WorldWideScience

Sample records for spacecraft power system

  1. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.

    1997-01-01

    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  2. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  3. Space power systems--''Spacecraft 2000''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faymon, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    The National Space programs of the 21st century will require abundant and relatively low cost power and energy produced by high reliability-low mass systems. Advancement of current power system related technologies will enable the U.S. to realize increased scientific payload for government missions or increased revenue producing payload for commercial space endeavors. Autonomous, unattended operation will be a highly desirable characteristic of these advanced power systems. Those space power-energy related technologies, which will comprise the space craft of the late 1990's and the early 2000's, will evolve from today's state-of-the-art systems and those long term technology development programs presently in place. However, to foster accelerated development of the more critical technologies which have the potential for high-payoffs, additional programs will be proposed and put in place between now and the end of the century. Such a program is ''Spacecraft 2000'', which is described in this paper

  4. Galileo spacecraft power management and distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detwiler, R.C.; Smith, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    It has been twelve years since two Voyager spacecraft began the direct route to the outer planets. In October 1989 a single Galileo spacecraft started the return to Jupiter. Conceived as a simple Voyager look-alike, the Galileo power management and distribution (PMAD) system has undergone many iterations in configuration. Major changes to the PMAD resulted from dual spun slip ring limitations, variations in launch vehicle thrust capabilities, and launch delays. Lack of an adequate launch vehicle for an interplanetary mission of Galileo's size has resulted in an extremely long flight duration. A Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA) tour, vital to attain the required energy, results in a 6 year trip to Jupiter and its moons. This paper provides a description of the Galileo PMAD and documents the design drivers that established the final as-built hardware

  5. Conceptual definition of Automated Power Systems Management. [for planetary spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, M. S.; Skelly, L.; Weiner, H.

    1977-01-01

    Automated Power Systems Management (APSM) is defined as the capability of a spacecraft power system to automatically perform monitoring, computational, command, and control functions without ground intervention. Power systems for future planetary spacecraft must have this capability because they must perform up to 10 years, and accommodate real-time changes in mission execution autonomously. Specific APSM functions include fault detection, isolation, and correction; system performance and load profile prediction; power system optimization; system checkout; and data storage and transmission control. This paper describes the basic method of implementing these specific functions. The APSM hardware includes a central power system computer and a processor dedicated to each major power system subassembly along with digital interface circuitry. The major payoffs anticipated are in enhancement of spacecraft reliability and life and reduction of overall spacecraft program cost.

  6. Large autonomous spacecraft electrical power system (LASEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center is creating a large high voltage electrical power system testbed called LASEPS. This testbed is being developed to simulate an end-to-end power system from power generation and source to loads. When the system is completed it will have several power configurations, which will include several battery configurations. These configurations are: two 120 V batteries, one or two 150 V batteries, and one 250 to 270 V battery. This breadboard encompasses varying levels of autonomy from remote power converters to conventional software control to expert system control of the power system elements. In this paper, the construction and provisions of this breadboard are discussed.

  7. Diagnosing Faults in Electrical Power Systems of Spacecraft and Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft, and they exhibit a rich variety of failure modes. This paper discusses electrical power...

  8. Research on intelligent power distribution system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaodong; Wu, Jianju

    2017-10-01

    The power distribution system (PDS) mainly realizes the power distribution and management of the electrical load of the whole spacecraft, which is directly related to the success or failure of the mission, and hence is an important part of the spacecraft. In order to improve the reliability and intelligent degree of the PDS, and considering the function and composition of spacecraft power distribution system, this paper systematically expounds the design principle and method of the intelligent power distribution system based on SSPC, and provides the analysis and verification of the test data additionally.

  9. Multi-kilowatt modularized spacecraft power processing system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.E.; Hayden, J.H.; Hedges, R.T.; Rehmann, D.W.

    1975-07-01

    A review of existing information pertaining to spacecraft power processing systems and equipment was accomplished with a view towards applicability to the modularization of multi-kilowatt power processors. Power requirements for future spacecraft were determined from the NASA mission model-shuttle systems payload data study which provided the limits for modular power equipment capabilities. Three power processing systems were compared to evaluation criteria to select the system best suited for modularity. The shunt regulated direct energy transfer system was selected by this analysis for a conceptual design effort which produced equipment specifications, schematics, envelope drawings, and power module configurations

  10. Low power arcjet system spacecraft impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Lichtin, D. A.; Palchefsky, J. W.; Bogorad, A. L.

    1993-01-01

    Potential plume contamination of spacecraft surfaces was investigated by positioning spacecraft material samples relative to an arcjet thruster. Samples in the simulated solar array region were exposed to the cold gas arcjet plume for 40 hrs to address concerns about contamination by backstreaming diffusion pump oil. Except for one sample, no significant changes were measured in absorptance and emittance within experimental error. Concerns about surface property degradation due to electrostatic discharges led to the investigation of the discharge phenomenon of charged samples during arcjet ignition. Short duration exposure of charged samples demonstrated that potential differences are consistently and completely eliminated within the first second of exposure to a weakly ionized plume. The spark discharge mechanism was not the discharge phenomenon. The results suggest that the arcjet could act as a charge control device on spacecraft.

  11. Automating a spacecraft electrical power system using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, L. F.

    1991-01-01

    Since Skylab, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has recognized the need for large electrical power systems (EPS's) in upcoming Spacecraft. The operation of the spacecraft depends on the EPS. Therefore, it must be efficient, safe, and reliable. In 1978, as a consequence of having to supply a large number of EPS personnel to monitor and control Skylab, the Electrical power Branch of MSFC began the autonomously managed power system (AMPS) project. This project resulted in the assembly of a 25-kW high-voltage dc test facility and provided the means of getting man out of the loop as much as possible. AMPS includes several embedded controllers which allow a significant level of autonomous operation. More recently, the Electrical Division at MSFC has developed the space station module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) breadboard to investigate managing and distributing power in the Space Station Freedom habitation and laboratory modules. Again, the requirement for a high level of autonomy for the efficient operation over the lifetime of the station and for the benefits of enhanced safety has been demonstrated. This paper describes the two breadboards and the hierarchical approach to automation which was developed through these projects.

  12. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  13. Study of reactor Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft was investigated. The primary performance parameters of systems mass and radiator area were determined for systems from 100 to 1000 kW sub e. Mathematical models of all system components were used to determine masses and volumes. Two completely independent systems provide propulsion power so that no single-point failure can jeopardize a mission. The waste heat radiators utilize armored heat pipes to limit meteorite puncture. The armor thickness was statistically determined to achieve the required probability of survival. A 400 kW sub e reference system received primary attention as required by the contract. The components of this system were defined and a conceptual layout was developed with encouraging results. An arrangement with redundant Brayton power systems having a 1500 K (2240 F) turbine inlet temperature was shown to be compatible with the dimensions of the space shuttle orbiter payload bay.

  14. Radioisotope AMTEC power system designs for spacecraft applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Sievers, R.K.; Hunt, T.K.; Johnson, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) system is an exceptional candidate for high performance spacecraft power systems including small systems powered by General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS). The AMTEC converter is best described as a thermally regenerative electrochemical concentration cell. AMTEC is a static energy conversion device and can operate at efficiencies between 15% and 30%. The single tube, remote condensed, wick return minicell design has been incorporated into a radioisotope powered system model. Reported cell efficiencies used for these system design studies ranged from 15% to 25%. This efficiency is significantly higher than other static conversion systems operating at the same temperatures. Savings in mass and cost, relative to other more conventional static conversion systems, have also been shown. The minicell used for this system study has many advanced features not combined in previous designs, including wick return, remote condensing, and hot zone feedthroughs. All of these features significantly enhance the performance of the AMTEC cell. Additionally, the cell end provides enough area for adequate heat transfer from the GPHS module, eliminating the need for a ''hot shoe'', and reducing the complexity and weight of the system. This paper describes and compares small (two module) and larger (16 module) AMTEC radioisotope powered systems and describes the computer model developed to predict their performance

  15. Reactor/Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Studies are currently underway to assess the technological feasibility of a nuclear-reactor-powered spacecraft propelled by electric thrusters. This vehicle would be capable of performing detailed exploration of the outer planets of the solar system during the remainder of this century. The purpose of this study was to provide comparative information on a closed cycle gas turbine power conversion system. The results have shown that the performance is very competitive and that a 400 kWe space power system is dimensionally compatible with a single Space Shuttle launch. Performance parameters of system mass and radiator area were determined for systems from 100 to 1000 kWe. A 400 kWe reference system received primary attention. The components of this system were defined and a conceptual layout was developed with encouraging results. The preliminary mass determination for the complete power system was very close to the desired goal of 20 kg/kWe. Use of more advanced technology (higher turbine inlet temperature) will substantially improve system performance characteristics.

  16. Spacecraft Electrical Power System (EPS) generic analysis tools and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gladys M.; Sheppard, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is provided of the analysis tools and techiques used in modeling the Space Station Freedom electrical power system, as well as future space vehicle power systems. The analysis capabilities of the Electrical Power System (EPS) are described and the EPS analysis tools are surveyed.

  17. Small Spacecraft Integrated Power System with Active Thermal Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop an integrated power generation and energy storage system with an active thermal management system. Carbon fiber solar panels will contain...

  18. A Compact, Low Power Pulsed Optical Communication System for Spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to reduce the power required for high bandwidth, deep space laser communications systems. Our concept will encode data in the time delay...

  19. Solar Power System Options for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Haraburda, Francis M.; Riehl, John P.

    2000-01-01

    The Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission has the primary objective of demonstrating high-power (10 kilowatts) electric thruster technologies in Earth orbit. This paper discusses the conceptual design of the RTD spacecraft photovoltaic (PV) power system and mission performance analyses. These power system studies assessed multiple options for PV arrays, battery technologies and bus voltage levels. To quantify performance attributes of these power system options, a dedicated Fortran code was developed to predict power system performance and estimate system mass. The low-thrust mission trajectory was analyzed and important Earth orbital environments were modeled. Baseline power system design options are recommended on the basis of performance, mass and risk/complexity. Important findings from parametric studies are discussed and the resulting impacts to the spacecraft design and cost.

  20. Adaptation and Re-Use of Spacecraft Power System Models for the Constellation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Ayres, Mark; Han, Augustina H.; Adamson, Adrian M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is embarking on a new era of space exploration, returning to the Moon and beyond. The Constellation architecture will consist of a number of new spacecraft elements, including the Orion crew exploration vehicle, the Altair lunar lander, and the Ares family of launch vehicles. Each of these new spacecraft elements will need an electric power system, and those power systems will need to be designed to fulfill unique mission objectives and to survive the unique environments encountered on a lunar exploration mission. As with any new spacecraft power system development, preliminary design work will rely heavily on analysis to select the proper power technologies, size the power system components, and predict the system performance throughout the required mission profile. Constellation projects have the advantage of leveraging power system modeling developments from other recent programs such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the Mars Exploration Program. These programs have developed mature power system modeling tools, which can be quickly modified to meet the unique needs of Constellation, and thus provide a rapid capability for detailed power system modeling that otherwise would not exist.

  1. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Spacecraft Power System Design and Orbital Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakermanji, George; Burns, Michael; Lee, Leonine; Lyons, John; Kim, David; Spitzer, Thomas; Kercheval, Bradford

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft was jointly developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). It is a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft launched on February 27, 2014. The spacecraft is in a circular 400 Km altitude, 65 degrees inclination nadir pointing orbit with a three year basic mission life. The solar array consists of two sun tracking wings with cable wraps. The panels are populated with triple junction cells of nominal 29.5% efficiency. One axis is canted by 52 degrees to provide power to the spacecraft at high beta angles. The power system is a Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system designed to support 1950 Watts orbit average power. The batteries use SONY 18650HC cells and consist of three 8s x 84p batteries operated in parallel as a single battery. The paper describes the power system design details, its performance to date and the lithium ion battery model that was developed for use in the energy balance analysis and is being used to predict the on-orbit health of the battery.

  2. A nuclear source term analysis for spacecraft power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, W.H.

    1998-01-01

    All US space missions involving on board nuclear material must be approved by the Office of the President. To be approved the mission and the hardware systems must undergo evaluations of the associated nuclear health and safety risk. One part of these evaluations is the characterization of the source terms, i.e., the estimate of the amount, physical form, and location of nuclear material, which might be released into the environment in the event of credible accidents. This paper presents a brief overview of the source term analysis by the Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel for the NASA Cassini Space Mission launched in October 1997. Included is a description of the Energy Interaction Model, an innovative approach to the analysis of potential releases from high velocity impacts resulting from launch aborts and reentries

  3. Power requirements for commercial communications spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billerbeck, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Historical data on commercial spacecraft power systems are presented and their power requirements to the growth of satellite communications channel usage are related. Some approaches for estimating future power requirements of this class of spacecraft through the year 2000 are proposed. The key technology drivers in satellite power systems are addressed. Several technological trends in such systems are described, focusing on the most useful areas for research and development of major subsystems, including solar arrays, energy storage, and power electronics equipment.

  4. Spacecraft radiator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  5. A historical overview of the electrical power systems in the US manned and some US unmanned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    A historical overview of electrical power systems used in the U.S. manned spacecraft and some of the U.S. unmanned spacecraft is presented in this investigation. A time frame of approximately 25 years, the period for 1959 to 1984, is covered in this report. Results indicate that the nominal bus voltage was 28 volts dc in most spacecraft and all other voltage levels were derived from this voltage through such techniques as voltage inversion or rectification, or a combination. Most spacecraft used solar arrays for the main source of power except for those spacecraft that had a relatively short flight duration, or deep spaceprobes that were designed for very long flight duration. Fuel cells were used on Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle (short duration flights) while radioisotope thermoelectric generators were employed on the Pioneer, Jupiter/Saturn, Viking Lander, and Voyager spacecraft (long duration flights). The main dc bus voltage was unregulated on the manned spacecraft with voltage regulation provided at the user loads. A combination of regulated, semiregulated, and unregulated buses were used on the unmanned spacecraft depending on the type of load. For example, scientific instruments were usually connected to regulated buses while fans, relays, etc. were energized from an unregulated bus. Different forms of voltage regulation, such as shunt, buck/boot, and pulse-width modulated regulators, were used. This report includes a comprehensive bibliography on spacecraft electrical power systems for the space programs investigated.

  6. Development and Analysis of a Resource-Aware Power Management System as Applied to Small Spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shriver, Patrick [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, an overall framework and solution method for managing the limited power resources of a small spacecraft is presented. Analogous to mobile computing technology, a primary limiting factor is the available power resources. In spite of the millions of dollars budgeted for research and development over decades, improvements in battery efficiency remains low. This situation is exacerbated by advances in payload technology that lead to increasingly power-hungry and data-intensive instruments. The challenge for the small spacecraft is to maximize capabilities and performance while meeting difficult design requirements and small project budgets.

  7. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  8. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems. In particular, we consider the development of large-scale Bayesian networks by composition. This compositional approach reflects how (often redundant) subsystems are architected to form systems such as electrical power systems. We develop high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems. The largest among these 24 Bayesian networks contains over 1,000 random variables. Another BN represents the real-world electrical power system ADAPT, which is representative of electrical power systems deployed in aerospace vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the scalability of the compositional approach, we briefly report on experimental results from the diagnostic competition DXC, where the ProADAPT team, using techniques discussed here, obtained the highest scores in both Tier 1 (among 9 international competitors) and Tier 2 (among 6 international competitors) of the industrial track. While we consider diagnosis of power systems specifically, we believe this work is relevant to other system health management problems, in particular in dependable systems such as aircraft and spacecraft. (See CASI ID 20100021910 for supplemental data disk.)

  9. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  10. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM Spacecraft Power System Design and Orbital Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakermanji George

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the power system design details, its performance to date and the lithium ion battery model that was developed for use in the energy balance analysis and is being used to predict the on-orbit health of the battery.

  11. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  12. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  13. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (UNIX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  14. Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Applications Study. Volume II. Nuclear Integrated Multimission Spacecraft (NIMS) design definition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The design requirements for the Nuclear Integrated Multimission Spacecraft. (NIMS) are discussed in detail. The requirements are a function of mission specifications, payload, control system requirements, electric system specifications, and cost limitations

  15. Project-based learning applied to spacecraft power systems: a long-term engineering and educational program at UPM University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindado, Santiago; Cubas, Javier; Roibás-Millán, Elena; Sorribes-Palmer, Félix

    2018-03-01

    The IDR/UPM Institute is the research center responsible for the Master in Space Systems (MUSE) of Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM). This is a 2-year (120 ECTS) master's degree focused on space technology. The UPMSat-2 satellite program has become an excellent educational framework in which the academic contents of the master are trained through project-based learning and following a multidisciplinary approach. In the present work, the educational projects developed and carried out in relation to spacecraft power systems at the IDR/UPM Institute are described. These projects are currently being developed in the framework represented by the aforementioned MUSE master's program and UPMSat-2.

  16. Magnesium fluoride as energy storage medium for spacecraft solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurio, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    MgF2 was investigated as a phase-change energy-storage material for LEO power systems using solar heat to run thermal cycles. It provides a high heat of fusion per unit mass at a high melting point (1536 K). Theoretical evaluation showed the basic chemical compatibility of liquid MgF2 with refractory metals at 1600 K, though transient high pressures of H2 can occur in a closed container due to reaction with residual moisture. The compatibility was tested in two refractory metal containers for over 2000 h. Some showed no deterioration, while there was evidence that the fluoride reacted with hafnium in others. Corollary tests showed that the MgF2 supercooled by 10-30 K and 50-90 K.

  17. Research on spacecraft electrical power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    The history of spacecraft electrical power conversion in literature, research and practice is reviewed. It is noted that the design techniques, analyses and understanding which were developed make today's contribution to power computers and communication installations. New applications which require more power, improved dynamic response, greater reliability, and lower cost are outlined. The switching mode approach in electronic power conditioning is discussed. Technical aspects of the research are summarized.

  18. Improved techniques for predicting spacecraft power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are going to supply power for the NASA Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft now scheduled to be launched in 1989 and 1990. The duration of the Galileo mission is expected to be over 8 years. This brings the total RTG lifetime to 13 years. In 13 years, the RTG power drops more than 20 percent leaving a very small power margin over what is consumed by the spacecraft. Thus it is very important to accurately predict the RTG performance and be able to assess the magnitude of errors involved. The paper lists all the error sources involved in the RTG power predictions and describes a statistical method for calculating the tolerance

  19. Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.

    2011-01-01

    An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

  20. Wheel speed management control system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A spacecraft attitude control system uses at least four reaction wheels. In order to minimize reaction wheel speed and therefore power, a wheel speed management system is provided. The management system monitors the wheel speeds and generates a wheel speed error vector. The error vector is integrated, and the error vector and its integral are combined to form a correction vector. The correction vector is summed with the attitude control torque command signals for driving the reaction wheels.

  1. Nuclear-powered Hysat spacecraft: comparative design study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, B.

    1975-08-01

    The study shows that the all-nuclear spacecraft can have a substantial weight advantage over a hybrid (nuclear/solar) or all-solar spacecraft, owing to a further reduction in power requirement, and to the elimination of such equipment as the sensor gimbal and rotating joint assemblies. Because the need for a sun-oriented section is eliminated, the all-nuclear spacecraft can be designed as a monolithic structure, with the sensor and other payload firmly secured in a fixed position on the structure. This enhances attitude stability while minimizing structural weight and eliminating the need for flexible fluid lines. Sensor motion can be produced, varied, and controlled within the limits specified by the study contractors by moving the entire spacecraft in the prescribed pattern. A simple attitude control system using available hardware suffices to meet all requirements

  2. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    This CD contains files that support the talk (see CASI ID 20100021404). There are 24 models that relate to the ADAPT system and 1 Excel worksheet. In the paper an investigation into the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems is described. The high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems are described in the talk. The data in the CD are the models of the 24 different power systems.

  3. A study of Schwarz converters for nuclear powered spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1987-01-01

    High power space systems which use low dc voltage, high current sources such as thermoelectric generators, will most likely require high voltage conversion for transmission purposes. This study considers the use of the Schwarz resonant converter for use as the basic building block to accomplish this low-to-high voltage conversion for either a dc or an ac spacecraft bus. The Schwarz converter has the important assets of both inherent fault tolerance and resonant operation; parallel operation in modular form is possible. A regulated dc spacecraft bus requires only a single stage converter while a constant frequency ac bus requires a cascaded Schwarz converter configuration. If the power system requires constant output power from the dc generator, then a second converter is required to route unneeded power to a ballast load.

  4. Nuclear-Powered GPS Spacecraft Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raab, Bernard

    1977-05-01

    This is the final report of a study to investigate the potential benefits of a nuclear (radioisotope) - powered satellite for advanced phases of the Global Positioning System (GPS) program. The critical parameters were: power to user; mean mission duration; orbital predictability; thermal control of on-board frequency standards; and vulnerability. The reference design approach is described, and input data are given for two power systems that are under development: an organic Rankine system and a Brayton cycle system. Reference design details are provided and structural design and analysis are discussed, as well as thermal design and analysis. A higher altitude version is also considered.

  5. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    OpenAIRE

    Renuganth Varatharajoo; Ramly Ajir; Tamizi Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS) consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl...

  6. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  7. Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, P. A.; Snowden, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The baseline Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system (SCMS) concepts and the converted SCMS, residing on a DEC/VAX 8350 hardware, are considered. The main functions of the system include monitoring and displaying spacecraft telemetry, preparing spacecraft commands, producing hard copies of experimental data, and archiving spacecraft telemetry. The SCMS system comprises over 20 subsystems ranging from low-level utility routines to the major monitoring and control software. These in total consist of approximately 55,000 lines of FORTRAN source code and 100 VMS command files. The SCMS major software facilities are described, including database files, telemetry processing, telecommanding, archiving of data, and display of telemetry.

  8. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (MACINTOSH A/UX VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  9. DET/MPS - THE GSFC ENERGY BALANCE PROGRAM, DIRECT ENERGY TRANSFER/MULTIMISSION SPACECRAFT MODULAR POWER SYSTEM (DEC VAX VMS VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielski, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The DET/MPS programs model and simulate the Direct Energy Transfer and Multimission Spacecraft Modular Power System in order to aid both in design and in analysis of orbital energy balance. Typically, the DET power system has the solar array directly to the spacecraft bus, and the central building block of MPS is the Standard Power Regulator Unit. DET/MPS allows a minute-by-minute simulation of the power system's performance as it responds to various orbital parameters, focusing its output on solar array output and battery characteristics. While this package is limited in terms of orbital mechanics, it is sufficient to calculate eclipse and solar array data for circular or non-circular orbits. DET/MPS can be adjusted to run one or sequential orbits up to about one week, simulated time. These programs have been used on a variety of Goddard Space Flight Center spacecraft projects. DET/MPS is written in FORTRAN 77 with some VAX-type extensions. Any FORTRAN 77 compiler that includes VAX extensions should be able to compile and run the program with little or no modifications. The compiler must at least support free-form (or tab-delineated) source format and 'do do-while end-do' control structures. DET/MPS is available for three platforms: GSC-13374, for DEC VAX series computers running VMS, is available in DEC VAX Backup format on a 9-track 1600 BPI tape (standard distribution) or TK50 tape cartridge; GSC-13443, for UNIX-based computers, is available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format; and GSC-13444, for Macintosh computers running AU/X with either the NKR FORTRAN or AbSoft MacFORTRAN II compilers, is available on a 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. Source code and test data are supplied. The UNIX version of DET requires 90K of main memory for execution. DET/MPS was developed in 1990. A/UX and Macintosh are registered trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. VMS, DEC VAX and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. UNIX is a

  10. Historical Mass, Power, Schedule, and Cost Growth for NASA Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Marc R.; Bitten, Robert E.; Shinn, Stephen A.; Judnick, Daniel C.; Hallgrimson, Ingrid E.; Youngs, Megan A.

    2016-01-01

    Although spacecraft developers have been moving towards standardized product lines as the aerospace industry has matured, NASA's continual need to push the cutting edge of science to accomplish unique, challenging missions can still lead to spacecraft resource growth over time. This paper assesses historical mass, power, cost, and schedule growth for multiple NASA spacecraft from the last twenty years and compares to industry reserve guidelines to understand where the guidelines may fall short. Growth is assessed from project start to launch, from the time of the preliminary design review (PDR) to launch and from the time of the critical design review (CDR) to launch. Data is also assessed not just at the spacecraft bus level, but also at the subsystem level wherever possible, to help obtain further insight into possible drivers of growth. Potential recommendations to minimize spacecraft mass, power, cost, and schedule growth for future missions are also discussed.

  11. A Shaftless Magnetically Levitated Multifunctional Spacecraft Flywheel Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ken; Thornton, Richard; Clark, Tracy; Beaman, Bob G.; Dennehy, Neil; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Presently many types of spacecraft use a Spacecraft Attitude Control System (ACS) with momentum wheels for steering and electrochemical batteries to provide electrical power for the eclipse period of the spacecraft orbit. Future spacecraft will use Flywheels for combined use in ACS and Energy Storage. This can be done by using multiple wheels and varying the differential speed for ACS and varying the average speed for energy storage and recovery. Technology in these areas has improved since the 1990s so it is now feasible for flywheel systems to emerge from the laboratory for spacecraft use. This paper describes a new flywheel system that can be used for both ACS and energy storage. Some of the possible advantages of a flywheel system are: lower total mass and volume, higher efficiency, less thermal impact, improved satellite integration schedule and complexity, simplified satellite orbital operations, longer life with lower risk, less pointing jitter, and greater capability for high-rate slews. In short, they have the potential to enable new types of missions and provide lower cost. Two basic types of flywheel configurations are the Flywheel Energy Storage System (FESS) and the Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS).

  12. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  13. Development of software to improve AC power quality on large spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, L. Alan

    1991-01-01

    To insure the reliability of a 20 kHz, alternating current (AC) power system on spacecraft, it is essential to analyze its behavior under many adverse operating conditions. Some of these conditions include overloads, short circuits, switching surges, and harmonic distortions. Harmonic distortions can become a serious problem. It can cause malfunctions in equipment that the power system is supplying, and, during distortions such as voltage resonance, it can cause equipment and insulation failures due to the extreme peak voltages. To address the harmonic distortion issue, work was begun under the 1990 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program. Software, originally developed by EPRI, called HARMFLO, a power flow program capable of analyzing harmonic conditions on three phase, balanced, 60 Hz AC power systems, was modified to analyze single phase, 20 kHz, AC power systems. Since almost all of the equipment used on spacecraft power systems is electrically different from equipment used on terrestrial power systems, it was also necessary to develop mathematical models for the equipment to be used on the spacecraft. The modelling was also started under the same fellowship work period. Details of the modifications and models completed during the 1990 NASA-ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship Program can be found in a project report. As a continuation of the work to develop a complete package necessary for the full analysis of spacecraft AC power system behavior, deployment work has continued through NASA Grant NAG3-1254. This report details the work covered by the above mentioned grant.

  14. Autonomously managed electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callis, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    The electric power systems for future spacecraft such as the Space Station will necessarily be more sophisticated and will exhibit more nearly autonomous operation than earlier spacecraft. These new power systems will be more reliable and flexible than their predecessors offering greater utility to the users. Automation approaches implemented on various power system breadboards are investigated. These breadboards include the Hubble Space Telescope power system test bed, the Common Module Power Management and Distribution system breadboard, the Autonomusly Managed Power System (AMPS) breadboard, and the 20 kilohertz power system breadboard. Particular attention is given to the AMPS breadboard. Future plans for these breadboards including the employment of artificial intelligence techniques are addressed.

  15. Investigation of fast initialization of spacecraft bubble memory systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.; Hayes, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    Bubble domain technology offers significant improvement in reliability and functionality for spacecraft onboard memory applications. In considering potential memory systems organizations, minimization of power in high capacity bubble memory systems necessitates the activation of only the desired portions of the memory. In power strobing arbitrary memory segments, a capability of fast turn on is required. Bubble device architectures, which provide redundant loop coding in the bubble devices, limit the initialization speed. Alternate initialization techniques are investigated to overcome this design limitation. An initialization technique using a small amount of external storage is demonstrated.

  16. SSTL based thermal and power efficient RAM design on 28nm FPGA for spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalia, Kartik; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, D. M.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an approach is made to design a Thermal and Power efficient RAM for that reason we have used DDR4L memory and six different members of SSTL I/Os standards on 28nm technology. Every spacecraft requires most energy efficient electronic system and for that very purpose we have designe...

  17. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems

  18. Spacecraft attitude and velocity control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluszek, Michael A. (Inventor); Piper, Jr., George E. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A spacecraft attitude and/or velocity control system includes a controller which responds to at least attitude errors to produce command signals representing a force vector F and a torque vector T, each having three orthogonal components, which represent the forces and torques which are to be generated by the thrusters. The thrusters may include magnetic torquer or reaction wheels. Six difference equations are generated, three having the form ##EQU1## where a.sub.j is the maximum torque which the j.sup.th thruster can produce, b.sub.j is the maximum force which the j.sup.th thruster can produce, and .alpha..sub.j is a variable representing the throttling factor of the j.sup.th thruster, which may range from zero to unity. The six equations are summed to produce a single scalar equation relating variables .alpha..sub.j to a performance index Z: ##EQU2## Those values of .alpha. which maximize the value of Z are determined by a method for solving linear equations, such as a linear programming method. The Simplex method may be used. The values of .alpha..sub.j are applied to control the corresponding thrusters.

  19. Nonlinear Slewing Spacecraft Control Based on Exergy, Power Flow, and Static and Dynamic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinett, Rush D.; Wilson, David G.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a new nonlinear control methodology for slewing spacecraft, which provides both necessary and sufficient conditions for stability by identifying the stability boundaries, rigid body modes, and limit cycles. Conservative Hamiltonian system concepts, which are equivalent to static stability of airplanes, are used to find and deal with the static stability boundaries: rigid body modes. The application of exergy and entropy thermodynamic concepts to the work-rate principle provides a natural partitioning through the second law of thermodynamics of power flows into exergy generator, dissipator, and storage for Hamiltonian systems that is employed to find the dynamic stability boundaries: limit cycles. This partitioning process enables the control system designer to directly evaluate and enhance the stability and performance of the system by balancing the power flowing into versus the power dissipated within the system subject to the Hamiltonian surface (power storage). Relationships are developed between exergy, power flow, static and dynamic stability, and Lyapunov analysis. The methodology is demonstrated with two illustrative examples: (1) a nonlinear oscillator with sinusoidal damping and (2) a multi-input-multi-output three-axis slewing spacecraft that employs proportional-integral-derivative tracking control with numerical simulation results.

  20. Iterative Repair Planning for Spacecraft Operations Using the Aspen System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, G.; Knight, R.; Chien, S.; Fukunaga, A.; Govindjee, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN). ASPEN encodes complex spacecraft knowledge of operability constraints, flight rules, spacecraft hardware, science experiments and operations procedures to allow for automated generation of low level spacecraft sequences. Using a technique called iterative repair, ASPEN classifies constraint violations (i.e., conflicts) and attempts to repair each by performing a planning or scheduling operation. It must reason about which conflict to resolve first and what repair method to try for the given conflict. ASPEN is currently being utilized in the development of automated planner/scheduler systems for several spacecraft, including the UFO-1 naval communications satellite and the Citizen Explorer (CX1) satellite, as well as for planetary rover operations and antenna ground systems automation. This paper focuses on the algorithm and search strategies employed by ASPEN to resolve spacecraft operations constraints, as well as the data structures for representing these constraints.

  1. Comparison of candidate solar array maximum power utilization approaches. [for spacecraft propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costogue, E. N.; Lindena, S.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made of five potential approaches that can be utilized to detect the maximum power point of a solar array while sustaining operations at or near maximum power and without endangering stability or causing array voltage collapse. The approaches studied included: (1) dynamic impedance comparator, (2) reference array measurement, (3) onset of solar array voltage collapse detection, (4) parallel tracker, and (5) direct measurement. The study analyzed the feasibility and adaptability of these approaches to a future solar electric propulsion (SEP) mission, and, specifically, to a comet rendezvous mission. Such missions presented the most challenging requirements to a spacecraft power subsystem in terms of power management over large solar intensity ranges of 1.0 to 3.5 AU. The dynamic impedance approach was found to have the highest figure of merit, and the reference array approach followed closely behind. The results are applicable to terrestrial solar power systems as well as to other than SEP space missions.

  2. Probabilistic Fault Diagnosis in Electrical Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrical power systems play a critical role in spacecraft and aircraft. This paper discusses our development of a diagnostic capability for an electrical power...

  3. High precision relative position sensing system for formation flying spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and test an optical sensing system that provides high precision relative position sensing for formation flying spacecraft.  A high precision...

  4. Results of an electrical power system fault study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, Norma R.; Johnson, Yvette B.

    1992-01-01

    NASA-Marshall conducted a study of electrical power system faults with a view to the development of AI control systems for a spacecraft power system breadboard. The results of this study have been applied to a multichannel high voltage dc spacecraft power system, the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard. Some of the faults encountered in testing LASEPS included the shorting of a bus an a falloff in battery cell capacity.

  5. Assessment of the Use of Nanofluids in Spacecraft Active Thermal Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene K.; Erickson, Lisa R.

    2011-01-01

    The addition of metallic nanoparticles to a base heat transfer fluid can dramatically increase its thermal conductivity. These nanofluids have been shown to have advantages in some heat transport systems. Their enhanced properties can allow lower system volumetric flow rates and can reduce the required pumping power. Nanofluids have been suggested for use as working fluids for spacecraft Active Thermal Control Systems (ATCSs). However, there are no studies showing the end-to-end effect of nanofluids on the design and performance of spacecraft ATCSs. In the present work, a parametric study is performed to assess the use of nanofluids in a spacecraft ATCSs. The design parameters of the current Orion capsule and the tabulated thermophysical properties of nanofluids are used to assess the possible benefits of nanofluids and how their incorporation affects the overall design of a spacecraft ATCS. The study shows that the unique system and component-level design parameters of spacecraft ATCSs render them best suited for pure working fluids. The addition of nanoparticles to typical spacecraft thermal control working fluids actually results in an increase in the system mass and required pumping power.

  6. Time maintenance system for the BMDO MSX spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Martin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) is responsible for designing and implementing a clock maintenance system for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organizations (BMDO) Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) spacecraft. The MSX spacecraft has an on-board clock that will be used to control execution of time-dependent commands and to time tag all science and housekeeping data received from the spacecraft. MSX mission objectives have dictated that this spacecraft time, UTC(MSX), maintain a required accuracy with respect to UTC(USNO) of +/- 10 ms with a +/- 1 ms desired accuracy. APL's atomic time standards and the downlinked spacecraft time were used to develop a time maintenance system that will estimate the current MSX clock time offset during an APL pass and make estimates of the clock's drift and aging using the offset estimates from many passes. Using this information, the clock's accuracy will be maintained by uplinking periodic clock correction commands. The resulting time maintenance system is a combination of offset measurement, command/telemetry, and mission planning hardware and computing assets. All assets provide necessary inputs for deciding when corrections to the MSX spacecraft clock must be made to maintain its required accuracy without inhibiting other mission objectives. The MSX time maintenance system is described as a whole and the clock offset measurement subsystem, a unique combination of precision time maintenance and measurement hardware controlled by a Macintosh computer, is detailed. Simulations show that the system estimates the MSX clock offset to less than+/- 33 microseconds.

  7. Autonomously managed high power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, D.J.; Bechtel, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The need for autonomous power management capabilities will increase as the power levels of spacecraft increase into the multi-100 kW range. The quantity of labor intensive ground and crew support consumed by the 9 kW Skylab cannot be afforded in support of a 75-300 kW Space Station or high power earth orbital and interplanetary spacecraft. Marshall Space Flight Center is managing a program to develop necessary technologies for high power system autonomous management. To date a reference electrical power system and automation approaches have been defined. A test facility for evaluation and verification of management algorithms and hardware has been designed with the first of the three power channel capability nearing completion

  8. A Preliminary Model for Spacecraft Propulsion Performance Analysis Based on Nuclear Gain and Subsystem Mass-Power Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Suman; Schmidt, George R.; Thio, Y. C.; Hurst, Chantelle M.

    1999-01-01

    A preliminary model for spacecraft propulsion performance analysis based on nuclear gain and subsystem mass-power balances are presented in viewgraph form. For very fast missions with straight-line trajectories, it has been shown that mission trip time is proportional to the cube root of alpha. Analysis of spacecraft power systems via a power balance and examination of gain vs. mass-power ratio has shown: 1) A minimum gain is needed to have enough power for thruster and driver operation; and 2) Increases in gain result in decreases in overall mass-power ratio, which in turn leads to greater achievable accelerations. However, subsystem mass-power ratios and efficiencies are crucial: less efficient values for these can partially offset the effect of nuclear gain. Therefore, it is of interest to monitor the progress of gain-limited subsystem technologies and it is also possible that power-limited systems with sufficiently low alpha may be competitive for such ambitious missions. Topics include Space flight requirements; Spacecraft energy gain; Control theory for performance; Mission assumptions; Round trips: Time and distance; Trip times; Vehicle acceleration; and Minimizing trip times.

  9. Power Management and Distribution Trades Studies for a Deep-Space Mission Scientific Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimnach, Greg L.; Soltis, James V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, NASA GRC performed trade studies on the various Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) options for a deep-space scientific spacecraft which would have a nominal electrical power requirement of 100 kWe. These options included AC (1000Hz and 1500Hz and DC primary distribution at various voltages. The distribution system efficiency, reliability, mass, thermal, corona, space radiation levels and technology readiness of devices and components were considered. The final proposed system consisted of two independent power distribution channels, sourced by two 3-phase, 110 kVA alternators nominally operating at half-rated power. Each alternator nominally supplies 50kWe to one half of the ion thrusters and science modules but is capable of supplying the total power re3quirements in the event of loss of one alternator. This paper is an introduction to the methodology for the trades done to arrive at the proposed PMAD architecture. Any opinions expressed are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Project Prometheus.

  10. Radioisotope heaters for spacecraft life support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivers, R.W.; Murray, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Future manned space flight requires the sanitary collection and disposal of biological wastes to minimize microbial contamination hazard. The recovery and reuse of water from such wastes are also necessary to reduce the weight of vehicles at launching and resupply logistics. The development and test of an engineering model, i.e. the completely integrated waste management-water system using radioisotopes for thermal energy, are described. This is capable of collecting and processing the wastes from four men during 180-day simulated space mission. The sub-systems include collection of feces, trash and urine, water reclamation, the storage, heating and dispensing of the water, and the disposal of feces, urine residue and other non-metallic waste material by incineration. (Mori, K.)

  11. An Expert System for Autonomous Spacecraft Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Rob; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Rabideau, Gregg

    2005-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), part of the New Millennium Space Technology 6 Project, is flying onboard the Earth Orbiter 1 (EO-1) mission. The ASE software enables EO-1 to autonomously detect and respond to science events such as: volcanic activity, flooding, and water freeze/thaw. ASE uses classification algorithms to analyze imagery onboard to detect chang-e and science events. Detection of these events is then used to trigger follow-up imagery. Onboard mission planning software then develops a response plan that accounts for target visibility and operations constraints. This plan is then executed using a task execution system that can deal with run-time anomalies. In this paper we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations. We will also describe the current experiment status and future plans.

  12. Spacecraft electrical power subsystem: Failure behavior, reliability, and multi-state failure analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, So Young; Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the degradation and failure behavior of spacecraft electrical power subsystem (EPS) on orbit. First, this work provides updated statistical reliability and multi-state failure analyses of spacecraft EPS and its different constituents, namely the batteries, the power distribution, and the solar arrays. The EPS is shown to suffer from infant mortality and to be a major driver of spacecraft unreliability. Over 25% of all spacecraft failures are the result of EPS failures. As a result, satellite manufacturers may wish to pursue targeted improvement to this subsystem, either through better testing or burn-in procedures, better design or parts selection, or additional redundancy. Second, this work investigates potential differences in the EPS degradation and failure behavior for spacecraft in low earth orbits (LEO) and geosynchronous orbits (GEO). This analysis was motivated by the recognition that the power/load cycles and the space environment are significantly different in LEO and GEO, and as such, they may result in different failure behavior for the EPS in these two types of orbits. The results indicate, and quantify the extent to which, the EPS fails differently in LEO and GEO, both in terms of frequency and severity of failure events. A casual summary of the findings can be stated as follows: the EPS fails less frequently but harder (with fatal consequences to the spacecraft) in LEO than in GEO.

  13. Incipient fault detection and power system protection for spaceborne systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, B. Don; Hackler, Irene M.

    1987-01-01

    A program was initiated to study the feasibility of using advanced terrestrial power system protection techniques for spacecraft power systems. It was designed to enhance and automate spacecraft power distribution systems in the areas of safety, reliability and maintenance. The proposed power management/distribution system is described as well as security assessment and control, incipient and low current fault detection, and the proposed spaceborne protection system. It is noted that the intelligent remote power controller permits the implementation of digital relaying algorithms with both adaptive and programmable characteristics.

  14. Skylab technology electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woosley, A. P.; Smith, O. B.; Nassen, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    The solar array/battery power systems for the Skylab vehicle were designed to operate in a solar inertial pointing mode to provide power continuously to the Skylab. Questions of power management are considered, taking into account difficulties caused by the reduction in power system performance due to the effects of structural failure occurring during the launching process. The performance of the solar array of the Apollo Telescope Mount Power System is discussed along with the Orbital Workshop solar array performance and the Airlock Module power conditioning group performance. A list is presented of a number of items which have been identified during mission monitoring and are recommended for electrical power system concepts, designs, and operation for future spacecraft.

  15. The Earth Observing System AM Spacecraft - Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, D.; Fredley, J.; Scott, C.

    1993-01-01

    Mission requirements for the EOS-AM Spacecraft intended to monitor global changes of the entire earth system are considered. The spacecraft is based on an instrument set containing the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). Emphasis is placed on the design, analysis, development, and verification plans for the unique EOS-AM Thermal Control Subsystem (TCS) aimed at providing the required environments for all the onboard equipment in a densely packed layout. The TCS design maximizes the use of proven thermal design techniques and materials, in conjunction with a capillary pumped two-phase heat transport system for instrument thermal control.

  16. Power Replenishment Patch for Spacecraft Health Monitoring Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Metis Design Corporation (MDC) proposes the development of a strain-based power replenishment technology to harvest energy for recharging remote sensors. MDC has...

  17. Enabling Advanced Automation in Spacecraft Operations with the Spacecraft Emergency Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed, Julie; Fox, Jeffrey A.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    True autonomy is the Holy Grail of spacecraft mission operations. The goal of launching a satellite and letting it manage itself throughout its useful life is a worthy one. With true autonomy, the cost of mission operations would be reduced to a negligible amount. Under full autonomy, any problems (no matter the severity or type) that may arise with the spacecraft would be handled without any human intervention via some combination of smart sensors, on-board intelligence, and/or smart automated ground system. Until the day that complete autonomy is practical and affordable to deploy, incremental steps of deploying ever-increasing levels of automation (computerization of once manual tasks) on the ground and on the spacecraft are gradually decreasing the cost of mission operations. For example, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GSFC) has been flying spacecraft with low cost operations for several years. NASA-GSFC's SMEX (Small Explorer) and MIDEX (Middle Explorer) missions have effectively deployed significant amounts of automation to enable the missions to fly predominately in 'light-out' mode. Under light-out operations the ground system is run without human intervention. Various tools perform many of the tasks previously performed by the human operators. One of the major issues in reducing human staff in favor of automation is the perceived increased in risk of losing data, or even losing a spacecraft, because of anomalous conditions that may occur when there is no one in the control center. When things go wrong, missions deploying advanced automation need to be sure that anomalous conditions are detected and that key personal are notified in a timely manner so that on-call team members can react to those conditions. To ensure the health and safety of its lights-out missions, NASA-GSFC's Advanced Automation and Autonomy branch (Code 588) developed the Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS). The SERS is a Web-based collaborative environment that enables

  18. Adaptive Management of Computing and Network Resources for Spacecraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarr, Barbara; Welch, Lonnie R.; Detter, Ryan; Tjaden, Brett; Huh, Eui-Nam; Szczur, Martha R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    It is likely that NASA's future spacecraft systems will consist of distributed processes which will handle dynamically varying workloads in response to perceived scientific events, the spacecraft environment, spacecraft anomalies and user commands. Since all situations and possible uses of sensors cannot be anticipated during pre-deployment phases, an approach for dynamically adapting the allocation of distributed computational and communication resources is needed. To address this, we are evolving the DeSiDeRaTa adaptive resource management approach to enable reconfigurable ground and space information systems. The DeSiDeRaTa approach embodies a set of middleware mechanisms for adapting resource allocations, and a framework for reasoning about the real-time performance of distributed application systems. The framework and middleware will be extended to accommodate (1) the dynamic aspects of intra-constellation network topologies, and (2) the complete real-time path from the instrument to the user. We are developing a ground-based testbed that will enable NASA to perform early evaluation of adaptive resource management techniques without the expense of first deploying them in space. The benefits of the proposed effort are numerous, including the ability to use sensors in new ways not anticipated at design time; the production of information technology that ties the sensor web together; the accommodation of greater numbers of missions with fewer resources; and the opportunity to leverage the DeSiDeRaTa project's expertise, infrastructure and models for adaptive resource management for distributed real-time systems.

  19. Application of Autonomous Spacecraft Power Control Technology to Terrestrial Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry M.; Soeder, James F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the potential of the power campus located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio for microgrid development. First, the benefits provided by microgrids to the terrestrial power grid are described, and an overview of Technology Needs for microgrid development is presented. Next, GRC's work on development of autonomous control for manned deep space vehicles, which are essentially islanded microgrids, is covered, and contribution of each of these developments to the microgrid Technology Needs is detailed. Finally, a description is provided of GRC's existing physical assets which can be applied to microgrid technology development, and a phased plan for development of a microgrid test facility is presented.

  20. Spacecraft System Integration and Test: SSTI Lewis critical design audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. P.; Cha, K. K.

    1995-01-01

    The Critical Design Audit package is the final detailed design package which provides a comprehensive description of the SSTI mission. This package includes the program overview, the system requirements, the science and applications activities, the ground segment development, the assembly, integration and test description, the payload and technology demonstrations, and the spacecraft bus subsystems. Publication and presentation of this document marks the final requirements and design freeze for SSTI.

  1. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers` sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  2. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers' sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  3. Spacecraft Testing Programs: Adding Value to the Systems Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Keith J.; Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Testing has long been recognized as a critical component of spacecraft development activities - yet many major systems failures may have been prevented with more rigorous testing programs. The question is why is more testing not being conducted? Given unlimited resources, more testing would likely be included in a spacecraft development program. Striking the right balance between too much testing and not enough has been a long-term challenge for many industries. The objective of this paper is to discuss some of the barriers, enablers, and best practices for developing and sustaining a strong test program and testing team. This paper will also explore the testing decision factors used by managers; the varying attitudes toward testing; methods to develop strong test engineers; and the influence of behavior, culture and processes on testing programs. KEY WORDS: Risk, Integration and Test, Validation, Verification, Test Program Development

  4. Low-Cost, Class D Testing of Spacecraft Photovoltaic Systems Can Reduce Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Kojima, Gilbert K.; Hanel, Robert; Mallinson, Mark V.

    2014-01-01

    The end-to-end verification of a spacecraft photovoltaic power generation system requires light! Specifically, the standard practice for doing so is the Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulation (LAPSS). A LAPSS test can characterize a photovoltaic system's efficiency via its response to rapidly applied impulses of simulated sunlight. However, a Class D program on a constrained budget and schedule may not have the resources to ship an entire satellite for a LAPSS test alone. Such was the case with the Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) program, which was also averse to the risk of hardware damage during shipment. When the Electrical Power System (EPS) team was denied a spacecraft-level LAPSS test, the lack of an end-to-end power generation test elevated to a project-level technical risk. The team pulled together very limited resources to not only eliminate the risk, but build a process to monitor the health of the system through mission operations. We discuss a process for performing a low-cost, end-to-end test of the LADEE photovoltaic system. The approach combines system-level functional test, panel-level performance results, and periodic inspection (and repair) up until launch. Following launch, mission operations tools are utilized to assess system performance based on a scant amount of data. The process starts in manufacturing at the subcontractor. The panel manufacturer provides functional test and LAPSS data on each individual panel. We apply an initial assumption that the per-panel performance is sufficient to meet the power generation requirements. The manufacturer's data is also carried as the performance allocation for each panel during EPS system modeling and initial mission operations. During integration and test, a high-power, professional theater lamp system provides simulated sunlight to each panel on the spacecraft, thereby permitting a true end-to-end system test. A passing test results in a step response to nearly full-rated current

  5. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communications Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.; Carr, J.; Boyd, D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication.

  6. Materials and structures technology insertion into spacecraft systems: Successes and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Suraj

    2018-05-01

    Over the last 30 years, significant advancements have led to the use of multifunctional materials and structures technologies in spacecraft systems. This includes the integration of adaptive structures, advanced composites, nanotechnology, and additive manufacturing technologies. Development of multifunctional structures has been directly influenced by the implementation of processes and tools for adaptive structures pioneered by Prof. Paolo Santini. Multifunctional materials and structures incorporating non-structural engineering functions such as thermal, electrical, radiation shielding, power, and sensors have been investigated. The result has been an integrated structure that offers reduced mass, packaging volume, and ease of integration for spacecraft systems. Current technology development efforts are being conducted to develop innovative multifunctional materials and structures designs incorporating advanced composites, nanotechnology, and additive manufacturing. However, these efforts offer significant challenges in the qualification and acceptance into spacecraft systems. This paper presents a brief overview of the technology development and successful insertion of advanced material technologies into spacecraft structures. Finally, opportunities and challenges to develop and mature next generation advanced materials and structures are presented.

  7. TOPEX electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, P. R. K.; Roufberg, Lew; Costogue, Ernest

    1991-01-01

    The TOPEX mission requirements which impact the power requirements and analyses are presented. A description of the electrical power system (EPS), including energy management and battery charging methods that were conceived and developed to meet the identified satellite requirements, is included. Analysis of the TOPEX EPS confirms that all of its electrical performance and reliability requirements have been met. The TOPEX EPS employs the flight-proven modular power system (MPS) which is part of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft and provides high reliability, abbreviated development effort and schedule, and low cost. An energy balance equation, unique to TOPEX, has been derived to confirm that the batteries will be completely recharged following each eclipse, under worst-case conditions. TOPEX uses three NASA Standard 50AH Ni-Cd batteries, each with 22 cells in series. The MPS contains battery charge control and protection based on measurements of battery currents, voltages, temperatures, and computed depth-of-discharge. In case of impending battery depletion, the MPS automatically implements load shedding.

  8. Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft solid-state imaging system view of Antarctica was taken during its first encounter with the Earth. This color picture of Antarctica is part of a mosaic of pictures covering the entire polar continent showing the Ross Ice Shelf and its border with the sea and mountains poking through the ice near the McMurdo Station. From top to bottom, the frame looks across about half of Antarctica. View provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with alternate number P-37297.

  9. A computer graphics system for visualizing spacecraft in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Don E.

    1989-01-01

    To carry out unanticipated operations with resources already in space is part of the rationale for a permanently manned space station in Earth orbit. The astronauts aboard a space station will require an on-board, spatial display tool to assist the planning and rehearsal of upcoming operations. Such a tool can also help astronauts to monitor and control such operations as they occur, especially in cases where first-hand visibility is not possible. A computer graphics visualization system designed for such an application and currently implemented as part of a ground-based simulation is described. The visualization system presents to the user the spatial information available in the spacecraft's computers by drawing a dynamic picture containing the planet Earth, the Sun, a star field, and up to two spacecraft. The point of view within the picture can be controlled by the user to obtain a number of specific visualization functions. The elements of the display, the methods used to control the display's point of view, and some of the ways in which the system can be used are described.

  10. Electronic Systems for Spacecraft Vehicles: Required EDA Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachnak, Rafic

    1999-01-01

    The continuous increase in complexity of electronic systems is making the design and manufacturing of such systems more challenging than ever before. As a result, designers are finding it impossible to design efficient systems without the use of sophisticated Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools. These tools offer integrated simulation of the electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing functions and lead to a correct by design methodology. This report identifies the EDA tools that would be needed to design, analyze, simulate, and evaluate electronic systems for spacecraft vehicles. In addition, the report presents recommendations to enhance the current JSC electronic design capabilities. This includes cost information and a discussion as to the impact, both positive and negative, of implementing the recommendations.

  11. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.

    1988-01-01

    Selected systems aspects of a 300 kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been studied. The approach included examination of two candidate missions and their associated spacecraft, and a number of special topics dealing with the power system design and operation. The missions considered were a reusable orbital transfer vehicle and a space-based radar. The special topics included: Power system configuration and scaling, launch vehicle integration, operating altitude, orbital storage, start-up, thawing, control, load following, procedures in case of malfunction, restart, thermal and nuclear radiation to other portions of the spacecraft, thermal stresses between subsystems, boom and cable designs, vibration modes, attitude control, reliability, and survivability. Among the findings are that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly

  12. Water electrolysis system - H2 and O2 generation. [for spacecraft atmosphere revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Lee, M. K.; Davenport, R. J.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1978-01-01

    An oxygen generation system design based on the static feed water electrolysis concept is described. The system is designed to generate 4.20 kg/d of oxygen to satisfy the metabolic needs of a three-person crew, to compensate for spacecraft leakage, and to provide the oxygen required by the electrochemical depolarized CO2 concentrator. The system has a fixed hardware weight of 75 kg, occupies a volume of 0.11 cu m, and requires only 1.1 kw of electrical power. The static feed electrolysis concept is discussed, and experimental data on the high-performance electrode are presented.

  13. The electrical power subsystem design for the high energy solar physics spacecraft concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Milind

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the Electrical Power Subsystem (EPS) requirements, architecture, design description, performance analysis, and heritage of the components for two spacecraft concepts for the High Energy Solar Physics (HESP) Mission. It summarizes the mission requirements and the spacecraft subsystems and instrument power requirements, and it describes the EPS architecture for both options. A trade study performed on the selection of the solar cells - body mounted versus deployed panels - and the optimum number of panels is also presented. Solar cell manufacturing losses, array manufacturing losses, and the radiation and temperature effects on the GaAs/Ge and Si solar cells were considered part of the trade study and are included in this paper. Solar cell characteristics, cell circuit description, and the solar array area design are presented, as is battery sizing analysis performed based on the power requirements during launch and initial spacecraft operations. This paper discusses Earth occultation periods and the battery power requirements during this period as well as shunt control, battery conditioning, and bus regulation schemes. Design margins, redundancy philosophy, and predicted on-orbit battery and solar cell performance are summarized. Finally, the heritage of the components and technology risk assessment are provided.

  14. Definition of the topological structure of the automatic control system of spacecrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Siberian State Aerospace University named after Academician M.F.Reshetnev 31 KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" >Zelenkov, P V; KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Siberian State Aerospace University named after Academician M.F.Reshetnev 31 KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" >Karaseva, M V; KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Siberian State Aerospace University named after Academician M.F.Reshetnev 31 KrasnoyarskiyRabochiy prospect, Krasnoyarsk, 660014 (Russian Federation))" >Tsareva, E A; Tsarev, R Y

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the problem of selection the topological structure of the automated control system of spacecrafts. The integer linear model of mathematical programming designed to define the optimal topological structure for spacecraft control is proposed. To solve the determination problem of topological structure of the control system of spacecrafts developed the procedure of the directed search of some structure variants according to the scheme 'Branch and bound'. The example of the automated control system of spacecraft development included the combination of ground control stations, managing the spacecraft of three classes with a geosynchronous orbit with constant orbital periods is presented

  15. Adaptive Jacobian Fuzzy Attitude Control for Flexible Spacecraft Combined Attitude and Sun Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chak, Yew-Chung; Varatharajoo, Renuganth

    2016-07-01

    Many spacecraft attitude control systems today use reaction wheels to deliver precise torques to achieve three-axis attitude stabilization. However, irrecoverable mechanical failure of reaction wheels could potentially lead to mission interruption or total loss. The electrically-powered Solar Array Drive Assemblies (SADA) are usually installed in the pitch axis which rotate the solar arrays to track the Sun, can produce torques to compensate for the pitch-axis wheel failure. In addition, the attitude control of a flexible spacecraft poses a difficult problem. These difficulties include the strong nonlinear coupled dynamics between the rigid hub and flexible solar arrays, and the imprecisely known system parameters, such as inertia matrix, damping ratios, and flexible mode frequencies. In order to overcome these drawbacks, the adaptive Jacobian tracking fuzzy control is proposed for the combined attitude and sun-tracking control problem of a flexible spacecraft during attitude maneuvers in this work. For the adaptation of kinematic and dynamic uncertainties, the proposed scheme uses an adaptive sliding vector based on estimated attitude velocity via approximate Jacobian matrix. The unknown nonlinearities are approximated by deriving the fuzzy models with a set of linguistic If-Then rules using the idea of sector nonlinearity and local approximation in fuzzy partition spaces. The uncertain parameters of the estimated nonlinearities and the Jacobian matrix are being adjusted online by an adaptive law to realize feedback control. The attitude of the spacecraft can be directly controlled with the Jacobian feedback control when the attitude pointing trajectory is designed with respect to the spacecraft coordinate frame itself. A significant feature of this work is that the proposed adaptive Jacobian tracking scheme will result in not only the convergence of angular position and angular velocity tracking errors, but also the convergence of estimated angular velocity to

  16. Antimicrobial Materials for Advanced Microbial Control in Spacecraft Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele; Caro, Janicce; Newsham, Gerard; Roberts, Michael; Morford, Megan; Wheeler, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Microbial detection, identification, and control are essential for the maintenance and preservation of spacecraft water systems. Requirements set by NASA put limitations on the energy, mass, materials, noise, cost, and crew time that can be devoted to microbial control. Efforts are being made to attain real-time detection and identification of microbial contamination in microgravity environments. Research for evaluating technologies for capability enhancement on-orbit is currently focused on the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for detection purposes and polymerase chain reaction (peR) for microbial identification. Additional research is being conducted on how to control for microbial contamination on a continual basis. Existing microbial control methods in spacecraft utilize iodine or ionic silver biocides, physical disinfection, and point-of-use sterilization filters. Although these methods are effective, they require re-dosing due to loss of efficacy, have low human toxicity thresholds, produce poor taste, and consume valuable mass and crew time. Thus, alternative methods for microbial control are needed. This project also explores ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), surface passivation methods for maintaining residual biocide levels, and several antimicrobial materials aimed at improving current microbial control techniques, as well as addressing other materials presently under analysis and future directions to be pursued.

  17. Intelligent Data Visualization for Cross-Checking Spacecraft System Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, James C.; Remolina, Emilio; Breeden, David; Stroozas, Brett A.; Mohammed, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Any reasoning system is fallible, so crew members and flight controllers must be able to cross-check automated diagnoses of spacecraft or habitat problems by considering alternate diagnoses and analyzing related evidence. Cross-checking improves diagnostic accuracy because people can apply information processing heuristics, pattern recognition techniques, and reasoning methods that the automated diagnostic system may not possess. Over time, cross-checking also enables crew members to become comfortable with how the diagnostic reasoning system performs, so the system can earn the crew s trust. We developed intelligent data visualization software that helps users cross-check automated diagnoses of system faults more effectively. The user interface displays scrollable arrays of timelines and time-series graphs, which are tightly integrated with an interactive, color-coded system schematic to show important spatial-temporal data patterns. Signal processing and rule-based diagnostic reasoning automatically identify alternate hypotheses and data patterns that support or rebut the original and alternate diagnoses. A color-coded matrix display summarizes the supporting or rebutting evidence for each diagnosis, and a drill-down capability enables crew members to quickly view graphs and timelines of the underlying data. This system demonstrates that modest amounts of diagnostic reasoning, combined with interactive, information-dense data visualizations, can accelerate system diagnosis and cross-checking.

  18. System Critical Design Audit (CDA). Books 1, 2 and 3; [Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI Lewis Spacecraft Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) Lewis Spacecraft Program is evaluated. Spacecraft integration, test, launch, and spacecraft bus are discussed. Payloads and technology demonstrations are presented. Mission data management system and ground segment are also addressed.

  19. An expert system for diagnosing environmentally induced spacecraft anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolincik, Mark; Lauriente, Michael; Koons, Harry C.; Gorney, David

    1992-01-01

    A new rule-based, machine independent analytical tool was designed for diagnosing spacecraft anomalies using an expert system. Expert systems provide an effective method for saving knowledge, allow computers to sift through large amounts of data pinpointing significant parts, and most importantly, use heuristics in addition to algorithms, which allow approximate reasoning and inference and the ability to attack problems not rigidly defined. The knowledge base consists of over two-hundred (200) rules and provides links to historical and environmental databases. The environmental causes considered are bulk charging, single event upsets (SEU), surface charging, and total radiation dose. The system's driver translates forward chaining rules into a backward chaining sequence, prompting the user for information pertinent to the causes considered. The use of heuristics frees the user from searching through large amounts of irrelevant information and allows the user to input partial information (varying degrees of confidence in an answer) or 'unknown' to any question. The modularity of the expert system allows for easy updates and modifications. It not only provides scientists with needed risk analysis and confidence not found in algorithmic programs, but is also an effective learning tool, and the window implementation makes it very easy to use. The system currently runs on a Micro VAX II at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The inference engine used is NASA's C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS).

  20. Night vision imaging system design, integration and verification in spacecraft vacuum thermal test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yonghong; Wang, Jing; Gong, Zhe; Li, Xiyuan; Pei, Yifei; Bai, Tingzhu; Zhen, Haijing

    2015-08-01

    The purposes of spacecraft vacuum thermal test are to characterize the thermal control systems of the spacecraft and its component in its cruise configuration and to allow for early retirement of risks associated with mission-specific and novel thermal designs. The orbit heat flux is simulating by infrared lamp, infrared cage or electric heater. As infrared cage and electric heater do not emit visible light, or infrared lamp just emits limited visible light test, ordinary camera could not operate due to low luminous density in test. Moreover, some special instruments such as satellite-borne infrared sensors are sensitive to visible light and it couldn't compensate light during test. For improving the ability of fine monitoring on spacecraft and exhibition of test progress in condition of ultra-low luminous density, night vision imaging system is designed and integrated by BISEE. System is consist of high-gain image intensifier ICCD camera, assistant luminance system, glare protect system, thermal control system and computer control system. The multi-frame accumulation target detect technology is adopted for high quality image recognition in captive test. Optical system, mechanical system and electrical system are designed and integrated highly adaptable to vacuum environment. Molybdenum/Polyimide thin film electrical heater controls the temperature of ICCD camera. The results of performance validation test shown that system could operate under vacuum thermal environment of 1.33×10-3Pa vacuum degree and 100K shroud temperature in the space environment simulator, and its working temperature is maintains at 5° during two-day test. The night vision imaging system could obtain video quality of 60lp/mm resolving power.

  1. How to emit a high-power electron beam from a magnetospheric spacecraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzanno, G. L.; Lucco Castello, F.; Borovsky, J.; Miars, G.; Leon, O.; Gilchrist, B. E.

    2017-12-01

    The idea of using a high-power electron beam to actively probe magnetic-field-line connectivity in space has been discussed since the 1970's. It could solve longstanding questions in magnetospheric/ionospheric physics by establishing causality between phenomena occurring in the magnetosphere and their image in the ionosphere. However, this idea has never been realized onboard a magnetospheric spacecraft because the tenuous magnetospheric plasma cannot provide the return current necessary to keep the charging of the spacecraft under control. Recently, Delzanno et al. [1] have proposed a spacecraft-charging mitigation scheme to enable the emission of a high-power electron beam from a magnetospheric spacecraft. It is based on the plasma contactor, i.e. a high-density neutral plasma emitted prior to and with the electron beam. The contactor acts as an ion emitter (not as an electron collector, as previously thought): a high ion current can be emitted off the quasi-spherical contactor surface, without the strong space-charge limitations typical of planar ion beams, and the electron-beam current can be successfully compensated. In this work, we will discuss our theoretical/simulation effort to improve the understanding of contactor-based ion emission. First, we will present a simple mathematical model useful for the interpretation of the results of [1]. The model is in spherical geometry and the contactor dynamics is described by only two surfaces (its quasi-neutral surface and the front of the outermost ions). It captures the results of self-consistent Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations with good accuracy and highlights the physics behind the charge-mitigation scheme clearly. PIC simulations connecting the 1D model to the actual geometry of the problem will be presented to obtain the scaling of the spacecraft potential varying contactor emission area. Finally, results for conditions relevant to an actual mission will also be discussed. [1] G. L. Delzanno, J. E. Borovsky

  2. Dual shear plate power processor packaging design. [for Solar Electric Propulsion spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzon, A. O.; Fredrickson, C. D.; Ross, R. G.

    1975-01-01

    The use of solar electric propulsion (SEP) for spacecraft primary propulsion imposes an extreme range of operational and environmental design requirements associated with the diversity of missions for which solar electric primary propulsion is advantageous. One SEP element which is particularly sensitive to these environmental extremes is the power processor unit (PPU) which powers and controls the electric ion thruster. An improved power processor thermal-mechanical packaging approach, referred to as dual shear plate packaging, has been designed to accommodate these different requirements with minimum change to the power processor design. Details of this packaging design are presented together with test results obtained from thermal-vacuum and structural-vibration tests conducted with prototype hardware.

  3. Concurrent System Engineering and Risk Reduction for Dual-Band (RF/optical) Spacecraft Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielhauer, Karl, B.; Boone, Bradley, G.; Raible, Daniel, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a system engineering approach to examining the potential for combining elements of a deep-space RF and optical communications payload, for the purpose of reducing the size, weight and power burden on the spacecraft and the mission. Figures of merit and analytical methodologies are discussed to conduct trade studies, and several potential technology integration strategies are presented. Finally, the NASA Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project is described, which directly addresses the combined RF and optical approach.

  4. Spacecraft contamination programs within the Air Force Systems Command Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Edmond

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft contamination programs exist in five independent AFSC organizations: Geophysics Laboratory (GL), Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC), Rome Air Development Center (RADC/OSCE), Wright Research and Development Center (MLBT), Armament Laboratory (ATL/SAI), and Space Systems Division (SSD/OL-AW). In addition, a sizable program exists at Aerospace Corp. These programs are complementary, each effort addressing a specific area of expertise: GL's effort is aimed at addressing the effects of on-orbit contamination; AEDC's effort is aimed at ground simulation and measurement of optical contamination; RADC's effort addresses the accumulation, measurement, and removal of contamination on large optics; MLBT's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of contamination on materials; ATL's effort is aimed at understanding the effect of plume contamination on systems; SSD's effort is confined to the integration of some contamination experiments sponsored by SSD/CLT; and Aerospace Corp.'s effort is aimed at supporting the needs of the using System Program Offices (SPO) in specific areas, such as contamination during ground handling, ascent phase, laboratory measurements aimed at understanding on-orbit contamination, and mass loss and mass gain in on-orbit operations. These programs are described in some detail, with emphasis on GL's program.

  5. Spacecraft Trajectory Generation by Successive Approximation for Powered Descent and Cyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoliva, Jordi

    Methods for spacecraft trajectory generation must be reliable. Complex nonlinear dynamics and constraints impede straightforward approaches. The approach pursued in this dissertation is to use successive approximation, which entails solving a sequence of problems, each one of which can be solved reliably, leading to the solution of the problem of interest. First, contractive sequential convex programming (CSCP) is developed and then applied to the problem of optimal powered descent landing in the presence of complex constraints, aerodynamic force and nonlinear engine performance. Second, numerical continuation is applied to the generation of cycler (periodic) spacecraft trajectories in the Earth-Moon system, the challenge here being the multiple scales of the three-body dynamics. The first-order necessary conditions for minimum-fuel powered descent are derived and interpreted. Both a point-mass model with throttle and thrust angle control and a rigid-body model with throttle and angular velocity control are considered, with a more complete analysis of the rigid-body case than previously available in the literature. The effects of boundary conditions on the thrust direction and finite bounds on the angular velocities are analyzed for the rigid-body case. Minimum-fuel solutions, obtained numerically, illustrate the optimal strategies. The optimal powered descent landing problem considered in the development of CSCP has a convex cost function, nonlinear dynamics, convex state constraints and nonlinear non-convex control constraints. The non-convexity in the control constraints is handled with the lossless convexification technique which consists of a convex relaxation on the control constraints. The novelty of CSCP is the ability to account for nonlinear dynamics and nonlinear control bounds in the optimal control problem and the use of interior-point methods for second-order cone programs which are guaranteed to find the optimal solution. CSCP solves a convergent

  6. Spacecraft radio scattering observations of the power spectrum of electron density fluctuations in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, R.; Armstrong, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    Solar wind electron density power spectra in the solar equatorial region are inferred from observations of phase scintillations and spectral broadening made with the Viking, Helios, and Pioneer spacecraft. The heliocentric distance range covered is 2--215 R/sub S/, and for some observations close to the sun the spectra extend to fluctuation frequencies as high as 100 Hz. For heliocentric distances > or approx. =20 R/sub S/ the equivalent spacecraft-measured one-dimensional density spectrym V/sub n/e is well modeled by a single power law (f/sup -alpha/) in the frequency range 10 -4 -5 x 10 -2 Hz. The mean spectral index α is 1.65, very close to the Kolmogorov value of 5/3. Under the assumption of constant solar wind speed, V/sub n/e varies as R/sup -3.45/, where R is heliocentric distance. Within 20 R/sub S/, V/sub n/e can still be modeled by a single power law over the frequency range 10 -3 -10 1 Hz, but the spectral index becomes smaller, αapprox.1.1. The flattening of the density spectrum with 20 R/sub S/ is presumably associated with energy deposition in the near-sun region and acceleration of the solar wind

  7. Use of two-phase flow heat transfer method in spacecraft thermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye, A.

    1985-01-01

    In space applications, weight, volume and power are critical parameters. Presently liquid freon is used in the radiator planels of the Space Shuttle to dissipate heat. This requires a large amount of freon, large power for pumps, large volume and weight. Use of two-phase flow method to transfer heat can reduce them significantly. A modified commercial vapor compression refrigerator/freezer was sucessfully flown in STS-4 to study the effect of zero-gravity on the system. The duty cycle was about 5 percent higher in flight as compared to that on earth due to low flow velocity in condenser. The vapor Reynolds number at exit was about 4000 as compared to about 12,000. Efforts are underway to design a refrigerator/freezer using an oil-free compressor for Spacelab Mission 4 scheduled to fly in January 1986. A thermal system can be designed for spacecraft using the two-phase flow to transfer heat economically.

  8. AES Modular Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project will demonstrate and infuse modular power electronics, batteries, fuel cells, and autonomous control for exploration...

  9. Dips spacecraft integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Department of Defense, has recently initiated the dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) demonstration program. DIPS is designed to provide 1 to 10 kW of electrical power for future military spacecraft. One of the near-term missions considered as a potential application for DIPS was the boost surveillance and tracking system (BSTS). A brief review and summary of the reasons behind a selection of DIPS for BSTS-type missions is presented. Many of these are directly related to spacecraft integration issues; these issues will be reviewed in the areas of system safety, operations, survivability, reliability, and autonomy

  10. A Spacecraft Housekeeping System-on-Chip in a Radiation Hardened Structured ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, George; DuMonthier, Jeffrey J.; Sheikh, Salman S.; Powell, Wesley A.; King, Robyn L.

    2012-01-01

    Housekeeping systems are essential to health monitoring of spacecraft and instruments. Typically, sensors are distributed across various sub-systems and data is collected using components such as analog-to-digital converters, analog multiplexers and amplifiers. In most cases programmable devices are used to implement the data acquisition control and storage, and the interface to higher level systems. Such discrete implementations require additional size, weight, power and interconnect complexity versus an integrated circuit solution, as well as the qualification of multiple parts. Although commercial devices are readily available, they are not suitable for space applications due the radiation tolerance and qualification requirements. The Housekeeping System-o n-A-Chip (HKSOC) is a low power, radiation hardened integrated solution suitable for spacecraft and instrument control and data collection. A prototype has been designed and includes a wide variety of functions including a 16-channel analog front-end for driving and reading sensors, analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters, on-chip temperature sensor, power supply current sense circuits, general purpose comparators and amplifiers, a 32-bit processor, digital I/O, pulse-width modulation (PWM) generators, timers and I2C master and slave serial interfaces. In addition, the device can operate in a bypass mode where the processor is disabled and external logic is used to control the analog and mixed signal functions. The device is suitable for stand-alone or distributed systems where multiple chips can be deployed across different sub-systems as intelligent nodes with computing and processing capabilities.

  11. Powersail High Power Propulsion System Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulczinski, Frank S., III

    2000-11-01

    A desire by the United States Air Force to exploit the space environment has led to a need for increased on-orbit electrical power availability. To enable this, the Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate (AFRL/ VS) is developing Powersail: a two-phased program to demonstrate high power (100 kW to 1 MW) capability in space using a deployable, flexible solar array connected to the host spacecraft using a slack umbilical. The first phase will be a proof-of-concept demonstration at 50 kW, followed by the second phase, an operational system at full power. In support of this program, the AFRL propulsion Directorate's Spacecraft Propulsion Branch (AFRL/PRS ) at Edwards AFB has commissioned a design study of the Powersail High Power Propulsion System. The purpose of this study, the results of which are summarized in this paper, is to perform mission and design trades to identify potential full-power applications (both near-Earth and interplanetary) and the corresponding propulsion system requirements and design. The design study shall farther identify a suitable low power demonstration flight that maximizes risk reduction for the fully operational system. This propulsion system is expected to be threefold: (1) primary propulsion for moving the entire vehicle, (2) a propulsion unit that maintains the solar array position relative to the host spacecraft, and (3) control propulsion for maintaining proper orientation for the flexible solar array.

  12. Development of an autonomous power system testbed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, J.R.; Adams, T.; Liffring, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    A power system testbed has been assembled to advance the development of large autonomous electrical power systems required for the space station, spacecraft, and aircraft. The power system for this effort was designed to simulate single- or dual-bus autonomous power systems, or autonomous systems that reconfigure from a single bus to a dual bus following a severe fault. The approach taken was to provide a flexible power system design with two computer systems for control and management. One computer operates as the control system and performs basic control functions, data and command processing, charge control, and provides status to the second computer. The second computer contains expert system software for mission planning, load management, fault identification and recovery, and sends load and configuration commands to the control system

  13. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    Various system aspects of a 300-kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been investigated. Special attention is given to the cases of a reusable OTV and a space-based radar. It is demonstrated that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design, and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly.

  14. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  15. 42: An Open-Source Simulation Tool for Study and Design of Spacecraft Attitude Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Simulation is an important tool in the analysis and design of spacecraft attitude control systems. The speaker will discuss the simulation tool, called simply 42, that he has developed over the years to support his own work as an engineer in the Attitude Control Systems Engineering Branch at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. 42 was intended from the outset to be high-fidelity and powerful, but also fast and easy to use. 42 is publicly available as open source since 2014. The speaker will describe some of 42's models and features, and discuss its applicability to studies ranging from early concept studies through the design cycle, integration, and operations. He will outline 42's architecture and share some thoughts on simulation development as a long-term project.

  16. Equations of Motion of Free-Floating Spacecraft-Manipulator Systems: An Engineer's Tutorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Wilde

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a step-by-step tutorial on the Generalized Jacobian Matrix (GJM approach for modeling and simulation of spacecraft-manipulator systems. The General Jacobian Matrix approach describes the motion of the end-effector of an underactuated manipulator system solely by the manipulator joint rotations, with the attitude and position of the base-spacecraft resulting from the manipulator motion. The coupling of the manipulator motion with the base-spacecraft are thus expressed in a generalized inertia matrix and a GJM. The focus of the paper lies on the complete analytic derivation of the generalized equations of motion of a free-floating spacecraft-manipulator system. This includes symbolic analytic expressions for all inertia property matrices of the system, including their time derivatives and joint-angle derivatives, as well as an expression for the generalized Jacobian of a generic point on any link of the spacecraft-manipulator system. The kinematics structure of the spacecraft-manipulator system is described both in terms of direction-cosine matrices and unit quaternions. An additional important contribution of this paper is to propose a new and more detailed definition for the modes of maneuvering of a spacecraft-manipulator. In particular, the two commonly used categories free-flying and free-floating are expanded by the introduction of five categories, namely floating, rotation-floating, rotation-flying, translation-flying, and flying. A fully-symbolic and a partially-symbolic option for the implementation of a numerical simulation model based on the proposed analytic approach are introduced and exemplary simulation results for a planar four-link spacecraft-manipulator system and a spatial six-link spacecraft manipulator system are presented.

  17. Power system relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Stanley H; Niemira, James K

    2013-01-01

    The previous three editions of Power System Relaying offer comprehensive and accessible coverage of the theory and fundamentals of relaying and have been widely adopted on university and industry courses worldwide. With the third edition, the authors have added new and detailed descriptions of power system phenomena such as stability, system-wide protection concepts and discussion of historic outages. Power System Relaying, 4th Edition continues its role as an outstanding textbook on power system protection for senior and graduate students in the field of electric power engineering and a refer

  18. Damage-Tolerant, Lightweight, High-Temperature Radiator for Nuclear Powered Spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Game-changing propulsion systems are often enabled by novel designs using advanced materials. Radiator performance dictates power output for nuclear electric...

  19. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  20. Power system health analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinton, Roy; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Aboreshaid, Saleh

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which combines both probabilistic indices and deterministic criteria to reflect the well-being of a power system. This technique permits power system planners, engineers and operators to maximize the probability of healthy operation as well as minimizing the probability of risky operation. The concept of system well-being is illustrated in this paper by application to the areas of operating reserve assessment and composite power system security evaluation

  1. SHARP: A multi-mission artificial intelligence system for spacecraft telemetry monitoring and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) is a system designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft is the initial focus for the SHARP system demonstration which will occur during Voyager's encounter with the planet Neptune in August, 1989, in parallel with real time Voyager operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. A brief introduction is given to the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current method of operation for monitoring the Voyager Telecommunications subsystem is described, and the difficulties associated with the existing technology are highlighted. The approach taken in the SHARP system to overcome the current limitations is also described, as well as both the conventional and artificial intelligence solutions developed in SHARP.

  2. SHARP: A multi-mission AI system for spacecraft telemetry monitoring and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Denise L.; James, Mark L.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) is a system designed to demonstrate automated health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager II spacecraft is the initial focus for the SHARP system demonstration which will occur during Voyager's encounter with the planet Neptune in August, 1989, in parallel with real-time Voyager operations. The SHARP system combines conventional computer science methodologies with artificial intelligence techniques to produce an effective method for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems. The system performs real-time analysis of spacecraft and other related telemetry, and is also capable of examining data in historical context. A brief introduction is given to the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The current method of operation for monitoring the Voyager Telecommunications subsystem is described, and the difficulties associated with the existing technology are highlighted. The approach taken in the SHARP system to overcome the current limitations is also described, as well as both the conventional and artificial intelligence solutions developed in SHARP.

  3. Compact Chemical Monitor for Silver Ions in Spacecraft Water Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has identified silver ions as the best candidate biocide for use in the potable water system on next-generation spacecraft. Though significant work has been...

  4. A Hybrid Systems Strategy to Support Autonomous Spacecraft Trajectory Design and Optimization in Multiple Dynamical Regimes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With ever increasing numbers of near-Earth satellites and deep space missions, autonomous spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) systems are increasingly...

  5. Deployable Propulsion, Power and Communication Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.; Boyd, Darren

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power, and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. By leveraging recent advancements in thin films, photovoltaics, and miniaturized electronics, new mission-level capabilities will be enabled aboard lower-cost small spacecraft instead of their more expensive, traditional counterparts, enabling a new generation of frequent, inexpensive deep space missions. Specifically, thin-film technologies are allowing the development and use of solar sails for propulsion, small, lightweight photovoltaics for power, and omnidirectional antennas for communication. Like their name implies, solar sails 'sail' by reflecting sunlight from a large, lightweight reflective material that resembles the sails of 17th and 18th century ships and modern sloops. Instead of wind, the sail and the ship derive their thrust by reflecting solar photons. Solar sail technology has been discussed in the literature for quite some time, but it is only since 2010 that sails have been proven to work in space. Thin-film photovoltaics are revolutionizing the terrestrial power generation market and have been found to be suitable for medium-term use in the space environment. When mounted on the thin-film substrate, these photovoltaics can be packaged into very small volumes and used to generate significant power for small spacecraft. Finally, embedded antennas are being developed that can be adhered to thin-film substrates to provide lightweight, omnidirectional UHF and X-band coverage, increasing bandwidth or effective communication ranges for small spacecraft. Taken together, they may enable a host of new deep space destinations to be reached by a generation of spacecraft smaller and more capable than ever before.

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Core Spacecraft Systems Engineering Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundas, David J.; ONeill, Deborah; Field, Thomas; Meadows, Gary; Patterson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other US and international partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses the status of some key trade studies, including the geolocation budgeting, design considerations for spacecraft charging, and design issues related to the mitigation of orbital debris.

  7. Power System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Haruhito

    Electric power generation that relies on various sources as the primary sources of energy is expected to bring down CO2 emissions levels to support the overall strategy to curb global warming. Accordingly, utilities are moving towards integrating more renewable sources for generation, mostly dispersed, and adopting Smart Grid Technologies for system control. In order to construct, operate, and maintain power systems stably and economically in such background, thorough understanding about the characteristics of power systems and their components is essential. This paper presents modeling and simulation techniques available for the analysis of critical aspects such as thermal capacity, stability, voltage stability, and frequency dynamics, vital for the stable operation of power systems.

  8. Optimization in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Geraldo R.M. da [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses, partially, the advantages and the disadvantages of the optimal power flow. It shows some of the difficulties of implementation and proposes solutions. An analysis is made comparing the power flow, BIGPOWER/CESP, and the optimal power flow, FPO/SEL, developed by the author, when applied to the CEPEL-ELETRONORTE and CESP systems. (author) 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  9. Modeling the angular motion dynamics of spacecraft with a magnetic attitude control system based on experimental studies and dynamic similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkov, V. M.; Medvedskii, A. L.; Terentyev, V. V.; Firsyuk, S. O.; Shemyakov, A. O.

    2017-12-01

    The problem of spacecraft attitude control using electromagnetic systems interacting with the Earth's magnetic field is considered. A set of dimensionless parameters has been formed to investigate the spacecraft orientation regimes based on dynamically similar models. The results of experimental studies of small spacecraft with a magnetic attitude control system can be extrapolated to the in-orbit spacecraft motion control regimes by using the methods of the dimensional and similarity theory.

  10. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Photocatalytic Oxidation Using UV-A Light Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.; O'Neal, Jeremy A.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light has long been used in terrestrial water treatment systems for photodisinfection and the removal of organic compounds by several processes including photoadsorption, photolysis, and photocatalytic oxidation/reduction. Despite its effectiveness for water treatment, UV has not been explored for spacecraft applications because of concerns about the safety and reliability of mercury-containing UV lamps. However, recent advances in ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV LEDs) have enabled the utilization of nanomaterials that possess the appropriate optical properties for the manufacture of LEDs capable of producing monochromatic light at germicidal wavelengths. This report describes the testing of a commercial-off-the-shelf, high power Nichia UV-A LED (250mW A365nnJ for the excitation of titanium dioxide as a point-of-use (POD) disinfection device in a potable water system. The combination of an immobilized, high surface area photocatalyst with a UV-A LED is promising for potable water system disinfection since toxic chemicals and resupply requirements are reduced. No additional consumables like chemical biocides, absorption columns, or filters are required to disinfect and/or remove potentially toxic disinfectants from the potable water prior to use. Experiments were conducted in a static test stand consisting of a polypropylene microtiter plate containing 3mm glass balls coated with titanium dioxide. Wells filled with water were exposed to ultraviolet light from an actively-cooled UV-A LED positioned above each well and inoculated with six individual challenge microorganisms recovered from the International Space Station (ISS): Burkholderia cepacia, Cupriavidus metallidurans, Methylobacterium fujisawaense, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Wautersia basilensis. Exposure to the Nichia UV-A LED with photocatalytic oxidation resulted in a complete (>7-log) reduction of each challenge bacteria population in UV-A LEDs and semi

  11. Miniature Heat Transport System for Spacecraft Thermal Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochterbeck, Jay M.; Ku, Jentung (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Loop heat pipes (LHP) are efficient devices for heat transfer and use the basic principle of a closed evaporation-condensation cycle. The advantage of using a loop heat pipe over other conventional methods is that large quantities of heat can be transported through a small cross-sectional area over a considerable distance with no additional power input to the system. By using LHPs, it seems possible to meet the growing demand for high-power cooling devices. Although they are somewhat similar to conventional heat pipes, LHPs have a whole set of unique properties, such as low pressure drops and flexible lines between condenser and evaporator, that make them rather promising. LHPs are capable of providing a means of transporting heat over long distances with no input power other than the heat being transported because of the specially designed evaporator and the separation of liquid and vapor lines. For LHP design and fabrication, preliminary analysis on the basis of dimensionless criteria is necessary because of certain complicated phenomena that take place in the heat pipe. Modeling the performance of the LHP and miniaturizing its size are tasks and objectives of current research. In the course of h s work, the LHP and its components, including the evaporator (the most critical and complex part of the LHP), were modeled with the corresponding dimensionless groups also being investigated. Next, analysis of heat and mass transfer processes in the LHP, selection of the most weighted criteria from known dimensionless groups (thermal-fluid sciences), heat transfer rate limits, (heat pipe theory), and experimental ratios which are unique to a given heat pipe class are discussed. In the third part of the report, two-phase flow heat and mass transfer performances inside the LHP condenser are analyzed and calculated for Earth-normal gravity and microgravity conditions. On the basis of recent models and experimental databanks, an analysis for condensing two-phase flow regimes

  12. Thermal control system. [removing waste heat from industrial process spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, D. R. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The temperature of an exothermic process plant carried aboard an Earth orbiting spacecraft is regulated using a number of curved radiator panels accurately positioned in a circular arrangement to form an open receptacle. A module containing the process is insertable into the receptacle. Heat exchangers having broad exterior surfaces extending axially above the circumference of the module fit within arcuate spacings between adjacent radiator panels. Banks of variable conductance heat pipes partially embedded within and thermally coupled to the radiator panels extend across the spacings and are thermally coupled to broad exterior surfaces of the heat exchangers by flanges. Temperature sensors monitor the temperature of process fluid flowing from the module through the heat exchanges. Thermal conduction between the heat exchangers and the radiator panels is regulated by heating a control fluid within the heat pipes to vary the effective thermal length of the heat pipes in inverse proportion to changes in the temperature of the process fluid.

  13. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  14. Technology for organization of the onboard system for processing and storage of ERS data for ultrasmall spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotov, Valery V.; Taganov, Alexander I.; Konkin, Yuriy V.; Kolesenkov, Aleksandr N.

    2017-10-01

    Task of processing and analysis of obtained Earth remote sensing data on ultra-small spacecraft board is actual taking into consideration significant expenditures of energy for data transfer and low productivity of computers. Thereby, there is an issue of effective and reliable storage of the general information flow obtained from onboard systems of information collection, including Earth remote sensing data, into a specialized data base. The paper has considered peculiarities of database management system operation with the multilevel memory structure. For storage of data in data base the format has been developed that describes a data base physical structure which contains required parameters for information loading. Such structure allows reducing a memory size occupied by data base because it is not necessary to store values of keys separately. The paper has shown architecture of the relational database management system oriented into embedment into the onboard ultra-small spacecraft software. Data base for storage of different information, including Earth remote sensing data, can be developed by means of such database management system for its following processing. Suggested database management system architecture has low requirements to power of the computer systems and memory resources on the ultra-small spacecraft board. Data integrity is ensured under input and change of the structured information.

  15. Lifetime of a spacecraft around a synchronous system of asteroids using a dipole model

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Leonardo Barbosa Torres; de Almeida Prado, Antonio F. Bertachini; Sanchez, Diogo Merguizo

    2017-11-01

    Space missions allow us to expand our knowledge about the origin of the solar system. It is believed that asteroids and comets preserve the physical characteristics from the time that the solar system was created. For this reason, there was an increase of missions to asteroids in the past few years. To send spacecraft to asteroids or comets is challenging, since these objects have their own characteristics in several aspects, such as size, shape, physical properties, etc., which are often only discovered after the approach and even after the landing of the spacecraft. These missions must be developed with sufficient flexibility to adjust to these parameters, which are better determined only when the spacecraft reaches the system. Therefore, conducting a dynamic investigation of a spacecraft around a multiple asteroid system offers an extremely rich environment. Extracting accurate information through analytical approaches is quite challenging and requires a significant number of restrictive assumptions. For this reason, a numerical approach to the dynamics of a spacecraft in the vicinity of a binary asteroid system is offered in this paper. In the present work, the equations of the Restricted Synchronous Four-Body Problem (RSFBP) are used to model a binary asteroid system. The main objective of this work is to construct grids of initial conditions, which relates semi-major axis and eccentricity, in order to quantify the lifetime of a spacecraft when released close to the less massive body of the binary system (modeled as a rotating mass dipole). We performed an analysis of the lifetime of the spacecraft considering several mass ratios of a binary system of asteroids and investigating the behavior of a spacecraft in the vicinity of this system. We analyze direct and retrograde orbits. This study investigated orbits that survive for at least 500 orbital periods of the system (which is approximately one year), then not colliding or escaping from the system during this

  16. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model

  17. Personal power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn-Rankin, Derek; Leal, Elisangela Martins; Walther, David C. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The lack of compact, efficient, human compatible, lightweight power sources impedes the realization of machine-enhanced human endeavor. Electronic and communication devices, as well as mobile robotic devices, need new power sources that will allow them to operate autonomously for periods of hours. In this work, a personal power system implies an application of interest to an individual person. The human-compatible gravimetric energy density spans the range from 500 to 5000Wh/kg, with gravimetric power density requirements from 10 to 1000W/kg. These requirements are the primary goals for the systems presented here. The review examines the interesting and promising concepts in electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical approaches to small-scale power, as well as their technological and physical challenges and limitations. Often it is the limitations that dominate, so that while the technology to create personal autonomy for communications, information processing and mobility has accelerated, similar breakthroughs for the systems powering these devices have not yet occurred. Fuel cells, model airplane engines, and hummingbird metabolism, are three promising examples, respectively, of electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical power production strategies that are close to achieving personal power systems' power demands. Fuel cells show great promise as an energy source when relatively low power density is demanded, but they cannot yet deliver high peak powers nor respond quickly to variable loads. Current small-scale engines, while achieving extraordinary power densities, are too inefficient to achieve the energy density needed for long-duration autonomous operation. Metabolic processes of flying insects and hummingbirds are remarkable biological energy converters, but duplicating, accelerating, and harnessing such power for mobility applications is virtually unexplored. These challenges are significant, and they provide a fertile environment for

  18. Results of an electrical power system fault study (CDDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugal-Whitehead, N. R.; Johnson, Y. B.

    1993-01-01

    This report gives the results of an electrical power system fault study which has been conducted over the last 2 and one-half years. First, the results of the literature search into electrical power system faults in space and terrestrial power system applications are reported. A description of the intended implementations of the power system faults into the Large Autonomous Spacecraft Electrical Power System (LASEPS) breadboard is then presented. Then, the actual implementation of the faults into the breadboard is discussed along with a discussion describing the LASEPS breadboard. Finally, the results of the injected faults and breadboard failures are discussed.

  19. Nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Cavallaro, L.; Paulovich, K.F.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an inherently safe modular nuclear power system for producing electrical power at acceptable efficiency levels using working fluids at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The system comprising: a reactor module for heating a first fluid; a heat exchanger module for transferring heat from the first fluid to a second fluid; a first piping system effecting flow of the first fluid in a first fluid circuit successively through the reactor module and the heat exchanger module; a power conversion module comprising a turbogenerator driven by the second fluid, and means for cooling the second fluid upon emergence thereof from the turbogenerator; a second piping system comprising means for effecting flow of the second fluid in a second fluid circuit successively through the heat exchanger module and the power conversion module; and a plurality of pits for receiving the modules

  20. Flight Plasma Diagnostics for High-Power, Solar-Electric Deep-Space Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee; De Soria-Santacruz Pich, Maria; Conroy, David; Lobbia, Robert; Huang, Wensheng; Choi, Maria; Sekerak, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    NASA's Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM) project plans included a set of plasma and space environment instruments, the Plasma Diagnostic Package (PDP), to fulfill ARRM requirements for technology extensibility to future missions. The PDP objectives were divided into the classes of 1) Plasma thruster dynamics, 2) Solar array-specific environmental effects, 3) Plasma environmental spacecraft effects, and 4) Energetic particle spacecraft environment. A reference design approach and interface requirements for ARRM's PDP was generated by the PDP team at JPL and GRC. The reference design consisted of redundant single-string avionics located on the ARRM spacecraft bus as well as solar array, driving and processing signals from multiple copies of several types of plasma, effects, and environments sensors distributed over the spacecraft and array. The reference design sensor types were derived in part from sensors previously developed for USAF Research Laboratory (AFRL) plasma effects campaigns such as those aboard TacSat-2 in 2007 and AEHF-2 in 2012.

  1. Reactor power system deployment and startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Nelin, C.J.; Britt, E.J.; Klein, G.; Rasor Associates, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA; California Institute of Technology, Pasadena)

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses issues that should receive further examination in the near-term as concept selection for development of a U.S. space reactor power system is approached. The issues include: the economics, practicality and system reliability associated with transfer of nuclear spacecraft from low earth shuttle orbits to operational orbits, via chemical propulsion versus nuclear electric propulsion; possible astronaut supervised reactor and nuclear electric propulsion startup in low altitude Shuttle orbit; potential deployment methods for nuclear powered spacecraft from Shuttle; the general public safety of low altitude startup and nuclear safe and disposal orbits; the question of preferred reactor power level; and the question of frozen versus molten alkali metal coolant during launch and deployment. These issues must be considered now because they impact the SP-100 concept selection, power level selection, weight and size limits, use of deployable radiators, reliability requirements, and economics, as well as the degree of need for and the urgency of developing space reactor power systems. 5 references

  2. Design of RTPV generators integrated with new millennium spacecraft for outer solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's recently inaugurated New Millennium program, with its emphasis on miniaturized spacecraft, has generated interest in a low-power (10- to 30-watt), low-mass, high-efficiency RTPV (Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic) power system. This led to a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored design study of such a system. A 75-watt design employed two 250-watt General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules that DOE had previously developed and safety-qualified for various space missions. These modules were too large for the small RTPVs described in this paper. To minimize the need for new development and safety verification studies, derivative designs for 125-watt and 62.5-watt heat source modules containing identical fuel pellets, clads, impact shell, and thermal insulation were generated along with a novel heat source support scheme to reduce the heat losses through the structural supports, and a new and much simpler radiator structure, employing no honeycombs or heat pipes. Previous RTPV study had been based on the use of GaSb PV cells and spectrally selective IR filters. Because of the very encouraging results of system design studies, in the fall of 1994 an experimental program was initiated to develop improved filters and cells, to demonstrate how much improvement can actually be achieved. First priority was given to filter improvements, because our system studies indicated that improved filters would have a much greater effect on system performance than cell improvements. By September 1995 about 94% of the filter performance improvement projected in 1993 had been achieved. (Abstract Truncated)

  3. NSTX Electrical Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems

  4. Autonomous power networks based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokic, A.; Van den Bosch, P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented the concept of autonomous networks to cope with this increased complexity in power systems while enhancing market-based operation. The operation of future power systems will be more challenging and demanding than present systems because of increased uncertainties, less inertia in the system, replacement of centralized coordinating activities by decentralized parties and the reliance on dynamic markets for both power balancing and system reliability. An autonomous network includes the aggregation of networked producers and consumers in a relatively small area with respect to the overall system. The operation of an autonomous network is coordinated and controlled with one central unit acting as an interface between internal producers/consumers and the rest of the power system. In this study, the power balance problem and system reliability through provision of ancillary services was formulated as an optimization problem for the overall autonomous networks based power system. This paper described the simulation of an optimal autonomous network dispatching in day ahead markets, based on predicted spot prices for real power, and two ancillary services. It was concluded that large changes occur in a power systems structure and operation, most of them adding to the uncertainty and complexity of the system. The introduced concept of an autonomous power network-based power system was shown to be a realistic and consistent approach to formulate and operate a market-based dispatch of both power and ancillary services. 9 refs., 4 figs

  5. Metal hydride hydrogen and heat storage systems as enabling technology for spacecraft applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissner, Alexander, E-mail: reissner@fotec.at [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pawelke, Roland H.; Hummel, Stefan; Cabelka, Dusan [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gerger, Joachim [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Farnes, Jarle, E-mail: Jarle.farnes@prototech.no [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Schautz, Max, E-mail: max.schautz@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands); Geneste, Xavier, E-mail: xavier.geneste@esa.int [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • A metal hydride tank concept for heat and hydrogen storage is presented. • The tank is part of a closed-loop reversible fuel cell system for space application. • For several engineering issues specific to the spacecraft application, solutions have been developed. • The effect of water contamination has been approximated for Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. • A novel heat exchanger design has been realized by Selective Laser Melting. - Abstract: The next generation of telecommunication satellites will demand a platform payload performance in the range of 30+ kW within the next 10 years. At this high power output, a Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (RFCS) offers an efficiency advantage in specific energy density over lithium ion batteries. However, a RFCS creates a substantial amount of heat (60–70 kJ per mol H{sub 2}) during fuel cell operation. This requires a thermal hardware that accounts for up to 50% of RFCS mass budget. Thus the initial advantage in specific energy density is reduced. A metal hydride tank for combined storage of heat and hydrogen in a RFCS may overcome this constraint. Being part of a consortium in an ongoing European Space Agency project, FOTEC is building a technology demonstrator for such a combined hydrogen and heat storage system.

  6. Mobile nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is meant to present a general survey of the mobile nuclear power systems and not a detailed review of their technical accomplishments. It is based in published material mainly up to 1987. Mobile nuclear power systems are of two fundamentally different kinds: nuclear reactors and isotopic generators. In the reactors the energy comes from nuclear fission and in the isotopic generators from the radioactive decay of suitable isotopes. The reactors are primarily used as power sourves on board nuclear submarines and other warships but have also been used in the space and in remote places. Their thermal power has ranged from 30 kWth (in a satellite) to 175 MWth (on board an aircraft carrier). Isotopic generators are suitable only for small power demands and have been used on board satellites and spaceprobes, automatic weatherstations, lighthouses and marine installations for navigation and observation. (author)

  7. Spacecraft systems engineering: An introduction to the process at GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragomeni, Tony; Ryschkewitsch, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective in systems engineering is to devise a coherent total system design capable of achieving the stated requirements. Requirements should be rigid. However, they should be continuously challenged, rechallenged and/or validated. The systems engineer must specify every requirement in order to design, document, implement and conduct the mission. Each and every requirement must be logically considered, traceable and evaluated through various analysis and trade studies in a total systems design. Margins must be determined to be realistic as well as adequate. The systems engineer must also continuously close the loop and verify system performance against the requirements. The fundamental role of the systems engineer, however, is to engineer, not manage. Yet, in large, complex missions, where more than one systems engineer is required, someone needs to manage the systems engineers, and we call them 'systems managers.' Systems engineering management is an overview function which plans, guides, monitors and controls the technical execution of a project as implemented by the systems engineers. As the project moves on through Phases A and B into Phase C/D, the systems engineering tasks become a small portion of the total effort. The systems management role increases since discipline subsystem engineers are conducting analyses and reviewing test data for final review and acceptance by the systems managers.

  8. Middle Eastern power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Middle Eastern Power systems have evolved independently of each other over many decades. The region covers a wide geographical area of over 4 million square kilometers with an estimated population in 1990 of over 120 million people. This paper discusses the present status and future power system developments in the Middle East with emphasis on the Mashrequ Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Yemen, and the six Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, namely, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Interconnections within MAC and possible extensions to Turkey, Europe, and Central Africa are discussed. A common characteristic of the MAC power systems is that they are all operated by government or semi-government bodies. The energy resources in the region are varied. Countries such as Iraq, Egypt, and Syria have significant hydro power resources. On the other hand, the GCC countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel reserves

  9. Space Transportation System Cargo projects: inertial stage/spacecraft integration plan. Volume 1: Management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Management System for the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) - spacecraft processing from KSC arrival through launch is described. The roles and responsibilities of the agencies and test team organizations involved in IUS-S/C processing at KSC for non-Department of Defense missions are described. Working relationships are defined with respect to documentation preparation, coordination and approval, schedule development and maintenance, test conduct and control, configuration management, quality control and safety. The policy regarding the use of spacecraft contractor test procedures, IUS contractor detailed operating procedures and KSC operations and maintenance instructions is defined. Review and approval requirements for each documentation system are described.

  10. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  11. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications

  12. Simulation of Tomographic Reconstruction of Magnetosphere Plasma Distribution By Multi-spacecraft Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunitsyn, V.; Nesterov, I.; Andreeva, E.; Zelenyi, L.; Veselov, M.; Galperin, Y.; Buchner, J.

    A satellite radiotomography method for electron density distributions was recently proposed for closely-space multi-spacecraft group of high-altitude satellites to study the physics of reconnection process. The original idea of the ROY project is to use a constellation of spacecrafts (one main and several sub-satellites) in order to carry out closely-spaced multipoint measurements and 2D tomographic reconstruction of elec- tron density in the space between the main satellite and the subsatellites. The distances between the satellites were chosen to vary from dozens to few hundreds of kilometers. The easiest data interpretation is achieved when the subsatellites are placed along the plasma streamline. Then, whenever a plasma density irregularity moves between the main satellite and the subsatellites it will be scanned in different directions and we can get 2D distribution of plasma using these projections. However in general sub- satellites are not placed exactly along the plasma streamline. The method of plasma velocity determination relative to multi-spacecraft systems is considered. Possibilities of 3D tomographic imaging using multi-spacecraft systems are analyzed. The model- ing has shown that efficient scheme for 3D tomographic imaging would be to place spacecrafts in different planes so that the angle between the planes would make not more then ten degrees. Work is supported by INTAS PROJECT 2000-465.

  13. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Norman R; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data. (paper)

  14. Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2009-01-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, has routinely demonstrated gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This final report summarizes the results of the technology development work conducted at the PSDF through January 31, 2009. Twenty-one major gasification test campaigns were completed, for a total of more than 11,000 hours of gasification operation. This operational experience has led to significant advancements in gasification technologies.

  15. Wind power in modern power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, and large-scale wind turbines/wind farms have been developed and connected to power systems. However, the traditional power system generation units are centralized located synchronous generators with different characteristics compared...... with wind turbines. This paper presents an overview of the issues about integrating large-scale wind power plants into modern power systems. Firstly, grid codes are introduced. Then, the main technical problems and challenges are presented. Finally, some possible technical solutions are discussed....

  16. The Evolution of Software and Its Impact on Complex System Design in Robotic Spacecraft Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Roy

    2013-01-01

    The growth in computer hardware performance, coupled with reduced energy requirements, has led to a rapid expansion of the resources available to software systems, driving them towards greater logical abstraction, flexibility, and complexity. This shift in focus from compacting functionality into a limited field towards developing layered, multi-state architectures in a grand field has both driven and been driven by the history of embedded processor design in the robotic spacecraft industry.The combinatorial growth of interprocess conditions is accompanied by benefits (concurrent development, situational autonomy, and evolution of goals) and drawbacks (late integration, non-deterministic interactions, and multifaceted anomalies) in achieving mission success, as illustrated by the case of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Approaches to optimizing the benefits while mitigating the drawbacks have taken the form of the formalization of requirements, modular design practices, extensive system simulation, and spacecraft data trend analysis. The growth of hardware capability and software complexity can be expected to continue, with future directions including stackable commodity subsystems, computer-generated algorithms, runtime reconfigurable processors, and greater autonomy.

  17. Real-Time Analytics Test System for Distributed Spacecraft Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Upcoming DSM missions will produce unprecedented amounts of data during both I&T and flight, overwhelming current command/telemetry systems. The amount of data,...

  18. Electric power system / emergency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    One factor of reliability of reactor safety systems is the integrity of the power supply. The purpose of this paper is a review and a discussion of the safety objectives required for the planning, licensing, manufacture and erection of electrical power systems and components. The safety aspects and the technical background of the systems for - the electric auxiliary power supply system and - the emergency power supply system are outlined. These requirements result specially from the safety standards which are the framework for the studies of safety analysis. The overall and specific requirements for the electrical power supply of the safety systems are demonstrated on a 1300 MW standard nuclear power station with a pressurized water reactor. (orig.)

  19. System concepts and design examples for optical communication with planetary spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, James R.

    Systems concepts for optical communication with future deep-space (planetary) spacecraft are described. These include not only the optical transceiver package aboard the distant spacecraft, but the earth-vicinity optical-communications receiving station as well. Both ground-based, and earth-orbiting receivers are considered. Design examples for a number of proposed or potential deep-space missions are then presented. These include an orbital mission to Saturn, a Lander and Rover mission to Mars, and an astronomical mission to a distance of 1000 astronomical units.

  20. Power system protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata, S.S.; Damborg, M.J.; Jampala, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Power systems of the 21st century will be more modern, and complex, utilizing the latest available technologies. At the same time, generating plants will have to operate with minimal spinning margins and energy transportation has to take place at critical levels due to environmental and economical constraints. These factors dictate that the power systems be protected with optimum sensitivity, selectivity and time of operation to assure maximum reliability, and security at minimal cost. With an increasing role played by digital computers in every aspect of protection, it is important to take a critical and fresh look at the art and science of relaying and protection. The main objective of this paper is to review the past, present and future of power system protection from a software point of view

  1. Analysis on coverage ability of BeiDou navigation satellite system for manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sihao; Yao, Zheng; Zhuang, Xuebin; Lu, Mingquan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the service ability of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) for manned spacecraft, both the current regional and the future-planned global constellations of BDS are introduced and simulated. The orbital parameters of the International Space Station and China's Tiangong-1 spacelab are used to create the simulation scenario and evaluate the performance of the BDS constellations. The number of visible satellites and the position dilution (PDOP) of precision at the spacecraft-based receiver are evaluated. Simulation and analysis show quantitative results on the coverage ability and time percentages of both the current BDS regional and future global constellations for manned-space orbits which can be a guideline to the applications and mission design of BDS receivers on manned spacecraft.

  2. Link Analysis of High Throughput Spacecraft Communication Systems for Future Science Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's plan to launch several spacecrafts into low Earth Orbit (LEO) to support science missions in the next ten years and beyond requires down link throughput on the order of several terabits per day. The ability to handle such a large volume of data far exceeds the capabilities of current systems. This paper proposes two solutions, first, a high data rate link between the LEO spacecraft and ground via relay satellites in geostationary orbit (GEO). Second, a high data rate direct to ground link from LEO. Next, the paper presents results from computer simulations carried out for both types of links taking into consideration spacecraft transmitter frequency, EIRP, and waveform; elevation angle dependent path loss through Earths atmosphere, and ground station receiver GT.

  3. Deployable Propulsion and Power Systems for Solar System Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les; Carr, John

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing thin-film based, deployable propulsion, power and communication systems for small spacecraft that could provide a revolutionary new capability allowing small spacecraft exploration of the solar system. The Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) Scout reconnaissance mission will demonstrate solar sail propulsion on a 6U CubeSat interplanetary spacecraft and lay the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. Solar sails use sunlight to propel vehicles through space by reflecting solar photons from a large, mirror-like sail made of a lightweight, highly reflective material. This continuous photon pressure provides propellantless thrust, allowing for very high delta V maneuvers on long-duration, deep space exploration. Since reflected light produces thrust, solar sails require no onboard propellant. The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) is a launch stowed, orbit deployed array on which thin-film photovoltaic and antenna elements are embedded. Inherently, small satellites are limited in surface area, volume, and mass allocation; driving competition between power, communications, and GN&C (guidance navigation and control) subsystems. This restricts payload capability and limits the value of these low-cost satellites. LISA-T is addressing this issue, deploying large-area arrays from a reduced volume and mass envelope - greatly enhancing power generation and communications capabilities of small spacecraft. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the solar sail as its primary propulsion system, allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 sq m solar sail and will weigh less than 12 kilograms. NEA Scout will be launched on the first flight of the Space Launch System in 2018. Similar in concept

  4. Centralized database for interconnection system design. [for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billitti, Joseph W.

    1989-01-01

    A database application called DFACS (Database, Forms and Applications for Cabling and Systems) is described. The objective of DFACS is to improve the speed and accuracy of interconnection system information flow during the design and fabrication stages of a project, while simultaneously supporting both the horizontal (end-to-end wiring) and the vertical (wiring by connector) design stratagems used by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) project engineering community. The DFACS architecture is centered around a centralized database and program methodology which emulates the manual design process hitherto used at JPL. DFACS has been tested and successfully applied to existing JPL hardware tasks with a resulting reduction in schedule time and costs.

  5. Nano-Scale Sample Acquisition Systems for Small Class Exploration Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.

    2015-12-01

    The paradigm for space exploration is changing. Large and expensive missions are very rare and the space community is turning to smaller, lighter, and less expensive missions that could still perform great exploration. These missions are also within reach of commercial companies such as the Google Lunar X Prize teams that develop small scale lunar missions. Recent commercial endeavors such as "Planet Labs inc." and Sky Box Imaging, inc. show that there are new benefits and business models associated with miniaturization of space hardware. The Nano-Scale Sample Acquisition System includes NanoDrill for capture of small rock cores and PlanetVac for capture of surface regolith. These two systems are part of the ongoing effort to develop "Micro Sampling" systems for deployment by the small spacecraft with limited payload capacities. The ideal applications include prospecting missions to the Moon and Asteroids. The MicroDrill is a rotary-percussive coring drill that captures cores 7 mm in diameter and up to 2 cm long. The drill weighs less than 1 kg and can capture a core from a 40 MPa strength rock within a few minutes, with less than 10 Watt power and less than 10 Newton of preload. The PlanetVac is a pneumatic based regolith acquisition system that can capture surface sample in touch-and-go maneuver. These sampling systems were integrated within the footpads of commercial quadcopter for testing. As such, they could also be used by geologists on Earth to explore difficult to get to locations.

  6. Navigation Operations with Prototype Components of an Automated Real-Time Spacecraft Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangahuala, L.; Drain, T. R.

    1999-01-01

    At present, ground navigation support for interplanetary spacecraft requires human intervention for data pre-processing, filtering, and post-processing activities; these actions must be repeated each time a new batch of data is collected by the ground data system.

  7. Disinfection of Spacecraft Potable Water Systems by Passivation with Ionic Silver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birmele, Michele N.; McCoy, LaShelle e.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial growth is common on wetted surfaces in spacecraft environmental control and life support systems despite the use of chemical and physical disinfection methods. Advanced control technologies are needed to limit microorganisms and increase the reliability of life support systems required for long-duration human missions. Silver ions and compounds are widely used as antimicrobial agents for medical applications and continue to be used as a residual biocide in some spacecraft water systems. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has identified silver fluoride for use in the potable water system on the next generation spacecraft. Due to ionic interactions between silver fluoride in solution and wetted metallic surfaces, ionic silver is rapidly depleted from solution and loses its antimicrobial efficacy over time. This report describes research to prolong the antimicrobial efficacy of ionic silver by maintaining its solubility. Three types of metal coupons (lnconel 718, Stainless Steel 316, and Titanium 6AI-4V) used in spacecraft potable water systems were exposed to either a continuous flow of water amended with 0.4 mg/L ionic silver fluoride or to a static, pre-treatment passivation in 50 mg/L ionic silver fluoride with or without a surface oxidation pre-treatment. Coupons were then challenged in a high-shear, CDC bioreactor (BioSurface Technologies) by exposure to six bacteria previously isolated from spacecraft potable water systems. Continuous exposure to 0.4 mg/L ionic silver over the course of 24 hours during the flow phase resulted in a >7-log reduction. The residual effect of a 24-hour passivation treatment in 50 mg/L of ionic silver resulted in a >3-log reduction, whereas a two-week treatment resulted in a >4-log reduction. Results indicate that 0.4 mg/L ionic silver is an effective biocide against many bacteria and that a prepassivation of metal surfaces with silver can provide additional microbial control.

  8. Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, and risks for selected spacecraft ground system automation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Silverman, Barry G.; Kahn, Martha; Hexmoor, Henry

    1988-01-01

    In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the early 1980s, expert systems and artificial intelligence (AI/ES) efforts for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It is useful to stop and assess the impact of this technology in view of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the overall strategies of some of the earlier studies both are being followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized ground system automation scenarios and their attendant AI architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned are examined and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) no AI (baseline); (2) standalone expert systems; (3) standardized, reusable knowledge base management systems (KBMS); and (4) a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial intelligence lessons learned, benefits, and risks for spacecraft ground system automation scenarios are described.

  9. Artificial intelligence costs, benefits, risks for selected spacecraft ground system automation scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Silverman, Barry G.; Kahn, Martha; Hexmoor, Henry

    1988-01-01

    In response to a number of high-level strategy studies in the early 1980s, expert systems and artificial intelligence (AI/ES) efforts for spacecraft ground systems have proliferated in the past several years primarily as individual small to medium scale applications. It is useful to stop and assess the impact of this technology in view of lessons learned to date, and hopefully, to determine if the overall strategies of some of the earlier studies both are being followed and still seem relevant. To achieve that end four idealized ground system automation scenarios and their attendant AI architecture are postulated and benefits, risks, and lessons learned are examined and compared. These architectures encompass: (1) no AI (baseline), (2) standalone expert systems, (3) standardized, reusable knowledge base management systems (KBMS), and (4) a futuristic unattended automation scenario. The resulting artificial intelligence lessons learned, benefits, and risks for spacecraft ground system automation scenarios are described.

  10. Development of solid-gas equilibrium propulsion system for small spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Toshihiro; Mori, Osamu; Kubo, Yuki

    2017-11-01

    A phase equilibrium propulsion system is a kind of cold-gas jet in which the phase equilibrium state of the fuel is maintained in a tank and its vapor is ejected when a valve is opened. One such example is a gas-liquid equilibrium propulsion system that uses liquefied gas as fuel. This system was mounted on the IKAROS solar sail and has been demonstrated in orbit. The system has a higher storage efficiency and a lighter configuration than a high-pressure cold-gas jet because the vapor pressure is lower, and is suitable for small spacecraft. However, the system requires a gas-liquid separation device in order to avoid leakage of the liquid, which makes the system complex. As another example of a phase equilibrium propulsion system, we introduce a solid-gas equilibrium propulsion system, which uses a sublimable substance as fuel and ejects its vapor. This system has an even lower vapor pressure and does not require such a separation device, instead requiring only a filter to keep the solid inside the tank. Moreover, the system is much simpler and lighter, making it more suitable for small spacecraft, especially CubeSat-class spacecraft, and the low thrust of the system allows spacecraft motion to be controlled precisely. In addition, the thrust level can be controlled by controlling the temperature of the fuel, which changes the vapor pressure. The present paper introduces the concept of the proposed system, and describes ejection experiments and its evaluation. The basic function of the proposed system is demonstrated in order to verify its usefulness.

  11. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide applies to nuclear power plants for which the total power supply comprises normal power supply (which is electric) and emergency power supply (which may be electric or a combination of electric and non-electric). In its present form the Guide provides general guidance for all types of emergency power systems (EPS) - electric and non-electric, and specific guidance (see Appendix A) on the design principles and the features of the emergency electric power system (EEPS). Future editions will include a second appendix giving specific guidance on non-electric power systems. Section 3 of this Safety Guide covers information on considerations that should be taken into account relative to the electric grid, the transmission lines, the on-site electrical supply system, and other alternative power sources, in order to provide high overall reliability of the power supply to the EPS. Since the nuclear power plant operator does not usually control off-site facilities, the discussion of methods of improving off-site reliability does not include requirements for facilities not under the operator's control. Sections 4 to 11 of this Guide provide information, recommendations and requirements that would apply to any emergency power system, be it electric or non-electric

  12. Dissertation Defense Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional "validation by test only" mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions. Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in "Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations". This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics

  13. Dissertation Defense: Computational Fluid Dynamics Uncertainty Analysis for Payload Fairing Spacecraft Environmental Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Curtis Edward

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft thermal protection systems are at risk of being damaged due to airflow produced from Environmental Control Systems. There are inherent uncertainties and errors associated with using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the airflow field around a spacecraft from the Environmental Control System. This paper describes an approach to quantify the uncertainty in using Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict airflow speeds around an encapsulated spacecraft without the use of test data. Quantifying the uncertainty in analytical predictions is imperative to the success of any simulation-based product. The method could provide an alternative to traditional validation by test only mentality. This method could be extended to other disciplines and has potential to provide uncertainty for any numerical simulation, thus lowering the cost of performing these verifications while increasing the confidence in those predictions.Spacecraft requirements can include a maximum airflow speed to protect delicate instruments during ground processing. Computational Fluid Dynamics can be used to verify these requirements; however, the model must be validated by test data. This research includes the following three objectives and methods. Objective one is develop, model, and perform a Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis of three (3) generic, non-proprietary, environmental control systems and spacecraft configurations. Several commercially available and open source solvers have the capability to model the turbulent, highly three-dimensional, incompressible flow regime. The proposed method uses FLUENT, STARCCM+, and OPENFOAM. Objective two is to perform an uncertainty analysis of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model using the methodology found in Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations. This method requires three separate grids and solutions, which quantify the error bars around Computational Fluid Dynamics predictions

  14. Analysis of the Apollo spacecraft operational data management system. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A study was made of Apollo, Skylab, and several other data management systems to determine those techniques which could be applied to the management of operational data for future manned spacecraft programs. The results of the study are presented and include: (1) an analysis of present data management systems, (2) a list of requirements for future operational data management systems, (3) an evaluation of automated data management techniques, and (4) a plan for data management applicable to future space programs.

  15. Integrated water and waste management system for future spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelfinger, A. L.; Murray, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Over 200 days of continuous testing have been completed on an integrated waste management-water recovery system developed by General Electric under a jointly funded AEC/NASA/AF Contract. The 4 man system provides urine, feces, and trash collection; water reclamation; storage, heating and dispensing of the water; storage and disposal of the feces and urine residue and all of other nonmetallic waste material by incineration. The heat required for the 1200 deg F purification processes is provided by a single 420-w radioisotope heater. A second 836-w radioisotope heater supplemented by 720 w of electrical heat provides for distillation and water heating. Significant test results are no pre-or-post treatment, greater than 98 per cent potable water recovery, approximately 95 per cent reduction in solids weight and volume, all outflows are sterile with the water having no bacteria or virus, and the radioisotope capsule radiation level is only 7.9 mrem/hr unshielded at 1 m (neutrons and gamma).

  16. UNISAT-3 Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio; Bulgarelli, Fabio; Graziani, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    An overview of the UNISAT-3 microsatellite power subsystem is given. This is an educational, low weight and low cost microsatellite designed, built, launched and operated in space by students and professors of Scuola di Ingegneria Aerospaziale, at University of Rome "La Sapienza". The satellite power system is based on terrestrial technology solar arrays and NiCd batteries. The microsatellite hosts other solar arrays, including multi-junction solar cells and mono- crystalline silicon high efficiency solar cells, in order to compare their behaviour in orbit. Moreover a MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking ) system has been designed and tested, and it is a technological payload of UNISAT-3. The MPPT design follows the studies performed in the field of solar powered racing cars, with modifications to make the system suitable for use in space. The system design, numerical simulation and hardware ground testing are described in the paper. The experiment and the performance evaluation criterion are described, together with the preliminary results of the first eight months of operation in orbit.

  17. Rapid Onboard Trajectory Design for Autonomous Spacecraft in Multibody Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbauer, Eric Michael

    This research develops automated, on-board trajectory planning algorithms in order to support current and new mission concepts. These include orbiter missions to Phobos or Deimos, Outer Planet Moon orbiters, and robotic and crewed missions to small bodies. The challenges stem from the limited on-board computing resources which restrict full trajectory optimization with guaranteed convergence in complex dynamical environments. The approach taken consists of leveraging pre-mission computations to create a large database of pre-computed orbits and arcs. Such a database is used to generate a discrete representation of the dynamics in the form of a directed graph, which acts to index these arcs. This allows the use of graph search algorithms on-board in order to provide good approximate solutions to the path planning problem. Coupled with robust differential correction and optimization techniques, this enables the determination of an efficient path between any boundary conditions with very little time and computing effort. Furthermore, the optimization methods developed here based on sequential convex programming are shown to have provable convergence properties, as well as generating feasible major iterates in case of a system interrupt -- a key requirement for on-board application. The outcome of this project is thus the development of an algorithmic framework which allows the deployment of this approach in a variety of specific mission contexts. Test cases related to missions of interest to NASA and JPL such as a Phobos orbiter and a Near Earth Asteroid interceptor are demonstrated, including the results of an implementation on the RAD750 flight processor. This method fills a gap in the toolbox being developed to create fully autonomous space exploration systems.

  18. Space Launch System Spacecraft and Payload Elements: Progress Toward Crewed Launch and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Andrew A.; Smith, David Alan; Holcomb, Shawn; Hitt, David

    2017-01-01

    While significant and substantial progress continues to be accomplished toward readying the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket for its first test flight, work is already underway on preparations for the second flight - using an upgraded version of the vehicle - and beyond. Designed to support human missions into deep space, SLS is the most powerful human-rated launch vehicle the United States has ever undertaken, and is one of three programs being managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Exploration Systems Development division. The Orion spacecraft program is developing a new crew vehicle that will support human missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), and the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) program is transforming Kennedy Space Center (KSC) into a next-generation spaceport capable of supporting not only SLS but also multiple commercial users. Together, these systems will support human exploration missions into the proving ground of cislunar space and ultimately to Mars. For its first flight, SLS will deliver a near-term heavy-lift capability for the nation with its 70-metric-ton (t) Block 1 configuration. Each element of the vehicle now has flight hardware in production in support of the initial flight of the SLS, which will propel Orion around the moon and back. Encompassing hardware qualification, structural testing to validate hardware compliance and analytical modeling, progress is on track to meet the initial targeted launch date. In Utah and Mississippi, booster and engine testing are verifying upgrades made to proven shuttle hardware. At Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in Louisiana, the world's largest spacecraft welding tool is producing tanks for the SLS core stage. Providing the Orion crew capsule/launch vehicle interface and in-space propulsion via a cryogenic upper stage, the Spacecraft/Payload Integration and Evolution (SPIE) element serves a key role in achieving SLS goals and objectives. The SPIE element

  19. Error Analysis System for Spacecraft Navigation Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, S. H.; Hart, R. C.; Hartman, K. R.; Tomcsik, T. L.; Searl, J. E.; Bernstein, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing improved space-navigation filtering algorithms to use the Global Positioning System (GPS) for autonomous real-time onboard orbit determination. In connection with a GPS technology demonstration on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI)/Lewis spacecraft, FDD analysts and programmers have teamed with the GSFC Guidance, Navigation, and Control Branch to develop the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) system. The GEODE system consists of a Kalman filter operating as a navigation tool for estimating the position, velocity, and additional states required to accurately navigate the orbiting Lewis spacecraft by using astrodynamic modeling and GPS measurements from the receiver. A parallel effort at the FDD is the development of a GPS Error Analysis System (GEAS) that will be used to analyze and improve navigation filtering algorithms during development phases and during in-flight calibration. For GEAS, the Kalman filter theory is extended to estimate the errors in position, velocity, and other error states of interest. The estimation of errors in physical variables at regular intervals will allow the time, cause, and effect of navigation system weaknesses to be identified. In addition, by modeling a sufficient set of navigation system errors, a system failure that causes an observed error anomaly can be traced and accounted for. The GEAS software is formulated using Object Oriented Design (OOD) techniques implemented in the C++ programming language on a Sun SPARC workstation. The Phase 1 of this effort is the development of a basic system to be used to evaluate navigation algorithms implemented in the GEODE system. This paper presents the GEAS mathematical methodology, systems and operations concepts, and software design and implementation. Results from the use of the basic system to evaluate

  20. Future spacecraft propulsion systems. Enabling technologies for space exploration. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czysz, Paul A. [St. Louis Univ., MO (United States). Oliver L. Parks Endowed Chair in Aerospace Engineering; Bruno, Claudio [Univ. degli Studi di Roma (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica e Aeronautica

    2009-07-01

    In this second edition of Future Spacecraft Propulsion Systems, the authors demonstrate the need to break free from the old established concepts of expendable rockets, using chemical propulsion, and to develop new breeds of launch vehicle capable of both launching payloads into orbit at a dramatically reduced cost and for sustained operations in low-Earth orbit. The next steps to establishing a permanent 'presence' in the Solar System beyond Earth are the commercialisation of sustained operations on the Moon and the development of advanced nuclear or high-energy space propulsion systems for Solar System exploration out to the boundary of interstellar space. In the future, high-energy particle research facilities may one day yield a very high-energy propulsion system that will take us to the nearby stars, or even beyond. Space is not quiet: it is a continuous series of nuclear explosions that provide the material for new star systems to form and provide the challenge to explore. This book provides an assessment of the industrial capability required to construct and operate the necessary spacecraft. Time and distance communication and control limitations impose robotic constraints. Space environments restrict human sustained presence and put high demands on electronic, control and materials systems. This comprehensive and authoritative book puts spacecraft propulsion systems in perspective, from earth orbit launchers to astronomical/space exploration vehicles. It includes new material on fusion propulsion, new figures and updates and expands the information given in the first edition. (orig.)

  1. Wireless power transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2016-02-23

    A system includes a first stage of an inductive power transfer system with an LCL load resonant converter with a switching section, an LCL tuning circuit, and a primary receiver pad. The IPT system includes a second stage with a secondary receiver pad, a secondary resonant circuit, a secondary rectification circuit, and a secondary decoupling converter. The secondary receiver pad connects to the secondary resonant circuit. The secondary resonant circuit connects to the secondary rectification circuit. The secondary rectification circuit connects to the secondary decoupling converter. The second stage connects to a load. The load includes an energy storage element. The second stage and load are located on a vehicle and the first stage is located at a fixed location. The primary receiver pad wirelessly transfers power to the secondary receiver pad across a gap when the vehicle positions the secondary receiver pad with respect to the primary receiver pad.

  2. Powering laser diode systems

    CERN Document Server

    Trestman, Grigoriy A

    2017-01-01

    This Tutorial Text discusses the competent design and skilled use of laser diode drivers (LDDs) and power supplies (PSs) for the electrical components of laser diode systems. It is intended to help power-electronic design engineers during the initial design stages: the choice of the best PS topology, the calculation of parameters and components of the PS circuit, and the computer simulation of the circuit. Readers who use laser diode systems for research, production, and other purposes will also benefit. The book will help readers avoid errors when creating laser systems from ready-made blocks, as well as understand the nature of the "mystical failures" of laser diodes (and possibly prevent them).

  3. AC power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, H.

    1987-01-01

    An ac power supply system includes a rectifier fed by a normal ac supply, and an inverter connected to the rectifier by a dc link, the inverter being effective to invert the dc output of the receiver at a required frequency to provide an ac output. A dc backup power supply of lower voltage than the normal dc output of the rectifier is connected across the dc link such that the ac output of the rectifier is derived from the backup supply if the voltage of the output of the inverter falls below that of the backup supply. The dc backup power may be derived from a backup ac supply. Use in pumping coolant in nuclear reactor is envisaged. (author)

  4. Power system optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, Zeljko; Cehil, Mislav

    2007-01-01

    Long-term gas purchase contracts usually determine delivery and payment for gas on the regular hourly basis, independently of demand side consumption. In order to use fuel gas in an economically viable way, optimization of gas distribution for covering consumption must be introduced. In this paper, a mathematical model of the electric utility system which is used for optimization of gas distribution over electric generators is presented. The utility system comprises installed capacity of 1500 MW of thermal power plants, 400 MW of combined heat and power plants, 330 MW of a nuclear power plant and 1600 MW of hydro power plants. Based on known demand curve the optimization model selects plants according to the prescribed criteria. Firstly it engages run-of-river hydro plants, then the public cogeneration plants, the nuclear plant and thermal power plants. Storage hydro plants are used for covering peak load consumption. In case of shortage of installed capacity, the cross-border purchase is allowed. Usage of dual fuel equipment (gas-oil), which is available in some thermal plants, is also controlled by the optimization procedure. It is shown that by using such a model it is possible to properly plan the amount of fuel gas which will be contracted. The contracted amount can easily be distributed over generators efficiently and without losses (no breaks in delivery). The model helps in optimizing of fuel gas-oil ratio for plants with combined burners and enables planning of power plants overhauls over a year in a viable and efficient way. (author)

  5. The electric power engineering handbook power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Power Systems, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) covers all aspects of power system protection, dynamics, stability, operation, and control. Under the editorial guidance of L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Andrew Hanson, Pritindra Chowdhuri, Gerry Sheble, and Mark Nelms, this carefully crafted reference includes substantial new and revised contributions from worldwide leaders in the field. This content provides convenient access to overviews and detailed information on a diverse arr

  6. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  7. The Development of Fuel Cell Technology for Electric Power Generation - From Spacecraft Applications to the Hydrogen Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The fuel cell uses a catalyzed reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer to directly produce electricity. Its high theoretical efficiency and low temperature operation made it a subject of much study upon its invention ca. 1900, but its relatively high life cycle costs kept it as "solution in search of a problem" for its first half century. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a cost effective solution was, starting in the 1960's that of a power source for NASA's manned spacecraft. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. However, starting in the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of terrestrial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but these advances are often in directions quite different from those needed for NASA spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's manned space program.

  8. Miniature, Low-Power, Waveguide Based Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer for Spacecraft Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewagama, TIlak; Aslam, Shahid; Talabac, Stephen; Allen, John E., Jr.; Annen, John N.; Jennings, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers have a venerable heritage as flight instruments. However, obtaining an accurate spectrum exacts a penalty in instrument mass and power requirements. Recent advances in a broad class of non-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) devices, generally called spatial heterodyne spectrometers, offer distinct advantages as flight optimized systems. We are developing a miniaturized system that employs photonics lightwave circuit principles and functions as an FTS operating in the 7-14 micrometer spectral region. The inteferogram is constructed from an ensemble of Mach-Zehnder interferometers with path length differences calibrated to mimic scan mirror sample positions of a classic Michelson type FTS. One potential long-term application of this technology in low cost planetary missions is the concept of a self-contained sensor system. We are developing a systems architecture concept for wide area in situ and remote monitoring of characteristic properties that are of scientific interest. The system will be based on wavelength- and resolution-independent spectroscopic sensors for studying atmospheric and surface chemistry, physics, and mineralogy. The self-contained sensor network is based on our concept of an Addressable Photonics Cube (APC) which has real-time flexibility and broad science applications. It is envisaged that a spatially distributed autonomous sensor web concept that integrates multiple APCs will be reactive and dynamically driven. The network is designed to respond in an event- or model-driven manner or reconfigured as needed.

  9. Power conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, G.; Nguyen Phuoc, V. T.

    Operational features and components of a power conditioning unit for interconnecting solar cell module powers with a utility grid are outlined. The two-stage unit first modifies the voltage to desired levels on an internal dc link, then inverts the current in 2 power transformers connected to a vector summation control to neutralize harmonic distortion up to the 11th harmonic. The system operates in parallel with the grid with extra inductors to absorb line-to-line voltage and phase differences, and permits peak power use from the PV array. Reactive power is gained internally, and a power system controller monitors voltages, frequencies, and currents. A booster preregulator adjusts the input voltage from the array to provide voltage regulation for the inverter, and can commutate 450 amps. A total harmonic distortion of less than 5 percent is claimed, with a rating of 5 kVA, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase, and 4-wire.

  10. Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz-Paal, R.

    2017-07-01

    Development of Concentrating Solar Power Systems has started about 40 years ago. A first commercial implementation was performed between 1985 and 1991 in California. However, a drop in gas prices caused a longer period without further deployment. It was overcome in 2007 when new incentive schemes for renewables in Spain and the US enabled a commercial restart. In 2016, almost 100 commercial CSP plants with more than 5GW are installed worldwide. This paper describes the physical background of CSP technology, its technical characteristics and concepts. Furthermore, it discusses system performances, cost structures and the expected advancement.

  11. Reactive Power Management in Electric Power Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Ferranti effect) would limit the power transfer and the transmission range in the absence of any compensation measures. Journal of EAEA, Vol 14, 1997. In this paper, the management of the reactive power is explored with the aim of improving the quality and the reliability of the supply in the EELPA's interconnected system ...

  12. An Integrated Vision-Based System for Spacecraft Attitude and Topology Determination for Formation Flight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Aaron; Anderson, Kalle; Mracek, Anna; Zenick, Ray

    2004-01-01

    With the space industry's increasing focus upon multi-spacecraft formation flight missions, the ability to precisely determine system topology and the orientation of member spacecraft relative to both inertial space and each other is becoming a critical design requirement. Topology determination in satellite systems has traditionally made use of GPS or ground uplink position data for low Earth orbits, or, alternatively, inter-satellite ranging between all formation pairs. While these techniques work, they are not ideal for extension to interplanetary missions or to large fleets of decentralized, mixed-function spacecraft. The Vision-Based Attitude and Formation Determination System (VBAFDS) represents a novel solution to both the navigation and topology determination problems with an integrated approach that combines a miniature star tracker with a suite of robust processing algorithms. By combining a single range measurement with vision data to resolve complete system topology, the VBAFDS design represents a simple, resource-efficient solution that is not constrained to certain Earth orbits or formation geometries. In this paper, analysis and design of the VBAFDS integrated guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) technology will be discussed, including hardware requirements, algorithm development, and simulation results in the context of potential mission applications.

  13. Autonomous Navigation of the SSTI/Lewis Spacecraft Using the Global Positioning System (GPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, R. C.; Long, A. C.; Lee, T.

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) is pursuing the application of Global Positioning System (GPS) technology to improve the accuracy and economy of spacecraft navigation. High-accuracy autonomous navigation algorithms are being flight qualified in conjunction with GSFC's GPS Attitude Determination Flyer (GADFLY) experiment on the Small Satellite Technology Initiative (SSTI) Lewis spacecraft, which is scheduled for launch in 1997. Preflight performance assessments indicate that these algorithms can provide a real-time total position accuracy of better than 10 meters (1 sigma) and velocity accuracy of better than 0.01 meter per second (1 sigma), with selective availability at typical levels. This accuracy is projected to improve to the 2-meter level if corrections to be provided by the GPS Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) are included.

  14. Power System for Intelligent House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jahelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Power supply of intelligent houses or house phones is possible to do with standard transformer with voltage stabilizer or with intelligent power supply. Standard solution can has as a result of failure fuse blown or fire occurrence. Intelligent power supply switch off power and tests with little current whether short circuit is removed. After it resume system power supply. At the same time it cares of system backup with accumulator, informs control system about short circuit or failure net power supply, or can switch off all system power after command from control system.

  15. Development of the solar array deployment and drive system for the XTE spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Rodger; Ngo, Son

    1995-01-01

    The X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) spacecraft is a NASA science low-earth orbit explorer-class satellite to be launched in 1995, and is an in-house Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project. It has two deployable aluminum honeycomb solar array wings with each wing being articulated by a single axis solar array drive assembly. This paper will address the design, the qualification testing, and the development problems as they surfaced of the Solar Array Deployment and Drive System.

  16. Particulate Matter Filtration Design Considerations for Crewed Spacecraft Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter filtration is a key component of crewed spacecraft cabin ventilation and life support system (LSS) architectures. The basic particulate matter filtration functional requirements as they relate to an exploration vehicle LSS architecture are presented. Particulate matter filtration concepts are reviewed and design considerations are discussed. A concept for a particulate matter filtration architecture suitable for exploration missions is presented. The conceptual architecture considers the results from developmental work and incorporates best practice design considerations.

  17. THE FUTURE OF SPACECRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Frank

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  18. Power Systems Development Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    The objective of the PSDF would be to provide a modular facility which would support the development of advanced, pilot-scale, coal-based power systems and hot gas clean-up components. These pilot-scale components would be designed to be large enough so that the results can be related and projected to commercial systems. The facility would use a modular approach to enhance the flexibility and capability for testing; consequently, overall capital and operating costs when compared with stand-alone facilities would be reduced by sharing resources common to different modules. The facility would identify and resolve technical barrier, as well as-provide a structure for long-term testing and performance assessment. It is also intended that the facility would evaluate the operational and performance characteristics of the advanced power systems with both bituminous and subbituminous coals. Five technology-based experimental modules are proposed for the PSDF: (1) an advanced gasifier module, (2) a fuel cell test module, (3) a PFBC module, (4) a combustion gas turbine module, and (5) a module comprised of five hot gas cleanup particulate control devices. The final module, the PCD, would capture coal-derived ash and particles from both the PFBC and advanced gasifier gas streams to provide for overall particulate emission control, as well as to protect the combustion turbine and the fuel cell

  19. Power Systems Development Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-07-01

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC12 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (SW) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). While operating as a gasifier, either air or oxygen can be used as the oxidant. Test run TC12 began on May 16, 2003, with the startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until May 24, 2003, when a scheduled outage occurred to allow maintenance crews to install the fuel cell test unit and modify the gas clean-up system. On June 18, 2003, the test run resumed when operations relit the start-up burner, and testing continued until the scheduled end of the run on July 14, 2003. TC12 had a total of 733 hours using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,675 and 1,850 F at pressures from 130 to 210 psig.

  20. Resilience Engineering in Critical Long Term Aerospace Software Systems: A New Approach to Spacecraft Software Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulo, D. A.

    Safety critical software systems permeate spacecraft, and in a long term venture like a starship would be pervasive in every system of the spacecraft. Yet software failure today continues to plague both the systems and the organizations that develop them resulting in the loss of life, time, money, and valuable system platforms. A starship cannot afford this type of software failure in long journeys away from home. A single software failure could have catastrophic results for the spaceship and the crew onboard. This paper will offer a new approach to developing safe reliable software systems through focusing not on the traditional safety/reliability engineering paradigms but rather by focusing on a new paradigm: Resilience and Failure Obviation Engineering. The foremost objective of this approach is the obviation of failure, coupled with the ability of a software system to prevent or adapt to complex changing conditions in real time as a safety valve should failure occur to ensure safe system continuity. Through this approach, safety is ensured through foresight to anticipate failure and to adapt to risk in real time before failure occurs. In a starship, this type of software engineering is vital. Through software developed in a resilient manner, a starship would have reduced or eliminated software failure, and would have the ability to rapidly adapt should a software system become unstable or unsafe. As a result, long term software safety, reliability, and resilience would be present for a successful long term starship mission.

  1. POWER SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    This report discusses test campaign GCT4 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) transport reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The transport reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using one of two possible particulate control devices (PCDs). The transport reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during GCT4. GCT4 was planned as a 250-hour test run to continue characterization of the transport reactor using a blend of several Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and Bucyrus limestone from Ohio. The primary test objectives were: Operational Stability--Characterize reactor loop and PCD operations with short-term tests by varying coal-feed rate, air/coal ratio, riser velocity, solids-circulation rate, system pressure, and air distribution. Secondary objectives included the following: Reactor Operations--Study the devolatilization and tar cracking effects from transient conditions during transition from start-up burner to coal. Evaluate the effect of process operations on heat release, heat transfer, and accelerated fuel particle heat-up rates. Study the effect of changes in reactor conditions on transient temperature profiles, pressure balance, and product gas composition. Effects of Reactor Conditions on Synthesis Gas Composition--Evaluate the effect of air distribution, steam/coal ratio, solids-circulation rate, and reactor temperature on CO/CO{sub 2} ratio, synthesis gas Lower Heating Value (LHV), carbon conversion, and cold and hot gas efficiencies. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) Testing--Provide syngas in support of the DSRP commissioning. Loop Seal Operations--Optimize loop seal operations and investigate increases to previously achieved maximum solids-circulation rate.

  2. Robust control for spacecraft rendezvous system with actuator unsymmetrical saturation: a gain scheduling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Xue, Anke

    2018-06-01

    This paper has proposed a robust control for the spacecraft rendezvous system by considering the parameter uncertainties and actuator unsymmetrical saturation based on the discrete gain scheduling approach. By changing of variables, we transform the actuator unsymmetrical saturation control problem into a symmetrical one. The main advantage of the proposed method is improving the dynamic performance of the closed-loop system with a region of attraction as large as possible. By the Lyapunov approach and the scheduling technology, the existence conditions for the admissible controller are formulated in the form of linear matrix inequalities. The numerical simulation illustrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Solar thermal power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  4. Static and dynamic high power, space nuclear electric generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Begg, L.L.; Koester, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Space nuclear electric generating systems concepts have been assessed for their potential in satisfying future spacecraft high power (several megawatt) requirements. Conceptual designs have been prepared for reactor power systems using the most promising static (thermionic) and the most promising dynamic conversion processes. Component and system layouts, along with system mass and envelope requirements have been made. Key development problems have been identified and the impact of the conversion process selection upon thermal management and upon system and vehicle configuration is addressed. 10 references

  5. Development status of solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis for manned spacecraft life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, L. J.; Titterington, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the design and system verification test results are presented for a six-man-rated oxygen generation system. The system configuration incorporates components and instrumentation for computer-controlled operation with automatic start-up/shutdown sequencing, fault detection and isolation, and with self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. All fluid and electrical components, sensors, and electronic controls are designed to be easily maintainable under zero-gravity conditions. On-board component spares are utilized in the system concept to sustain long-term operation (six months minimum) in a manned spacecraft application. The system is centered on a 27-cell solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis module which, combined with the associated system components and controls, forms a total system envelope 40 in. high, 40 in. wide, and 30 in. deep.

  6. Spacecraft Data Simulator for the test of level zero processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jeff; Gordon, Julie; Mirchandani, Chandru; Nguyen, Diem

    1994-01-01

    The Microelectronic Systems Branch (MSB) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has developed a Spacecraft Data Simulator (SDS) to support the development, test, and verification of prototype and production Level Zero Processing (LZP) systems. Based on a disk array system, the SDS is capable of generating large test data sets up to 5 Gigabytes and outputting serial test data at rates up to 80 Mbps. The SDS supports data formats including NASA Communication (Nascom) blocks, Consultative Committee for Space Data System (CCSDS) Version 1 & 2 frames and packets, and all the Advanced Orbiting Systems (AOS) services. The capability to simulate both sequential and non-sequential time-ordered downlink data streams with errors and gaps is crucial to test LZP systems. This paper describes the system architecture, hardware and software designs, and test data designs. Examples of test data designs are included to illustrate the application of the SDS.

  7. High power communication satellites power systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Peterson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a DOE-funded study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. This study brings together a preeminent US Industry/Russian team to cooperate on the role of high power communication satellites in the rapidly expanding communications revolution. These high power satellites play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities will be significant

  8. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  9. Power Subsystem Design for Tiangong-1 Target Spacecraft%天宫一号目标飞行器电源分系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈启忠; 马季军; 王娜; 黄应春; 黄峥; 王振绪

    2011-01-01

    The sketch and main performances of the power subsystem of Tiangong-1 target spacecraft were introduced in this paper. The key technologies in domestic such as the bus with the voltage 100 V applied on low orbit spacecraft, large-scale nickel-metal hybrid batteries, triple-junction gallium arsenide solar cells and semi-rigid solar wings were given out. The main job of the high voltage device system establishing, the semi-rigid solar dynamics and space environment design and verification, the life time and reliability of the nickel-metal hybrid battery, and the reliability and safety of the high voltage power system were reviewed. The operation on orbit was given out. The research of the power subsystem of Tiangong-1 target spacecraft would establish the foundation for the China's next space technology.%介绍了天宫一号(TG1)目标飞行器电源分系统的组成和主要技术指标。分析了国内在低轨飞行器上采用100V高压母线、大批量使用国产氢镍电池、三结砷化镓太阳电池片和半刚性基板等关键技术。回顾了电源分系统研制过程中高电压元器件体系建立、半刚性帆板力学及空间环境设计与验证、氢镍电池在轨寿命和可靠性研究,以及高压电源系统可靠性及安全性研究等主要工作。给出了在轨运行情况。TG-1目标飞行器电源分系统的研制为我国后续空间技术的发展打下了基础。

  10. Spacecraft Design Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Robert N.

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem engineers task is to maintain the temperature of all spacecraft components, subsystems, and the total flight system within specified limits for all flight modes from launch to end-of-mission. In some cases, specific stability and gradient temperature limits will be imposed on flight system elements. The Thermal Control Subsystem of "normal" flight systems, the mass, power, control, and sensing systems mass and power requirements are below 10% of the total flight system resources. In general the thermal control subsystem engineer is involved in all other flight subsystem designs.

  11. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...

  12. Pi-Sat: A Low Cost Small Satellite and Distributed Spacecraft Mission System Test Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cudmore, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Current technology and budget trends indicate a shift in satellite architectures from large, expensive single satellite missions, to small, low cost distributed spacecraft missions. At the center of this shift is the SmallSatCubesat architecture. The primary goal of the Pi-Sat project is to create a low cost, and easy to use Distributed Spacecraft Mission (DSM) test bed to facilitate the research and development of next-generation DSM technologies and concepts. This test bed also serves as a realistic software development platform for Small Satellite and Cubesat architectures. The Pi-Sat is based on the popular $35 Raspberry Pi single board computer featuring a 700Mhz ARM processor, 512MB of RAM, a flash memory card, and a wealth of IO options. The Raspberry Pi runs the Linux operating system and can easily run Code 582s Core Flight System flight software architecture. The low cost and high availability of the Raspberry Pi make it an ideal platform for a Distributed Spacecraft Mission and Cubesat software development. The Pi-Sat models currently include a Pi-Sat 1U Cube, a Pi-Sat Wireless Node, and a Pi-Sat Cubesat processor card.The Pi-Sat project takes advantage of many popular trends in the Maker community including low cost electronics, 3d printing, and rapid prototyping in order to provide a realistic platform for flight software testing, training, and technology development. The Pi-Sat has also provided fantastic hands on training opportunities for NASA summer interns and Pathways students.

  13. Post-capture vibration suppression of spacecraft via a bio-inspired isolation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Honghua; Jing, Xingjian; Wang, Yu; Yue, Xiaokui; Yuan, Jianping

    2018-05-01

    Inspired by the smooth motions of a running kangaroo, a bio-inspired quadrilateral shape (BIQS) structure is proposed to suppress the vibrations of a free-floating spacecraft subject to periodic or impulsive forces, which may be encountered during on-orbit servicing missions. In particular, the BIQS structure is installed between the satellite platform and the capture mechanism. The dynamical model of the BIQS isolation system, i.e. a BIQS structure connecting the platform and the capture mechanism at each side, is established by Lagrange's equations to simulate the post-capture dynamical responses. The BIQS system suffering an impulsive force is dealt with by means of a modified version of Lagrange's equations. Furthermore, the classical harmonic balance method is used to solve the nonlinear dynamical system subject to periodic forces, while for the case under impulsive forces the numerical integration method is adopted. Due to the weightless environment in space, the present BIQS system is essentially an under-constrained dynamical system with one of its natural frequencies being identical to zero. The effects of system parameters, such as the number of layers in BIQS, stiffness, assembly angle, rod length, damping coefficient, masses of satellite platform and capture mechanism, on the isolation performance of the present system are thoroughly investigated. In addition, comparisons between the isolation performances of the presently proposed BIQS isolator and the conventional spring-mass-damper (SMD) isolator are conducted to demonstrate the advantages of the present isolator. Numerical simulations show that the BIQS system has a much better performance than the SMD system under either periodic or impulsive forces. Overall, the present BIQS isolator offers a highly efficient passive way for vibration suppressions of free-floating spacecraft.

  14. The Interaction of Spacecraft Cabin Atmospheric Quality and Water Processing System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; Croomes, Scott D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Although designed to remove organic contaminants from a variety of waste water streams, the planned U.S.- and present Russian-provided water processing systems onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have capacity limits for some of the more common volatile cleaning solvents used for housekeeping purposes. Using large quantities of volatile cleaning solvents during the ground processing and in-flight operational phases of a crewed spacecraft such as the ISS can lead to significant challenges to the water processing systems. To understand the challenges facing the management of water processing capacity, the relationship between cabin atmospheric quality and humidity condensate loading is presented. This relationship is developed as a tool to determine the cabin atmospheric loading that may compromise water processing system performance. A comparison of cabin atmospheric loading with volatile cleaning solvents from ISS, Mir, and Shuttle are presented to predict acceptable limits to maintain optimal water processing system performance.

  15. Advanced Solar-propelled Cargo Spacecraft for Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auziasdeturenne, Jacqueline; Beall, Mark; Burianek, Joseph; Cinniger, Anna; Dunmire, Barbrina; Haberman, Eric; Iwamoto, James; Johnson, Stephen; Mccracken, Shawn; Miller, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  16. High power communication satellites power systems study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Peterson, Jerry R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses a planned study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. These high power satellites can play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities can be significant.

  17. A knowledge-based system for monitoring the electrical power system of the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Pat

    1987-01-01

    The design and the prototype for the expert system for the Hubble Space Telescope's electrical power system are discussed. This prototype demonstrated the capability to use real time data from a 32k telemetry stream and to perform operational health and safety status monitoring, detect trends such as battery degradation, and detect anomalies such as solar array failures. This prototype, along with the pointing control system and data management system expert systems, forms the initial Telemetry Analysis for Lockheed Operated Spacecraft (TALOS) capability.

  18. Interconnected power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassina, E.

    2001-01-01

    The import of electric power from foreign countries at profitable prices is today a determinant factor to prime the competition in a national free trade. It is important to define the power transmission capacity and economic regulations for import forms in 2001 [it

  19. N2O4 as a working substance for a spacecraft power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popyrin, L.S.; Starostenko, N.N.; Starostenko, V.I.

    1975-01-01

    A gas turbine cycle on dissociating nitrogen tetroxide (N 2 O 4 ) as working medium is considered. Nitrogen tetroxide has a number of properties advantageous in this respect. A direct cycle power plant is considered. A fast reactor with a gas coolant is an energy source. Some versions of a power plant have been analysed for the gas temperature at the turbine inlet ranging from 1170 to 1470 K. The cycle efficiency is found to increase considerably with the working medium temperature rise at the turbine inlet only to 1380-1400 K. To determine the efficiency of the plants of this type, they are compared to identical designs of gas and gas-liquid cycles on alkali metals, inert gases and dissociating phosphorus. Theoretical and experimental data show that the turbine with nitrogen tetroxide as working medium is more compact in comparison to that with inert gases. Small specific surfaces of the radiator, small size of the turbine and thermal process equipment, and high efficiency are evidence of the advisability of using the plant of the type considered as on-board power plant of a space ship

  20. Imaging Flash Lidar for Safe Landing on Solar System Bodies and Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Vincent E.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Carrion, William A; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Noe, Anna M.

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been pursuing flash lidar technology for autonomous, safe landing on solar system bodies and for automated rendezvous and docking. During the final stages of the landing from about 1 kilometer to 500 meters above the ground, the flash lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes. The onboard flight computer can then use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe location. As an automated rendezvous and docking sensor, the flash lidar can provide relative range, velocity, and bearing from an approaching spacecraft to another spacecraft or a space station. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and demonstrated a flash lidar sensor system capable of generating 16,000 pixels range images with 7 centimeters precision, at 20 Hertz frame rate, from a maximum slant range of 1800 m from the target area. This paper describes the lidar instrument and presents the results of recent flight tests onboard a rocket-propelled free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus) built by NASA Johnson Space Center. The flights were conducted at a simulated lunar terrain site, consisting of realistic hazard features and designated landing areas, built at NASA Kennedy Space Center specifically for this demonstration test. This paper also provides an overview of the plan for continued advancement of the flash lidar technology aimed at enhancing its performance to meet both landing and automated rendezvous and docking applications.

  1. Systems Engineering Using Heritage Spacecraft Technology: Lessons Learned from Discovery and New Frontiers Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Bryan; Newhouse, Marilyn; Clardy, Dennon

    2011-01-01

    In the design and development of complex spacecraft missions, project teams frequently assume the use of advanced technology or heritage systems to enable a mission or reduce the overall mission risk and cost. As projects proceed through the development life cycle, increasingly detailed knowledge of the advanced or heritage systems and the system environment identifies unanticipated issues that result in cost overruns or schedule impacts. The Discovery & New Frontiers (D&NF) Program Office recently studied cost overruns and schedule delays resulting from advanced technology or heritage assumptions for 6 D&NF missions. The goal was to identify the underlying causes for the overruns and delays, and to develop practical mitigations to assist the D&NF projects in identifying potential risks and controlling the associated impacts to proposed mission costs and schedules. The study found that the cost and schedule growth did not result from technical hurdles requiring significant technology development. Instead, systems engineering processes did not identify critical issues early enough in the design cycle to ensure project schedules and estimated costs address the inherent risks. In general, the overruns were traceable to: inadequate understanding of the heritage system s behavior within the proposed spacecraft design and mission environment; an insufficient level of experience with the heritage system; or an inadequate scoping of the system-wide impacts necessary to implement the heritage or advanced technology. This presentation summarizes the study s findings and offers suggestions for improving the project s ability to identify and manage the risks inherent in the technology and heritage design solution.

  2. Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

  3. Nuclear power plant diagnostic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokop, K.; Volavy, J.

    1982-01-01

    Basic information is presented on diagnostic systems used at nuclear power plants with PWR reactors. They include systems used at the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant in the USSR, at the Nord power plant in the GDR, the system developed at the Hungarian VEIKI institute, the system used at the V-1 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice in Czechoslovakia and systems of the Rockwell International company used in US nuclear power plants. These diagnostic systems are basically founded on monitoring vibrations and noise, loose parts, pressure pulsations, neutron noise, coolant leaks and acoustic emissions. The Rockwell International system represents a complex unit whose advantage is the on-line evaluation of signals which gives certain instructions for the given situation directly to the operator. The other described systems process signals using similar methods. Digitized signals only serve off-line computer analyses. (Z.M.)

  4. A fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system for spacecraft integrated vehicle health management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Due to the complexity of future space missions and the large amount of data involved, greater autonomy in data processing is demanded for mission operations, training, and vehicle health management. In this paper, we develop a fuzzy logic intelligent diagnostic system to perform data reduction, data analysis, and fault diagnosis for spacecraft vehicle health management applications. The diagnostic system contains a data filter and an inference engine. The data filter is designed to intelligently select only the necessary data for analysis, while the inference engine is designed for failure detection, warning, and decision on corrective actions using fuzzy logic synthesis. Due to its adaptive nature and on-line learning ability, the diagnostic system is capable of dealing with environmental noise, uncertainties, conflict information, and sensor faults.

  5. Reactor power control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomisawa, Teruaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To restore reactor-power condition in a minimum time after a termination of turbine bypass by reducing the throttling of the reactor power at the time of load-failure as low as possible. Constitution: The transient change of the internal pressure of condenser is continuously monitored. When a turbine is bypassed, a speed-control-command signal for a coolant recirculating pump is generated according as the internal pressure of the condenser. When the signal relating to the internal pressure of the condenser indicates insufficient power, a reactor-control-rod-drive signal is generated. (J.P.N.)

  6. Power system protection 3 application

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  7. Power Aware Distributed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The goal of PADS was to study power aware management techniques for wireless unattended ground sensor applications to extend their operational lifetime and overall capabilities in this battery-constrained environment...

  8. Water Powered Bioassay System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, Liwei

    2004-01-01

    ... of 0.2 1/hr without requiring electrical power. A low-leakage, hole-in-the-wall micro valve was demonstrated that provided fluidic resistance 255 times higher in the closed state than in the open state...

  9. The Need for Intelligent Control of Space Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Ryan David; Soeder, James F.; Beach, Raymond F.; McNelis, Nancy B.

    2013-01-01

    As manned spacecraft venture farther from Earth, the need for reliable, autonomous control of vehicle subsystems becomes critical. This is particularly true for the electrical power system which is critical to every other system. Autonomy can not be achieved by simple scripting techniques due to the communication latency times and the difficulty associated with failures (or combinations of failures) that need to be handled in as graceful a manner as possible to ensure system availability. Therefore an intelligent control system must be developed that can respond to disturbances and failures in a robust manner and ensure that critical system loads are served and all system constraints are respected.

  10. Isolation, pointing, and suppression (IPS) system for high-performance spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Tim; Davis, Torey; Fischer, Jim

    2007-04-01

    Passive mechanical isolation is often times the first step taken to remedy vibration issues on-board a spacecraft. In many cases, this is done with a hexapod of axial members or struts to obtain the desired passive isolation in all six degrees-of-freedom (DOF). In some instances, where the disturbance sources are excessive or the payload is particularly sensitive to vibration, additional steps are taken to improve the performance beyond that of passive isolation. Additional performance or functionality can be obtained with the addition of active control, using a hexapod of hybrid (passive/active) elements at the interface between the payload and the bus. This paper describes Honeywell's Isolation, Pointing, and Suppression (IPS) system. It is a hybrid isolation system designed to isolate a sensitive spacecraft payload with very low passive resonant break frequencies while affording agile independent payload pointing, on-board payload disturbance rejection, and active isolation augmentation. This system is an extension of the work done on Honeywell's previous Vibration Isolation, Steering, and Suppression (VISS) flight experiment. Besides being designed for a different size payload than VISS, the IPS strut includes a dual-stage voice coil design for improved dynamic range as well as improved low-noise drive electronics. In addition, the IPS struts include integral load cells, gap sensors, and payloadside accelerometers for control and telemetry purposes. The associated system-level control architecture to accomplish these tasks is also new for this program as compared to VISS. A summary of the IPS system, including analysis and hardware design, build, and single axis bipod testing will be reviewed.

  11. Biofilm formation and control in a simulated spacecraft water system - Interim results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, John R.; Taylor, Robert D.; Flanagan, David T.; Gibbons, Randall E.; Brown, Harlan D.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1989-01-01

    The ability of iodine to control microbial contamination and biofilm formation in spacecraft water distribution systems is studied using two stainless steel water subsystems. One subsystem has an iodine level of 2.5 mg/L maintained by an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The other subsystem has no iodine added. Stainless steel coupons are removed from each system to monitor biofilm formation. Results from the first six months of operation indicate that 2.5 mg/L of iodine has limited the number of viable bacteria that can be recovered from the iodinated subsystem. Epifluorescence microscopy of the coupons taken from this subsystem, however, indicates some evidence of microbial colonization after 15 weeks of operation. Numerous bacteria have been continually removed from both the water samples and the coupons taken from the noniodinated subsystem after only 3 weeks of operation.

  12. Battery model for electrical power system energy balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    A model to simulate nickel-cadmium battery performance and response in a spacecraft electrical power system energy balance calculation was developed. The voltage of the battery is given as a function of temperature, operating depth-of-charge (DOD), and battery state-of-charge. Also accounted for is charge inefficiency. A battery is modeled by analysis of the results of a multiparameter battery cycling test at various temperatures and DOD's.

  13. Handbook of power systems I

    CERN Document Server

    Pardalos, P M; Pereira, Mario V; Iliadis, Niko A

    2010-01-01

    Energy is one of the world's most challenging problems, and power systems are an important aspect of energy-related issues. The Handbook of Power Systems contains state-of-the-art contributions on power systems modeling. In particular, it covers topics like operation planning, expansion planning, transmission and distribution modelling, computing technologies in energy systems, energy auctions, risk management, market regulation, stochastic programming in energy, and forecasting in energy. The book is separated into nine sections, which cover the most important areas of energy systems. The con

  14. Power systems engineering and mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Knight, U G

    1972-01-01

    Power Systems Engineering and Mathematics investigates the application of mathematical aids, particularly the techniques of resource planning, to some of the technical-economic problems of power systems engineering. Topics covered include the process of engineering design and the use of computers in system design and operation; power system planning and operation; time scales and computation in system operation; and load prediction and generation capacity. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by outlining the stages in the synthesis of designs (or operating states) for engineerin

  15. Reactive power compensating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J. (Redondo Beach, CA); El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Venkata, Subrahmanyam S. (Seattle, WA)

    1987-01-01

    The reactive power of an induction machine is compensated by providing fixed capacitors on each phase line for the minimum compensation required, sensing the current on one line at the time its voltage crosses zero to determine the actual compensation required for each phase, and selecting switched capacitors on each line to provide the balance of the compensation required.

  16. Reactive Power Compensating System.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Timothy J.; El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.

    1985-01-04

    The circuit was designed for the specific application of wind-driven induction generators. It has great potential for application in any situation where a varying reactive power load is present, such as with induction motors or generators, or for transmission network compensation.

  17. Limits to power system growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, S.M.; Klein, A.C.; Webb, B.J.; Pauley, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the design of space nuclear power systems a variety of conversion techniques may be used, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. A study was performed which analyzed over 120 proposed system designs. The designs were compared to identify the optimum conversion system as a function of power level and find limits to specific mass (kg/kWe) for each power cycle. Furthermore, the component masses were studied to determine which component of the overall design contributes the most to total system mass over a variety of power levels. The results can provide a focus for future research efforts by selecting the best conversion technology for the desired power range, and optimizing the system component which contributes most to the total mass

  18. Power system protection 2 systems and methods

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  19. Electrical power systems for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  20. Impact of advanced wind power ancillary services on power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  1. Nonlinear guided wave circular array system for microcrack monitoring in spacecraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reliable monitoring of the microcrack formation in the complex composite structure components in NASA spacecraft and launch vehicles is critical for vehicle...

  2. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Tug Power System Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Bury, Kristen M.; Hojinicki, Jeffrey S.; Sajdak, Adam M.; Scheiddegger, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology is truly at the "intersection of commercial and military space" as well as the intersection of NASA robotic and human space missions. Building on the use of SEP for geosynchronous spacecraft station keeping, there are numerous potential commercial and military mission applications for SEP stages operating in Earth orbit. At NASA, there is a resurgence of interest in robotic SEP missions for Earth orbit raising applications, 1-AU class heliocentric missions to near Earth objects (NEOs) and SEP spacecraft technology demonstrations. Beyond these nearer term robotic missions, potential future human space flight missions to NEOs with high-power SEP stages are being considered. To enhance or enable this broad class of commercial, military and NASA missions, advancements in the power level and performance of SEP technologies are needed. This presentation will focus on design considerations for the solar photovoltaic array (PVA) and electric power system (EPS) vital to the design and operation of an SEP stage. The engineering and programmatic pros and cons of various PVA and EPS technologies and architectures will be discussed in the context of operating voltage and power levels. The impacts of PVA and EPS design options on the remaining SEP stage subsystem designs, as well as spacecraft operations, will also be discussed.

  3. Launch Lock Assemblies Including Axial Gap Amplification Devices and Spacecraft Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Young, Ken (Inventor); Davis, Torey (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Embodiments of a launch lock assembly are provided, as are embodiments of a spacecraft isolation system including one or more launch lock assemblies. In one embodiment, the launch lock assembly includes first and second mount pieces, a releasable clamp device, and an axial gap amplification device. The releasable clamp device normally maintains the first and second mount pieces in clamped engagement; and, when actuated, releases the first and second mount pieces from clamped engagement to allow relative axial motion there between. The axial gap amplification device normally residing in a blocking position wherein the gap amplification device obstructs relative axial motion between the first and second mount pieces. The axial gap amplification device moves into a non-blocking position when the first and second mount pieces are released from clamped engagement to increase the range of axial motion between the first and second mount pieces.

  4. Power reactor information system (PRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    Since the very beginning of commercial operation of nuclear power plants, the nuclear power industry worldwide has accumulated more than 5000 reactor years of experience. The IAEA has been collecting Operating Experience data for Nuclear Power Plants since 1970 which were computerized in 1980. The Agency has undertaken to make Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) available on-line to its Member States. The aim of this publication is to provide the users of PRIS from their terminals with description of data base and communication systems and to show the methods of accessing the data

  5. A digital computer simulation and study of a direct-energy-transfer power-conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W. W., III; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.; Rodriguez, G. E.; Paulkovich, J.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of the behavior of the power-conditioning system as a whole is a necessity to ensure the integrity of the aggregate system in the case of space applications. An approach for conducting such an investigation is considered. A description is given of the application of a general digital analog simulator program to the study of an aggregate power-conditioning system which is being developed for use on the International Ultraviolet Explorer spacecraft. The function of the direct energy transfer system studied involves a coupling of a solar array through a main distribution bus to the spacecraft electrical loads.

  6. Implementing model-based system engineering for the whole lifecycle of a spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P. M.; Lüdtke, D.; Lange, C.; Roshani, F.-C.; Dannemann, F.; Gerndt, A.

    2017-09-01

    Design information of a spacecraft is collected over all phases in the lifecycle of a project. A lot of this information is exchanged between different engineering tasks and business processes. In some lifecycle phases, model-based system engineering (MBSE) has introduced system models and databases that help to organize such information and to keep it consistent for everyone. Nevertheless, none of the existing databases approached the whole lifecycle yet. Virtual Satellite is the MBSE database developed at DLR. It has been used for quite some time in Phase A studies and is currently extended for implementing it in the whole lifecycle of spacecraft projects. Since it is unforeseeable which future use cases such a database needs to support in all these different projects, the underlying data model has to provide tailoring and extension mechanisms to its conceptual data model (CDM). This paper explains the mechanisms as they are implemented in Virtual Satellite, which enables extending the CDM along the project without corrupting already stored information. As an upcoming major use case, Virtual Satellite will be implemented as MBSE tool in the S2TEP project. This project provides a new satellite bus for internal research and several different payload missions in the future. This paper explains how Virtual Satellite will be used to manage configuration control problems associated with such a multi-mission platform. It discusses how the S2TEP project starts using the software for collecting the first design information from concurrent engineering studies, then making use of the extension mechanisms of the CDM to introduce further information artefacts such as functional electrical architecture, thus linking more and more processes into an integrated MBSE approach.

  7. Influence of a new generation of operations support systems on current spacecraft operations philosophy: The users feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroy, Jean Michel

    1993-01-01

    Current trends in the spacecraft mission operations area (spacecraft & mission complexity, project duration, required flexibility are requiring a breakthrough for what concerns philosophy, organization, and support tools. A major evolution is related to space operations 'informationalization', i.e adding to existing operations support & data processing systems a new generation of tools based on advanced information technologies (object-oriented programming, artificial intelligence, data bases, hypertext) that automate, at least partially, operations tasks that used be performed manually (mission & project planning/scheduling, operations procedures elaboration & execution, data analysis & failure diagnosis). All the major facets of this 'informationalization' are addressed at MATRA MARCONI SPACE, operational applications were fielded and generic products are becoming available. These various applications have generated a significant feedback from the users (at ESA, CNES, ARIANESPACE, MATRA MARCONI SPACE), which is now allowing us to precisely measure how the deployment of this new generation of tools, that we called OPSWARE, can 'reengineer' current spacecraft mission operations philosophy, how it can make space operations faster, better, and cheaper. This paper can be considered as an update of the keynote address 'Knowledge-Based Systems for Spacecraft Control' presented during the first 'Ground Data Systems for Spacecraft Control' conference in Darmstadt, June 1990, with a special emphasis on these last two years users feedback.

  8. Impacts of Wind Power on Power System Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittal, E.; Keane, A.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.; Ackermann, T.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines how wind power will impact the stability of power systems. It focuses on the three aspects of power system stability: voltage stability, rotor angle stability and frequency stability. It completes a detailed analysis as to how wind power in power systems will impact the

  9. Electrical power system WP-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nored, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (EPS) WP-40 are presented. Topics covered include: key EPS technical requirements; photovoltaic power module systems; solar array assembly; blanket containment box and box positioning subassemblies; solar cell; bypass diode assembly; Kapton with atomic oxygen resistant coating; sequential shunt unit; gimbal assembly; energy storage subsystem; thermal control subsystem; direct current switching unit; integrated equipment assembly; PV cargo element; PMAD system; and PMC and AC architecture.

  10. Power generation systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A power generation system includes a plurality of submerged mechanical devices. Each device includes a pump that can be powered, in operation, by mechanical energy to output a pressurized output liquid flow in a conduit. Main output conduits are connected with the device conduits to combine pressurized output flows output from the submerged mechanical devices into a lower number of pressurized flows. These flows are delivered to a location remote of the submerged mechanical devices for power generation.

  11. Power turbine ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Brown, Richard W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Air control mechanism within a power turbine section of a gas turbine engine. The power turbine section includes a rotor and at least one variable pitch propulsor blade. The propulsor blade is coupled to and extends radially outwardly of the rotor. A first annular fairing is rotatable with the propulsor blade and interposed between the propulsor blade and the rotor. A second fairing is located longitudinally adjacent to the first fairing. The first fairing and the second fairing are differentially rotatable. The air control mechanism includes a platform fixedly coupled to a radially inner end of the propulsor blade. The platform is generally positioned in a first opening and a first fairing. The platform and the first fairing define an outer space. In a first position corresponding with a first propulsor blade pitch, the platform is substantially conformal with the first fairing. In a second position corresponding with the second propulsor blade pitch, an edge portion of the platform is displaced radially outwardly from the first fairing. When the blades are in the second position and rotating about the engine axis, the displacement of the edge portion with respect to the first fairing allows air to flow from the outer space to the annular cavity.

  12. Protection of industrial power systems

    CERN Document Server

    DAVIES, T

    2006-01-01

    The protection which is installed on an industrial power system is likely to be subjected to more difficult conditions than the protection on any other kind of power system. Starting with the many simple devices which are employed and covering the whole area of industrial power system protection, this book aims to help achieve a thorough understanding of the protection necessary.Vital aspects such as the modern cartridge fuse, types of relays, and the role of the current transformer are covered and the widely used inverse definite-minimum time overcurrent relay, the theory of the M

  13. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems. This particular application was for a solar cell power system demonstration project in Tangaye, Upper Volta, Africa. The techniques involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of a fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  14. Optimization of power system operation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Jizhong

    2015-01-01

    This book applies the latest applications of new technologies topower system operation and analysis, including new and importantareas that are not covered in the previous edition. Optimization of Power System Operation covers both traditional andmodern technologies, including power flow analysis, steady-statesecurity region analysis, security constrained economic dispatch,multi-area system economic dispatch, unit commitment, optimal powerflow, smart grid operation, optimal load shed, optimalreconfiguration of distribution network, power system uncertaintyanalysis, power system sensitivity analysis, analytic hierarchicalprocess, neural network, fuzzy theory, genetic algorithm,evolutionary programming, and particle swarm optimization, amongothers. New topics such as the wheeling model, multi-areawheeling, the total transfer capability computation in multipleareas, are also addressed. The new edition of this book continues to provide engineers andac demics with a complete picture of the optimization of techn...

  15. Solar cell power source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoichi; Toma, Kunio; Fukuwa, Shinji

    1988-05-14

    This invention aims to supply a power source system with stable power output by reducing the power loss due to switching in the voltage stabilization even when the power source is a solar cell with frequent voltage variation. For this purpose, in a solar cell power source system consisting of a solar cell, a storage battery, a switching regulator placed between the storage cell and the load, and a load, arrangement was made that, by judging the input voltage from the storage battery, switch-acting the transistor of the switching regulator, if the input voltage is higher than the specified voltage; is the input voltage is lower than the specified voltage, the transistor is put in a full-on state. By this, the supply voltage can be stabilized even when the voltage fluctuates, and system gets more efficient as the switching loss decreases in the voltage stabilizing means. (1 fig)

  16. (abstract) ARGOS: a System to Monitor Ulysses Nutation and Thruster Firings from Variations of the Spacecraft Radio Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrath, T. P.; Cangahuala, L. A.; Miller, K. J.; Stravert, L. R.; Garcia-Perez, Raul

    1995-01-01

    Ulysses is a spin-stabilized spacecraft that experienced significant nutation after its launch in October 1990. This was due to the Sun-spacecraft-Earth geometry, and a study of the phenomenon predicted that the nutation would again be a problem during 1994-95. The difficulty of obtaining nutation estimates in real time from the spacecraft telemetry forced the ESA/NASA Ulysses Team to explore alternative information sources. The work performed by the ESA Operations Team provided a model for a system that uses the radio signal strength measurements to monitor the spacecraft dynamics. These measurements (referred to as AGC) are provided once per second by the tracking stations of the DSN. The system was named ARGOS (Attitude Reckoning from Ground Observable Signals) after the ever-vigilant, hundred-eyed giant of Greek Mythology. The ARGOS design also included Doppler processing, because Doppler shifts indicate thruster firings commanded by the active nutation control carried out onboard the spacecraft. While there is some visibility into thruster activity from telemetry, careful processing of the high-sample-rate Doppler data provides an accurate means of detecting the presence and time of thruster firings. DSN Doppler measurements are available at a ten-per-second rate in the same tracking data block as the AGC data.

  17. Automated Performance Characterization of DSN System Frequency Stability Using Spacecraft Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Timothy T.; Machuzak, Richard J.; Bedrossian, Alina; Kelly, Richard M.; Liao, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    This software provides an automated capability to measure and qualify the frequency stability performance of the Deep Space Network (DSN) ground system, using daily spacecraft tracking data. The results help to verify if the DSN performance is meeting its specification, therefore ensuring commitments to flight missions; in particular, the radio science investigations. The rich set of data also helps the DSN Operations and Maintenance team to identify the trends and patterns, allowing them to identify the antennas of lower performance and implement corrective action in a timely manner. Unlike the traditional approach where the performance can only be obtained from special calibration sessions that are both time-consuming and require manual setup, the new method taps into the daily spacecraft tracking data. This new approach significantly increases the amount of data available for analysis, roughly by two orders of magnitude, making it possible to conduct trend analysis with good confidence. The software is built with automation in mind for end-to-end processing. From the inputs gathering to computation analysis and later data visualization of the results, all steps are done automatically, making the data production at near zero cost. This allows the limited engineering resource to focus on high-level assessment and to follow up with the exceptions/deviations. To make it possible to process the continual stream of daily incoming data without much effort, and to understand the results quickly, the processing needs to be automated and the data summarized at a high level. Special attention needs to be given to data gathering, input validation, handling anomalous conditions, computation, and presenting the results in a visual form that makes it easy to spot items of exception/deviation so that further analysis can be directed and corrective actions followed.

  18. Design of a mission network system using SpaceWire for scientific payloads onboard the Arase spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Takeshi; Ogawa, Emiko; Asamura, Kazushi; Hikishima, Mitsuru

    2018-05-01

    Arase is a small scientific satellite program conducted by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science/Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, which is dedicated to the detailed study of the radiation belts around Earth through in situ observations. In particular, the goal is to directly observe the interaction between plasma waves and particles, which cause the generation of high-energy electrons. To observe the waves and particles in detail, we must record large volumes of burst data with high transmission rates through onboard mission network systems. For this purpose, we developed a high-speed and highly reliable mission network based on SpaceWire, as well as a new and large memory data recorder equipped with a data search function based on observation time (the time index, TI, is the satellite time starting from when the spacecraft is powered on.) with respect to the orbital data generated in large quantities. By adopting a new transaction concept of a ring topology network with SpaceWire, we could secure a redundant mission network system without using large routers and having to suppress the increase in cable weight. We confirmed that their orbit performs as designed.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. Power Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Power Systems Integration Laboratory Power Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy System Integration Facility's Power Systems Integration Laboratory focuses on the microgrid applications. Photo of engineers testing an inverter in the Power Systems Integration Laboratory

  20. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the RPS's technology portfolio is to advance performance of radioisotope power systems through new and novel innovations being developed and transitioned...

  1. Solar power satellite system; Uchu hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-05

    The solar power satellite system is a system that converts solar energy into electric energy in the space, transmits power to earth through wireless resort such as microwave and supplies energy of new concept. In order to realize this system it is necessary to have new technologies such as space power transmission at low cost, construction of large space buildings and wireless high power transmission. In this paper, the principles, characteristics and the necessary technology of this system were explained. Besides Japan`s SPS2000 Plan (cooperative research by universities, government agencies and private corporations on the model of solar power satellite) the group of Europe, Russia and the United States has also proposed some ideas concerning the solar power satellite system. As far as the microwave power transmission, which is the key technology for solar power satellite system, is concerned, ground demonstration tests at the level of several tens of kW are discussed in Canada and France. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Integrating standard operating procedures with spacecraft automation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft automation has the potential to assist crew members and spacecraft operators in managing spacecraft systems during extended space missions. Automation can...

  3. Wind farm - A power source in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    wind turbines and wind farms, and then introduces the wind power development and wind farms. An optimization platform for designing electrical systems of offshore wind farms is briefed. The major issues related to the grid connection requirements and the operation of wind turbines/farms in power......The paper describes modern wind power systems, introduces the issues of large penetration of wind power into power systems, and discusses the possible methods of making wind turbines/farms act as a power source, like conventional power plants in power systems. Firstly, the paper describes modern...... systems are illustrated....

  4. Power Systems Advanced Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    California Institute of Technology

    2007-03-31

    In the 17 quarters of the project, we have accomplished the following milestones - first, construction of the three multiwavelength laser scattering machines for different light scattering study purposes; second, build up of simulation software package for simulation of field and laboratory particulates matters data; third, carried out field online test on exhaust from combustion engines with our laser scatter system. This report gives a summary of the results and achievements during the project's 16 quarters period. During the 16 quarters of this project, we constructed three multiwavelength scattering instruments for PM2.5 particulates. We build up a simulation software package that could automate the simulation of light scattering for different combinations of particulate matters. At the field test site with our partner, Alturdyne, Inc., we collected light scattering data for a small gas turbine engine. We also included the experimental data feedback function to the simulation software to match simulation with real field data. The PM scattering instruments developed in this project involve the development of some core hardware technologies, including fast gated CCD system, accurately triggered Passively Q-Switched diode pumped lasers, and multiwavelength beam combination system. To calibrate the scattering results for liquid samples, we also developed the calibration system which includes liquid PM generator and size sorting instrument, i.e. MOUDI. In this report, we give the concise summary report on each of these subsystems development results.

  5. CANDU nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the components that make up a CANDU reactor. Major emphasis is placed on the CANDU 600 MW(e) design. The reasons for CANDU's performance and the inherent safety of the system are also discussed

  6. High power lasers & systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  7. Economic Operation of Power Systems with Significant Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farashbashi-Astaneh, Seyed-Mostafa

    This dissertation addresses economic operation of power systems with high penetration of wind power. Several studies are presented to address the economic operation of power systems with high penetration of variable wind power. The main concern in such power systems is high variability...... and unpredictability. Unlike conventional power plants, the output power of a wind farm is not controllable. This brings additional complexity to operation and planning of wind dominant power systems. The key solution in face of wind power uncertainty is to enhance power system flexibility. The enhanced flexibility......, cooperative wind-storage operation is studied. Lithium-Ion battery units are chosen as storage units. A novel formulation is proposed to investigate optimal operation of a storage unit considering power system balancing conditions and wind power imbalances. An optimization framework is presented to increase...

  8. Diversification criteria for power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharbach, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Growing power demand, fuel availability and prices, technology changes, the environmental impacts of energy consumption, the changing regulatory environments and the uncertainties around such elements make the planning for optimal power mix a challenging task. The diversity approach is advocated as a most appropriate planning methodology for the optimal energy mix (Hickey et al., 2010). Shannon Wiener Index (SWI), which is the most cited diversity metric has been used to assess power systems diversity mainly from an energy perspective. To our best knowledge, there is no rigorous justification why energy has been the main variable used in diversification exercises rather than other variables such as capacity. We use a stylized power generation framework to show that diversity based on energy or capacity could lead to different outcomes in terms of vulnerability to fuel exposure, among others. We also introduce a Shannon Wiener Index ratio (SWIR) that we believe captures better the diversity of a power system compared to the standard SWI. - Highlights: • Ranking power systems, from a diversity perspective, based on one criteria has many shortcomings. • Diversity based on energy or capacity could lead to different outcomes in terms of vulnerability to fuel exposure, among others. • A Shannon Wiener Index ratio (SWIR) captures better the diversity of a power system compared to the standard SWI.

  9. Brayton cycle space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, A.; Trimble, S.W.; Harper, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The latest accomplishments in the design and development of the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) for space applications are described, together with a reexamination of the design/cost tradeoffs with respect to current economic parameters and technology status. The results of tests performed on a ground test version of the flight configuration, the workhorse loop, were used to confirm the performance projections made for the flight system. The results of cost-model analysis indicate that the use of the highest attainable power conversion system efficiency will yield the most cost-effective systems. 13 references

  10. Space Station power system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite

  11. An IP-Based Software System for Real-time, Closed Loop, Multi-Spacecraft Mission Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Everett; Davis, George; Higinbotham, John; Burns, Richard; Hogie, Keith; Hallahan, Francis

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on the architecture of a computerized testbest for simulating Distributed Space Systems (DSS) for controlling spacecraft flying in formation. The presentation also discusses and diagrams the Distributed Synthesis Environment (DSE) for simulating and planning DSS missions.

  12. Electric power system applications of optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Momoh, James A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Structure of a Generic Electric Power System  Power System Models  Power System Control Power System Security Assessment  Power System Optimization as a Function of Time  Review of Optimization Techniques Applicable to Power Systems Electric Power System Models  Complex Power Concepts Three-Phase Systems Per Unit Representation  Synchronous Machine Modeling Reactive Capability Limits Prime Movers and Governing Systems  Automatic Gain Control Transmission Subsystems  Y-Bus Incorporating the Transformer Effect  Load Models  Available Transfer Capability  Illustrative Examples  Power

  13. Solar-Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  14. Power system stabilizer control for wind power to enhance power system stability

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez García, José Luís; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol; Bianchi, Fernando Daniel; Sumper, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a small signal stability analysis for power systems with wind farm interaction. Power systems have damping oscillation modes that can be excited by disturbance or fault in the grid. The power converters of the wind farms can be used to reduce these oscillations and make the system more stable. These ideas are explored to design a power system stabilized (PSS) for a network with conventional generators and a wind farm in order to increase the damping of the oscillation...

  15. Design issues of the piezo motor for the spacecraft reflector control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Anton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Creation of large-size reflectors for spacecrafts is a topical issue for the space industry. The accuracy of the reflecting surface form and the structure weight are the main criteria for the reflector design. The accuracy of the reflecting surface form during a long-term operation is provided by adjustment when using piezoelectric motors in the reflector design. These motors have small weight-size parameters and can reach great torque values. The piezo motor is a distributed mechanical-acoustic oscillation system. Mechanical-acoustic oscillations are generated in the piezo motor by a PZT-stack and transmitted to an oscillator element, and then from the oscillator element to a load action element. At high frequencies, when dimensions of the oscillator are proportionate to the wavelength, the energy is transmitted by means of acoustic waves. In this case, mechanical waves practically are not involved in the energy transmission process. This thesis shows a method for selecting the material of a mechanical-acoustic oscillation system according to the efficiency of the acoustic energy transmission via a piezoelectric layered structure.

  16. Towards the Development of a Unified Distributed Date System for L1 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Alan J.; Kasper, Justin C.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this grant, 'Towards the Development of a Unified Distributed Data System for L1 Spacecraft', is to take the initial steps towards the development of a data distribution mechanism for making in-situ measurements more easily accessible to the scientific community. Our obligations as subcontractors to this grant are to add our Faraday Cup plasma data to this initial study and to contribute to the design of a general data distribution system. The year 1 objectives of the overall project as stated in the GSFC proposal are: 1) Both the rsync and Perl based data exchange tools will be fully developed and tested in our mixed, Unix, VMS, Windows and Mac OS X data service environment. Based on the performance comparisons, one will be selected and fully deployed. Continuous data exchange between all L1 solar wind monitors initiated. 2) Data version metadata will be agreed upon, fully documented, and deployed on our data sites. 3) The first version of the data description rules, encoded in a XML Schema, will be finalized. 4) Preliminary set of library routines will be collected, documentation standards and formats agreed on, and desirable routines that have not been implemented identified and assigned. 5) ViSBARD test site implemented to independently validate data mirroring procedures. The specific MIT tasks over the duration of this project are the following: a) implement mirroring service for WIND plasma data b) participate in XML Schema development c) contribute toward routine library.

  17. Preliminary Test of Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System Controller for Spacecraft Attitude Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woo Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of spacecraft attitude control is solved using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. An ANFIS produces a control signal for one of the three axes of a spacecraft’s body frame, so in total three ANFISs are constructed for 3-axis attitude control. The fuzzy inference system of the ANFIS is initialized using a subtractive clustering method. The ANFIS is trained by a hybrid learning algorithm using the data obtained from attitude control simulations using state-dependent Riccati equation controller. The training data set for each axis is composed of state errors for 3 axes (roll, pitch, and yaw and a control signal for one of the 3 axes. The stability region of the ANFIS controller is estimated numerically based on Lyapunov stability theory using a numerical method to calculate Jacobian matrix. To measure the performance of the ANFIS controller, root mean square error and correlation factor are used as performance indicators. The performance is tested on two ANFIS controllers trained in different conditions. The test results show that the performance indicators are proper in the sense that the ANFIS controller with the larger stability region provides better performance according to the performance indicators.

  18. Power Quality in DC Power Distribution Systems and Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Whaite

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review paper discusses power quality considerations for direct current (DC electric power distribution systems, particularly DC microgrids. First, four selected sample DC architectures are discussed to provide motivation for the consideration of power quality in DC systems. Second, a brief overview of power quality challenges in conventional alternating current (AC distribution systems is given to establish the field of power quality. Finally, a survey of literature addressing power quality issues in DC systems is presented, and necessary power quality considerations in DC distribution system design and operation are discussed.

  19. Autonomous Spacecraft Communication Interface for Load Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; May, Ryan D.; Morris, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Ground-based controllers can remain in continuous communication with spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) with near-instantaneous communication speeds. This permits near real-time control of all of the core spacecraft systems by ground personnel. However, as NASA missions move beyond LEO, light-time communication delay issues, such as time lag and low bandwidth, will prohibit this type of operation. As missions become more distant, autonomous control of manned spacecraft will be required. The focus of this paper is the power subsystem. For present missions, controllers on the ground develop a complete schedule of power usage for all spacecraft components. This paper presents work currently underway at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous spacecraft, and focuses on the development of communication between the Mission Manager and the Autonomous Power Controller. These two systems must work together in order to plan future load use and respond to unanticipated plan deviations. Using a nominal spacecraft architecture and prototype versions of these two key components, a number of simulations are run under a variety of operational conditions, enabling development of content and format of the messages necessary to achieve the desired goals. The goals include negotiation of a load schedule that meets the global requirements (contained in the Mission Manager) and local power system requirements (contained in the Autonomous Power Controller), and communication of off-plan disturbances that arise while executing a negotiated plan. The message content is developed in two steps: first, a set of rapid-prototyping "paper" simulations are preformed; then the resultant optimized messages are codified for computer communication for use in automated testing.

  20. Hummingbird - A Very Low Cost, High Delta V Spacecraft for Solar System Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on Microcosm's development of a high delta-V small Earth observation spacecraft called NanoEye, with a planned recurring cost of $2 million, Microcosm will...

  1. Recent space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Yasuda, Hideshi; Hishida, Makoto

    1991-01-01

    For the advance of mankind into the space, the power sources of large output are indispensable, and it has been considered that atomic energy is promising as compared with solar energy and others. Accordingly in USA and USSR, the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use has been carried out since considerable years ago. In this report, the general features of space nuclear reactors are shown, and by taking the system for the SP-100 project being carried out in USA as the example, the contents of the recent design regarding the safety as an important factor are discussed. Moreover, as the examples of utilizing space nuclear reactors, the concepts of the power source for the base on the moon, the sources of propulsive power for the rockets used for Mars exploration and others, the remote power transmission system by laser in the space and so on are explained. In September, 1988, the launching of a space shuttle of USA was resumed, and the Jupiter explorer 'Galileo' and the space telescope 'Hubble' were successfully launched. The space station 'Mir' of USSR has been used since February, 1986. The history of the development of the nuclear power generation systems for space use is described. (K.I.)

  2. Reliability evaluation of power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Billinton, Roy

    1996-01-01

    The Second Edition of this well-received textbook presents over a decade of new research in power system reliability-while maintaining the general concept, structure, and style of the original volume. This edition features new chapters on the growing areas of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability economics. In addition, chapters cover the latest developments in techniques and their application to real problems. The text also explores the progress occurring in the structure, planning, and operation of real power systems due to changing ownership, regulation, and access. This work serves as a companion volume to Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Second Edition (1992).

  3. TFTR neutral beam power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitz, A.; Murray, H.; Winje, R.

    1977-01-01

    The TFTR NB System will be composed of four beam lines, each containing three ion sources presently being developed for TFTR by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL). The Neutral Beam Power System (NBPS) will provide the necessary power required to operate these Ion Sources in both an experimental or operational mode as well as test mode. This paper describes the technical as well as the administrative/management aspects involved in the development and building of this system. The NBPS will combine the aspects of HV pulse (120 kV) and long pulse width (0.5 sec) together to produce a high power system that is unique in the Electrical Engineering field

  4. Wind-powered aqueduct systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldridge, F R; Ljungstroem, O [ed.

    1976-01-01

    The MITRE Corporation is proposing to develop a preliminarydesign for a system that would use large-scale wind-driven units to provide power for the pumping of water from the main reservoir to auxiliary reservoirs in other parts of an aqueduct system. The study would include a comparison of the cost and effectiveness of alternative methods of performing such operations.

  5. Emergency strategy optimization for the environmental control system in manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoxiang; Pang, Liping; Liu, Meng; Fang, Yufeng; Zhang, Helin

    2018-02-01

    It is very important for a manned environmental control system (ECS) to be able to reconfigure its operation strategy in emergency conditions. In this article, a multi-objective optimization is established to design the optimal emergency strategy for an ECS in an insufficient power supply condition. The maximum ECS lifetime and the minimum power consumption are chosen as the optimization objectives. Some adjustable key variables are chosen as the optimization variables, which finally represent the reconfigured emergency strategy. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is adopted to solve this multi-objective optimization problem. Optimization processes are conducted at four different carbon dioxide partial pressure control levels. The study results show that the Pareto-optimal frontiers obtained from this multi-objective optimization can represent the relationship between the lifetime and the power consumption of the ECS. Hence, the preferred emergency operation strategy can be recommended for situations when there is suddenly insufficient power.

  6. Power Reactor Information System (PRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiegelberg, R.

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA has been collecting Operating Experience data for Nuclear Power Plants of the IAEA Member States since 1970. In order to facilitate an analysis of nuclear power plant performance as well as to produce relevant publications, all previously collected data supplied from the questionnaires were computerized in 1980 and the Power Reactor Information System was implemented. PRIS currently contains production records for the years up to and including 1990 and about 98% of the reactors-years operating experience in the world is contained in PRIS. (orig.)

  7. Optimization of photovoltaic power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rekioua, Djamila

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic generation is one of the cleanest forms of energy conversion available. One of the advantages offered by solar energy is its potential to provide sustainable electricity in areas not served by the conventional power grid. Optimisation of Photovoltaic Power Systems details explicit modelling, control and optimisation of the most popular stand-alone applications such as pumping, power supply, and desalination. Each section is concluded by an example using the MATLAB(R) and Simulink(R) packages to help the reader understand and evaluate the performance of different photovoltaic syste

  8. Model-based software engineering for an optical navigation system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T.; Lüdtke, D.; Maibaum, O.; Gerndt, A.

    2018-06-01

    The project Autonomous Terrain-based Optical Navigation (ATON) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is developing an optical navigation system for future landing missions on celestial bodies such as the moon or asteroids. Image data obtained by optical sensors can be used for autonomous determination of the spacecraft's position and attitude. Camera-in-the-loop experiments in the Testbed for Robotic Optical Navigation (TRON) laboratory and flight campaigns with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are performed to gather flight data for further development and to test the system in a closed-loop scenario. The software modules are executed in the C++ Tasking Framework that provides the means to concurrently run the modules in separated tasks, send messages between tasks, and schedule task execution based on events. Since the project is developed in collaboration with several institutes in different domains at DLR, clearly defined and well-documented interfaces are necessary. Preventing misconceptions caused by differences between various development philosophies and standards turned out to be challenging. After the first development cycles with manual Interface Control Documents (ICD) and manual implementation of the complex interactions between modules, we switched to a model-based approach. The ATON model covers a graphical description of the modules, their parameters and communication patterns. Type and consistency checks on this formal level help to reduce errors in the system. The model enables the generation of interfaces and unified data types as well as their documentation. Furthermore, the C++ code for the exchange of data between the modules and the scheduling of the software tasks is created automatically. With this approach, changing the data flow in the system or adding additional components (e.g., a second camera) have become trivial.

  9. Model-based software engineering for an optical navigation system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T.; Lüdtke, D.; Maibaum, O.; Gerndt, A.

    2017-09-01

    The project Autonomous Terrain-based Optical Navigation (ATON) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is developing an optical navigation system for future landing missions on celestial bodies such as the moon or asteroids. Image data obtained by optical sensors can be used for autonomous determination of the spacecraft's position and attitude. Camera-in-the-loop experiments in the Testbed for Robotic Optical Navigation (TRON) laboratory and flight campaigns with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are performed to gather flight data for further development and to test the system in a closed-loop scenario. The software modules are executed in the C++ Tasking Framework that provides the means to concurrently run the modules in separated tasks, send messages between tasks, and schedule task execution based on events. Since the project is developed in collaboration with several institutes in different domains at DLR, clearly defined and well-documented interfaces are necessary. Preventing misconceptions caused by differences between various development philosophies and standards turned out to be challenging. After the first development cycles with manual Interface Control Documents (ICD) and manual implementation of the complex interactions between modules, we switched to a model-based approach. The ATON model covers a graphical description of the modules, their parameters and communication patterns. Type and consistency checks on this formal level help to reduce errors in the system. The model enables the generation of interfaces and unified data types as well as their documentation. Furthermore, the C++ code for the exchange of data between the modules and the scheduling of the software tasks is created automatically. With this approach, changing the data flow in the system or adding additional components (e.g., a second camera) have become trivial.

  10. Thermal Protection System Mass Estimating Relationships For Blunt-Body, Earth Entry Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepka, Steven A.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2015-01-01

    Mass estimating relationships (MERs) are developed to predict the amount of thermal protection system (TPS) necessary for safe Earth entry for blunt-body spacecraft using simple correlations that are non-ITAR and closely match estimates from NASA's highfidelity ablation modeling tool, the Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Analysis Program (FIAT). These MERs provide a first order estimate for rapid feasibility studies. There are 840 different trajectories considered in this study, and each TPS MER has a peak heating limit. MERs for the vehicle forebody include the ablators Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and Carbon Phenolic atop Advanced Carbon-Carbon. For the aftbody, the materials are Silicone Impregnated Reusable Ceramic Ablator (SIRCA), Acusil II, SLA- 561V, and LI-900. The MERs are accurate to within 14% (at one standard deviation) of FIAT prediction, and the most any MER can under predict FIAT TPS thickness is 18.7%. This work focuses on the development of these MERs, the resulting equations, model limitations, and model accuracy.

  11. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The first edition of the present Safety Guide was developed in the early 1980s. The text has now been brought up-to-date, refined in several details and amended to include non-electrical diverse and independent power sources. This Guide applies to NPP for which the total power supply comprises a normal power supply and an emergency power supply (EPS), which may be electrical or a combination of electrical and non-electrical. The Guide provides general guidance for all types of EPS and specific guidance on the design safety requirements and the features of the electrical and non-electrical portions of the EPS. 9 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Standardization and Economics of Nuclear Spacecraft, Final Report, Phase I, Sense Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1973-03-01

    Feasibility and cost benefits of nuclear-powered standardized spacecraft are investigated. The study indicates that two shuttle-launched nuclear-powered spacecraft should be able to serve the majority of unmanned NASA missions anticipated for the 1980's. The standard spacecraft include structure, thermal control, power, attitude control, some propulsion capability and tracking, telemetry, and command subsystems. One spacecraft design, powered by the radioisotope thermoelectric generator, can serve missions requiring up to 450 watts. The other spacecraft design, powered by similar nuclear heat sources in a Brayton-cycle generator, can serve missions requiring up to 21000 watts. Design concepts and trade-offs are discussed. The conceptual designs selected are presented and successfully tested against a variety of missions. The thermal design is such that both spacecraft are capable of operating in any earth orbit and any orientation without modification. Three-axis stabilization is included. Several spacecraft can be stacked in the shuttle payload compartment for multi-mission launches. A reactor-powered thermoelectric generator system, operating at an electric power level of 5000 watts, is briefly studied for applicability to two test missions of divers requirements. A cost analysis indicates that use of the two standardized spacecraft offers sizable savings in comparison with specially designed solar-powered spacecraft. There is a duplicate copy.

  13. Conjunction of Photovoltaic and Thermophotovoltaic Power Production in Spacecraft Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    solar energy, having been converted by plants through photosynthesis to carbohydrates and cellulose, sometimes by animals into more carbohydrates and...the properties of materials specified in the device model that are either drawn from databases built into the software, databases that are closely...linked to the software—such as optical parameters drawn from the Sopra database —or that are specified by the user within the model itself [23]. When

  14. PowerFactory applications for power system analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Longatt, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive set of guidelines and applications of DIgSILENT PowerFactory, an advanced power system simulation software package, for different types of power systems studies. Written by specialists in the field, it combines expertise and years of experience in the use of DIgSILENT PowerFactory with a deep understanding of power systems analysis. These complementary approaches therefore provide a fresh perspective on how to model, simulate and analyse power systems. It presents methodological approaches for modelling of system components, including both classical and non-

  15. The BPX electrical power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttar, D.; Bronnev, G.; Fromm, N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) which when operating at a toroidal field of 8.1 tesla and a plasma current of 10.6 megamps, requires peak power of 1235 megawatts and total pulse energy of over 21 gigajoules. These requirements are twice and over four times the corresponding figures for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), respectively. The design of the BPX power system has evolved, along with the tokamak, over a period of several years and has included studies of several alternative approaches. The reapplication of the existing TFTR power and energy facilities has been basic to all approaches. Among the new sources of pulse power and energy that have been considered are: direct utility grid pulsing, new flywheel units, and lead-acid storage batteries. The toroidal field power requirements are the greatest of the BPX subsystems and, fortunately, are sufficiently free of dynamics to allow the consideration of all approaches. Additional design challenges were presented by the multiplicity of plasma control scenarios incorporated in the BPX physics planning and the power response demanded of the plasma position control system

  16. Low cost spacecraft computers: Oxymoron or future trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last few decades, application of current terrestrial computer technology in embedded spacecraft control systems has been expensive and wrought with many technical challenges. These challenges have centered on overcoming the extreme environmental constraints (protons, neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic rays, temperature, vibration, etc.) that often preclude direct use of commercial off-the-shelf computer technology. Reliability, fault tolerance and power have also greatly constrained the selection of spacecraft control system computers. More recently, new constraints are being felt, cost and mass in particular, that have again narrowed the degrees of freedom spacecraft designers once enjoyed. This paper discusses these challenges, how they were previously overcome, how future trends in commercial computer technology will simplify (or hinder) selection of computer technology for spacecraft control applications, and what spacecraft electronic system designers can do now to circumvent them.

  17. Continuous hydrino thermal power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Randell L.; Zhao, Guibing; Good, William [BlackLight Power, Inc., 493 Old Trenton Road, Cranbury, NJ 08512 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The specifics of a continuous hydrino reaction system design are presented. Heat from the hydrino reactions within individual cells provide both reactor power and the heat for regeneration of the reactants. These processes occur continuously and the power from each cell is constant. The conversion of thermal power to electrical power requires the use of a heat engine exploiting a cycle such as a Rankine, Brayton, Stirling, or steam-engine cycle. Due to the temperatures, economy goal, and efficiency, the Rankine cycle is the most practical and can produce electricity at 30-40% efficiency with a component capital cost of about $300 per kW electric. Conservatively, assuming a conversion efficiency of 25% the total cost with the addition of the boiler and chemical components is estimated at $1064 per kW electric. (author)

  18. Power Management for Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive...... penetration of renewable, fossil-free energy sources such as solar and wind power. To facilitate such intermittent power producers, we must not only control the production of electricity, but also the consumption, in an ecient and exible manner. By enabling the use of thermal energy storage in supermarkets...... of temperature dependent efficiencies in the refrigeration cycle. -Nonlinear economic MPC with uncertain predictions and the implementation of very simple predictors that use entirely historical data of, e.g., electricity prices and outdoor temperatures. Economic MPC for wind turbines, including -Optimal steady...

  19. Continuous hydrino thermal power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Randell L.; Zhao, Guibing; Good, William

    2011-01-01

    The specifics of a continuous hydrino reaction system design are presented. Heat from the hydrino reactions within individual cells provide both reactor power and the heat for regeneration of the reactants. These processes occur continuously and the power from each cell is constant. The conversion of thermal power to electrical power requires the use of a heat engine exploiting a cycle such as a Rankine, Brayton, Stirling, or steam-engine cycle. Due to the temperatures, economy goal, and efficiency, the Rankine cycle is the most practical and can produce electricity at 30-40% efficiency with a component capital cost of about $300 per kW electric. Conservatively, assuming a conversion efficiency of 25% the total cost with the addition of the boiler and chemical components is estimated at $1064 per kW electric.

  20. Power system studies of new ancillary services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  1. Advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) Small Spacecraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Tiffany Russell; Martinez, Armando; Boyd, Darren; SanSouice, Michael; Farmer, Brandon; Schneider, Todd; Laue, Greg; Fabisinski, Leo; Johnson, Les; Carr, John A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes recent advancements of the Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) currently being developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The LISA-T array comprises a launch stowed, orbit deployed structure on which thin-film photovoltaic (PV) and antenna devices are embedded. The system provides significant electrical power generation at low weights, high stowage efficiency, and without the need for solar tracking. Leveraging high-volume terrestrial-market PVs also gives the potential for lower array costs. LISA-T is addressing the power starvation epidemic currently seen by many small-scale satellites while also enabling the application of deployable antenna arrays. Herein, an overview of the system and its applications are presented alongside sub-system development progress and environmental testing plans.

  2. Design of a gigawatt space solar power satellite using optical concentrator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessanti, B.; Komerath, N.; Shah, S.

    A 1-gigawatt space solar power satellite using a large array of individually pointable optical elements is identified as the key mass element of a large scale space solar power architecture using the Space Power Grid concept. The proposed satellite design enables a significant increase in specific power. Placed in sun-synchronous dynamic orbits near 2000km altitude, these satellites can maintain the constant solar view requirement of GEO-based architectures, while greatly reducing the beaming distance required, decreasing the required antenna size and in turn the overall system mass. The satellite uses an array of individually pointable optical elements (which we call a Mirasol Concentrator Array) to concentrate solar energy to an intensified feed target that feeds into the main heater of the spacecraft, similar conceptually to heliostat arrays. The spacecraft then utilizes Brayton cycle conversion to take advantage of non-linear power level scaling in order to generate high specific power values. Using phase array antennas, the power is then beamed at a millimeter wave frequency of 220GHz down to Earth. The design of the Mirasol concentrator system will be described and a detailed mass estimation of the system is developed. The technical challenges of pointing the elements and maintaining constant solar view is investigated. An end-to-end efficiency analysis is performed. Subsystem designs for the spacecraft are outlined. A detailed mass budget is refined to reflect reductions in uncertainty of the spacecraft mass, particularly in the Mirasol system. One of the key mass drivers of the spacecraft is the active thermal control system. The design of a lightweight thermal control system utilizing graphene sheets is also detailed.

  3. High average power solid state laser power conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkraus, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers

  4. TPX power systems design overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Bronner, G.; Lu, E.; Ramakrishnan, S.

    1993-01-01

    The power systems for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) supply the Toroidal Field (TF). Poloidal Field (PF), Field Error Correction (FEC), and Fast Vertical Position Control (FVPC) coil systems, the Neutral Beam (NB), Ion Cyclotron (IC), Lower Hybrid (LH) and Electron Cyclotron (EC) heating and current drive systems, and all balance of plant loads. Existing equipment from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), including the motor-generator (MG) sets and the rectifiers, can be adapted for the supply of the TPX PF systems. A new TF power supply is required. A new substation is required for the heating and current drive systems (NB, IC, LH, and EC). The baseline TPX load can be taken directly from the grid without special provision, whereas if all upgrade options are undertaken, a modest amount of reactive compensation will be required. This paper describes the conceptual design of the power systems, with emphasis on the AC, TF, and PF Systems, and the quench protection of the superconducting coils

  5. Estimation of power system variability due to wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Verboomen, J.; Van der Sluis, L.

    2007-01-01

    The incorporation of wind power generation to the power system leads to an increase in the variability of the system power flows. The assessment of this variability is necessary for the planning of the necessary system reinforcements. For the assessment of this variability, the uncertainty in the

  6. Nuclear power plant annunciator systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.

    1983-08-01

    Analyses of nuclear power plant annunciator systems have uncovered a variety of problems. Many of these problems stem from the fact that the underlying philosophy of annunciator systems have never been elucidated so as to impact the initial annunciator system design. This research determined that the basic philosophy of an annunciator system should be to minimize the potential for system and process deviations to develop into significant hazards. In order to do this the annunciator system should alert the operators to the fact that a system or process deviation exists, inform the operators as to the priority and nature of the deviation, guide the operators' initial responses to the deviation, and confirm whether operators responses corrected the deviation. Annunciator design features were analyzed to determine to what degree they helped the system meet the functional criteria, the priority for implementing specific design features, and the cost and ease of implementing specific design features

  7. The electric power engineering handbook power system stability and control

    CERN Document Server

    Grisby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    With contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, Power System Stability and Control, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) updates coverage of recent developments and rapid technological growth in essential aspects of power systems. Edited by L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Miroslav Begovic, Prabha Kundur, and Bruce Wollenberg, this reference presents substantially new and revised content. Topics covered include: * Power System Protection * Power System Dynamics and Stability *

  8. Composite type nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Koichiro.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention realizes a high thermal efficiency by heating steams at the exit of a steam generator of a nuclear power plant to high temperature by a thermal super-heating boiler. That is, a thermal superheating boiler is disposed between the steam generator and a turbogenerator to heat steams from the steam generator and supply them to the turbogenerator. In this case, it may be possible that feedwater superheating boiler pipelines to the steam generator are caused to pass through the thermal superheating boiler so that they also have a performance of heating feedwater. If the system of the present invention is used, it is possible to conduct base load operation by nuclear power and a load following operation by controlling the thermal superheating boiler. Further, a hydrogen producing performance is applied to the thermal superheating boiler to produce hydrogen when electric power load is lowered. An internally sustaining type operation method can be conducted of burning hydrogen by the superheating boiler upon increased electric power load. As a result, a power generation system which has an excellent economical property and can easily cope with the load following operation can be attained. (I.S.)

  9. Power management for energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gybel Hovgaard, T.

    2013-02-15

    In this thesis, we consider the control of two different industrial applications that belong at either end of the electricity grid; a power consumer in the form of a commercial refrigeration system, and wind turbines for power production. Our primary studies deal with economic model predictive control of a commercial multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor, and is used to cool multiple areas or rooms, e.g., in supermarkets. For control of the commercial refrigeration application as well as the wind turbine application, we propose an economic optimizing model predictive controller, economic MPC. Our investigations are primarily concerned with: 1) modeling of the applications to suit the chosen control framework; 2) formulating the MPC controller laws to overcome challenges introduced by the industrial applications, and defining economic objectives that reect the real physics of the systems as well as our control objectives; 3) solving the involved, non-trivial optimization problems eciently in real-time; 4) demonstrating the feasibility and potential of the proposed methods by extensive simulation and comparison with existing control methods and evaluation of data from systems in actual operation. We demonstrate, i.a., substantial cost savings, on the order of 30 %, compared to a standard thermostat-based supermarket refrigeration system and show how our methods exhibit sophisticated demand response to real-time variations in electricity prices. Violations of the temperature ranges can be kept at a very low frequency of occurrence inspite of the presence of uncertainty. For the power output from wind turbines, ramp rates, as low a 3 % of the rated power per minute, can be effectively ensured with the use of energy storage and we show how the active use of rotor inertia as an additional energy storage can reduce the needed storage capacity by up to 30 % without reducing the power output. (Author)

  10. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Spacecraft Constellation System, Mission Results, and Prospect for Follow-On Mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Joe Fong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC spacecraft constellation consisting of six LEO satellites is the world's first operational GPS Radio Occultation (RO mission. The mission is jointly developed by Taiwan¡¦s National Space Organization (NSPO and the United States¡¦UCAR in collaboration with NSF, USAF, NOAA, NASA, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the US Naval Research Laboratory. The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites were successfully launched from Vandenberg US AFB in California at 0140 UTC 15 April 2006 into the same orbit plane of the designated 516 km altitude. The mission goal is to deploy the six satellites into six orbit planes at 800 km altitude with a 30-degree separation for evenly distributed global coverage. All six FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites are currently maintaining a satisfactory good state-of-health. Five out of six satellites have reached their final mission orbit of 800 km as of November 2007. The data as received by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites constellation have been processed in near real time into 2500 good ionospheric profiles and 1800 good atmospheric profiles per day. These have outnumbered the worldwide radiosondes (~900 mostly over land launched from the ground per day. The processed atmospheric RO data have been assimilated into the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP models for real-time weather prediction and typhoon/hurricane forecasting by many major weather centers in the world. This paper describes the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellite constellation system performance and the mission results that span the period from April 2006 to October 2007; and reviews the prospect of a future follow-on mission.

  11. Dynamic influences of wind power on the power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas, Pedro

    2003-03-01

    The thesis first presents the basics influences of wind power on the power system stability and quality by pointing out the main power quality issues of wind power in a small-scale case and following, the expected large-scale problems are introduced. Secondly, a dynamic wind turbine model that supports power quality assessment of wind turbines is presented. Thirdly, an aggregate wind farm model that support power quality and stability analysis from large wind farms is presented. The aggregate wind farm model includes the smoothing of the relative power fluctuation from a wind farm compared to a single wind turbine. Finally, applications of the aggregate wind farm model to the power systems are presented. The power quality and stability characteristics influenced by large-scale wind power are illustrated with three cases. In this thesis, special emphasis has been given to appropriate models to represent the wind acting on wind farms. The wind speed model to a single wind turbine includes turbulence and tower shadow effects from the wind and the rotational sampling turbulence due to the rotation of the blades. In a park scale, the wind speed model to the wind farm includes the spatial coherence between different wind turbines. Here the wind speed model is applied to a constant rotational speed wind turbine/farm, but the model is suitable to variable speed wind turbine/farm as well. The cases presented here illustrate the influences of the wind power on the power system quality and stability. The flicker and frequency deviations are the main power quality parameters presented. The power system stability concentrates on the voltage stability and on the power system oscillations. From the cases studied, voltage and the frequency variations were smaller than expected from the large-scale wind power integration due to the low spatial correlation of the wind speed. The voltage quality analysed in a Brazilian power system and in the Nordel power system from connecting large

  12. 76 FR 48159 - Integrated System Power Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Southwestern Power Administration Integrated System Power Rates AGENCY... American Electric Reliability Corporation and to cover increased investments and replacements in..., prepared a Current Power Repayment Study using existing system rates. The Study indicates that Southwestern...

  13. Operational environments for electrical power wiring on NASA space systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavnes, Mark W.; Hammoud, Ahmad N.; Bercaw, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Electrical wiring systems are used extensively on NASA space systems for power management and distribution, control and command, and data transmission. The reliability of these systems when exposed to the harsh environments of space is very critical to mission success and crew safety. Failures have been reported both on the ground and in flight due to arc tracking in the wiring harnesses, made possible by insulation degradation. This report was written as part of a NASA Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (Code Q) program to identify and characterize wiring systems in terms of their potential use in aerospace vehicles. The goal of the program is to provide the information and guidance needed to develop and qualify reliable, safe, lightweight wiring systems, which are resistant to arc tracking and suitable for use in space power applications. This report identifies the environments in which NASA spacecraft will operate, and determines the specific NASA testing requirements. A summary of related test programs is also given in this report. This data will be valuable to spacecraft designers in determining the best wiring constructions for the various NASA applications.

  14. Hydrogen fuel cell power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, A.W.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Batteries are typically a necessary and prime component of any DC power system, providing a source of on-demand stored energy with proven reliability. The integration of batteries and basic fuel cells for mobile and stationary utility applications poses a new challenge. For high value applications, the specification and operating requirements for this hybrid module differ from conventional requirements as the module must withstand extreme weather conditions and provide extreme reliability. As an electric utility company, BCHydro has embarked in the development and application of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power Supply (HFCPS) for field trial. A Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM)- type fuel cell including power electronic modules are mounted in a standard 19-inch rack that provides 48V, 24V, 12V DC and 120V AC outputs. The hydrogen supply consists of hydrogen bottles and regulating devices to provide a continuous fuel source to the power modules. Many tests and evaluations have been done to ensure the HFCPS package is robust and suitable for electric utility grade operation. A field trial demonstrating this standalone system addressed reliability, durability, and installation concerns as well as developed the overall system operating procedures. (author)

  15. Power System Operation with Large Scale Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannarat, A.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Chen, Z.

    2007-01-01

    to the uncertain nature of wind power. In this paper, proposed models of generations and control system are presented which analyze the deviation of power exchange at the western Danish-German border, taking into account the fluctuating nature of wind power. The performance of the secondary control of the thermal......The Danish power system starts to face problems of integrating thousands megawatts of wind power, which produce in a stochastic behavior due to natural wind fluctuations. With wind power capacities increasing, the Danish Transmission System Operator (TSO) is faced with new challenges related...... power plants and the spinning reserves control from the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) units to achieve active power balance with the increased wind power penetration is presented....

  16. Case Studies in Crewed Spacecraft Environmental Control and Life Support System Process Compatibility and Cabin Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Contamination of a crewed spacecraft's cabin environment leading to environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) functional capability and operational margin degradation or loss can have an adverse effect on NASA's space exploration mission figures of merit-safety, mission success, effectiveness, and affordability. The role of evaluating the ECLSS's compatibility and cabin environmental impact as a key component of pass trace contaminant control is presented and the technical approach is described in the context of implementing NASA's safety and mission success objectives. Assessment examples are presented for a variety of chemicals used in vehicle systems and experiment hardware for the International Space Station program. The ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact assessment approach, which can be applied to any crewed spacecraft development and operational effort, can provide guidance to crewed spacecraft system and payload developers relative to design criteria assigned ECLSS compatibility and cabin environmental impact ratings can be used by payload and system developers as criteria for ensuring adequate physical and operational containment. In additional to serving as an aid for guiding containment design, the assessments can guide flight rule and procedure development toward protecting the ECLSS as well as approaches for contamination event remediation.

  17. Integrated Three-Port Converters for Compact and Efficient Power Management, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To meet the ever-increasing power demand of today's spacecraft systems, an integrated power electronics system capable of interfacing, and simultaneously...

  18. Integrated Three-Port Converters for Compact and Efficient Power Management, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To meet the increasing power demand of today's spacecraft systems, an integrated power electronics system capable of interfacing, and simultaneously controlling,...

  19. Power system dynamics and control

    CERN Document Server

    Kwatny, Harry G

    2016-01-01

    This monograph explores a consistent modeling and analytic framework that provides the tools for an improved understanding of the behavior and the building of efficient models of power systems. It covers the essential concepts for the study of static and dynamic network stability, reviews the structure and design of basic voltage and load-frequency regulators, and offers an introduction to power system optimal control with reliability constraints. A set of Mathematica tutorial notebooks providing detailed solutions of the examples worked-out in the text, as well as a package that will enable readers to work out their own examples and problems, supplements the text. A key premise of the book is that the design of successful control systems requires a deep understanding of the processes to be controlled; as such, the technical discussion begins with a concise review of the physical foundations of electricity and magnetism. This is followed by an overview of nonlinear circuits that include resistors, inductors, ...

  20. Handbook of power systems engineering with power electronics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hase, Yoshihide

    2012-01-01

    Formerly known as Handbook of Power System Engineering, this second edition provides rigorous revisions to the original treatment of systems analysis together with a substantial new four-chapter section on power electronics applications. Encompassing a whole range of equipment, phenomena, and analytical approaches, this handbook offers a complete overview of power systems and their power electronics applications, and presents a thorough examination of the fundamental principles, combining theories and technologies that are usually treated in separate specialised fields, in a single u

  1. Electric Vehicles in Power Systems with 50% Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Foosnæs, Anders; Xu, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    will be an important balancing measure to enable the Danish government’s energy strategy, which implies 50% wind power penetration in the electric power system. An EV will be a storage device for smoothing power fluctuations from renewable resources especially wind power and provide valuable system services...... for a reliable power system operation. Cost-benefit analysis shows that intelligent bidirectional charging – vehicle to grid (V2G) – provides a socio-economic profit of 150 million Euro/year in the Danish electric power system in 2025 assuming that 15% of the Danish road transport need is supplied by electricity....... This paper analyse the potential for using EVs in Denmark and identify the benefits of the electric power system with high wind power generation by intelligent charging of the EVs. Based on the analysis important technology gabs are identified, and the corresponding research and development initiatives...

  2. Planning and Resource Management in an Intelligent Automated Power Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Power system management is a process of guiding a power system towards the objective of continuous supply of electrical power to a set of loads. Spacecraft power system management requires planning and scheduling, since electrical power is a scarce resource in space. The automation of power system management for future spacecraft has been recognized as an important R&D goal. Several automation technologies have emerged including the use of expert systems for automating human problem solving capabilities such as rule based expert system for fault diagnosis and load scheduling. It is questionable whether current generation expert system technology is applicable for power system management in space. The objective of the ADEPTS (ADvanced Electrical Power management Techniques for Space systems) is to study new techniques for power management automation. These techniques involve integrating current expert system technology with that of parallel and distributed computing, as well as a distributed, object-oriented approach to software design. The focus of the current study is the integration of new procedures for automatically planning and scheduling loads with procedures for performing fault diagnosis and control. The objective is the concurrent execution of both sets of tasks on separate transputer processors, thus adding parallelism to the overall management process.

  3. A method and system for power management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchard, Arthur Tadeusz; Goossens, Koos Gerard Willen; Milutinovic, A.; Molnos, Anca Mariana; Steffens, Elisabeth Francisca Maria

    2009-01-01

    A method and system for power management is provided. To control power supplied to a second electronic device (106), an electronic system (100) comprises a power management subsystem (110), a first electronic device (102); The power management subsystem (110) monitors the power consumed by the first

  4. SP-100/Brayton power system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Use of closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion technology has been investigated for use with SP-100 reactors for space power systems. The CBC power conversion technology is being developed by Rockwell International under the Dynamic Isotype Power System (DIPS) and Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power system programs to provide highly efficient power conversion with radioisotype and solar collector heat sources. Characteristics including mass, radiator area, thermal power, and operating temperatures for systems utilizing SP-100 reactor and CBC power conversion technology were determined for systems in the 10-to 100-kWe power range. Possible SP-100 reactor/CBC power system configurations are presented. Advantages of CBC power conversion technology with regard to reactor thermal power, operating temperature, and development status are discussed

  5. Robust power system frequency control

    CERN Document Server

    Bevrani, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This updated edition of the industry standard reference on power system frequency control provides practical, systematic and flexible algorithms for regulating load frequency, offering new solutions to the technical challenges introduced by the escalating role of distributed generation and renewable energy sources in smart electric grids. The author emphasizes the physical constraints and practical engineering issues related to frequency in a deregulated environment, while fostering a conceptual understanding of frequency regulation and robust control techniques. The resulting control strategi

  6. NUCLEAR THERMIONIC SPACE POWER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, R. C.; Rasor, N. S.

    1963-03-15

    The various concepts for utilizing thermionic conversion in space reactor power plants are described and evaluated. The problems (and progress toward their solution) of the in-core concept, particularly, are considered. Progress in thermionic conversion technology is then reviewed from both the hardware and research points of view. Anticipated progress in thermionic conversion and the possible consequences for the performance of electrical propulsion systems are summarized. 46 references. (D.C.W.)

  7. Dynamic Isotope Power System: technology verification phase, program plan, 1 October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The technology verification phase program plan of the Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) project is presented. DIPS is a project to develop a 0.5 to 2.0 kW power system for spacecraft using an isotope heat source and a closed-cycle Rankine power-system with an organic working fluid. The technology verification phase's purposes are to increase the system efficiency to over 18%, to demonstrate system reliability, and to provide an estimate for flight test scheduling. Progress toward these goals is reported

  8. Selectivity of power system protections at power swings in power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Machowski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses out-of-step protection systems such as: generator pole slip protections, out of step tripping protections, distance protections of step-up transformer, distance protections of transmission lines and transformers, power swing blocking, and special out-of-step protection. It is shown that all these protections make up a protection system, to which a setting concept uniform for the entire power system has to be applied. If a power system is inappropriately equipped with these protections, or their settings are inappropriate, they may operate unselectively, thus contributing to the development of power system blackouts. In the paper the concepts for a real power system are given for the two stages: target stage fully compliant with selectivity criteria, and transitional stage between the current and target stages.

  9. Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems Segmented Thermoelectric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat, Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Flight times are long; - Need power systems with >15 years life. Mass is at an absolute premium; - Need power systems with high specific power and scalability. 3 orders of magnitude reduction in solar irradiance from Earth to Pluto. Nuclear power sources preferable. The Overall objective is to develop low mass, high efficiency, low-cost Advanced Radioisotope Power System with double the Specific Power and Efficiency over state-of-the-art Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs).

  10. Electrical power systems for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Major challenges in power system development are described. Evolutionary growth, operational lifetime, and other design requirements are discussed. A pictorial view of weight-optimized power system applications shows which systems are best for missions of various lengths and required power level. Following definition of the major elements of the electrical power system, an overview of element options and a brief technology assessment are presented. Selected trade-study results show end-to-end system efficiencies, required photovoltaic power capability as a function of energy storage system efficiency, and comparisons with other systems such as a solar dynamic power system.

  11. Instrumentation for Power System Disturbance Monitoring, Data ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the level of instrumentation for power system disturbance monitoring, data acquisition and control in Nigerian Electric Power System; National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) is presented. The need for accurate power system disturbance monitoring is highlighted. A feature of an adequate monitoring, data ...

  12. Contributions of microgravity test results to the design of spacecraft fire-safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments conducted in spacecraft and drop towers show that thin-sheet materials have reduced flammability ranges and flame-spread rates under quiescent low-gravity environments (microgravity) compared to normal gravity. Furthermore, low-gravity flames may be suppressed more easily by atmospheric dilution or decreasing atmospheric total pressure than their normal-gravity counterparts. The addition of a ventilating air flow to the low-gravity flame zone, however, can greatly enhance the flammability range and flame spread. These results, along with observations of flame and smoke characteristics useful for microgravity fire-detection 'signatures', promise to be of considerable value to spacecraft fire-safety designs. The paper summarizes the fire detection and suppression techniques proposed for the Space Station Freedom and discusses both the application of low-gravity combustion knowledge to improve fire protection and the critical needs for further research.

  13. Contributions of Microgravity Test Results to the Design of Spacecraft Fire Safety Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments conducted in spacecraft and drop towers show that thin-sheet materials have reduced flammability ranges and flame-spread rates under quiescent low-gravity environments (microgravity) as compared to normal gravity. Furthermore, low-gravity flames may be suppressed more easily by atmospheric dilution or decreasing atmospheric total pressure than their normal-gravity counterparts. The addition of a ventilating air flow to the low-gravity flame zone, however, can greatly enhance the flammability range and flame spread. These results, along with observations of flame and smoke characteristics useful for microgravity fire-detection 'signatures', promise to be of considerable value to spacecraft fire-safety designs. The paper summarizes the fire detection and suppression techniques proposed for the Space Station Freedom and discusses both the application of low-gravity combustion knowledge to improve fire protection and the critical needs for further research.

  14. Lunar power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified

  15. MEMS Rotary Engine Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Pisano, Albert P.; Fu, Kelvin; Walther, David C.; Knobloch, Aaron; Martinez, Fabian; Senesky, Matt; Stoldt, Conrad; Maboudian, Roya; Sanders, Seth; Liepmann, Dorian

    This work presents a project overview and recent research results for the MEMS Rotary Engine Power System project at the Berkeley Sensor & Actuator Center of the University of California at Berkeley. The research motivation for the project is the high specific energy density of hydrocarbon fuels. When compared with the energy density of batteries, hydrocarbon fuels may have as much as 20x more energy. However, the technical challenge is the conversion of hydrocarbon fuel to electricity in an efficient and clean micro engine. A 12.9 mm diameter Wankel engine will be shown that has already generated 4 Watts of power at 9300rpm. In addition, the 1mm and 2.4 mm Wankel engines that BSAC is developing for power generation at the microscale will be discussed. The project goal is to develop electrical power output of 90milliwatts from the 2.4 mm engine. Prototype engine components have already been fabricated and these will be described. The integrated generator design concept utilizes a nickel-iron alloy electroplated in the engine rotor poles, so that the engine rotor also serves as the generator rotor.

  16. Development of Star Tracker System for Accurate Estimation of Spacecraft Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    For a high- cost spacecraft with accurate pointing requirements, the use of a star tracker is the preferred method for attitude determination. The...solutions, however there are certain costs with using this algorithm. There are significantly more features a triangle can provide when compared to an...to the other. The non-rotating geocentric equatorial frame provides an inertial frame for the two-body problem of a satellite in orbit. In this

  17. SyZyGy: A straight interferometric spacecraft system for gravity wave observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.; Tinto, Massimo; Folkner, William

    2003-01-01

    We consider a spaceborne gravitational wave (GW) detector formed by three spacecraft in a linear array, coherently exchanging laser beams and using the data combinations of time-delay interferometry (TDI). We previously showed how the measured time series of Doppler shifts in the six one-way laser links between spacecraft pairs in a general unequal-arm triangular configuration can be combined, using TDI, to exactly cancel the otherwise overwhelming phase noise of the lasers while retaining sensitivity to GWs. Here we apply TDI, unfolding the general triangular configuration, to the special case of a linear array of three spacecraft. We show that such an array ('SyZyGy') has, compared with an equilateral triangle GW detector of the same scale, a degraded (but non-zero) sensitivity at low frequencies [f -4 -10 -1 Hz). SyZyGy with ∼1 light-second scale could, for the same instrumental assumptions as LISA, make observations in this intermediate frequency GW band with 5σ sensitivity to sinusoidal waves ≅2.5x10 -23 in a year's integration

  18. MIDN: A spacecraft Micro-dosimeter mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisacane, V. L.; Ziegler, J. F.; Nelson, M. E.; Caylor, M.; Flake, D.; Heyen, L.; Youngborg, E.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cucinotta, F.; Zaider, M.; Dicello, J. F.

    2006-01-01

    MIDN (Micro-dosimetry instrument) is a payload on the MidSTAR-I spacecraft (Midshipman Space Technology Applications Research) under development at the United States Naval Academy. MIDN is a solid-state system being designed and constructed to measure Micro-dosimetric spectra to determine radiation quality factors for space environments. Radiation is a critical threat to the health of astronauts and to the success of missions in low-Earth orbit and space exploration. The system will consist of three separate sensors, one external to the spacecraft, one internal and one embedded in polyethylene. Design goals are mass <3 kg and power <2 W. The MidSTAR-I mission in 2006 will provide an opportunity to evaluate a preliminary version of this system. Its low power and mass makes it useful for the International Space Station and manned and unmanned interplanetary missions as a real-time system to assess and alert astronauts to enhanced radiation environments. (authors)

  19. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  20. Review of Power System Stability with High Wind Power Penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Rui; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    analyzing methods and stability improvement approaches. With increasing wind power penetration, system balancing and the reduced inertia may cause a big threaten for stable operation of power systems. To mitigate or eliminate the wind impacts for high wind penetration systems, although the practical......This paper presents an overview of researches on power system stability with high wind power penetration including analyzing methods and improvement approaches. Power system stability issues can be classified diversely according to different considerations. Each classified issue has special...... and reliable choices currently are the strong outside connections or sufficient reserve capacity constructions, many novel theories and approaches are invented to investigate the stability issues, looking forward to an extra-high penetration or totally renewable resource based power systems. These analyzing...

  1. Adaptive Modeling of the International Space Station Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin Ray

    2007-01-01

    Software simulations provide NASA engineers the ability to experiment with spacecraft systems in a computer-imitated environment. Engineers currently develop software models that encapsulate spacecraft system behavior. These models can be inaccurate due to invalid assumptions, erroneous operation, or system evolution. Increasing accuracy requires manual calibration and domain-specific knowledge. This thesis presents a method for automatically learning system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques are applied to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). We also explore a knowledge fusion approach that uses traditional engineered EPS models to supplement the learned models. We observed that these engineered EPS models provide useful background knowledge to reduce predictive error spikes when confronted with making predictions in situations that are quite different from the training scenarios used when learning the model. Evaluations using ISS sensor data and existing EPS models demonstrate the success of the adaptive approach. Our experimental results show that adaptive modeling provides reductions in model error anywhere from 80% to 96% over these existing models. Final discussions include impending use of adaptive modeling technology for ISS mission operations and the need for adaptive modeling in future NASA lunar and Martian exploration.

  2. A bimodal power and propulsion system based on cermet fuel and heat pipe energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polansky, G.F.; Gunther, N.A.; Rochow, R.F.; Bixler, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    Bimodal space reactor systems provide both thermal propulsion for the spacecraft orbital transfer and electrical power to the spacecraft bus once it is on station. These systems have the potential to increase both the available payload in high energy orbits and the available power to that payload. These increased mass and power capabilities can be used to either reduce mission cost by permitting the use of smaller launch vehicles or to provide increased mission performance from the current launch vehicle. A major barrier to the deployment of these bimodal systems has been the cost associated with their development. This paper describes a bimodal reactor system with performance potential to permit more than 70% of the instrumented payload of the Titan IV/Centaur to be launched from the Atlas IIAS. The development cost is minimized by basing the design on existing component technologies

  3. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  4. System and method for advanced power management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Albuquerque, NM; Symons, Philip C [Surprise, AZ; Butler, Paul C [Albuquerque, NM; Corey, Garth P [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-07-28

    A power management system is provided that includes a power supply means comprising a plurality of power supply strings, a testing means operably connected to said plurality of power supply strings for evaluating performance characteristics of said plurality of power supply strings, and a control means for monitoring power requirements and comprising a switching means for controlling switching of said plurality of power supply strings to said testing means.

  5. Wind power variability and power system reserves in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2017-01-01

    Variable renewable generation, primarily from wind and solar, introduces new uncertainties in the operation of power systems. This paper describes and applies a method to quantify how wind power development will affect the use of short-term automatic reserves in the future South African power sys...

  6. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2018-01-01

    Power density, efficiency, cost, and reliability are the major challenges when designing a power electronic system. Latest advancements in power semiconductor devices (e.g., silicon carbide devices) and topological innovations have vital contributions to power density and efficiency. Nevertheless......, dedicated heat sink systems for thermal management are required to dissipate the power losses in power electronic systems; otherwise, the power devices will be heated up and eventually fail to operate. In addition, in many mission critical applications (e.g., marine systems), the operating condition (i...

  7. Manifold dynamics in the Earth-Moon system via isomorphic mapping with application to spacecraft end-of-life strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontani, Mauro; Giancotti, Marco; Teofilatto, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    Recently, manifold dynamics has assumed an increasing relevance for analysis and design of low-energy missions, both in the Earth-Moon system and in alternative multibody environments. With regard to lunar missions, exterior and interior transfers, based on the transit through the regions where the collinear libration points L1 and L2 are located, have been studied for a long time and some space missions have already taken advantage of the results of these studies. This paper is focused on the definition and use of a special isomorphic mapping for low-energy mission analysis. A convenient set of cylindrical coordinates is employed to describe the spacecraft dynamics (i.e. position and velocity), in the context of the circular restricted three-body problem, used to model the spacecraft motion in the Earth-Moon system. This isomorphic mapping of trajectories allows the identification and intuitive representation of periodic orbits and of the related invariant manifolds, which correspond to tubes that emanate from the curve associated with the periodic orbit. Heteroclinic connections, i.e. the trajectories that belong to both the stable and the unstable manifolds of two distinct periodic orbits, can be easily detected by means of this representation. This paper illustrates the use of isomorphic mapping for finding (a) periodic orbits, (b) heteroclinic connections between trajectories emanating from two Lyapunov orbits, the first at L1, and the second at L2, and (c) heteroclinic connections between trajectories emanating from the Lyapunov orbit at L1 and from a particular unstable lunar orbit. Heteroclinic trajectories are asymptotic trajectories that travels at zero-propellant cost. In practical situations, a modest delta-v budget is required to perform transfers along the manifolds. This circumstance implies the possibility of performing complex missions, by combining different types of trajectory arcs belonging to the manifolds. This work studies also the possible

  8. Dynamic Influences of Wind Power on The Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosas, Pedro Andrè Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    between different wind turbines.Here the wind speed model is applied to a constant rotational speed wind turbine/farm, but the model is suit-able to variable speed wind turbine/farm as well. The cases presented here illustrate the influences of the wind power on the power systemquality and stability...... integration due to the low spatial correlation of the wind speed. The voltage quality analysed in a Brazilian power system and in the Nordel power system from connecting largeamount of wind power showed very small voltage variations. The frequency variations analysed from the Nordel showed also small varia...

  9. Power quality in power systems and electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Ewald

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this must-have reference covers power quality issues in four parts, including new discussions related to renewable energy systems. The first part of the book provides background on causes, effects, standards, and measurements of power quality and harmonics. Once the basics are established the authors move on to harmonic modeling of power systems, including components and apparatus (electric machines). The final part of the book is devoted to power quality mitigation approaches and devices, and the fourth part extends the analysis to power quality solutions for renewable

  10. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...

  11. PEAC: A Power-Efficient Adaptive Computing Technology for Enabling Swarm of Small Spacecraft and Deployable Mini-Payloads

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This task is to develop and demonstrate a path-to-flight and power-adaptive avionics technology PEAC (Power Efficient Adaptive Computing). PEAC will enable emerging...

  12. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  13. Thermal analysis of hybrid single-phase, two-phase and heat pump thermal control system (TCS) for future spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Mudawar, I.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid Thermal Control System (H-TCS) is proposed for future spacecraft. • Thermodynamic performance of H-TCS is examined for different space missions. • Operational modes including single-phase, two-phase and heat pump are explored. • R134a is deemed most appropriate working fluid. - Abstract: An urgent need presently exists to develop a new class of versatile spacecraft capable of conducting different types of missions and enduring varying gravitational and temperature environments, including Lunar, Martian and Near Earth Object (NEOs). This study concerns the spacecraft's Thermal Control System (TCS), which tackles heat acquisition, especially from crew and avionics, heat transport, and ultimate heat rejection by radiation. The primary goal of the study is to explore the design and thermal performance of a Hybrid Thermal Control System (H-TCS) that would satisfy the diverse thermal requirements of the different space missions. The H-TCS must endure both ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ environments, reduce weight and size, and enhance thermodynamic performance. Four different operational modes are considered: single-phase, two-phase, basic heat pump and heat pump with liquid-side, suction-side heat exchanger. A thermodynamic trade study is conducted for six different working fluids to assess important performance parameters including mass flow rate of the working fluid, maximum pressure, radiator area, compressor/pump work, and coefficient of performance (COP). R134a is determined to be most suitable based on its ability to provide a balanced compromise between reducing flow rate and maintaining low system pressure, and a moderate coefficient of performance (COP); this fluid is also both nontoxic and nonflammable, and features zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) and low global warming potential (GWP). It is shown how specific mission stages dictate which mode of operation is most suitable, and this information is used to size the radiator for the

  14. Modelling of electrical power systems for power flow analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The industry systems in Brazil are responsible for a consumption of over 50% (fifty per cent) of the total electrical power generated: therefore, they are import loads in power flow studies, and their modeling should be as much the best. Usually, in power flow studies, the industry systems are modeled by taking the influence of the power (active and reactive) and of the current on the voltage into account. Since the inducting motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversize, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristic of power on shaft versus voltage into account. Since the induction motors, within the industry systems, represent at least 50% (fifty per cent) of the power consumption, and a large part of them is oversized, it is proposed to represent the industry systems as a function of the characteristics of power on shaft versus voltage for the analysis of power systems, aiming a load flow study. Thereafter, a model of an equivalent motor which has a basis the typical performance curve of an induction motor is present. This model is obtained from empirical parameters, surveyed from a population of over 1000 motors. (author) 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  15. Hydrocarbon-Seeded Ignition System for Small Spacecraft Thrusters Using Ionic Liquid Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.; Merkley, Daniel P.; Eilers, Shannon D.; Taylor, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    "Green" propellants based on Ionic-liquids (ILs) like Ammonium DiNitramide and Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate have recently been developed as reduced-hazard replacements for hydrazine. Compared to hydrazine, ILs offer up to a 50% improvement in available density-specific impulse. These materials present minimal vapor hazard at room temperature, and this property makes IL's potentially advantageous for "ride-share" launch opportunities where hazards introduced by hydrazine servicing are cost-prohibitive. Even though ILs present a reduced hazard compared to hydrazine, in crystalline form they are potentially explosive and are mixed in aqueous solutions to buffer against explosion. Unfortunately, the high water content makes IL-propellants difficult to ignite and currently a reliable "coldstart" capability does not exist. For reliable ignition, IL-propellants catalyst beds must be pre-heated to greater than 350 C before firing. The required preheat power source is substantial and presents a significant disadvantage for SmallSats where power budgets are extremely limited. Design and development of a "micro-hybrid" igniter designed to act as a "drop-in" replacement for existing IL catalyst beds is presented. The design requires significantly lower input energy and offers a smaller overall form factor. Unlike single-use "squib" pyrotechnic igniters, the system allows the gas generation cycle to be terminated and reinitiated on demand.

  16. Mitigation of Power System Oscillation Caused by Wind Power Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Chi; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    oscillation mitigation controllers are proposed and compared. A model of direct-drive-full-convertor-based wind farm connected to the IEEE 10-machine 39-bus system is adopted as the test system. The calculations and simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT PowerFactory 14.0. Results are presented to show......Wind power is increasingly integrated in modern power grids, which brings new challenges to the power system operation. Wind power is fluctuating because of the uncertain nature of wind, whereas wind shear and tower shadow effects also cause periodic fluctuations. These may lead to serious forced...... oscillation when the frequencies of the periodic fluctuations are close to the natural oscillation frequencies of the connected power system. By using modal analysis and time-domain simulations, this study studies the forced oscillation caused by the wind shear and tower shadow effects. Three forced...

  17. Solar-powered cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2015-07-28

    A solar-powered adsorption-desorption refrigeration and air conditioning system that uses nanostructural materials such as aerogels, zeolites, and sol gels as the adsorptive media. Refrigerant molecules are adsorbed on the high surface area of the nanostructural material while the material is at a relatively low temperature, perhaps at night. During daylight hours, when the nanostructural materials is heated by the sun, the refrigerant are thermally desorbed from the surface of the aerogel, thereby creating a pressurized gas phase in the vessel that contains the aerogel. This solar-driven pressurization forces the heated gaseous refrigerant through a condenser, followed by an expansion valve. In the condenser, heat is removed from the refrigerant, first by circulating air or water. Eventually, the cooled gaseous refrigerant expands isenthalpically through a throttle valve into an evaporator, in a fashion similar to that in more conventional vapor recompression systems.

  18. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  19. Passive radiative cooling of a HTS coil for attitude orbit control in micro-spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamori, Takaya; Ozaki, Naoya; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes a novel radiative cooling system for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil for an attitude orbit control system in nano- and micro-spacecraft missions. These days, nano-spacecraft (1-10 kg) and micro-spacecraft (10-100 kg) provide space access to a broader range of spacecraft developers and attract interest as space development applications. In planetary and high earth orbits, most previous standard-size spacecraft used thrusters for their attitude and orbit control, which are not available for nano- and micro-spacecraft missions because of the strict power consumption, space, and weight constraints. This paper considers orbit and attitude control methods that use a superconducting coil, which interacts with on-orbit space plasmas and creates a propulsion force. Because these spacecraft cannot use an active cooling system for the superconducting coil because of their mass and power consumption constraints, this paper proposes the utilization of a passive radiative cooling system, in which the superconducting coil is thermally connected to the 3 K cosmic background radiation of deep space, insulated from the heat generation using magnetic holders, and shielded from the sun. With this proposed cooling system, the HTS coil is cooled to 60 K in interplanetary orbits. Because the system does not use refrigerators for its cooling system, the spacecraft can achieve an HTS coil with low power consumption, small mass, and low cost.

  20. Nuclear power systems: Their safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.C.

    1993-01-01

    Mankind utilizes energy in many forms and from a variety of sources. Canada is one of a growing number of countries which have chosen to embrace nuclear-electric generation as a component of their energy systems. As of August 1992 there were 433 power reactors operating in 35 countries and accounting for more than 15% of the world's production of electricity. In 1992, thirteen countries derived at least 25% of their electricity from nuclear units, with France leading at nearly 70%. In the same year, Canada produced about 16% of its electricity from nuclear units. Some 68 power reactors are under construction in 16 countries, enough to expand present generating capacity by close to 20%. No human endeavour carries the guarantee of perfect safety and the question of whether or not nuclear-electric generation represents an 'acceptable' risk to society has long been vigorously debated. Until the events of late April 1986, nuclear safety had indeed been an issue for discussion, for some concern, but not for alarm. The accident at the Chernobyl reactor in the USSR has irrevocably changed all that. This disaster brought the matter of nuclear safety back into the public mind in a dramatic fashion. This paper discusses the issue of safety in complex energy systems and provides brief accounts of some of the most serious reactor accidents which have occurred to date. (author). 7 refs

  1. Nuclear excited power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.Z.; Cox, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A power generation system is described, comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing helium through the reactor, the helium being excited and forming alpha particles by high frequency radiation from the core of the gaseous core nuclear reactor; a reaction chamber; means for coupling chlorine and hydrogen to the reaction chamber, the helium and alpha particles energizing the chlorine and hydrogen to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for coupling the helium back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor; and means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, to be coupled back to the reaction chamber in a closed loop. The patent also describes a power generation system comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing hydrogen through the reactor, the hydrogen being excited by high frequency radiation from the core; means for coupling chlorine to a reaction chamber, the hydrogen energizing the chlorine in the chamber to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, and means for coupling the hydrogen back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor in a closed loop

  2. Standardized spacecraft: a methodology for decision making. AMS report No. 1199

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, J.S.; Nichols, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    As the space program matures, more and more attention is being focused on ways to reduce the costs of performing space missions. Standardization has been suggested as a way of providing cost reductions. The question of standardization at the system level, in particular, the question of the desirability of spacecraft standardization for geocentric space missions is addressed. The spacecraft is considered to be a bus upon which mission oriented equipment, the payload, is mounted. Three basic questions are considered: (1) is spacecraft standardization economically desirable; (2) if spacecraft standardization is economically desirable, what standardized spacecraft configuration or mix of configurations and technologies should be developed; and (3) if standardized spacecraft are to be developed, what power levels should they be designed for. A methodology which has been developed and which is necessary to follow if the above questions are to be answered and informed decisions made relative to spacecraft standardization is described. To illustrate the decision making problems and the need for the developed methodology and the data requirements, typical standardized spacecraft have been considered. Both standardized solar and nuclear-powered spacecraft and mission specialized spacecraft have been conceptualized and performance and cost estimates have been made. These estimates are not considered to be of sufficient accuracy to allow decisions regarding spacecraft mix and power levels to be made at this time. The estimates are deemed of sufficient accuracy so as to demonstrate the desirability of spacecraft standardization and the methodology (as well as the need for the methodology) which is necessary to decide upon the best mix of standardized spacecraft and their design power levels. (U.S.)

  3. Nuclear reactor power supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    The redundant signals from the sensor assemblies measuring the process parameters of a nuclear reactor power supply are transmitted each in its turn to a protection system which operates to actuate the protection apparatus for signals indicating off-process conditions. Each sensor assembly includes a number of like sensors measuring the same parameters. The sets of process signals derived from the sensor assemblies are each in its turn transmitted from the protection system to the control system which impresses control signals on the reactor or its components to counteract the tendency for conditions to drift off-normal status requiring operation of the protection system. A parameter signal selector prevents a parameter signal which differs from the other parameter signals of the set by more than twice the allowable variation from passing to the control system. Test signals are periodically impressed by a test unit on a selected pair of a selection unit and control channels. This arrangement eliminates the possibility that a single component failure which may be spurious will cause an inadvertent trip of the reactor during test. (author)

  4. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The EPOXI flight mission has been testing a new commercial system, Splunk, which employs data mining techniques to organize and present spacecraft telemetry data in a high-level manner. By abstracting away data-source specific details, Splunk unifies arbitrary data formats into one uniform system. This not only reduces the time and effort for retrieving relevant data, but it also increases operational visibility by allowing a spacecraft team to correlate data across many different sources. Splunk's scalable architecture coupled with its graphing modules also provide a solid toolset for generating data visualizations and building real-time applications such as browser-based telemetry displays.

  5. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Maniyar

    2004-06-22

    The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

  6. Microencapsulated PCM slurries for heat transfer and energy storage in spacecraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, David P.; Mulligan, James C.; Bryant, Yvonne G.; Duncan, John L.; Gravely, Benjamin T.

    1992-01-01

    The technical feasibility for providing significantly enhanced heat transport and storage as well as improved thermal control has been investigated during several Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) programs for NASA, the United States Air Force (USAF), and the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) using microencapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) in both aqueous and nonaqueous two-component slurries. In the program for SDIO, novel two-component coolant fluids were prepared and successfully tested at both low (300 K) and intermediate temperatures (460 to 700 K). The two-component fluid slurries of microencapsulated PCMs included organic particles in aqueous and nonaqueous liquids, as well as microencapsulated metals that potentially could be carried by liquid metals or used as powdered heat sinks. Simulation and experimental studies showed that such active cooling systems could be designed and operated with enhancements of heat capacity that exceeded 10 times or 1000 percent that for the base fluid along with significant enhancement in the fluid's heat capacity. Furthermore, this enhancement provided essentially isothermal conditions throughout the pumped primary coolant fluid loop. The results suggest that together with much higher fluid thermal capacity, greater uniformity of temperature is achievable with such fluids, and that significant reductions in pumping power, system size, and system mass are also possible.

  7. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -link capacitance in power electronic converter systems; wind turbine systems; smart control strategies for improved reliability of power electronics system; lifetime modelling; power module lifetime test and state monitoring; tools for performance and reliability analysis of power electronics systems; fault...... for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of PECS at different levels of complexity. Drawing on the experience of an international team of experts, this book explores the reliability of PECS covering topics including an introduction to reliability engineering in power...... electronic converter systems; anomaly detection and remaining-life prediction for power electronics; reliability of DC-link capacitors in power electronic converters; reliability of power electronics packaging; modeling for life-time prediction of power semiconductor modules; minimization of DC...

  8. Power Electronics in Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe; Teodorescu, Remus

    2006-01-01

    the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...... electronics is changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. By that wind power is also getting an added value in the power system operation....

  9. Soft-Fault Detection Technologies Developed for Electrical Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center, partner universities, and defense contractors are working to develop intelligent power management and distribution (PMAD) technologies for future spacecraft and launch vehicles. The goals are to provide higher performance (efficiency, transient response, and stability), higher fault tolerance, and higher reliability through the application of digital control and communication technologies. It is also expected that these technologies will eventually reduce the design, development, manufacturing, and integration costs for large, electrical power systems for space vehicles. The main focus of this research has been to incorporate digital control, communications, and intelligent algorithms into power electronic devices such as direct-current to direct-current (dc-dc) converters and protective switchgear. These technologies, in turn, will enable revolutionary changes in the way electrical power systems are designed, developed, configured, and integrated in aerospace vehicles and satellites. Initial successes in integrating modern, digital controllers have proven that transient response performance can be improved using advanced nonlinear control algorithms. One technology being developed includes the detection of "soft faults," those not typically covered by current systems in use today. Soft faults include arcing faults, corona discharge faults, and undetected leakage currents. Using digital control and advanced signal analysis algorithms, we have shown that it is possible to reliably detect arcing faults in high-voltage dc power distribution systems (see the preceding photograph). Another research effort has shown that low-level leakage faults and cable degradation can be detected by analyzing power system parameters over time. This additional fault detection capability will result in higher reliability for long-lived power systems such as reusable launch vehicles and space exploration missions.

  10. High Power laser power conditioning system new discharge circuit research

    CERN Document Server

    Li Yi; Peng Han Sheng; Zhou Pei Zhang; Zheng Wan Guo; Guo Lang Fu; Chen Li Hua; Chen De Hui; Lai Gui You; Luan Yong Ping

    2002-01-01

    The new discharge circuit of power conditioning system for high power laser is studied. The theoretical model of the main discharge circuit is established. The pre-ionization circuit is studied in experiment. In addition, the explosion energy of the new large xenon lamp is successfully measured. The conclusion has been applied to 4 x 2 amplifier system

  11. Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis Economic and Power System Modeling and Analysis technologies, their possible deployment scenarios, and the economic impacts of this deployment. As a research approaches used to estimate direct and indirect economic impacts of offshore renewable energy projects

  12. The Core Flight System (cFS) Community: Providing Low Cost Solutions for Small Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David; Wilmot, Jonathan; Cudmore, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In February 2015 the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) completed the open source release of the entire Core Flight Software (cFS) suite. After the open source release a multi-NASA center Configuration Control Board (CCB) was established that has managed multiple cFS product releases. The cFS was developed and is being maintained in compliance with the NASA Class B software development process requirements and the open source release includes all Class B artifacts. The cFS is currently running on three operational science spacecraft and is being used on multiple spacecraft and instrument development efforts. While the cFS itself is a viable flight software (FSW) solution, we have discovered that the cFS community is a continuous source of innovation and growth that provides products and tools that serve the entire FSW lifecycle and future mission needs. This paper summarizes the current state of the cFS community, the key FSW technologies being pursued, the development/verification tools and opportunities for the small satellite community to become engaged. The cFS is a proven high quality and cost-effective solution for small satellites with constrained budgets.

  13. In-orbit evaluation of the control system/structural mode interactions of the OSO-8 spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slafer, L. I.

    1979-01-01

    The Orbiting Solar Observatory-8 experienced severe structural mode/control loop interaction problems during the spacecraft development. Extensive analytical studies, using the hybrid coordinate modeling approach, and comprehensive ground testing were carried out in order to achieve the system's precision pointing performance requirements. A recent series of flight tests were conducted with the spacecraft in which a wide bandwidth, high resolution telemetry system was utilized to evaluate the on-orbit flexible dynamics characteristics of the vehicle along with the control system performance. The paper describes the results of these tests, reviewing the basic design problem, analytical approach taken, ground test philosophy, and on-orbit testing. Data from the tests was used to determine the primary mode frequency, damping, and servo coupling dynamics for the on-orbit condition. Additionally, the test results have verified analytically predicted differences between the on-orbit and ground test environments, and have led to a validation of both the analytical modeling and servo design techniques used during the development of the control system.

  14. A master system for power system fault phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Myung Ho; Jang, Sang Ho; Hong, Joon Hee; Min, Wan Ki; Yoo, Chang Hwan [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    This report includes as follows - Real time digital simulator - Remote measuring, analyzing and reproducing system of power system fault data -Power system reduction method program using EMTP -Test system for protection device. (author). 22 refs., 38 figs.

  15. Direct conversion of infrared radiant energy for space power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finke, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A proposed technology to convert the earth radiant energy (infrared albedo) for spacecraft power is presented. The resultant system would eliminate energy storage requirements and simplify the spacecraft design. The design and performance of a infrared rectenna is discussed.

  16. Performance analysis of a GPS Interferometric attitude determination system for a gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, John C.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of an unaided attitude determination system based on GPS interferometry is examined using linear covariance analysis. The modelled system includes four GPS antennae onboard a gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft, specifically the Air Force's RADCAL satellite. The principal error sources are identified and modelled. The optimal system's sensitivities to these error sources are examined through an error budget and by varying system parameters. The effects of two satellite selection algorithms, Geometric and Attitude Dilution of Precision (GDOP and ADOP, respectively) are examined. The attitude performance of two optimal-suboptimal filters is also presented. Based on this analysis, the limiting factors in attitude accuracy are the knowledge of the relative antenna locations, the electrical path lengths from the antennae to the receiver, and the multipath environment. The performance of the system is found to be fairly insensitive to torque errors, orbital inclination, and the two satellite geometry figures-of-merit tested.

  17. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  18. Nuclear plant requirements during power system restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamski, G.; Jenkins, R.; Gill, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is one of a series presented on behalf of the System Operation Subcommittee with the intent of focusing industry attention on power system restoration issues. This paper discusses a number of nuclear power plant requirements that require special attention during power system restoration

  19. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  20. Nova pulse power system description and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holloway, R.W.; Whitham, K.; Merritt, B.T.; Gritton, D.G.; Oicles, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Nova laser system is designed to produce critical data in the nation's inertial confinement fusion effort. It is the world's largest peak power laser and presents various unique pulse power problems. In this paper, pulse power systems for this laser are described, the evolutionary points from prior systems are pointed out, and the current status of the hardware is given

  1. Power Electronics Control of Wind Energy in Distributed Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  2. The Optimization of power reactor control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danupoyo, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    A power reactor is an important part in nuclear powered electrical plant systems. Success in controlling the power reactor will establish safety of the whole power plant systems. Until now, the power reactor has been controlled by a classical control system that was designed based on output feedback method. To meet the safety requirements that are now more restricted, the recently used power reactor control system should be modified. this paper describes a power reactor control system that is designed based on a state feedback method optimized with LQG (Linear-quadrature-gaussian) method and equipped with a state estimator. A pressurized-water type reactor has been used as the model. by using a point kinetics method with one group delayed neutrons. the result of simulation testing shows that the optimized control system can control the power reactor more effective and efficient than the classical control system

  3. Vehicle-to-Grid Power in Danish Electric Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems is often constrained by the variable nature of their output. This demands for the services of storing the electricity generated from most of the renewable energy sources. Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) power could use the inherent energy storage of electric...... vehicles and its quick response time to balance and stabilize a power system with fluctuating power. This paper outlines the use of battery electric vehicles in supporting large-scale integration of renewable energy in the Danish electric power systems. The reserve power requirements for a high renewable...... energy penetration could be met by an amount of V2G based electric vehicles less than 10% of the total vehicle need in Denmark. The participation of electric vehicle in ancillary services would earn significant revenues to the vehicle owner. The power balancing services of electric vehicles...

  4. Control of power plants and power systems. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canales-Ruiz, R.

    1996-01-01

    The 88 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the International Federation of Automatic Control Symposium held in Mexico in 1995. The broad areas which they cover are: self tuning control; power plant operations; dynamic stability; fuzzy logic applications; power plants modelling; artificial intelligence applications; power plants simulation; voltage control; control of hydro electric units; state estimation; fault diagnosis and monitoring systems; system expansion and operation planning; security assessment; economic dispatch and optimal load flow; adaptive control; distribution; transient stability and preventive control; modelling and control of nuclear plant; knowledge data bases for automatic learning methods applied to power system dynamic security assessment; control of combined cycle units; power control centres. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers relating to nuclear power plants. (UK)

  5. Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics technology has become the enabling technology for the integration of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) such as offshore wind turbine power systems and commercial photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the applications, a vast array of DPGS-based power converter...... topologies has been developed and more are coming into the market in order to achieve an efficient and reliable power conversion from the renewables. In addition, stringent demands from both the distribution system operators and the consumers have been imposed on the renewable-based DPGS. This article...... presents an overview of the power converters for the DPGS, mainly based on wind turbine systems and photovoltaic systems, covering a wide range of applications. Moreover, the modulation schemes and interfacing power filters for the power converters are also exemplified. Finally, the general control...

  6. Integrating wind power in the (French) power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellen, A.

    2007-03-01

    RTE and EDF have no other technological option than to restrain the contribution of the French wind power fleet to base-load generation where it comes in direct competition with the nuclear power plants. The author aims to explain this situation and answer the following questions. Why the fossil fueled reactor fleet in France will not be affected by an evolution of the wind power capacity? Why, in France electric power generation-demand SYSTEM wind power cannot be a substitute for fossil fueled thermal units? (A.L.B.)

  7. Internet Technology on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project has shown that Internet technology works in space missions through a demonstration using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. An Internet Protocol (IP) stack was installed on the orbiting UoSAT-12 spacecraft and tests were run to demonstrate Internet connectivity and measure performance. This also forms the basis for demonstrating subsequent scenarios. This approach provides capabilities heretofore either too expensive or simply not feasible such as reconfiguration on orbit. The OMNI project recognized the need to reduce the risk perceived by mission managers and did this with a multi-phase strategy. In the initial phase, the concepts were implemented in a prototype system that includes space similar components communicating over the TDRS (space network) and the terrestrial Internet. The demonstration system includes a simulated spacecraft with sample instruments. Over 25 demonstrations have been given to mission and project managers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), contractor technologists and other decisions makers, This initial phase reached a high point with an OMNI demonstration given from a booth at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Inspection Day 99 exhibition. The proof to mission managers is provided during this second phase with year 2000 accomplishments: testing the use of Internet technologies onboard an actual spacecraft. This was done with a series of tests performed using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. This spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 6 months! On board software was modified to add an IP stack to support basic IP communications. Also added was support for ping, traceroute and network timing protocol (NTP) tests. These tests show that basic Internet functionality can be used onboard spacecraft. The performance of data was measured to show no degradation from current

  8. Power Quality Improvements in Wind Diesel Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Feddaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of electricity using diesel is costly for small remote isolated communities. At remote location electricity generation from renewable energy such as wind can help reduce the overall operating costs by reducing the fuel costs. However, the penetration of wind power into small diesel-based grids is limited because of its effect on power quality and reliability. This paper focuses on the combination of Wind Turbine and Diesel Generator systems for sustained power generation, to improve the power quality of wind generation system. The performances of the optimal control structure are assessed and discussed by means of a set of simulations.

  9. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Campbell, D.J.

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project

  10. A passively controlled appendage deployment system for the San Marco D/L spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, W. E.; Frisch, H. P.; Schwartz, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The analytical simulation of deployment dynamics of these two axis concepts as well as the evolution of practical designs for the add on deployable inertia boom units is described. With the boom free to swing back in response to Coriolis forces as well as outwards in response to centrifugal forces, the kinematics of motion are complex but admit the possibility of absorbing deployment energy in frictional or other damping devices about the radial axis, where large amplitude motions can occur and where the design envelope allows more available volume. An acceptable range is defined for frictional damping for any given spin rate. Inadequate damping allows boom motions which strike the spacecraft; excessive damping causes the boom to swing out and latch with damaging violence. The acceptable range is a design parameter and must accommodate spin rate tolerance and also the tolerance and repeatability of the damping mechanisms.

  11. GPS synchronized power system phase angle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Sterlina, Patrick S.

    1994-09-01

    This paper discusses the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) synchronized equipment for the measurement and analysis of key power system quantities. Two GPS synchronized phasor measurement units (PMU) were installed before testing. It was indicated that PMUs recorded the dynamic response of the power system phase angles when the northern California power grid was excited by the artificial short circuits. Power system planning engineers perform detailed computer generated simulations of the dynamic response of the power system to naturally occurring short circuits. The computer simulations use models of transmission lines, transformers, circuit breakers, and other high voltage components. This work will compare computer simulations of the same event with field measurement.

  12. Computer-aided power systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kusic, George

    2008-01-01

    Computer applications yield more insight into system behavior than is possible by using hand calculations on system elements. Computer-Aided Power Systems Analysis: Second Edition is a state-of-the-art presentation of basic principles and software for power systems in steady-state operation. Originally published in 1985, this revised edition explores power systems from the point of view of the central control facility. It covers the elements of transmission networks, bus reference frame, network fault and contingency calculations, power flow on transmission networks, generator base power setti

  13. A Study on Sunward-propagating Alfvénic Fluctuations with a Power-law Spectrum (SAFP) Observed by the WIND Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Wu, H.; Tu, C. Y.; Wang, L.; He, J.; Tian, H.

    2017-12-01

    Sunward-propagating Alfvénic fluctuations with a power-law spectrum (SAFP) have been recently reported to be a significant physical phenomenon in the solar wind. However, some characteristics of these SAFPs are still unknown. Here we develop a new method for identifying SAFPs. In this method, we can identify all SAFPs with any value of θRB (angle between the global magnetic field and the radial direction). We find 508 SAFPs using the WIND spacecraft observation from 1995 to 2014. We also find that SAFP occurs more frequently when θRB equals 90°. The spectral index with an average -1.77 changes continuously from -2.18 for the parallel to -1.71 for the perpendicular. SAFPs occur more at the maximum and tend to be observed in the slow solar wind especially at solar minimum. We also apply the new method to identify anti-sunward-propagating Alfvénic fluctuations with a power-law spectrum (AFP) for comparison. The number of SAFPs is much less than AFPs, and the cases with local bending account for about half of all observed cases. SAFPs have a preference for negative σc and ASFs for positive. The statistical results demonstrate that SAFP has a steeper and weaker power spectrum and present a weaker power anisotropy than that of AFP. These new results may reveal new insight into the physical mechanism of the SAFP generation.

  14. Compensating active power imbalances in power system with large-scale wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale wind power penetration can affectthe supply continuity in the power system. This is a matterof high priority to investigate, as more regulating reservesand specified control strategies for generation control arerequired in the future power system with even more highwind power penetrat...

  15. Digital simulation of power electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehring, P.; Jentsch, W.; John, G.; Kraemer, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following paper contains the final report on the NETSIM-Project. The purpose of this project is to develop a special digital simulation system, which could serve as a base for routine application of simulation in planning and development of power electronic systems. The project is realized in two steps. First a basic network analysis system is established. With this system the basic models and methods in treating power electronic networks could be probed. The resulting system is then integrated into a general digital simulation system for continous systems (CSSL-System). This integrated simulation system allows for convenient modeling and simulation of power electronic systems. (orig.) [de

  16. Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2011-01-01

    A grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) power system is connected directly to the utility distribution grid. Facility power can be obtained from the utility system as normal. The PV system is synchronized with the utility system to provide power for the facility, and excess power is provided to the utility. Operating costs of a PV power system are low compared to conventional power technologies. This method can displace the highest-cost electricity during times of peak demand in most climatic regions, and thus reduce grid loading. Net metering is often used, in which independent power producers such as PV power systems are connected to the utility grid via the customers main service panels and meters. When the PV power system is generating more power than required at that location, the excess power is provided to the utility grid. The customer pays the net of the power purchased when the on-site power demand is greater than the onsite power production, and the excess power is returned to the utility grid. Power generated by the PV system reduces utility demand, and the surplus power aids the community. Modern PV panels are readily available, reliable, efficient, and economical, with a life expectancy of at least 25 years. Modern electronics have been the enabling technology behind grid-tied power systems, making them safe, reliable, efficient, and economical with a life expectancy equal to the modern PV panels. The grid-tied PV power system was successfully designed and developed, and this served to validate the basic principles developed, and the theoretical work that was performed. Grid-tied PV power systems are reliable, maintenance- free, long-life power systems, and are of significant value to NASA and the community. Of particular value are the analytical tools and capabilities that have been successfully developed. Performance predictions can be made confidently for grid-tied PV systems of various scales. The work was done under the NASA Hybrid Power Management (HPM

  17. Kilowatt isotope power system. Phase II plan. Volume I. Phase II program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) was begun in 1975 for the purpose of satisfying the power requirements of satellites in the 1980's. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 -fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system to provide a design output of 500 to 2000 W. Phase II of the overall 3-phase KIPS program is described. This volume presents a program plan for qualifying the organic Rankine power system for flight test in 1982. The program plan calls for the design and fabrication of the proposed flight power system; conducting a development and a qualification program including both environmental and endurance testing, using an electrical and a radioisotope heat source; planning for flight test and spacecraft integration; and continuing ground demonstration system testing to act as a flight system breadboard and to accumulate life data

  18. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical power to continue communicating with its remote sensing satellite. This paper deals with simulation and optimal sizing of earth station power system using HOMER software. A combination of two energy sources (solar, and wind to provide a continuous electric power production is used to determine the optimum system operation. Three system configurations are compared with respect to the total net present cost (NPC and levelized cost of energy (COE. Also, economical study will be analyzed for energy demand and sensitivity analysis will be performed.

  19. Analysis of Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) for Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard; Soeder, James F.; Beach, Ray

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project is developing a modular approach to spacecraft power systems for exploration beyond Earth orbit. AMPS is intended to meet the need of reducing the cost of design development, test and integration and also reducing the operational logistics cost of supporting exploration missions. AMPS seeks to establish modular power building blocks with standardized electrical, mechanical, thermal and data interfaces that can be applied across multiple exploration vehicles. The presentation discusses the results of a cost analysis that compares the cost of the modular approach against a traditional non-modular approach.

  20. Energy efficiency comparison between geothermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geothermal water which can be considered for generating electricity with the temperature ranging from 80℃ to 150℃ in China because of shortage of electricity and fossil energy. There are four basic types of geothermal power systems: single flash, double flash, binary cycle, and flash-binary system, which can be adapted to geothermal energy utilization in China. The paper discussed the performance indices and applicable conditions of different power system. Based on physical and mathematical models, simulation result shows that, when geofluid temperature ranges from 100℃ to 130℃, the net power output of double flash power is bigger than flash-binary system. When the geothermal resource temperature is between 130℃ and 150℃, the net power output of flash-binary geothermal power system is higher than double flash system by the maximum value 5.5%. However, the sum water steam amount of double flash power system is 2 to 3 times larger than flash-binary power system, which will cause the bigger volume of equipment of power system. Based on the economy and power capacity, it is better to use flash-binary power system when the geofluid temperature is between 100℃ and 150℃.

  1. Maximum Safety Regenerative Power Tracking for DC Traction Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guifu Du

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Direct current (DC traction power systems are widely used in metro transport systems, with running rails usually being used as return conductors. When traction current flows through the running rails, a potential voltage known as “rail potential” is generated between the rails and ground. Currently, abnormal rises of rail potential exist in many railway lines during the operation of railway systems. Excessively high rail potentials pose a threat to human life and to devices connected to the rails. In this paper, the effect of regenerative power distribution on rail potential is analyzed. Maximum safety regenerative power tracking is proposed for the control of maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption during the operation of DC traction power systems. The dwell time of multiple trains at each station and the trigger voltage of the regenerative energy absorbing device (READ are optimized based on an improved particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm to manage the distribution of regenerative power. In this way, the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption of DC traction power systems can be reduced. The operation data of Guangzhou Metro Line 2 are used in the simulations, and the results show that the scheme can reduce the maximum absolute rail potential and energy consumption effectively and guarantee the safety in energy saving of DC traction power systems.

  2. Integration of stochastic generation in power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Schavemaker, P.H.; Sluis, van der L.; Kling, W.L.; Kurowicka, D.; Cooke, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic generation, i.e., electrical power production by an uncontrolled primary energy source, is expected to play an important role in future power systems. A new power system structure is created due to the large-scale implementation of this small-scale, distributed, non-dispatchable

  3. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Spacecraft Lithium Ion Battery Micro-Cycling Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakermanji, George; Lee, Leonine; Spitzer, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) spacecraft was jointly developed by NASA and JAXA. It is a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft launched on February 27, 2014. The power system is a Direct Energy Transfer (DET) system designed to support 1950 watts orbit average power. The batteries use SONY 18650HC cells and consist of three 8s by 84p batteries operated in parallel as a single battery. During instrument integration with the spacecraft, large current transients were observed in the battery. Investigation into the matter traced the cause to the Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) phased array radar which generates cyclical high rate current transients on the spacecraft power bus. The power system electronics interaction with these transients resulted in the current transients in the battery. An accelerated test program was developed to bound the effect, and to assess the impact to the mission.

  4. Power processing systems for ion thrusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, B. G.; Garth, D. R.; Finke, R. C.; Shumaker, H. A.

    1972-01-01

    The proposed use of ion thrusters to fulfill various communication satellite propulsion functions such as east-west and north-south stationkeeping, attitude control, station relocation and orbit raising, naturally leads to the requirement for lightweight, efficient and reliable thruster power processing systems. Collectively, the propulsion requirements dictate a wide range of thruster power levels and operational lifetimes, which must be matched by the power processing. This paper will discuss the status of such power processing systems, present system design alternatives and project expected near future power system performance.

  5. Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) technology developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhaure, David B.; Bechtel, Robert; Hockney, Richard; Oglevie, Ron; Olszewski, Mitch

    1990-01-01

    Integrated Power and Attitude Control System (IPACS) studies performed over a decade ago established the feasibility of storing electrical energy in flywheels and utilizing the resulting angular momentum for spacecraft attitude control. Such a system has been shown to have numerous attractive features relative to more contemporary technology, and is appropriate to many applications (including high-performance slewing actuators). Technology advances over the last two decades in composite rotors, motor/generator/electronics, and magnetic bearings are found to support the use of IPACS for increasingly sophisticated applications. It is concluded that the concept offers potential performance advantages as well as savings in mass and life-cycle cost. Viewgraphs and discussion on IPACS are included.

  6. Self-Oscillating Wireless Power Transfer Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tretyakov, Sergei A.; Simovski, Constantin R.; Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Ra'di, Younes

    2017-01-01

    Conventional wireless power transfer systems consist of a microwave power generator and transmitter located at one place and a microwave power receiver located at a distance. Here we show that wireless power transfer can be realized as a single distributed microwave generator with an over-the-air feedback, so that the microwave power is generated directly at the place where the energy needs to be delivered. We demonstrate that the use of this paradigm increases efficiency and dramatically red...

  7. Power electronics for renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss some of the most emerging renewable energy sources......, wind energy and photovoltaics, which by means of power electronics are changing from being minor energy sources to be acting as important power sources in the energy system....

  8. Optical Property Requirements for Glasses, Ceramics and Plastics in Spacecraft Window Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    This is a preliminary draft of a standard published by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) that is intended to provide uniform window optical design requirements in support of the development of human-rated spaceflight hardware. The material covered in this standard is based on data from extensive testing by the Advanced Sensing and Optical Measurement Branch at NASA Langley Research Center, and compiled into requirements format by the NASA JSC Structural Engineering Division. At the time of this initial document release, a broader technical community has not reviewed this standard. The technical content of this standard is primarily based on the Constellation Program Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Window Optical Properties Requirements, CxP 72407, Baseline. Unlike other optical requirements documents available for human rated spacecraft, this document includes requirements that ensure functionality for windows that contain glass/ceramic and/or plastic window substrate materials. These requirements were derived by measuring the optical properties of fused silica and aluminosilicate glass window assemblies and ensuring that the performance of any window assembly that includes a plastic pane or panes will meet the performance level of the all-glass assemblies. The resulting requirements are based upon the performance and parameter metrology testing of a variety of materials, including glass, transparent ceramics, acrylics, and polycarbonates. In general, these requirements are minimum specifications for each optical parameter in order to achieve the function specified for each functional category, A through D. Because acrylic materials perform at a higher level than polycarbonates in the optics regime, and CxP/Orion is planning to use acrylic in the Orion spacecraft, these requirements are based heavily on metrology from that material. As a result, two of the current Category D requirements for plastics are cited in

  9. Feasibility study of wireless power transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W. J., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Wireless microwave or laser energy transfers power from a manned earth-orbiting central station to unmanned astronomical substations. More efficient systems are required for the microwave power transmission.

  10. Power system with an integrated lubrication circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian D [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL; Algrain, Marcelo C [Peoria, IL; Johnson, Kris W [Washington, IL; Lane, William H [Chillicothe, IL

    2009-11-10

    A power system includes an engine having a first lubrication circuit and at least one auxiliary power unit having a second lubrication circuit. The first lubrication circuit is in fluid communication with the second lubrication circuit.

  11. Smart Power Supply for Battery-Powered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasowski, Michael J.; Greer, Lawrence; Prokop, Norman F.; Flatico, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    A power supply for battery-powered systems has been designed with an embedded controller that is capable of monitoring and maintaining batteries, charging hardware, while maintaining output power. The power supply is primarily designed for rovers and other remote science and engineering vehicles, but it can be used in any battery alone, or battery and charging source applications. The supply can function autonomously, or can be connected to a host processor through a serial communications link. It can be programmed a priori or on the fly to return current and voltage readings to a host. It has two output power busses: a constant 24-V direct current nominal bus, and a programmable bus for output from approximately 24 up to approximately 50 V. The programmable bus voltage level, and its output power limit, can be changed on the fly as well. The power supply also offers options to reduce the programmable bus to 24 V when the set power limit is reached, limiting output power in the case of a system fault detected in the system. The smart power supply is based on an embedded 8051-type single-chip microcontroller. This choice was made in that a credible progression to flight (radiation hard, high reliability) can be assumed as many 8051 processors or gate arrays capable of accepting 8051-type core presently exist and will continue to do so for some time. To solve the problem of centralized control, this innovation moves an embedded microcontroller to the power supply and assigns it the task of overseeing the operation and charging of the power supply assets. This embedded processor is connected to the application central processor via a serial data link such that the central processor can request updates of various parameters within the supply, such as battery current, bus voltage, remaining power in battery estimations, etc. This supply has a direct connection to the battery bus for common (quiescent) power application. Because components from multiple vendors may have

  12. Power system damping - Structural aspects of controlling active power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, O.

    1997-04-01

    Environmental and economical aspects make it difficult to build new power lines and to reinforce existing ones. The continued growth in demand for electric power must therefore to a great extent be met by increased loading of available lines. A consequence is that power system damping is reduced, leading to a risk of poorly damped power oscillations between the generators. This thesis proposes the use of controlled active loads to increase damping of such electro-mechanical oscillations. The focus is on structural aspects of controller interaction and of sensor and actuator placement. On-off control based on machine frequency in a single machine infinite bus system is analysed using energy function analysis and phase plane plots. An on-off controller with estimated machine frequency as input has been implemented. At a field test it damped oscillations of a 0.9 MW hydro power generator by controlling a 20kW load. The linear analysis uses two power system models with three and twenty-three machines respectively. Each damper has active power as output and local bus frequency or machine frequency as input. The power system simulator EUROSTAG is used both for generation of the linearized models and for time simulations. Measures of active power mode controllability and phase angle mode observability are obtained from the eigenvectors of the differential-algebraic models. The geographical variation in the network of these quantities is illustrated using the resemblance to bending modes of flexible mechanical structures. Eigenvalue sensitivities are used to determine suitable damper locations. A spring-mass equivalent to an inter-area mode provides analytical expressions, that together with the concept of impedance matching explain the structural behaviour of the power systems. For large gains this is investigated using root locus plots. 64 refs, 99 figs, 20 tabs

  13. Power System Overview for the Small RPS Centaur Flyby and the Mars Polar Hard Lander NASA COMPASS Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Radioisotope Power System Program Office (RPSPO) sponsored two studies lead by their mission analysis team. The studies were performed by NASA GRCs Collaborative Modeling for Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team. Typically a complete toplevel design reference mission (DRM) is performed assessing conceptual spacecraft design, launch mass, trajectory, science strategy and sub-system design such as, power, propulsion, structure and thermal.

  14. Power source system for nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: When using an external system power source and an exclusive power source in a power source circuit for supplying power to the coils of a nuclear fusion apparatus, to minimize the capacity of the exclusive power source and provide an economical power source circuit construction. Structure: In the initial stage of the power supply, rectifying means provided in individual blocks are connected in parallel on the AC side, and power is supplied to the coils of the nuclear fusion apparatus from an external system power source with the exclusive power source held in the disconnected state. Further, at an instant when the limit of permissible input is reached, the afore-mentioned parallel circuit consisting of rectifying means is disconnected, while at the same time the exclusive power source is connected to the input side of the rectifying means provided in a block corresponding to the exclusive power source side, thereby supplying power to the coils of the nuclear fusion apparatus from both the external system power source and exclusive power source. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Analysis of shadowing effects on MIR photovoltaic and solar dynamic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is currently working with RSC-Energia, the Russian Space Agency, and Allied Signal in developing a flight demonstration solar dynamic power system. This type of power system is dependent upon solar flux that is reflected and concentrated into a thermal storage system to provide the thermal energy input to a closed-cycle Brayton heat engine. The solar dynamic unit will be flown on the Russian Mir space station in anticipation of use on the International Space Station Alpha. By the time the power system is launched, the Mir will be a spatially complex configuration which will have, in addition to the three-gimbaled solar dynamic unit, eleven solar array wings that are either fixed or track the Sun along one axis and a variety or repositionable habitation and experiment modules. The proximity of arrays to modules creates a situation which makes it highly probable that there will be varying solar flux due to shadowing on the solar dynamic unit and some of the arrays throughout the orbit. Shadowing causes fluctuations in the power output from the arrays and the solar dynamic power system, thus reducing the energy capabilities of the spacecraft. An assessment of the capabilities of the power system under these conditions is an important part in influencing the design and operations of the spacecraft and predicting its energy performance. This paper describes the results obtained from using the Orbiting Spacecraft Shadowing Analysis Station program that was integrated into the Station Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation (SPACE) electrical power system computer program. OSSA allows one to consider the numerous complex factors for analyzing the shadowing effects on the electrical power system including the variety of spacecraft hardware geometric configurations, yearly and daily orbital variations in the vehicle attitude and orbital maneuvers (for communications coverage, payload pointing requirements and rendezvous/docking with other

  16. Keys to success for wind power in isolated power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J C; Lundsager, P; Bindner, H; Hansen, L; Frandsen, S [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    It is generally expected that wind power could contribute significantly to the electricity supply in power systems of small and medium sized isolated communities. The market for such applications of wind power has not yet materialized. Wind power in isolated power systems have the main market potentials in developing countries. The money available world-wide for this technological development is limited and the necessary R and D and pilot programmes have difficult conditions. Consequently, technology developed exclusively for developing countries rarely becomes attractive for consumers, investors and funding agencies. A Danish research project is aimed at studying development of methods and guidelines rather than `universal solutions` for the use of wind energy in isolated communities. This paper report on the findings of the project regarding barriers removal and engineering methods development, with a focus on analysis and specification of user demand and priorities, numerical modeling requirements as well as wind power impact on power quality and power system operation. Input will be provided on these subjects for establishing of common guidelines on relevant technical issues, and thereby enabling the making of trustworthy project preparation studies. (au) EFP-97. 12 refs.

  17. Performance verification and system parameter identification of spacecraft tape recorder control servo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A. K.

    1979-01-01

    Design adequacy of the lead-lag compensator of the frequency loop, accuracy checking of the analytical expression for the electrical motor transfer function, and performance evaluation of the speed control servo of the digital tape recorder used on-board the 1976 Viking Mars Orbiters and Voyager 1977 Jupiter-Saturn flyby spacecraft are analyzed. The transfer functions of the most important parts of a simplified frequency loop used for test simulation are described and ten simulation cases are reported. The first four of these cases illustrate the method of selecting the most suitable transfer function for the hysteresis synchronous motor, while the rest verify and determine the servo performance parameters and alternative servo compensation schemes. It is concluded that the linear methods provide a starting point for the final verification/refinement of servo design by nonlinear time response simulation and that the variation of the parameters of the static/dynamic Coulomb friction is as expected in a long-life space mission environment.

  18. Development of Low-Toxicity Wastewater Stabilization for Spacecraft Water Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Mitchell, Julie; Pickering, Karen; Carrier, Chris; Vega, Letty; Muirhead, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater stabilization was an essential component of the spacecraft water cycle. The purpose of stabilizing wastewater was two-fold. First, stabilization prevents the breakdown of urea into ammonia, a toxic gas at high concentrations. Second, it prevents the growth of microorganisms, thereby mitigating hardware and water quality issues due to due biofilm and planktonic growth. Current stabilization techniques involve oxidizers and strong acids (pH=2) such as chromic and sulfuric acid, which are highly toxic and pose a risk to crew health. The purpose of this effort was to explore less toxic stabilization techniques, such as food-grade and commercial care preservatives. Additionally, certain preservatives were tested in the presence of a low-toxicity organic acid. Triplicate 300-mL volumes of urine were dosed with a predetermined quantity of stabilizer and stored for two weeks. During that time, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), ammonia, and turbidity were monitored. Those preservatives that showed the lowest visible microbial growth and stable pH were further tested in a six-month stability study. The results of the six-month study are also included in this paper.

  19. Multiobjective clearing of reactive power market in deregulated power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiee, A.; Shayanfar, H.; Amjady, N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a day-ahead reactive power market which is cleared in the form of multiobjective context. Total payment function (TPF) of generators, representing the payment paid to the generators for their reactive power compensation, is considered as the main objective function of reactive power market. Besides that, voltage security margin, overload index, and also voltage drop index are the other objective functions of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem to clear the reactive power market. A Multiobjective Mathematical Programming (MMP) formulation is implemented to solve the problem of reactive power market clearing using a fuzzy approach to choose the best compromise solution according to the specific preference among various non-dominated (pareto optimal) solutions. The effectiveness of the proposed method is examined based on the IEEE 24-bus reliability test system (IEEE 24-bus RTS). (author)

  20. On energy efficient power allocation for power-constrained systems

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2014-09-01

    Recently, the energy efficiency (EE) has become an important factor when designing new wireless communication systems. Due to economic and environmental challenges, new trends and efforts are oriented toward “green” communication especially for energy-constrained applications such as wireless sensors network and cognitive radio. To this end, we analyze the power allocation scheme that maximizes the EE defined as rate over the total power including circuit power. We derive an explicit expression of the optimal power with instantaneous channel gain based on EE criterion. We show that the relation between the EE and the spectral efficiency (SE) when the optimal power is adopted is strictly increasing in contrast with the SE-EE trade-off discussed in the literature. We also solve a non-convex problem and compute explicitly the optimal power for ergodic EE under either a peak or an average power constraint. When the instantaneous channel is not available, we provide the optimal power equation and compute simple sub-optimal power. In the numerical results, we show that the sup-optimal solution is very close to the optimal solution. In addition, we show that the absence of the channel state information (CSI) only affects the EE and the SE performances at high power regime compared to the full CSI case.

  1. Innovative High Temperature Heat Pipes for Spacecraft Nuclear Fission Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA Glenn is examining small fission reactors for future space transportation and surface power applications. The reactors would have an 8 to 15 year design life...

  2. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Ribeiro, Paulo Márcio; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago

    2013-01-01

    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power and energy engineering systems, showing many different techniques applied to typical and expected system conditions with practical power system examples. Surveying all recent advances on DSP for power systems, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the current state of the art a

  3. SPS microwave subsystem potential impacts and benefits. [environmental and societal effects of Solar Power System construction and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the possible environmental and societal effects of the construction, installation, and operation of the space end and earth end of the microwave power transmission subsystem that delivers satellite power system (SPS) energy (at about 5 GW per beam) to the power grid on earth. The intervening propagation medium near the earth is also considered. Separate consideration is given to the spacecraft transmitting array, propagation in the ionosphere, and the ground-based rectenna. Radio frequency interference aspects are also discussed.

  4. Study of aircraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The formulation of a philosophy for devising a reliable, efficient, lightweight, and cost effective electrical power system for advanced, large transport aircraft in the 1980 to 1985 time period is discussed. The determination and recommendation for improvements in subsystems and components are also considered. All aspects of the aircraft electrical power system including generation, conversion, distribution, and utilization equipment were considered. Significant research and technology problem areas associated with the development of future power systems are identified. The design categories involved are: (1) safety-reliability, (2) power type, voltage, frequency, quality, and efficiency, (3) power control, and (4) selection of utilization equipment.

  5. Direct current power delivery system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Garces, Luis Jose; Dai, Jian; Lai, Rixin

    2016-09-06

    A power transmission system includes a first unit for carrying out the steps of receiving high voltage direct current (HVDC) power from an HVDC power line, generating an alternating current (AC) component indicative of a status of the first unit, and adding the AC component to the HVDC power line. Further, the power transmission system includes a second unit for carrying out the steps of generating a direct current (DC) voltage to transfer the HVDC power on the HVDC power line, wherein the HVDC power line is coupled between the first unit and the second unit, detecting a presence or an absence of the added AC component in the HVDC power line, and determining the status of the first unit based on the added AC component.

  6. PEP magnet power supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.T.

    1977-01-01

    The dc electrical requirements of the PEP magnets fall mainly into two categories: (1) high power and current of single polarity and (2) low-power bi-polar. The first category will be thyristor-chopper controlled off common 600 V dc busses. The second group will utilize continuously controlled push-pull transistor actuators

  7. Network, system, and status software enhancements for the autonomously managed electrical power system breadboard. Volume 2: Protocol specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckee, James W.

    1990-01-01

    This volume (2 of 4) contains the specification, structured flow charts, and code listing for the protocol. The purpose of an autonomous power system on a spacecraft is to relieve humans from having to continuously monitor and control the generation, storage, and distribution of power in the craft. This implies that algorithms will have been developed to monitor and control the power system. The power system will contain computers on which the algorithms run. There should be one control computer system that makes the high level decisions and sends commands to and receive data from the other distributed computers. This will require a communications network and an efficient protocol by which the computers will communicate. One of the major requirements on the protocol is that it be real time because of the need to control the power elements.

  8. Intelligent power system data management systems (DBMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, A.; Macdonald, E. [GE Digital Energy, Markham, ON (Canada); Schreiner, Z. [Intelligent Process Solutions GmbH, Lindau (Germany); Bizjak, J. [Elektro Ljubljana d.d., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-07-01

    Network owners/operators from around the world have moved from electromechanical products to intelligent electronic devices (IEDs). Most networks have a multi-generation technology mix because protection assets have a normal application lifespan of between 10 and 40 years. Associated data capture and maintenance management regimes have therefore moved from paper based into digitized media, creating a significant increase in the volume of acquired data, such that there is now a mix of paper and digitized storage. Data is rarely consolidated or used for decision making in asset management processes once testing is completed, having a major impact on overall power system reliability. This paper presented the concept of intelligent operative maintenance management, now becoming more recognized in the industry. The concept was described as the management of operational data, resulting actions and responses, wherever and by whoever they are needed, without any additional overhead. The paper discussed new techniques of testing as well as planning and operative maintenance. The practical benefits of the new system were also presented, with particular reference to central management; simplification of routine protocols; secondary testing; and reduced cost of data handling. It was concluded that the main benefit from all of the techniques discussed in this paper is that experienced expert test engineers can focus more time upon making good, critical decisions to ensure that utilities maximize their customer service and safety regimes. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  9. ADVANCED POWER SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert R. Jensen; Steven A. Benson; Jason D. Laumb

    2001-08-31

    The use of Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) modeling tools and improved analytical methods has provided key information in optimizing advanced power system design and operating conditions for efficiency, producing minimal air pollutant emissions and utilizing a wide range of fossil fuel properties. This project was divided into four tasks: the demonstration of the ash transformation model, upgrading spreadsheet tools, enhancements to analytical capabilities using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and improvements to the slag viscosity model. The ash transformation model, Atran, was used to predict the size and composition of ash particles, which has a major impact on the fate of the combustion system. To optimize Atran key factors such as mineral fragmentation and coalescence, the heterogeneous and homogeneous interaction of the organically associated elements must be considered as they are applied to the operating conditions. The resulting model's ash composition compares favorably to measured results. Enhancements to existing EERC spreadsheet application included upgrading interactive spreadsheets to calculate the thermodynamic properties for fuels, reactants, products, and steam with Newton Raphson algorithms to perform calculations on mass, energy, and elemental balances, isentropic expansion of steam, and gasifier equilibrium conditions. Derivative calculations can be performed to estimate fuel heating values, adiabatic flame temperatures, emission factors, comparative fuel costs, and per-unit carbon taxes from fuel analyses. Using state-of-the-art computer-controlled scanning electron microscopes and associated microanalysis systems, a method to determine viscosity using the incorporation of grey-scale binning acquired by the SEM image was developed. The image analysis capabilities of a backscattered electron image can be subdivided into various grey-scale ranges that can be analyzed separately. Since the grey scale's intensity

  10. Power system reliability analysis using fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkanovski, A.; Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    2006-01-01

    The power system reliability analysis method is developed from the aspect of reliable delivery of electrical energy to customers. The method is developed based on the fault tree analysis, which is widely applied in the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The method is adapted for the power system reliability analysis. The method is developed in a way that only the basic reliability parameters of the analysed power system are necessary as an input for the calculation of reliability indices of the system. The modeling and analysis was performed on an example power system consisting of eight substations. The results include the level of reliability of current power system configuration, the combinations of component failures resulting in a failed power delivery to loads, and the importance factors for components and subsystems. (author)

  11. Technology development for a Stirling radioisotope power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, Lanny G.; Qiu, Songgang; White, Maurice A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center and the Department of Energy are developing a Stirling convertor for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft on-board electric power for NASA deep space missions. NASA Glenn is addressing key technology issues through the use of two NASA Phase II SBIRs with Stirling Technology Company (STC) of Kennewick, WA. Under the first SBIR, STC demonstrated a synchronous connection of two thermodynamically independent free-piston Stirling convertors and a 40 to 50 fold reduction in vibrations compared to an unbalanced convertor. The second SBIR is for the development of an Adaptive Vibration Reduction System (AVRS) that will essentially eliminate vibrations over the mission lifetime, even in the unlikely event of a failed convertor. This paper presents the status and results for these two SBIR projects and also discusses a new NASA Glenn in-house project to provide supporting technology for the overall Stirling radioisotope power system development. Tasks for this new effort include convertor performance verification, controls development, heater head structural life assessment, magnet characterization and thermal aging tests, FEA analysis for a lightweight alternator concept, and demonstration of convertor operation under launch and orbit transfer load conditions

  12. Scheduling of Power System Cells Integrating Stochastic Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.M.

    2008-12-01

    Energy supply and climate change are nowadays two of the most outstanding problems which societies have to cope with under a context of increasing energy needs. Public awareness of these problems is driving political willingness to take actions for tackling them in a swift and efficient manner. Such actions mainly focus in increasing energy efficiency, in decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, and in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, power systems are undergoing important changes in the way they are planned and managed. On the one hand, vertically integrated structures are being replaced by market structures in which power systems are un-bundled. On the other, power systems that once relied on large power generation facilities are witnessing the end of these facilities' life-cycle and, consequently, their decommissioning. The role of distributed energy resources such as wind and solar power generators is becoming increasingly important in this context. However, the large-scale integration of such type of generation presents many challenges due, for instance, to the uncertainty associated to the variability of their production. Nevertheless, advanced forecasting tools may be combined with more controllable elements such as energy storage devices, gas turbines, and controllable loads to form systems that aim to reduce the impacts that may be caused by these uncertainties. This thesis addresses the management under market conditions of these types of systems that act like independent societies and which are herewith named power system cells. From the available literature, a unified view of power system scheduling problems is also proposed as a first step for managing sets of power system cells in a multi-cell management framework. Then, methodologies for performing the optimal day-ahead scheduling of single power system cells are proposed, discussed and evaluated under both a deterministic and a stochastic framework that directly integrates the

  13. Faults and Diagnosis Systems in Power Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Kyo-Beum; Choi, Uimin

    2014-01-01

    A power converter is needed in almost all kinds of renewable energy systems and drive systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and for interfacing with the load, which can be grid-connected or working in standalone mode. Further, it drives the motors efficiently. Increasing...... efforts have been put into making these systems better in terms of reliability in order to achieve high power source availability, reduce the cost of energy and also increase the reliability of overall systems. Among the components used in power converters, a power device and a capacitor fault occurs most...... frequently. Therefore, it is important to monitor the power device and capacitor fault to increase the reliability of power electronics. In this chapter, the diagnosis methods for power device fault will be discussed by dividing into open- and short-circuit faults. Then, the condition monitoring methods...

  14. Nuclear power project management information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Lailong; Zhang Peng; Xiao Ziyan; Chun Zengjun; Huang Futong

    2001-01-01

    Project Management Information System is an important infrastructure facility for the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Station. Based on the practice of Lingao nuclear power project management information system (NPMIS), the author describes the NPMIS design goals, system architecture and software functionality, points out the outline issues during the development and deployment of NPMIS

  15. Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O' Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    Flexibility of operation--the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply--is a characteristic of all power systems. Flexibility is especially prized in twenty-first century power systems, with higher levels of grid-connected variable renewable energy (primarily, wind and solar). This paper summarizes the analytic frameworks that have emerged to measure this characteristic and distills key principles of flexibility for policy makers.

  16. Handbook of co₂ in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rebennack, Steffen; Pardalos, Panos; Pereira, Mario; Iliadis, Niko

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of CO₂in Power Systems' objective is to include the state-of-the-art developments that occurred in power systems taking CO₂emission into account. The book includes power systems operation modeling with CO₂emissions considerations, CO₂market mechanism modeling, CO₂regulation policy modeling, carbon price forecasting, and carbon capture modeling. For each of the subjects, at least one article authored by a world specialist on the specific domain is included.

  17. DC power supplies power management and surge protection for power electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kularatna, Nihal

    2011-01-01

    Modern electronic systems, particularly portable consumer electronic systems and processor based systems, are power hungry, compact, and feature packed. This book presents the most essential summaries of the theory behind DC-DC converter topologies of both linear and switching types. The text discusses power supply characteristics and design specifications based on new developments in power management techniques and modern semiconductors entering into the portable electronics market. The author also addresses off-the-line power supplies, digital control of power supply, power supply protection

  18. Power line harmonic radiation observed by the DEMETER spacecraft at 50/60Hz and low harmonics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Němec, F.; Parrot, M.; Santolík, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 10 (2015), s. 8954-8967 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-31899S; GA MŠk LH12231 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : PLHR * power line harmonic radiation * DEMETER Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.318, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2015JA021682/full

  19. Artificial intelligence in power system optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ongsakul, Weerakorn

    2013-01-01

    With the considerable increase of AI applications, AI is being increasingly used to solve optimization problems in engineering. In the past two decades, the applications of artificial intelligence in power systems have attracted much research. This book covers the current level of applications of artificial intelligence to the optimization problems in power systems. This book serves as a textbook for graduate students in electric power system management and is also be useful for those who are interested in using artificial intelligence in power system optimization.

  20. Power system protection 1 principles and components

    CERN Document Server

    Association, Electricity Training

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  1. Neutral Beam Power System for TPX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, S.; Bowen, O.N.; O'Conner, T.; Edwards, J.; Fromm, N.; Hatcher, R.; Newman, R.; Rossi, G.; Stevenson, T.; von Halle, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will utilize to the maximum extent the existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) equipment and facilities. This is particularly true for the TFTR Neutral Beam (NB) system. Most of the NB hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, power systems, service infrastructure, and control systems can be used as is. The major changes in the NB hardware are driven by the new operating duty cycle. The TFTR Neutral Beam was designed for operation of the Sources for 2 seconds every 150 seconds. The TPX requires operation for 1000 seconds every 4500 seconds. During the Conceptual Design Phase of TPX every component of the TFTR NB Electrical Power System was analyzed to verify whether the equipment can meet the new operational requirements with our without modifications. The Power System converts 13.8 kV prime power to controlled pulsed power required at the NB sources. The major equipment involved are circuit breakers, auto and rectifier transformers surge suppression components, power tetrodes, HV Decks, and HVDC power transmission to sources. Thermal models were developed for the power transformers to simulate the new operational requirements. Heat runs were conducted for the power tetrodes to verify capability. Other components were analyzed to verify their thermal limitations. This paper describes the details of the evaluation and redesign of the electrical power system components to meet the TPX operational requirements

  2. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCamish, Shawn B

    2007-01-01

    This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems, including rendezvous...

  3. Acceptance test report: Backup power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    Acceptance Test Report for construction functional testing of Project W-030 Backup Power System. Project W-030 provides a ventilation upgrade for the four Aging Waste Facility tanks. Backup power includes a single 125 KW diesel generator, three 10-kva uninterruptible power supply units, and all necessary control

  4. Wind power systems. Applications of computational intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lingfeng [Toledo Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science; Singh, Chanan [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Electrical and Computer Engineering Dept.; Kusiak, Andrew (eds.) [Iowa Univ., Iowa City, IA (United States). Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Renewable energy sources such as wind power have attracted much attention because they are environmentally friendly, do not produce carbon dioxide and other emissions, and can enhance a nation's energy security. For example, recently more significant amounts of wind power are being integrated into conventional power grids. Therefore, it is necessary to address various important and challenging issues related to wind power systems, which are significantly different from the traditional generation systems. This book is a resource for engineers, practitioners, and decision-makers interested in studying or using the power of computational intelligence based algorithms in handling various important problems in wind power systems at the levels of power generation, transmission, and distribution. Researchers have been developing biologically-inspired algorithms in a wide variety of complex large-scale engineering domains. Distinguished from the traditional analytical methods, the new methods usually accomplish the task through their computationally efficient mechanisms. Computational intelligence methods such as evolutionary computation, neural networks, and fuzzy systems have attracted much attention in electric power systems. Meanwhile, modern electric power systems are becoming more and more complex in order to meet the growing electricity market. In particular, the grid complexity is continuously enhanced by the integration of intermittent wind power as well as the current restructuring efforts in electricity industry. Quite often, the traditional analytical methods become less efficient or even unable to handle this increased complexity. As a result, it is natural to apply computational intelligence as a powerful tool to deal with various important and pressing problems in the current wind power systems. This book presents the state-of-the-art development in the field of computational intelligence applied to wind power systems by reviewing the most up

  5. Safety requirements for a nuclear power plant electric power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, L F; Shinaishin, M A

    1988-06-15

    This work aims at identifying the safety requirements for the electric power system in a typical nuclear power plant, in view of the UNSRC and the IAEA. Description of a typical system is provided, followed by a presentation of the scope of the information required for safety evaluation of the system design and performance. The acceptance and design criteria that must be met as being specified by both regulatory systems, are compared. Means of implementation of such criteria as being described in the USNRC regulatory guides and branch technical positions on one hand and in the IAEA safety guides on the other hand are investigated. It is concluded that the IAEA regulations address the problems that may be faced with in countries having varying grid sizes ranging from large stable to small potentially unstable ones; and that they put emphasis on the onsite standby power supply. Also, in this respect the Americans identify the grid as the preferred power supply to the plant auxiliaries, while the IAEA leaves the possibility that the preferred power supply could be either the grid or the unit main generator depending on the reliability of each. Therefore, it is found that it is particularly necessary in this area of electric power supplies to deal with the IAEA and the American sets of regulations as if each complements and not supplements the other. (author)

  6. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu V.S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Power distribution systems are basic parts of power systems and reliability of these systems at present is a key issue for power engineering development and requires special attention. Operation of distribution systems is accompanied by a number of factors that produce random data a large number of unplanned interruptions. Research has shown that the predominant factors that have a significant influence on the reliability of distribution systems are: weather conditions (39.7%, defects in equipment(25% and unknown random factors (20.1%. In the article is studied the influence of random behavior and are presented estimations of reliability of predominantly rural electrical distribution systems.

  7. Power system SCADA and smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Mini S

    2015-01-01

    Power System SCADA and Smart Grids brings together in one concise volume the fundamentals and possible application functions of power system supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA). The text begins by providing an overview of SCADA systems, evolution, and use in power systems and the data acquisition process. It then describes the components of SCADA systems, from the legacy remote terminal units (RTUs) to the latest intelligent electronic devices (IEDs), data concentrators, and master stations, as well as:Examines the building and practical implementation of different SCADA systemsOf

  8. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  9. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible processing of electric power in the application of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, adjustable-speed drives, etc. More and more efforts are devoted to better power electronic systems in terms of reliability to ensure high......). A collection of methodologies based on Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile analysis are presented in this paper to perform reliability-oriented design of power electronic systems. The corresponding design procedures and reliability prediction models are provided. Further on, a case study...... on a 2.3 MW wind power converter is discussed with emphasis on the reliability critical components IGBTs. Different aspects of improving the reliability of the power converter are mapped. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to achieve more reliable power electronic systems are addressed....

  10. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional conventi......Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...

  11. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  12. HVDC transmission power conversion applications in power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Chan-Ki; Jang, Gil-Soo; Lim, Seong-Joo; Lee, Seok-Jin

    2009-01-01

    HVDC is a critical solution to several major problems encountered when trying to maintain systemic links and quality in large-scale renewable energy environments. HDVC can resolve a number of issues, including voltage stability of AC power networks, reducing fault current, and optimal management of electric power, ensuring the technology will play an increasingly important role in the electric power industry. To address the pressing need for an up-to-date and comprehensive treatment of the subject, Kim, Sood, Jang, Lim and Lee have collaborated to produce this key text and reference.  Combin

  13. Propulsion element requirements using electrical power system unscheduled power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Frank; Hodge, Kathy

    1989-01-01

    The suitability of using the electrical energy from the Space Station's Electrical Power System (EPS) during the periods of peak solar insolation which is currently not specifically allocated (unscheduled power) to produce propulsion propellants, gaseous hydrogen, and oxygen by electrolyzing water is investigated. Reboost propellant requirements are emphasized, but the results are more generally relevant because the balance of recurring propellant requirements are an order of magnitude smaller and the nonrecurring requirements are not significant on an average basis.

  14. Hybrid power filter for advanced power quality in industrial systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švec, J.; Müller, Z.; Kasembe, A. G.; Tlustý, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 103, october 2013 (2013), s. 157-167 ISSN 0378-7796 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : hybrid power filter * power quality * industrial system Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.595, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378779613001417

  15. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  16. Real-time impact of power balancing on power system operation with large scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2017-01-01

    Highly wind power integrated power system requires continuous active power regulation to tackle the power imbalances resulting from the wind power forecast errors. The active power balance is maintained in real-time with the automatic generation control and also from the control room, where...... power system model. The power system model takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan from power balancing model and the generation and power exchange capacities for the year 2020 into account. The real-time impact of power balancing in a highly wind power integrated power system is assessed...

  17. Autonomous Control Capabilities for Space Reactor Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard T.; Neal, John S.; Brittain, C. Ray; Mullens, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, is investigating a possible Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) mission, which would conduct in-depth studies of three of the moons of Jupiter by using a space reactor power system (SRPS) to provide energy for propulsion and spacecraft power for more than a decade. Terrestrial nuclear power plants rely upon varying degrees of direct human control and interaction for operations and maintenance over a forty to sixty year lifetime. In contrast, an SRPS is intended to provide continuous, remote, unattended operation for up to fifteen years with no maintenance. Uncertainties, rare events, degradation, and communications delays with Earth are challenges that SRPS control must accommodate. Autonomous control is needed to address these challenges and optimize the reactor control design. In this paper, we describe an autonomous control concept for generic SRPS designs. The formulation of an autonomous control concept, which includes identification of high-level functional requirements and generation of a research and development plan for enabling technologies, is among the technical activities that are being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Space Reactor Technology Program in support of the NASA's Project Prometheus. The findings from this program are intended to contribute to the successful realization of the JIMO mission

  18. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norio

    1990-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  19. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited

  20. Protection requirements for the resistance of meteorite penetration of interplanetary spacecraft systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkoff, John J.

    2014-03-31

    The Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor primary coolant pumps use face type mechanical shaft seals and incorporate a large flywheel for emergency ilow during power outages. The test and development work preceding and during initial PRTR operation revealed several major problems. These problems and their solutions are discussed. Mechanical seal life was extended from original rapid failures in a few hours to periods of several thousand hours. (auth)

  1. New architectures for space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, M.; Patton, A.D.; Biglic, O.

    1992-01-01

    Electric power generation and conditioning have experienced revolutionary development over the past two decades. Furthermore, new materials such as high energy magnets and high temperature superconductors are either available or on the horizon. The authors' work is based on the promise that new technologies are an important driver of new power system concepts and architectures. This observation is born out by the historical evolution of power systems both in terrestrial and aerospace applications. This paper will introduce new approaches to designing space power systems by using several new technologies

  2. Solar dynamic power system definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Friefeld, Jerry M.

    1988-01-01

    The solar dynamic power system design and analysis study compared Brayton, alkali-metal Rankine, and free-piston Stirling cycles with silicon planar and GaAs concentrator photovoltaic power systems for application to missions beyond the Phase 2 Space Station level of technology for all power systems. Conceptual designs for Brayton and Stirling power systems were developed for 35 kWe and 7 kWe power levels. All power systems were designed for 7-year end-of-life conditions in low Earth orbit. LiF was selected for thermal energy storage for the solar dynamic systems. Results indicate that the Stirling cycle systems have the highest performance (lowest weight and area) followed by the Brayton cycle, with photovoltaic systems considerably lower in performance. For example, based on the performance assumptions used, the planar silicon power system weight was 55 to 75 percent higher than for the Stirling system. A technology program was developed to address areas wherein significant performance improvements could be realized relative to the current state-of-the-art as represented by Space Station. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of hardenability potential found that solar dynamic systems can be hardened beyond the hardness inherent in the conceptual designs of this study.

  3. Vapor Compression Refrigeration System for Cold Storage on Spacecrafts, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is looking for a high efficiency long term food storage system for space crafts. Previous refrigerator/freezer systems developed for this application such as...

  4. Multi-Component Remediation System for Generating Potable Water Onboard Spacecrafts, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fractal Systems Inc. proposes to develop an innovative, energy-efficient water purification system to enable humans to live and work permanently in space. Water...

  5. The electrical system of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firman Silitonga; Gunarwan Prayitno

    2009-01-01

    In these system, electrical power system is supplied from two-offsite transmission system respective main transformer and house service transformer; and reserve transformer. The electrical load in these system consist of safety electrical system and non-safety electrical system, The safety electrical and non safety electrical systems consist of four 6,9 kV AC medium voltage bus and 480 V AC low voltage bus system. The DC power system consist of four safety 125 V DC power system and the two non-safety 125 DC power systems. The equipment in these electrical system is main turbine-generator; GTG safety; GTG alternate; uninterrupted power supply (UPS) and battery system. To protect electrical equipment and building to direct stroke and non direct stroke disturbances is installed netral grounding system and lightning protection and protection the personnel to touch-voltage is installed equipment grounding system and station grounding. The lightning arrester system is connected to station station grounding system. (author)

  6. Five Indisputable Facts on Modern Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Aaron P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brinkman, Gregory L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland; Helman, Udi [Helman Analytics; Summers, Kate [Pacific Hydro; Bakke, Jordan [Midcontinent Independent System Operator

    2017-08-01

    This presentation overviews five indisputable facts about modern power systems: Fact one: The grid can handle more renewable generation than previously thought. Fact two: Geographic and resource diversity provide additional reliability to the system. Fact three: Wind and solar forecasting provide significant value. Fact four: Our electric power markets were not originally designed for variable renewables -- but they could be adapted. Fact five: Modern power electronics are creating new sources of essential reliability services.

  7. Analysis of power system collapse risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleschova, Z.; Belan, A.; Cintula, B.; Smitkova, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper are analysed the initialization events with considering different scenarios and their impact on the power system transient stability. As an initialization event is considered a short circuit at various places of power line. In each scenario are considered protection failures (backup protection), circuit-breaker failures (breaker failure relay activation). The individual states are analysed and the power system collapse risk assessed based on the simulation experiments results (Authors)

  8. Artificial intelligence techniques in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughton, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    Since the early to mid 1980s much of the effort in power systems analysis has turned away from the methodology of formal mathematical modelling which came from the fields of operations research, control theory and numerical analysis to the less rigorous techniques of artificial intelligence (AI). Today the main AI techniques found in power systems applications are those utilising the logic and knowledge representations of expert systems, fuzzy systems, artificial neural networks (ANN) and, more recently, evolutionary computing. These techniques will be outlined in this chapter and the power system applications indicated. (Author)

  9. Multimegawatt nuclear systems for space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design and performance capability requirements of multi-MW nuclear powerplants for SDI systems are considered. The candidate powerplant configurations encompass Rankine, Brayton, and thermionic cycles; these respectively provide the lightest to heaviest system masses, since reactor and shield masses represent only 10-30 percent of total closed power system weight for the Rankine and Brayton systems. Many of the gas reactor concepts entertained may be operated in dual mode, thereby furnishing both long term low power and high power for short periods. Heat rejection is identified as the most important technology, since about 50 percent of the total closed mass is constituted by the heat rejection system. 9 references

  10. Proceedings: Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The EPRI Power Plant Electric Auxiliary Systems Workshop, held April 24--25, 1991, in Princeton, New Jersey, brought together utilities, architect/engineers, and equipment suppliers to discuss common problems with power plant auxiliary systems. Workshop participants presented papers on monitoring, identifying, and solving problems with auxiliary systems. Panel discussions focused on improving systems and existing and future plants. The solutions presented to common auxiliary system problems focused on practical ideas that can enhance plant availability, reduce maintenance costs, and simplify the engineering process. The 13 papers in these proceedings include: Tutorials on auxiliary electrical systems and motors; descriptions of evaluations, software development, and new technologies used recently by electric utilities; an analysis of historical performance losses caused by power plant auxiliary systems; innovative design concepts for improving auxiliary system performance in future power plants

  11. Reliability of power electronic converter systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Henry Shu-hung; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book outlines current research into the scientific modeling, experimentation, and remedial measures for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of Power Electronic Converter Systems (PECS) at different levels of complexity.

  12. Improved Power System of the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinowitz, Mario

    2003-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide an insight into physics and engineering that can modernize electric power systems. Topics covered are Flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS), Custom Power, Greatly improved Capacitors, Electrical Insulation, Distribution Cables, Improved Polymeric Insulation, Underground Vault Explosions, Fault Location, Smart Cables, Neutral and Ground, Corrosion and Protection, Conventional Transformers, Compact Transformers, Ferroresonance, and Solid State Transformers.

  13. Automated System Tests High-Power MOSFET's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Steven W.; Wendt, Isabel O.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-controlled system tests metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's) at high voltages and currents. Measures seven parameters characterizing performance of MOSFET, with view toward obtaining early indication MOSFET defective. Use of test system prior to installation of power MOSFET in high-power circuit saves time and money.

  14. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  15. Power quality in electric distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, A.A.S.

    2005-01-01

    the power quality of the electric system is defined by the constant values of the voltage and frequency, the good value of the power factor close to unity, and balanced three phase voltages and currents. capacitors are widely installed in distribution systems for reactive power compensation to achieve power and energy loss reduction, voltage regulation and system capacity release. the extent of these benefits depends greatly on low the capacitors are placed on the system . the problem of how to place capacitors on the system such that these benefits are achieved and / or maximized against the cost associated with the capacitor placement is termed the general capacitor placement problem.the presented mathematical model has been developed to determine the size, number, and location of fixed capacitor banks that will maximize the saving derived from reduction in peak power and energy loss, and that will minimize the capital and installation costs of capacitors

  16. Optimal control applications in electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, G S; Soliman, S A

    1987-01-01

    Significant advances in the field of optimal control have been made over the past few decades. These advances have been well documented in numerous fine publications, and have motivated a number of innovations in electric power system engineering, but they have not yet been collected in book form. Our purpose in writing this book is to provide a description of some of the applications of optimal control techniques to practical power system problems. The book is designed for advanced undergraduate courses in electric power systems, as well as graduate courses in electrical engineering, applied mathematics, and industrial engineering. It is also intended as a self-study aid for practicing personnel involved in the planning and operation of electric power systems for utilities, manufacturers, and consulting and government regulatory agencies. The book consists of seven chapters. It begins with an introductory chapter that briefly reviews the history of optimal control and its power system applications and also p...

  17. Space power plants and power-consuming industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyshev, L.; Semashko, N.

    1996-01-01

    An opportunity to create the space power production on the basis of solar, nuclear and fusion energies is analyzed. The priority of solar power production as the most accessible and feasible in comparison with others is emphasized. However, later on, it probably will play an auxiliary role. The possibilities of fusion power production, as a basic one in future, are also considered. It is necessary to create reactors using the fueling cycle with helium-3 (instead of tritium and deuterium, later on). The reaction products--charged particles, mainly--allow one to organize the system of direct fusion energy conversion into electricity. The produced energy is expected not to be transmitted to Earth, but an industry in space is expected to be produced on its basis. The industrial (power and science-consuming) objects located on a whole number of space apparatus will form a single complex with its own basic power plant. The power transmission within the complex will be realized with high power density fluxes of microwave radiation to short distances with their receivers at the objects. The necessary correction of the apparatus positions in the complex will be done with ion and plasma thrusters. The materials present on the Moon, asteroids and on other planets can serve as raw materials for industrial objects. Such an approach will help to improve the ecological state on Earth, to eliminate the necessity in the fast energy consumption growth and to reduce the hazard of global thermal crisis

  18. Impact of integrating wind power in the Norwegian power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tande, John Olav

    2006-04-01

    Wind power may in the future constitute a significant part of the Norwegian electricity supply. 20 TWh annual wind generation is a realistic goal for 2020 assuming wind farms on-land and offshore. The development of grid codes for wind farms is sound. It is recognising that large wind farms are basically power plants and may participate in securing efficient and stable power system operation. Modern wind farms may control the reactive power or voltage as any other power plant, and may also control active power or frequency as long as wind conditions permits. Grid code requirements must however be carefully assessed and possibly adjusted over time aiming for overall least cost solutions. Development of wind farms are today to some degree hindered by conservative assumptions being made on operation of wind farms in areas with limited power transfer capacity. By accepting temporary grid congestions, however, a large increase installed wind power is viable. For grid congestion that appears a few hours per year only, the cost of lost generation will be modest and may be economic over the alternatives of limiting wind farm capacities or increasing the grid transfer capacity. Wind generation impact on power system operation and adequacy will be overall positive. Combining wind and hydro provides for a more stable annual energy supply than hydro alone, and wind generation will generally be higher in the winter period than in the summer. Wind will replace the generation with the highest operating cost, and reduce the average Nord Pool spot market price. 20 TWh wind will reduce price with about 3 oere/kWh and CO 2 emissions by 12-14 million tons for the case of replacing coal, and about 6 million tons for replacing natural gas. Wind impact on need for balancing power is small, i.e. the extra balancing cost is about 0,8 oere per kWh wind, and about half if investment in new reserve capacity is not needed. In summary this report demonstrates options for large scale integration

  19. Control Architecture for Future Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai

    for assessment of control architecture of electric power systems with a means-ends perspective. Given this purpose-oriented understanding of a power system, the increasingly stochastic nature of this problem shall be addressed and approaches for robust, distributed control will be proposed and analyzed....... The introduction of close-to-real-time markets is envisioned to enable fast distributed resource allocation while guaranteeing system stability. Electric vehicles will be studied as a means of distributed reversible energy storage and a flexible power electronic interface, with application to the case......This project looks at control of future electric power grids with a high proportion of wind power and a large number of decentralized power generation, consumption and storage units participating to form a reliable supply of electrical energy. The first objective is developing a method...

  20. Centralized vs decentralized lunar power system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Kenneth; Harty, Richard B.; Perronne, Gerald E.

    1991-09-01

    Three power-system options are considered with respect to utilization on a lunar base: the fully centralized option, the fully decentralized option, and a hybrid comprising features of the first two options. Power source, power conditioning, and power transmission are considered separately, and each architecture option is examined with ac and dc distribution, high and low voltage transmission, and buried and suspended cables. Assessments are made on the basis of mass, technological complexity, cost, reliability, and installation complexity, however, a preferred power-system architecture is not proposed. Preferred options include transmission based on ac, transmission voltages of 2000-7000 V with buried high-voltage lines and suspended low-voltage lines. Assessments of the total cost associated with the installations are required to determine the most suitable power system.

  1. Designing control of a power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, A.; Nemeth, A.

    1980-01-01

    With the development of Hungary's electric power system (EES) the problems of the EROTERV Institute in designing mode regulation systems grew. These systems determine the balance between the production and demand for electric power, which supports not only the maintenance of the frequency and level of voltage in the electrical grid, but also determines the stability of the operation of the electric power system as a whole. A review is cited of the design solutions to control systems in a chronological order. Certain characteristic problems in contemporary control of operational modes of the electric power system are examined and their the trends in their future improvement are determined. The structural layout of mode control systems are cited.

  2. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  3. The State of Play US Space Systems Competitiveness: Prices, Productivity, and Other Measures of Launchers & Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2017-01-01

    Collects space systems cost and related data (flight rate, payload, etc.) over time. Gathers only public data. Non-recurring and recurring. Minimal data processing. Graph, visualize, add context. Focus on US space systems competitiveness. Keep fresh update as data arises, launches occur, etc. Keep fresh focus on recent data, indicative of the future.

  4. Power monitors: A framework for system-level power estimation using heterogeneous power models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bansal, N.; Lahiri, K.; Raghunathan, A.; Chakradhar, S.T.

    2005-01-01

    Paper analysis early in the design cycle is critical for the design of low-power systems. With the move to system-level specifications and design methodologies, there has been significant research interest in system-level power estimation. However, as demonstrated in this paper, the addition of

  5. TFTR neutral-beam power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winje, R.A.

    1982-10-01

    The TFTR Neutral Beam Power System (NBPS) consists of the accelerator grid power supply and the auxiliary power supplies required to operate the TFTR 120-keV ion sources. The current configuration of the NBPS including the 11-MVA accelerator grid power supply and the Arc and Filament power supplies isolated for operation at accelerator grid voltages up to 120 kV, is described. The prototype NBPS has been assembled at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and has been operated. The results of the initial operation and the description and resolution of some of the technical problems encountered during the commissioning tests are presented

  6. Distributed systems for protecting nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jover, P.

    1980-05-01

    The advantages of distributed control systems for the control of nuclear power stations are obviously of great interest. Some years ago, EPRI, (Electric Power Research Institute) showed that multiplexing the signals is technically feasible, that it enables the availability specifications to be met and costs to be reduced. Since then, many distributed control systems have been proposed by the manufacturers. This note offers some comments on the application of the distribution concept to protection systems -what should be distributed- and ends with a brief description of a protection system based on microprocessors for the pressurized power stations now being built in France [fr

  7. Energy analysis of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Next to economic viability, the holistic energy balance of electricity generation options' is a factor of major importance. All aspects of the energy balance, i. e. all expenditures and all revenues, are compared in a life cycle analysis. This turns out to be a complex task, especially because of the large number of input quantities to be determined, including the balancing limits to be taken into account. The article presents in detail the findings of analyses of energy balances for various types of nuclear power plants as well as electricity generation in fossil-fired power plants, and for renewable energies. The analyses and their databases are discussed. Moreover, the findings are presented for the energetic amortization periods and the amounts of CO 2 emissions specific to the respective generating technologies. (orig.)

  8. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Larrain, Diego; Favrat, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The wast...

  9. Small Hybrid Solar Power System

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, El Hadj Malick; Favrat, Daniel; Larrain, Diego; Allani, Yassine

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel of mini-hybrid solar power plant integrating a field of solar concentrators, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) and a (bio)Diesel engine. Turbines for the organic Rankine Cycles are hermetic scroll expander-generators. Sun tracking solar collectors are composed of rows of flat mirror bands (CEP) arranged in a plane, which focus the solar energy onto a collector tube similar to those used in SEGS plant in California. The waste heat from both...

  10. Progress in space nuclear reactor power systems technology development - The SP-100 program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, H. S.

    1984-01-01

    Activities related to the development of high-temperature compact nuclear reactors for space applications had reached a comparatively high level in the U.S. during the mid-1950s and 1960s, although only one U.S. nuclear reactor-powered spacecraft was actually launched. After 1973, very little effort was devoted to space nuclear reactor and propulsion systems. In February 1983, significant activities toward the development of the technology for space nuclear reactor power systems were resumed with the SP-100 Program. Specific SP-100 Program objectives are partly related to the determination of the potential performance limits for space nuclear power systems in 100-kWe and 1- to 100-MW electrical classes. Attention is given to potential missions and applications, regimes of possible space power applicability, safety considerations, conceptual system designs, the establishment of technical feasibility, nuclear technology, materials technology, and prospects for the future.

  11. Advanced Stirling Convertor Control Unit Testing at NASA Glenn Research Center in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugala, Gina M.; Taylor, Linda M.; Kussmaul, Michael; Casciani, Michael; Brown, Gregory; Wiser, Joel

    2017-01-01

    Future NASA missions could include establishing Lunar or Martian base camps, exploring Jupiters moons and travelling beyond where generating power from sunlight may be limited. Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) provide a dependable power source for missions where inadequate sunlight or operational requirements make other power systems impractical. Over the past decade, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has been supporting the development of RPSs. The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) utilized a pair of Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASC). While flight development of the ASRG has been cancelled, much of the technology and hardware continued development and testing to guide future activities. Specifically, a controller for the convertor(s) is an integral part of a Stirling-based RPS. For the ASRG design, the controller maintains stable operation of the convertors, regulates the alternating current produced by the linear alternator of the convertor, provides a specified direct current output voltage for the spacecraft, synchronizes the piston motion of the two convertors in order to minimize vibration as well as manage and maintain operation with a stable piston amplitude and hot end temperature. It not only provides power to the spacecraft but also must regulate convertor operation to avoid damage to internal components and maintain safe thermal conditions after fueling. Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies has designed, developed and tested an Engineering Development Unit (EDU) Advanced Stirling Convertor Control Unit (ACU) to support this effort. GRC used the ACU EDU as part of its non-nuclear representation of a RPS which also consists of a pair of Dual Advanced Stirling Convertor Simulator (DASCS), and associated support equipment to perform a test in the Radioisotope Power Systems System Integration Laboratory (RSIL). The RSIL was designed and built to evaluate hardware utilizing RPS technology. The RSIL provides insight into the electrical

  12. Microwave transmission system for space power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, R M [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)

    1976-09-01

    A small total system model and a large subsystem element similar to those that could be eventually used for wireless power transmission experiments in space have been successfully demonstrated by NASA. The short range, relatively low-power laboratory system achieved a dc-to-dc transmission efficiency of 54%. A separate high-power-level receiving subsystem, tested over a 1.54-km range at Goldstone, California, has achieved the transportation of over 30 kW of dc output power. Both tests used 12-cm wave-length microwaves.

  13. Common data buffer system. [communication with computational equipment utilized in spacecraft operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, F. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A high speed common data buffer system is described for providing an interface and communications medium between a plurality of computers utilized in a distributed computer complex forming part of a checkout, command and control system for space vehicles and associated ground support equipment. The system includes the capability for temporarily storing data to be transferred between computers, for transferring a plurality of interrupts between computers, for monitoring and recording these transfers, and for correcting errors incurred in these transfers. Validity checks are made on each transfer and appropriate error notification is given to the computer associated with that transfer.

  14. Multiagent voltage and reactive power control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Arkhipov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the research of multiagent voltage and reactive power control system development. The prototype of the system has been developed by R&D Center at FGC UES (Russia. The control system architecture is based on the innovative multiagent system theory application that leads to the achievement of several significant advantages (in comparison to traditional control systems implementation such as control system efficiency enhancement, control system survivability and cyber security.

  15. Power conditioning system for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashigawa, Yuichi; Joge, Toshio.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a power conditioning system for a BWR type reactor which has a function to be automatically operated within a range that the relationship between the heat power of the reactor and the electric power of an electric generator does not lose the safety of fuel by eliminating the unnecessary fluctuation of the power of the reactor. Constitution: A load request error signal fed from a conventional turbine control system to recirculation flow regulator is eliminated, and a reactor power conditioning system is newly provided, to which an electric generator power signal, a reactor average power area monitor signal and a load request signal are inputted. Thus, the load request signal is compared directly with the electric power of the electric generator, the recirculation flow rate is controlled by the compared result, and whether the correlation between the heat power of the reqctor and the electric power of the generator satisfies the correlation determined to prove the safety of fuel or not is checked. If this correlation is satisfied, the recirculation flow rate is merely automatically controlled. (Yoshino, Y.)

  16. Reliability considerations in long-life outer planet spacecraft system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casani, E. K.

    1975-01-01

    A Mariner Jupiter/Saturn mission has been planned for 1977. System reliability questions are discussed, taking into account the actual and design lifetime, causes of mission termination, in-flight failures and their consequences for the mission, and the use of redundancy to avoid failures. The design process employed optimizes the use of proven subsystem and system designs and then makes the necessary improvements to increase the lifetime as required.

  17. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  18. Modeling Control Situations in Power System Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad; Lind, Morten; Singh, Sri Niwas

    2010-01-01

    for intelligent operation and control must represent system features, so that information from measurements can be related to possible system states and to control actions. These general modeling requirements are well understood, but it is, in general, difficult to translate them into a model because of the lack...... of explicit principles for model construction. This paper presents a work on using explicit means-ends model based reasoning about complex control situations which results in maintaining consistent perspectives and selecting appropriate control action for goal driven agents. An example of power system......Increased interconnection and loading of the power system along with deregulation has brought new challenges for electric power system operation, control and automation. Traditional power system models used in intelligent operation and control are highly dependent on the task purpose. Thus, a model...

  19. 14 CFR 27.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Systems § 27.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...

  20. 14 CFR 29.695 - Power boost and power-operated control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Systems § 29.695 Power boost and power-operated control system. (a) If a power boost or power-operated... failure of all engines. (b) Each alternate system may be a duplicate power portion or a manually operated... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power boost and power-operated control...