Space Agency project, FOTEC is building a technology demonstrator for such a combined hydrogen and heat storage system.

  3. Radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    In view of the application of ionizing radiation to sterilize pharmaceutical products, and the particular advantages of using this mode of sterilization for powders for injection, which cannot be sterilized by more conventional methods, it is important to recognise the possibility of modification of radiation response of bacteria when in close contact with various drug powders. For this study, bacterial spores, which lend themselves to dessication, and which can be dried onto an inert powder matrix, were chosen as the test system. The results of this work indicate that the additives tested have a modest protective effect on the spores. However, when considering a bacterial inactivation for sterilization purposes of between six and ten orders of magnitude, that is, a desired sterility assurance level of an expected maximum probability of a product item being non-sterile of 10 -6 , then the slight protective effect observed in this study approaches insignificance

  4. The technology study on irradiation sterilization of the eye health care paste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingcheng; Zhu Jun; Zhao Huidong; Song Weidong; Zhang Hongna; Li Kunhao

    2009-01-01

    The effect of radiation on appearance,color and active ingredients of products has been studied in irradiation sterilization of eye healthy care paste by use of 60 Co γ-rays. The results show that irradiation is very effective on killing the microorganisms in eye healthy care paste, and the D 10 of the aerobic bacterial count is determined to be 3.16kGy. The process adopts the irradiation static stacking mode, and the suitable absorbed dose has been selected to be 7-8kGy. It has been found that irradiation with 7-8kGy does not affect appearance, color and active ingredients of the eye healthy care paste. (authors)

  5. Sterile neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Paper deals with the information on the occurrence of the fields of the sterile neutrinos (the righthanded ones) mixed with the normal neutrinos (the lefthanded ones). Both the Max Plank Radioastronomy Institute and the Los Angeles University assumes that the occurrence of the keV mass sterile neutrinos may explain the dark matter nature, the fast rotation of the observed pulsars and the reionization processes. The issues associated with the possibility to record the sterile neutrinos were analyzed in the course of the Sterile Neutrinos in Astrophysics and Cosmology Workshop (Crans Montana, March 2006 [ru

  6. 2000 Survey of Distributed Spacecraft Technologies and Architectures for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise in the 2010-2025 Timeframe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticker, Ronald L.; Azzolini, John D.

    2000-01-01

    The study investigates NASA's Earth Science Enterprise needs for Distributed Spacecraft Technologies in the 2010-2025 timeframe. In particular, the study focused on the Earth Science Vision Initiative and extrapolation of the measurement architecture from the 2002-2010 time period. Earth Science Enterprise documents were reviewed. Interviews were conducted with a number of Earth scientists and technologists. fundamental principles of formation flying were also explored. The results led to the development of four notional distribution spacecraft architectures. These four notional architectures (global constellations, virtual platforms, precision formation flying, and sensorwebs) are presented. They broadly and generically cover the distributed spacecraft architectures needed by Earth Science in the post-2010 era. These notional architectures are used to identify technology needs and drivers. Technology needs are subsequently grouped into five categories: Systems and architecture development tools; Miniaturization, production, manufacture, test and calibration; Data networks and information management; Orbit control, planning and operations; and Launch and deployment. The current state of the art and expected developments are explored. High-value technology areas are identified for possible future funding emphasis.

  7. Sterilization by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Frias, L.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)

  8. Spore-Forming Bacteria that Resist Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDuc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2003-01-01

    A report presents a phenotypic and genotypic characterization of a bacterial species that has been found to be of the genus Bacillus and has been tentatively named B. odysseensis because it was isolated from surfaces of the Mars Odyssey spacecraft as part of continuing research on techniques for sterilizing spacecraft to prevent contamination of remote planets by terrestrial species. B. odysseensis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that forms round spores. The exosporium has been conjectured to play a role in the elevated resistance to sterilization. Research on the exosporium is proposed as a path toward improved means of sterilization, medical treatment, and prevention of biofouling.

  9. Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m solution from Geltech generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sishir Kumar; Kothalkar, Chetan; Naskar, Prabhakar; Joshi, Sangeeta; Saraswathy, Padmanabhan; Dey, Arun Chandra; Vispute, Gunvant Leeladhar; Murhekar, Vishwas Vinayak; Pilkhwal, Neelam

    2013-01-01

    The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech generator was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The generator production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Over 2800 Geltech generators have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech generator supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of 99m Tc is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl solution to obtain sodium ( 99m Tc) pertechnetate solution. A special type online 0.22 μm membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech generator. The online filtration of 99m Tc from Geltech generator; thus, provided sterile 99m Tc sodium pertechnetate solution. Generators assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai (Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users. (author)

  10. Indigenous technology development and standardization of the process for obtaining ready to use sterile sodium pertechnetate-Tc-99m solution from Geltech generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sishir Kumar; Kothalkar, Chetan; Naskar, Prabhakar; Joshi, Sangeeta; Saraswathy, Padmanabhan; Dey, Arun Chandra; Vispute, Gunvant Leeladhar; Murhekar, Vishwas Vinayak; Pilkhwal, Neelam

    2013-04-01

    The indigenous design and technology development for processing large scale zirconium molybdate-Mo-99 (ZrMo-99) Geltech generator was successfully commissioned in Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT), India, in 2006. The generator production facility comprises of four shielded plant facilities equipped with tongs and special process gadgets amenable for remote operations for radiochemical processing of ZrMo-99 gel. Over 2800 Geltech generators have been processed and supplied to user hospitals during the period 2006-2013. Geltech generator supplied by BRIT was initially not sterile. Simple elution of Tc-99m is performed by a sterile evacuated vial with sterile and pyrogen free 0.9% NaCl solution to obtain sodium (Tc-99m) pertechnetate solution. A special type online 0.22 μm membrane filter has been identified and adapted in Geltech generator. The online filtration of Tc-99m from Geltech generator; thus, provided sterile Tc-99m sodium pertechnetate solution. Generators assembled with modified filter assembly were supplied to local hospital in Mumbai Radiation Medicine Centre (RMC) and S.G.S. Medical College and KEM Hospital) and excellent performances were reported by users.

  11. Future spacecraft propulsion systems. Enabling technologies for space exploration. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czysz, Paul A. [St. Louis Univ., MO (United States). Oliver L. Parks Endowed Chair in Aerospace Engineering; Bruno, Claudio [Univ. degli Studi di Roma (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica

    2009-07-01

    In this second edition of Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems, the authors demonstrate the need to break free from the old established concepts of expendable rockets, using chemical propulsion, and to develop new breeds of launch vehicle capable of both launching payloads into orbit at a dramatically reduced cost and for sustained operations in low-Earth orbit. The next steps to establishing a permanent 'presence' in the Solar System beyond Earth are the commercialisation of sustained operations on the Moon and the development of advanced nuclear or high-energy space propulsion systems for Solar System exploration out to the boundary of interstellar space. In the future, high-energy particle research facilities may one day yield a very high-energy propulsion system that will take us to the nearby stars, or even beyond. Space is not quiet: it is a continuous series of nuclear explosions that provide the material for new star systems to form and provide the challenge to explore. This book provides an assessment of the industrial capability required to construct and operate the necessary spacecraft. Time and distance communication and control limitations impose robotic constraints. Space environments restrict human sustained presence and put high demands on electronic, control and materials systems. This comprehensive and authoritative book puts spacecraft propulsion systems in perspective, from earth orbit launchers to astronomical/space exploration vehicles. It includes new material on fusion propulsion, new figures and updates and expands the information given in the first edition. (orig.)

  12. Mars Technology Program: Planetary Protection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Planetary Protection Technology in the Mars Technology Program. The goal of the program is to develop technologies that will enable NASA to build, launch, and operate a mission that has subsystems with different Planetary Protection (PP) classifications, specifically for operating a Category IVb-equivalent subsystem from a Category IVa platform. The IVa category of planetary protection requires bioburden reduction (i.e., no sterilization is required) The IVb category in addition to IVa requirements: (i.e., terminal sterilization of spacecraft is required). The differences between the categories are further reviewed.

  13. Compodock, a new device for sterile docking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P. F.; Biekart, F. T.; Pietersz, R. N.; Rebers, S. P.; Reesink, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A new device for sterile docking, the Compodock (Fresenius NPBI Transfusion Technology), was developed for connecting PVC tubing for medical use while maintaining sterility. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Sterility of the connections was assessed by welding tubing with a heavy exterior

  14. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordao; Barbosa, Flavia Rabelo; Nascimento, Antonio Souza do; Viana, Rodrigo; Malavasi, Aldo; Sampaio, Raimundo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges

    2008-01-01

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and

  15. The Development of Fuel Cell Technology for Electric Power Generation - From Spacecraft Applications to the Hydrogen Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The fuel cell uses a catalyzed reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer to directly produce electricity. Its high theoretical efficiency and low temperature operation made it a subject of much study upon its invention ca. 1900, but its relatively high life cycle costs kept it as "solution in search of a problem" for its first half century. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a cost effective solution was, starting in the 1960's that of a power source for NASA's manned spacecraft. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. However, starting in the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of terrestrial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but these advances are often in directions quite different from those needed for NASA spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's manned space program.

  16. Study of fieldbus technology applied in a sterilization plant control and safety systems; Estudo de aplicacao de tecnologia 'fieldbus' nos sistemas de controle e seguranca de uma planta de radioesterilizacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karam Junior, Dib

    2000-07-01

    Several sterilization processes have been used in these years for treatment of countless products. Some processes use high temperatures, thermal shocks and chemical agents. With the discovery of the ionizing radiation and its posterior technological developments turned possible application of that process, in 1960, also in the the sterilization, denominated radiation sterilization. This process became also applied in another areas of health and industrial as food conservation, gemstones enhancement and others. The radiation sterilization requests an effective control and it needs a high level of safety. The commercial use of the computers applied in industrial automation provides and the domain of new technologies in this field provides new applications then new designs now is possible. The Fieldbus technology, a new digital communication protocol, like a Local Area Network, can be an alternative in the cobalt-60 irradiation plant. The present work suggests, evaluates, qualifies and quantifies this possibility. (author)

  17. Gossamer-1: Mission concept and technology for a controlled deployment of gossamer spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Patric; Spietz, Peter; Sproewitz, Tom; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hillebrandt, Martin; Hobbie, Catherin; Ruffer, Michael; Straubel, Marco; Tóth, Norbert; Zander, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Gossamer structures for innovative space applications, such as solar sails, require technology that allows their controlled and thereby safe deployment. Before employing such technology for a dedicated science mission, it is desirable, if not necessary, to demonstrate its reliability with a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six or higher. The aim of the work presented here is to provide reliable technology that enables the controlled deployment and verification of its functionality with various laboratory tests, thereby qualifying the hardware for a first demonstration in low Earth orbit (LEO). The development was made in the Gossamer-1 project of the German Aerospace Center (DLR). This paper provides an overview of the Gossamer-1 mission and hardware development. The system is designed based on the requirements of a technology demonstration mission. The design rests on a crossed boom configuration with triangular sail segments. Employing engineering models, all aspects of the deployment were tested under ambient environment. Several components were also subjected to environmental qualification testing. An innovative stowing and deployment strategy for a controlled deployment, as well as the designs of the bus system, mechanisms and electronics are described. The tests conducted provide insights into the deployment process and allow a mechanical characterization of that deployment process, in particular the measurement of the deployment forces. Deployment on system level could be successfully demonstrated to be robust and controllable. The deployment technology is on TRL four approaching level five, with a qualification model for environmental testing currently being built.

  18. Exploration Mission Particulate Matter Filtration Technology Performance Testing in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Mccormick, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Human deep space exploration missions will require advances in long-life, low maintenance airborne particulate matter filtration technology. As one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) developments in this area, a prototype of a new regenerable, multi-stage particulate matter filtration technology was tested in an International Space Station (ISS) module simulation facility. As previously reported, the key features of the filter system include inertial and media filtration with regeneration and in-place media replacement techniques. The testing facility can simulate aspects of the cabin environment aboard the ISS and contains flight-like cabin ventilation system components. The filtration technology test article was installed at the inlet of the central ventilation system duct and instrumented to provide performance data under nominal flow conditions. In-place regeneration operations were also evaluated. The real-time data included pressure drop across the filter stages, process air flow rate, ambient pressure, humidity and temperature. In addition, two video cameras positioned at the filtration technology test articles inlet and outlet were used to capture the mechanical performance of the filter media indexing operation under varying air flow rates. Recent test results are presented and future design recommendations are discussed.

  19. Portable Chemical Sterilizer for Microbial Decontamination of Surgical Instruments, Fruits and Vegetables, and Field Feeding Equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doona, C. J; Feeherry, F. E; Kustin, K; Curtin, M. A; Baer, D. G

    2006-01-01

    The Portable Chemical Sterilizer (PCS) is a revolutionary biomedical sterilization technology that provides the capability for portable, power-free, point-of-use sterilization to meet the Army's Far-Forward Surgical Teams (FSTs...

  20. Ozone--the latest advance in sterilization of medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lorna

    2006-06-01

    How many times have procedures in your operating rooms been delayed because the instruments needed were still in the sterilizer? As Perioperative nurses you are likely to be quite familiar with the constant pressure to ensure that scarce instrumentation is available when needed. In 2003, a Canadian company developed a unique sterilization process employing ozone as the sterilizing agent. This technology is a safe, rapid and economical alternative to other low temperature sterilization modalities and may relieve some of the pressure experienced when instruments in short supply are in high demand. This article will discuss the principles of the sterilizer and the cycle and will explore the advantages of using this sterilization technology.

  1. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  2. Radiation: A means of sterilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, R N [International Atomic Energy Agency, Division of Life Sciences, Radiation Biology Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1975-12-15

    The sterilization of medical products by ionizing radiation is a well-established industrial process in a number of technologically advanced countries. It is indeed encouraging to note the rate of growth experienced during the past fifteen years. Starting with the first commercial plant in the early sixties in the USA there are to date more than sixty large facilities of this kind located in USA, Canada, Australia and the countries of Europe including USSR. The geographical distribution of these sterilization plants is rather unbalanced. In this respect Europe is far ahead of the other continents of the world, with about 65% of all sterilization plants, followed by North and South America with 17%, Asia with 8%, Australia and New Zealand with 9% and Africa with only 1%. During the last 10 years the IAEA has actively contributed to the development of radiation sterilization practices and technology in the Member States, with particular emphasis on the developing countries. Such promotional efforts have been made by (a) supporting co-ordinated research to accumulate relevant technical information, (b) organizing scientific meetings and training courses, (c) providing technical expertise in the form of fellowships and expert services, (d) providing technical assistance to conduct market surveys and economic feasibility assessment, (e) scientific publications, including technical manuals and proceedings reports, and (f) assistance in the formulation of an international 'Code of Practice' for standardization of the manufacturing practices for radiation sterilized medical products to meet the specified requirements of the various national Pharmacopoeias and of the international consumer market.

  3. The Use of Liquid Isopropyl Alcohol and Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Plasma to Biologically Decontaminate Spacecraft Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, J. K.; Tudryn, Carissa D.; Choi, Sun J.; Eulogio, Sebastian E.; Roberts, Timothy J.; Tudryn, Carissa D.

    2006-01-01

    Legitimate concern exists regarding sending spacecraft and their associated hardware to solar system bodies where they could possibly contaminate the body's surface with terrestrial microorganisms. The NASA approved guidelines for sterilization as set forth in NPG 8020.12C, which is consistent with the biological contamination control objectives of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), recommends subjecting the spacecraft and its associated hardware to dry heat-a dry heat regimen that could potentially employ a temperature of 110(deg)C for up to 200 hours. Such a temperature exposure could prove detrimental to the spacecraft electronics. The stimulated growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in metallic interconnects and/or thermal degradation of organic materials composing much of the hardware could take place over a prolonged temperature regimen. Such detrimental phenomena would almost certainly compromise the integrity and reliability of the electronics. Investigation of sterilization procedures in the medical field suggests that hydrogen peroxide (H202) gas plasma (HPGP) technology can effectively function as an alternative to heat sterilization, especially for heat-sensitive items. Treatment with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in liquid form prior to exposure of the hardware to HPGP should also prove beneficial. Although IPA is not a sterilant, it is frequently used as a disinfectant because of its bactericidal properties. The use of IPA in electronics cleaning is widely recognized and has been utilized for many years with no adverse affects reported. In addition, IPA is the principal ingredient of the test fluid used in ionic contamination testers to assess the amount of ionic contamination found on the surfaces of printed wiring assemblies. This paper will set forth experimental data confirming the feasibility of the IPA/H202 approach to reach acceptable microbial reduction (MR) levels of spacecraft electronic hardware. In addition, a proposed process flow in

  4. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  5. Ionizing radiation for sterilization of medical products and biological tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S K; Raghevendrarao, M K [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Library and Technical Information Section

    1975-10-01

    The article reviews the deliberations of the International Symposium on Ionizing Radiation for Sterilization of Medical Products and Biological Tissues which was held during 9-13 December 1974 under the auspices of the IAEA at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay. 42 papers were presented in the following broad subject areas: (1) Microbiological Control aspects of radiation sterilization, (2) Dosimetry aspects of radiation sterilization practices, (3) Effects of sterilizing radiation dose on the constituents of medical products, (4) Application of radiation sterilization of medical products of biological origin, (5) Technological aspects of radiation sterilization facilities, (6) Radiation sterilization of pharmaceutical substances, (7) Reports on current status of radiation sterilization of medical products in IAEA member states and (8) Working group discussion on the revision of the IAEA recommended code of practice for radiation sterilization of medical products.

  6. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization; La tecnologia nuclear aplicada a la conservacion y esterilizacion de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, M.

    2011-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  7. Mechanical Design of Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    In the spring of 1962, engineers from the Engineering Mechanics Division of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a series of lectures on spacecraft design at the Engineering Design seminars conducted at the California Institute of Technology. Several of these lectures were subsequently given at Stanford University as part of the Space Technology seminar series sponsored by the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Presented here are notes taken from these lectures. The lectures were conceived with the intent of providing the audience with a glimpse of the activities of a few mechanical engineers who are involved in designing, building, and testing spacecraft. Engineering courses generally consist of heavily idealized problems in order to allow the more efficient teaching of mathematical technique. Students, therefore, receive a somewhat limited exposure to actual engineering problems, which are typified by more unknowns than equations. For this reason it was considered valuable to demonstrate some of the problems faced by spacecraft designers, the processes used to arrive at solutions, and the interactions between the engineer and the remainder of the organization in which he is constrained to operate. These lecture notes are not so much a compilation of sophisticated techniques of analysis as they are a collection of examples of spacecraft hardware and associated problems. They will be of interest not so much to the experienced spacecraft designer as to those who wonder what part the mechanical engineer plays in an effort such as the exploration of space.

  8. Status of radiation sterilization of healthcare products in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Nankang; Wang Chunlei; Teng Weifang

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the status of 60 Co radiation facilities both in service and under construction in China and examines the future market for radiation sterilization of healthcare products. Policies for developing the industry of radiation sterilization are also put forward; these include implementation of appropriate quality systems, scale-up and merging of existing radiation facilities, development of electron beam radiation for sterilization purposes and increasing awareness of the technology of radiation sterilization

  9. Gamma-sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.

    1974-01-01

    The author makes a survey of his experience in sterilization and sterility control of medical products. At present three different methods are used, steamsterilization, gassterilizing and gammasterilizing. The investments and costs for gamma radiation is presented and a comparison of the costs for gamma- and gassterilization including sterility control is made. (M.S.)

  10. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'

  11. Proceedings of the Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference Held in Monterey, California on 31 October - 3 November 1989. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Technical Note I (Chapter 4), ESA Contract 8011/88. IASB , 1989. Williams, D..., E. Keppler, T.A. Fritz, B. Wilken and G. Wibberenz, The ISEE 1 and 2...either detector. 112 IV. THE HYPOTHESIS The above observations indicated that electrons played a role , ruled out cosmic-ray showers (i.e. pairing...F2 studies, in particular the role of spacecraft charging in generating the anomalies and the possibility of deep dielectric charging as an

  12. Technology for organization of the onboard system for processing and storage of ERS data for ultrasmall spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotov, Valery V.; Taganov, Alexander I.; Konkin, Yuriy V.; Kolesenkov, Aleksandr N.

    2017-10-01

    Task of processing and analysis of obtained Earth remote sensing data on ultra-small spacecraft board is actual taking into consideration significant expenditures of energy for data transfer and low productivity of computers. Thereby, there is an issue of effective and reliable storage of the general information flow obtained from onboard systems of information collection, including Earth remote sensing data, into a specialized data base. The paper has considered peculiarities of database management system operation with the multilevel memory structure. For storage of data in data base the format has been developed that describes a data base physical structure which contains required parameters for information loading. Such structure allows reducing a memory size occupied by data base because it is not necessary to store values of keys separately. The paper has shown architecture of the relational database management system oriented into embedment into the onboard ultra-small spacecraft software. Data base for storage of different information, including Earth remote sensing data, can be developed by means of such database management system for its following processing. Suggested database management system architecture has low requirements to power of the computer systems and memory resources on the ultra-small spacecraft board. Data integrity is ensured under input and change of the structured information.

  13. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  14. Radiosterilization and gas sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, H.A.; Gruenewald, T.

    1987-01-01

    The book presents a survey of the principles of cold sterilization by radiation or gas, and also of the problems involved. The reader who has to do with sterilization of some kind or other, as e.g. sterilization of medicaments, medical supplies, medical device, drugs, grafts, or food, will find comprehensive information on the various available methods and their effects, as well as on monitoring procedures and techniques, together with proposals for efficient documentation and validation of partial sterilization processes. The introduction summarizes the potentials of sterilization by radiation, and the subsequent by radiation, and the subsequent chapters explain the specific applicabilities of radiosterilization along with the most important criteria for evaluating the sterilizing efficiency. The information on the legal situation and requirements takes into account the second amendment of the Medical Preparations Act. With 38 figs., 14 tabs [de

  15. Spacecraft Jitter Attenuation Using Embedded Piezoelectric Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing from spacecraft requires precise pointing of measurement devices in order to achieve adequate spatial resolution. Unfortunately, various spacecraft disturbances induce vibrational jitter in the remote sensing instruments. The NASA Langley Research Center has performed analysis, simulations, and ground tests to identify the more promising technologies for minimizing spacecraft pointing jitter. These studies have shown that the use of smart materials to reduce spacecraft jitter is an excellent match between a maturing technology and an operational need. This paper describes the use of embedding piezoelectric actuators for vibration control and payload isolation. In addition, recent advances in modeling, simulation, and testing of spacecraft pointing jitter are discussed.

  16. Inherited sterility in insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, J.E.; Marec, F.; Bloem, S.

    2005-01-01

    The unique genetic phenomena responsible for inherited sterility (IS) in Lepidoptera and some other arthropods, as compared with full sterility, provide advantages for pest control. Lepidopteran females are usually more sensitive to radiation than males of the same species. This allows the radiation dose to be adjusted to suit programme requirements. When partially sterile males mate with wild females, the radiation-induced deleterious effects are inherited by the F 1 generation. As a result, egg hatch is reduced and the resulting offspring are both highly sterile and predominately male. Compared with the high radiation required to achieve full sterility in Lepidoptera, the lower dose of radiation used to induce F 1 sterility increases the quality and competitiveness of the released insects as measured by improved dispersal after release, increased mating ability, and superior sperm competition. F 1 sterile progeny produced in the field enhance the efficacy of released partially sterile males, and improve compatibility with other pest control strategies. In addition, F 1 sterile progeny can be used to increase the production of natural enemies, and to study the potential host and geographical ranges of exotic lepidopteran pests. (author)

  17. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  18. Modular ionizing sterilizer (MIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freijo, Jose L.

    1999-01-01

    A transportable device designed to sterilize medical material and wastes by gamma irradiation is described. The sterilizer is formed by three modules: one of the modules contains the gamma source and can be removed to transport and transfer the source, the other modules are designed to introduce and draw out the materials to be irradiated

  19. Off-The-Shelf and Free Software Technologies for Spacecraft Control & Command: An Example, Balloon-Borne Stabilised Gondolas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laurens, Andre

    2005-01-01

    Balloons are low-cost, short development time space vehicles for science missions and technology in-flight experiments that need out-of-atmosphere or in-situ measurements, thus being complementary to the satellite...

  20. PEAC: A Power-Efficient Adaptive Computing Technology for Enabling Swarm of Small Spacecraft and Deployable Mini-Payloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This task is to develop and demonstrate a path-to-flight and power-adaptive avionics technology PEAC (Power Efficient Adaptive Computing). PEAC will enable emerging...

  1. [Sterilization and eugenics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2011-04-01

    The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.

  2. Multi-Evaporator Miniature Loop Heat Pipe for Small Spacecraft Thermal Control. Part 1; New Technologies and Validation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung; Ottenstein, Laura; Douglas, Donya; Hoang, Triem

    2010-01-01

    Under NASA s New Millennium Program Space Technology 8 (ST 8) Project, four experiments Thermal Loop, Dependable Microprocessor, SAILMAST, and UltraFlex - were conducted to advance the maturity of individual technologies from proof of concept to prototype demonstration in a relevant environment , i.e. from a technology readiness level (TRL) of 3 to a level of 6. This paper presents the new technologies and validation approach of the Thermal Loop experiment. The Thermal Loop is an advanced thermal control system consisting of a miniature loop heat pipe (MLHP) with multiple evaporators and multiple condensers designed for future small system applications requiring low mass, low power, and compactness. The MLHP retains all features of state-of-the-art loop heat pipes (LHPs) and offers additional advantages to enhance the functionality, performance, versatility, and reliability of the system. Details of the thermal loop concept, technical advances, benefits, objectives, level 1 requirements, and performance characteristics are described. Also included in the paper are descriptions of the test articles and mathematical modeling used for the technology validation. An MLHP breadboard was built and tested in the laboratory and thermal vacuum environments for TRL 4 and TRL 5 validations, and an MLHP proto-flight unit was built and tested in a thermal vacuum chamber for the TRL 6 validation. In addition, an analytical model was developed to simulate the steady state and transient behaviors of the MLHP during various validation tests. Capabilities and limitations of the analytical model are also addressed.

  3. [Legal statutes on sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, K

    1980-01-01

    Sterilization in Yugoslavia is no population policy measure. Decision about the birth of children is free, a private problem of any individual, a basic right guaranteed by the Constitution. However, according to certain laws in Slovenia and Croatia, sterilization is allowed as a family planning method in persons over 35 year old. Only exceptionally can sterilization be applied in persons younger than 35 years: according to the Slovenian law, in cases when a person lacks the capacity of reasoning and also when there are medical indications, and according to the Croatian law, when there are medical and eugenic reasons (if the child is supposed to be born with negative congenital properties).

  4. Nuclear technologies for Moon and Mars exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear technologies are essential to successful Moon and Mars exploration and settlements. Applications can take the form of nuclear propulsion for transport of crews and cargo to Mars and the Moon; surface power for habitats and base power; power for human spacecraft to Mars; shielding and life science understanding for protection against natural solar and cosmic radiations; radioisotopes for sterilization, medicine, testing, and power; and resources for the benefits of Earth. 5 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Standardized Method for High-throughput Sterilization of Arabidopsis Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Benson E; Rivero, Luz; Calhoun, Chistopher S; Grotewold, Erich; Brkljacic, Jelena

    2017-10-17

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) seedlings often need to be grown on sterile media. This requires prior seed sterilization to prevent the growth of microbial contaminants present on the seed surface. Currently, Arabidopsis seeds are sterilized using two distinct sterilization techniques in conditions that differ slightly between labs and have not been standardized, often resulting in only partially effective sterilization or in excessive seed mortality. Most of these methods are also not easily scalable to a large number of seed lines of diverse genotypes. As technologies for high-throughput analysis of Arabidopsis continue to proliferate, standardized techniques for sterilizing large numbers of seeds of different genotypes are becoming essential for conducting these types of experiments. The response of a number of Arabidopsis lines to two different sterilization techniques was evaluated based on seed germination rate and the level of seed contamination with microbes and other pathogens. The treatments included different concentrations of sterilizing agents and times of exposure, combined to determine optimal conditions for Arabidopsis seed sterilization. Optimized protocols have been developed for two different sterilization methods: bleach (liquid-phase) and chlorine (Cl2) gas (vapor-phase), both resulting in high seed germination rates and minimal microbial contamination. The utility of these protocols was illustrated through the testing of both wild type and mutant seeds with a range of germination potentials. Our results show that seeds can be effectively sterilized using either method without excessive seed mortality, although detrimental effects of sterilization were observed for seeds with lower than optimal germination potential. In addition, an equation was developed to enable researchers to apply the standardized chlorine gas sterilization conditions to airtight containers of different sizes. The protocols described here allow easy, efficient, and

  6. Sterilization of space hardware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, I. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.

  7. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  8. Radiation sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.; Stuglik, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Overview of sterilization methods of medical devices has been given, with the special stress put on radiation sterilization. A typical validation program for radiation sterilization has been shown and also a comparison of European and ISO standards concerning radiation sterilization has been discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  9. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  10. Application of radiation sterilization to bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Youchen; Li Baoxing; Sun Shiquan

    2003-01-01

    With prominent features of high penetration, no temperature increases, no harm residues and easy dose control, radiation sterilization technology is widely used in the sterilization of bone allografts. During the radiation sterilization of bone allografts, the irradiation dose should be optimized to ensure sterilization of grafts and preservation of biological properties of bone. The immunogenicity of allografts is decreased by irradiation. IAEA devoted great efforts to generalization of the radiation sterilization of tissue allografts in developing countries since 1986. Tissue Bank of China Institute for Radiation Protection (CIRP) was initially established in 1988 with the support of IAEA, afterwards restructured into Shanxi Provincial Tissue Bank (SPTB). The SPTB, as the first manufacturer of the irradiated bone allografts in the country, was granted production license by the State Food and Drug Administration of China. The SPTB sponsored IAEA/RCA Training Courses, National Symposium on Bone Grafting, and National Training Course on Bone Banking. Technique of radiation sterilization for bone grafts has become popularized in China after these activities. (authors)

  11. Trends in sterilization since the introduction of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavell, Valerie I; Abdallah, Mazen E; Shade, George H; Diamond, Michael P; Berman, Jay M

    2009-01-01

    To investigate trends in sterilization in women at the Detroit Medical Center, Michigan (DMC), since the introduction of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization. Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Outpatient surgery center and university teaching hospitals. Women who underwent interval sterilization procedures at the DMC (Hutzel Women's Hospital, Sinai-Grace Hospital, and the Berry Center) and postpartum sterilization procedures at Hutzel Women's Hospital between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Permanent sterilization procedures including minilaparotomy tubal ligation, laparoscopic sterilization, Essure hysteroscopic sterilization, and postpartum tubal ligation performed at the time of cesarean section or after vaginal delivery. In all, 5509 permanent sterilization procedures were performed in the 6 years between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007, at the DMC facilities analyzed: 2484 interval sterilization procedures at Hutzel Women's Hospital, Sinai-Grace Hospital, and the Berry Center, and 3025 postpartum tubal ligations at Hutzel Women's Hospital. From 2002 through 2007, the decrease in laparoscopic sterilizations from 97.9% to 48.5% of all interval sterilization procedures corresponded significantly with the increase in Essure hysteroscopic sterilizations from 0.0% to 51.3% (p Essure hysteroscopic sterilizations increased significantly from 0.0% to 51.3% of all procedures. Since the approval of Essure hysteroscopic sterilization in November 2002, this minimally invasive method of hysteroscopic sterilization has increased in popularity at the DMC.

  12. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  13. Radiation sterilization of some pharmaceutical preparations and medical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Makhkamov, Sh.M.; Urinov, Sh.S.; Turaev, A.S.; Sultanov, M.S.; Inagomov, Kh.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In connection with intensive development of pharmacology and medical techniques, use of the products contacting to blood, with the internal environment of an organism, with wound surface, with mucous membranes and skin there were high requirements to sterility of pharmaceutical preparations and medical products. Traditional methods of sterilization (heat treatment, gas processing and processing the ferry) have some restrictions in application, and not insufficient degree of sterilization required for pharmaceutical preparations and medical products. Thermal processing can lead to degradation of structure (medicine), mechanical changes and loss of medical properties. Besides, it is impossible to carry out sterilization of many pharmaceutical preparations by a method of heat treatment. Sterilization of products in packing is very complicated, because sterilization temperature of packing and a product is different. Gas processing is basically applied to sterilization of medical products (syringes, bandage, cotton wools, etc.). However, the degree of sterility is low, because of rather low ability and heterogeneity of sterilizing substance. Sterilization in packing represents special difficulty and demands additional charges related with delivery of the purified gas from abroad. Last years alongside with known technological methods of sterilization of medical products and pharmaceutical preparations radiating methods of processing have found wide application. Use of electronic bunches with the moderate energy and various isotopes became a basis for formation and development of a new direction in the medicine, called by 'radiation sterilization'. The radiation technology is highly harmless and economic, not polluting substance and surrounding space. Unlike the specified traditional methods, radiating processing of products by the isotope 60 Co, radiating the gamma quantum, has unique opportunities - high penetrability in substance, providing uniformity of

  14. Spacecraft radiator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  15. Application of advanced electronics to a future spacecraft computer design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, P. C.

    1980-01-01

    Advancements in hardware and software technology are summarized with specific emphasis on spacecraft computer capabilities. Available state of the art technology is reviewed and candidate architectures are defined.

  16. Antimicrobial Materials for Advanced Microbial Control in Spacecraft Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele; Caro, Janicce; Newsham, Gerard; Roberts, Michael; Morford, Megan; Wheeler, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Microbial detection, identification, and control are essential for the maintenance and preservation of spacecraft water systems. Requirements set by NASA put limitations on the energy, mass, materials, noise, cost, and crew time that can be devoted to microbial control. Efforts are being made to attain real-time detection and identification of microbial contamination in microgravity environments. Research for evaluating technologies for capability enhancement on-orbit is currently focused on the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for detection purposes and polymerase chain reaction (peR) for microbial identification. Additional research is being conducted on how to control for microbial contamination on a continual basis. Existing microbial control methods in spacecraft utilize iodine or ionic silver biocides, physical disinfection, and point-of-use sterilization filters. Although these methods are effective, they require re-dosing due to loss of efficacy, have low human toxicity thresholds, produce poor taste, and consume valuable mass and crew time. Thus, alternative methods for microbial control are needed. This project also explores ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), surface passivation methods for maintaining residual biocide levels, and several antimicrobial materials aimed at improving current microbial control techniques, as well as addressing other materials presently under analysis and future directions to be pursued.

  17. Male sterility in chestnuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omura, Mitsuo; Akihama, Tomoya

    1982-01-01

    A tentative plan was proposed for chestnuts based on their pollination system, male sterility and restoration. The studies on the male sterility of 1,063 cultivars and clones suggested that there were three types of male sterility. The first type (S-1) was characterized by antherless florets. In the second type (S-2), the catkins fell before anthesis, and the third type (S-3) appeared to develop normally in gross floral morphology, but the pollen grains were abnormal in shape and did not have germinating power. In an interspecific hybrid clone CS which belonged to S-1, fertility was restored in an open pollinated progeny. The use of CS and CSO-3 with its restored fertility, permitted the planning of breeding the chestnut hybrid cultivars propagated by seeds. The inbred clones with either male sterility or restorer genes are first bred mainly by back crossing with parents with favorable pollen. The clones are selected individually for early bearing, wasp and disease resistance, and restoration. Then, the hybrid seedling lines between male sterile and restorer inbreds are evaluated for homogenity in nut characters and tree habits. Next, the hybrid seedling lines selected will be examined for crop yield, vigor and cross compatibility. The superior seedling lines are finally selected, and the parental inbreds are grafted to be propagated for seed production orchards. (Kaihara, S.)

  18. Sterility induction in tsetse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C F [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (UK); Langley, P A [Bristol Univ. (UK)

    1982-01-01

    The first laboratory and field experiments on genetic control were with tsetse flies, and they made use of the sterility in crosses and hybrids between closely related species of the Glossina morsitans complex. Backcrosses indicate that there are two separate sterility mechanisms involved: (a) genetic incompatibility between a mother and the products of alien genes in the embryo or larva in the uterus; (b) inability of hybrid males to inseminate due to incompatibility of their X-chromosomes with an alien Y or autosomes. The two largest sterile male release programmes have been in Tanzania and Upper Volta, and have used irradiation at the pupal or adult stage, respectively, for the production of sterility. Male tsetse are remarkably resistant to radiosterilization and, with the doses required to induce dominant lethals in more than 95% of sperms, premature senescence and lethargic behaviour of the males tends to result. With G. morsitans irradiated at the puparial stage these effects can be alleviated by the use of a nitrogen atmosphere during irradiation. If the puparia are then transferred to air at 11/sup 0/C for transport to the release site, immediate emergence occurs on re-warming after arrival. This advantageous procedure was used for the releases in Tanzania. In addition to dominant lethals, irradiation also produces chromosome translocations which cause inherited partial sterility. A homozygous translocation line was selected but this example did not have sufficient fitness to be used in a mass rearing programme. Chemosterilants can be applied by pupal dipping, adult contact with deposits or in aerosols. Studies are now in progress on their use in association with odour-baited traps or pheromone-baited decoys as a means of sterilizing the wild population and thus avoiding the costly and difficult process of mass rearing tsetse.

  19. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals (eg chloramphenicol)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeegers, F.; Tilquin, B.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with the ongoing world-wide application of irradiation as a new technology for sterilization, the identification of the drugs products is very important. Introduction of radiosterilization of pharmaceuticals is proceeding at a slower rate than that for disposable medical supplies; it is the responsibility of the manufacturer to prove that degradation of products is safe. Major advantages in the use of radiation as a sterilization procedure are high penetrating power, small temperature rise, ease of control and minimal degradation of irradiated solid drugs [fr

  20. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  1. MINOS Sterile Neutrino Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskinen, David Jason [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.

  2. SSTI- Lewis Spacecraft Nickel-Hydrogen Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, R. F.

    1997-01-01

    Topics considered include: NASA-Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) objectives, SSTI-Lewis overview, battery requirement, two cells Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) design summary, CPV electric performance, battery design summary, battery functional description, battery performance.

  3. Power requirements for commercial communications spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billerbeck, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Historical data on commercial spacecraft power systems are presented and their power requirements to the growth of satellite communications channel usage are related. Some approaches for estimating future power requirements of this class of spacecraft through the year 2000 are proposed. The key technology drivers in satellite power systems are addressed. Several technological trends in such systems are described, focusing on the most useful areas for research and development of major subsystems, including solar arrays, energy storage, and power electronics equipment.

  4. Genetically conditioned male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, W.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)

  5. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Adir Jose; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Silva Zambon, Luis da; Silva, Monica Valero da; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-31

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Device and Container for Reheating and Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Sudhir K.; Heskitt, Brian F.; Jun, Soojin; Marcy, Joseph E.; Mahna, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Long-duration space missions require the development of improved foods and novel packages that do not represent a significant disposal issue. In addition, it would also be desirable if rapid heating technologies could be used on Earth as well, to improve food quality during a sterilization process. For this purpose, a package equipped with electrodes was developed that will enable rapid reheating of contents via ohmic heating to serving temperature during space vehicle transit. Further, the package is designed with a resealing feature, which enables the package, once used, to contain and sterilize waste, including human waste for storage prior to jettison during a long-duration mission. Ohmic heating is a technology that has been investigated on and off for over a century. Literature indicates that foods processed by ohmic heating are of superior quality to their conventionally processed counterparts. This is due to the speed and uniformity of ohmic heating, which minimizes exposure of sensitive materials to high temperatures. In principle, the material may be heated rapidly to sterilization conditions, cooled rapidly, and stored. The ohmic heating device herein is incorporated within a package. While this by itself is not novel, a reusable feature also was developed with the intent that waste may be stored and re-sterilized within the packages. These would then serve a useful function after their use in food processing and storage. The enclosure should be designed to minimize mass (and for NASA's purposes, Equivalent System Mass, or ESM), while enabling the sterilization function. It should also be electrically insulating. For this reason, Ultem high-strength, machinable electrical insulator was used.

  7. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  8. Low-temperature sterilization and new technologies Métodos de esterilización por baja temperatura y nuevas tecnologías Métodos de esterilização por baixa-temperatura e novas tecnologias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania Regina Goveia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The new low-temperature sterilization technologies are presented as an alternative to the use of ethylene oxide. This review was performed in order to identify evidences of the antimicrobial activity, toxicity, adverse events and the applicability of these technologies. The research was carried through the electronic databases MEDLINE and LILACS up to 2005. The authors analyzed 10 articles in this survey. The studies about the efficacy of these sterilization methods constitute experimental and comparative research that showed the influence of the extension and diameter of the lumen, besides the presence of crystal salts. Thus, choosing the correct equipment is essential, as well as the assurance of the cleansing of the devices, which interfere with the effectiveness of the low-temperature sterilization. These technologies present limitations regarding the sterilization of graft bone and affect the materials properties.Nuevos métodos de esterilización a baja temperatura son una alternativa frente al óxido de etileno. El artículo tiene por objetivo identificar evidencias de actividad antimicrobiana, toxicidad, efectos colaterales y la aplicación de tecnologías por bajas temperaturas. La investigación fue realizada mediante consulta en los bancos de datos MEDLINE y LILACS hasta 2005. Fueron analizados en su totalidad 10 artículos, cuyos resultados demostraron que: a los estudios sobre la eficacia de la esterilización se constituyen en investigaciones básicas y comparativas que muestran la influencia de la extensión y diámetro del lumen y la presencia de sales de cristal, b la selección del equipo es tan fundamental como el garantizar la limpieza de los materiales que influyen en la eficacia de los procesos y en la toxicidad, c la esterilización a bajas temperaturas muestra limitaciones para el caso de esterilización de injerto óseo, así como deteriora las propiedades de los materiales.Novos métodos de esterilização à baixa

  9. Spacecraft Spin Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to correct unbalances of spacecraft by using dynamic measurement techniques and static/coupled measurements to provide products of...

  10. Nuclear technology in research and everyday life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The paper.. discusses the impact of nuclear technology in research and everyday life covering the following issues: miniaturization of memory devices, neutron radiography in material science, nuclear reactions in the universe, sterilization of food, medical applies, cosmetics and packaging materials using beta and gamma radiation, neutron imaging for radioactive waste analysis, microbial transformation of uranium (geobacter uraniireducens), nuclear technology knowledge preservation, spacecrafts voyager 1 and 2, future fusion power plants, prompt gamma activation analysis in archeology, radiation protection and radioecology and nuclear medicine (radiotherapy).

  11. Validation of radiation sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.

    2007-01-01

    The standards for quality management systems recognize that, for certain processes used in manufacturing, the effectiveness of the process cannot be fully verified by subsequent inspection and testing of the product. Sterilization is an example of such a process. For this reason, sterilization processes are validated for use, the performance of sterilization process is monitored routinely and the equipment is maintained according to ISO 13 485. Different aspects of this norm are presented

  12. Sterilizing insects with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)

  13. Laparoscopic female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filshie, G M

    1989-09-01

    An overview of laparoscopic sterilization techniques from a historical and practical viewpoint includes instrumentation, operative techniques, mechanical occlusive devices, anesthesia, failure rates, morbidity and mortality. Laparoscope was first reported in 1893, but was developed simultaneously in France, Great Britain, Canada and the US in the 1960s. There are smaller laparoscopes for double-puncture procedures, and larger, single-puncture laparoscopes. To use a ring or clip, a much larger operating channel, up to 8 mm is needed. Insufflating gas may be CO2, which does not support combustion, but is more uncomfortable, NO2, which is also an anesthetic, and room air often used in developing countries. Unipolar electrocautery is now rarely used, in fact most third party payers do not allow it. Bipolar cautery, thermal coagulation and laser photocoagulation are safer methods. Falope rings, Hulka-Clemens, Filshie, Bleier, Weck and Tupla clips are described and illustrated. General anesthesia, usually a short acting agent with a muscle relaxant, causes 33% of the mortality of laparoscope, often due to cardiac arrest and arrhythmias, preventable with atropine. Local anesthesia is safer and cheaper and often used in developing countries. Failure rates of the various laparoscopic tubal sterilization methods are reviewed: most result from fistula formation. Mortality and morbidity can be caused by bowel damage, injury or infection, pre- existing pelvic infection, hemorrhage, gas embolism (avoidable by the saline drip test), and other rare events.

  14. Spacecraft Charge Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goembel, L.

    2003-12-01

    We are currently developing a flight prototype Spacecraft Charge Monitor (SCM) with support from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The device will use a recently proposed high energy-resolution electron spectroscopic technique to determine spacecraft floating potential. The inspiration for the technique came from data collected by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites in the 1970s. The data available from the AE satellites indicate that the SCM may be able to determine spacecraft floating potential to within 0.1 V under certain conditions. Such accurate measurement of spacecraft charge could be used to correct biases in space plasma measurements. The device may also be able to measure spacecraft floating potential in the solar wind and in orbit around other planets.

  15. A Reconfigurable Testbed Environment for Spacecraft Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Jain, Abhinandan

    1996-01-01

    A key goal of NASA's New Millennium Program is the development of technology for increased spacecraft on-board autonomy. Achievement of this objective requires the development of a new class of ground-based automony testbeds that can enable the low-cost and rapid design, test, and integration of the spacecraft autonomy software. This paper describes the development of an Autonomy Testbed Environment (ATBE) for the NMP Deep Space I comet/asteroid rendezvous mission.

  16. Attitude Fusion Techniques for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    Spacecraft platform instability constitutes one of the most significant limiting factors in hyperacuity pointing and tracking applications, yet the demand for accurate, timely and reliable attitude information is ever increasing. The PhD research project described within this dissertation has...... served to investigate the solution space for augmenting the DTU μASC stellar reference sensor with a miniature Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), thereby obtaining improved bandwidth, accuracy and overall operational robustness of the fused instrument. Present day attitude determination requirements are met...... of the instrument, and affecting operations during agile and complex spacecraft attitude maneuvers. As such, there exists a theoretical foundation for augmenting the high frequency performance of the μASC instrument, by harnessing the complementary nature of optical stellar reference and inertial sensor technology...

  17. SHARP - Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  18. SHARP: Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. Gaius

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  19. Radiation Effects on Spacecraft Structural Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An J.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Hunter, Hamilton T.; Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Research is being conducted to develop an integrated technology for the prediction of aging behavior for space structural materials during service. This research will utilize state-of-the-art radiation experimental apparatus and analysis, updated codes and databases, and integrated mechanical and radiation testing techniques to investigate the suitability of numerous current and potential spacecraft structural materials. Also included are the effects on structural materials in surface modules and planetary landing craft, with or without fission power supplies. Spacecraft structural materials would also be in hostile radiation environments on the surface of the moon and planets without appreciable atmospheres and moons around planets with large intense magnetic and radiation fields (such as the Jovian moons). The effects of extreme temperature cycles in such locations compounds the effects of radiation on structural materials. This paper describes the integrated methodology in detail and shows that it will provide a significant technological advance for designing advanced spacecraft. This methodology will also allow for the development of advanced spacecraft materials through the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of material degradation in the space radiation environment. Thus, this technology holds a promise for revolutionary advances in material damage prediction and protection of space structural components as, for example, in the development of guidelines for managing surveillance programs regarding the integrity of spacecraft components, and the safety of the aging spacecraft. (authors)

  20. A research on industrial development of radiation sterilization in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xun; Zhu Rong; Chen Jigang

    2010-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is widely applied in food processing, Pharmaceutical Manufacturing and medical instrumentation producing. As this industry offers service to related corporations, its development depends largely on the market scale of the relevant industries. This article mainly discusses the balance point between the capacity of radiation sterilization and the requirement of its market. There are less than 1% of the companies in Sichuan which using radiation sterilization for its products, broad prospects has shown in this field. The output value of radiation sterilization industry reached 0.1% of the GDP in some advanced countries (America and Japan...), under this standard, its output value in Sichuan province would be RMB1.2 hundred million, but now our capacity and scale of this industry is less than RMB40million.Research shows: there are 3 key points to make its output value reach 0.1% of the GDP in Sichuan: 1. Breaking the 'bottleneck' restrictions of capacity and Inappropriate resources distribution. 2. Promoting the technique of radiation sterilization, guiding corporation to reduce their dependence on food additive from the perspective of food safety, make effective implantation of radiation sterilization into their manufacture processes. 3. Increasing publicity for radiation sterilization, eliminating scared mentality among customer on nuclear technology, helping manufacturing corporations to establish green environmental protection brand, directing our customer to a more healthy awareness. (authors)

  1. Effect of sterilization process on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of pure Mg and MgCa alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.L.; Zhou, W.R.; Wu, Y.H.; Cheng, Y.; Zheng, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of various sterilization methods on surface characteristics and biocompatibility of MgCa alloy, with pure Mg as a comparison, including steam autoclave sterilization (SA), ethylene oxide steam sterilization (EO), glutaraldehyde sterilization (GD), dry heat sterilization (DH) and Co60 γ ray radiation sterilization (R) technologies. The surface characterizations were performed by environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, water contact angle and surface free energy measurement, whereas the cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility were evaluated by cellular adhesive experiment, platelet adhesion and hemolysis test. The results showed that the five sterilization processes caused more changes on the surface of MgCa alloy than that on the surface of pure Mg. The GD sterilization caused the most obvious changes on the surface of the pure Mg, and the SA sterilization made the largest alteration on the MgCa alloy surface. The GD and DH sterilization processes could cause increases on surface free energy for both pure Mg and MgCa alloys, while the other three sterilization processes reduced the surface free energy. The DH and GD sterilization processes caused the least alteration on the cell adhesion on pure Mg surface, whereas the EO sterilization performed the greatest impact on the cell adhesion on the Mg–Ca alloy surface. The hemolysis percentage of pure Mg and MgCa alloys were reduced by SA sterilization, meanwhile the other four sterilization processes increased their hemolysis percentages significantly, especially for the EO sterilization. - Highlights: • The effect of sterilization on surface chemistry and biocompatibility was studied. • Sterilization caused more surface changes on MgCa alloy than pure Mg. • Co60 γ ray radiation is the most appropriate sterilization process

  2. Sterilization by ionizing radiation comparative evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, A.; Giuliani, S.

    1996-01-01

    Sterilization of surgical and medical devices by ionizing radiation (gamma or accelerated electron beams) is currently regarded as one of the main industrial-scale applications of radiation technology processes. Considering the most widely utilized chemical-physical methods (i.e. ethylene oxide (EtO) fumigation and radiation treatment), about 10-12 millions m(3) of surgical and medical devices are estimated to be processed yearly all around the world, of which 7 on beams. Due to the increasing demand for reusable and single-use devices, and the need of assuring their sterility in order to prevent, as much as possible, the diffusion of serious infective diseases (among which for instance Aids), the market of sterilization of these items is considerably expanding. In the general depicted scenario, radiation technologies are expected to gain a leading role, even a part from their economic attractiveness, as an alternative to EtO treatment, which is more and more considered as responsible for increasing environmental, social and public health problems

  3. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S L; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-22

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  4. Thermalizing Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Vogl, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.

  5. Sterile Endophthalmitis after Intravitreal Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Marticorena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.

  6. Conditional sterility in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  7. The Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiragu, J.

    2006-01-01

    Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)

  8. Sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book is a new look at one of the hottest topics in contemporary science, Dark Matter. It is the pioneering text dedicated to sterile neutrinos as candidate particles for Dark Matter, challenging some of the standard assumptions which may be true for some Dark Matter candidates but not for all. So, this can be seen either as an introduction to a specialized topic or an out-of-the-box introduction to the field of Dark Matter in general. No matter if you are a theoretical particle physicist, an observational astronomer, or a ground based experimentalist, no matter if you are a grad student or an active researcher, you can benefit from this text, for a simple reason: a non-standard candidate for Dark Matter can teach you a lot about what we truly know about our standard picture of how the Universe works.

  9. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    .... Models were developed from a customer-centric perspective to assess different fractionated spacecraft architectures relative to traditional spacecraft architectures using multi-attribute analysis...

  10. Spacecraft Material Outgassing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of outgassing data of materials intended for spacecraft use were obtained at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), utilizing equipment developed...

  11. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  12. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  13. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-12-06

    The breeding and large-scale adoption of hybrid seeds is an important achievement in agriculture. Rice hybrid seed production uses cytoplasmic male sterile lines or photoperiod/thermo-sensitive genic male sterile lines (PTGMS) as female parent. Cytoplasmic male sterile lines are propagated via cross-pollination by corresponding maintainer lines, whereas PTGMS lines are propagated via self-pollination under environmental conditions restoring male fertility. Despite huge successes, both systems have their intrinsic drawbacks. Here, we constructed a rice male sterility system using a nuclear gene named Oryza sativa No Pollen 1 (OsNP1). OsNP1 encodes a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase regulating tapetum degeneration and pollen exine formation; it is specifically expressed in the tapetum and miscrospores. The osnp1 mutant plant displays normal vegetative growth but complete male sterility insensitive to environmental conditions. OsNP1 was coupled with an α-amylase gene to devitalize transgenic pollen and the red fluorescence protein (DsRed) gene to mark transgenic seed and transformed into the osnp1 mutant. Self-pollination of the transgenic plant carrying a single hemizygous transgene produced nontransgenic male sterile and transgenic fertile seeds in 1:1 ratio that can be sorted out based on the red fluorescence coded by DsRed Cross-pollination of the fertile transgenic plants to the nontransgenic male sterile plants propagated the male sterile seeds of high purity. The male sterile line was crossed with ∼1,200 individual rice germplasms available. Approximately 85% of the F1s outperformed their parents in per plant yield, and 10% out-yielded the best local cultivars, indicating that the technology is promising in hybrid rice breeding and production.

  14. Deployable Brake for Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, J. R.; Maloney, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Aerodynamic shield that could be opened and closed proposed. Report presents concepts for deployable aerodynamic brake. Brake used by spacecraft returning from high orbit to low orbit around Earth. Spacecraft makes grazing passes through atmosphere to slow down by drag of brake. Brake flexible shield made of woven metal or ceramic withstanding high temperatures created by air friction. Stored until needed, then deployed by set of struts.

  15. Pain Associated With Hysteroscopic Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jenna; Childers, Meredith E.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The safety and efficacy of female hysteroscopic sterilization using the Essure system has been well documented. Given the marked differences in the execution of hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization, the objective of this study was to assess the experience of pain postprocedure between the 2. Secondary end-points included postoperative pain medication, time to return to normal activities, postprocedure bleeding, and patient satisfaction. Methods: Twenty cases each of laparoscopic sterilization (LS) and hysteroscopic sterilization (HS) were performed. Patients were surveyed regarding their experience of pain immediately postoperatively, 1 week, and 4 weeks post-procedure. Results: The average pain score immediately postprocedure was significantly lower among HS patients than among LS patients (t=−8.17, P<.0001). One-week post-procedure, none of the patients in the HS group reported any pain, while the average pain score among the LS patients was 2.65 (t =−9.67, P<.0001). Four weeks post-procedure, women in the HS group continued to report no pain, 35% of the LS group continued to report some pain (t=−3.04, P=.004). Conclusions: Hysteroscopic sterilization offers a minimally invasive, less painful, equally efficacious modality for sterilization than laparoscopic sterilization and should be available to all women seeking permanent birth control. PMID:17651558

  16. Automated constraint checking of spacecraft command sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Joan C.; Alkalaj, Leon J.; Schneider, Karl M.; Spitale, Joseph M.; Le, Dang

    1995-01-01

    Robotic spacecraft are controlled by onboard sets of commands called "sequences." Determining that sequences will have the desired effect on the spacecraft can be expensive in terms of both labor and computer coding time, with different particular costs for different types of spacecraft. Specification languages and appropriate user interface to the languages can be used to make the most effective use of engineering validation time. This paper describes one specification and verification environment ("SAVE") designed for validating that command sequences have not violated any flight rules. This SAVE system was subsequently adapted for flight use on the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft. The relationship of this work to rule-based artificial intelligence and to other specification techniques is discussed, as well as the issues that arise in the transfer of technology from a research prototype to a full flight system.

  17. Industry perspectives on Plug-& -Play Spacecraft Avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, R.; Graven, P.; Liptak, L.

    This paper describes the methodologies and findings from an industry survey of awareness and utility of Spacecraft Plug-& -Play Avionics (SPA). The survey was conducted via interviews, in-person and teleconference, with spacecraft prime contractors and suppliers. It focuses primarily on AFRL's SPA technology development activities but also explores the broader applicability and utility of Plug-& -Play (PnP) architectures for spacecraft. Interviews include large and small suppliers as well as large and small spacecraft prime contractors. Through these “ product marketing” interviews, awareness and attitudes can be assessed, key technical and market barriers can be identified, and opportunities for improvement can be uncovered. Although this effort focuses on a high-level assessment, similar processes can be used to develop business cases and economic models which may be necessary to support investment decisions.

  18. Sterile neutrinos as dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodelson, S.; Widrow, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    The simplest model that can accommodate a viable nonbaryonic dark matter candidate is the standard electroweak theory with the addition of right-handed (sterile) neutrinos. We consider a single generation of neutrinos with a Dirac mass μ and a Majorana mass M for the right-handed component. If M much-gt μ (standard hot dark matter corresponds to M=0), then sterile neutrinos are produced via oscillations in the early Universe with energy density independent of M. However, M is crucial in determining the large scale structure of the Universe; for M∼100 eV, sterile neutrinos make an excellent warm dark matter candidate

  19. Male gametophytic sterility. 1 - Gametic sterilities and deletions in petunia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D. (Station d' Amelioration des Plantes de l' I.N.R.A., Dijon (France))

    1982-01-01

    Terminal deletions induced by ionizing radiations in Petunia are not sexually transmitted. Cytogenetic study of plants with a heterozygous deletion and their progenies shows that this lack of transmission is accompanied by a gametic semi-sterility due to the fact that gametes carrying the deleted chromosome are not viable. The interest of such a male sterility with a gametophytic determinism for the study of sporophyte-gametophyte relationships is underlined.

  20. Food irradiation and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

  1. Food irradiation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, E.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25 to 70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning in achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70 to 80 0 C (bacon to 53 0 C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurrence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40 0 C to -20 0 C). Radappertized foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for 'wholesomeness' (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effects of radappertization on the 'wholesomeness' characteristics of these foods. (author)

  2. Portable Decontamination and Sterilization System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, William; Smerjac, Suzanne; Smith, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    TDA Research, Inc., (TDA) is developing a portable system to generate chlorine dioxide, which can be used for biodecontamination of small items and to sterilize medical and dental instruments in austere environments...

  3. Documentation requirements for radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1995-01-01

    Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....

  4. Low cost spacecraft computers: Oxymoron or future trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last few decades, application of current terrestrial computer technology in embedded spacecraft control systems has been expensive and wrought with many technical challenges. These challenges have centered on overcoming the extreme environmental constraints (protons, neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic rays, temperature, vibration, etc.) that often preclude direct use of commercial off-the-shelf computer technology. Reliability, fault tolerance and power have also greatly constrained the selection of spacecraft control system computers. More recently, new constraints are being felt, cost and mass in particular, that have again narrowed the degrees of freedom spacecraft designers once enjoyed. This paper discusses these challenges, how they were previously overcome, how future trends in commercial computer technology will simplify (or hinder) selection of computer technology for spacecraft control applications, and what spacecraft electronic system designers can do now to circumvent them.

  5. Steam sterilization does not require saturated steam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doornmalen Gomez Hoyos, J. P.C.M.; Paunovic, A.; Kopinga, K.

    2017-01-01

    The most commonly applied method to sterilize re-usable medical devices in hospitals is steam sterilization. The essential conditions for steam sterilization are derived from sterilization in water. Microbiological experiments in aqueous solutions have been used to calculate various time–temperature

  6. Food packaging and radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko

    1998-01-01

    Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The γ ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The γ ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)

  7. Exploiting Nanotechnology and Radiation Technologies to Develop New Eco-Sustainable Nanomaterials for Food Packaging Suitable for Sterilization by Irradiation. Chapter 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestre, C.; Pezzuto, M.; Duraccio, D.; Marra, A.; Cimmino, S. [Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Polimeri, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerhe, Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078, Pozzuoli, Napoli (Italy)

    2014-07-15

    The objective of the study is to develop new food packaging nanomaterials based on biopolymers (PLA) to be used in prepackaged foods intended for radiation. The processing conditions were optimized, and the properties of the systems before irradiation were studied. From these studies, the following conclusions were drawn: 1) The final properties of polymer nanocomposites depend on their structure and morphology, and 2) Improved properties can be achieved only if a good dispersion and distribution are realized in the polymer nanomaterials. The team at Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Polimeri, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerhe (ICTP/CNR) participated in the IAEA CRP on “Application of Radiation Processing Technology in the Development of Advanced Packaging Materials for Food Products”. (author)

  8. Development of atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet for sterilization applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfa, Rizan Rizon; Ahmad, Mohd Khairul; Soon, Chin Fhong; Sahdan, Mohd Zainizan; Lias, Jais; Wibowo, Kusnanto Mukti; Bakar, Ahmad Shuhaimi Abu; Arshad, Mohd Khairuddin Md; Hashim, Uda; Nayan, Nafarizal

    2017-09-01

    Inactivation of bacteria or sterilization has been a major issue in the medical field, especially regarding of human safety, whereby, in a huge scenario fatality can be caused by hazardous bacteria. Often, E-coli as gram-negative bacteria are selected as a key indicator of proper sterilization process as E-coli is tough and dormant bacteria. The technology in sterilization has moved on from chemical, wet and irradiation sterilization to a high promising device such as atmospheric pressure plasma needle jet (APPNJ). It has been reported that atmospheric pressure plasma has provided bundle of advantages over earlier sterilization process. The APPNJ is developed in our lab using high frequency and high voltage neon transformer power supply connected to copper needle and copper sheet electrodes. The gas discharge is Ar gas flowing at 40 L/min through a quartz glass tube. The E-coli bacteria are self-cultured from waste water and then treated with APPNJ. The treatment processes are run into two difference gaps between the plasma orifice and sample with various treatment times. Only 40s is required by direct treatment to achieve 100% killing of E-coli. On the other hand, indirect treatment has inactivated 50% of the E-coli in 40s. In this study, direct and indirect effect of APPNJ to the E-coli can be observed which can be utilized into sterilization of bio-compatible material applications.

  9. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60 (20 KGy gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination, Group 2 (70°GL alcohol, Group 3 (autoclave, Group 4 (ultraviolet, Group 5 (peracetic acid and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde. After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL, and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties.

  10. Sterilization techniques without heating (ultraviolet ray, radiation and ozone)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi

    1991-01-01

    The recent demand of consumers for processed foods is characterized by the intention for health and nature, besides, the demand for low sweetness, salt reduction, no additive and freshness becomes strong. In view of the control of microorganisms in products, all these become the negative factors. Accordingly, in order to overcome them, it is urgently desired to develop new technology or to improve conventional methods. As to heating sterilization, the uniform temperature treatment to the inside of foods is difficult, and it cannot be applied to perishables. The high temperature sterilization above 120degC causes the change in nutrition composition and physical properties. Ultraviolet ray and ozone can be used for the sterilization of food surface and powder and liquid foods. Radiation treatment can be applied to packed foods and frozen foods as well as food surface. The principle and the fields of application of ultraviolet ray sterilization, radiation sterilization and ozone sterilization are reported. In the mechanism of these methods, the action to DNA and oxidation are common. (K.I.)

  11. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-07-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  12. Radiation sterilization of skin allograft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.

    2009-01-01

    In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6 . The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2 . The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.

  13. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  14. Embedded Thermal Control for Spacecraft Subsystems Miniaturization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of spacecraft size, weight and power (SWaP) resources is an explicit technical priority at Goddard Space Flight Center. Embedded Thermal Control Subsystems are a promising technology with many cross cutting NSAA, DoD and commercial applications: 1.) CubeSatSmallSat spacecraft architecture, 2.) high performance computing, 3.) On-board spacecraft electronics, 4.) Power electronics and RF arrays. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem technology development efforts focus on component, board and enclosure level devices that will ultimately include intelligent capabilities. The presentation will discuss electric, capillary and hybrid based hardware research and development efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem development program consists of interrelated sub-initiatives, e.g., chip component level thermal control devices, self-sensing thermal management, advanced manufactured structures. This presentation includes technical status and progress on each of these investigations. Future sub-initiatives, technical milestones and program goals will be presented.

  15. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...

  16. Sterile searches with Liquid Argon at FNAL

    CERN Document Server

    Raselli, Gian Luca

    2017-01-01

    A new Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) experiment is in preparation at FNAL to definitely prove or exclude the existence of non-standard neutrino oscillations into sterile states. The program foresees the deployment along the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) of three detectors, all based on the liquid-argon time projection chamber technique. This technology has been taken to full maturity with ICARUS T600, which will act as far detector after the completion of the overhauling at CERN and its transportation to FNAL. The program foresees the data taking for three years.

  17. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The EPOXI flight mission has been testing a new commercial system, Splunk, which employs data mining techniques to organize and present spacecraft telemetry data in a high-level manner. By abstracting away data-source specific details, Splunk unifies arbitrary data formats into one uniform system. This not only reduces the time and effort for retrieving relevant data, but it also increases operational visibility by allowing a spacecraft team to correlate data across many different sources. Splunk's scalable architecture coupled with its graphing modules also provide a solid toolset for generating data visualizations and building real-time applications such as browser-based telemetry displays.

  18. Dips spacecraft integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Department of Defense, has recently initiated the dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) demonstration program. DIPS is designed to provide 1 to 10 kW of electrical power for future military spacecraft. One of the near-term missions considered as a potential application for DIPS was the boost surveillance and tracking system (BSTS). A brief review and summary of the reasons behind a selection of DIPS for BSTS-type missions is presented. Many of these are directly related to spacecraft integration issues; these issues will be reviewed in the areas of system safety, operations, survivability, reliability, and autonomy

  19. Prospects for radiation sterilization of medical products in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1975-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry in Egypt is continually expanding its activity and each year marks new accomplishments and additions which enable the companies to apply the most modern scientific means in the production of pharmaceutical preparations and consequently to improve their market potentialities. The certainty of expansion and the possibility of increasing exports of sterilized medical products, particularly to Arab and African countries, indicate a need for a gamma-sterilization plant. This technology permits the introduction of the latest practices with regard to used disposables, thus greatly reducing the chances of cross-contamination which usually results in serious complications enhanced by local environmental conditions. This paper reviews the current state and future prospects for radiation sterilization of medical products and biological tissues in connection with other related industrial radiation processings. Moreover, the paper reviews the Egyptian scientific and technical experience with irradiation facilities and the parameters underlying the choice of Egypt's first industrial gamma and electron-beam irradiators designed for more than a single-purpose use, with hygienic measures taken to avoid biological contamination of sterilized medical packages throughout the sterilization process. In addition, the paper deals with the policy set up for establishing the Egyptian National Centre for Radiation Technology with a view to introducing irradiation techniques in the sterilization of medical products, and to improving the properties and increasing the competitiveness of Egyptian fabrics. Apart from medical sterilization, certain industrial processes have been mentioned to show how a multi-purpose irradiation facility may be utilized in a developing country to justify significantly the large investment required. (author)

  20. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Turner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is

  1. Genomic networks of hybrid sterility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leslie M; White, Michael A; Tautz, Diethard; Payseur, Bret A

    2014-02-01

    Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities"). The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus) provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL). Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is applicable in a broad

  2. Discussion on the compilation of document of iso quality management system for radiation sterilization enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunhong; Ha Yiming; Zhou Hongjie; Feng Zhiguo; Wang Feng

    2006-01-01

    According to the character of cooperation of radiation sterilization, and association with request of ISO9001, ISO13485 and ISO11137, compilation of document in quality manual, procedure document and technological document during certification of ISO quality management system of cooperation of radiation sterilization was discussed. (authors)

  3. Electron beam sterilization of water discharged from sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Teijiro; Arai, Hidehiko; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Machi, Sueo; Kondo, Masaki; Minemura, Takashi; Nakao, Akio; Seike, Yasuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    At present, the water treated at city sewerages is discharged to rivers after the chlorine sterilization, but it was clarified recently that this chlorine treatment produces carcinogenic organic chlorine compounds, and residual chlorine exerts harmful effect to aquatics, therefore, it is desirable to develop the sterilization techniques substituting for chlorine treatment. Already many reports elucidated that irradiation is effective for the sterilization of the water discharged from sewerage. However, as the technical subject for putting radiation process in practical use, the treatment of large quantity was a problem. Recently by the progress of the technology of manufacturing electron accelerators, the equipment with large power output which can treat in large quantity was developed, and it has become applicable also to sewage treatment. Therefore, the authors examined the practicality of electron beam process as the substitute technology for chlorine sterilizaiton. In the case of using electron beam, though the power output of accelerators is large, the flight range of electron beam in water is short. The comparison of the sterilization effect of electron beam with that of Co-60 gamma ray, the effects of water depth, discharged water quality and water velocity on the sterilization effect and so on were experimentally examined. (K.I.)

  4. Sterilization in Finland: from eugenics to contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.

  5. Sewage sterilization through gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.V.; Teixeira, W.M.S.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Lack of sewage treatment and adequate sanitation conditions can contribute to the proliferation of numerous parasitic and infectious diseases in addition to water degradation. Approximately fifty types of infections can be transmitted from a sick to a healthy person through different pathways involving human excreta. Untreated sewage can contaminate water, food, hands, soil, etc. Epidemics of certain diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysenteries, etc., and countless cases of worms are responsible for high mortality rates in third world countries. In the work the different techniques of sewage treatment by disinfestation and sterilization were analyzed, highlighting the use and the advantages of the gamma radiation as well as the aspects of the radiological protection involved. The technique of sewage sterilization using gamma radiation is a method of controlling bacteria and microorganisms. It is estimated that more than 200 large irradiators are in operation worldwide, of which 5 are in Brazil, for general sterilization use. These facilities use a large amount of radioactive material, in the order of millions of Becquerel, for sterilization with high doses of radiation, which can generate lethal doses in a few minutes. These industrial facilities use Cobalt-60, being classified by the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA as Category 1 of high risk, and must possess a high level of radiological protection to carry out the sterilization, standing out the defense in depth. Specific legislation on radiological protection should be drafted for safe work and avoid future radiation accidents

  6. Precise Relative Positioning of Formation Flying Spacecraft using GPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroes, R.

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft formation flying is considered as a key technology for advanced space missions. Compared to large individual spacecraft, the distribution of sensor systems amongst multiple platforms offers improved flexibility, shorter times to mission, and the prospect of being more cost effective.

  7. Prospects of radiation sterilization of medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosobuchi, Kazunari

    1992-01-01

    Since radiation sterilization was first introduced in the United States in 1956 in the field of disposable medical devices, it has become an indispensable technique for sterilization because of the following reasons: (1) introduction into dialyzers, (2) introduction in medical device makers, (3) development of disposable medical devices associated with developing both high molecular chemistry and cool sterilization, (4) rationality of sterilization process, and (5) problems of sterilization with ethylene oxide gas. To promote the further development of radiation sterilization, the following items are considered necessary: (1) an increase in the number of facilities for radiation sterilization, (2) recommendation of the international standardization of sterilization method, (3) decrease in radiation doses associated with sterilization, (4) development of electron accelerators and bremsstrahlung equipments for radiation sources, and (5) simplification of sterilization process management. Factors precluding the development of radiation sterilization are: (1) development of other methods than radiation sterilization, (2) development of technique for sterile products, (3) high facility cost, (4) high irradiation cost, (5) benefits and limits of sterilization markets, and (6) influences of materials. (N.K.)

  8. Gamma irradiation for food preservation and sterilization of medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Abid Husain; Mohammad Said Kadis

    1981-01-01

    A new technology in food preservation by using gamma irradiation was introduced and its advantages over a number of conventional processes were discussed. The new technique is also applicable in the sterilization of medical supplies. It is relatively simple and does not require very highly skilled manpower

  9. Radiation sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charef, A.; Boussaha, A.

    1989-09-01

    The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product

  10. Plasma Sterilizer with Ultrasonic Cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnyj, V.V.; Klosovsky, A.V.; Panasko, T.A.; Shvets, O.M.; Semenova, O.T.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    A sterilizer consists of ozone generator based on a barrier glow discharge with the flat electrodes covered with dielectric with a high-voltage pulsed power supply of up to 250 W (1). The sterilization camera is equipped with ultrasonic source with the power of 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. Ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 6 mg/liter with ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator 30 mg/liter. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min

  11. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  12. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. The application of Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) for the sterilisation of spacecraft materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Morfill, Gregor; Thomas, Hubertus; Satoshi Shimizu, .; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias

    2012-07-01

    Plasma, oft called the fourth state of matter after solid, liquid and gas, is defined by its ionized state. Ionization can be induced by different means, such as a strong electromagnetic field applied with a microwave generator. The concentration and composition of reactive atoms and molecules produced in Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) depends on the gases used, the gas flow, the power applied, the humidity level etc.. In medicine, low-temperature plasma is already used for the sterilization of surgical instruments, implants and packaging materials as plasma works at the atomic level and is able to reach all surfaces, even the interior of small hollow items like needles. Its ability to sterilise is due to the generation of biologically active bactericidal agents, such as free radicals and UV radiation. In the project PLASMA-DECON (DLR/BMWi support code 50JR1005) a prototype of a device for sterilising spacecraft material and components was built based on the surface micro-discharge (SMD) plasma technology. The produced plasma species are directed into a closed chamber which contains the parts that need to be sterilised. To test the inactivation efficiency of this new device bacterial spores were used as model organisms because in the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy all bioburden constraints are defined with respect to the number of spores (and other heat-tolerant aerobic microorganisms). Spores from different Bacillus species and strains, i.e. wildtype strains from culture collections and isolates from spacecraft assembly cleanrooms, were dried on three different spacecraft relevant materials and exposed to CAP. The specificity, linearity, precision, and effective range of the device was investigated. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the application of CAP proved to be a suitable method for bioburden reduction / sterilisation in the frame of planetary protection measures and the design of a larger plasma device is planned in the future.

  14. Male and female sterility in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Pantazis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population measures of sterility are traditionally constructed for women, despite fertility and sterility being conditions of the couple. Estimates of male sterility provide insight into population-level sterility, and complement estimates based solely on women. Objective: This study seeks to estimate male sterility for the Gwembe Tonga of Zambia using male birth histories collected by the Gwembe Tonga Research Project from 1957 to 1995, while providing context by estimating female sterility for the Gwembe Tonga, as well as female sterility in all of Zambia, from Zambian DHS data (1992, 1997, 2001-02, and 2007. Methods: Sterility is measured using the Larson-Menken subsequently infertile indicator. Estimates are produced using discrete time event history analysis. Results: The odds of sterility were higher for women than men, though women's odds of sterility were only 1.5 times that of men's in the middle reproductive years. The odds of sterility increased steadily with age for both men and women, and across all datasets. However, women's sterility increased much more sharply with age than men's did, and women's odds of sterility were higher than men's at all reproductive ages.

  15. Research on industrial development of radiation sterilization in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xun; Zhu Rong; Chen Jigang; Ouyang Qiongli

    2010-01-01

    Radiation sterilization is widely applied in food processing, pharmaceutical manufacturing and medical instrumentation producing. As this industry offers service to related corporations, its development depends largely on the market scale of the relevant industries. This article mainly discusses the balance point between the capacity of radiation sterilization and the requirement of its market. There are less than 1% of the companies in Sichuan which using radiation sterilization for its products, broad prospects has shown in this field. There are 3 key points to make its output value reach 0.1% of the GDP in Sichuan: 1. Breaking the restrictions of capacity and inappropriate resources distribution. 2. Promoting the technique of radiation sterilization, guiding corporation to reduce their dependence on food additive from the perspective of food safety, make effective implantation of radiation sterilization into their manufacture processes. 3. Increasing publicity, eliminating scared mentality among customer on nuclear technology, helping manufacturing corporations to establish green environmental protection brand, directing our customer to a more healthy awareness. (authors)

  16. Impact of moth suppression/eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique or inherited sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, K.A.; Bloem, S.; Carpenter, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous lepidopteran species have been investigated as candidates for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT) or inherited sterility (IS). However to date only two programmes are operational - the pink bollworm containment programme in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, and the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada. Both of these programmes have been highly successful in controlling the pest populations, reducing insecticide use, and improving interactions between growers and the general public. However, other benefits, including the positive economic impacts of these programmes, have not been fully quantified. Methods to reduce the cost of lepidopteran programmes might include combining the SIT/IS with other pest control tactics such as mating disruption or the release of natural enemies, the development of genetic sexing strains, or the application of molecular technologies to develop genetic markers and genetic sterility. In future the greatest potential for impact of lepidopteran SIT/IS programmes may be in combating key invasive threats such as the eradication of an outbreak of the painted apple moth in New Zealand. (author)

  17. Automating Trend Analysis for Spacecraft Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George; Cooter, Miranda; Updike, Clark; Carey, Everett; Mackey, Jennifer; Rykowski, Timothy; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spacecraft trend analysis is a vital mission operations function performed by satellite controllers and engineers, who perform detailed analyses of engineering telemetry data to diagnose subsystem faults and to detect trends that may potentially lead to degraded subsystem performance or failure in the future. It is this latter function that is of greatest importance, for careful trending can often predict or detect events that may lead to a spacecraft's entry into safe-hold. Early prediction and detection of such events could result in the avoidance of, or rapid return to service from, spacecraft safing, which not only results in reduced recovery costs but also in a higher overall level of service for the satellite system. Contemporary spacecraft trending activities are manually intensive and are primarily performed diagnostically after a fault occurs, rather than proactively to predict its occurrence. They also tend to rely on information systems and software that are oudated when compared to current technologies. When coupled with the fact that flight operations teams often have limited resources, proactive trending opportunities are limited, and detailed trend analysis is often reserved for critical responses to safe holds or other on-orbit events such as maneuvers. While the contemporary trend analysis approach has sufficed for current single-spacecraft operations, it will be unfeasible for NASA's planned and proposed space science constellations. Missions such as the Dynamics, Reconnection and Configuration Observatory (DRACO), for example, are planning to launch as many as 100 'nanospacecraft' to form a homogenous constellation. A simple extrapolation of resources and manpower based on single-spacecraft operations suggests that trending for such a large spacecraft fleet will be unmanageable, unwieldy, and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore imperative that an approach to automating the spacecraft trend analysis function be studied, developed, and applied to

  18. Establishment of a sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.

    2007-01-01

    Factors that impact on product bioburden (population of diable microorganisms on or in product and/or sterile barrier system) are: Raw materials, components, product design and size, manufacturing process, manufacturing equipment, manufacturing environment and manufacturing location. Presented lecture describes all these factors in details

  19. Sterile neutrino constraints from cosmology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....

  20. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, Alena V.

    2015-01-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm 2 . An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, Δm s 2 ~ 1 eV 2 . The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  1. Sterility test by radiometric technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruq, Muhammad

    1980-01-01

    Sterility test of pharmaceuticals can be carried out by the application of pharmacopoeia and radiometric technique. In Indonesia the application of pharmacopoeia technique is carried out through liquid germination for aerobacteria and for fungus and yeast. Radiometric technique is applied to autotrop and heterotrop bacteria. (SMN)

  2. Sterile Neutrino Search with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devan, Alena V. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.

  3. Triple3 Redundant Spacecraft Subsystems (T3RSS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Redefine Technologies, along with researchers at the University of Colorado, will use three redundancy methods to decrease the susceptibility of a spacecraft, on a...

  4. Distributed Control Architectures for Precision Spacecraft Formations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — LaunchPoint Technologies, Inc. (LaunchPoint) proposes to develop synthesis methods and design architectures for distributed control systems in precision spacecraft...

  5. Sterilization can change properties of bioceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willmann, G.

    2003-01-01

    Bioceramics made of bioinert alumina or zirconia and bioactive hydroxyapatite are well established implant materials. Implants have to be cleaned and sterilized. When sterilized some bioceramics change their color. This may effect their properties. No decrease of mechanical strength is observed when sterilizing alumina and the novel ceramic biocomposite AMC (Alumina Matrix Composite) with steam or Co 60 Gamma irradiation. When sterilizing Y-TZP zirconia with steam a decrease of strength is observed. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  6. Radiation sterilization: an industrial process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    A new dimension has been added to the use of radiation in the medical field with the introduction of radiation as a sterilizing agent. Its use in diagnosis through radioactive tracers or X-rays and in therapy administered with the most sophisticated of electrical machines or radioisotope units, is familiar in the hospital world, being well established therein. In contrast, the application of radiation sterilization is in industry where the installation of large radiation sources is already commonplace in many countries. The beginnings in the early 1950's centered on the Van de Graaff machine and linear accelerators and the pioneering efforts of Ethicon Inc. here in the United States must be recognized. However, although sterilization with electron beams is still current practice in a number of plants, the use of gamma rays from cobalt-60 is preferred. The first steps in this direction were taken by the U.K.A.E.A. which, in common with similar organizations elsewhere, was attempting to exploit the tremendous potential for cobalt-60 production arising through the rapid construction of nuclear reactors. The first full-scale commercial gamma plant was commissioned in the U.K. in 1960. It reached a loading of 500,000 curies before its demolition after twelve years of operation. The process gained rapid acceptance within industry and approval by health authorities because it provided a ''cold'' sterilization method combining the property of lethal effect with penetration. Its immediate impact occurred in the introduction of disposable products making it possible, for example, to use heat-labile plastics and new packaging materials and package designs. Certainly, the technique has proved complementary to sterilization methods based on heat and to the use of chemical agents, in particular ethylene oxide gas

  7. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin 2 2θ 24 ≤ 0.02 at m 2 ~ 0.3 eV 2 , and the LSND and MiniBooNE allowed regions are excluded at

  8. Reionization in sterile neutrino cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sownak; Frenk, Carlos S.; Hou, Jun; Lacey, Cedric G.; Lovell, Mark R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the process of reionization in a model in which the dark matter is a warm elementary particle such as a sterile neutrino. We focus on models that are consistent with the dark matter decay interpretation of the recently detected line at 3.5 keV in the X-ray spectra of galaxies and clusters. In warm dark matter models, the primordial spectrum of density perturbations has a cut-off on the scale of dwarf galaxies. Structure formation therefore begins later than in the standard cold dark matter (CDM) model and very few objects form below the cut-off mass scale. To calculate the number of ionizing photons, we use the Durham semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, GALFORM. We find that even the most extreme 7 keV sterile neutrino we consider is able to reionize the Universe early enough to be compatible with the bounds on the epoch of reionization from Planck. This, perhaps surprising, result arises from the rapid build-up of high redshift galaxies in the sterile neutrino models which is also reflected in a faster evolution of their far-UV luminosity function between 10 > z > 7 than in CDM. The dominant sources of ionizing photons are systematically more massive in the sterile neutrino models than in CDM. As a consistency check on the models, we calculate the present-day luminosity function of satellites of Milky Way-like galaxies. When the satellites recently discovered in the Dark Energy Survey are taken into account, strong constraints are placed on viable sterile neutrino models.

  9. Cross-cultural attitudes toward voluntary sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S

    1985-06-01

    . Cultural traits such as machismo and son preference tend to be associated with negative attitudes toward sterilization; yet, VS prevalence is high in China and Panama despite the presence of a strong preference for sons in the former country and of machismo attitudes in the latter country. Acceptance of VS as a form of birth control appears to be increasing throughout the world. This trend will probably become stronger as improvements are made in VS technologies and Vs delivery systems.

  10. Spacecraft exploration of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, J.; Langevin, Y.; Farquhar, R.; Fulchignoni, M.

    1989-01-01

    After two decades of spacecraft exploration, we still await the first direct investigation of an asteroid. This paper describes how a growing international interest in the solar system's more primitive bodies should remedy this. Plans are under way in Europe for a dedicated asteroid mission (Vesta) which will include multiple flybys with in situ penetrator studies. Possible targets include 4 Vesta, 8 Flora and 46 Hestia; launch its scheduled for 1994 or 1996. In the United States, NASA plans include flybys of asteroids en route to outer solar system targets

  11. Spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenons and problems encountered when a rendezvous manoeuvre, and possible docking, of two spacecrafts has to be performed, have been the topic for numerous studies, and, details of a variety of scenarios has been analysed. So far, all solutions that has been brought into realization has...... been based entirely on direct human supervision and control. This paper describes a vision-based system and methodology, that autonomously generates accurate guidance information that may assist a human operator in performing the tasks associated with both the rendezvous and docking navigation...

  12. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  13. Nuclear technology in research and everyday life; Kerntechnik in Forschung und Alltag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-12-15

    The paper.. discusses the impact of nuclear technology in research and everyday life covering the following issues: miniaturization of memory devices, neutron radiography in material science, nuclear reactions in the universe, sterilization of food, medical applies, cosmetics and packaging materials using beta and gamma radiation, neutron imaging for radioactive waste analysis, microbial transformation of uranium (geobacter uraniireducens), nuclear technology knowledge preservation, spacecrafts voyager 1 and 2, future fusion power plants, prompt gamma activation analysis in archeology, radiation protection and radioecology and nuclear medicine (radiotherapy).

  14. Radiosterilization or sterilization by steam. Procedures for sterilization of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmbold, J.

    1994-01-01

    The article compares two different methods for the sterilization of spices, namely radiosterilization and sterilization with steam. The first method applies ionizing radiation which can alter the chemical composition of the products. Tests have shown, however, that radiation doses up to 10 kGy will not induce the formation of carcinogenic agents in the foodstuffs, or of toxic substances, and thus are a wholesome method of preservation. Any modifications of taste, color or smell, or loss of vitamins, can be avoided by proper dose control and standard irradiation conditions. Sterilization by steam is a method achieving substantial suppression of the formation of germs, aerobic spores, yeasts, mould, and gramnegative germs, while preserving in most cases the essential oils. It may result in sensoric alterations, i.e affect the color, smell or taste, but in general the spices thus treated preserved their characteristic properties. The method is a good alternative to radiosterilization. The article adds some concluding information on mandatory labelling of irradiated food imported from third countries

  15. The impact of European standards concerning radiation sterilization on the quality assurance of medical products in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaluska, I.; Zimek, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The ISO 11137 and EN 552 standards were issued in the mid-90's. These documents have been devoted to the requirements regarding the sterile medical devices offered on the market. The implementation of those standards by Polish manufacturers of medical devices is discussed in this paper. The currently introduced national regulations effectively stimulated this process. The activities of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) in the field of radiation sterilization standardization and its radiation sterilization commercial service are described. (author)

  16. Model business plan for a sterile insect production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    For over 50 years the sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy which has been used for eradication, and more recently for suppression, containment and prevention, of unwanted insect pest populations. Examples of successful applications of SIT, almost always applied in conjunction with other control methods in an area-wide integrated approach, are available from around the world. The development and application of SIT has relied overwhelmingly on public or donor initiative and funding throughout its history, although the private sector has always been involved as participants, cooperators or partners in funding. The demand for SIT, and therefore the market for sterile insects, has increased in recent years. This increase coincides with the introduction of new pests through the expansion of global trade and, at the same time, widespread pressure to find alternatives to pesticides. Recent improvements in the technology supporting SIT facilitate its application and suggest lower costs can be achieved. The conditions are therefore met for a greater commercialization of the technique to bring it in line with other pest control approaches that are fully integrated into a market approach. Several challenges arise, however, in pursuing sterile insect production as a commercial venture, ranging from intellectual property protection to pricing of the product. Routine insurance requirements, for instance, are complicated by the biological aspects of the business. This report is aimed at facilitating private sector involvement in the production of sterile insects for use in pest control. It provides guidelines and tools to support the development of specific business plans for a new SIT venture. By providing an international perspective on such issues as initial capital costs and recurring operational expenditures for a sterile insect facility, it may be used to evaluate the feasibility of proceeding with the construction or expansion of a sterile insect

  17. Dosimetry for electron beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    According to ISO 11137-1 (sect 4.3.4) dosimetry used in the development, validation and routine control of the sterilization process shall have measurement traceability to national or international standards and shall have a known level of uncertainty. It can only be obtained through calibration of the dosimeters. In presented lecture different types of dosimeter systems for electron beams (calorimeters, radiochromic film dosimeters, alanine / EPR) and their calibration are described

  18. Methane potential of sterilized solid slaughterhouse wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Kaparaju, Prasad; Vilu, Raivo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine chemical composition and methane potential of Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes rendering products (SSHWRP) viz. melt, decanter sludge, meat and bone meal (MBM), technical fat and flotation sludge from wastewater treatment. Chemical analyses showed that SSHWRP were high in protein and lipids with total solids (TS) content of 96-99%. Methane yields of the SSHWRP were between 390 and 978 m(3) CH(4)/t volatile solids (VS)(added). Based on batch experiments, anaerobic digestion of SSHWRP from the dry rendering process could recover 4.6 times more primary energy than the energy required for the rendering process. Estonia has technological capacity to sterilize all the produced Category 2 and 3 solid slaughterhouse wastes (SSHW) and if separated from Category 1 animal by-products (ABP), it could be further utilized as energy rich input material for anaerobic digestion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pressure-assisted thermal sterilization of soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibeshi, Kidane; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2010-12-01

    The overall efficiency of an existing scale-up pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) unit was investigated with regards to inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores suspended in pumpkin soup. The PATS unit is a double pipe heat exchanger in which the soup is pumped into its inner high pressure tube and constrained by two high pressure valves, while steam is continuously passed through the annular region to heat the content. The technology is based on pressure generation by thermal expansion of the liquid in an enclosure. In this work, the addition of an air line to push the treated liquid food out of the existing PATS unit has improved the overall quality of the treated samples, as evidenced by achieving higher log reduction of the spores. Compared with thermal processing, the application of PATS shows the potential for lowering the thermal treatment temperature, offering improved food quality.

  20. Radiation treatment for sterilization of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haji-Saeid, Mohammad; Sampa, Maria Helena O.; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment with gamma and electron radiation is becoming a common process for the sterilization of packages, mostly made of natural or synthetic plastics, used in the aseptic processing of foods and pharmaceuticals. The effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packaging engineering to understand the effects of these new treatments. Packaging material may be irradiated either prior to or after filling. The irradiation prior to filling is usually chosen for dairy products, processed food, beverages, pharmaceutical, and medical device industries in the United States, Europe, and Canada. Radiation effects on packaging material properties still need further investigation. This paper summarizes the work done by different groups and discusses recent developments in regulations and testing procedures in the field of packaging technology

  1. Mirror model for sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezinsky, Veniamin; Narayan, Mohan; Vissani, Francesco

    2003-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos are studied as subdominant contribution to solar neutrino physics. The mirror-matter neutrinos are considered as sterile neutrinos. We use the symmetric mirror model with gravitational communication between mirror and visible sectors. This communication term provides mixing between visible and mirror neutrinos with the basic scale μ=v EW 2 /M Pl =2.5x10 -6 eV, where v EW =174 GeV is the vacuum expectation value of the standard electroweak group and M Pl is the Planckian mass. It is demonstrated that each mass eigenstate of active neutrinos splits into two states separated by small Δm 2 . Unsuppressed oscillations between active and sterile neutrinos (ν a ↔ν s ) occur only in transitions between each of these close pairs ('windows'). These oscillations are characterized by very small Δm 2 and can suppress the flux and distort spectrum of pp-neutrinos in detectable way. The other observable effect is anomalous seasonal variation of neutrino flux, which appears in LMA solution. The considered subdominant neutrino oscillations ν a ↔ν s can reveal itself as big effects in observations of supernova neutrinos and high-energy (HE) neutrinos. In the case of HE neutrinos they can provide a very large diffuse flux of active neutrinos unconstrained by the e-m cascade upper limit

  2. Passive Set-Point Thermal Control Skin for Spacecraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Current manned and unmanned spacecraft require sophisticated thermal control technologies to keep systems at temperatures within their proper operating ranges....

  3. How Spacecraft Fly Spaceflight Without Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Swinerd, Graham

    2009-01-01

    About half a century ago a small satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The satellite did very little other than to transmit a radio signal to announce its presence in orbit. However, this humble beginning heralded the dawn of the Space Age. Today literally thousands of robotic spacecraft have been launched, many of which have flown to far-flung regions of the Solar System carrying with them the human spirit of scientific discovery and exploration. Numerous other satellites have been launched in orbit around the Earth providing services that support our technological society on the ground. How Spacecraft Fly: Spaceflight Without Formulae by Graham Swinerd focuses on how these spacecraft work. The book opens with a historical perspective of how we have come to understand our Solar System and the Universe. It then progresses through orbital flight, rocket science, the hostile environment within which spacecraft operate, and how they are designed. The concluding chapters give a glimpse of what the 21st century may ...

  4. Sterile Neutrinos in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Benjamin J.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin224 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini

  5. Plasma Sterilization: New Epoch in Medical Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Arun, N.; Vigneswaran, C.

    2015-04-01

    Clothing is perceived to be second skin to the human body since it is in close contact with the human skin most of the times. In hospitals, use of textile materials in different forms and sterilization of these materials is an essential requirement for preventing spread of germs. The need for appropriate disinfection and sterilization techniques is of paramount importance. There has been a continuous demand for novel sterilization techniques appropriate for use on various textile materials as the existing sterilization techniques suffer from various technical and economical drawbacks. Plasma sterilization is the alternative method, which is friendlier and more effective on the wide spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Basically, the main inactivation factors for cells exposed to plasma are heat, UV radiation and various reactive species. Plasma exposure can kill micro-organisms on a surface in addition to removing adsorbed monolayer of surface contaminants. Advantages of plasma surface treatment are removal of contaminants from the surface, change in the surface energy and sterilization of the surface. Plasma sterilization aims to kill and/or remove all micro-organisms which may cause infection of humans or animals, or which can cause spoilage of foods or other goods. This review paper emphasizes necessity for sterilization, essentials of sterilization, mechanism of plasma sterilization and the parameters influencing it.

  6. Regret following female sterilization in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becner, Anja; Turkanović, Anela Bečić; But, Igor

    2015-07-01

    To estimate the regret rate and risk factors for regret among women who have undergone sterilization. A retrospective study was conducted among all women who underwent a sterilization procedure at the University Medical Center Maribor, Maribor, Slovenia, in 2008-2012. Identified women were contacted and asked to complete an online questionnaire assessing regret and symptoms associated with depression. Among 714 identified women, 308 (43.1%) completed the questionnaire. Four (1.3%) participants reported regret, and 9 (2.9%) reported that they would not opt for sterilization again, all of whom had post-sterilization problems. Such problems were significantly associated with participants reporting that they would not opt for sterilization again (P=0.003). Additionally, women who would not choose sterilization again had significantly higher scores on the depressive scale used than did those who would undergo sterilization again (P=0.028). Few women report regret after tubal sterilization in Slovenia. However, an additional consultation on post-sterilization problems and depressive disorder before sterilization might minimize the risk of regret. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Women plan condom use after sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Sexual sterilization is highly effective in preventing pregnancy, but it does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). People who accept sterilization as their method of family planning therefore need to be encouraged to protect themselves against HIV/AIDS and STDs even after they have been sterilized. Since women return less often to family planning providers following their sterilization procedure, they need to be advised to protect themselves against HIV and STDs before the sterilization is performed. 42% of the 2782 women who underwent tubal sterilizations at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston during 1991-96 indicated their intention in a cross-sectional study to use condoms after sterilization. 20% of all respondents, aged 18-51 years, had a known risk factor for HIV, and almost 25% reported regular condom use for contraception or disease protection during the 3 months before sterilization. Planned condom use increased from 32% in 1991 to 51% in 1996, irrespective of age, marital status, or ethnic background. Of the 646 women who used condoms before being sterilized, almost half indicated no plans to do so after the procedure. The following factors were associated with condom use: relatively younger age, black ethnicity, unmarried status, history of previous STD, no steady partner, having a higher number of previous sex partners, past use of condoms to prevent disease transmission, and lack of partner involvement in the decision to undergo sterilization.

  8. Radiation sterilization of medical products in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singson, C.; Carmona, C.; de Guzman, Z.; Barrun, W.; Lanuza, L.

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the biological, microbiological, physico-chemical, and dosimetry aspects of using gamma irradiation for the sterilization of locally manufactured medical products and pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study is to determine the technological feasibility of radiation sterilization for the said products in the Philippines. Hence, the materials used were directly obtained from local manufacturers. They are polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene based medical plastic disposables namely: absorbent cotton, surgical gauze, bandage, visceral packs, and some antibiotics and opthalmic ointments. The gamma facility of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission was used for the irradiation. Result of biological studies indicate no signs of toxicity on experimental mice injected with extracts from irradiated samples. The contaminants are identified as Pseudomonas Sp. Staphyloccocus Aureus and Bacillus Subtilis. The D 10 values of survivors of higher doses ranged below 0.235 Megarad suggesting that these contaminants can be eliminated by the generally used sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrads. The physico-chemical tests did not indicate any significant degradation of the irradiated products. Opthalmic and topical antibiotic ointments showed no marked decrease in potency. Fading tests on dosimeters used showed that red perspex is a more efficient dosimeter than clear perspex when irradiation time is prolonged. These studies indicated that radiation sterilization is technically feasible for locally manufactured medical products.

  9. Preliminary thermal design of the COLD-SAT spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Hugh

    1991-01-01

    The COLD-SAT free-flying spacecraft was to perform experiments with LH2 in the cryogenic fluid management technologies of storage, supply and transfer in reduced gravity. The Phase A preliminary design of the Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) for the spacecraft exterior and interior surfaces and components of the bus subsystems is described. The TCS was composed of passive elements which were augmented with heaters. Trade studies to minimize the parasitic heat leakage into the cryogen storage tanks are described. Selection procedure for the thermally optimum on-orbit spacecraft attitude was defined. TRASYS-2 and SINDA'85 verification analysis was performed on the design and the results are presented.

  10. Birth planning and sterilization in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, S E; Linmao, M; Wentao, Y

    2000-11-01

    Sterilization is the most prevalent method of contraception in China. Approximately half of all women of reproductive age report that they or their husbands are sterilized. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey we describe patterns of sterilization in eight Chinese provinces. With a discrete-time event history model we investigate the link between characteristics of local birth planning policy and the risk of sterilization. After controlling for parity, the risk of sterilization is highest in communities where birth planning policy is least strong as measured by exceptions to the one-child policy. These results suggest that couples with more flexibility in family building may have less control over contraceptive method use. Other factors affecting the risk of sterilization are a woman's age, parity, and whether or not she has a son. Our results emphasize the importance of taking into account multiple dimensions of reproductive behaviour when assessing one-child policy changes.

  11. Processing of baby food using pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) and comparison with thermal treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubin; Ismail, Marliya; Farid, Mohammed

    2017-10-01

    Currently baby food is sterilized using retort processing that gives an extended shelf life. However, this type of heat processing leads to reduction of organoleptic and nutrition value. Alternatively, the combination of pressure and heat could be used to achieve sterilization at reduced temperatures. This study investigates the potential of pressure-assisted thermal sterilization (PATS) technology for baby food sterilization. Here, baby food (apple puree), inoculated with Bacillus subtilis spores was treated using PATS at different operating temperatures, pressures and times and was compared with thermal only treatment. The results revealed that the decimal reduction time of B. subtilis in PATS treatment was lower than that of thermal only treatment. At a similar spore inactivation, the retention of ascorbic acid of PATS-treated sample was higher than that of thermally treated sample. The results indicated that PATS could be a potential technology for baby food processing while minimizing quality deterioration.

  12. Sterilization of heparinized cuprophan hemodialysis membranes

    OpenAIRE

    ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The effects of sterilization of dry heparinized Cuprophan hemodialysis membranes by means of ethylene oxide (EtO) exposure, gamma irradiation, or steam on the anticoagulant activity and chemical characteristics of immobilized heparin and the permeability of the membrane were investigated. Sterilization did not result in a release of heparin or heparin fragments from heparinized Cuprophan. Sterilization of heparinized Cuprophan by means of EtO exposure and gamma irradiation induced a slight, i...

  13. EB surface sterilization of food material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, H.; Mizutani, A.; Kato, K.; Nishikimi, T.; Taniguchi, S.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a food irradiation with low energetic, lower than 300keV, electrons (so-called SOFT ELECTRON) as a rather new method of food sterilization. It is also a physical sterilization method, and free from the problems mentioned above. Low energetic electrons have small penetration power (50-200micron) through raw materials, and by selecting a proper energy of electrons we can sterilize only the surfaces or skins of target materials

  14. Protecting Spacecraft Fragments from Exposure to Small Debris

    OpenAIRE

    V. V. Zelentsov

    2015-01-01

    Since the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite a large amount of space debris has been accumulated in near-earth space. This debris comprises the exhausted spacecrafts, final stages of rocket-carriers and boosters, technological space junk, consisting of the structure elements, which are separated when deploying the solar arrays, antennas etc., as well as when undocking a booster and a spacecraft. All the debris is divided into observable one of over 100 mm in size and unobservable ...

  15. Cryoradiation sterilization - contemporary state and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talrose, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    The new approach of radiation sterilization -cryoradiosterilization with programmed freezing - was developed for pharmaceutical solutions. Both scientific and technical problems are solved, the results are discussed. Programmed freezing of vials with the drug's solutions provides the high stability of soluted components with biological activity at sterilizing irradiation without significant change of sterilization doses. Physical, chemical, biological and pharmacological properties of a lot of drug solutions for injection satisfy official requirements after cryoradiation sterilization treatment. This method seems to be especially important for the protein systems which could be infected by dangerous viruses (VIH, hepatitis B): blood plasma, diagnostic sera, protein preparations manufactured from donor's blood, etc. (Author)

  16. Probabilistic model for sterilization of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chepurko, V.V.; Malinovskij, O.V.

    1986-01-01

    The probabilistic model for radiation sterilization is proposed based on the followng suppositions: (1) initial contamination of a volume unit of the sterilized product m is described by the distribution of the probabilities q(m), (2) inactivation of the population from m of microorganisms is approximated by Bernoulli test scheme, and (3) contamination of unit of the sterilized product is independent. The possibility of approximation q(m) by Poisson distribution is demonstrated. The diagrams are presented permitting to evaluate the dose which provides the defined reliability of sterilization of food for chicken-gnotobionts

  17. Sterile neutrino dark matter with supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Bibhushan; Wells, James D.

    2017-08-01

    Sterile neutrino dark matter, a popular alternative to the WIMP paradigm, has generally been studied in non-supersymmetric setups. If the underlying theory is supersymmetric, we find that several interesting and novel dark matter features can arise. In particular, in scenarios of freeze-in production of sterile neutrino dark matter, its superpartner, the sterile sneutrino, can play a crucial role in early Universe cosmology as the dominant source of cold, warm, or hot dark matter, or of a subdominant relativistic population of sterile neutrinos that can contribute to the effective number of relativistic degrees of freedom Neff during big bang nucleosynthesis.

  18. Currently available devices for female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Lynne; Magos, Adam

    2005-09-01

    Sterilization is now the method of family planning most commonly used in the world. Over the last 150 years, research has evolved in the search for the ideal method of female sterilization. The procedure should ideally have high efficacy, be readily accessible and be personally and culturally acceptable. The method should be simple, quick, easily learned and be able to be performed in an outpatient setting without general anesthesia. The most common and effective method for sterilization has, thus far, been via the laparoscopic route. Hysteroscopic sterilization, however, potentially fulfills many of these ideal criteria, but until recently has remained more of a concept than a reality.

  19. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility. Radiation is usually one of the last procedures that insects undergo before leaving mass-rearing facilities for release in the field. It is essential that the dosimetry of the radiation source be checked to ensure that all the insects receive the required minimum dose. A dose should be chosen that maximizes the level of introduced sterility in the wild females in the field. Irradiation in nitrogen can provide protection against the detrimental somatic effects of radiation. Currently, the development of molecular methods to sterilize pest insects in the field, by the release of fertile insects carrying trans genes, is very much in vogue. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the sterile insect technique. (author)

  20. MIDN: A spacecraft Micro-dosimeter mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisacane, V. L.; Ziegler, J. F.; Nelson, M. E.; Caylor, M.; Flake, D.; Heyen, L.; Youngborg, E.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cucinotta, F.; Zaider, M.; Dicello, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    MIDN (Micro-dosimetry instrument) is a payload on the MidSTAR-I spacecraft (Midshipman Space Technology Applications Research) under development at the United States Naval Academy. MIDN is a solid-state system being designed and constructed to measure Micro-dosimetric spectra to determine radiation quality factors for space environments. Radiation is a critical threat to the health of astronauts and to the success of missions in low-Earth orbit and space exploration. The system will consist of three separate sensors, one external to the spacecraft, one internal and one embedded in polyethylene. Design goals are mass <3 kg and power <2 W. The MidSTAR-I mission in 2006 will provide an opportunity to evaluate a preliminary version of this system. Its low power and mass makes it useful for the International Space Station and manned and unmanned interplanetary missions as a real-time system to assess and alert astronauts to enhanced radiation environments. (authors)

  1. Spectra and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.

    2001-02-01

    In June 1999, Dr. Regis Courtin, Associate Editor of PSS, suggested that I write an article for the new section of this journal: "Planetary Pioneers". I hesitated , but decided to try. One of the reasons for my doubts was my primitive English, so I owe the reader an apology for this in advance. Writing took me much more time than I supposed initially, I have stopped and again returned to manuscript many times. My professional life may be divided into three main phases: pioneering work in ground-based IR astronomy with an emphasis on planetary spectroscopy (1955-1970), studies of the planets with spacecraft (1970-1989), and attempts to proceed with this work in difficult times. I moved ahead using the known method of trials and errors as most of us do. In fact, only a small percentage of efforts led to some important results, a sort of dry residue. I will try to describe below how has it been in my case: what may be estimated as the most important, how I came to this, what was around, etc.

  2. MR imaging of ''sterilized'' lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerhouni, E.A.; Fishman, E.K.; Jones, R.; Siegelman, S.S.; Soulen, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    Residual masses are commonly observed after effective therapy in patients with lymphoma. These masses may be sterile but their presence poses a management problem, inasmuch as there is no adequate means of distinguishing sterile from active masses. The potential role of MR imaging in this context was evaluated by studying a group of 15 patients with stable, residual, presumably inactive masses (as determined from CT) and comparing the MR imaging findings in patients with newly diagnosed, untreated or recently treated lymphoma. All patients underwent an MR imaging examination consisting of one short repetition time (TR), short echo time (TE) (T1-weighted) sequence and one long TR, long TE(T2-weighted) sequence. The signal intensity of the masses was compared with that of fat in each patient, for each sequence. In selected patients, sequential examinations showed a progressive evolution toward the inactive pattern over a period of several weeks. Active and inactive disease are well depicted on T1-weighted sequences but are not distinguishable from each other. On T2-weighted sequences active disease is poorly demonstrated because the lesions are isointense with fat, whereas inactive masses remain clearly identifiable because they are of much lower signal intensity than fat

  3. Gamma sterilization of disposable medical products (DMP's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinston, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Ten million cubic meters (361 million cubic feet) of disposable medical products (DMP) and related health care items are estimated to be sterilized in the world. In this paper, current conditions and perspectives of gamma sterilization is discussed in comparison with ethylene oxide gas and electron beams. Of the total sterilization estimates for DMP, 2.8 million cubic meters (99 million cubic feet) are sterilized with gamma radiation, with a market share of 27%. Gamma radiation is becoming increased from both general market growth and the introduction of new products, as well as the conversion of product from ethylene oxide gas to cobalt-60. Regulatory pressures, legal considerations, and increasing publicity surrounding ethylene oxide usage are encouraging manufactures to switch to gamma radiation. Gamma's performance features include: no temperature change during the sterilization, high penetration, even through hermetically sealed packages, no residues, and no post-sterilization treatment or quarantine period. Gamma sterilization is economically beneficial in large volumes of product. Cost saving to the end user of gamma sterilization has meant lower minimum dose levels than 25 KGy. Despite of an increasingly accepted gamma radiation, there are still four factors to be considered, including cobalt-60 availability, price, transportation, and disposal. The price of cobalt-60 is based on neutron cost. In the future, cobalt-60 price is expected to be flat and enables gamma processing to become even more competitive with other sterilization methods. Gamma radiation using cobalt-60 has been proven as a safe, effective, and cost-competitive sterilization method for treating DMP and related health care items. It's wide use and many processing advantages will continue to make it a preferred sterilization method. (N.K.)

  4. Space power systems--''Spacecraft 2000''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faymon, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The National Space programs of the 21st century will require abundant and relatively low cost power and energy produced by high reliability-low mass systems. Advancement of current power system related technologies will enable the U.S. to realize increased scientific payload for government missions or increased revenue producing payload for commercial space endeavors. Autonomous, unattended operation will be a highly desirable characteristic of these advanced power systems. Those space power-energy related technologies, which will comprise the space craft of the late 1990's and the early 2000's, will evolve from today's state-of-the-art systems and those long term technology development programs presently in place. However, to foster accelerated development of the more critical technologies which have the potential for high-payoffs, additional programs will be proposed and put in place between now and the end of the century. Such a program is ''Spacecraft 2000'', which is described in this paper

  5. TTEthernet for Integrated Spacecraft Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Aerospace projects have traditionally employed federated avionics architectures, in which each computer system is designed to perform one specific function (e.g. navigation). There are obvious downsides to this approach, including excessive weight (from so much computing hardware), and inefficient processor utilization (since modern processors are capable of performing multiple tasks). There has therefore been a push for integrated modular avionics (IMA), in which common computing platforms can be leveraged for different purposes. This consolidation of multiple vehicle functions to shared computing platforms can significantly reduce spacecraft cost, weight, and design complexity. However, the application of IMA principles introduces significant challenges, as the data network must accommodate traffic of mixed criticality and performance levels - potentially all related to the same shared computer hardware. Because individual network technologies are rarely so competent, the development of truly integrated network architectures often proves unreasonable. Several different types of networks are utilized - each suited to support a specific vehicle function. Critical functions are typically driven by precise timing loops, requiring networks with strict guarantees regarding message latency (i.e. determinism) and fault-tolerance. Alternatively, non-critical systems generally employ data networks prioritizing flexibility and high performance over reliable operation. Switched Ethernet has seen widespread success filling this role in terrestrial applications. Its high speed, flexibility, and the availability of inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components make it desirable for inclusion in spacecraft platforms. Basic Ethernet configurations have been incorporated into several preexisting aerospace projects, including both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). However, classical switched Ethernet cannot provide the high level of network

  6. Sterilization of Fusarium oxysporum by treatment of non-thermalequilibrium plasma in nutrient solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Shinji; Seki, Satoshi; Yoshida, Ryohei; Shoji, Kazuhiro; Terazoe, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of spinach due to F. oxysporum infection is one of the most destructive root diseases in hydroponics in factories using the nutrient film technique. We investigated new technologies for the sterilization of microconidia of F. oxysporum by using a non-thermalequilibrium plasma treatment method in nutrient solution. Specifically, we investigated the sterilization capabilities of five types of gas (air, O2, N2, He, and Ar) used for plasma generation. The highest sterilization capability was achieved by using O2 plasma. However, ozone, which causes growth inhibition, was then generated and released into the atmosphere. The sterilization capability was lower when N2 or air plasma was used in the nutrient solution. It was confirmed that sterilization can be achieved by plasma treatment using inert gases that do not generate ozone; therefore, we determined that Ar plasma is the most preferable. In addition, we investigated the sterilization capabilities of other factors associated with Ar plasma generation, without direct plasma treatment. However, none of these other factors, which included Ar bubbling, pH reduction, increased temperature, hydrogen peroxide concentration, and UV radiation, could completely reproduce the results of direct plasma treatment. We assume that radicals such as O or OH may contribute significantly to the sterilization of microconidia of F. oxysporum in a nutrient solution.

  7. Peracetic Acid: A Practical Agent for Sterilizing Heat-Labile Polymeric Tissue-Engineering Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganarasimha, Suyog; Trahan, William R.; Best, Al M.; Bowlin, Gary L.; Kitten, Todd O.; Moon, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced biomaterials and sophisticated processing technologies aim at fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds that can predictably interact within a biological environment at the cellular level. Sterilization of such scaffolds is at the core of patient safety and is an important regulatory issue that needs to be addressed before clinical translation. In addition, it is crucial that meticulously engineered micro- and nano- structures are preserved after sterilization. Conventional sterilization methods involving heat, steam, and radiation are not compatible with engineered polymeric systems because of scaffold degradation and loss of architecture. Using electrospun scaffolds made from polycaprolactone, a low melting polymer, and employing spores of Bacillus atrophaeus as biological indicators, we compared ethylene oxide, autoclaving and 80% ethanol to a known chemical sterilant, peracetic acid (PAA), for their ability to sterilize as well as their effects on scaffold properties. PAA diluted in 20% ethanol to 1000 ppm or above sterilized electrospun scaffolds in 15 min at room temperature while maintaining nano-architecture and mechanical properties. Scaffolds treated with PAA at 5000 ppm were rendered hydrophilic, with contact angles reduced to 0°. Therefore, PAA can provide economical, rapid, and effective sterilization of heat-sensitive polymeric electrospun scaffolds that are used in tissue engineering. PMID:24341350

  8. Spacecraft Charging and the Microwave Anisotropy Probe Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy, VanSant J.; Neergaard, Linda F.

    1998-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), a MIDEX mission built in partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), will study the cosmic microwave background. It will be inserted into a highly elliptical earth orbit for several weeks and then use a lunar gravity assist to orbit around the second Lagrangian point (L2), 1.5 million kilometers, anti-sunward from the earth. The charging environment for the phasing loops and at L2 was evaluated. There is a limited set of data for L2; the GEOTAIL spacecraft measured relatively low spacecraft potentials (approx. 50 V maximum) near L2. The main area of concern for charging on the MAP spacecraft is the well-established threat posed by the "geosynchronous region" between 6-10 Re. The launch in the autumn of 2000 will coincide with the falling of the solar maximum, a period when the likelihood of a substorm is higher than usual. The likelihood of a substorm at that time has been roughly estimated to be on the order of 20% for a typical MAP mission profile. Because of the possibility of spacecraft charging, a requirement for conductive spacecraft surfaces was established early in the program. Subsequent NASCAP/GEO analyses for the MAP spacecraft demonstrated that a significant portion of the sunlit surface (solar cell cover glass and sunshade) could have nonconductive surfaces without significantly raising differential charging. The need for conductive materials on surfaces continually in eclipse has also been reinforced by NASCAP analyses.

  9. Eugenics and Involuntary Sterilization: 1907-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Philip R

    2015-01-01

    In England during the late nineteenth century, intellectuals, especially Francis Galton, called for a variety of eugenic policies aimed at ensuring the health of the human species. In the United States, members of the Progressive movement embraced eugenic ideas, especially immigration restriction and sterilization. Indiana enacted the first eugenic sterilization law in 1907, and the US Supreme Court upheld such laws in 1927. State programs targeted institutionalized, mentally disabled women. Beginning in the late 1930s, proponents rationalized involuntary sterilization as protecting vulnerable women from unwanted pregnancy. By World War II, programs in the United States had sterilized approximately 60,000 persons. After the horrific revelations concerning Nazi eugenics (German Hereditary Health Courts approved at least 400,000 sterilization operations in less than a decade), eugenic sterilization programs in the United States declined rapidly. Simplistic eugenic thinking has faded, but coerced sterilization remains widespread, especially in China and India. In many parts of the world, involuntary sterilization is still intermittently used against minority groups.

  10. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, G.G.

    2011-01-01

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile ...

  11. PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION IN DENTAL PRACTICE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRINCIPLES OF HEAT STERILIZATION. IN DENTAL PRACTICE. W.H. van Palenstein Helderman. Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry,. Faculty of Dentistry, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences,. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Introduction. Sterilization is defined as the destruction of all forms of life ...

  12. Current Sterilization Protocols-An Orthodontic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Vinod Korath

    2010-01-01

    Part I of this article focuses on the working principles of various methods of sterilization with an appraisalof their effects on orthodontic instruments. Additionally,contributory factors of instrument damage is enumerated to emphasis the importance of adhering to precise protocols and manufacturer recommendations as well as in alleviating some misconceptions about sterilization induced instrument damage.

  13. Light Sterile Neutrinos: A White Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abazajian, K. N.; Acero, M. A.; Agarwalla, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data.......This white paper addresses the hypothesis of light sterile neutrinos based on recent anomalies observed in neutrino experiments and the latest astrophysical data....

  14. Male sterile mutant in Vigna radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande, Kalpana; Raghuvanshi, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    Single and combined treatment of γ-rays and 0.25 per cent EMS were tried on Vigna radiata variety K851. A male sterile mutant was isolated in M 2 generation. Experiments indicated male sterility to be recessive and monogenic in nature. 6 figures. (author)

  15. Sodium hypochlorite sterilization of culture medium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the purpose of finding an alternative to thermal sterilization, this research aimed at assessing the efficiency and ideal concentration of sodium hypochlorite for sterilization of culture media and glassware used during rooting of micropropagated Gerbera hybrida cv. Essandre. Two experiments were carried out. In the first ...

  16. Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding in field crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Abhishek; Jha, Uday C; Adhimoolam, Premkumar; Bisht, Deepak; Singh, Narendra P

    2016-05-01

    A comprehensive understanding of CMS/Rf system enabled by modern omics tools and technologies considerably improves our ability to harness hybrid technology for enhancing the productivity of field crops. Harnessing hybrid vigor or heterosis is a promising approach to tackle the current challenge of sustaining enhanced yield gains of field crops. In the context, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) owing to its heritable nature to manifest non-functional male gametophyte remains a cost-effective system to promote efficient hybrid seed production. The phenomenon of CMS stems from a complex interplay between maternally-inherited (mitochondrion) and bi-parental (nucleus) genomic elements. In recent years, attempts aimed to comprehend the sterility-inducing factors (orfs) and corresponding fertility determinants (Rf) in plants have greatly increased our access to candidate genomic segments and the cloned genes. To this end, novel insights obtained by applying state-of-the-art omics platforms have substantially enriched our understanding of cytoplasmic-nuclear communication. Concomitantly, molecular tools including DNA markers have been implicated in crop hybrid breeding in order to greatly expedite the progress. Here, we review the status of diverse sterility-inducing cytoplasms and associated Rf factors reported across different field crops along with exploring opportunities for integrating modern omics tools with CMS-based hybrid breeding.

  17. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Norman R; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data. (paper)

  18. Ionization radiation in sterilization of the tissue transplants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, I.; Kaminski, A.

    2007-01-01

    Established in 1963, the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw is a multi-tissue bank located in the Department of Transplantology of the Medical University in Warsaw. Allografts such as bone, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, sclera, skin and amnion are preserved mainly by deep-freezing and/or lyophilization and subsequently radiation-sterilized with a dose of 35 kGy with gamma rays in a 60 Co source (at the Institute of Applied Radiation Chemistry in Lodz) or with electron beam 10 MeV accelerator (at the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw). This is the oldest working tissue bank in the world, which for almost 40 years now has routinely used ionizing radiation for sterilization of tissue allografts

  19. Intelligent spacecraft module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  20. Spacecraft early design validation using formal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzano, Marco; Cimatti, Alessandro; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Katsaros, Panagiotis; Mokos, Konstantinos; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas; Postma, Bart; Roveri, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The size and complexity of software in spacecraft is increasing exponentially, and this trend complicates its validation within the context of the overall spacecraft system. Current validation methods are labor-intensive as they rely on manual analysis, review and inspection. For future space missions, we developed – with challenging requirements from the European space industry – a novel modeling language and toolset for a (semi-)automated validation approach. Our modeling language is a dialect of AADL and enables engineers to express the system, the software, and their reliability aspects. The COMPASS toolset utilizes state-of-the-art model checking techniques, both qualitative and probabilistic, for the analysis of requirements related to functional correctness, safety, dependability and performance. Several pilot projects have been performed by industry, with two of them having focused on the system-level of a satellite platform in development. Our efforts resulted in a significant advancement of validating spacecraft designs from several perspectives, using a single integrated system model. The associated technology readiness level increased from level 1 (basic concepts and ideas) to early level 4 (laboratory-tested)

  1. International Standards for Radiation Sterilization of Medical Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    2007-01-01

    For a terminally sterilized medical device to be designated '' STERILE '', probability of finding the viable micro-organisms in the device shall be equal to or less than 1 x 10 -6 (EN 556-1:2001: Sterilization of medical devices - Requirements for medical devices to be designated '' STERILE '' - Part 1: Requirements for terminally sterilized medical devices). Author presents the main legal aspects of the international standards for radiation sterilization of medical devices

  2. Engineered Dwarf Male-Sterile Rice: A Promising Genetic Tool for Facilitating Recurrent Selection in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Afsana; Wang, Chunlian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Fujun; Liu, Piqing; Gao, Ying; Tang, Yongchao; Zhao, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a crop feeding half of the world's population. With the continuous raise of yield potential via genetic improvement, rice breeding has entered an era where multiple genes conferring complex traits must be efficiently manipulated to increase rice yield further. Recurrent selection is a sound strategy for manipulating multiple genes and it has been successfully performed in allogamous crops. However, the difficulties in emasculation and hand pollination had obstructed efficient use of recurrent selection in autogamous rice. Here, we report development of the dwarf male-sterile rice that can facilitate recurrent selection in rice breeding. We adopted RNAi technology to synergistically regulate rice plant height and male fertility to create the dwarf male-sterile rice. The RNAi construct pTCK-EGGE, targeting the OsGA20ox2 and OsEAT1 genes, was constructed and used to transform rice via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. The transgenic T0 plants showing largely reduced plant height and complete male-sterile phenotypes were designated as the dwarf male-sterile plants. Progenies of the dwarf male-sterile plants were obtained by pollinating them with pollens from the wild-type. In the T1 and T2 populations, half of the plants were still dwarf male-sterile; the other half displayed normal plant height and male fertility which were designated as tall and male-fertile plants. The tall and male-fertile plants are transgene-free and can be self-pollinated to generate new varieties. Since emasculation and hand pollination for dwarf male-sterile rice plants is no longer needed, the dwarf male-sterile rice can be used to perform recurrent selection in rice. A dwarf male-sterile rice-based recurrent selection model has been proposed.

  3. Vibration and Acoustic Testing for Mars Micromission Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Dennis L.; Scharton, Terry D.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the Mars Micromission program being managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA is to develop a common spacecraft that can carry telecommunications equipment and a variety of science payloads for exploration of Mars. The spacecraft will be capable of carrying robot landers and rovers, cameras, probes, balloons, gliders or aircraft, and telecommunications equipment to Mars at much lower cost than recent NASA Mars missions. The lightweight spacecraft (about 220 Kg mass) will be launched in a cooperative venture with CNES as a TWIN auxiliary payload on the Ariane 5 launch vehicle. Two or more Mars Micromission launches are planned for each Mars launch opportunity, which occur every 26 months. The Mars launch window for the first mission is November 1, 2002 through April 2003, which is planned to be a Mars airplane technology demonstration mission to coincide with the 100 year anniversary of the Kittyhawk flight. Several subsequent launches will create a telecommunications network orbiting Mars, which will provide for continuous communication with lenders and rovers on the Martian surface. Dedicated science payload flights to Mars are slated to start in 2005. This new cheaper and faster approach to Mars exploration calls for innovative approaches to the qualification of the Mars Micromission spacecraft for the Ariane 5 launch vibration and acoustic environments. JPL has in recent years implemented new approaches to spacecraft testing that may be effectively applied to the Mars Micromission. These include 1) force limited vibration testing, 2) combined loads, vibration and modal testing, and 3) direct acoustic testing. JPL has performed nearly 200 force limited vibration tests in the past 9 years; several of the tests were on spacecraft and large instruments, including the Cassini and Deep Space One spacecraft. Force limiting, which measures and limits the spacecraft base reaction force using triaxial force gages sandwiched between the

  4. Differential expression analysis of genic male sterility by cDNA-AFLP in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Linbi; Rong Tingzhao; Pan Guangtang; Cao Moju

    2009-01-01

    The differential expression of male sterility induced by space flight with male fertility was studied using cDNA-AFLP technology. Total RNA was isolated from anther of male sterility and male fertility. Nine differential expression cDNA fragments were obtained with 16 primer combinations. The differential cDNA fragments were eluted, cloned and sequenced. Then half-quantitative RT-PCR was used to stuy the differential expressions of 4 development stages between sterility and fertility. Sequencing analysis shown 2 fragments from male sterility might be novel genes. Four fragments from male fertility were homology as chalcone and stilbene synthases, putative acyl CoA dehydrogenase, putative protein kinases and putative glycine decarboxylase. All these proteins might participate in the energy metabolisms, substance metabolisms or signal pollen development, Z8 took on increasing expression during the middle period of pollen development. These results just met the demand of more energy and more substance during the pollen development. (authors)

  5. The Effect of Air Plasma on Sterilization of Escherichia coli in Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Miao; Guo Yun

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) air plasma was used to sterilize Escherichia coli (E. coli) on the surface of medical Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) film. The leakage of cellular DNA and protein by optical absorbance measurement at 260 nm and 280 nm, together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) about cell morphology were performed after sterilization to analyse inactivation mechanisms. The results indicated that the DBD air plasma was very effective in E. coli sterilization. The plasma germicidal efficiency depended on the plasma treatment time, the air-gap distance, and the applied voltage. Within 5 min of plasma treatment, the germicidal efficiency against E. coli could reach 99.99%. An etching action on cell membranes by electrons, ions and radicals is the primary mechanism for DBD air plasma sterilization, which leads to the effusion of cellular contents (DNA and protein) and bacterial death. (plasma technology)

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF MELON F1 SEEDS BASED ON LINES WITH GENIC MALE STERILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Sokolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The perspective technology of development of melon of F1hybrids seeds by use maternal lines with an original form of genic mail sterility and marker trait (lobed leaves was studied. Elements of technology allow developing hybrid seeds of melon with hybridity of 90-95%.

  7. EPR STUDIES OF THERMALLY STERILIZED VASELINUM ALBUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Paweł; Pilawa, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used for examination of free radicals in thermally treated vaselinum album (VA). Thermal treatment in hot air as sterilization process was tested. Conditions of thermal sterilization were chosen according to the pharmaceutical norms. Vaselinum album was heated at the following conditions (T--temperature, t--time): T = 160°C and t = 120 min, T = 170°C and t = 60 min and T = 180°C and t = 30 min. The aim of this work was to determine concentration and free radical properties of thermally sterilized VA. EPR analysis for VA was done 15 min after sterilization. EPR measurements were done at room temperature. EPR spectra were recorded in the range of microwave power of 2.2-70 mW. g-Factor, amplitudes (A) and line width (ΔBpp) of the spectra were determined. The shape of the EPR spectra was analyzed. Free radical concentration (N) in the heated samples was determined. EPR spectra were not obtained for the non heated VA. EPR spectra were detected for all thermally sterilized samples. The spectra revealed complex character, their asymmetry depends on microwave power. The lowest free radicals concentration was found for the VA sterilized at 180°C during 30 min. EPR spectroscopy is proposed as the method useful for optimization of sterilization process of drugs.

  8. Safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization: an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jialin; Pfeifer, Samantha; Schlegel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the safety and efficacy of hysteroscopic sterilization with the “Essure” device with laparoscopic sterilization in a large, all-inclusive, state cohort. Design Population based cohort study. Settings Outpatient interventional setting in New York State. Participants Women undergoing interval sterilization procedure, including hysteroscopic sterilization with Essure device and laparoscopic surgery, between 2005 and 2013. Main outcomes measures Safety events within 30 days of procedures; unintended pregnancies and reoperations within one year of procedures. Mixed model accounting for hospital clustering was used to compare 30 day and 1 year outcomes, adjusting for patient characteristics and other confounders. Time to reoperation was evaluated using frailty model for time to event analysis. Results We identified 8048 patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization and 44 278 undergoing laparoscopic sterilization between 2005 and 2013 in New York State. There was a significant increase in the use of hysteroscopic procedures during this period, while use of laparoscopic sterilization decreased. Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were older than those undergoing laparoscopic sterilization and were more likely to have a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (10.3% v 7.2%, P<0.01), major abdominal surgery (9.4% v 7.9%, P<0.01), and cesarean section (23.2% v 15.4%, P<0.01). At one year after surgery, hysteroscopic sterilization was not associated with a higher risk of unintended pregnancy (odds ratio 0.84 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.12)) but was associated with a substantially increased risk of reoperation (odds ratio 10.16 (7.47 to 13.81)) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Conclusions Patients undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization have a similar risk of unintended pregnancy but a more than 10-fold higher risk of undergoing reoperation compared with patients undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. Benefits and risks of both procedures

  9. Seeking sterile neutrinos in Finslerian cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-11-15

    For the first time, to search for sterile neutrinos in the framework of Finler geometry, we constrain four cosmological models using the most stringent constraint we can provide so far. We find that the Finslerian massless sterile neutrino model can, respectively, give a better cosmological fit to data and alleviate the current H{sub 0} tension more effectively than the other three models. For the Finslerian massless sterile neutrino model, we obtain the constraint N{sub eff} = 3.237{sup +0.092}{sub -0.185}, which is consistent with ΔN{sub eff} > 0 at the 1.03σ confidence level (CL). This gives a very weak hint of massless sterile neutrinos and may imply the non-existence of massless sterile neutrinos in the Finslerian cosmological setting. For the Finslerian massive sterile neutrino model, we obtain the constraints N{sub eff} = 3.143{sup +0.064}{sub -0.066}, which favors ΔN{sub eff} > 0 at the 1.47σ CL, and m{sub ν,sterile}{sup eff} < 0.121 eV at the 2σ CL which is much tighter than the Planck results. This very tight restriction appears to indicate the massive sterile neutrinos are also non-existent in the Finslerian scenarios. Consequently, one may conclude that the sterile neutrinos are possibly non-existent in the Finslerian universe. Our results are compatible with the recent results of the neutrino oscillation experiments implemented by the Daya Bay and MINOS collaborations and the cosmic ray one carried out by the IceCube collaboration. (orig.)

  10. Forced sterilization of women as discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti

    2017-01-01

    There has been a long history of subjecting marginalized women to forced and coerced sterilization. In recent years, the practice has been documented in countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. It has targeted women who are ethnic and racial minorities, women with disabilities, women living with HIV, and poor women. A handful of courts have issued decisions on the recent forced sterilization of marginalized women finding that such actions violate the women's rights. However, they have all failed to address the women's claims of discrimination. The failure to acknowledge that forced sterilization is at its core a violation of the prohibition of discrimination undermines efforts to eradicate the practice. It further fails to recognize that coerced and forced sterilization fundamentally seeks to deny women deemed as "unworthy" the ability to procreate. Four key principles outlined in the human rights in patient care framework highlight the importance of a finding that the prohibition of discrimination was violated in cases of forced sterilization: the need to highlight the vulnerability of marginalized populations to discrimination in health care settings; the importance of the rights of medical providers; the role of the state in addressing systemic human rights violations in health care settings; and the application of human rights to patient care. Based on these principles, it is clear that finding a violation of the prohibition of discrimination in forced sterilization cases is critical in addressing the systemic nature of the practice, acknowledging the marginalization of specific groups and effectively ending forced sterilization through addressing the underlying purpose of the practice. If litigators, non-governmental organizations and judicial officers are mindful of these principles when dealing with cases of forced sterilization, it is likely that they will be better able to eradicate forced sterilization.

  11. Genetic basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    The use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) for insect control relies on the introduction of sterility in the females of the wild population. This sterility is produced following the mating of these females with released males carrying, in their sperm, dominant lethal mutations that have been induced by ionizing radiation. The reasons why the SIT can only be effective when the induced sterility in the released males is in the form of dominant lethal mutations, and not some form of sperm inactivation, are discussed, together with the relationship of dominant lethal mutations to dose, sex, developmental stage and the particular species. The combination of genetic sterility with that induced by radiation is also discussed in relation to the use of genetic sexing strains of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) in area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the SIT. A case is made to lower the radiation dose used in such programmes so as to produce a more competitive sterile insect. Increased competitiveness can also be achieved by using different radiation environments. As well as radiation-induced sterility, natural mechanisms can be recruited, especially the use of hybrid sterility exemplified by a successful field trial with tsetse flies Glossina spp. in the 1940s. Genetic transformation will make some impact on the SIT, especially regarding the introduction of markers for released flies, and the construction of genetic sexing strains. It is concluded that using a physical process, such as radiation, will always have significant advantages over genetic and other methods of sterilization for the large-scale application of the SIT. (author)

  12. Inheritance of sterility in Dysdercus koenigii F. (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwalkar, M.R.; Rahalkar, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that for the control of Lepidopterous populations, release of fully competitive partially sterile males would be more advantageous than the release of completely sterile males. This suggestion is based on the fact, elucidated in many studies, that partially sterilized males mated to normal females produce totally sterile or partially sterile progeny. In Hemiptera too, F 1 progeny of partially sterile males has been shown to inherit sterility. Individual impact of sterility inherited by either sex of the F 1 progeny on population growth has been studied in an hemipteran insect Dysdercus koenigii. A dose of 7 krad induces near-complete sterility in males. When males irradiated with substerilizing doses of 1,2 and 3 krad were crossed with normal females, F 1 progeny of both sexes was partially sterile : the female being more sterile than the males. When the F 1 progeny was intercrossed, there was enhanced reduction in progeny production. (auth.)

  13. Radiation sterilization facility for melon fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danno, A.

    1985-01-01

    The melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae Coquillett) has been observed in Amami Island since l975. Kagoshima Prefecture has had a melon fly eradication project underway since 1979. A mass-fearing facility and a radiation sterilization facility were constructed in Naze in March of l98l. In the early stages of the project, sterile insects were produced at the rate of 4 x l0/sup 6/ pupae/week. In the later stages, the activity of the project was enlarged by tenfold. The conditions for design of the radiation sterilization facility, which has been developed with a central control system for automated irradiation, are examined from an engineering standpoint

  14. Cosmology seeking friendship with sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, J.; Hannestad, S.; Raffelt, G.G.; Tamborra, I.; Wong, Y.Y.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Precision cosmology and big-bang nucleosynthesis mildly favour extra radiation in the universe beyond photons and ordinary neutrinos, lending support to the existence of low-mass sterile neutrinos. We present bounds on the common mass scale ms and effective number Ns of thermally excited sterile neutrino states from the most recent cosmological data. Our results are compatible with the existence of one or perhaps two sterile neutrinos, as suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE, if ms is in the sub-eV range.

  15. Observations on female sterilization in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menanteau-Horta, D

    1982-01-01

    Prior to 1976, voluntary female sterilization was 1 of the regular family planning services offered in Chile. After that the Ministry of Public Health declared that it could not be considered a fertility regulation activity and could thus be performed only for health reasons. Between 1971-75, there was almost a 6-fold increase in the number of sterilizations performed at the Valdivia Regional Hospital, with a rise to 2400 procedures. Such an unprecedented increase in voluntary sterilization prompted this study. The results are based on a 1976 survey of women sterilized between 1971-75 at the Valdivia Regional Hospital. Personal interviews were conducted. The number of voluntary sterilizations there during the aforementioned period showed a sustained upward trend; the number of births increased only moderately during that time. The data on sterilization in the Valdivia area is compared to that collected by the Santiago study. Age, marital status, place of origin or residence, education, and religion were compared. Socioeconomic and occupational data were also examined. 9 of 10 women in Valdivia were from low-income families. This agrees closely with the Santiago data. About 1/4 of the women in both samples were employed outside the home. Also in both samples, about 1/2 of the spouses of sterilized women were blue collar workers; only 1/5 or less were white collar, and very few were professionals. About 52% in Valdivia and 45% in Santiago had borne 7 or more viable offspring. The average number of spontaneous abortions was also similar. A significantly higher percentage (P0.01) of Valdivia women used contraceptives. There are some general trends apparent in both groups as to the reasons for sterilization; most were prompted by difficult socioeconomic conditions. 37.9% of the Santiago women felt their families were complete and 27.3% of the other group cited the same reason. Other reasons were medical, failure of contraception, problems with spouse, and other. Medical

  16. Microscope sterility during spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Jesse E; O'Neill, Kevin R; Crosby, Colin G; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2012-04-01

    Prospective study. Assess the contamination rates of sterile microscope drapes after spine surgery. The use of the operating microscope has become more prevalent in certain spine procedures, providing superior magnification, visualization, and illumination of the operative field. However, it may represent an additional source of bacterial contamination and increase the risk of developing a postoperative infection. This study included 25 surgical spine cases performed by a single spine surgeon that required the use of the operative microscope. Sterile culture swabs were used to obtain samples from 7 defined locations on the microscope drape after its use during the operation. The undraped technician's console was sampled in each case as a positive control, and an additional 25 microscope drapes were swabbed immediately after they were applied to the microscope to obtain negative controls. Swab samples were assessed for bacterial growth on 5% sheep blood Columbia agar plates using a semiquantitative technique. No growth was observed on any of the 25 negative control drapes. In contrast, 100% of preoperative and 96% of postoperative positive controls demonstrated obvious contamination. In the postoperative group, all 7 sites of evaluation were found to be contaminated with rates of 12% to 44%. Four of the 7 evaluated locations were found to have significant contamination rates compared with negative controls, including the shafts of the optic eyepieces on the main surgeon side (24%, P = 0.022), "forehead" portion on both the main surgeon (24%, P = 0.022) and assistant sides (28%, P = 0.010), and "overhead" portion of the drape (44%, P = 0.0002). Bacterial contamination of the operative microscope was found to be significant after spine surgery. Contamination was more common around the optic eyepieces, likely due to inadvertent touching of unsterile portions. Similarly, all regions above the eyepieces also have a propensity for contamination because of unknown contact

  17. Spacecraft fabrication and test MODIL. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.T.

    1994-05-01

    This report covers the period from October 1992 through the close of the project. FY 92 closed out with the successful briefing to industry and with many potential and important initiatives in the spacecraft arena. Due to the funding uncertainties, we were directed to proceed as if our funding would be approximately the same as FY 92 ($2M), but not to make any major new commitments. However, the MODIL`s FY 93 funding was reduced to $810K and we were directed to concentrate on the cryocooler area. The cryocooler effort completed its demonstration project. The final meetings with the cryocooler fabricators were very encouraging as we witnessed the enthusiastic reception of technology to help them reduce fabrication uncertainties. Support of the USAF Phillips Laboratory cryocooler program was continued including kick-off meetings for the Prototype Spacecraft Cryocooler (PSC). Under Phillips Laboratory support, Gill Cruz visited British Aerospace and Lucas Aerospace in the United Kingdom to assess their manufacturing capabilities. In the Automated Spacecraft & Assembly Project (ASAP), contracts were pursued for the analysis by four Brilliant Eyes prime contractors to provide a proprietary snap shot of their current status of Integrated Product Development. In the materials and structure thrust the final analysis was completed of the samples made under the contract (``Partial Automation of Matched Metal Net Shape Molding of Continuous Fiber Composites``) to SPARTA. The Precision Technologies thrust funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to prepare a plan to develop a Computer Aided Alignment capability to significantly reduce the time for alignment and even possibly provide real time and remote alignment capability of systems in flight.

  18. Radiation sterilization of medical products in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singson, C.; Carmona, C.; Guzman, Z. de; Barrun, W.; Lanuza, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the biological, microbiological, physico-chemical, and dosimetry aspects of using gamma irradiation for the sterilization of locally manufactured medical products and pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study is to determine the technological feasibility of radiation sterilization for the said products in the Philippines. They are polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene based medical plastic disposables namely: absorbent cotton, surgical gauze, bandage, visceral packs, and some antibiotics and opthalmic ointments. The gamma facility of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission was used for the irradiation. Result of biological studies indicate no signs of toxicity on experimental mice injected with extracts from irradiated samples. The contaminants are identified as Pseudomonas Sp. Staphyloccocus Aureus and Bacillus Subtilis. The D 10 values of survivors of higher doses ranged below 0.235 Megarad suggesting that these contaminants can be eliminated by the generally used sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrads. The physico-chemical tests did not indicate any significant degradation of the irradiated products. Opthalmic and topical antibiotic ointments showed no marked decrease in potency. Fading tests on dosimeters used showed that red perspex is a more efficient dosimeter than clear perspex when irradiation time is prolonged. (author)

  19. Radiation sterilization of medical products in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singson, C; Carmona, C; Guzman, Z de; Barrun, W; Lanuza, L [Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, Diliman, Quezon City

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive investigation of the biological, microbiological, physico-chemical, and dosimetry aspects of using gamma irradiation for the sterilization of locally manufactured medical products and pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study is to determine the technological feasibility of radiation sterilization for the said products in the Philippines. They are polyvinyl chloride or polyethylene based medical plastic disposables namely: absorbent cotton, surgical gauze, bandage, visceral packs, and some antibiotics and opthalmic ointments. The gamma facility of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission was used for the irradiation. Result of biological studies indicate no signs of toxicity on experimental mice injected with extracts from irradiated samples. The contaminants are identified as Pseudomonas Sp. Staphyloccocus Aureus and Bacillus Subtilis. The D/sub 10/ values of survivors of higher doses ranged below 0.235 Megarad suggesting that these contaminants can be eliminated by the generally used sterilizing dose of 2.5 Mrads. The physico-chemical tests did not indicate any significant degradation of the irradiated products. Opthalmic and topical antibiotic ointments showed no marked decrease in potency. Fading tests on dosimeters used showed that red perspex is a more efficient dosimeter than clear perspex when irradiation time is prolonged.

  20. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  1. Spacecraft control center automation using the generic inferential executor (GENIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Jonathan; Luczak, Ed; Stump, Doug

    1996-01-01

    The increasing requirement to dramatically reduce the cost of mission operations led to increased emphasis on automation technology. The expert system technology used at the Goddard Space Flight Center (MD) is currently being applied to the automation of spacecraft control center activities. The generic inferential executor (GENIE) is a tool which allows pass automation applications to be constructed. The pass script templates constructed encode the tasks necessary to mimic flight operations team interactions with the spacecraft during a pass. These templates can be configured with data specific to a particular pass. Animated graphical displays illustrate the progress during the pass. The first GENIE application automates passes of the solar, anomalous and magnetospheric particle explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft.

  2. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; hide

    2012-01-01

    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  3. Artist concept of Galileo spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft is illustrated in artist concept. Gallileo, named for the Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician who is credited with construction of the first complete, practical telescope in 1620, will make detailed studies of Jupiter. A cooperative program with the Federal Republic of Germany the Galileo mission will amplify information acquired by two Voyager spacecraft in their brief flybys. Galileo is a two-element system that includes a Jupiter-orbiting observatory and an entry probe. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is Galileo project manager and builder of the main spacecraft. Ames Research Center (ARC) has responsibility for the entry probe, which was built by Hughes Aircraft Company and General Electric. Galileo will be deployed from the payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during mission STS-34.

  4. Radiation sterilization of harmful algae in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byung Chull An; Jae-Sung Kim; Seung Sik Lee; Shyamkumar Barampuram; Eun Mi Lee; Byung Yeoup Chung

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Drinking water, water used in food production and for irrigation, water for fish farming, waste water, surface water, and recreational water have been recently recognized as a vector for the transmission of harmful micro-organisms. The human and animal harmful algae is a waterborne risk to public health and economy because the algae are ubiquitous and persistent in water and wastewater, not completely removed by physical-chemical treatment processes, and relatively resistant to chemical disinfection. Gamma and electron beam radiation technology is of growing in the water industry since it was demonstrated that gamma and electron beam radiation is very effective against harmful algae. Materials and Methods: Harmful algae (Scenedesmus quadricauda(Turpin) Brebisson 1835 (AG10003), Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck 1896 (AG30007) and Chlamydomonas sp. (AG10061)) were distributed from Korean collection for type cultures (KCTC). Strains were cultured aerobically in Allen's medium at 25□ and 300 umol/m2s for 1 week using bioreactor. We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma (0.05 to 10 kGy for 30 min) and electron beam (1 to 19 kGy for 5 sec) rays. Results and Conclusion: We investigated the disinfection efficiency of harmful algae irradiated with gamma and electron beam rays of 50 to 19000 Gy. We established the optimum sterilization condition which use the gamma and electron beam radiation. Gamma ray disinfected harmful algae at 400 Gy for 30 min. Also, electron beam disinfected at 1000 Gy for 5 sec. This alternative disinfection practice had powerful disinfection efficiency. Hence, the multi-barrier approach for drinking water treatment in which a combination of various disinfectants and filtration technologies are applied for removal and inactivation of different microbial pathogens will guarantee a lower risk of microbial contamination.

  5. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: sterilization to polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Inishita, Takashi; Takenaka, Yoshinori; Suma, Yasunori; Shintani, Hideharu; National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo

    1995-01-01

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization. (author)

  6. A review: radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    The literature on the effects of γ-radiation on drugs, relevant to their sterilization or decontamination, is reviewed. This literature survey essentially covers the past 7 yr, although relevant reports not covered in previous reviews have been included. (author)

  7. Radiation sterilization of animal farm sewage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosiak, J.; Perkowski, J.; Pekala, W.

    1984-01-01

    Influence of irradiation on organisms appearing in farm sewage has been discussed. Practical examples of employing the radiation to sterilization of municipal wastes and liquid sewage from the industrial swine farms have been presented. (author)

  8. Determination of sterilizing dose of lincocine drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adawi, M.A.; Shamma, M.; Al-Mousa, A.

    1998-01-01

    There are too many antibiotics that have been studied on their dry solid state to determine their safe sterilizing dose by decreasing their bio burden in order to reach the sterility assurance level (SAL) needed. The sterilizing radiating dose of lincocine was determined according to information about their bio burden and radiating sensitivity at the sterility assurance level 10-6. The study of bio burden has shown that the contamination was fungal (Pemicillium sp.) and by applying the same tests to the raw materials of lincocine it came out that the cause of contamination was bad storage and that the radiating dose required to decrease the bio burden was 5.5 kGy. (author)

  9. Searching for Sterile Neutrinos with MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmons, Ashley [Manchester U.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the latest results for a 3+1 sterile neutrino search using the $10.56 \\times 10^{20}$ protons-on-target data set taken from 2005 - 2012. By searching for oscillations driven by a large mass splitting, MINOS is sensitive to the existence of sterile neutrinos through any energy dependent deviations using a charged current sample, as well as looking at any relative deficit between neutral current events between the far and near detectors. This document will discuss the novel analysis that enabled a search for sterile neutrinos setting a limit in the previously unexplored regions in the parameter space $\\{\\Delta m^{2}_{41}, \\sin^2\\theta_{24}\\}$. The results presented can be compared to the parameter space suggested by LSND and MiniBooNE and complements other previous experimental searches for sterile neutrinos in the electron neutrino appearance channel.

  10. Methods of sterilization and monitoring of sterilization across selected dental practices in karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, H.

    2015-01-01

    To assess methods of sterilization in dental practices in Karachi and secondly to investigate methods of monitoring sterilization in dental practices in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Dental colleges, hospitals and private clinics of Karachi, Pakistan, from January to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 251 questionnaires were obtained. Descriptive statistics were computed and differences between groups were assessed through chi-square test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: Autoclave, used by 155 (61.8%) dentists was the most common method of sterilization followed by more than one method, 65 (25.9%); dry heat, 24 (9.6%); and cold sterilization, 7 (2.8%). Majority of dentists, 126 (50.1%), never monitored sterilization and those who did monitored mostly monthly. Statistically significant difference was found amongst the three groups of dentists monitoring sterilization (p=0.09) and methods of sterilization (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Statistically significant difference was found in infection control practices of specialists, postgraduate trainees and general dentists regarding method of monitoring sterilization with majority of dentists never monitoring sterilization. (author)

  11. 21 CFR 522.1862 - Sterile pralidoxime chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterile pralidoxime chloride. 522.1862 Section 522....1862 Sterile pralidoxime chloride. (a) Chemical name. 2-Formyl-1-methylpyridinium chloride oxime. (b) Specifications. Sterile pralidoxime chloride is packaged in vials. Each vial contains 1 gram of sterile...

  12. Sterilization of instruments in solar ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fjendbo Joergensen, A. [Odense Univ. Hospital, Dept. of Infectious Diseases, Odense (Denmark); Noehr, K. [Odense Technical College, Dept. of Metal, Odense (Denmark); Boisen, F. [The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration Funen, Dept. of Microbiology, Odense (Denmark)

    2000-07-01

    The sterilization of instruments in rural health clinics in less developed countries is an increasing problem because chemical methods can no longer be recommended and wood fuel is becoming more and more scarce. Thus, it seemed obvious to try to utilize solar energy for sterilization purposes. A solar oven was designed and manufactured using local materials and simple tools. The solar oven was tested by physical, chemical, and microbiological methods. A mathematical model for the sterilization effect was developed and programmed into a microprocessor that was connected to a thermocouple. The microprocessor switches on a green light when the sterilization is completed. After successful testing, the oven was built into the west-facing wall of a rural health clinic and used daily for sterilization. The oven was able to generate temperatures above 180 deg. C. On all days with direct sunlight the oven fulfilled the international recommendations for hot air sterilization because no growth could be detected from any of the test bacteria spores. The chemical indicators Brownes tubes types 3 and 5 also changed colours. The solar oven was easy to use for the clinic staff, but during the seasons with low sun position (in Tanzania, December and June) it was difficult to achieve a high enough temperature for sterilization. Therefore, if the method is to be used throughout the year the oven must be moved to collect the sun's rays from several directions, or the clinic must have more than one solar oven facing in different directions. We conclude that the solar oven is a realistic method for sterilization of instruments. (au)

  13. Radiation sterilization of potato starch and Sedonik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashmetov, M.Yu.; Ismatov, N.B.; Saidov, R.P. et al.

    2016-01-01

    The raw material of pharmaceutical preparations potato starch and sedative means of Sedonik are sterilized at the electron's accelerator Electronics U-003. It is established that at 20.3 kGy absorbed dose and electron's energy 3 - 5 MeV the results of microbiological analysis showed sterility of potato starch and Sedonik and correspondence of their physical-optical properties to the requirements of normative documents. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of Various Cleaning Methods to Remove Bacillus Spores from Spacecraft Hardware Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Chung, Shirley; Allton, Judith; Kern, Roger

    2004-09-01

    A detailed study was made of the biological cleaning effectiveness, defined in terms of the ability to remove bacterial spores, of a number of methods used to clean hardware surfaces. Aluminum (Al 6061) and titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) were chosen for the study as they were deemed the two materials most likely to be used in spacecraft extraterrestrial sampler construction. Metal coupons (1 cm × 2.5 cm) were precleaned and inoculated with 5.8 × 103 cultivable Bacillus subtilis spores, which are commonly found on spacecraft surfaces and in the assembly environments. The inoculated coupons were subsequently cleaned using: (1) 70% isopropyl alcohol wipe; (2) water wipe; (3) multiple-solvent flight-hardware cleaning procedures used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); (4) Johnson Space Center-developed ultrapure water rinse; and (5) a commercial, semi-aqueous, multiple-solvent (SAMS) cleaning process. The biological cleaning effectiveness was measured by agar plate assay, sterility test (growing in liquid media), and epifluorescent microscopy. None of the cleaning protocols tested completely removed viable spores from the surface of the aluminum. In contrast, titanium was capable of being cleaned to sterility by two methods, the JPL standard and the commercial SAMS cleaning process. Further investigation showed that the passivation step employed in the JPL standard method is an effective surface sterilant on both metals but not compatible with aluminum. It is recommended that titanium (Ti 6Al-4V) be considered superior to aluminum (Al 6061) for use in spacecraft sampling hardware, both for its potential to be cleaned to sterilization and for its ability to withstand the most effective cleaning protocols.

  15. Training for spacecraft technical analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas J.; Bryant, Larry

    1989-01-01

    Deep space missions such as Voyager rely upon a large team of expert analysts who monitor activity in the various engineering subsystems of the spacecraft and plan operations. Senior teammembers generally come from the spacecraft designers, and new analysts receive on-the-job training. Neither of these methods will suffice for the creation of a new team in the middle of a mission, which may be the situation during the Magellan mission. New approaches are recommended, including electronic documentation, explicit cognitive modeling, and coached practice with archived data.

  16. Production of a sterile species: Quantum kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Ho, C. M.

    2007-10-01

    Production of a sterile species is studied within an effective model of active-sterile neutrino mixing in a medium in thermal equilibrium. The quantum kinetic equations for the distribution functions and coherences are obtained from two independent methods: the effective action and the quantum master equation. The decoherence time scale for active-sterile oscillations is τdec=2/Γaa, but the evolution of the distribution functions is determined by the two different time scales associated with the damping rates of the quasiparticle modes in the medium: Γ1=Γaacos⁡2θm; Γ2=Γaasin⁡2θm where Γaa is the interaction rate of the active species in the absence of mixing and θm the mixing angle in the medium. These two time scales are widely different away from Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein resonances and preclude the kinetic description of active-sterile production in terms of a simple rate equation. We give the complete set of quantum kinetic equations for the active and sterile populations and coherences and discuss in detail the various approximations. A generalization of the active-sterile transition probability in a medium is provided via the quantum master equation. We derive explicitly the usual quantum kinetic equations in terms of the “polarization vector” and show their equivalence to those obtained from the quantum master equation and effective action.

  17. Results from active spacecraft potential control on the Geotail spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Arends, H.; Pedersen, A.

    1995-01-01

    A low and actively controlled electrostatic potential on the outer surfaces of a scientific spacecraft is very important for accurate measurements of cold plasma electrons and ions and the DC to low-frequency electric field. The Japanese/NASA Geotail spacecraft carriers as part of its scientific payload a novel ion emitter for active control of the electrostatic potential on the surface of the spacecraft. The aim of the ion emitter is to reduce the positive surface potential which is normally encountered in the outer magnetosphere when the spacecraft is sunlit. Ion emission clamps the surface potential to near the ambient plasma potential. Without emission control, Geotail has encountered plasma conditions in the lobes of the magnetotail which resulted in surface potentials of up to about +70 V. The ion emitter proves to be able to discharge the outer surfaces of the spacecraft and is capable of keeping the surface potential stable at about +2 V. This potential is measured with respect to one of the electric field probes which are current biased and thus kept at a potential slightly above the ambient plasma potential. The instrument uses the liquid metal field ion emission principle to emit indium ions. The ion beam energy is about 6 keV and the typical total emission current amounts to about 15 μA. Neither variations in the ambient plasma conditions nor operation of two electron emitters on Geotail produce significant variations of the controlled surface potential as long as the resulting electron emission currents remain much smaller than the ion emission current. Typical results of the active potential control are shown, demonstrating the surface potential reduction and its stability over time. 25 refs., 5 figs

  18. Voluntary sterilization in Serbia: Unmet need?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašević Mirjana M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as

  19. Networked Constellation Communications Technologies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop communications architectures and enabling technologies for mission concepts relying on multiple spatially distributed spacecraft to perform coordinated...

  20. Charging in the environment of large spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses some potential problems of spacecraft charging as a result of interactions between a large spacecraft, such as the Space Station, and its environment. Induced electric field, due to VXB effect, may be important for large spacecraft at low earth orbits. Differential charging, due to different properties of surface materials, may be significant when the spacecraft is partly in sunshine and partly in shadow. Triple-root potential jump condition may occur because of differential charging. Sudden onset of severe differential charging may occur when an electron or ion beam is emitted from the spacecraft. The beam may partially return to the ''hot spots'' on the spacecraft. Wake effects, due to blocking of ambient ion trajectories, may result in an undesirable negative potential region in the vicinity of a large spacecraft. Outgassing and exhaust may form a significant spacecraft induced environment; ionization may occur. Spacecraft charging and discharging may affect the electronic components on board

  1. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  2. Construction of a male sterility system for hybrid rice breeding and seed production using a nuclear male sterility gene

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Zhenyi; Chen, Zhufeng; Wang, Na; Xie, Gang; Lu, Jiawei; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Junli; Tang, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear male sterility is common in flowering plants, but its application in hybrid breeding and seed production is limited because of the inability to propagate a pure male sterile line for commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we characterized a rice nuclear gene essential for sporophytic male fertility and constructed a male sterility system that can propagate the pure male sterile seeds on a large scale. This system is fundamentally advantageous over the current cytoplasmic male steril...

  3. Phenology, sterility and inheritance of two environment genic male sterile (EGMS) lines for hybrid rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Namaky, R.; Oort, van P.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is still limited quantitative understanding of how environmental factors affect sterility of Environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) lines. A model was developed for this purpose and tested based on experimental data from Ndiaye (Senegal) in 2013-2015. For the two

  4. Phenology, sterility and inheritance of two environment genic male sterile (EGMS) lines for hybrid rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Namaky, R; van Oort, P A J

    2017-12-01

    There is still limited quantitative understanding of how environmental factors affect sterility of Environment-conditioned genic male sterility (EGMS) lines. A model was developed for this purpose and tested based on experimental data from Ndiaye (Senegal) in 2013-2015. For the two EGMS lines tested here, it was not clear if one or more recessive gene(s) were causing male sterility. This was tested by studying sterility segregation of the F2 populations. Daylength (photoperiod) and minimum temperatures during the period from panicle initiation to flowering had significant effects on male sterility. Results clearly showed that only one recessive gene was involved in causing male sterility. The model was applied to determine the set of sowing dates of two different EGMS lines such that both would flower at the same time the pollen would be completely sterile. In the same time the local popular variety (Sahel 108, the male pollen donor) being sufficiently fertile to produce the hybrid seeds. The model was applied to investigate the viability of the two line breeding system in the same location with climate change (+2oC) and in two other potential locations: in M'Be in Ivory Coast and in the Nile delta in Egypt. Apart from giving new insights in the relation between environment and EGMS, this study shows that these insights can be used to assess safe sowing windows and assess the suitability of sterility and fertility period of different environments for a two line hybrid rice production system.

  5. Coordinated research project on radiation sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials. CRP report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. Radiation processing of synthetic and natural polymers for improving their characteristics is largely used in laboratory and industrial scale. Radiation sterilization is a well developed and established technology for many products. It is especially useful for the treatment of pharmaceuticals due to flexibility of radiation processing to be carried out at any desired temperature, sterilizability of mixed products in kits, offering simultaneous sterilization and modification of polymer based formulations. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic and natural polymers and treatment of pharmaceuticals has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge-demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology. Reliable analytical methods are being developed for controlling of degradation effects of radiation on polymers. Procedures and chemical formulations are being investigated enhancing or preventing degradation effects depending on the desired application of the process. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the use of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials has been completed in 2002. The overall objective of the CRP was to coordinate the research and development programmes carried out in different countries in use of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutic raw materials. It has been concluded that in addition to well known advantages of radiation sterilization being a well developed and established technology requiring the control of only one parameter, dose, to achieve sterilization; it is especially useful for the treatment of pharmaceuticals due to flexibility of radiation

  6. Coordinated research project on radiation sterilization and decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials. CRP report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Radiation processing is a very convenient tool for imparting desirable effects in materials and it has been an area of enormous interest in the last few decades. Radiation processing of synthetic and natural polymers for improving their characteristics is largely used in laboratory and industrial scale. Radiation sterilization is a well developed and established technology for many products. It is especially useful for the treatment of pharmaceuticals due to flexibility of radiation processing to be carried out at any desired temperature, sterilizability of mixed products in kits, offering simultaneous sterilization and modification of polymer based formulations. The success of radiation technology for processing of synthetic and natural polymers and treatment of pharmaceuticals has been based, to a large extent, on empirical knowledge. But now, the applications of natural polymers are being sought in knowledge-demanding areas such as pharmacy and biotechnology. Reliable analytical methods are being developed for controlling of degradation effects of radiation on polymers. Procedures and chemical formulations are being investigated enhancing or preventing degradation effects depending on the desired application of the process. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the use of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical raw materials has been completed in 2002. The overall objective of the CRP was to coordinate the research and development programmes carried out in different countries in use of radiation processing for sterilization or decontamination of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutic raw materials. It has been concluded that in addition to well known advantages of radiation sterilization being a well developed and established technology requiring the control of only one parameter, dose, to achieve sterilization; it is especially useful for the treatment of pharmaceuticals due to flexibility of radiation

  7. Sterile insect supply, emergence, and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, R.V.; Worley, J.; Gomes, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    Insect mass-rearing for a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme is designed to move beyond the large-scale rearing of insects in a laboratory to the industrial production of consistently high-quality insects for sterilization and release. Each facility reflects the unique biology of the insect reared within it, but there are some generalities for all rearing facilities. Rearing insects in self-contained modules offers flexibility, and increased safety from catastrophic occurrences, compared with using a single building which houses all facets of the rearing process. Although mechanizing certain aspects of the rearing steps helps provide a consistently high-quality insect, successful mass-rearing and delivery depends largely upon the human component. Besides production in centralized facilities, insects can be produced from purchased eggs, or nowadays, adult insects are often obtained from specialized satellite emergence/collection facilities. Interest in commercializing insect production and release is increasing. Shipping sterile insects, sometimes over long distances, is now common practice. Procedures for handling and chilling adult insects, and providing food and water prior to release, are continually being improved. Sterile insects are released via static-release receptacles, ground-release systems, or most commonly from the air. The aerial release of chilled sterile insects is the most efficient method of release, especially when aircraft flight paths are guided by a Global Positioning System (GPS) linked to a computer-controlled release mechanism. (author)

  8. Gamma radiation sterilized amnion: use in ophthalmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez P, M. E.; Leon T, Y.; Vazquez M, L.

    2010-10-01

    Amnion processed at the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, sterilized with 60 Co gamma radiation, have been used in Mexico since 2005 either as a graft to replace the damaged ocular surface, or as a patch to prevent unwanted inflammatory reactions. Patients from the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM) and Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), suffering diverse pathologies such as keratoconjunctivitis; recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon; corneal neuro trophic ulcers, chemical and thermal burns, and corneal thinning s, had been successfully treated with irradiated amnion. In the HGM, a clinical prospective study on lesions of the ocular surface of 17 eyes from 15 patients, affected with the above mentioned pathologies, was successful in 88.2%. The results have proven to be excellent as much for cosmetic purposes as for functional ones. Without the treatment, the patients could have suffered a healing after-effect or loss of sight. At IMSS, a controlled clinical randomized trial with 108 eyes from 100 patients, affected with primary nasal pterygium, was performed in 2009. These eyes were treated with radio sterilized amnion and intraoperative mitomycin C to prevent recurrence after excision of the primary pterygium. The preliminary results do not shown adverse reaction, inflammation and pain were significantly reduced radio sterilized amnion also offer security because they do no express antigens HLA-A, B or Dr and the sterile irradiated tissue do not provoke rejection or transmit an infective disease. (Author)

  9. Gamma radiation sterilized amnion: use in ophthalmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez P, M. E. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Leon T, Y. [Hospital General Regional 220, IMSS, Paseo Tollocan No. 620, Col. Vertice, Toluca 50150, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vazquez M, L., E-mail: esther.martinez@inin.gob.m [Hospital General de Mexico, Dr. Balmis 148, Col. Doctores, 06720 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    Amnion processed at the Radio sterilized Tissue Bank at the National Institute of Nuclear Research, sterilized with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation, have been used in Mexico since 2005 either as a graft to replace the damaged ocular surface, or as a patch to prevent unwanted inflammatory reactions. Patients from the Hospital General de Mexico (HGM) and Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), suffering diverse pathologies such as keratoconjunctivitis; recurrent pterygium associated with symblepharon; corneal neuro trophic ulcers, chemical and thermal burns, and corneal thinning s, had been successfully treated with irradiated amnion. In the HGM, a clinical prospective study on lesions of the ocular surface of 17 eyes from 15 patients, affected with the above mentioned pathologies, was successful in 88.2%. The results have proven to be excellent as much for cosmetic purposes as for functional ones. Without the treatment, the patients could have suffered a healing after-effect or loss of sight. At IMSS, a controlled clinical randomized trial with 108 eyes from 100 patients, affected with primary nasal pterygium, was performed in 2009. These eyes were treated with radio sterilized amnion and intraoperative mitomycin C to prevent recurrence after excision of the primary pterygium. The preliminary results do not shown adverse reaction, inflammation and pain were significantly reduced radio sterilized amnion also offer security because they do no express antigens HLA-A, B or Dr and the sterile irradiated tissue do not provoke rejection or transmit an infective disease. (Author)

  10. Sterilization and disinfection: the prevailing indifference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, I.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals towards the process of sterilization and disinfection, and to check the adequacy of the reading material accessible to them. The study comprised of three components. In the first part, sections devoted to this subject in the popular books read by the students of operation theatre assistant course and students of diploma in general nursing were examined for adequacy and authenticity of information. In the second part, standard operating procedures were examined regarding sterilization of textile, rubber tubes of suction units and diathermy hand pieces of 20 operation theatres of three teaching hospital attached to undergraduate medical college of Punjab. In the third part of the study, working knowledge of 64 practicing operation theatre assistants and 57 practicing nurses was assessed through a questionnaire. It was found that popular books either did not contain the required information or the information provided was misleading or incorrect. Standard operating procedures for sterilization of selected items of all the operation theatres studied fell much below the standard of practice desired in the light of current knowledge and contemporary practices. Finally the working knowledge of the professionals studied was much below the bare minimum expected by the profession. There is a dire need for upgrading the knowledge and attitude of health care professionals regarding sterilization, besides improving the operation theatres sterilization procedures. (author)

  11. Revisiting cosmological bounds on sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Aaron C. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP), Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Martínez, Enrique Fernández [Departamento and Instituto de Física Teórica (IFT), UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, C/ Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Hernández, Pilar; Mena, Olga [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), CSIC-Universitat de València, Apartado de Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Lattanzi, Massimiliano, E-mail: aaron.vincent@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: enrique.fernandez-martinez@uam.es, E-mail: m.pilar.hernandez@uv.es, E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es, E-mail: lattanzi@fe.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Science della Terra, Università di Ferrara and INFN, sezione di Ferrara, Polo Scientifico e Tecnologico, Edificio C Via Saragat, 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We employ state-of-the art cosmological observables including supernova surveys and BAO information to provide constraints on the mass and mixing angle of a non-resonantly produced sterile neutrino species, showing that cosmology can effectively rule out sterile neutrinos which decay between BBN and the present day. The decoupling of an additional heavy neutrino species can modify the time dependence of the Universe's expansion between BBN and recombination and, in extreme cases, lead to an additional matter-dominated period; while this could naively lead to a younger Universe with a larger Hubble parameter, it could later be compensated by the extra radiation expected in the form of neutrinos from sterile decay. However, recombination-era observables including the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the shift parameter R{sub CMB} and the sound horizon r{sub s} from Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) severely constrain this scenario. We self-consistently include the full time-evolution of the coupled sterile neutrino and standard model sectors in an MCMC, showing that if decay occurs after BBN, the sterile neutrino is essentially bounded by the constraint sin{sup 2}θ ∼< 0.026 (m{sub s}/eV){sup −2}.

  12. Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For spacecraft design and development teams concerned with cost and schedule, the Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool (QuickSTAT) is an innovative software suite...

  13. History of sterile compounding in U.S. hospitals: learning from the tragic lessons of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Charles E

    2013-08-15

    The evolution of sterile compounding in the context of hospital patient care, the evolution of related technology, past incidents of morbidity and mortality associated with preparations compounded in various settings, and efforts over the years to improve compounding practices are reviewed. Tightened United States Pharmacopeial Convention standards (since 2004) for sterile compounding made it difficult for hospitals to achieve all of the sterile compounding necessary for patient care. Shortages of manufactured injections added to the need for compounding. Non-hospital-based compounding pharmacies increased sterile compounding to meet the needs. Gaps in federal and state laws and regulations about compounding pharmacies led to deficiencies in their regulation. Lapses in sterility led to injuries and deaths. Perspectives offered include potential actions, including changes in practitioner education, better surveillance of sterile compounding, regulatory reforms, reexamination of the causes of drug shortages, and the development of new technologies. Over the years, there have been numerous exhortations for voluntary better performance in sterile compounding. In addition, professional leadership has been vigorous and extensive in the form of guidance, publications, education, enforceable standards, and development of various associations and organizations dealing with safe compounding practices. Yet problems continue to occur. We must engage in diligent learning from the injuries and tragedies that have occurred. Assuming that we are already doing all we can to avoid problems would be an abdication of the professional mission of pharmacists. It would be wrong thinking to assume that the recent problems in large-scale compounding pharmacies are the only problems that warrant attention. It is time for a systematic assessment of the nature and the dimensions of the problems in every type of setting where sterile compounding occurs. It also is time for some innovative

  14. Multiple spacecraft Michelson stellar interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, R. V.; Arnold, D.; Melroy, P.; Mccormack, E. F.; Gezari, D. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an orbital analysis and performance assessment of SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry) are presented. The device considered includes two one-meter telescopes in orbits which are identical except for slightly different inclinations; the telescopes achieve separations as large as 10 km and relay starlight to a central station which has a one-meter optical delay line in one interferometer arm. It is shown that a 1000-km altitude, zero mean inclination orbit affords natural scanning of the 10-km baseline with departures from optical pathlength equality which are well within the corrective capacity of the optical delay line. Electric propulsion is completely adequate to provide the required spacecraft motions, principally those needed for repointing. Resolution of 0.00001 arcsec and magnitude limits of 15 to 20 are achievable.

  15. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  16. Materials of 4. Spring School of Radiation Sterilization of Medical Materials, Grafts, Pharmaceutics and Cosmetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The state of art in well developed in Poland radiation technologies has been done. The legal and economical aspects have been discussed for radiation sterilization of health care products, drugs, biomaterials and grafts. Industrial plants and radiation procedures have been described. The perspectives for further development and other industrial applications have been also discussed

  17. Standardized spacecraft: a methodology for decision making. AMS report No. 1199

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.S.; Nichols, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    As the space program matures, more and more attention is being focused on ways to reduce the costs of performing space missions. Standardization has been suggested as a way of providing cost reductions. The question of standardization at the system level, in particular, the question of the desirability of spacecraft standardization for geocentric space missions is addressed. The spacecraft is considered to be a bus upon which mission oriented equipment, the payload, is mounted. Three basic questions are considered: (1) is spacecraft standardization economically desirable; (2) if spacecraft standardization is economically desirable, what standardized spacecraft configuration or mix of configurations and technologies should be developed; and (3) if standardized spacecraft are to be developed, what power levels should they be designed for. A methodology which has been developed and which is necessary to follow if the above questions are to be answered and informed decisions made relative to spacecraft standardization is described. To illustrate the decision making problems and the need for the developed methodology and the data requirements, typical standardized spacecraft have been considered. Both standardized solar and nuclear-powered spacecraft and mission specialized spacecraft have been conceptualized and performance and cost estimates have been made. These estimates are not considered to be of sufficient accuracy to allow decisions regarding spacecraft mix and power levels to be made at this time. The estimates are deemed of sufficient accuracy so as to demonstrate the desirability of spacecraft standardization and the methodology (as well as the need for the methodology) which is necessary to decide upon the best mix of standardized spacecraft and their design power levels. (U.S.)

  18. Comprehension of Spacecraft Telemetry Using Hierarchical Specifications of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Joshi, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    A key challenge in operating remote spacecraft is that ground operators must rely on the limited visibility available through spacecraft telemetry in order to assess spacecraft health and operational status. We describe a tool for processing spacecraft telemetry that allows ground operators to impose structure on received telemetry in order to achieve a better comprehension of system state. A key element of our approach is the design of a domain-specific language that allows operators to express models of expected system behavior using partial specifications. The language allows behavior specifications with data fields, similar to other recent runtime verification systems. What is notable about our approach is the ability to develop hierarchical specifications of behavior. The language is implemented as an internal DSL in the Scala programming language that synthesizes rules from patterns of specification behavior. The rules are automatically applied to received telemetry and the inferred behaviors are available to ground operators using a visualization interface that makes it easier to understand and track spacecraft state. We describe initial results from applying our tool to telemetry received from the Curiosity rover currently roving the surface of Mars, where the visualizations are being used to trend subsystem behaviors, in order to identify potential problems before they happen. However, the technology is completely general and can be applied to any system that generates telemetry such as event logs.

  19. A Shaftless Magnetically Levitated Multifunctional Spacecraft Flywheel Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ken; Thornton, Richard; Clark, Tracy; Beaman, Bob G.; Dennehy, Neil; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Presently many types of spacecraft use a Spacecraft Attitude Control System (ACS) with momentum wheels for steering and electrochemical batteries to provide electrical power for the eclipse period of the spacecraft orbit. Future spacecraft will use Flywheels for combined use in ACS and Energy Storage. This can be done by using multiple wheels and varying the differential speed for ACS and varying the average speed for energy storage and recovery. Technology in these areas has improved since the 1990s so it is now feasible for flywheel systems to emerge from the laboratory for spacecraft use. This paper describes a new flywheel system that can be used for both ACS and energy storage. Some of the possible advantages of a flywheel system are: lower total mass and volume, higher efficiency, less thermal impact, improved satellite integration schedule and complexity, simplified satellite orbital operations, longer life with lower risk, less pointing jitter, and greater capability for high-rate slews. In short, they have the potential to enable new types of missions and provide lower cost. Two basic types of flywheel configurations are the Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) and the Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS).

  20. Low-Frequency Gravitational Wave Searches Using Spacecraft Doppler Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses spacecraft Doppler tracking, the current-generation detector technology used in the low-frequency (~millihertz gravitational wave band. In the Doppler method the earth and a distant spacecraft act as free test masses with a ground-based precision Doppler tracking system continuously monitoring the earth-spacecraft relative dimensionless velocity $2 Delta v/c = Delta u/ u_0$, where $Delta u$ is the Doppler shift and $ u_0$ is the radio link carrier frequency. A gravitational wave having strain amplitude $h$ incident on the earth-spacecraft system causes perturbations of order $h$ in the time series of $Delta u/ u_0$. Unlike other detectors, the ~1-10 AU earth-spacecraft separation makes the detector large compared with millihertz-band gravitational wavelengths, and thus times-of-flight of signals and radio waves through the apparatus are important. A burst signal, for example, is time-resolved into a characteristic signature: three discrete events in the Doppler time series. I discuss here the principles of operation of this detector (emphasizing transfer functions of gravitational wave signals and the principal noises to the Doppler time series, some data analysis techniques, experiments to date, and illustrations of sensitivity and current detector performance. I conclude with a discussion of how gravitational wave sensitivity can be improved in the low-frequency band.

  1. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  2. Nonlinearity-induced spacecraft tumbling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    An existing tumbling criterion for the dumbbell satellite in planar librations is reexamined and modified to reflect a recently identified tumbling mode associated with the horizontal attitude orientation. It is shown that for any initial attitude there exists a critical angular rate below which the motion is oscillatory and harmonic and beyond which a continuous tumbling will ensue. If the angular rate is at the critical value the spacecraft drifts towards the horizontal attitude from which a spontaneous periodic tumbling occurs

  3. Deep Space Networking Experiments on the EPOXI Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Space Communications & Navigation Program within the Space Operations Directorate is operating a program to develop and deploy Disruption Tolerant Networking [DTN] technology for a wide variety of mission types by the end of 2011. DTN is an enabling element of the Interplanetary Internet where terrestrial networking protocols are generally unsuitable because they rely on timely and continuous end-to-end delivery of data and acknowledgments. In fall of 2008 and 2009 and 2011 the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of DTN technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. These experiments, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET 1) were performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. The DINET 1 software was installed on the backup software partition on the backup flight computer for DINET 1. For DINET 1, the spacecraft was at a distance of about 15 million miles (24 million kilometers) from Earth. During DINET 1 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then, they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. The first DINET 1 experiment successfully validated many of the essential elements of the DTN protocols. DINET 2 demonstrated: 1) additional DTN functionality, 2) automated certain tasks which were manually implemented in DINET 1 and 3) installed the ION SW on nodes outside of JPL. DINET 3 plans to: 1) upgrade the LTP convergence-layer adapter to conform to the international LTP CL specification, 2) add convergence-layer "stewardship" procedures and 3) add the BSP security elements [PIB & PCB]. This paper describes the planning and execution of the flight experiment and the

  4. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Yasuo [Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them.

  5. Dosimetry requirements derived from the sterilization standards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1998-01-01

    The main standards for radiation sterilization, ISO 11137 and EN 552, rest the documentation for the properly executed sterilization process on dosimetry. Both standards describe general requirements to the dosimetry system: The dose measurements must be traceable to national standards...... and documented uncertainty limits of the dose measurements can be used to specify process control limits. This is also useful, for example, when dose setting experiments are carried out according to the methods described in ISO 11137, where product samples shall be irradiated within narrow limits......., the uncertainty of the dose measurement and the environmental influences must be known. This paper discusses how to obtain and maintain traceability and how to document measurement uncertainty. The implications of these requirements in the process control of radiation sterilization are further discussed. Known...

  6. Mechanisms of male sterility in higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Yasuo

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms causing male sterility in higher plants were classified into two major categories: genetic and non-genetic. The former was further divided into six classes: 1) Anomality in spindle mechanism during meiosis, 2) chromosomal anomality such as haploidy, polyploidy, aneuploidy, chromosome some deficiency, inversion and reciprocal translocation, 3) presence of male sterile genes, 4) cytoplasmic abnormality, 5) the combination of some specific cytoplasm with particular genes, and 6) infections of microorganisms or viruses. Each mechanism was briefly explained, and the methods for the maintenance of parent lines for heterosis breeding and hybrid seed production were described. The non-genetic male sterility was classified into four types, which are caused by 1) low or high temperature, 2) water deficiency, 3) application of chemicals, and 4) radiation, with a brief explanation given for each of them. (Kaihara, S.)

  7. Contraceptive sterilization among Canadians, 1984-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Krishnan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior to early 1970s, traditional methods were the principal means of controlling the number and spacing of births. Today, an estimated 57 per cent of the world’s married women use contraceptives and half use modern methods such as medical sterilizations. Recent statistics suggest that Canada has the highest sterilization rate in the Western world. This paper presents findings of research examining sterilization trends in Canada with respect to changing patterns in the use of modern contraceptives, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS and the 1995 General Social Survey (GSS. The main finding is that there is a decrease in the use of tubal ligation and an increase in the use of hysterectomy over the period 1984-1995. Less educated women are more likely to be in the forefront of modern methods of contraception.

  8. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  9. Dynamic sterilization of titanium implants with ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.; Schaaf, N.G.

    1989-01-01

    All implantable devices must be sterile. However, autoclaves produce poor surface properties that jeopardize the integration process. The application of a modified ultraviolet light source has proven to enhance bioreactivity by controlling surface properties, but it lacks validation of its sterilization capabilities. Forty-eight titanium implants were contaminated with spores of the biological indicator Bacillus stearothermophilus and subjected to dynamic sterilization by ultraviolet light. Forty-seven of the implants were successfully sterilized, as indicated by not producing turbidity in a suitable growth medium. This sterilization technique only requires a 20-second exposure to achieve sterility

  10. Integrating standard operating procedures with spacecraft automation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft automation has the potential to assist crew members and spacecraft operators in managing spacecraft systems during extended space missions. Automation can...

  11. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Raquel; Rediguieri, Carolina F; Kikuchi, Irene Satiko; Vasquez, Pablo A S; Colaço, Rogério; Serro, Ana Paula; Pinto, Terezinha J A

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP) associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility) with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS) hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation), a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP) hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP), with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol). Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles.

  12. About the Sterilization of Chitosan Hydrogel Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Galante

    Full Text Available In the last years, nanostructured biomaterials have raised a great interest as platforms for delivery of drugs, genes, imaging agents and for tissue engineering applications. In particular, hydrogel nanoparticles (HNP associate the distinctive features of hydrogels (high water uptake capacity, biocompatibility with the advantages of being possible to tailor its physicochemical properties at nano-scale to increase solubility, immunocompatibility and cellular uptake. In order to be safe, HNP for biomedical applications, such as injectable or ophthalmic formulations, must be sterile. Literature is very scarce with respect to sterilization effects on nanostructured systems, and even more in what concerns HNP. This work aims to evaluate the effect and effectiveness of different sterilization methods on chitosan (CS hydrogel nanoparticles. In addition to conventional methods (steam autoclave and gamma irradiation, a recent ozone-based method of sterilization was also tested. A model chitosan-tripolyphosphate (TPP hydrogel nanoparticles (CS-HNP, with a broad spectrum of possible applications was produced and sterilized in the absence and in the presence of protective sugars (glucose and mannitol. Properties like size, zeta potential, absorbance, morphology, chemical structure and cytotoxicity were evaluated. It was found that the CS-HNP degrade by autoclaving and that sugars have no protective effect. Concerning gamma irradiation, the formation of agglomerates was observed, compromising the suspension stability. However, the nanoparticles resistance increases considerably in the presence of the sugars. Ozone sterilization did not lead to significant physical adverse effects, however, slight toxicity signs were observed, contrarily to gamma irradiation where no detectable changes on cells were found. Ozonation in the presence of sugars avoided cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, some chemical alterations were observed in the nanoparticles.

  13. Induced mutant for male sterility in niger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.), an important oilseed crop of the family Compositae is highly cross-pollinated due to the twin mechanisms of protandry and incompatibility. Studies revealed the functional nature of protandry and the breakdown of incompatibility with alteration in temperature. It has very small flowers (disc florets) arranged in a capitulum that open on 3-4 consecutive days which pose problems in emasculation for cross-breeding. To induce mutations, seeds of variety 'IGP-76' were irradiated with γ-rays 200 to 1000 Gy. All seeds of M 1 plants were sown separately in individual plant-to progeny rows. The results of screening of M 2 segregating material indicated that γ-ray treatment was effective in induction of male sterility. Frequency of visible mutations were higher in sibbed progeny as compared to open pollinated population and male sterile plants were observed only in sibbed population (1000 Gy). Male sterile plants could easily be identified at the flowering stage by their altered floral morphology (disc florets transformed into ligulate ray florets) and complete absence or presence of a rudimentary anther column. Seeds were collected following sib-mating with the fertile counterparts. Progeny segregated in a ration of 3 normal : 1 male sterile. Further work on the mechanism of sterility, maintenance and linkage relationships with associated characters is under progress. This is the first report of induction of male sterility in niger through the use of physical mutagens. The availability of this mutant will be of great value for exploitation of heterosis on commercial basis. (author)

  14. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  15. Mass-rearing for sterile insect release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    As the sterile insect technique (SIT) relies upon released sterile male insects efficiently competing with wild males to mate with wild females, it follows that mass-rearing of insects is one of the principal steps in the process. Mass-rearing for the SIT presents both problems and opportunities due to the increased scale involved compared with rearing insects for most other purposes. This chapter discusses facility design, environmental concerns, strain management, quality control, automation, diet, sex separation, marking, and storage in relation to rearing for the SIT. (author)

  16. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and biomedical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, R.; Iddon, B.; Moore, J.S.; Phillips, G.O.; Power, D.M.; Woodward, T.W.

    1975-01-01

    Sterilization of pharmaceuticals by radiation is accompanied by chemical degradation which must be eliminated or minimised if the method is to be successfully applied. In order to devise ways in which the pharmaceutical can be protected it is necessary to know the yield and nature of the decomposition products, the mechanisms by which degradation occurs, and the rate constants for the reactions involved. We have obtained such data for a variety of pharmaceutical compounds, viz. vitamin B12, benzyl penicillin, sulphonamides, indoles, heparin, alginates and phenylmercurics, both in the solid state and in aqueous solution. The scope and limitations of radiation sterilization are discussed in the light of these results. (author)

  17. Non-coding RNAs and plant male sterility: current knowledge and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ankita; Bohra, Abhishek

    2018-02-01

    Latest outcomes assign functional role to non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in regulatory networks that confer male sterility to plants. Male sterility in plants offers great opportunity for improving crop performance through application of hybrid technology. In this respect, cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and sterility induced by photoperiod (PGMS)/temperature (TGMS) have greatly facilitated development of high-yielding hybrids in crops. Participation of non-coding (nc) RNA molecules in plant reproductive development is increasingly becoming evident. Recent breakthroughs in rice definitively associate ncRNAs with PGMS and TGMS. In case of CMS, the exact mechanism through which the mitochondrial ORFs exert influence on the development of male gametophyte remains obscure in several crops. High-throughput sequencing has enabled genome-wide discovery and validation of these regulatory molecules and their target genes, describing their potential roles performed in relation to CMS. Discovery of ncRNA localized in plant mtDNA with its possible implication in CMS induction is intriguing in this respect. Still, conclusive evidences linking ncRNA with CMS phenotypes are currently unavailable, demanding complementing genetic approaches like transgenics to substantiate the preliminary findings. Here, we review the recent literature on the contribution of ncRNAs in conferring male sterility to plants, with an emphasis on microRNAs. Also, we present a perspective on improved understanding about ncRNA-mediated regulatory pathways that control male sterility in plants. A refined understanding of plant male sterility would strengthen crop hybrid industry to deliver hybrids with improved performance.

  18. Research on determination of bio-burden for radiation sterilization of health care products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qinfang

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide data of bio-burden for dose setting in radiation sterilization, determination of bio-burden on 148 kinds of health care products from 52 manufacturers were carried out. The culture of microorganisms, different elution technology, and correction coefficient of the microbiological methods have been used for determination of bio-burden. Frequent distribution of bio-burden was established. 5 kinds of elution processes were checked. Actual data of bio-burden for dose setting in radiation sterilization was gotten. (authors)

  19. Advanced Portable Fine Water Mist Fire Extinguisher for Spacecraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fine water mist (FWM) is a promising replacement technology for fire suppression on the next generation of manned spacecraft. It offers advantages in performance,...

  20. Test of Advanced Fine Water Mist Nozzles in a Representative Spacecraft Atmosphere, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fine water mist is being considered as a replacement technology for fire suppression on the next generation of manned spacecraft. It offers advantages in...

  1. Integrated Spacecraft Navigation and Communication Using Radio, Optical, and X-rays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program proposes to design and evaluate novel technology of X-ray navigation for augmentation and increased capability of high data-rate spacecraft...

  2. Future growth in the gamma sterilization of disposable medical products (DMPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinston, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 361 million cubic feet (10 million cubic meters) of disposable medical products and related health care items are currently being sterilized around the world. Ethylene oxide gas is used to treat approximately 252 million cubic feet (7.1 million cubic meters), gamma radiation is used to sterilize approximately 99 million cubic feet (2.8 million cubic meters), and electron beam is used on approximately 10 million cubic feet (0.3 million cubic meters) of disposable medical products (DMPs). Market share for each of these terminal cold sterilization processes are 70%, 27%, and 3% respectively. There are a number of factors which are affecting the overall growth of the market. The most important factors are summarized. Balancing all of these factors, the pre-sterilized disposable products market is forecasted to grow on average of 5% per year. Gamma radiation is experiencing growth from both general market growth and the introduction of new products, as well as the conversion of product from ethylene oxide (EtO) to cobalt-60 sterilization. Electron beam usage while experiencing good growth in the early 1980s, is predicted to have a flat growth curve during the late 1980s, and then start to experience renewed growth in the mid to late 1990s as two or three new electron beam facilities are built. In the late 1990s other potentially competing technologies are expected to have an impact on the market place. (author)

  3. The Effect of Sterilization on Size and Shape of Fat Globules in Model Processed Cheese Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tremlová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Model cheese samples from 4 independent productions were heat sterilized (117 °C, 20 minutes after the melting process and packing with an aim to prolong their durability. The objective of the study was to assess changes in the size and shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization by using image analysis methods. The study included a selection of suitable methods of preparation mounts, taking microphotographs and making overlays for automatic processing of photographs by image analyser, ascertaining parameters to determine the size and shape of fat globules and statistical analysis of results obtained. The results of the experiment suggest that changes in shape of fat globules due to heat sterilization are not unequivocal. We found that the size of fat globules was significantly increased (p < 0.01 due to heat sterilization (117 °C, 20 min, and the shares of small fat globules (up to 500 μm2, or 100 μm2 in the samples of heat sterilized processed cheese were decreased. The results imply that the image analysis method is very useful when assessing the effect of technological process on the quality of processed cheese quality.

  4. Present studies on the radio-sterilized drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciniec, B.; Dettlaff, K.

    2007-01-01

    Lecture presents present status of radiosterilization of drugs and medical materials as compared to other sterilization methods. Literature review is shown on degradation of different kinds of drugs sterilized upon action of the sterilising doses of radiation

  5. Unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veersema, S.; Vleugels, M.P.; Moolenaar, L.M.; Janssen, C.A.; Brölmann, H.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the data of cases of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization. Design: Retrospective case series analysis. Setting: National multicenter. Patient(s): Ten cases of unintended pregnancies after Essure sterilization in the Netherlands were reported from August 2002

  6. Bilateral cornual abscess after endometrial ablation following Essure sterilization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, N.E.; Vleugels, M.P.; Kluivers, K.B.; Vierhout, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Endometrial ablation is used extensively to treat dysfunctional bleeding. Since the introduction of Essure tubal sterilization, this permanent contraception method has been widely used. Both endometrial ablation and Essure sterilization are procedures reported to have only a few complications. We

  7. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  8. Biological basis of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lance, D.R.; McInnis, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    In principle, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to controlling a wide variety of insect pests, but biological factors, interacting with socio-economic and political forces, restrict its practical use to a narrower set of pest species and situations. This chapter reviews how the biology and ecology of a given pest affect the feasibility and logistics of developing and using the SIT against that pest insect. The subjects of pest abundance, distribution, and population dynamics are discussed in relation to producing and delivering sufficient sterile insects to control target populations. Pest movement and distribution are considered as factors that influence the feasibility and design of SIT projects, including the need for population- or area-wide management approaches. Biological characteristics, that affect the ability of sterile insects to interact with wild populations, are presented, including the nature of mating systems of pests, behavioural and physiological consequences of mass production and sterilization, and mechanisms that males use to block a female's acquisition and/or use of sperm from other males. An adequate knowledge of the biology of the pest species and potential target populations is needed, both for making sound decisions on whether integration of the SIT into an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme is appropriate, and for the efficient and effective application of the technique. (author)

  9. Gamma radiation sterilization of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African invader fly, Bactrocera invadens, an invasive pest in Africa since 2003, causes damage and poses a threat to the mango and horticultural industry. Its control is therefore needed. Sterilization of males using gamma radiation doses (25, 50 and 75 Gy) as a means of population control was investigated. Irradiation ...

  10. Sterilization of heparinized cuprophan hemodialysis membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hoopen, Hermina W.M.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Hinrichs, W.L.J.; Engbers, G.H.M.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    The effects of sterilization of dry heparinized Cuprophan hemodialysis membranes by means of ethylene oxide (EtO) exposure, gamma irradiation, or steam on the anticoagulant activity and chemical characteristics of immobilized heparin and the permeability of the membrane were investigated.

  11. Heat sterilization times of five hardwood species

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Simpson; Xiping Wang; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson

    2005-01-01

    Heat sterilization of lumber, timbers, and pallets is currently used to kill insects, thus preventing their transfer between countries in international trade. An important factor in this treatment is the time required for the center of any wood configuration to reach the temperature necessary to kill the insect. This study explored the effect of size (1-, 1.5-, and 2.0...

  12. Sterilization of spices through ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heins, H G; Ulmann, R M

    1971-10-01

    Sterilization of spices is discussed in relation to other methods. Efficiency, organoleptic inspection and costs of the treatment are considered. It is concluded that the irradiation method is feasible and acceptable with respect to taste and juridicial requirements. (G.J.P.). 12 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs.

  13. Perspectives: Eugenics and Sterilization in the Heartland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehmeyer, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    Noting the Governor of Virginia's recent apology for his state's participation in eugenics, this article reviews the history of the sterilization of people with epilepsy and mental retardation in several states, and the importance of the Buck v. Bell (1927) Supreme Court decision in the promotion of eugenics. (Contains references.) (CR)

  14. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (AB), maintainer S 1 (C-S 1 ) and either maintainer or restorer S 1 s(D-S 1 , E-S 1 ) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F 1 (ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S 2 (D-S 2 ) are produced. In the case that D-S 2 seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F 1 (DE) should be produced from D-S 1 x E-S 1 . These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F 1 (ABCD) or hybrid F 1 (ABCDE) are for practical use. (Kaihara, S.)

  15. Process variation in electron beam sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The qualification and control of electron beam sterilization can be improved by the application of proven statistical analysis techniques such as Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Statistical Tolerance Limits. These statistical techniques can be useful tools in: •Locating and quantifying the minimum and maximum absorbed dose in a product. •Estimating the expected process maximum dose, given a minimum sterilizing dose. •Setting a process minimum dose target, based on an allowance for random measurement and process variation. •Determining the dose relationship between a reference dosimeter and process minimum and maximum doses. This study investigates and demonstrates the application of these tools in qualifying electron beam sterilization, and compares the conclusions obtained with those obtained using practices recommended in Guide for Process Control in Radiation Sterilization. The study supports the following conclusions for electron beam processes: 1.ANOVA is a more effective tool for evaluating the equivalency of absorbed doses than methods suggested in . 2.Process limits computed using statistical tolerance limits more accurately reflect actual process variability than the AAMI method, which applies +/−2 sample standard deviations (s) regardless of sample size. 3.The use of reference dose ratios lends itself to qualification using statistical tolerance limits. The current AAMI recommended approach may result in an overly optimistic estimate of the reference dose adjustment factor, as it is based on application of +/−2(s) tolerances regardless of sample size.

  16. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  17. Whey powder sterilization by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, M.; Salatic, Z.; Markov, S.

    1988-01-01

    Whey powder was sterilized by gamma waves application. As a source of irridiation isotope 60Co was used in Institute of Nuclear sciences B oris Kidrich , Vincha-Belgrade (Yugoslavia). The applied doses were: a, b, c, d, and e Kgy. The dose d was radappertization. After whey powder irradiation no adverse changes of organoleptic properties were noticed

  18. Methods of medical sterilization; Metody sterylizacji medycznej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachowicz, W [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-10-01

    Broad review of different (physical, chemical and mechanical) methods commonly used for medical materials sterilization have been performed. Among them the special attention have been played on radiosterilization. The advantages and weaknesses each of the presented method have been pointed out. 1 fig.

  19. STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION IN A PRIVATE CLINIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral examination is done with a mirror and probe. The mirror is then washed under the tap water and disinfected in 'V3 sterilizing' fluid concentrate. The probe is placed in a tray with ... Protective glasses are worn additionally to the gloves and facemask, when cavity preparation. is being performed. The handpiece is wiped.

  20. Sterile insect technique: A model for dose optimisation for improved sterile insect quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, A.; Mehta, K.

    2007-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environment-friendly pest control technique with application in the area-wide integrated control of key pests, including the suppression or elimination of introduced populations and the exclusion of new introductions. Reproductive sterility is normally induced by ionizing radiation, a convenient and consistent method that maintains a reasonable degree of competitiveness in the released insects. The cost and effectiveness of a control program integrating the SIT depend on the balance between sterility and competitiveness, but it appears that current operational programs with an SIT component are not achieving an appropriate balance. In this paper we discuss optimization of the sterilization process and present a simple model and procedure for determining the optimum dose. (author) [es

  1. Spacecraft Design Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Robert N.

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem engineers task is to maintain the temperature of all spacecraft components, subsystems, and the total flight system within specified limits for all flight modes from launch to end-of-mission. In some cases, specific stability and gradient temperature limits will be imposed on flight system elements. The Thermal Control Subsystem of "normal" flight systems, the mass, power, control, and sensing systems mass and power requirements are below 10% of the total flight system resources. In general the thermal control subsystem engineer is involved in all other flight subsystem designs.

  2. Laparoscopic tubal sterilization reversal and fertility outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the study was two-fold. Firstly it was to assess the suitability for tubal recanalization and factors predicting successful laparoscopic recanalization. Secondly, it was to analyze the fertility outcomes and factors affecting the pregnancy rate following laparoscopic tubal recanalization. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of prospectively followed-up 29 women at a tertiary care center seeking tubal sterilization reversal between May 2005 and February 2010 were included. Results: In 14 (48.3% women unilateral tubes were suitable and in only 3 women (10.3% bilateral tubes were suitable. All cases with laparoscopic tubal sterilization were suitable, whereas all cases with fimbriectomy were unsuitable for recanalization. In 6 (20.7% cases salphingostomy was performed as an alternative procedure to tubal reanastomosis. The overall pregnancy rate was 58.8%. In cases with sterilization by Pomeroy′s method, 4 out of 10 (40% conceived, whereas for laparoscopic tubal ligation cases 6 out of 7 (85.7% conceived (P=0.32. None of the patients with final tubal length <5 cm conceived (P=0.03. Comparing the age at recanalization, in women ≤30 years, 71.4% conceived, as compared with 50% when age of women was more than 30 years (P=0.37. Conclusions: The important factors determining the success of recanalization are technique of sterilization and the remaining length of the tube after recanalization. The gynecologist must use an effective technique of sterilization to minimize the failure rates, but at the same time, which causes minimal trauma, and aim at preserving the length of the tube so that reversal is more likely to be successful, should the patient′s circumstances change.

  3. Development and application of radiation sterilization method in Federal Medical and Biophysical centre n.a. A.I. Burnazyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikov V.V.

    2014-12-01

    was carried out in order to determine the sterilizing doses; to determine the maximum permissible doses of treatment; to develop irradiation technology; to develop normative and methodological base. The given study presents the results of practical work from 2000 to 2009 on radiation sterilization of MP and works to improve the methodological support of the production of such products. The scope of work was performed on the irradiation of products and conduct its microbiological control. The results of for analysis of the practice are overviewed. There were shown the basic documents for methodological support of production and the organization's role as a scientific and methodological expertise and nationwide center for radiation sterilization of MP, developed by the organization. There was presented the current status of logistical support and other features of the organization for participation in the works on radiation sterilization of MP, radiation processing of food and other materials that require microbiological decontamination.

  4. Production of a sterile species via active-sterile mixing: An exactly solvable model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanovsky, D.

    2007-11-01

    The production of a sterile species via active-sterile mixing in a thermal medium is studied in an exactly solvable model. The exact time evolution of the sterile distribution function is determined by the dispersion relations and damping rates Γ1,2 for the quasiparticle modes. These depend on γ˜=Γaa/2ΔE, with Γaa the interaction rate of the active species in absence of mixing and ΔE the oscillation frequency in the medium without damping. γ˜≪1, γ˜≫1 describe the weak and strong damping limits, respectively. For γ˜≪1, Γ1=Γaacos⁡2θm; Γ2=Γaasin⁡2θm where θm is the mixing angle in the medium and the sterile distribution function does not obey a simple rate equation. For γ˜≫1, Γ1=Γaa and Γ2=Γaasin⁡22θm/4γ˜2, is the sterile production rate. In this regime sterile production is suppressed and the oscillation frequency vanishes at an Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) resonance, with a breakdown of adiabaticity. These are consequences of quantum Zeno suppression. For active neutrinos with standard model interactions the strong damping limit is only available near an MSW resonance if sin⁡2θ≪αw with θ the vacuum mixing angle. The full set of quantum kinetic equations for sterile production for arbitrary γ˜ are obtained from the quantum master equation. Cosmological resonant sterile neutrino production is quantum Zeno suppressed relieving potential uncertainties associated with the QCD phase transition.

  5. Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing the essure tubal sterilization procedure and laparoscopic tubal sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, John A; Carson, George D

    2008-07-01

    To analyze the financial implications of establishing a hysteroscopic sterilization program using the Essure micro-insert tubal sterilization system in an ambulatory clinic. A retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification Type II-2), in an ambulatory women's health clinic in a tertiary hospital, of 108 women undergoing Essure coil insertion between 2005 and 2006, and 104 women undergoing laparoscopic tubal sterilization for permanent sterilization between 2001 and 2004. The Essure procedures used a 4 mm single channel operative hysteroscope and conscious sedation (fentanyl and midazolam); the laparoscopic tubal sterilizations were completed under general anaesthesia with a 7 mm laparoscope and either bipolar cautery or Filshie clips. Costs associated with the procedure, follow-up, and management of any complications (including nursing, hospital charges, equipment, and disposables) were tabulated. The Essure coils were successfully placed on the first attempt in 103 of 108 women (95%). Three patients required a second attempt to complete placement and two patients required laparoscopic tubal sterilization after an unsuccessful Essure. All 104 laparoscopic tubals were completed on the first attempt with no complications reported. The total cost for the 108 Essure procedures, including follow-up evaluation, was $138,996 or $1287 per case. The total cost associated with the 104 laparoscopic tubal sterilization procedures was $148,227 or $1398 per case. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $111. The Essure procedure in an ambulatory setting resulted in a statistically significant cost saving of $111 per sterilization procedure. Carrying out the Essure procedure in an ambulatory setting frees space in the operating room for other types of cases, improving access to care for more patients.

  6. The male gametophytic sterility. 1 - Gametic sterilities and deletions in petunia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, A.; Maizonnier, D.

    1982-01-01

    Terminal deletions induced by ionizing radiations in Petunia are not sexually transmitted. Cytogenetic study of plants with a heterozygous deletion and their progenies shows that this lack of transmission is accompanied by a gametic semi-sterility due to the fact that gametes carrying the deleted chromosome are not viable. The interest of such a male sterility with a gametophytic determinism for the study of sporophyte-gametophyte relationships is underlined [fr

  7. The Sterilization Effect of Cooperative Treatment of High Voltage Electrostatic Field and Variable Frequency Pulsed Electromagnetic Field on Heterotrophic Bacteria in Circulating Cooling Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuetong; Liu, Zhian; Zhao, Judong

    2018-01-01

    Compared to other treatment of industrial circulating cooling water in the field of industrial water treatment, high-voltage electrostatic field and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic field co-sterilization technology, an advanced technology, is widely used because of its special characteristics--low energy consumption, nonpoisonous and environmentally friendly. In order to get a better cooling water sterilization effect under the premise of not polluting the environment, some experiments about sterilization of heterotrophic bacteria in industrial circulating cooling water by cooperative treatment of high voltage electrostatic field and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic field were carried out. The comparison experiment on the sterilization effect of high-voltage electrostatic field and variable frequency pulsed electromagnetic field co-sterilization on heterotrophic bacteria in industrial circulating cooling water was carried out by change electric field strength and pulse frequency. The results show that the bactericidal rate is selective to the frequency and output voltage, and the heterotrophic bacterium can only kill under the condition of sweep frequency range and output voltage. When the voltage of the high voltage power supply is 4000V, the pulse frequency is 1000Hz and the water temperature is 30°C, the sterilization rate is 48.7%, the sterilization rate is over 90%. Results of this study have important guiding significance for future application of magnetic field sterilization.

  8. Laboratory Spacecraft Data Processing and Instrument Autonomy: AOSAT as Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightholder, Jack; Asphaug, Erik; Thangavelautham, Jekan

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in small spacecraft allow for their use as orbiting microgravity laboratories (e.g. Asphaug and Thangavelautham LPSC 2014) that will produce substantial amounts of data. Power, bandwidth and processing constraints impose limitations on the number of operations which can be performed on this data as well as the data volume the spacecraft can downlink. We show that instrument autonomy and machine learning techniques can intelligently conduct data reduction and downlink queueing to meet data storage and downlink limitations. As small spacecraft laboratory capabilities increase, we must find techniques to increase instrument autonomy and spacecraft scientific decision making. The Asteroid Origins Satellite (AOSAT) CubeSat centrifuge will act as a testbed for further proving these techniques. Lightweight algorithms, such as connected components analysis, centroid tracking, K-means clustering, edge detection, convex hull analysis and intelligent cropping routines can be coupled with the tradition packet compression routines to reduce data transfer per image as well as provide a first order filtering of what data is most relevant to downlink. This intelligent queueing provides timelier downlink of scientifically relevant data while reducing the amount of irrelevant downlinked data. Resulting algorithms allow for scientists to throttle the amount of data downlinked based on initial experimental results. The data downlink pipeline, prioritized for scientific relevance based on incorporated scientific objectives, can continue from the spacecraft until the data is no longer fruitful. Coupled with data compression and cropping strategies at the data packet level, bandwidth reductions exceeding 40% can be achieved while still downlinking data deemed to be most relevant in a double blind study between scientist and algorithm. Applications of this technology allow for the incorporation of instrumentation which produces significant data volumes on small spacecraft

  9. 7 CFR 305.23 - Steam sterilization treatment schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steam sterilization treatment schedules. 305.23... Steam sterilization treatment schedules. Treatment schedule Temperature( °F) Pressure Exposure period (minutes) Directions T303-b-1 10 lbs 20 Use 28″ vacuum. Steam sterilization is not practical for treatment...

  10. 21 CFR 880.6860 - Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. 880.6860 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6860 Ethylene oxide gas sterilizer. (a) Identification. An ethylene gas sterilizer is a nonportable device intended for use by a health care provider that uses ethylene oxide (ETO) to...

  11. 9 CFR 116.4 - Sterilization and pasteurization -records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sterilization and pasteurization... REPORTS § 116.4 Sterilization and pasteurization -records. Records shall be made by means of automatic... ingredients, equipment, or biological product subjected to sterilization or pasteurization. (Approved by the...

  12. Printable Spacecraft: Flexible Electronic Platforms for NASA Missions. Phase One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kendra (Principal Investigator); Van Buren, David (Principal Investigator)

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric confetti. Inchworm crawlers. Blankets of ground penetrating radar. These are some of the unique mission concepts which could be enabled by a printable spacecraft. Printed electronics technology offers enormous potential to transform the way NASA builds spacecraft. A printed spacecraft's low mass, volume and cost offer dramatic potential impacts to many missions. Network missions could increase from a few discrete measurements to tens of thousands of platforms improving areal density and system reliability. Printed platforms could be added to any prime mission as a low-cost, minimum resource secondary payload to augment the science return. For a small fraction of the mass and cost of a traditional lander, a Europa flagship mission might carry experimental printed surface platforms. An Enceladus Explorer could carry feather-light printed platforms to release into volcanic plumes to measure composition and impact energies. The ability to print circuits directly onto a variety of surfaces, opens the possibility of multi-functional structures and membranes such as "smart" solar sails and balloons. The inherent flexibility of a printed platform allows for in-situ re-configurability for aerodynamic control or mobility. Engineering telemetry of wheel/soil interactions are possible with a conformal printed sensor tape fit around a rover wheel. Environmental time history within a sample return canister could be recorded with a printed sensor array that fits flush to the interior of the canister. Phase One of the NIAC task entitled "Printable Spacecraft" investigated the viability of printed electronics technologies for creating multi-functional spacecraft platforms. Mission concepts and architectures that could be enhanced or enabled with this technology were explored. This final report captures the results and conclusions of the Phase One study. First, the report presents the approach taken in conducting the study and a mapping of results against the proposed

  13. Thermal sterilization of heat-sensitive products using high-temperature short-time sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, A; Kiefer, M; Leuenberger, H

    2001-03-01

    High-temperature short-time (HTST) sterilization with a continuous-flow sterilizer, developed for this study, was evaluated. The evaluation was performed with respect to (a) the chemical degradation of two heat-sensitive drugs in HTST range (140-160 degrees C) and (b) the microbiological effect of HTST sterilization. Degradation kinetics of two heat-sensitive drugs showed that a high peak temperature sterilization process resulted in less chemical degradation for the same microbiological effect than a low peak temperature process. Both drugs investigated could be sterilized with acceptable degradation at HTST conditions. For the evaluation of the microbiological effect, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 spores were used as indicator bacteria. Indicator spore kinetics (D(T), z value, k, and E(a)), were determined in the HTST range. A comparison between the Bigelow model (z value concept) and the Arrhenius model, used to describe the temperature coefficient of the microbial inactivation, demonstrated that the Bigelow model is more accurate in prediction of D(T) values in the HTST range. The temperature coefficient decreased with increasing temperature. The influence of Ca(2+) ions and pH value on the heat resistance of the indicator spores, which is known under typical sterilization conditions, did not change under HTST conditions.

  14. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  15. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  16. Dream missions space colonies, nuclear spacecraft and other possibilities

    CERN Document Server

    van Pelt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    This book takes the reader on a journey through the history of extremely ambitious, large and complex space missions that never happened. What were the dreams and expectations of the visionaries behind these plans, and why were they not successful in bringing their projects to reality thus far? As spaceflight development progressed, new technologies and ideas led to pushing the boundaries of engineering and technology though still grounded in real scientific possibilities. Examples are space colonies, nuclear-propelled interplanetary spacecraft, space telescopes consisting of multiple satellites and canon launch systems. Each project described in this book says something about the dreams and expectations of their time, and their demise was often linked to an important change in the cultural, political and social state of the world. For each mission or spacecraft concept, the following will be covered: • Description of the design. • Overview of the history of the concept and the people involved. • Why it...

  17. Spacecraft System Integration and Test: SSTI Lewis critical design audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. P.; Cha, K. K.

    1995-01-01

    The Critical Design Audit package is the final detailed design package which provides a comprehensive description of the SSTI mission. This package includes the program overview, the system requirements, the science and applications activities, the ground segment development, the assembly, integration and test description, the payload and technology demonstrations, and the spacecraft bus subsystems. Publication and presentation of this document marks the final requirements and design freeze for SSTI.

  18. Sterilization of solutions for parenterals products. Problem analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanelys Montes-González

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The solutions for the formulation of parenteral products must be sterile before the aseptic formulation process. For this reason, different methods of sterilization referred in the literature are analyzed. Thermodynamic criteria that rule the sterilization are presented. Furthermore, previous experiences in the sterilization of solutions for the formulation of parental products in an autoclave are analyzed, that take large time of processing and only low volumes of solution can be handled. Using jacketed stirred tanks for the sterilization may solve the problem and, therefore, criteria for the design of the later that allow to process high volumes of solution for the formulation of parenteral products are shown.

  19. Radiation sterilization of medical products- current trends and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, G.

    1997-01-01

    In medical practice use of sterile pharmaceuticals and single use disposable medical devices is steadily increasing. Sterile pharmaceuticals like injections and ophthalmic ointments are required for therapy. Medical devices are employed for diagnostic, drug administration or corrective purposes, and as implants for temporary, short term or long term residence in the human system. All these products are made available in sterile form by treating them to a suitable process of sterilization i.e. dry/wet heat, ethylene oxide (EtO) gas or ionizing radiation. In this paper current trends and future prospects of radiation sterilization of medical products are given in detail. 9 refs., 7 tabs

  20. An AFDX Network for Spacecraft Data Handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deredempt, Marie-Helene; Kollias, Vangelis; Sun, Zhili; Canamares, Ernest; Ricco, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    In aeronautical domain, ARINC-664 Part 7 specification (AFDX) [4] provides the enabling technology for interfacing equipment in Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architectures. The complementary part of AFDX for a complete interoperability - Time and Space Partitioning (ARINC 653) concepts [1]- was already studied as part of space domain ESA roadmap (i.e. IMA4Space project)Standardized IMA based architecture is already considered in aeronautical domain as more flexible, reliable and secure. Integration and validation become simple, using a common set of tools and data base and could be done by part on different means with the same definition (hardware and software test benches, flight control or alarm test benches, simulator and flight test installation).In some area, requirements in terms of data processing are quite similar in space domain and the concept could be applicable to take benefit of the technology itself and of the panel of hardware and software solutions and tools available on the market. The Mission project (Methodology and assessment for the applicability of ARINC-664 (AFDX) in Satellite/Spacecraft on-board communicatION networks), as an FP7 initiative for bringing terrestrial SME research into the space domain started to evaluate the applicability of the standard in space domain.

  1. Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.

  2. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnikov, K.K.; Makletsov, A.A.; Mileev, V.N.; Novikov, L.S.; Sinolits, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language

  3. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Krupnikov, K K; Mileev, V N; Novikov, L S; Sinolits, V V

    1999-01-01

    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language.

  4. Optimal Autonomous Spacecraft Resiliency Maneuvers Using Metaheuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    This work was accepted for published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets in July 2014...publication in the AIAA Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets . Chapter 5 introduces an impulsive maneuvering strategy to deliver a spacecraft to its final...upon arrival r2 and v2 , respectively. The variable T2 determines the time of flight needed to make the maneuver, and the variable θ2 determines the

  5. Genetic complexity underlying hybrid male sterility in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamura, Kyoichi; Roote, John; Wu, Chung-I; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2004-02-01

    Recent genetic analyses of closely related species of Drosophila have indicated that hybrid male sterility is the consequence of highly complex synergistic effects among multiple genes, both conspecific and heterospecific. On the contrary, much evidence suggests the presence of major genes causing hybrid female sterility and inviability in the less-related species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans. Does this contrast reflect the genetic distance between species? Or, generally, is the genetic basis of hybrid male sterility more complex than that of hybrid female sterility and inviability? To clarify this point, the D. simulans introgression of the cytological region 34D-36A to the D. melanogaster genome, which causes recessive male sterility, was dissected by recombination, deficiency, and complementation mapping. The 450-kb region between two genes, Suppressor of Hairless and snail, exhibited a strong effect on the sterility. Males are (semi-)sterile if this region of the introgression is made homozygous or hemizygous. But no genes in the region singly cause the sterility; this region has at least two genes, which in combination result in male sterility. Further, the males are less fertile when heterozygous with a larger introgression, which suggests that dominant modifiers enhance the effects of recessive genes of male sterility. Such an epistatic view, even in the less-related species, suggests that the genetic complexity is special to hybrid male sterility.

  6. Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, P. A.; Snowden, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The baseline Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system (SCMS) concepts and the converted SCMS, residing on a DEC/VAX 8350 hardware, are considered. The main functions of the system include monitoring and displaying spacecraft telemetry, preparing spacecraft commands, producing hard copies of experimental data, and archiving spacecraft telemetry. The SCMS system comprises over 20 subsystems ranging from low-level utility routines to the major monitoring and control software. These in total consist of approximately 55,000 lines of FORTRAN source code and 100 VMS command files. The SCMS major software facilities are described, including database files, telemetry processing, telecommanding, archiving of data, and display of telemetry.

  7. Operationally Responsive Spacecraft Subsystem, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saber Astronautics proposes spacecraft subsystem control software which can autonomously reconfigure avionics for best performance during various mission conditions....

  8. A novel mitochondrial orf147 causes cytoplasmic male sterility in pigeonpea by modulating aberrant anther dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Gupta, Ranadheer; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Reddy, Bommineni Pradeep; Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas; Sameerkumar, C V; Saxena, Rachit Kumar; Sharma, Kiran K

    2018-05-01

    A novel open reading frame (ORF) identified and cloned from the A4 cytoplasm of Cajanus cajanifolius induced partial to complete male sterility when introduced into Arabidopsis and tobacco. Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) is the only legume known to have commercial hybrid seed technology based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). We identified a novel ORF (orf147) from the A4 cytoplasm of C. cajanifolius that was created via rearrangements in the CMS line and co-transcribes with the known and unknown sequences. The bi/poly-cistronic transcripts cause gain-of-function variants in the mitochondrial genome of CMS pigeonpea lines having distinct processing mechanisms and transcription start sites. In presence of orf147, significant repression of Escherichia coli growth indicated its toxicity to the host cells and induced partial to complete male sterility in transgenic progenies of Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum where phenotype co-segregated with the transgene. The male sterile plants showed aberrant floral development and reduced lignin content in the anthers. Gene expression studies in male sterile pigeonpea, Arabidopsis and tobacco plants confirmed down-regulation of several anther biogenesis genes and key genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, indicative of regulation of retrograde signaling. Besides providing evidence for the involvement of orf147 in pigeonpea CMS, this study provides valuable insights into its function. Cytotoxicity and aberrant programmed cell death induced by orf147 could be important for mechanism underlying male sterility that offers opportunities for possible translation for these findings for exploiting hybrid vigor in other recalcitrant crops as well.

  9. A search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osiecki, Thomas Henry [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2007-01-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can attain a very high precision for parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. In addition to precisely determining Δm$2\\atop{23}$ and θ23 through the disappearance of vμ, MINOS is able to measure vμ → vsterile by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far detector. In this thesis, we present the results of a search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS.

  10. Energy analysis in sterilization process of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Sun; Pyun, Yu Ryang

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed for predicting energy consumption of batch type thermal processing of food. From mass and energy balance equations various energy usages or losses were estimated for steam sterilization of model food system in No.301-7 can (Φ74.1 x 113.0mm) at three different temperatures. Selected models were 5 % bentonite solution for conductive food and tap water for convective food. Total steam or energy consumption was higher at 110 deg C than at two other higher temperatures (121 deg C and 130 deg C). High energy consumption at low sterilization temperature was mainly due to high bleeding steam energy and convective and radiative heat losses. Thermal energy efficiency was also disscussed. (Author)

  11. Radiation sterilization of pharmaceuticals and polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopal, N.G.S.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation, in the form of high energy electrons as well as gamma radiation, has featured in the last 15 yr as a promising sterilization agent for many heat sensitive and ethylene oxide incompatible pharmaceuticals and polymers of medical usage. This article deals with (i) a comparison of the various methods of sterilization and their shortcomings, (ii) modes of interaction of radiation with matter, (iii) the types of radiation sources in common use, (iv) dosimetry, (v) dose rate effect, (vi) a literature survey of the radiation effect on pharmaceuticals in solid form as well as in aqueous solution and on polymers in the form of plastic medical products and (vii) the evaluation of the irradiated products. The effect of dose rate on the stability of these materials is emphasized. Either very little work has been done on the dose rate effect or the published information is scanty. The literature survey covers the recent period of 5 to 6 years. (author)

  12. A search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osiecki, Thomas Henry

    2007-01-01

    MINOS, the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment based at Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory. The experiment uses a neutrino beam, which is measured 1 km downstream from its origin in the Near detector at Fermilab and then 735 km later in the Far detector at the Soudan mine. By comparing these two measurements, MINOS can attain a very high precision for parameters in the atmospheric sector of neutrino oscillations. In addition to precisely determining Δm 23 2 and θ 23 through the disappearance of ν μ , MINOS is able to measure ν μ → ν sterile by looking for a deficit in the number of neutral current interactions seen in the Far detector. In this thesis, we present the results of a search for sterile neutrinos in MINOS

  13. Radiation sterilization of triple sugar iron agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, G.; Eisenberg, E.; Bogokowsky, B.

    1979-01-01

    Triple sugar iron agar (TSI), a medium used for the identification of enteric bacteria, was sterilized by gamma radiation using radiation doses of 750-2000 krad. The radio-sterilized medium, slightly modified by increasing its Phenol Red content, performed well when tested with different enterobacteriaceae and other gram negative bacteria. Growth, change of indicator reaction in slant and butt and formation of gas and H 2 S were equal in irradiated and autoclaved TSI. Slants of irradiated TSI in stoppered plastic tubes kept their diagnostic properties during storage for at least 4 months. Gamma irradiation appears to be an attractive and economical method of sterilising nutrient media in sealed tubes or other containers, avoiding the risk of contamination during processing. (author)

  14. Radiation Sterilization of Naturual Rubber Examination Gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetawattana, S.; Na-Ranong, N.; Kajornchaiyakul, V.

    1998-01-01

    The sterilization dose setting by ISO 11137 method 1 was conducted for natural rubber examination gloves provided by a local factory. The suitable sterilization dose for an average product bioburden falls between 20 - 25 kilogray. Maximum dose of 25 or 50 kilogray results in no changes of tensile s and elongation at break. Samples of examination glove were irradiated using various doses between 10 - 50 kilogray. Analysis of soluble protein content using modified Lowry method was carried out and the results revealed that irradiation did not affect the decrement of soluble protein content in this case. However, thin film samples were prepared in laboratory and treated in the same procedure. The results were also the same. The results did not show any correlation. Two factors are possibly presumed : un consistency of samples and the irradiation of finished products could not affect those soluble proteins in rubber gloves

  15. Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, C E; Kenyon, J E; Smith, D R; Hayes, R D; Baer, A M

    1999-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females died: one likely related to the capture procedure, the other of a peritonitis unrelated to the surgery. One wolf had a litter. None of the wolves have shown changes in behavioral patterns. Surgical sterilization can be effective, but other, less invasive, fertility control techniques should be investigated.

  16. Effects of Low-Temperature Plasma-Sterilization on Mars Analog Soil Samples Mixed with Deinococcus radiodurans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janosch Schirmack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We used Ar plasma-sterilization at a temperature below 80 °C to examine its effects on the viability of microorganisms when intermixed with tested soil. Due to a relatively low temperature, this method is not thought to affect the properties of a soil, particularly its organic component, to a significant degree. The method has previously been shown to work well on spacecraft parts. The selected microorganism for this test was Deinococcus radiodurans R1, which is known for its remarkable resistance to radiation effects. Our results showed a reduction in microbial counts after applying a low temperature plasma, but not to a degree suitable for a sterilization of the soil. Even an increase of the treatment duration from 1.5 to 45 min did not achieve satisfying results, but only resulted in in a mean cell reduction rate of 75% compared to the untreated control samples.

  17. Utilization of male sterility in forage crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suginobu, Ken-ichi [National Grassland Research Inst., Nishinasuno, Tochigi (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    The genetic nature of male sterility in forage crops was reviewed. Many workers have suggested that hybrids in forage crops are quite promising. First, the selection of the most desirable parental genotype from a large original population is improtant in heterosis breeding programs. After the more promising inbreds or clones have been selected on the basis of good general combining ability, it is necessary to identify the particular single, three-way or double cross that will produce the highest yields. A high seed yield potential is also important in a new variety so that the seeds can be sold at lower prices than other varieties. A tentative scheme for hybrid seed production by using inbred lines of male sterile or normal parents is proposed. At a breeding station, the seeds for male sterile F/sub 1/(AB), maintainer S/sub 1/(C-S/sub 1/) and either maintainer or restorer S/sub 1/s(D-S/sub 1/, E-S/sub 1/) are produced from the parental clones. At a seed increase agency, the seeds for male sterile F/sub 1/(ABC) and either maintainer or restorer S/sub 2/(D-S/sub 2/) are produced. In the case that D-S/sub 2/ seed production is difficult, maintainer or restorer F/sub 1/(DE) should be produced from D-S/sub 1/ x E-S/sub 1/. These seeds are used for commercial seed production. Seeds of hybrid F/sub 1/(ABCD) or hybrid F/sub 1/(ABCDE) are for practical use.

  18. Thermal In-Pouch Microwave Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    straints for heat-sterilized ( retort ) packaging materials. Table 1: Functional Contributions of Materials in Foil Laminations MATERIAL FUNCTIONS...shelf life of the packaged entree items through temperature and humidity changes typically seen throughout the extended shelf life of the items. 15...Barber Industrial Ct.. Villa Rica. GA 30180. Final Scientific Report Light Barrier for Non-Foil Packaging Contract No. W911QY-08-C-0132 Thermal In

  19. Sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaney, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Fuller, G.M. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-14

    We discuss the role played by right-handed sterile neutrinos in the early universe. We show how well known {sup 4}He constraint on the number of relativistic degrees of freedom at early times limits the equilibration of the right handed neutrino sea with the background plasma. We discuss how this allows interesting constraints to be placed on neutrino properties. In particular, a new limit on the Dirac mass of the neutrino is presented. 12 refs.

  20. Sterilization: new method options, failure rate info.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses new sterilization methods for tubal ligation, failure rates, and risks for ectopic pregnancy in the US. The Filshie clip, which was developed by Femcare, Ltd. in Nottingham, England, and is distributed by Avalon Medical Corp of Vermont, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in September 1996. The company has provided training sessions at major universities nationwide and exhibited at national professional association meetings. A training video and two more films will be available in 1998. The new clip is considered a more modern approach to a tubal occlusion method, which relies on newer materials and solves prior problems. Physicians usually used Falope rings, which had better failure rates than the Hulka clip and bipolar coagulation methods. There is a need for more long-term and large scale information exchange about the new Filshie clip. Some physicians still use the Falope ring because it is cost effective and well-studied. Physicians are warned to continue to advise women about the potential failure rates up to 10 years after sterilization and the 1 in 3 risk of ectopic pregnancy. Counseling about failure rates and the risk of ectopic pregnancy should target women under 30 years old, who have the highest failure rates, and women 30-34 years old. All sterilized women should be advised to seek a provider immediately if they have pregnancy symptoms following sterilization. Counseling should include the issue of "regrets," since it is a permanent method. All women should know about nonpermanent methods and experience a basic informed consent process. Young women and newly divorced women are particularly vulnerable to the "regrets" syndrome.

  1. Irradiation sterilization of semi-crystalline polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Dunn, T.; Stannett, V.

    1978-01-01

    A semi-crystalline polymer such as polypropylene, is sterilized by high energy irradiation, with the polymer containing a non-crystalline mobilizing additive which increases the free volume of the polymer, to prevent embrittlement of the polymer during and subsequent to the irradiation. The additive has a density of from 0.6 to 1.9 g/cm 3 and a molecular weight from 100 to 10,000 g/mole

  2. Dose mapping for documentation of radiation sterilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, A.

    1999-01-01

    The radiation sterilization standards EN 552 and ISO 11137 require that dose mapping in real or simulated product be carried in connection with the process qualification. This paper reviews the recommendations given in the standards and discusses the difficulties and limitations of practical dose...... mapping. The paper further gives recommendations for effective dose mapping including traceable dosimetry, documented procedures for placement of dosimeters, and evaluation of measurement uncertainties. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Counselling women considering or seeking sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T

    1980-12-01

    The view of counseling as assessment and advice-giving places unrealistic and unnecessary stresses on both counselor and client. The counselor-doctor feels responsible for client's subsequent happiness in life and feels guilty if his advice leads to future unhappiness for her. The client feels powerless in the decision-making process and has less incentive to take full responsibility for the direction of her life. A review of studies of emotional adjustment to sterilization revealed a lack of clearly defined goals for preoperative counseling and the failure to test in any way the effect of different models of counseling on client outcome. Issues which might be raised with a woman considering sterilization may be grouped into 4: 1) the woman's life situation; 2) her reasons for considering sterilization; 3) timing; and 4) ambivalence. Counselors should be prepared for and comfortable with the expression of emotion in counseling sessions. Counselors who themselves are unable to cope with expression of intense emotion will send conflicting messages to clients, both giving permission for and disapproving of exploration of certain levels of feeling. The concept of 'regret' as an outcome measure should be refined.

  4. [Essure--a novel method of sterilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revel, Ariel; Nadjary, Michel; Shushan, Asher

    2008-02-01

    Essure hysteroscopic sterilization is a minimally invasive, outpatient approach to female sterilization, which avoids the possible complications of laparoscopic sterilization. This procedure has been available since 2003 in both Europe and North America. We present our experience of the first 12 cases of the procedure performed in Israel. Women who have completed their family planning were offered to consider Essure as their permanent contraception. The procedure was performed without anesthesia by the vaginoscopic technique at the hospital's outpatient clinic. Patients completed a questionnaire and were discharged immediately following the procedure. A follow-up checkup was completed after three months including three dimensional sonography, abdominal X-ray and occasional hysterosalpingogram. Twelve patients participated in the pilot group at Hadassah. The average age was 40 years (34-45) and the average number of children was 5 (4-8). The average time for the procedure was under 8 minutes. Periostial adhesions required adhesiolysis prior to insertion of the device in one patient. All patients resumed their normal activity on the same day. Our patient satisfaction survey revealed that the procedure was associated with high satisfaction levels. Sonographic and radiographic studies confirmed the good placement of the device. The Essure procedure was well tolerated by patients. The limitation is probably going to be the price of Essure, as this procedure is not covered by the 'health basket' in Israel.

  5. Sterilization of health care products - Radiation. Part 2: Establishing the sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This part of ISO 11137 describes methods that may be used to establish the sterilization dose in accordance with one of the two approaches specified in 8.2 of ISO 11137-1:2006. The methods used in these approaches are: a) dose setting to obtain a product-specific dose; b) dose substantiation to verify a preselected dose of 25 kGy or 15 kGy. The basis of the dose setting methods described in this part of ISO 11137 (Methods 1 and 2) owe much to the ideas first propounded by Tallentire (Tallentire, 1973 [17]; Tallentire, Dwyer and Ley, 1971 [18]; Tallentire and Khan, 1978 [19]). Subsequently, standardized protocols were developed (Davis et al., 1981 [8]; Davis, Strawderman and Whitby, 1984 [9]) which formed the basis of the dose setting methods detailed in the AAMI Recommended Practice for Sterilization by Gamma Radiation (AAMI 1984, 1991 [4], [6]). Methods 1 and 2 and the associated sterilization dose audit procedures use data derived from the inactivation of the microbial population in its natural state on product. The methods are based on a probability model for the inactivation of microbial populations. The probability model, as applied to bioburden made up of a mixture of various microbial species, assumes that each such species has its own unique D 10 value. In the model, the probability that an item will possess a surviving microorganism after exposure to a given dose of radiation is defined in terms of the initial number of microorganisms on the item prior to irradiation and the D 10 values of the microorganisms. The methods involve performance of tests of sterility on product items that have received doses of radiation lower than the sterilization dose. The outcome of these tests is used to predict the dose needed to achieve a predetermined sterility assurance level, SAL. Methods 1 and 2 may also be used to substantiate 25 kGy if, on performing a dose setting exercise, the derived sterilization dose for an SAL of 10 -6 is u ≤25 kGy. The basis of the method

  6. Maria Sklodowska Curie - the precursor of radiation sterilization methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluszewski, Wojciech; Zagorski, Zbigniew P. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Tran, Quoc Khoi; Cortella, Laurent [CEA Grenoble, ARC-Nucleart, Atelier Regional de Conservation, Grenoble (France)

    2011-06-15

    A resolution of the 63rd Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the year 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry. The coordinators of the event are UNESCO and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The patroness of this event is Marie Curie, nee Sklodowska. Among women scientists, she was the first recipient of the Novel Prize, and among all scientists, she is the only one who has received this award in different scientific fields (in 1903 in the field of physics with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, in 1911 in the field of chemistry). Considering the former Polish nationality of Marie Curie, the year 2011 has been proposed by the Polish Parliament as her year, using the name Maria Sklodowska Curie, under which she is known in Poland. Celebrating the International Year of Chemistry is a good opportunity to remember the importance of the work of Maria Sklodowska Curie for the emergence and development of many fields of science. This article is an attempt to present a view of science, as taught through modern applications of the radiation chemistry of polymetric materials and radiation sterilization. Although the real development of both ''cold'' sterilization and polymer technology occurred in the 1950's long after the death of Marie Curie Sklodowska, the original ideas go back to ther work performed in the 1920s. Sometimes, and that is the present case, a single scientist creates a new field, in spite of the fact that at the time of discovery there are no applications. The parallel development of other branches of science and technology helps the application of the original idea. (orig.)

  7. Maria Sklodowska Curie - the precursor of radiation sterilization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluszewski, Wojciech; Zagorski, Zbigniew P.; Tran, Quoc Khoi; Cortella, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    A resolution of the 63rd Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed the year 2011 as the International Year of Chemistry. The coordinators of the event are UNESCO and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). The patroness of this event is Marie Curie, nee Sklodowska. Among women scientists, she was the first recipient of the Novel Prize, and among all scientists, she is the only one who has received this award in different scientific fields (in 1903 in the field of physics with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel, in 1911 in the field of chemistry). Considering the former Polish nationality of Marie Curie, the year 2011 has been proposed by the Polish Parliament as her year, using the name Maria Sklodowska Curie, under which she is known in Poland. Celebrating the International Year of Chemistry is a good opportunity to remember the importance of the work of Maria Sklodowska Curie for the emergence and development of many fields of science. This article is an attempt to present a view of science, as taught through modern applications of the radiation chemistry of polymetric materials and radiation sterilization. Although the real development of both ''cold'' sterilization and polymer technology occurred in the 1950's long after the death of Marie Curie Sklodowska, the original ideas go back to ther work performed in the 1920s. Sometimes, and that is the present case, a single scientist creates a new field, in spite of the fact that at the time of discovery there are no applications. The parallel development of other branches of science and technology helps the application of the original idea. (orig.)

  8. Multidisciplinary studies of the social, economic and political impact resulting from recent advances in satellite meteorology. Volume 6: Executive summary. [technological forecasting spacecraft control/attitude (inclination) -classical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the technological impact of modern satellite weather forecasting for the United States is presented. Topics discussed are: (1) television broadcasting of weather; (2) agriculture (crop production); (3) water resources; (4) urban development; (5) recreation; and (6) transportation.

  9. Sensitivity of viruses to radiation sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziedzic Goclawska; A

    1999-01-01

    The hazard of infectious disease transmission with tissue allografts is a major concern in tissue banking practice. Microorganisms can be introduced into grafts during tissue collection, processing and storage, but even when all these procedures are performed under a septic conditions, the possibility of fungal, bacterial or viral disease transmission of donor origin can not be excluded. Therefore, in order to minimize the risk of infectious disease transmission, several steps should be undertaken, including a careful donor screening, proper tissue processing and sterilization of tissue allografts. The risk of transmission of viral infections such as hepatitis B, C, other viruses and particularly HIV with tissue allografts is of great significance and the search for sterilizing methods which inactivate and/or highly reduce viral infectivity continues. Sterilization of tissue allografts with ionizing radiation (introduced in the mid of 1950s) is increasingly used in tissue banking practice. The effectiveness of the radiation-sterilization procedure depends on the amount of energy transferred, the number of contaminating microorganisms and their resistance to ionizing radiation (initial contamination, bioburden). Usually, spores are more resistant than vegetative forms of bacteria, some fungi may be as resistant as bacterial spores, and viruses are, in general, more resistant than bacteria. Dita concerning effectiveness of ionizing radiation to inactivate viruses (e.g. such as HBV, HCV or HIV) in tissue allografts collected from cadavers are scarce. It has been found that the dose of irradiation needed to reduce HIV load by I log10 unit (D10) is about 4.0 kGy or even 5.6 kGy. The level of infectious HIV in plasma is usually evaluated by titration of tissue culture infective dose (TCID50/ml). Taking into consideration the recommended sterility assurance level (SAL) 10-6, assuming the HIV bioburden to be 103 TCID50/ml for the state of acute infection and D10 value of 4

  10. Pre-sterilization contamination of disposable medical products and the choice of minimum sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horakova, V.; Buriankova, E.

    1975-01-01

    The bacterial contamination was assessed on randomly taken samples of blood-transfusion devices, donor sets, intra-uterine contraceptive devices and inserters, surgical gloves and dressing material prior to sterilization. The quantitative and qualitative efficiency of six nutrient media was compared. The best results were obtained with the enriched ''Universal'' medium. It was confirmed that the contamination of plastic products was low compared with dressing material. Most frequently, Gram-positive aerobic spore-forming rods and Gram-positive cocci were found on non-sterile medical disposable products. A method was tested to obtain a general informative picture of the resistance of bacteria on products. The methods used for choosing the dose for radiation sterilization of medical products are discussed. (author)

  11. Short rendezvous missions for advanced Russian human spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazin, Rafail F.; Budylov, Sergey G.

    2010-10-01

    The two-day stay of crew in a limited inhabited volume of the Soyuz-TMA spacecraft till docking to ISS is one of the most stressful parts of space flight. In this paper a number of possible ways to reduce the duration of the free flight phase are considered. The duration is defined by phasing strategy that is necessary for reduction of the phase angle between the chaser and target spacecraft. Some short phasing strategies could be developed. The use of such strategies creates more comfortable flight conditions for crew thanks to short duration and additionally it allows saving spacecraft's life support resources. The transition from the methods of direct spacecraft rendezvous using one orbit phasing (first flights of " Vostok" and " Soyuz" vehicles) to the currently used methods of two-day rendezvous mission can be observed in the history of Soviet manned space program. For an advanced Russian human rated spacecraft the short phasing strategy is recommended, which can be considered as a combination between the direct and two-day rendezvous missions. The following state of the art technologies are assumed available: onboard accurate navigation; onboard computations of phasing maneuvers; launch vehicle with high accuracy injection orbit, etc. Some operational requirements and constraints for the strategies are briefly discussed. In order to provide acceptable phase angles for possible launch dates the experience of the ISS altitude profile control can be used. As examples of the short phasing strategies, the following rendezvous missions are considered: direct ascent, short mission with the phasing during 3-7 orbits depending on the launch date (nominal or backup). For each option statistical modeling of the rendezvous mission is fulfilled, as well as an admissible phase angle range, accuracy of target state vector and addition fuel consumption coming out of emergency is defined. In this paper an estimation of pros and cons of all options is conducted.

  12. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [18F]fludeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Priscilla F.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.; Valente, Eduardo S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z.

    2011-01-01

    [ 18 F]Flu deoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 μm filter membrane is usually adopted for 18 FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for 18 FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. 18 FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, 18 FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of 18 FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure 18 FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of 18 FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for 18 FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. 18 FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine 18 FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  13. Degradation of chitosan-based materials after different sterilization treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Juan, A; Montembault, A; Royaud, I; David, L; Gillet, D; Say, J P; Rouif, S; Bouet, T

    2012-01-01

    Biopolymers have received in recent years an increasing interest for their potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. Among the natural polymers that have been experimented, chitosan is probably the most promising in view of its exceptional biological properties. Several techniques may be employed to sterilize chitosan-based materials. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of common sterilization treatments on the degradation of chitosan-based materials in various physical states: solutions, hydrogels and solid flakes. Four sterilization methods were compared: gamma irradiation, beta irradiation, exposure to ethylene oxide and saturated water steam sterilization (autoclaving). Exposure to gamma or beta irradiation was shown to induce an important degradation of chitosan, regardless of its physical state. The chemical structure of chitosan flakes was preserved after ethylene oxide sterilization, but this technique has a limited use for materials in the dry state. Saturated water steam sterilization of chitosan solutions led to an important depolymerization. Nevertheless, steam sterilization of chitosan flakes bagged or dispersed in water was found to preserve better the molecular weight of the polymer. Hence, the sterilization of chitosan flakes dispersed in water would represent an alternative step for the preparation of sterilized chitosan solutions. Alternatively, autoclaving chitosan physical hydrogels did not significantly modify the macromolecular structure of the polymer. Thus, this method is one of the most convenient procedures for the sterilization of physical chitosan hydrogels after their preparation.

  14. Use of sterile insect technique in Brazil by the sterilization of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okeese, G.O.; Kitomer, T.J.; Gayaradus, L.B.; Etrigan, M.; Jansen, C.W.J.H.; Houlahar, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Sterile Insect Technique is a method of pest control allowed in Integrated Pest Management programs in fruit growing, where sterile insects released compete in mate process against fertile wild ones, generating a gradative population reduction. The most used sterilization method is using ionizing radiation from 60 Co or 137 Cs. For efficient application of SIT, an important item is the sterilizing dose. This must be as lower as possible in order to preserve insect behavior. In this work, it was studied the reproductive potential of fruit fly Ceratitis capitata, tsl VIENNA 8 strain, irradiated with different doses of gamma radiation. This strain has been used in population suppression programs at fruit-growing areas from Northeast of Brazil, through a partnership between CENA and Bio factory MOSCAMED Brazil, intending only sterile male releases. Radiation source used was a 60 Co irradiator, with 17.2 x 1012 Bq. Individualized couples were distributed in a randomized delineament with 10 replicates for each treatment and eggs were collected for fifteen days. With 9 and 10 days old, pupae were irradiated with doses ranging from 30 to 120 Gy. All averages of emerged adult's percentages were higher than 90%. In regards to fecundity, different doses did not affect the number of eggs laid, being the overall mean around 30 eggs/couple/day. Fertility data showed that as radiation dose increases, sterility increases. It was concluded that the dose of 90 Gy can be used in Brazil, since to SIT programs a dose is chosen witch prevents an egg hatch higher than 1%. (author)

  15. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  16. Performance Testing of a Photocatalytic Oxidation Module for Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Scott, Joseph P.; Kaiser, Mark; Seminara, Gary; Bershitsky, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a candidate process technology for use in high volumetric flow rate trace contaminant control applications in sealed environments. The targeted application for PCO as applied to crewed spacecraft life support system architectures is summarized. Technical challenges characteristic of PCO are considered. Performance testing of a breadboard PCO reactor design for mineralizing polar organic compounds in a spacecraft cabin atmosphere is described. Test results are analyzed and compared to results reported in the literature for comparable PCO reactor designs.

  17. On TTEthernet for Integrated Fault-Tolerant Spacecraft Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    There has recently been a push for adopting integrated modular avionics (IMA) principles in designing spacecraft architectures. This consolidation of multiple vehicle functions to shared computing platforms can significantly reduce spacecraft cost, weight, and de- sign complexity. Ethernet technology is attractive for inclusion in more integrated avionic systems due to its high speed, flexibility, and the availability of inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. Furthermore, Ethernet can be augmented with a variety of quality of service (QoS) enhancements that enable its use for transmitting critical data. TTEthernet introduces a decentralized clock synchronization paradigm enabling the use of time-triggered Ethernet messaging appropriate for hard real-time applications. TTEthernet can also provide two forms of event-driven communication, therefore accommodating the full spectrum of traffic criticality levels required in IMA architectures. This paper explores the application of TTEthernet technology to future IMA spacecraft architectures as part of the Avionics and Software (A&S) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program.

  18. Spaceborne intensity interferometry via spacecraft formation flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribak, Erez N.; Gurfil, Pini; Moreno, Coral

    2012-07-01

    Interferometry in space has marked advantages: long integration times and observation in spectral bands where the atmosphere is opaque. When installed on separate spacecraft, it also has extended and flexible baselines for better filling of the uv plane. Intensity interferometry has an additional advantage, being insensitive to telescope and path errors, but is unfortunately much less light-sensitive. In planning towards such a mission, we are experimenting with some fundamental research issues. Towards this end, we constructed a system of three vehicles floating on an air table in formation flight, with an autonomous orbit control. Each such device holds its own light collector, detector, and transmitter, to broadcast its intensity signal towards a central receiving station. At this station we implement parallel radio receivers, analogue to digital converters, and a digital three-way correlator. Current technology limits us to ~1GHz transmission frequency, which corresponds to a comfortable 0.3m accuracy in light-bucket shape and in its relative position. Naïve calculations place our limiting magnitude at ~7 in the blue and ultraviolet, where amplitude interferometers are limited. The correlation signal rides on top of this huge signal with its own Poisson noise, requiring a very large dynamic range, which needs to be transmitted in full. We are looking at open questions such as deployable optical collectors and radio antennae of similar size of a few meters, and how they might influence our data transmission and thus set our flux limit.

  19. Current status and future prospect of electron beam sterilization in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Ichiro

    1998-01-01

    It seems that electron beam sterilization is being current topic among all applications in Japan and that this tendency will continue until when major companies interested in the technology complete introducing electron beam. Since the Ministry of Health and Welfare(MOHW) officially issued revised regulation on GMP for medical devices in 1995, EtO has become the method regarded as time and money consuming one. On the contrary, electron beam has become as relatively economical and desirable method to achieve same result by its characteristics such as high productivity, rather easy validation and consequent cost reduction, although less penetration limit the kind of products to be treated. Status and prospect of electron beam sterilization in Japan will be presented in the paper along with accelerator related technologies

  20. Inactivation of animal and human prions by hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogez-Kreuz, C; Yousfi, R; Soufflet, C; Quadrio, I; Yan, Z-X; Huyot, V; Aubenque, C; Destrez, P; Roth, K; Roberts, C; Favero, M; Clayette, P

    2009-08-01

    Prions cause various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. They are highly resistant to the chemical and physical decontamination and sterilization procedures routinely used in healthcare facilities. The decontamination procedures recommended for the inactivation of prions are often incompatible with the materials used in medical devices. In this study, we evaluated the use of low-temperature hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization systems and other instrument-processing procedures for inactivating human and animal prions. We provide new data concerning the efficacy of hydrogen peroxide against prions from in vitro or in vivo tests, focusing on the following: the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide sterilization and possible interactions with enzymatic or alkaline detergents, differences in the efficiency of this treatment against different prion strains, and the influence of contaminating lipids. We found that gaseous hydrogen peroxide decreased the infectivity of prions and/or the level of the protease-resistant form of the prion protein on different surface materials. However, the efficiency of this treatment depended strongly on the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the delivery system used in medical devices, because these effects were more pronounced for the new generation of Sterrad technology. The Sterrad NX sterilizer is 100% efficient (0% transmission and no protease-resistant form of the prion protein signal detected on the surface of the material for the mouse-adapted bovine spongiform encephalopathy 6PB1 strain and a variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease strain). Thus, gaseous or vaporized hydrogen peroxide efficiently inactivates prions on the surfaces of medical devices.

  1. 3D Reconfigurable MPSoC for Unmanned Spacecraft Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the design of a new lightweight spacecraft navigation system for unmanned space missions. The system addresses the demands for more efficient autonomous navigation in the near-Earth environment or deep space. The proposed instrumentation is directly suitable for unmanned systems operation and testing of new airborne prototypes for remote sensing applications. The system features a new sensor technology and significant improvements over existing solutions. Fluxgate type sensors have been traditionally used in unmanned defense systems such as target drones, guided missiles, rockets and satellites, however, the guidance sensors' configurations exhibit lower specifications than the presented solution. The current implementation is based on a recently developed material in a reengineered optimum sensor configuration for unprecedented low-power consumption. The new sensor's performance characteristics qualify it for spacecraft navigation applications. A major advantage of the system is the efficiency in redundancy reduction achieved in terms of both hardware and software requirements.

  2. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... included in sterile parotid saliva collection. Parotid saliva was collected using a sterile Lashley cup, placed over the papilla of the Stensen´s duct, as well as sterile tubes and syringes for collection. All collections were followed by collection of a positive control sample where some of the sterile...... obtained parotid saliva had been exposed to the contralateral mucosal membranes. All samples parotid saliva, as well as the positive controls, were cultivated, and 10 randomly selected parotid saliva samples underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. RESULTS: In 33 of 40 parotid saliva samples...

  3. Studies on induced mutation of sesame male sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yingde; Feng Xiangyun; Zhao Yingzhong

    2001-01-01

    The dry seeds of the high yielding cultivar, Yuzhi-4, were irradiated with 300, 500 and 700 Gy of 60 Co- gamma rays. 3277 M 1 plants were harvested separately as single plants and also in bulk, by doses. In M 2 , the single plant seeds were grown in progeny rows and the bulked seeds were grown as bulks. 25 male sterile plants were screened from M 2 . 10 of the 25 male sterile plants were from the progenies of the single plant seeds and 15 were from the progenies of the bulked seeds. In further genetic research of the 25 male sterile plants in M 3 and M 4 , 6 separate genic male sterile (GMS) lines were identified. Their male sterility was stable and was controlled by a pair of alleles, male fertility being dominant to sterility. (author)

  4. A see-saw mechanism with light sterile neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, B.H.J.; Garbutt, M.; Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.

    2001-01-01

    The usual see-saw mechanism for the generation of light neutrino masses is based on the assumption that all of the flavours of right-handed (more properly, sterile) neutrinos are heavy. If the sterile Majorana mass matrix is singular, one or more of the sterile neutrinos will have zero mass before mixing with the active (left-handed) neutrinos and be light after that mixing is introduced In particular, a rank 1 sterile mass matrix leads naturally to two pseudo-Dirac pairs, one very light active Majorana neutrino and one heavy sterile Majorana neutrino. For any pattern of Dirac masses, there exists a region of parameter space in which the two pseudo-Dirac pairs are nearly degenerate in mass. This, in turn, leads to large amplitude mixing of active states as well as mixing into sterile states

  5. Male sterility in plants. Induction, isolation and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, C.J.; Barlow, K.K.

    1976-01-01

    Both induced and spontaneously arising male sterility mutants exist in a number of important plant species. These mutants are somewhat unique in that they effect procedures for breeding improved varieties. They allow for the possibility of easily obtaining large numbers of hybrids, population breeding systems and the production of hybrid varieties. These mutants are normally classified as cytoplasmic mutants or chromosomal mutants, the latter also being referred to as nuclear or genic mutants. Specific examples of these types of sterility are examined in relation to the breeding system of the species and their potential use for varietal development. Male sterility in diploid and polyploid species is compared, with reference to gene duplication in polyploids. The mechanism of male sterility is examined in the various species at the anatomical and biochemical levels. Methods of isolating male sterility mutants are compared and a specific example is outlined for hexaploid wheat. Future use of male sterility mutants for improving varieties of various crops is examined. (author)

  6. Embedded Thermal Control for Subsystems for Next Generation Spacecraft Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. NASA, the Defense Department and commercial interests are actively engaged in developing miniaturized spacecraft systems and scientific instruments to leverage smaller cheaper spacecraft form factors such as CubeSats. This paper outlines research and development efforts among Goddard Space Flight Center personnel and its several partners to develop innovative embedded thermal control subsystems. Embedded thermal control subsystems is a cross cutting enabling technology integrating advanced manufacturing techniques to develop multifunctional intelligent structures to reduce Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) consumption of both the thermal control subsystem and overall spacecraft. Embedded thermal control subsystems permit heat acquisition and rejection at higher temperatures than state of the art systems by employing both advanced heat transfer equipment (integrated heat exchangers) and high heat transfer phenomena. The Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Engineering Branch has active investigations seeking to characterize advanced thermal control systems for near term spacecraft missions. The embedded thermal control subsystem development effort consists of fundamental research as well as development of breadboard and prototype hardware and spaceflight validation efforts. This paper will outline relevant fundamental investigations of micro-scale heat transfer and electrically driven liquid film boiling. The hardware development efforts focus upon silicon based high heat flux applications (electronic chips, power electronics etc.) and multifunctional structures. Flight validation efforts include variable gravity campaigns and a proposed CubeSat based flight demonstration of a breadboard embedded thermal control system. The CubeSat investigation is technology demonstration will characterize in long-term low earth orbit a breadboard embedded thermal subsystem and its individual components to develop

  7. Development of an advanced spacecraft tandem mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Russell C.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to apply current advanced technology in electronics and materials to the development of a miniaturized Tandem Mass Spectrometer that would have the potential for future development into a package suitable for spacecraft use. The mass spectrometer to be used as a basis for the tandem instrument would be a magnetic sector instrument, of Nier-Johnson configuration, as used on the Viking Mars Lander mission. This instrument configuration would then be matched with a suitable second stage MS to provide the benefits of tandem MS operation for rapid identification of unknown organic compounds. This tandem instrument is configured with a newly designed GC system to aid in separation of complex mixtures prior to MS analysis. A number of important results were achieved in the course of this project. Among them were the development of a miniaturized GC subsystem, with a unique desorber-injector, fully temperature feedback controlled oven with powered cooling for rapid reset to ambient conditions, a unique combination inlet system to the MS that provides for both membrane sampling and direct capillary column sample transfer, a compact and ruggedized alignment configuration for the MS, an improved ion source design for increased sensitivity, and a simple, rugged tandem MS configuration that is particularly adaptable to spacecraft use because of its low power and low vacuum pumping requirements. The potential applications of this research include use in manned spacecraft like the space station as a real-time detection and warning device for the presence of potentially harmful trace contaminants of the spacecraft atmosphere, use as an analytical device for evaluating samples collected on the Moon or a planetary surface, or even use in connection with monitoring potentially hazardous conditions that may exist in terrestrial locations such as launch pads, environmental test chambers or other sensitive areas. Commercial development of the technology

  8. Sterile insect technique: new technology to control fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata, in the Lower Basin of the Sao Francisco Valley; Tecnica do inseto esteril: nova tecnologia para combater a mosca-das-frutas, Ceratitis capitata, no Submedio do Vale do Sao Francisco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranhos, Beatriz Aguiar Jordao; Barbosa, Flavia Rabelo [Embrapa Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio Souza do [Embrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil); Viana, Rodrigo; Malavasi, Aldo [Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Sampaio, Raimundo [Agencia Estadual de Defesa Agropecuaria da Bahia (ADAB-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-12-15

    The SIT is the creation, on a large scale, the insect-pest to be controlled and weekly release of these insects sterilized in the field.The sterile insects copulate with the wild, but do not generate descendants. The basic premises for the use of SIT in insect control are: the reproduction is through sexual intercourse, the female copulate preferably only once there is ease of creation of the plague in industrial scale in artificial diet. The efficiency of the SIT may be greater when only the males are released in the field because they increase the probability of copulating with wild females only, with reductions in the cost of production and release. In the case of fruit-flies, sterile females continue doing puncture in the fruits, which decreases the quality for export. To be able to release only males in the field, in 1980s, was developed a mutant strain, whose females emerge from pupae white, thus being able to discard the white ones, keeping the pupae Brown for the release of sterile males. Ten years after, to save on the industrial scale production system, was obtained a mutant whose females possess lethal temperature sensitivity of 34 deg C, still in the embryo stage. Then the eggs are placed on artificial diet, and when they arrive at the pupa stage, they are all brown and males. Forty-eight to 24 hours before the emergence of adults, the pupae are painted with fluorescent powder paint, bagged and irradiated with gamma radiation of 95Gy of Co-60 or X-ray. As soon as the males emerge, are marked with fluorescent ink and when they reach 3 to 5 days old, are released into the field. Thus, when monitoring is done in Jackson traps in the field, it is possible to distinguish wild male sterile under black light or epifluorescence microscope with males, because the sterile are fluorescent. On application of the SIT to Moscamed, sterile males are released in the field must display good dispersibility, good survival and good sexual performance. The efficiency and

  9. State-of-the-art equipment for sterilization and biocontainment since 1925.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganstern, David; Miller, Jake

    2015-11-01

    Tuttnauer is a worldwide leader in the market for sterilization and infection control. An expansive global presence has aided Tuttnauer's growth over the past four decades. Tuttnauer's products are marketed through seven subsidiaries with local dealers in over 120 countries. The company also holds offices in the United States, Netherlands, India, China, and Vietnam. Facing the most challenging and complex projects worldwide, Tuttnauer has become a driving force in advancing technology in this market to a new standard.

  10. Plant's sterilization rule for fertile women cited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The American Cyanamid Corporation has been cited by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for violating federal law by requiring female employees of childbearing age to be sterilized in order to continue working in areas of the plant where they would be exposed to high levels of airborne lead. High levels of airborne lead can cause damage to workers' reproductive systems and be responsible for birth defects in fetuses. The OSHA charged that American Cyanamid's policy constituted a "willful violation" of the 1970 Occupational Safety and Health Act. The Act requires employers to provide employment that is free from recognized hazards likely to cause death or physical harm. According to OSHA, the Act does not allow an employer to eliminate the hazard by compelling employees to choose between losing their jobs and undergoing sterilization. The reproductive health of workers is considered a valid part of OSHA's regulatory concern. The citation, which carries a $10,000 fine, grew out of a complaint that was filed by the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union on behalf of 5 female workers working in the lead pigment division of the company's Willow Island, West Virginia plant. The 5 employees alleged that they had themselves sterilized to avoid being transferred to other and possibly lower paying janitorial jobs or losing thier jobs completely. The company is appealing the citation. The union has also filed a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission charging American Cyanamid with sex discrimination, since only the women workers are at risk of being transferred to lower paying jobs.

  11. Gene, protein, and network of male sterility in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kun; Peng, Xiaojue; Ji, Yanxiao; Yang, Pingfang; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well-exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male-sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and prot...

  12. Search for sterile neutrinos at RENO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In Sung; RENO Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The RENO experiment was designed to measure a neutrino mixing angle, θ13, by detecting electron antineutrinos emitted from the Hanbit nuclear reactors in Korea, and succeeded to measure θ13 from the disappearance mode in three neutrino frame. We investigate the possibility of sterile neutrinos existence at RENO experiment and compare data with Monte Carlo generated in four neutrino frame. In this talk, we present some recent results using chi-square analysis method. The probability deficit curve as a function of an effective baseline and the excluded contour plot in sin2(2 θ14) - Δ(m41)2 space will be shown.

  13. Processing laboratory of radio sterilized biological tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre H, Paulina; Zarate S, Herman; Silva R, Samy; Hitschfeld, Mario

    2005-01-01

    The nuclear development applications have also reached those areas related to health. The risk of getting contagious illnesses through applying biological tissues has been one of the paramount worries to be solved since infectious illnesses might be provoked by virus, fungis or bacterias coming from donors or whether they have been introduced by means of intermediate stages before the use of these tissues. Therefore it has been concluded that the tissue allografts must be sterilized. The sterilization of medical products has been one of the main applications of the ionizing radiations and that it is why the International Organization of Atomic Energy began in the 70s promoting works related to the biological tissue sterilization and pharmaceutical products. The development of different tissue preservation methods has made possible the creation of tissue banks in different countries, to deal with long-term preservation. In our country, a project was launched in 1998, 'Establishment of a Tissue Bank in Latino america', this project was supported by the OIEA through the project INT/ 6/ 049, and was the starting of the actual Processing Laboratory of Radioesterilized Biological Tissues (LPTR), leaded by the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). This first organization is part of a number of entities compounding the Tissue Bank in Chile, organizations such as the Transplantation Promotion Corporation hospitals and the LPTR. The working system is carried out by means of the interaction between the hospitals and the laboratory. The medical professionals perform the procuring of tissues in the hospitals, then send them to the LPTR where they are processed and sterilized with ionizing radiation. The cycle ends up with the tissues return released to the hospitals, where they are used, and then the result information is sent to the LPTR as a form of feedback. Up to now, human skin has been processed (64 donors), amniotic membranes (35 donors) and pig skin (175 portions

  14. Basic radiation sterilization properties of packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouharova, A.; Kolarova, J.; Olbrichova, D.

    1984-01-01

    The foils of various materials were irradiated with 60 Co with an activity of 11,538 TBq. The minimum radiation dose was 25 kGy. Changes in chemico-physical properties were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy and were not detected after irradiation with 25 kGy. Packing foils were subjected to the following tests: mechanical tests, tests of weld strength, tests of impact resistance, free fall tests, permeability tests for water vapour and microbiological tests. The results of all tests were tabulated. The tests showed that the foils are impermeable for microorganisms and provided the welds are airtight the packed products remain sterile. (J.P.)

  15. Environment and the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, P.; Peveling, R.

    2005-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an exceptionally promising pest control method in terms of efficacy and environmental compatibility. Assessments of environmental risks vary according to the status and origin of the target pests. The suppression or eradication of exotic pest populations with the SIT raises few environmental concerns, and these are related mainly to pre-release suppression techniques. However, the elimination of native species, or at least populations of native species, requires more detailed and complex assessments of ecological effects and consequences for biodiversity conservation. Eradication programmes provide opportunities to study these topics within the scope of both environmental impact assessments and operational monitoring programmes. (author)

  16. Proton decay and light sterile neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helo, Juan C.; Hirsch, Martin; Ota, Toshihiko

    2018-06-01

    Within the standard model, non-renormalizable operators at dimension six ( d = 6) violate baryon and lepton number by one unit and thus lead to proton decay. Here, we point out that the proton decay mode with a charged pion and missing energy can be a characteristic signature of d = 6 operators containing a light sterile neutrino, if it is not accompanied by the standard π0 e + final state. We discuss this effect first at the level of effective operators and then provide a concrete model with new physics at the TeV scale, in which the lightness of the active neutrinos and the stability of the proton are related.

  17. Surgical sterilization of free-ranging wolves.

    OpenAIRE

    Spence, C E; Kenyon, J E; Smith, D R; Hayes, R D; Baer, A M

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether surgical sterilization of both males and females in wolf pairs alters basic wolf social and territorial behaviors. Wolves were located from the air by snow-tracking methods and were tranquilizer-darted from a helicopter. Surgeries were performed either in a tent at the capture site or in a heated building in a nearby village. Six vasectomies and seven uterine horn ligations were performed in January and February of 1996 and 1997. Two females...

  18. Electron sterilization validation techniques using the controlled depth of sterilization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleghorn, D.A.; Nablo, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Many pharmaceutical products, especially parenteral drugs, cannot be sterilized with gamma rays or high energy electrons due to the concomitant product degradation. In view of the well-controlled electron energy spectrum available in modern electron processors, it is practical to deliver sterilizing doses over depths considerably less than those defining the thickness of blister-pack constructions or pharmaceutical containers. Because bremsstrahlung and X-ray production are minimized at these low electron energies and in these low Z materials, very high electron: penetrating X-ray dose ratios are possible for the application of the technique. Thin film dosimetric techniques have been developed utilizing radiochromic film in the 10-60 g/m 2 range for determining the surface dose distribution in occluded surface areas where direct electron illumination is not possible. Procedures for validation of the process using dried spore inoculum on the product as well as in good geometry are employed to determine the process lethality and its dependence on product surface geometry. Applications of the process to labile pharmaceuticals in glass and polystyrene syringes are reviewed. It has been applied to the sterilization of commercial sterile products since 1987, and the advantages and the natural limitations of the technique are discussed. (author)

  19. American Sterilization: The Racist Justifications for Sterilization in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor Price

    2016-01-01

    An investigative analysis into anthropometrics, sterilization, eugenics, and other forms of scientific racism used to justify white supremacy and racial thought in the 19th and 20th centuries in the United States. The Tuskegee syphilis study, Darwinistic ideals, and neo-Lamarckian thoughts are critically analyzed as justifications for institutional racism.

  20. International standard (ISO) of radiation sterilization and issues in the sterilization dose setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehisa, Masaaki

    1995-01-01

    The ISO dose setting method 1 uses bioburden and verification by sublethal sterility test. Current devices produced in clean environmental have low bioburden, however, sensitivity of verification test declines at low bioburden. Validation of verification in this region should be further studied. A dose setting using D 10 of bioburden isolates should be reevaluated and included in the ISO. (author)

  1. Dark matter relic abundance and light sterile neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Yi-Lei [Center for High Energy Physics,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhu, Shou-hua [Center for High Energy Physics,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics & State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology,Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter,Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-01-09

    In this paper, we calculate the relic abundance of the dark matter particles when they can annihilate into sterile neutrinos with the mass ≲100 GeV in a simple model. Unlike the usual standard calculations, the sterile neutrino may fall out of the thermal equilibrium with the thermal bath before the dark matter freezes out. In such a case, if the Yukawa coupling y{sub N} between the Higgs and the sterile neutrino is small, this process gives rise to a larger Ω{sub DM}h{sup 2} so we need a larger coupling between the dark matter and the sterile neutrino for a correct relic abundance.

  2. Exploiting novel sterilization techniques for porous polyurethane scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Serena; Farè, Silvia; Haugen, Håvard Jostein; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Porous polyurethane (PU) structures raise increasing interest as scaffolds in tissue engineering applications. Understanding the effects of sterilization on their properties is mandatory to assess their potential use in the clinical practice. The aim of this work is the evaluation of the effects of two innovative sterilization techniques (i.e. plasma, Sterrad(®) system, and ozone) on the morphological, chemico-physical and mechanical properties of a PU foam synthesized by gas foaming, using water as expanding agent. In addition, possible toxic effects of the sterilization were evaluated by in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Plasma sterilization did not affect the morphological and mechanical properties of the PU foam, but caused at some extent degradative phenomena, as detected by infrared spectroscopy. Ozone sterilization had a major effect on foam morphology, causing the formation of new small pores, and stronger degradation and oxidation on the structure of the material. These modifications affected the mechanical properties of the sterilized PU foam too. Even though, no cytotoxic effects were observed after both plasma and ozone sterilization, as confirmed by the good values of cell viability assessed by Alamar Blue assay. The results here obtained can help in understanding the effects of sterilization procedures on porous polymeric scaffolds, and how the scaffold morphology, in particular porosity, can influence the effects of sterilization, and viceversa.

  3. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minocha, J L; Gupta, R K [Department of Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana (India)

    1988-07-01

    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M{sub 2} male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M{sub 3}, open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  4. Genetic expression of induced rice sterility under alien-cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Naiyuan; Cai Zhijun; Liang Kangjing; Li Yu

    2005-01-01

    Rice restorer lines were treated with 60 Co γ-ray and 4 male sterile mutants obtained with the fertility of controlled by 4 non-allelic recessive genes, respectively. Sixty combinations were made by using male sterile plants/fertile plants as male parents, and 15 different cytoplasmic substitution lines of the same cell nucleus as female parents. The result showed that F 1 spikelets were normal and fertile, and different numbers of male sterile plants were segregated in F 2 . Complete fertility genotype was not found among interactions between induced male sterile genes and alien-cytoplasms. (authors)

  5. Protozoa and their bacterial prey colonize sterile soil fast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2010-01-01

    We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them to the at......We know little about the ability of protozoa to colonize soils, including their successional patterns. To elucidate this issue, we investigated in which order different protozoan morpho-types colonize sterile soil. We used sterilized soils with different carbon content, and exposed them...

  6. Gene, protein and network of male sterility in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang eKun

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.

  7. End-preparation assessments and tests for compounded sterile preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhiney, Linda F

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing has become a necessity to obtain sterile products that are currently on backorder. Because of the expense of outsourcing sterile compounding, pharmacy leadership in health systems are now considering the option of insourcing and batch preparing compounded sterile preparations, which can be a viable option for a health system. It can significantly decrease drug-spending costs, and the pharmacy has a complete record of the compounding process. The key to preparing high-quality, safe, sterile preparations and meeting United States Pharmacopeia standards is end-preparation assessments and tests.

  8. Sterilization of the artificial blood circulation apparatus with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarevskii, A A; Korukhov, N I.U.; Brazhnikov, E M; Konstantinova, M L; Razumovskii, S D

    1982-01-01

    Presented in this paper is the sterilization method of the assisted circulation unit. The method has been approved by stand testing and then applied for sterilizing the unit Ae, yeK-5 m when experimental implanting artificial heart. According to the method, ozone in concentration of 5 x 10(-3) moles/1 and with flow rate of 0,5 1/min is passed through an internal circuit of the unit during I h and 15 min. Control wash-out samples from lines have demonstrated complete sterility of the internal circuit. The method makes the sterilization process of such units much easier and may be recommended for clinical application.

  9. Induction of male sterility in rice using chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minocha, J.L.; Gupta, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    Full text: To diversify the sources of cytoplasmic male sterility for hybrid seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.) attempts were made to induce this character in a popular indica cultivar PR 106 through chemical mutagens. Seeds were treated with 0.4% ethidium bromide (EB) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C, with 0.4% ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) for 24 or 48h at 10 deg. C for 16 hr at 20 deg. C or with 0.2% streptomycin sulphate (SM) for 24 or 48 hr at 10 deg. C. In M 2 male sterile plants were detected in eleven different progenies, one from SM treatment and the remaining from EMS treatments. All the sterile plants had 100% non-stainable aborted pollen. Seed set upon open-pollination of the male sterile plants with the variety PR 106 ranged from 0.03 to 4.93 per cent whereas no seed formed in bagged panicles. In M 3 , open-pollinated progenies of the male sterile plants and their fertile sibs were further studied. Two progenies segregated for male sterility, all others had only fertile plants. In one of the segregating progenies, five out of six and in the other nine out of fourteen plants were male sterile. The progenies of fertile sibs did not have any male sterile plant. The results indicate that sterility of cytoplasmic type has been induced by EMS. The parental variety PR 106 acts as the maintainer. (author)

  10. Comparative mating and reproductive performance of radiation sterilized and radiation induced F1 sterile males of Earias vittella (Fabricius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shantharam, K.; Tamhankar, A.J.; Harwalkar, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Studies were conducted on mating behaviour and reproductive performance of a) Earias vittella (F.) males rendered sterile by exposing them to 300 Gy gamma rays and b) F 1 sterile males obtained by exposing parent male to 100 Gy gamma rays. For the study, males were allowed only one mating with a normal female. Results revealed that premating period, period in copula and per cent insects mating were not adversely affected in case of both types of sterile males and fecundity also remained unaffected. However, in both types of sterile males, incidence of spermatophore transfer without sperm was very large and such an occurrence (including reduced spermatophore transfer) was significantly higher in case of radiation sterilized males compared to the F 1 sterile males. Inability to produce and transfer spermatophore and/or sperm appeared to be a major cause behind the reduced mating competitiveness of both types of males. (author). 22 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  12. Why are rates of sterilization in decline? A pilot study designed to explore reasons for declining female sterilization in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong E; Glasier, Anna; Warner, Pamela

    2008-10-01

    In the last decade, female sterilization had been in decline throughout the UK. It is not clear whether fewer women are requesting sterilization or whether the universal enthusiasm for long-acting reversible methods is leading health professionals to discourage women from being sterilized. Since correct and consistent use of alternative, reversible contraceptive methods depends somewhat on their acceptability, it is important to determine whether women are being refused sterilization or whether they are freely choosing other methods. This study aims to explore whether female sterilization is being widely considered as a contraceptive method, the reasons for choosing or rejecting it, and whether women are being discouraged by health professionals from being sterilized. A self-completed questionnaire survey among 205 women aged 30 to 50 years who felt that their family was complete attending a family planning clinic in Scotland. Of the 203 women included in the study, 151 (74.4%) had heard of female sterilization, 90 had discussed it with someone (60%) and 87 (58%) had considered it as a contraceptive option. Of the 56 women who consulted their family doctor about sterilization, almost half (27; 48%) were not referred to a hospital and fewer than one (17, 30.4%) in three of them was eventually sterilized or had arrangements in place to get it done. Free-text comments from the women revealed a variety of reasons for not choosing female sterilization and suggested that some women are being deterred from sterilization. The study suggests that some women are being actively encouraged by health professionals to use long-acting reversible contraceptive methods and discouraged from choosing sterilization. However, other women recognize for themselves the wisdom of keeping their fertility options open.

  13. Sterilization Monitoring management of the integration of the operating room with CSSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-yan XIA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Explore the Sterilization Monitoring management of the integration of the operating room with CSSD. Methods: Compare sterilization process monitoring with biological monitoring and chemical monitoring. Results: The management in Biological monitoring, chemical monitoring and sterilization process monitoring is crucial. Conclusion: Sterilization monitoring is to ensure the safe use of sterile goods so as to protect the safety of surgical patients.

  14. Sterilization of biological tissues with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M.L.; Martinez P, M.E.; Luna Z, D.

    1997-01-01

    On June 1994, the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) and the South Central Hospital for High Specialty of PEMEX (HCSAE) began a joint work with the finality to obtain radio sterilized amniotic membranes for to be used as cover (biological bandage) in burnt patients. Subsequently the Chemistry Faculty of UNAM and the National Institute of Cardiology began to collaborate this last with interest on cardiac valves for graft. Starting from 1997, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supports this project (MEX/7/008) whose main objective is to set up the basis to establish in Mexico a Radio sterilized Tissue Bank (amniotic membranes, skin, bones, tendons, cardiac valves, etc.) to be used with therapeutic purposes (grafts). The IAEA support has consisted in the equipment acquisition which is fundamental for the Tissue Bank performance such as an experimental irradiator, laminar flow bell, lyophilizer, vacuum sealer and special knives for tissues. Also visits to Mexico of experts have been authorized with the aim of advising to the personnel which participate in the project and scientific visits of this personnel to another tissue banks (Sri Lanka and Argentine). The establishment in Mexico of a Tissue bank will be a great benefit because it will have availability of distinct tissues for grafts and it will reduce the synthetic materials importation which is very expensive. (Author)

  15. Radiation sterilization of polymeric implant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruck, S.D.; Mueller, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    High-energy irradiation sterilization of medical devices and implants composed of polymeric biomaterials that are in contact with tissue and/or blood, may adversely affect their long-term mechanical and/or biological performance (tissue and/or blood compatibility). Since many polymeric implants may contain trace quantities of catalysts and/or other additives, the effect of high-energy radiation on these additives, and possible synergistic effects with the polymer chains under the influence of high-energy radiation, must be considered. It is essential to indicate whether polymeric implants are used in short-term (acute) or long-term (chronic) applications. Relatively small changes in their physicochemical, mechanical, and biological properties may be tolerable in the short term, whereas similar changes may lead to catastrophic failures in long-term applications. Therefore, polymeric implants which are to be sterilized by high-energy irradiation should be carefully evaluated for long-term property changes which may be induced by the radiation

  16. Pink bollworm integrated management using sterile insects under field trial conditions, Imperial Valley, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, M.L.; Staten, R.T.; Roberson, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    The pink bollworm moth (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders) feeds almost exclusively on cotton (Gossypium spp.) and causes economic loss (Pfadt 1978). The pink bollworm (PBW) is often the key pest of cotton in Arizona, southern California, and northwestern Mexico. The larvae (immature stages) bore into the developing cotton fruit, where they feed on the cotton lint and seeds, causing significant damage and dramatically reducing the yield of cotton lint (Pfadt 1978). The PBW is difficult to control with conventional means (insecticides) because it spends the destructive larval phase inside the cotton boll where it is well protected from control measures. Cultural controls, such as a short growing season, have successfully decreased the population in the Imperial Valley (Chu et al. 1992) to the point where eradication may be possible using sterile insects and genetically engineered cotton. Because the PBW is an introduced insect, with few plant hosts other than cultivated cotton, its eradication from continental USA is a desirable and economically attractive alternative to the continued use of pesticides and/or further loss to the pest. Mass releases of sterile insects began in earnest in 1970 in the San Joaquin Valley, California, in order to inhibit normal reproduction and to eradicate the pest in an environmentally responsible manner. Sterile release involves mass production and sexual sterilisation using irradiation (20 krad for PBW adults). This was accomplished by building a rearing facility in Phoenix, AZ. The facility has 6,410 square metres of permanent laboratories, rearing and irradiation chambers and insect packing rooms. The facility operates the year round but with a variable production rate, that is, maximal during the cotton growing season (May through September). Sterile insect technology is based on the monitoring of the native and sterile populations in the field and the subsequent release of appropriate numbers of sterile insects in order to

  17. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCamish, Shawn B

    2007-01-01

    This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems, including rendezvous...

  18. Spacecraft Swarm Coordination and Planning Tool, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fractionated spacecraft architectures to distribute mission performance from a single, monolithic satellite across large number of smaller spacecraft, for missions...

  19. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  20. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  1. Computational Model for Spacecraft/Habitat Volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Please note that funding to Dr. Simon Hsiang, a critical co-investigator for the development of the Spacecraft Optimization Layout and Volume (SOLV) model, was...

  2. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  3. A Study of Learning Curve Impact on Three Identical Small Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangming; McLennan, Douglas D.

    2003-01-01

    With an eye to the future strategic needs of NASA, the New Millennium Program is funding the Space Technology 5 (ST-5) project to address the future needs in the area of small satellites in constellation missions. The ST-5 project, being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, involves the development and simultaneous launch of three small, 20-kilogram-class spacecraft. ST-5 is only a test drive and future NASA science missions may call for fleets of spacecraft containing tens of smart and capable satellites in an intelligent constellation. The objective of ST-5 project is to develop three such pioneering small spacecraft for flight validation of several critical new technologies. The ST-5 project team at Goddard Space Flight Center has completed the spacecraft design, is now building and testing the three flight units. The launch readiness date (LRD) is in December 2005. A critical part of ST-5 mission is to prove that it is possible to build these small but capable spacecraft with recurring cost low enough to make future NASA s multi- spacecraft constellation missions viable from a cost standpoint.

  4. Adaptive Management of Computing and Network Resources for Spacecraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarr, Barbara; Welch, Lonnie R.; Detter, Ryan; Tjaden, Brett; Huh, Eui-Nam; Szczur, Martha R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It is likely that NASA's future spacecraft systems will consist of distributed processes which will handle dynamically varying workloads in response to perceived scientific events, the spacecraft environment, spacecraft anomalies and user commands. Since all situations and possible uses of sensors cannot be anticipated during pre-deployment phases, an approach for dynamically adapting the allocation of distributed computational and communication resources is needed. To address this, we are evolving the DeSiDeRaTa adaptive resource management approach to enable reconfigurable ground and space information systems. The DeSiDeRaTa approach embodies a set of middleware mechanisms for adapting resource allocations, and a framework for reasoning about the real-time performance of distributed application systems. The framework and middleware will be extended to accommodate (1) the dynamic aspects of intra-constellation network topologies, and (2) the complete real-time path from the instrument to the user. We are developing a ground-based testbed that will enable NASA to perform early evaluation of adaptive resource management techniques without the expense of first deploying them in space. The benefits of the proposed effort are numerous, including the ability to use sensors in new ways not anticipated at design time; the production of information technology that ties the sensor web together; the accommodation of greater numbers of missions with fewer resources; and the opportunity to leverage the DeSiDeRaTa project's expertise, infrastructure and models for adaptive resource management for distributed real-time systems.

  5. Formation of disintegration particles in spacecraft recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnosova, L.V.; Fradkin, M.I.; Razorenov, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments performed on the spacecraft Salyut 1, Kosmos 410, and Kosmos 443 enable us to record the disintegration products of particles which are formed in the material of the detectors on board the spacecraft. The observations were made by means of a delayed coincidence method. We have detected a meson component and also a component which is apparently associated with the generation of radioactive isotopes in the detectors

  6. Flight Plasma Diagnostics for High-Power, Solar-Electric Deep-Space Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee; De Soria-Santacruz Pich, Maria; Conroy, David; Lobbia, Robert; Huang, Wensheng; Choi, Maria; Sekerak, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) project plans included a set of plasma and space environment instruments, the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP), to fulfill ARRM requirements for technology extensibility to future missions. The PDP objectives were divided into the classes of 1) Plasma thruster dynamics, 2) Solar array-specific environmental effects, 3) Plasma environmental spacecraft effects, and 4) Energetic particle spacecraft environment. A reference design approach and interface requirements for ARRM's PDP was generated by the PDP team at JPL and GRC. The reference design consisted of redundant single-string avionics located on the ARRM spacecraft bus as well as solar array, driving and processing signals from multiple copies of several types of plasma, effects, and environments sensors distributed over the spacecraft and array. The reference design sensor types were derived in part from sensors previously developed for USAF Research Laboratory (AFRL) plasma effects campaigns such as those aboard TacSat-2 in 2007 and AEHF-2 in 2012.

  7. Standardizing the information architecture for spacecraft operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, C. R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an information architecture developed for the Space Station Freedom as a model from which to derive an information architecture standard for advanced spacecraft. The information architecture provides a way of making information available across a program, and among programs, assuming that the information will be in a variety of local formats, structures and representations. It provides a format that can be expanded to define all of the physical and logical elements that make up a program, add definitions as required, and import definitions from prior programs to a new program. It allows a spacecraft and its control center to work in different representations and formats, with the potential for supporting existing spacecraft from new control centers. It supports a common view of data and control of all spacecraft, regardless of their own internal view of their data and control characteristics, and of their communications standards, protocols and formats. This information architecture is central to standardizing spacecraft operations, in that it provides a basis for information transfer and translation, such that diverse spacecraft can be monitored and controlled in a common way.

  8. Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

  9. Sterilization of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) with X-rays for sterile insect technique programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, Thiago de Araujo

    2009-01-01

    Recent fear of acts of terrorism provoked an increase of delays and denials in the shipment of radioisotopes. This truly represented a menace to sterile insect production projects around the world. In order to validate the use of a new kind of low-energy Xray irradiator, a series of radiobiological studies on Ceratitis capitata (tsl-VIENNA 8 strain) (Wied., 1824) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and an Argentinean strain of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wied., 1830) (Diptera: Tephritidae) were carried out, also comparing biological effectiveness between X-rays and traditional γ radiation from 60 Co. Pupae 48- 24 h before adult emergence of C. capitata males and both sexes of A. fraterculus were irradiated with doses ranging from 15 to 120 Gy and 10 to 70 Gy respectively. Doses that induce 50, 90 and 99% of sterility were estimated and the hypothesis of Parallelism for the Probit equations was tested. Doses of 82.7 Gy of X-rays and 128.2 Gy of γ rays (thus, a RBE∼1.5) induced 99% sterility on medfly males. The fertility of A. fraterculus fertile females crossed with 41 Gy of X-rays and 62.7 Gy of γ rays decreased in 99% comparing with the control group (RBE∼1.5). 99% sterility of A. fraterculus irradiated females was achieved with 60-80 Gy (RBE∼0.7). The standard quality control parameters of fecundity, adult emergence, fliers and survival were not significantly affected by the two types of radiation (RBE∼1) either for medfly or A. fraterculus (p>0.01), being averages in conformity with the values required by FAO/IAEA/USDA. Only fecundity of irradiated A. fraterculus females was severely reduced with increasing doses and no egg was laid at 70 Gy of both radiations. There were no significant differences between X-rays and γ rays regarding mating indices (RSI for medfly, RII, ISI, MRPI and FRPI for A. fraterculus) (p>0.05), what indicated more random matings for fertile and sterile insects. The results demonstrated that no significant difference in biological

  10. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Kaluska, I.; Gluszewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    During the 9 School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  11. Female sterilization by tubal ligation at caesarean section in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Female sterilization is an important tool in reducing unplanned pregnancy and maternal mortality in our environment. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, sociodemographic characteristics, technique, effectiveness and complications associated with female sterilization by bilateral tubal ligation ...

  12. Objections to tubal sterilization: what reversibility can and cannot overcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, R N

    1980-09-01

    In a study of 1074 women, 696 and 338 subjects would not seriously consider permanent and hypothetically reversible sterilization, respectively; they were asked to explain their feelings. The reason accounting for most objections to permanent sterilization (65%) was irreversibility and of the subjects who would not consider reversible sterilization or were unsure, 42.7% attributed their principal objection to unnecessary surgery, a factor at least currently intrinsic to the procedure and not readily overcome by education. Many of the remaining objections to both permanent and reversible sterilization may be amenable to change either through education or financial subsidies. In response to a question concerning female attractiveness subsequent to permanent sterilization, 3% of the sample felt attractiveness would decrease and 17.5% were unsure of the surgery's effect. Unsure responses were largely negative in character. This issue is important because of its relationship to intention to undergo sterilization. Upon consideration of reversible sterilization, negative and unsure responses significantly declined, even on the part of those women whose friends have had a poor experience with currently available procedures. Thus, whereas the option of reversibility cannot overcome objections to surgery, it does overcome those regarding permanency; moreover, the "temporary" character it bestows upon surgical sterilization appears to help certain individuals overcome their fears of losing their physical appeal as a result of such procedures.

  13. 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization - Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.; Kaluska, I.; Gluszewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    During the 9. School of radiation sterilization and hygienization 23 lectures were presented. They were devoted to all aspects of sterilization and hygienization of food, medicinal articles and cosmetics using the ionisation radiation. It was destined to physicians, manufacturers and vendees of spices, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, personnel of the sanitary-epidemiological stations and even for the art conservators

  14. Comparison of Sterile and Clean Dressing Techniques in Post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of Sterile and Clean Dressing Techniques in Post-operative Surgical Wound Infection in a Chinese Healthcare Facility. ... of sterile and clean dressing techniques on wound management in a Chinese hospital, and to compare their impact on wound healing and the cost of the dressing materials with respect to ...

  15. Assessment of Non-Sterile Pharmaceutical Compounding Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the practices of non-sterile pharmaceutical compounding in selected 42 community and 3 hospital pharmacies in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 01 April, 2016 to 15 May, 2016. The study revealed that the most commonly prescribed and compounded non-sterile ...

  16. Thermalisation of light sterile neutrinos in the early universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannestad, Steen; Tamborra, Irene; Tram, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    on the current cosmological data have been derived using simplified assumptions about thermalisation of the sterile neutrino at the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) epoch. These assumptions are not necessarily justified and here we solve the full quantum kinetic equations in the (1 active + 1 sterile) scenario...

  17. Surface sterilization method for reducing microbial contamination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective disinfection method for strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Senga Sengana micropropagation using runner tips and nodal segments as explants was developed. The explants were surface sterilized with different sterilants for different durations. The present studies on the effect of different regimes of ...

  18. 42 CFR 50.207 - Sterilization by hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization by hysterectomy. 50.207 Section 50.207 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS POLICIES OF GENERAL APPLICABILITY Sterilization of Persons in Federally Assisted Family Planning Projects § 50.207...

  19. Efficacy of gamma sterilization technique for biofertilizer carrier production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rallos, Roland V.; Rivera, Faye G.; Anarna, Julie A.; Rojales, Jacqueline S.

    2013-01-01

    Th use of gamma irradiation as sterilization technique for biofertilizer carrier is very efficient and practical especially in large scale production. The results of this study on the efficacy of gamma sterilization justify research on the effects of established doses of gamma irradiation on the physico-chemical properties of the clay-charcoal mixture

  20. The context and limitations of female sterilization services in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Ahmad; Khan, Ayesha; Abbas, Khadija; Tirmizi, Syed Farhan Ali; ul Islam, Zia

    2013-04-01

    Female sterilization has long been the most popular method of family planning (FP) in Pakistan, and yet most public health experts feel it contributes little to controlling family size or to population welfare. We used Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) data to understand the role female sterilization plays in the overall context of FP in Pakistan. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the PDHS 1990-1 and 2006-7 to study factors that lead to sterilization and trends in the use of the procedure. In addition, census data were multiplied by proportions from PDHS data to estimate the number of women availing sterilization services. Around 1.9 million women in Pakistan are currently sterilized--up from 0.55 million in 1990-1, and around 173,867 undergo the procedure, annually. Women usually receive sterilization after 30 years of age (mean = 39) and after six children. The probability of sterilization increases with age, family size, and urban residence, and is unaffected by poverty, province of residence, or the woman or her husband's education. Most sterilizationis conducted in public sector facilities. Sterilization in Pakistan may be common, but occurs too late to have any significant effect on family size or benefit public health. Future avenues to make this option more useful to women and society would be to improve the repertoire and access and quality of FP services that are available, and to address governance issues that limit the performance and utility of government facilities.

  1. Nuclear-Cytoplasmic male-sterility in diploid dandelions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Meirmans, P.; van Tienderen, P.H.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Male-sterility was found in diploid dandelions from two widely separated populations from France, and its inheritance was analysed by crossing a diploid male-sterile dandelion to diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Nuclear genetic variation, found in full-sib families, segregated for

  2. Nuclear-cytoplasmic male-sterility in diploid dandelions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R.G.M.; Meirmans, P.G.; van Tienderen, P.H.; van Damme, J.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Male-sterility was found in diploid dandelions from two widely separated populations from France, and its inheritance was analysed by crossing a diploid male-sterile dandelion to diploid sexuals and triploid apomicts. Nuclear genetic variation, found in full-sib families, segregated for male

  3. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  4. Cleaning, disinfection and sterilization of surface prion contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, G; Dehen, C; Perrin, A; Thomas, V; Igel-Egalon, A; Burke, P A; Deslys, J P; Comoy, E

    2013-12-01

    Prion contamination is a risk during device reprocessing, being difficult to remove and inactivate. Little is known of the combined effects of cleaning, disinfection and sterilization during a typical reprocessing cycle in clinical practice. To investigate the combination of cleaning, disinfection and/or sterilization on reducing the risk of surface prion contamination. In vivo test methods were used to study the impact of cleaning alone and cleaning combined with thermal disinfection and high- or low-temperature sterilization processes. A standardized test method, based on contamination of stainless steel wires with high titres of scrapie-infected brain homogenates, was used to determine infectivity reduction. Traditional chemical methods of surface decontamination against prions were confirmed to be effective, but extended steam sterilization was more variable. Steam sterilization alone reduced the risk of prion contamination under normal or extended exposure conditions, but did show significant variation. Thermal disinfection had no impact in these studies. Cleaning with certain defined formulations in combination with steam sterilization can be an effective prion decontamination process, in particular with alkaline formulations. Low-temperature, gaseous hydrogen peroxide sterilization was also confirmed to reduce infectivity in the presence and absence of cleaning. Prion decontamination is affected by the full reprocessing cycle used on contaminated surfaces. The correct use of defined cleaning, disinfection and sterilization methods as tested in this report in the scrapie infectivity assay can provide a standard precaution against prion contamination. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Determinants of sterilization among married couples in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Hee; Chung, Woojin; Lee, Sunmi; Suh, Moonhee; Kang, Dae Ryong

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of sterilization in South Korea. This study was based on the data from the Korea National Fertility Survey carried out in the year 2000 by the Korea Institute of Health and Social Affairs. The subjects of the analysis were 4,604 women and their husbands who were in their first marriage, in the age group of 15-49 years. The data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis. Consistent with the findings of previous studies, the woman's age and the number of total children increased the likelihood of sterilization. In addition, the year of marriage had a strong positive association with sterilization. Interestingly, the number of surviving sons tended to increase the likelihood of sterilization, whereas the woman's education level and age at the time of marriage showed a negative association with sterilization. Religion, place of residence, son preference, and the husband's education level, age and type of occupation were not significant determinants of sterilization. The sex of previous children and lower level of education are distinct determinants of sterilization among women in South Korea. More studies are needed in order to determine the associations between sterilization rate and decreased fertility.

  6. History of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, W.; Curtis, C.F.

    2005-01-01

    During the 1930s and 1940s the idea of releasing insects of pest species to introduce sterility (sterile insect technique or SIT) into wild populations, and thus control them, was independently conceived in three extremely diverse intellectual environments. The key researchers were A. S. Serebrovskii at Moscow State University, F. L. Vanderplank at a tsetse field research station in rural Tanganyika (now Tanzania), and E. F. Knipling of the United States Department of Agriculture. Serebrovskii's work on chromosomal translocations for pest population suppression could not succeed in the catastrophic conditions in the USSR during World War II, after which he died. Vanderplank used hybrid sterility to suppress a tsetse population in a large field experiment, but lacked the resources to develop this method further. Knipling and his team exploited H. J. Muller's discovery that ionizing radiation can induce dominant lethal mutations, and after World War II this approach was applied on an area-wide basis to eradicate the New World screwworm Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) in the USA, Mexico, and Central America. Since then very effective programmes integrating the SIT have been mounted against tropical fruit flies, some species of tsetse flies Glossina spp., the pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders), and the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.). In non-isolated onion fields in the Netherlands, the onion maggot Delia antiqua (Meigen) has since 1981 been suppressed by the SIT. In the 1970s there was much research conducted on mosquito SIT, which then went into 'eclipse', but now appears to be reviving. Development of the SIT for use against the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (L.) has ended, but it is in progress for two sweetpotato weevil species, Cylas formicarius (F.) and Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire), the false codling moth Cryptophlebia leucotreta (Meyrick), the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae

  7. Contraceptive sterilization among Canadians, 1984-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnan, Vijaya

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishPrior to early 1970s, traditional methods were the principal means ofcontrolling the number and spacing of births. Today, an estimated 57 per cent of the world's marriedwomen use contraceptives and half use modern methods such as medical sterilizations. Recent statisticssuggest that Canada has the highest sterilization rate in the Western world. This paper presentsfindings of research examining sterilization trends in Canada with respect to changing patterns in theuse of modern contraceptives, using data from the 1984 Canadian Fertility Survey (CFS and the 1995General Social Survey (GSS. The main finding is that there is a decrease in the use of tubal ligationand an increase in the use of hysterectomy over the period 1984-1995. Less educated women are morelikely to be in the forefront of modern methdos of contraception.FrenchAvant les années 1970, les méthodes traditionnelles représentaient le principalmoyen de contrôler et d’espacer le nombre de naissances. De nos jours, onestime que 57 pour cent des femmes mariées dans le monde entier utilisent unmoyen contraceptif et la moitié utilise des méthodes modernes telles que lastérilisation. Les dernières statistiques indiquent que le Canada compte le tauxde stérilisations le plus élevé dans le monde occidental. Cet article présente lesconclusions de recherches portant sur les tendances en matière de stérilisation auCanada en ce qui concerne les modèles changeants d’utilisation de moyens decontraception modernes et ce, à partir de données de l’Enquête canadienne sur lafécondité de 1984 et de l’Enquête sociale générale (ESG de 1995. La principaleconclusion qui en est ressortie est une réduction de la ligature des trompes etune augmentation du nombre d’hystérectomies de 1984 à 1995. Les femmesmoins éduquées sont plus portées à se trouver au premier plan des méthodes decontraception modernes.

  8. Manned spacecraft automation and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station holds promise of being a showcase user and driver of advanced automation and robotics technology. The author addresses the advances in automation and robotics from the Space Shuttle - with its high-reliability redundancy management and fault tolerance design and its remote manipulator system - to the projected knowledge-based systems for monitoring, control, fault diagnosis, planning, and scheduling, and the telerobotic systems of the future Space Station.

  9. A Novel Technique for Sterilization Using a Power Self-Regulated Single-Mode Microwave Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverte-Ors, Juan D; Pedreño-Molina, Juan L; Fernández, Pablo S; Lozano-Guerrero, Antonio J; Periago, Paula M; Díaz-Morcillo, Alejandro

    2017-06-07

    In this paper, a novel technique to achieve precise temperatures in food sterilization has been proposed. An accurate temperature profile is needed in order to reach a commitment between the total removal of pathogens inside the product and the preservation of nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. The minimal variation of the target temperature in the sample by means of a monitoring and control software platform, allowing temperature stabilization over 100 °C, is the main goal of this work. A cylindrical microwave oven, under pressure conditions and continuous control of the microwave supply power as function of the final temperature inside the sample, has been designed and developed with conditions of single-mode resonance. The uniform heating in the product is achieved by means of sample movement and the self-regulated power control using the measured temperature. Finally, for testing the sterilization of food with this technology, specific biological validation based on Bacillus cereus as a biosensor of heat inactivation has been incorporated as a distribution along the sample in the experimental process to measure the colony-forming units (CFUs) for different food samples (laboratory medium, soup, or fish-based animal by-products). The obtained results allow the validation of this new technology for food sterilization with precise control of the microwave system to ensure the uniform elimination of pathogens using high temperatures.

  10. A Novel Technique for Sterilization Using a Power Self-Regulated Single-Mode Microwave Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Reverte-Ors

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel technique to achieve precise temperatures in food sterilization has been proposed. An accurate temperature profile is needed in order to reach a commitment between the total removal of pathogens inside the product and the preservation of nutritional and organoleptic characteristics. The minimal variation of the target temperature in the sample by means of a monitoring and control software platform, allowing temperature stabilization over 100 °C, is the main goal of this work. A cylindrical microwave oven, under pressure conditions and continuous control of the microwave supply power as function of the final temperature inside the sample, has been designed and developed with conditions of single-mode resonance. The uniform heating in the product is achieved by means of sample movement and the self-regulated power control using the measured temperature. Finally, for testing the sterilization of food with this technology, specific biological validation based on Bacillus cereus as a biosensor of heat inactivation has been incorporated as a distribution along the sample in the experimental process to measure the colony-forming units (CFUs for different food samples (laboratory medium, soup, or fish-based animal by-products. The obtained results allow the validation of this new technology for food sterilization with precise control of the microwave system to ensure the uniform elimination of pathogens using high temperatures.

  11. Sterilization by ionizing radiation comparative evaluation; Sterilizzazione mediante radiazioni e confronto con le tecniche convenzionali

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tata, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Giuliani, S.

    1996-01-01

    Sterilization of surgical and medical devices by ionizing radiation (gamma or accelerated electron beams) is currently regarded as one of the main industrial-scale applications of radiation technology processes. Considering the most widely utilized chemical-physical methods (i.e. ethylene oxide (EtO) fumigation and radiation treatment), about 10-12 millions m(3) of surgical and medical devices are estimated to be processed yearly all around the world, of which 70 % by EtO, 27% by gamma-irradiation and 3% using accelerated beams. Due to the increasing demand for reusable and single-use devices, and the need of assuring their sterility in order to prevent, as much as possible, the diffusion of serious infective diseases (among which for instance Aids), the market of sterilization of these items is considerably expanding. In the general depicted scenario, radiation technologies are expected to gain a leading role, even a part from their economic attractiveness, as an alternative to EtO treatment, which is more and more considered as responsible for increasing environmental, social and public health problems.

  12. Robust H∞ Control for Spacecraft Rendezvous with a Noncooperative Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Nan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The robust H∞ control for spacecraft rendezvous with a noncooperative target is addressed in this paper. The relative motion of chaser and noncooperative target is firstly modeled as the uncertain system, which contains uncertain orbit parameter and mass. Then the H∞ performance and finite time performance are proposed, and a robust H∞ controller is developed to drive the chaser to rendezvous with the non-cooperative target in the presence of control input saturation, measurement error, and thrust error. The linear matrix inequality technology is used to derive the sufficient condition of the proposed controller. An illustrative example is finally provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controller.

  13. Investigation of fast initialization of spacecraft bubble memory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.; Hayes, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Bubble domain technology offers significant improvement in reliability and functionality for spacecraft onboard memory applications. In considering potential memory systems organizations, minimization of power in high capacity bubble memory systems necessitates the activation of only the desired portions of the memory. In power strobing arbitrary memory segments, a capability of fast turn on is required. Bubble device architectures, which provide redundant loop coding in the bubble devices, limit the initialization speed. Alternate initialization techniques are investigated to overcome this design limitation. An initialization technique using a small amount of external storage is demonstrated.

  14. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  15. Use of geoprocessing tools in uranium mining: volume estimation of sterile piles from the Osamu Utsumi Mine of INB / Caldas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, A.M.; Menezes, P.H.B.J.; Alberti, H.L.C.; Silva, N.C. da; Goda, R.T.

    2017-01-01

    The determination of the volumes of the sterile piles generated in the uranium mining and their respective characterization is of extreme importance for the management of mining wastes and future decommissioning actions of a nuclear facility. With the development of information technology, it becomes possible to simulate different scenarios in a computational environment, being able to store, represent and process data from existing information. In the industrial mining context, the sterile is represented with rocky materials of different granulometries and with ore content below the cut content determined by the industrial process. In this sense, the present work has the objective of calculating the volume of the sterile stacks of the Osamu Utsumi uranium mine of INB - Nuclear Industries of Brazil / Caldas. The MOU was officially inaugurated in 1977 and operated until 1995, where 1,200 tons of U 2 O 3 were produced generating about 94.5 x 106 tons of sterile material containing low levels of radioactive material and pyrite. The methodology for the development of this work initially involves integration approaches between the Geographic Information System (GIS) and terrain modeling for the sterile piles called BF4 and BF8. The results obtained were compared with the existing literature, translating the importance of GIS as a tool in the management of wastes

  16. The causes of genetic male sterility in 3 soybaen lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaihayo, P R; Gumisiriza, G

    1978-11-01

    The cause of male sterility in 3 soybean lines, TGM 103-1, N-69-2774 and TGM 242-4 was studied. In TGM 103-1, which was both male and female sterile, two different abnormalities were associated with sterility. Precocious movement of a few chromosomes at the metaphase I stage resulted into the production of non-functional pollen while cells which underwent apparent normal meiotic division had disintergration of the tapetal cell wall immediately after the free microspore stage leading to the starvation and subsequent death of the developing microspores. In lines N-69-2774 and TGM 242-4, both of which were partially sterile, male sterility resulted from a failure of cytokinesis after the telophase II stage. Meiosis proceeded normally but the 4 microspores after telophase II failed to separate into pollen grains and degenerated thereafter.

  17. Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization: a systematic review of the Essure system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurskainen, Ritva; Hovi, Sirpa-Liisa; Gissler, Mika

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence of the efficacy and safety of the Essure system. Female sterilization has undergone changes in the last decade. Besides laparoscopic tubal occlusion, the Essure system is now a viable option, with about 200,000 women sterilized using this method. DESIGN: The review...... in ambulatory settings. However, sterilization is not immediate and women must use additional contraception for 3 months until permanent tubal occlusion is verified by transvaginal ultrasound, hysterosalpingosonography, hysterosalpingography, or pelvic radiography. The evidence on efficacy and safety is mainly...... sterilization, but more information on the total cost is needed. CONCLUSION(S): The Essure system appears to be safe, permanent, irreversible, and a less invasive method of contraception compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Copyright (c) 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published...

  18. Color stability of shade guides after autoclave sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeling, Max; Sartori, Neimar; Monteiro, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 120 autoclave sterilization cycles on the color stability of two commercial shade guides (Vita Classical and Vita System 3D-Master). The specimens were evaluated by spectrophotometer before and after the sterilization cycles. The color was described using the three-dimensional CIELab system. The statistical analysis was performed in three chromaticity coordinates, before and after sterilization cycles, using the paired samples t test. All specimens became darker after autoclave sterilization cycles. However, specimens of Vita Classical became redder, while those of the Vita System 3D-Master became more yellow. Repeated cycles of autoclave sterilization caused statistically significant changes in the color coordinates of the two shade guides. However, these differences are considered clinically acceptable.

  19. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  20. Investigation on food sanitation controlling technologies; Shokuhin eisei kanri gijutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Y [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan); Nishioka, J

    2000-03-24

    Investigation has been made on the current status of food sanitation controlling technologies. Eighty percent of food poisoning is caused by bacte such as Salmonera, enteritis vibrio, staphylococcus, and pathogenic colibacillus. Putrefaction as the cause for food poisoning occurs from proliferation of different microorganisms. Heating sterilization is the main method being performed, but non-heating method may include sterilization by flash and high voltage pulse discharge in addition to ultra-high pressure and ultraviolet ray sterilization. As a result of the questionnaire survey, what is extracted as the problems in the food sanitation controlling technologies is to establish a rinsing and sterilizing method with large sterilization effect, an effective sterilizing method and thawing of processed marine products, and a cooling method in food processing. Increasingly demanded for the future is to develop a foodstuff sanitation control system using as the core the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP, a quality control program developed by the U.S. NASA to ensure safety in manufacturing space food), and micro-organism control and sterilizing technologies to support the above system. The flash pulse and high-voltage pulse sterilizing technologies as the non-heating sterilizing technology are more effective than the conventional heating sterilization methods also from the aspect of quality retention after sterilization. More active development thereof is desired. (NEDO)