Sample records for spacecraft internal acoustic

  1. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling (United States)

    Chu, Shao-Sheng R.; Allen Christopher S.


    Acoustic modeling can be used to identify key noise sources, determine/analyze sub-allocated requirements, keep track of the accumulation of minor noise sources, and to predict vehicle noise levels at various stages in vehicle development, first with estimates of noise sources, later with experimental data. This paper describes the implementation of acoustic modeling for design purposes by incrementally increasing model fidelity and validating the accuracy of the model while predicting the noise of sources under various conditions. During FY 07, a simple-geometry Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model was developed and validated using a physical mockup and acoustic measurements. A process for modeling the effects of absorptive wall treatments and the resulting reverberation environment were developed. During FY 08, a model with more complex and representative geometry of the Orion Crew Module (CM) interior was built, and noise predictions based on input noise sources were made. A corresponding physical mockup was also built. Measurements were made inside this mockup, and comparisons were made with the model and showed excellent agreement. During FY 09, the fidelity of the mockup and corresponding model were increased incrementally by including a simple ventilation system. The airborne noise contribution of the fans was measured using a sound intensity technique, since the sound power levels were not known beforehand. This is opposed to earlier studies where Reference Sound Sources (RSS) with known sound power level were used. Comparisons of the modeling result with the measurements in the mockup showed excellent results. During FY 10, the fidelity of the mockup and the model were further increased by including an ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System) wall, associated closeout panels, and the gap between ECLSS wall and mockup wall. The effect of sealing the gap and adding sound absorptive treatment to ECLSS wall were also modeled and validated.

  2. Spacecraft Internal Acoustic Environment Modeling (United States)

    Chu, SShao-sheng R.; Allen, Christopher S.


    Acoustic modeling can be used to identify key noise sources, determine/analyze sub-allocated requirements, keep track of the accumulation of minor noise sources, and to predict vehicle noise levels at various stages in vehicle development, first with estimates of noise sources, later with experimental data. In FY09, the physical mockup developed in FY08, with interior geometric shape similar to Orion CM (Crew Module) IML (Interior Mode Line), was used to validate SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) acoustic model development with realistic ventilation fan sources. The sound power levels of these sources were unknown a priori, as opposed to previous studies that RSS (Reference Sound Source) with known sound power level was used. The modeling results were evaluated based on comparisons to measurements of sound pressure levels over a wide frequency range, including the frequency range where SEA gives good results. Sound intensity measurement was performed over a rectangular-shaped grid system enclosing the ventilation fan source. Sound intensities were measured at the top, front, back, right, and left surfaces of the and system. Sound intensity at the bottom surface was not measured, but sound blocking material was placed tinder the bottom surface to reflect most of the incident sound energy back to the remaining measured surfaces. Integrating measured sound intensities over measured surfaces renders estimated sound power of the source. The reverberation time T6o of the mockup interior had been modified to match reverberation levels of ISS US Lab interior for speech frequency bands, i.e., 0.5k, 1k, 2k, 4 kHz, by attaching appropriately sized Thinsulate sound absorption material to the interior wall of the mockup. Sound absorption of Thinsulate was modeled in three methods: Sabine equation with measured mockup interior reverberation time T60, layup model based on past impedance tube testing, and layup model plus air absorption correction. The evaluation/validation was

  3. Internal Acoustics of the ISS and Other Spacecraft (United States)

    Allen, Christopher S.


    It is important to control the acoustic environment inside spacecraft and space habitats to protect for astronaut communications, alarm audibility, and habitability, and to reduce astronauts' risk for sleep disturbance, and hear-ing loss. But this is not an easy task, given the various design trade-offs, and it has been difficult, historically, to achieve. Over time it has been found that successful control of spacecraft acoustic levels is achieved by levying firm requirements at the system-level, using a systems engineering approach for design and development, and then validating these requirements with acoustic testing. In the systems engineering method, the system-level requirements must be flowed down to sub-systems and component noise sources, using acoustic analysis and acoustic modelling to develop allocated requirements for the sub-systems and components. Noise controls must also be developed, tested, and implemented so the sub-systems and components can achieve their allocated limits. It is also important to have management support for acoustics efforts to maintain their priority against the various trade-offs, including mass, volume, power, cost, and schedule. In this extended abstract and companion presentation, the requirements, approach, and results for controlling acoustic levels in most US spacecraft since Apollo will be briefly discussed. The approach for controlling acoustic levels in the future US space vehicle, Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), will also be briefly discussed. These discussions will be limited to the control of continuous noise inside the space vehicles. Other types of noise, such as launch, landing, and abort noise, intermittent noise, Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) noise, emergency operations/off-nominal noise, noise exposure, and impulse noise are important, but will not be discussed because of time limitations.

  4. Vibration and Acoustic Testing for Mars Micromission Spacecraft (United States)

    Kern, Dennis L.; Scharton, Terry D.


    The objective of the Mars Micromission program being managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA is to develop a common spacecraft that can carry telecommunications equipment and a variety of science payloads for exploration of Mars. The spacecraft will be capable of carrying robot landers and rovers, cameras, probes, balloons, gliders or aircraft, and telecommunications equipment to Mars at much lower cost than recent NASA Mars missions. The lightweight spacecraft (about 220 Kg mass) will be launched in a cooperative venture with CNES as a TWIN auxiliary payload on the Ariane 5 launch vehicle. Two or more Mars Micromission launches are planned for each Mars launch opportunity, which occur every 26 months. The Mars launch window for the first mission is November 1, 2002 through April 2003, which is planned to be a Mars airplane technology demonstration mission to coincide with the 100 year anniversary of the Kittyhawk flight. Several subsequent launches will create a telecommunications network orbiting Mars, which will provide for continuous communication with lenders and rovers on the Martian surface. Dedicated science payload flights to Mars are slated to start in 2005. This new cheaper and faster approach to Mars exploration calls for innovative approaches to the qualification of the Mars Micromission spacecraft for the Ariane 5 launch vibration and acoustic environments. JPL has in recent years implemented new approaches to spacecraft testing that may be effectively applied to the Mars Micromission. These include 1) force limited vibration testing, 2) combined loads, vibration and modal testing, and 3) direct acoustic testing. JPL has performed nearly 200 force limited vibration tests in the past 9 years; several of the tests were on spacecraft and large instruments, including the Cassini and Deep Space One spacecraft. Force limiting, which measures and limits the spacecraft base reaction force using triaxial force gages sandwiched between the

  5. Integrally rigidized acoustic interior spacecraft panel (United States)


    A sandwich panel concept is described which utilizes a monolithic I-beam design as the core. The core and skins are integrally bonded with thermosetting resin into a homogeneous structure. In addition to possessing a high strength to weight ratio, the panel resists combustion, delamination, aging due to fatigue, localized stresses, and exhibits good acoustic properties. Since the panel concept has definite potential as a high flame retardant and low smoke emission panel with excellent structural integrity, aerospace materials were used to optimize the construction for highly demanding space shuttle applications. The specific materials of construction were chosen for low flammability and off-gassing properties as well as for strength, light weight, and sound dampening.

  6. Acoustic Measurements of an Uninstalled Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan Prototype (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle; Brown, Clifford A.; Shook, Tony D.; Winkel, James; Kolacz, John S.; Podboy, Devin M.; Loew, Raymond A.; Mirecki, Julius H.


    Sound pressure measurements were recorded for a prototype of a spacecraft cabin ventilation fan in a test in the NASA Glenn Acoustical Testing Laboratory. The axial fan is approximately 0.089 m (3.50 in.) in diameter and 0.223 m (9.00 in.) long and has nine rotor blades and eleven stator vanes. At design point of 12,000 rpm, the fan was predicted to produce a flow rate of 0.709 cu m/s (150 cfm) and a total pressure rise of 925 Pa (3.72 in. of water) at 12,000 rpm. While the fan was designed to be part of a ducted atmospheric revitalization system, no attempt was made to throttle the flow or simulate the installed configuration during this test. The fan was operated at six speeds from 6,000 to 13,500 rpm. A 13-microphone traversing array was used to collect sound pressure measurements along two horizontal planes parallel to the flow direction, two vertical planes upstream of the fan inlet and two vertical planes downstream of the fan exhaust. Measurements indicate that sound at blade passing frequency harmonics contribute significantly to the overall audible noise produced by the fan at free delivery conditions.

  7. Innovative Approach for Developing Spacecraft Interior Acoustic Requirement Allocation (United States)

    Chu, S. Reynold; Dandaroy, Indranil; Allen, Christopher S.


    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) is an American spacecraft for carrying four astronauts during deep space missions. This paper describes an innovative application of Power Injection Method (PIM) for allocating Orion cabin continuous noise Sound Pressure Level (SPL) limits to the sound power level (PWL) limits of major noise sources in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) during all mission phases. PIM is simulated using both Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Hybrid Statistical Energy Analysis-Finite Element (SEA-FE) models of the Orion MPCV to obtain the transfer matrix from the PWL of the noise sources to the acoustic energies of the receivers, i.e., the cavities associated with the cabin habitable volume. The goal of the allocation strategy is to control the total energy of cabin habitable volume for maintaining the required SPL limits. Simulations are used to demonstrate that applying the allocated PWLs to the noise sources in the models indeed reproduces the SPL limits in the habitable volume. The effects of Noise Control Treatment (NCT) on allocated noise source PWLs are investigated. The measurement of source PWLs of involved fan and pump development units are also discussed as it is related to some case-specific details of the allocation strategy discussed here.

  8. Internal stress analysis by acoustic polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouge, Jean; Robert, Andre

    The associated improvements of acoustics and electronics allow the field of applications relative to the ultrasonic methods to be extended to the non destructive control of materials and structures. Thus, the acoustical polarimetry is a new method allowing the measurement in orientation and intensity of residual or induced internal stresses in metals or other materials [fr

  9. 30th International Acoustical Imaging Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Joie; Lee, Hua


    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2009 the 30th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Monterey, CA, USA, March 1-4. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 30 in the Series contains an excellent collection of forty three papers presented in five major categories: Biomedical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation Systems Analysis Signal Analysis and Image Processing Audience Researchers in medical imaging and biomedical instrumentation experts.

  10. Internal Mass Motion for Spacecraft Dynamics and Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hall, Christopher D


    We present a detailed description of the application of a noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation to the modeling, analysis, and simulation of the dynamics of gyrostat spacecraft with internal mass motion...

  11. International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration

    CERN Document Server

    Chaari, Fakher; Walha, Lasaad; Abdennadher, Moez; Abbes, Mohamed; Haddar, Mohamed


    The book provides readers with a snapshot of recent research and industrial trends in field of industrial acoustics and vibration. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on a selected, original piece of work presented and discussed at International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration (ICAV2016), which was organized by the Tunisian Association of Industrial Acoustics and Vibration (ATAVI) and held March 21-23, in Hammamet, Tunisia. The contributions, mainly written by north African authors, covers advances in both theory and practice in a variety of subfields, such as: smart materials and structures; fluid-structure interaction; structural acoustics as well as computational vibro-acoustics and numerical methods. Further topics include: engines control, noise identification, robust design, flow-induced vibration and many others.This book provides a valuable resource for both academics and professionals dealing with diverse issues in applied mechanics. By combining advanced theori...

  12. 2nd International Symposium on Shipboard Acoustics

    CERN Document Server


    The first International Symposium on Shipboard Acoustics, held in Noordwijkerhout (The Netherlands) in 1976, was a meeting of invited experts, each having considerable expertise in ship acoustics. Many of the participants were dealing with research on various ship acoustical subjects, and it proved to be a good idea to discuss future investigations and new techniques. At that time acousticians learned to use real-time signal-processing techniques and attempts were made to establish sound level prediction methods based on semi-fundamental considerations instead of the methods using empirically obtained data. Time was pressing as it was assumed that, in view of the adoption of Recommendation 141 of the International Labour Conference in 1970, authorities would soon make appropriate provisions to "protect seafarers from the ill effects of noise". This resulted in several national recommendations followed by the IMO "Code on noise levels aboard ships" which was adopted by the IMO Assembly in 1981. After that, pre...

  13. 28th International Acoustical Imaging Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    André, Michael P; Andre, Michael; Arnold, Walter; Bamber, Jeff; Burov, Valentin; Chubachi, Noriyoshi; Erikson, Kenneth; Ermert, Helmut; Fink, Mathias; Gan, Woon S; Granz, Bernd; Greenleaf, James; Hu, Jiankai; Jones, Joie P; Khuri-Yakub, Pierre; Laugier, Pascal; Lee, Hua; Lees, Sidney; Levin, Vadim M; Maev, Roman; Masotti, Leonardo; Nowicki, Andrzej; O’Brien, William; Prasad, Manika; Rafter, Patrick; Rouseff, Daniel; Thijssen, Johan; Tittmann, Bernard; Tortoli, Piero; Steen, Anton; Waag, Robert; Wells, Peter; Acoustical Imaging


    The International Acoustical Imaging Symposium has been held continuously since 1968 as a unique forum for advanced research, promoting the sharing of technology, developments, methods and theory among all areas of acoustics. The interdisciplinary nature of the Symposium and the wide international participation are two of its main strengths. Scientists from around the world present their papers in an informal environment conducive to lively discussion and cross-fertilization. The fact that a loyal community of scientists has supported this Series since 1968 is evidence of its impact on the field. The Symposium Series continues to thrive in a busy calendar of scientific meetings without the infrastructure of a professional society. It does so because those who attend and those who rely on the Proceedings as a well-known reference work acknowledge its value. This Volume 28 of the Proceedings likewise contains an excellent collection of papers presented in six major categories, offering both a broad perspective ...

  14. A solar cycle of spacecraft anomalies due to internal charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Wrenn

    Full Text Available It is important to appreciate how the morphology of internal charging of spacecraft systems, due to penetrating electrons, differs from that of the more common surface charging, due to electrons with lower energy. A specific and recurrent anomaly on a geostationary communication satellite has been tracked for ten years so that solar cycle and seasonal dependencies can be clearly established. Concurrent measurements of sunspot number, solar wind speed and 2-day >2 MeV electron fluence are presented to highlight pertinent space weather relationships, and the importance of understanding the complex particle interaction processes involved.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles; trapped; solar wind – magnetosphere interactions – space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging

  15. A solar cycle of spacecraft anomalies due to internal charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Wrenn


    Full Text Available It is important to appreciate how the morphology of internal charging of spacecraft systems, due to penetrating electrons, differs from that of the more common surface charging, due to electrons with lower energy. A specific and recurrent anomaly on a geostationary communication satellite has been tracked for ten years so that solar cycle and seasonal dependencies can be clearly established. Concurrent measurements of sunspot number, solar wind speed and 2-day >2 MeV electron fluence are presented to highlight pertinent space weather relationships, and the importance of understanding the complex particle interaction processes involved.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles; trapped; solar wind – magnetosphere interactions – space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging

  16. Mechanical design and vibro-acoustic testing of ultrathin carbon foils for a spacecraft instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, Allen G [SNL


    IBEX-Hi is an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument designed to measure the energy and flux distribution of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) emanating from the interaction zone between the Earth's solar system and the Milky Way galaxy. A key element to this electro-optic instrument is an array of fourteen carbon foils that are used to ionize the ENAs. The foils are comprised of an ultrathin (50-100 {angstrom} thick) layer of carbon suspended across the surface of an electroformed Nickel wire screen, which in turn is held taught by a metal frame holder. The electro formed orthogonal screen has square wire elements, 12.7 {micro}m thick, with a pitch of 131.1 wires/cm. Each foil holder has an open aperture approximately 5 cm by 2.5 cm. Designing and implementing foil holders with such a large surface area has not been attempted for spaceflight in the past and has proven to be extremely challenging. The delicate carbon foils are subject to fatigue failure from the large acoustic and vibration loads that they will be exposed to during launch of the spacecraft. This paper describes the evolution of the foil holder design from previous space instrument applications to a flight-like IBEX-Hi prototype. Vibro-acoustic qualification tests of the IBEX-Hi prototype instrument and the resulting failure of several foils are summarized. This is followed by a discussion of iterative foil holder design modifications and laser vibrometer modal testing to support future fatigue failure analyses, along with additional acoustic testing of the IBEX-Hi prototype instrument. The results of these design and testing activities are merged and the resulting flight-like foil holder assembly is proposed.

  17. Detection method of internal leakage from valve using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Kitajima, Akira; Suzuki, Akio.


    The objective of this study is to estimate the feasibility of the acoustic method for the internal leakage from the valves in power plants. From the experimental results, it was suggested that the acoustic method for the monitoring of leakage was feasible. When the background levels are higher than the acoustic signals from leakage, we can detect the leakage analyzing the spectrum of the remainders which take the background noise from the acoustic signals. (author)

  18. Detection method of internal leakage from valve using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Horomichi


    The purpose of this study is to estimate the availability of acoustic method for detecting the internal leakage of valves at power plants. Experiments have been carried out on the characteristics of acoustic noise caused by the leak simulated flow. From the experimental results, the mechanism of the acoustic noisegenerated from flow, the relation between acoustic intensity and leak flow velocity, and the characteristics of the acoustic frequency spectrum were clarified. The acoustic method was applied to valves at site, and the background noises were measured in abnormal plant conditions. When the background level is higher than the acoustic signal, the difference between the background noise frequency spectrum and the acoustic signal spectrum provide a very useful leak detection method. (author)

  19. Internal tides and deep diel fades in acoustic intensity. (United States)

    White, Andrew W; Henyey, Frank S; Andrew, Rex K; Mercer, James A; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Colosi, John A


    A mechanism is presented by which the observed acoustic intensity is made to vary due to changes in the acoustic path that are caused by internal-tide vertical fluid displacements. The position in range and depth of large-scale caustic structure is determined by the background sound-speed profile. Internal tides cause a deformation of the background profile, changing the positions of the caustic structures-which can introduce intensity changes at a distant receiver. Gradual fades in the acoustic intensity occurring over timescales similar to those of the tides were measured during a low-frequency (284-Hz) acoustic scattering experiment in the Philippine Sea in 2009 [White et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(4), 3347-3358 (2013)]. Parabolic equation and Hamiltonian ray-tracing calculations of acoustic propagation through a plane-wave internal tide environmental model employing sound-speed profiles taken during the experiment indicate that internal tides could cause significant gradual changes in the received intensity. Furthermore, the calculations demonstrate how large-scale perturbations to the index of refraction can result in variation in the received intensity.

  20. Acoustic measurements of soil-pipeflow and internal erosion (United States)

    Internal erosion of soil pipes can lead to embankment failures, landslides, and gully erosion. Therefore, non-intrusive methods are needed to detect and monitor soil pipeflow and the resulting internal erosion. This paper presents a laboratory study using both active and passive acoustic techniques ...

  1. Harnessing Multiple Internal Reflections to Design Highly Absorptive Acoustic Metasurfaces (United States)

    Shen, Chen; Cummer, Steven A.


    The rapid development of metasurfaces has enabled numerous intriguing applications with acoustically thin sheets. Here we report the theory and experimental realization of a nonresonant sound-absorbing strategy using metasurfaces by harnessing multiple internal reflections. We theoretically and numerically show that the higher-order diffraction of thin gradient-index metasurfaces is tied to multiple internal reflections inside the unit cells. Highly absorbing acoustic metasurfaces can be realized by enforcing multiple internal reflections together with a small amount of loss. A reflective gradient-index acoustic metasurface is designed based on the theory, and we further experimentally verify the performance using a three-dimensional printed prototype. Measurements show over 99% energy absorption at the peak frequency and a 95% energy absorption bandwidth of around 600 Hz. The proposed mechanism provides an alternative route for sound absorption without the necessity of high absorption of the individual unit cells.

  2. Determining Transmission Loss from Measured External and Internal Acoustic Environments (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler; Smith, A. M.


    An estimate of the internal acoustic environment in each internal cavity of a launch vehicle is needed to ensure survivability of Space Launch System (SLS) avionics. Currently, this is achieved by using the noise reduction database of heritage flight vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and Saturn V for liftoff and ascent flight conditions. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is conducting a series of transmission loss tests to verify and augment this method. For this test setup, an aluminum orthogrid curved panel representing 1/8th of the circumference of a section of the SLS main structure was mounted in between a reverberation chamber and an anechoic chamber. Transmission loss was measured across the panel using microphones. Data measured during this test will be used to estimate the internal acoustic environments for several of the SLS launch vehicle internal spaces.

  3. International Space Station Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Cady, Scott M; Welsh, David A.


    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQs) providing a private crew member space. The CQs use Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air-from the ISS Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA) or the ISS fluid cooling loop. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crew member's head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ ventilation ducts are conduits to the louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significant acoustic mitigation controls. The CQ interior needs to be below noise criteria curve 40 (NC-40). The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. Each CQ required 13% of its total volume and approximately 6% of its total mass to reduce acoustic noise. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  4. Ionospheric response to the shock and acoustic waves excited by the launch of the Shenzhou 10 spacecraft (United States)

    Ding, Feng; Wan, Weixing; Mao, Tian; Wang, Min; Ning, Baiqi; Zhao, Biqiang; Xiong, Bo


    We used a dense GPS network in China to track the ionospheric response to waves excited by the launch of the rocket that carried Shenzhou 10 spacecraft on 11 June 2013. The long-distance propagation of shock and acoustic waves were observed on both sides of the rocket's trajectory. On the southern side, the wave structures (characterized by a horizontal extension of ~1400 km and initial amplitudes of 0.3 total electron content unit (TECU) and 0.1 TECU for the shock and acoustic waves, respectively), traveled southwestward a distance of ~1500 km at mean velocities of 1011 m s-1 and 709 m s-1, respectively. On the northern side, northward propagating waves were seen to travel a distance of ~600 km with much smaller amplitudes of less than 0.05 TECU. Subsequent waves with amplitudes of less than 0.02 TECU could also be seen. Clear wave structures were found at a distance of ~600-2000 km from launch site.

  5. International Symposium on Recent Advances in Aerodynamics and Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Charles


    The Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics at Stanford University was established in October 1973 to provide an academic environment for long-term cooperative research between Stanford and NASA Ames Research Center. Since its establishment, the Institute has conducted theoretical and experimental work in the areas of aerodynamics, acoustics, fluid mechanics, flight dynamics, guidance and control, and human factors. This research has involved Stanford faculty, research associates, graduate students, and many distinguished visitors in collaborative efforts with the research staff of NASA Ames Research Center. The occasion of the Institute's tenth anniversary was used to reflect back on where that research has brought us, and to consider where our endeavors should be directed next. Thus, an International Symposium was held to review recent advances in the fields relevant to the activities of the Institute and to discuss the areas of research to be undertaken in the future. This anniversary was also chosen...

  6. Internal flow of acoustically levitated drops undergoing sectorial oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C.L.; Xie, W.J.; Yan, Z.L.; Wei, B.


    We present the experimental observation and theoretical analysis of fluid flow in acoustically levitated water drop undergoing sectorial oscillations. The fluid always flows between the extended sections and the compressed sections. The magnitude of fluid velocity decreases from the equatorial fringe to the centre of levitated drop. The maximum fluid velocity is 60-160 mm/s and the Reynolds number of the oscillations is estimated to be 137-367. The internal flow of the drop is analyzed as potential flow, and the fluid velocity is found to be horizontal. In the equatorial plane, the calculated stream lines and velocity profiles agree well with the experimental observations.

  7. Qualitative internal surface roughness classification using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafizi Zohari; Mohd Hanif Saad


    This paper describes a novel new nondestructive method of qualitative internal surface roughness classification for pipes utilizing Acoustic Emission (AE) signal. Two different flowrate are introduced in a pipe obstructed using normally available components (e.g.: valve). The AE signal at suitable location from the obstruction are obtained and the peak amplitudes, RMS amplitude and energy of the AE signal are obtained. A dimensionless number, the Bangi Number, AB, is then calculated as a ratio of the AE parameters (peak amplitude, RMS amplitude or energy) in low flowrate measurement compared to the AE parameters in high flowrate measurement. It was observed that the Bangi Number, AB obtained can then be used to successfully discriminate between rough and smooth internal surface roughness. (author)

  8. Acoustic observations of internal tides and tidal currents in shallow water. (United States)

    Turgut, Altan; Mignerey, Peter C; Goldstein, David J; Schindall, Jeffrey A


    Significant acoustic travel-time variability and frequency shifts of acoustic intensity level curves in broadband signal spectrograms were measured in the East China Sea during the summer of 2008. The broadband pulses (270-330 Hz) were transmitted from a fixed source and received at a bottomed horizontal array, located at the 33 km range. The acoustic intensity level curves of the received signals indicate regular frequency shifts that are well correlated with the measured internal tides. Similarly, regular travel-time shifts of the acoustic mode arrivals correlate well with the barotropic tides and can be explained by tidal currents along the acoustic propagation track. These observations indicate the potential of monitoring internal tides and tidal currents using low-frequency acoustic signals propagating at long ranges.

  9. The availability of the detection method of internal valve leakage using acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Suzuki, Akio


    The purpose of this study is to estimate the availability of acoustic method to the internal leakage of the valves at power plants. The acoustic method was applied to the valves at the site, and the background noise was measured for the abnormal plantcondition. From the comparison of the background noise date with the experimental results as to relation between leakage flow and acoust signal, the minimum leakage flow rates that can be detected by the acoust signal was suggested. When the background levels are higher than the acoust signal, the method described below was considered that the analysis the remainder among the background noise frequency spectrum and the acoustic signal spectrum become a very useful leak detection method. A few experimental examples of the spectrum analysis that varied the background noise characteristic were given. (author)

  10. Acoustic multipath arrivals in the horizontal plane due to approaching nonlinear internal waves. (United States)

    Badiey, Mohsen; Katsnelson, Boris G; Lin, Ying-Tsong; Lynch, James F


    Simultaneous measurements of acoustic wave transmissions and a nonlinear internal wave packet approaching an along-shelf acoustic path during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment are reported. The incoming internal wave packet acts as a moving frontal layer reflecting (or refracting) sound in the horizontal plane. Received acoustic signals are filtered into acoustic normal mode arrivals. It is shown that a horizontal multipath interference is produced. This has previously been called a horizontal Lloyd's mirror. The interference between the direct path and the refracted path depends on the mode number and frequency of the acoustic signal. A mechanism for the multipath interference is shown. Preliminary modeling results of this dynamic interaction using vertical modes and horizontal parabolic equation models are in good agreement with the observed data.

  11. International proposal for an acoustic classification scheme for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit


    Acoustic classification schemes specify different quality levels for acoustic conditions. Regulations and classification schemes for dwellings typically include criteria for airborne and impact sound insulation, façade sound insulation and service equipment noise. However, although important...... classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme would be useful, and the European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", running 2009-2013 with members from 32 countries, including three overseas...... for quality of life, information about acoustic conditions is rarely available, neither for new or existing housing. Regulatory acoustic requirements will, if enforced, ensure a corresponding quality for new dwellings, but satisfactory conditions for occupants are not guaranteed. Consequently, several...

  12. Summary and consensus in 7th International Conference on acoustic neuroma: An update for the management of sporadic acoustic neuromas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu


    Full Text Available Sporadic vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor arising from cochleovestibular nerve. Nowadays, various specialties and medical centers are treating this disease, and the multidisciplinary collaboration is the trend. In an effort to promote a uniform standard for reporting clinical results, even for treatment indications, the mainly controversies were posed and discussed during the 7th International Conference on acoustic neuroma, and the agreement was summarized by the Committee of this conference. The main symptoms grading and tumor stage should note its name of classification for making them comparable. The goal of the modern managements for vestibular schwannoma is to improve the quality of life with lower mortality, lower morbidity and better neurological function preservation. The experience of surgical team and their preference might be a major factor for the outcome. Because of lacking of long-term follow-up large data after radiotherapy, and with the development of microsurgery, radiotherapy is now less recommended except for recurrent cases or elderly patients. Keywords: Sporadic acoustic neuroma, Vestibular schwannoma, Management, Symptoms grading, Tumor stage, Microsurgery, Radiotherapy

  13. Temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental shelf with random internal waves. (United States)

    Gong, Zheng; Chen, Tianrun; Ratilal, Purnima; Makris, Nicholas C


    An analytical model derived from normal mode theory for the accumulated effects of range-dependent multiple forward scattering is applied to estimate the temporal coherence of the acoustic field forward propagated through a continental-shelf waveguide containing random three-dimensional internal waves. The modeled coherence time scale of narrow band low-frequency acoustic field fluctuations after propagating through a continental-shelf waveguide is shown to decay with a power-law of range to the -1/2 beyond roughly 1 km, decrease with increasing internal wave energy, to be consistent with measured acoustic coherence time scales. The model should provide a useful prediction of the acoustic coherence time scale as a function of internal wave energy in continental-shelf environments. The acoustic coherence time scale is an important parameter in remote sensing applications because it determines (i) the time window within which standard coherent processing such as matched filtering may be conducted, and (ii) the number of statistically independent fluctuations in a given measurement period that determines the variance reduction possible by stationary averaging.

  14. Assessment and Control of Spacecraft Charging Risks on the International Space Station (United States)

    Koontz, Steve; Valentine, Mark; Keeping, Thomas; Edeen, Marybeth; Spetch, William; Dalton, Penni


    The International Space Station (ISS) operates in the F2 region of Earth's ionosphere, orbiting at altitudes ranging from 350 to 450 km at an inclination of 51.6 degrees. The relatively dense, cool F2 ionospheric plasma suppresses surface charging processes much of the time, and the flux of relativistic electrons is low enough to preclude deep dielectric charging processes. The most important spacecraft charging processes in the ISS orbital environment are: 1) ISS electrical power system interactions with the F2 plasma, 2) magnetic induction processes resulting from flight through the geomagnetic field and, 3) charging processes that result from interaction with auroral electrons at high latitude. Recently, the continuing review and evaluation of putative ISS charging hazards required by the ISS Program Office revealed that ISS charging could produce an electrical shock hazard to the ISS crew during extravehicular activity (EVA). ISS charging risks are being evaluated in an ongoing measurement and analysis campaign. The results of ISS charging measurements are combined with a recently developed model of ISS charging (the Plasma Interaction Model) and an exhaustive analysis of historical ionospheric variability data (ISS Ionospheric Specification) to evaluate ISS charging risks using Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methods. The PRA combines estimates of the frequency of occurrence and severity of the charging hazards with estimates of the reliability of various hazard controls systems, as required by NASA s safety and risk management programs, to enable design and selection of a hazard control approach that minimizes overall programmatic and personnel risk. The PRA provides a quantitative methodology for incorporating the results of the ISS charging measurement and analysis campaigns into the necessary hazard reports, EVA procedures, and ISS flight rules required for operating ISS in a safe and productive manner.

  15. International Space Station USOS Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.


    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment (USOS) has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQ) providing a private crewmember space. The CQ uses Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air from the ISS Temperature Humidity Control System or the ISS fluid cooling loop connections. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crewmember s head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ interior needs to be below Noise Curve 40 (NC-40). The CQ ventilation ducts are open to the significantly louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significantly acoustic mitigation controls. The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  16. A generalized modal shock spectra method for spacecraft loads analysis. [internal loads in a spacecraft structure subjected to a dynamic launch environment (United States)

    Trubert, M.; Salama, M.


    Unlike an earlier shock spectra approach, generalization permits an accurate elastic interaction between the spacecraft and launch vehicle to obtain accurate bounds on the spacecraft response and structural loads. In addition, the modal response from a previous launch vehicle transient analysis with or without a dummy spacecraft - is exploited to define a modal impulse as a simple idealization of the actual forcing function. The idealized modal forcing function is then used to derive explicit expressions for an estimate of the bound on the spacecraft structural response and forces. Greater accuracy is achieved with the present method over the earlier shock spectra, while saving much computational effort over the transient analysis.

  17. Mean of Microaccelerations Estimate in the Small Spacecraft Internal Environment with the Use of Fuzzy Sets (United States)

    Sedelnikov, A. V.


    Assessment of parameters of rotary motion of the small spacecraft around its center of mass and of microaccelerations using measurements of current from silicon photocells is carried out. At the same time there is a problem of interpretation of ambiguous telemetric data. Current from two opposite sides of the small spacecraft is significant. The mean of removal of such uncertainty is considered. It is based on an fuzzy set. As membership function it is offered to use a normality condition of the direction cosines. The example of uncertainty removal for a prototype of the Aist small spacecraft is given. The offered approach can significantly increase the accuracy of microaccelerations estimate when using measurements of current from silicon photocells.

  18. A study on the evaluation of internal leak in valve using acoustic emission method(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Lee, Wook Ryun; Park, Jong Hyuck; Kim, Kwang Hong


    The objective of this study is to estimate the feasibility of acoustic emission method for the internal leak from the valves. In this study, valve leak tests using various types of specimen simulated seat damage were performed in order to analyzer acoustic emission properties when leaks arise in valve seat. As a result of leak test for specimens simulated valve seat, we conformed that leak sound level increased in proportion to the increase of hole diameter and leak velocity, and decreased in proportion to the increase of leak depth. And also, leak sound level has hysteresis for leak velocity. From the experimental results, it was suggested that the acoustic emission method for monitoring of leak was feasible.

  19. A study on the spectrum analyzing of internal leak in valve for power plant using acoustic emission method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Guk; Lee, Sun Ki; Lee, Jun Shin; Sohn, Seok Man


    The purpose of this study is to estimate the availability of acoustic emission method to the internal leak of the valves at nuclear power plants. The acoustic emission method was applied to the valves at the site, and the background noise was measured for the abnormal plant condition. From the comparison of the background noise data with the experimental results as to relation between leak flow and acoustic signal, the minimum leak flow rates that can be detected by acoustic signal was suggested. When the background levels are higher than the acoustic signal, the method described below was considered that the analysis the remainder among the background noise frequency spectrum and the acoustic signal spectrum become a very useful leak detection method. A few experimental examples of the spectrum analysis that varied the background noise characteristic were given

  20. The internal acoustic canal - another review area in paediatric sensorineural hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetcuti, Karen; Kumbla, Surekha


    Morphological abnormalities of the internal acoustic canal (IAC), albeit rare, are sometimes associated with hearing loss in children. We present an illustration of the spectrum of IAC abnormalities together with a brief review of the embryology and anatomy of the IAC and the techniques used when imaging the petrous temporal bone. This review focuses on morphological abnormalities of the IAC together with their clinical implications and impact on clinical management. (orig.)

  1. The internal acoustic canal - another review area in paediatric sensorineural hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chetcuti, Karen [The Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Kumbla, Surekha [The Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Monash Health, Clayton, VIC (Australia)


    Morphological abnormalities of the internal acoustic canal (IAC), albeit rare, are sometimes associated with hearing loss in children. We present an illustration of the spectrum of IAC abnormalities together with a brief review of the embryology and anatomy of the IAC and the techniques used when imaging the petrous temporal bone. This review focuses on morphological abnormalities of the IAC together with their clinical implications and impact on clinical management. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of microscopic and endoscopic view of the internal acoustic meatus: A cadaveric study. (United States)

    Montibeller, Guilherme Ramina; Hendrix, Philipp; Fries, Fabian N; Becker, Kurt W; Oertel, Joachim


    The endoscope is thought to provide an improved exposure of the internal acoustic meatus after retrosigmoid craniotomy for microsurgical resection of intrameatal tumors. The aim of this study is to quantify the differences in internal acoustic meatus (IAM) exposure comparing microscopic and endoscopic visualization. A retrosigmoid approach was performed on 5 cadaver heads. A millimeter gauge was introduced into the internal acoustic meatus, and examinations with a surgical microscope and 0°, 30° and 70° rigid endoscopes were performed. The extent of IAM depth visualized with the microscope and the different angled endoscopes were analyzed. The microscopic view allowed an average IAM depth visualization of 2.8 mm. The endoscope allowed an improved exposure of IAM in all cases. The 0°, 30° and 70° endoscopes permitted an exposure that was respectively 96% (5.5 mm), 139% (6.7 mm) and 200% (8.4 mm) more lateral than the microscopic view. Angled optics, however, provided an image distortion, specifically the 70° endoscope. The endoscope provides a superior visualization of the IAM compared to the microscope when using a retrosigmoid approach. The 30° endoscope represented an ideal compromise of superior visualization with marginal image distortion. Additional implementation of the endoscope into microsurgery of intrameatal tumors likely facilitates complete tumor removal and might spare facial and vestibulocochlear function. Clin. Anat. 31:398-403, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Vibro-acoustic condition monitoring of Internal Combustion Engines: A critical review of existing techniques (United States)

    Delvecchio, S.; Bonfiglio, P.; Pompoli, F.


    This paper deals with the state-of-the-art strategies and techniques based on vibro-acoustic signals that can monitor and diagnose malfunctions in Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs) under both test bench and vehicle operating conditions. Over recent years, several authors have summarized what is known in critical reviews mainly focused on reciprocating machines in general or on specific signal processing techniques: no attempts to deal with IC engine condition monitoring have been made. This paper first gives a brief summary of the generation of sound and vibration in ICEs in order to place further discussion on fault vibro-acoustic diagnosis in context. An overview of the monitoring and diagnostic techniques described in literature using both vibration and acoustic signals is also provided. Different faulty conditions are described which affect combustion, mechanics and the aerodynamics of ICEs. The importance of measuring acoustic signals, as opposed to vibration signals, is due since the former seem to be more suitable for implementation on on-board monitoring systems in view of their non-intrusive behaviour, capability in simultaneously capturing signatures from several mechanical components and because of the possibility of detecting faults affecting airborne transmission paths. In view of the recent needs of the industry to (-) optimize component structural durability adopting long-life cycles, (-) verify the engine final status at the end of the assembly line and (-) reduce the maintenance costs monitoring the ICE life during vehicle operations, monitoring and diagnosing system requests are continuously growing up. The present review can be considered a useful guideline for test engineers in understanding which types of fault can be diagnosed by using vibro-acoustic signals in sufficient time in both test bench and operating conditions and which transducer and signal processing technique (of which the essential background theory is here reported) could be

  4. Acoustic Test Results of Melamine Foam with Application to Payload Fairing Acoustic Attenuation Systems (United States)

    Hughes, William O.; McNelis, Anne M.


    A spacecraft at launch is subjected to a harsh acoustic and vibration environment resulting from the passage of acoustic energy, created during the liftoff of a launch vehicle, through the vehicle's payload fairing. In order to ensure the mission success of the spacecraft it is often necessary to reduce the resulting internal acoustic sound pressure levels through the usage of acoustic attenuation systems. Melamine foam, lining the interior walls of the payload fairing, is often utilized as the main component of such a system. In order to better understand the acoustic properties of melamine foam, with the goal of developing improved acoustic attenuation systems, NASA has recently performed panel level testing on numerous configurations of melamine foam acoustic treatments at the Riverbank Acoustical Laboratory. Parameters assessed included the foam's thickness and density, as well as the effects of a top outer cover sheet material and mass barriers embedded within the foam. This testing followed the ASTM C423 standard for absorption and the ASTM E90 standard for transmission loss. The acoustic test data obtained and subsequent conclusions are the subjects of this paper.

  5. International Symposium on Spacecraft Ground Control and Flight Dynamics, SCD1, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil, Feb. 7-11, 1994 (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Pawel; Kuga, Helio Koiti; Orlando, Valcir

    An international symposium on spacecraft flight dynamics and ground control systems produced 85 papers in the areas of attitude determination and control, orbit control, satellite constellation strategies, stationkeeping, spacecraft maneuvering, orbit determination, astrodynamics, ground command and control systems, and mission operations. Several papers included discussions on the application of artificial intelligence, neural networks, expert systems, and ion propulsion. For individual titles, see A95-89098 through A95-89182.

  6. Microbiomes of the Dust Particles Collected from the International Space Station and Spacecraft Assembly Facilities (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The safety of the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers and maintenance of ISS hardware are the primary rationale for monitoring microorganisms in this...

  7. Acoustically damped metal oil trough for internal combustion engines. Schallgedaempfte Blech-Oelwanne fuer Brennkraftmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, H.


    The invention refers to an acoustically damped oil trough. As there are strict requirements for reducing the noise emission from internal combustion engines, according to the invention it is proposed that the oil trough should be surrounded by an outer trough, where the outer trough is made of plastic or sheet steel in one or more layers. To avoid noise bridges, the oil trough and outer trough are separated by elastomer elements. The outer trough achieves a reasonably priced increase in sound insulation. It is also possible to backfit an outer trough on engines.

  8. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  9. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Litniewski, Jerzy; Kujawska, Tamara; 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging


    The International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging is a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place continuously since 1968. In the course of the years the proceedings volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have become a reference for cutting-edge research in the field. In 2011 the 31st International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Warsaw, Poland, April 10-13. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art as well as  in-depth research contributions by the specialists in the field, this Volume 31 in the Series contains an excellent collection of papers in six major categories: Biological and Medical Imaging Physics and Mathematics of Acoustical Imaging Acoustic Microscopy Transducers and Arrays Nondestructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Underwater Imaging


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Leiko


    Full Text Available The problem of sound emission is considered by a system formed from cylindrical piezoceramic radiators with internal acoustically soft screens. Longitudinal axis of emitters lie in one plane. This system is characterized by the interaction of electric, mechanical and acoustic fields in the process of conversion electrical energy to acoustical energy and acoustic fields in the process of forming them in the environments. The purpose of the work is to determine the peculiarities of the electromechanical acoustic transformation of energy by cylindrical piezoceramic radiators with internal screens in the composition of flat systems, taking into account all types of interaction.The research was carried out by the method of bound fields in multiply connected domains with the use of addition theorems for the cylindrical wave functions. The physical fields arising from the emission of sound by such a system are determined by the joint solution of the system of differential equations: the wave equation; equations of motion of thin piezoceramic shells with circular polarization in displacements; the equations of forced electrostatics for piezoceramics at given boundary conditions, the conditions of conjugation of fields at the boundaries of the division of domains and electric conditions.The solution of the problem is reduced to the solution of an infinite system of linear algebraic equations with respect to unknown coefficients of field expansions.An analysis of the results of numerical calculations, performed on the basis of the obtained analytical relations, called to establish a number of features in the electromechanical acoustic transformation of energy by emitters in the composition of flat systems. They include: the role of acoustic interaction in the process of energy conversion; determination of the mechanism of quantitative assessment of the influence of interaction on these processes; the dependence of the degree of violation of the radial

  11. Constraints on Ceres' Internal Structure and Evolution From Its Shape and Gravity Measured by the Dawn Spacecraft (United States)

    Ermakov, A. I.; Fu, R. R.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Raymond, C. A.; Park, R. S.; Preusker, F.; Russell, C. T.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.


    Ceres is the largest body in the asteroid belt with a radius of approximately 470 km. In part due to its large mass, Ceres more closely approaches hydrostatic equilibrium than major asteroids. Pre-Dawn mission shape observations of Ceres revealed a shape consistent with a hydrostatic ellipsoid of revolution. The Dawn spacecraft Framing Camera has been imaging Ceres since March 2015, which has led to high-resolution shape models of the dwarf planet, while the gravity field has been globally determined to a spherical harmonic degree 14 (equivalent to a spatial wavelength of 211 km) and locally to 18 (a wavelength of 164 km). We use these shape and gravity models to constrain Ceres' internal structure. We find a negative correlation and admittance between topography and gravity at degree 2 and order 2. Low admittances between spherical harmonic degrees 3 and 16 are well explained by Airy isostatic compensation mechanism. Different models of isostasy give crustal densities between 1,200 and 1,400 kg/m3 with our preferred model giving a crustal density of 1,287+70-87 kg/m3. The mantle density is constrained to be 2,434+5-8 kg/m3. We compute isostatic gravity anomaly and find evidence for mascon-like structures in the two biggest basins. The topographic power spectrum of Ceres and its latitude dependence suggest that viscous relaxation occurred at the long wavelengths (>246 km). Our density constraints combined with finite element modeling of viscous relaxation suggests that the rheology and density of the shallow surface are most consistent with a rock, ice, salt and clathrate mixture.

  12. Use of piezosurgery for internal auditory canal drilling in acoustic neuroma surgery. (United States)

    Grauvogel, Juergen; Scheiwe, Christian; Kaminsky, Jan


    Piezosurgery is based on microvibrations generated by the piezoelectrical effect and has a selective bone-cutting ability with preservation of soft tissue. This study examined the applicability of Piezosurgery compared to rotating drills (RD) for internal auditory canal (IAC) opening in acoustic neuroma (AN) surgery. Piezosurgery was used in eight patients for IAC drilling in AN surgery. After exposition of the IAC and tumor, the posterior wall of the IAC was drilled using Piezosurgery instead of RD. Piezosurgery was evaluated with respect to practicability, safety, preciseness of bone cutting, preservation of cranial nerves, influences on neurophysiological monitoring, and facial nerve and hearing outcome. Piezosurgery was successfully used for selective bone cutting, while cranial nerves were structurally and functionally preserved, which could be measured by means of neuromonitoring. Piezosurgery guaranteed a safe and precise cut by removing bone layer by layer in a shaping way. Compared to RD, limited influence on neurophysiological monitoring attributable to Piezosurgery was noted, allowing for continuous neuromonitoring. No disadvantage due to microvibrations was noticed concerning hearing function. The angled tip showed better handling in right-sided than in left-sided tumors in the hands of a right-handed surgeon. The short, thick handpiece may be improved for more convenient handling. Piezosurgery is a safe tool for selective bone cutting for opening of the IAC with preservation of facial nerve and hearing function in AN surgery. Piezosurgery has the potential to replace RD for this indication because of its safe and precise bone-cutting properties.

  13. Acoustic mode coupling induced by shallow water nonlinear internal waves: sensitivity to environmental conditions and space-time scales of internal waves. (United States)

    Colosi, John A


    While many results have been intuited from numerical simulation studies, the precise connections between shallow-water acoustic variability and the space-time scales of nonlinear internal waves (NLIWs) as well as the background environmental conditions have not been clearly established analytically. Two-dimensional coupled mode propagation through NLIWs is examined using a perturbation series solution in which each order n is associated with nth-order multiple scattering. Importantly, the perturbation solution gives resonance conditions that pick out specific NLIW scales that cause coupling, and seabed attenuation is demonstrated to broaden these resonances, fundamentally changing the coupling behavior at low frequency. Sound-speed inhomogeneities caused by internal solitary waves (ISWs) are primarily considered and the dependence of mode coupling on ISW amplitude, range width, depth structure, location relative to the source, and packet characteristics are delineated as a function of acoustic frequency. In addition, it is seen that significant energy transfer to modes with initially low or zero energy involves at least a second order scattering process. Under moderate scattering conditions, comparisons of first order, single scattering theoretical predictions to direct numerical simulation demonstrate the accuracy of the approach for acoustic frequencies upto 400 Hz and for single as well as multiple ISW wave packets.

  14. International Workshop on Detection, Classification and Localization of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics (4th). International Workshop on Density Estimation of Marine Mammals Using Passive Acoustics (1st) (United States)


    Università degli Studi di Pavia Dipartimento di Biologia Animale Centro Interdisciplinare di Bioacustica e Ricerche Ambientali 4th International...Dipartimento di Biologia Animale Centro Interdisciplinare di Bioacustica e Ricerche Ambientali 4th International Workshop on Detection, Classification...mail: ORGANIZED BY: Università degli Studi di Pavia - Dipartimento di Biologia Animale CIBRA CENTRO INTERDISCIPLINARE DI

  15. High-frequency bottom-pressure and acoustic variations in a sea strait: internal wave turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.


    During a period of 3 days, an accurate bottom-pressure sensor and a four-beam acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were mounted in a bottom frame at 23 m in a narrow sea strait with dominant near-rectilinear tidal currents exceeding 1 m s(-1) in magnitude. The pressure record distinguishes small

  16. Role of the Internal Superior Laryngeal Nerve in the Motor Responses of Vocal Cords and the Related Voice Acoustic Changes (United States)

    Seifpanahi, Sadegh; Izadi, Farzad; Jamshidi, Ali-Ashraf; Torabinezhad, Farhad; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Mohammadi, Siavash


    Background: Repeated efforts by researchers to impose voice changes by laryngeal surface electrical stimulation (SES) have come to no avail. This present pre-experimental study employed a novel method for SES application so as to evoke the motor potential of the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN) and create voice changes. Methods: Thirty-two normal individuals (22 females and 10 males) participated in this study. The subjects were selected from the students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Two monopolar active electrodes were placed on the thyrohyoid space at the location of the ISLN entrance to the larynx and 1 dispersive electrode was positioned on the back of the neck. A current with special programmed parameters was applied to stimulate the ISLN via the active electrodes and simultaneously the resultant acoustic changes were evaluated. All the means of the acoustic parameters during SES and rest periods were compared using the paired t-test. Results: The findings indicated significant changes (P=0.00) in most of the acoustic parameters during SES presentation compared to them at rest. The mean of fundamental frequency standard deviation (SD F0) at rest was 1.54 (SD=0.55) versus 4.15 (SD=3.00) for the SES period. The other investigated parameters comprised fundamental frequency (F0), minimum F0, jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR), mean intensity, and minimum intensity. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated significant changes in most of the important acoustic features, suggesting that the stimulation of the ISLN via SES could induce motor changes in the vocal folds. The clinical applicability of the method utilized in the current study in patients with vocal fold paralysis requires further research. PMID:27582586

  17. Role of the Internal Superior Laryngeal Nerve in the Motor Responses of Vocal Cords and the Related Voice Acoustic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Seifpanahi


    Full Text Available Background: Repeated efforts by researchers to impose voice changes by laryngeal surface electrical stimulation (SES have come to no avail. This present pre-experimental study employed a novel method for SES application so as to evoke the motor potential of the internal superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN and create voice changes. Methods: Thirty-two normal individuals (22 females and 10 males participated in this study. The subjects were selected from the students of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Two monopolar active electrodes were placed on the thyrohyoid space at the location of the ISLN entrance to the larynx and 1 dispersive electrode was positioned on the back of the neck. A current with special programmed parameters was applied to stimulate the ISLN via the active electrodes and simultaneously the resultant acoustic changes were evaluated. All the means of the acoustic parameters during SES and rest periods were compared using the paired t-test. Results: The findings indicated significant changes (P=0.00 in most of the acoustic parameters during SES presentation compared to them at rest. The mean of fundamental frequency standard deviation (SD F0 at rest was 1.54 (SD=0.55 versus 4.15 (SD=3.00 for the SES period. The other investigated parameters comprised fundamental frequency (F0, minimum F0, jitter, shimmer, harmonic-to-noise ratio (HNR, mean intensity, and minimum intensity. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated significant changes in most of the important acoustic features, suggesting that the stimulation of the ISLN via SES could induce motor changes in the vocal folds. The clinical applicability of the method utilized in the current study in patients with vocal fold paralysis requires further research.

  18. Acoustical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Akiyama, Iwaki


    The 29th International Symposium on Acoustical Imaging was held in Shonan Village, Kanagawa, Japan, April 15-18, 2007. This interdisciplinary Symposium has been taking place every two years since 1968 and forms a unique forum for advanced research, covering new technologies, developments, methods and theories in all areas of acoustics. In the course of the years the volumes in the Acoustical Imaging Series have developed and become well-known and appreciated reference works. Offering both a broad perspective on the state-of-the-art in the field as well as an in-depth look at its leading edge research, this Volume 29 in the Series contains again an excellent collection of seventy papers presented in nine major categories: Strain Imaging Biological and Medical Applications Acoustic Microscopy Non-Destructive Evaluation and Industrial Applications Components and Systems Geophysics and Underwater Imaging Physics and Mathematics Medical Image Analysis FDTD method and Other Numerical Simulations Audience Researcher...

  19. Bill Lang's contributions to acoustics at International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), signal processing, international standards, and professionalism in noise control engineering (United States)

    Maling, George C.


    Bill Lang joined IBM in the late 1950s with a mandate from Thomas Watson Jr. himself to establish an acoustics program at IBM. Bill created the facilities in Poughkeepsie, developed the local program, and was the leader in having other IBM locations with development and manufacturing responsibilities construct facilities and hire staff under the Interdivisional Liaison Program. He also directed IBMs acoustics technology program. In the mid-1960s, he led an IEEE standards group in Audio and Electroacoustics, and, with the help of James Cooley, Peter Welch, and others, introduced the fast Fourier transform to the acoustics community. He was the convenor of ISO TC 43 SC1 WG6 that began writing the 3740 series of standards in the 1970s. It was his suggestion to promote professionalism in noise control engineering, and, through meetings with Leo Beranek and others, led the founding of INCE/USA in 1971. He was also a leader of the team that founded International INCE in 1974, and he served as president from 1988 until 1999.

  20. Computerized Analysis of Acoustic Characteristics of Patients with Internal Nasal Valve Collapse Before and After Functional Rhinoplasty (United States)

    Rezaei, Fariba; Omrani, Mohammad Reza; Abnavi, Fateme; Mojiri, Fariba; Golabbakhsh, Marzieh; Barati, Sohrab; Mahaki, Behzad


    Acoustic analysis of sounds produced during speech provides significant information about the physiology of larynx and vocal tract. The analysis of voice power spectrum is a fundamental sensitive method of acoustic assessment that provides valuable information about the voice source and characteristics of vocal tract resonance cavities. The changes in long-term average spectrum (LTAS) spectral tilt and harmony to noise ratio (HNR) were analyzed to assess the voice quality before and after functional rhinoplasty in patients with internal nasal valve collapse. Before and 3 months after functional rhinoplasty, 12 participants were evaluated and HNR and LTAS spectral tilt in /a/ and /i/ vowels were estimated. It was seen that an increase in HNR and a decrease in LTAS spectral tilt existed after surgery. Mean LTAS spectral tilt in vowel /a/ decreased from 2.37 ± 1.04 to 2.28 ± 1.17 (P = 0.388), and it was decreased from 4.16 ± 1.65 to 2.73 ± 0.69 in vowel /i/ (P = 0.008). Mean HNR in the vowel /a/ increased from 20.71 ± 3.93 to 25.06 ± 2.67 (P = 0.002), and it was increased from 21.28 ± 4.11 to 25.26 ± 3.94 in vowel /i/ (P = 0.002). Modification of the vocal tract caused the vocal cords to close sufficiently, and this showed that although rhinoplasty did not affect the larynx directly, it changes the structure of the vocal tract and consequently the resonance of voice production. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in voice parameters after functional rhinoplasty in patients with internal nasal valve collapse by computerized analysis of acoustic characteristics. PMID:26955564

  1. 14th International Conference on Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Marinca, Vasile


    This book is a collection of papers presented at Acoustics and Vibration of Mechanical Structures 2017 – AVMS 2017 – highlighting the current trends and state-of-the-art developments in the field. It covers a broad range of topics, such as noise and vibration control, noise and vibration generation and propagation, the effects of noise and vibration, condition monitoring and vibration testing, modeling, prediction and simulation of noise and vibration, environmental and occupational noise and vibration, noise and vibration attenuators, as well as biomechanics and bioacoustics. The book also presents analytical, numerical and experimental techniques for evaluating linear and non-linear noise and vibration problems (including strong nonlinearity). It is primarily intended for academics, researchers and professionals, as well as PhD students in various fields of the acoustics and vibration of mechanical structures.

  2. International Symposium on Acoustic Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Oceans (2nd). (United States)


    work to develop a model the volume wave to form the boundary which relates hydrodynamical features of 6 ~A the ocean-air interface to ambient my belief oscillating bubbles, splashing waves and that the sodar work is not well known in water droplets, bubble cavitation , the Navy acoustics...Temperature," in accumulate in the same locations. Major Proceedings, InternationaZ Symposi- pollutants include oil spills, drilling w on Remote Sensing of

  3. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael


    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  4. Bill Lang's contributions to acoustics at the International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) and to IBM in general (United States)

    Nobile, Matthew A.; Chu, Richard C.


    Although Bill Lang's accomplishments and key roles in national and international standards and in the formation of INCE are widely recognized, sometimes it has to be remembered that for nearly 35 years he also had a ``day job'' at the IBM Corporation. His achievements at IBM were no less significant and enduring than those in external standards and professional societies. This paper will highlight some of the accomplishments and activities of Bill Lang as an IBM noise control engineer, the creator of the IBM Acoustics Lab in Poughkeepsie, the founder of the global Acoustics program at IBM, and his many other IBM leadership roles. Bill was also a long-serving IBM manager, with the full set of personnel issues to deal with, so his people-management skills were often called into play. Bill ended his long and fruitful IBM career at a high point. In 1988, he took an original idea of his to the top of IBM executive management, which led directly to the formation of the IBM Academy of Technology, today the preeminent body of IBM top technical leaders from around the world.

  5. Internal Acoustic Transceivers Reveal the Annual Social Network Patterns in a Coastal Top Predator (United States)

    Haulsee, D.; Fox, D. A.; Breece, M.; Wetherbee, B.; Brown, L.; Kneebone, J.; Skomal, G.; Oliver, M. J.


    Sand Tigers (Carcharias taurus) are large apex predators resident in the coastal ocean along the Eastern US Coast. Although Delaware Bay and surrounding coastal waters are known summer "hot spots" for Sand Tigers, our understanding of their seasonal movements is less well known. Since 2007, we have implanted more than 300 VEMCO acoustic transmitters in Sand Tigers, which have been detected from Cape Canaveral, Florida to Long Island, New York by collaborators in the Atlantic Cooperative Telemetry (ACT) Network. During the summer of 2012, 20 Sand Tigers were implanted with VEMCO Mobile Transceivers (VMTs), which are capable of both transmitting and receiving coded acoustic pings. To date, two of the 20 sharks have been recaptured, and their VMTs recovered. VMTs recorded detections of 350 individuals, from 8 different species. We analyzed their intra- and interspecific social network, which allowed us to reconstruct the approximate locations of Sand Tigers throughout the year. Changes in the interspecific population dynamics throughout the year revealed evidence of fission-fusion social behavior, which is common in mammals, but rarely documented in non-mammalian species. This project is a unique look at the social network of an apex predator and is a useful model for studies quantifying the social structures of marine animals. In addition, understanding how the aggregations of this species changes (in terms of sex and size class segregation) on spatiotemporal scales is critical for effective protection of the species and will be useful as managers develop conservation plans along the East Coast.

  6. Acoustically Induced Vibration of Structures: Reverberant Vs. Direct Acoustic Testing (United States)

    Kolaini, Ali R.; O'Connell, Michael R.; Tsoi, Wan B.


    Large reverberant chambers have been used for several decades in the aerospace industry to test larger structures such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify and to detect faults in the design and fabrication of spacecraft and satellites. In the past decade some companies have begun using direct near field acoustic testing, employing speakers, for qualifying larger structures. A limited test data set obtained from recent acoustic tests of the same hardware exposed to both direct and reverberant acoustic field testing has indicated some differences in the resulting structural responses. In reverberant acoustic testing, higher vibration responses were observed at lower frequencies when compared with the direct acoustic testing. In the case of direct near field acoustic testing higher vibration responses appeared to occur at higher frequencies as well. In reverberant chamber testing and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes of the reverberant chamber or the speakers and spacecraft parallel surfaces can strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware. In this paper data from recent acoustic testing of flight hardware, that yielded evidence of acoustic standing wave coupling with structural responses, are discussed in some detail. Convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave/structural coupling phenomenon will be discussed, citing observations from acoustic testing of a simple aluminum plate. The implications of such acoustic coupling to testing of sensitive flight hardware will be discussed. The results discussed in this paper reveal issues with over or under testing of flight hardware that could pose unanticipated structural and flight qualification issues. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to understand the structural modal coupling with standing acoustic waves that has been observed in both methods of acoustic testing. This study will assist the community to choose an appropriate testing method and test setup in

  7. Compensatory lengthening in the Spanish of Havana, Cuba: Acoustic analyses of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ and /r/ (United States)

    Carlson, Kristin M.

    Given the geographic, demographic, and historical importance of Cuba vis-a-vis the dissemination of language and culture throughout the Hispanic Caribbean, one would naturally anticipate a larger corpus of scientifically-noteworthy linguistic publications on Cuban Spanish, which is far from the actual case. Moreover, the gemination of an onset positionally subsequent to the deletion of a syllable-final liquid (generally termed liquid gemination in the literature) has been repeatedly claimed yet remarkably unsubstantiated as a pervasive characteristic of Cuban Spanish, particularly of the western dialect region (cf. Alfaraz (2000, 2007, 2008), Casanellas and Alamo (1985), Choy Lopez (1985, 1988, 1989), Costa Sanchez (1987), Darias Concepcion (2001, 2005), Dohotaru (2002, 2007), Figueroa Esteva and Dohotaru (1994), Garcia Perez (2006), Garcia Riveron (1991), Haden and Matluck (1973, 1974, 1977), Isbǎsescu (1965, 1968), Lamb (1968), Levina (1970), Montero Bernal (1990, 2002, 2007a, b), Ringer Uber (1986), Ruiz Hernandez (1978), Sosa (1974), Terrell (1976), Trista and Valdes (1978), Valdes Acosta (1980), and Vera Riveron (2000)). As a result, in the interest of supplementing all antecedent work concerning the allophony of final liquids as well as affording a more descriptively-precise account of the allophony of word-internal, post-nuclear /l/ and /[Special character omitted]/ in Cuban Spanish in addition to expressly addressing the need for empirical data-collection and analysis processes, the present investigation was specifically designed and implemented to acoustically investigate the phenomenon of gemination as it is purported to occur in the Spanish of the region of Havana, Cuba: more specifically, (1) to acoustically examine the qualitative and quantitative patternings of post-nuclear /l/ and /[Special character omitted]/ within the word; and (2) to statistically evaluate the relationship between gemination and eight independent variables: gender, age group

  8. Spacecraft exploration of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, J.; Langevin, Y.; Farquhar, R.; Fulchignoni, M.


    After two decades of spacecraft exploration, we still await the first direct investigation of an asteroid. This paper describes how a growing international interest in the solar system's more primitive bodies should remedy this. Plans are under way in Europe for a dedicated asteroid mission (Vesta) which will include multiple flybys with in situ penetrator studies. Possible targets include 4 Vesta, 8 Flora and 46 Hestia; launch its scheduled for 1994 or 1996. In the United States, NASA plans include flybys of asteroids en route to outer solar system targets

  9. Spacecraft radiator systems (United States)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)


    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  10. Acousto-optic control of internal acoustic reflection in tellurium dioxide crystal in case of strong elastic energy walkoff [Invited]. (United States)

    Voloshinov, Vitaly; Polikarpova, Nataliya; Ivanova, Polina; Khorkin, Vladimir


    Peculiar cases of acoustic wave propagation and reflection may be observed in strongly anisotropic acousto-optical crystals. A tellurium dioxide crystal serves as a prime example of such media, since it possesses record indexes of acoustic anisotropy. We studied one of the unusual scenarios of acoustic incidence and reflection from a free crystal-vacuum boundary in paratellurite. The directions of the acoustic waves in the (001) plane of the crystal were determined, and their basic characteristics were calculated. The carried-out acousto-optic experiment at the wavelength of light 532 nm and the acoustic frequency 73 MHz confirmed the theoretical predictions. The effects examined in the paper include the acoustic wave propagation with the record walkoff angle 74°. We also observed the incidence of the wave on the boundary at the angle exceeding 90°. Finally, we registered the close-to-back reflection of acoustic energy following the incidence. One of the stunning aspects is the distribution of energy between the incident and the back-reflected wave. The unusual features of the acoustic wave reflections pointed out in the paper are valuable for their possible applications in acousto-optic devices.

  11. Fluid structure interaction studies on acoustic load response of light water nuclear reactor core internals under blowdown condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses Lemuel Raj, G.; Singh, R.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.


    Acoustic load evaluation within two phase medium and the related fluid-structure interaction analysis in case of Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCA) for light water reactor systems is an important inter-disciplinary area. The present work highlights the development of a three-dimensional finite element code FLUSHEL to analyse LOCA induced depressurization problems for Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) core barrel and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) core shroud. With good comparison obtained between prediction made by the present code and the experimental results of HDR-PWR test problem, coupled fluid-structure interaction analysis of core shroud of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) is presented for recirculation line break. It is shown that the acoustic load induced stresses in the core shroud are small and downcomer acoustic cavity modes are decoupled with the shell multi-lobe modes. Thus the structural integrity of TAPS core shroud for recirculation line break induced acoustic load is demonstrated. (author)

  12. Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography for fibrosis evaluation in patients with chronic hepatitis C: An international multicenter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara (Romania); Bota, Simona, E-mail: [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara (Romania); Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus, E-mail: [Internal Medicine III, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Sirli, Roxana, E-mail: [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timisoara (Romania); Tanaka, Hironori, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Iijima, Hiroko, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya (Japan); Badea, Radu, E-mail: [3rd Medical Clinic, University of Medicine, Cluj Napoca (Romania); Lupsor, Monica, E-mail: [3rd Medical Clinic, University of Medicine, Cluj Napoca (Romania); Fierbinteanu-Braticevici, Carmen, E-mail: [2nd Medical Clinic and Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Bucharest (Romania); Petrisor, Ana, E-mail: [2nd Medical Clinic and Gastroenterology, University Hospital, Bucharest (Romania); Saito, Hidetsugu, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Ebinuma, Hirotoshi, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Friedrich-Rust, Mireen, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Sarrazin, Christoph, E-mail: [Department of Internal Medicine, J.W. Goethe University, Frankfurt/Main (Germany); and others


    Aim: The aim of this international multicenter study was to evaluate the reliability of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography for predicting fibrosis severity, in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Patients and methods: We compared ARFI to liver biopsy (LB) in 914 patients (10 centers, 5 countries) with chronic hepatitis C. In each patient LB (evaluated according to the METAVIR score) and ARFI measurements were performed (median of 5–10 valid measurements, expressed in meters/second – m/s). In 400 from the 914 patients, transient elastography (TE) was also performed (median of 6–10 valid measurements, expressed in kiloPascals – kPa). Results: Valid ARFI measurements were obtained in 911 (99.6%) of 914 cases. On LB 61 cases (6.7%) had F0, 241 (26.4%) had F1, 202 (22.1%) had F2, 187 (20.4%) had F3, and 223 (24.4%) had F4 fibrosis. A highly significant correlation (r = 0.654) was found between ARFI measurements and fibrosis (p < 0.0001). The predictive values of ARFI for various stages of fibrosis were: F ≥ 1 – cut-off > 1.19 m/s (AUROC = 0.779), F ≥ 2 – cut-off > 1.33 m/s (AUROC = 0.792), F ≥ 3 – cut-off > 1.43 m/s (AUROC = 0.829), F = 4 – cut-off > 1.55 m/s (AUROC = 0.842). The correlation with histological fibrosis was not significantly different for TE in comparison with ARFI elastography: r = 0.728 vs. 0.689, p = 0.28. TE was better than ARFI for predicting the presence of liver cirrhosis (p = 0.01) and fibrosis (F ≥ 1, METAVIR) (p = 0.01). Conclusion: ARFI elastography is a reliable method for predicting fibrosis severity in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  13. Architectural acoustics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, Marshall


    .... Beginning with a brief history, it reviews the fundamentals of acoustics, human perception and reaction to sound, acoustic noise measurements, noise metrics, and environmental noise characterization...

  14. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.


    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  15. The Micromorphological Research of the Internal Structure of Chairside CAD/CAM Materials by the Method of Scanning Impulse Acoustic Microscopy (SIAM). (United States)

    Goryainova, Kristina E; Morokov, Egor S; Retinskaja, Marina V; Rusanov, Fedor S; Apresyan, Samvel V; Lebedenko, Igor Yu


    The aim of the present work was to compare the elastic properties and internal structure of 4 different CAD/CAM chairside materials, by the method of Scanning Impulse Acoustic Microscopy (SIAM). Four chairside CAD/CAM materials with different structures from hybrid ceramic (VITA Enamic, VITA Zahnfabrik), feldspatic ceramic (VITABlocs Mark II, VITA Zahnfabrik), leucite glass-ceramic (IPS Empress CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) and PMMA (Telio CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were examined by Scanning Impulse Acoustic Microscope (SIAM). The results of micromorphological research of CAD/CAM chairside materials using SIAM method showed differences between the internal structures of these materials. The internal structure of feldspatic and glass-ceramic samples revealed the presence of pores with different sizes, from 10 to 100 microns; the structure of polymer materials rendered some isolated defects, while in the structure of hybrid material, defects were not found. Based on the results obtained from the present study, in cases of chairside production of dental crowns, it would be advisable to give preference to the blocks of hybrid ceramics. Such ceramics devoid of quite large porosity, glazing for CAD/CAM crowns made from leucite glass-ceramic and feldspatic ceramic may be an option. For these purposes, commercially available special muffle furnace for clinical and laboratory individualization and glazing of ceramic prostheses were provided. Further studies are needed to confirm the evidence emerging from the present research.

  16. The Micromorphological Research of the Internal Structure of Chairside CAD/CAM Materials by the Method of Scanning Impulse Acoustic Microscopy (SIAM) (United States)

    Goryainova, Kristina E.; Morokov, Egor S.; Retinskaja, Marina V.; Rusanov, Fedor S.; Apresyan, Samvel V.; Lebedenko, Igor Yu.


    Aim: The aim of the present work was to compare the elastic properties and internal structure of 4 different CAD/CAM chairside materials, by the method of Scanning Impulse Acoustic Microscopy (SIAM). Methods: Four chairside CAD/CAM materials with different structures from hybrid ceramic (VITA Enamic, VITA Zahnfabrik), feldspatic ceramic (VITABlocs Mark II, VITA Zahnfabrik), leucite glass-ceramic (IPS Empress CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) and PMMA (Telio CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent) were examined by Scanning Impulse Acoustic Microscope (SIAM). Results: The results of micromorphological research of CAD/CAM chairside materials using SIAM method showed differences between the internal structures of these materials. The internal structure of feldspatic and glass-ceramic samples revealed the presence of pores with different sizes, from 10 to 100 microns; the structure of polymer materials rendered some isolated defects, while in the structure of hybrid material, defects were not found. Conclusion: Based on the results obtained from the present study, in cases of chairside production of dental crowns, it would be advisable to give preference to the blocks of hybrid ceramics. Such ceramics devoid of quite large porosity, glazing for CAD/CAM crowns made from leucite glass-ceramic and feldspatic ceramic may be an option. For these purposes, commercially available special muffle furnace for clinical and laboratory individualization and glazing of ceramic prostheses were provided. Further studies are needed to confirm the evidence emerging from the present research. PMID:29492178

  17. Assessing the damage importance rank in acoustic diagnostics of technical conditions of the internal combustion engine with multi-valued logical decision trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deptuła Adam


    Full Text Available This paper presents possible applications of acoustic diagnostics in inspecting the technical condition of an internal combustion engine with autoignition on the example of the Fiat drive unit with the common rail system. As a result of measuring the sound pressure level for specific faults and comparing the noise generated by the motor running smoothly, the detailed maps of changes in the acoustic spectrum may be generated. These results may be helpful in future diagnostics of internal combustion engines. In the paper, we present the results from the scientific works in the area of research, design and operation of internal combustion engines, conducted at the Department of Automotive Engineering, in cooperation with the Laboratory of Hydraulic Drives & Vibroacoustics of Machines at the Wroclaw University of Technology. The broader study has so far allowed us to develop an authoritative method of identifying the type of engine damage using gametree structures. The present works assess the possibility of using multi-valued logic trees.

  18. Communication Acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauert, Jens

    Communication Acoustics deals with the fundamentals of those areas of acoustics which are related to modern communication technologies. Due to the advent of digital signal processing and recording in acoustics, these areas have enjoyed an enormous upswing during the last 4 decades. The book...... the book a source of valuable information for those who want to improve or refresh their knowledge in the field of communication acoustics - and to work their way deeper into it. Due to its interdisciplinary character Communication Acoustics is bound to attract readers from many different areas, such as......: acoustics, cognitive science, speech science, and communication technology....

  19. Spacecraft Spin Test Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to correct unbalances of spacecraft by using dynamic measurement techniques and static/coupled measurements to provide products of...

  20. Acoustic Neuroma (United States)

    An acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor that develops on the nerve that connects the ear to the brain. ... can press against the brain, becoming life-threatening. Acoustic neuroma can be difficult to diagnose, because the ...

  1. Spacecraft Charge Monitor (United States)

    Goembel, L.


    We are currently developing a flight prototype Spacecraft Charge Monitor (SCM) with support from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The device will use a recently proposed high energy-resolution electron spectroscopic technique to determine spacecraft floating potential. The inspiration for the technique came from data collected by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites in the 1970s. The data available from the AE satellites indicate that the SCM may be able to determine spacecraft floating potential to within 0.1 V under certain conditions. Such accurate measurement of spacecraft charge could be used to correct biases in space plasma measurements. The device may also be able to measure spacecraft floating potential in the solar wind and in orbit around other planets.

  2. Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: Results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabi


    Background: The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from these devices. Methods: A case-control study of 1105 patients with newly diagnosed acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) and 2145 controls...... was conducted in 13 countries using a common protocol. Past mobile phone use was assessed by personal interview. In the primary analysis, exposure time was censored at one year before the reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and date of diagnosis of the matched case for controls); analyses censoring...

  3. Impact of internal waves on the acoustic field at a coastal station off Paradeep, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sridevi, B.; Murty, T.V.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, V.S.N.

    that in the ocean, sound (in contrast to light) is the only viable means for communication and range finding and also synoptically probing of above oceanic features. Sound can fulfill all the three requirements: (1) penetrative range is more, (2) high resolving... series data off Paradeep) as reproduced from the GM model at specified ranges due to these IW are utilized to estimate the changes in the acoustic transmission loss with the ray model which is useful for navy for under water communication. 2. Data...

  4. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanyang; Chan, C T


    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  5. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa


    .... Models were developed from a customer-centric perspective to assess different fractionated spacecraft architectures relative to traditional spacecraft architectures using multi-attribute analysis...

  6. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A


    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  7. Spacecraft Material Outgassing Data (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of outgassing data of materials intended for spacecraft use were obtained at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), utilizing equipment developed...

  8. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur


    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  9. Deployable Brake for Spacecraft (United States)

    Rausch, J. R.; Maloney, J. W.


    Aerodynamic shield that could be opened and closed proposed. Report presents concepts for deployable aerodynamic brake. Brake used by spacecraft returning from high orbit to low orbit around Earth. Spacecraft makes grazing passes through atmosphere to slow down by drag of brake. Brake flexible shield made of woven metal or ceramic withstanding high temperatures created by air friction. Stored until needed, then deployed by set of struts.

  10. Topological Acoustics (United States)

    Yang, Zhaoju; Gao, Fei; Shi, Xihang; Lin, Xiao; Gao, Zhen; Chong, Yidong; Zhang, Baile


    The manipulation of acoustic wave propagation in fluids has numerous applications, including some in everyday life. Acoustic technologies frequently develop in tandem with optics, using shared concepts such as waveguiding and metamedia. It is thus noteworthy that an entirely novel class of electromagnetic waves, known as "topological edge states," has recently been demonstrated. These are inspired by the electronic edge states occurring in topological insulators, and possess a striking and technologically promising property: the ability to travel in a single direction along a surface without backscattering, regardless of the existence of defects or disorder. Here, we develop an analogous theory of topological fluid acoustics, and propose a scheme for realizing topological edge states in an acoustic structure containing circulating fluids. The phenomenon of disorder-free one-way sound propagation, which does not occur in ordinary acoustic devices, may have novel applications for acoustic isolators, modulators, and transducers.

  11. Education in acoustics in Argentina (United States)

    Miyara, Federico


    Over the last decades, education in acoustics (EA) in Argentina has experienced ups and downs due to economic and political issues interfering with long term projects. Unlike other countries, like Chile, where EA has reached maturity in spite of the acoustical industry having shown little development, Argentina has several well-established manufacturers of acoustic materials and equipment but no specific career with a major in acoustics. At the university level, acoustics is taught as a complementary--often elective--course for careers such as architecture, communication engineering, or music. In spite of this there are several research centers with programs covering environmental and community noise, effects of noise on man, acoustic signal processing, musical acoustics and acoustic emission, and several national and international meetings are held each year in which results are communicated and discussed. Several books on a variety of topics such as sound system, architectural acoustics, and noise control have been published as well. Another chapter in EA is technical and vocational education, ranging between secondary and postsecondary levels, with technical training on sound system operation or design. Over the last years there have been several attempts to implement master degrees in acoustics or audio engineering, with little or no success.

  12. On the propagation of linear longitudinal acoustic waves in isotropic media with shear and volume viscosity and a tensorial internal variable. II. Some cases of special interest (Poynting-Thomson, Jeffreys, Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt, Hooke and Newton media)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciancio, V.; Turrisi, E.; Kluitenberg, G.A.


    In a previous paper the propagation of linear longitudinal acoustic waves in isotropic media with shear and volume viscosity and a tensorial internal variable was considered and the expressions for the velocity and attenuation of the waves were obtained. In the present paper we investigate the

  13. Acoustic textiles

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Rajkishore


    This book highlights the manufacturing and applications of acoustic textiles in various industries. It also includes examples from different industries in which acoustic textiles can be used to absorb noise and help reduce the impact of noise at the workplace. Given the importance of noise reduction in the working environment in several industries, the book offers a valuable guide for companies, educators and researchers involved with acoustic materials.

  14. 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wen; Cheng, Qianliu; Zhao, Hangfang


    These proceedings are a collection of 16 selected scientific papers and reviews by distinguished international experts that were presented at the 4th Pacific Rim Underwater Acoustics Conference (PRUAC), held in Hangzhou, China in October 2013. The topics discussed at the conference include internal wave observation and prediction; environmental uncertainty and coupling to sound propagation; environmental noise and ocean dynamics; dynamic modeling in acoustic fields; acoustic tomography and ocean parameter estimation; time reversal and matched field processing; underwater acoustic localization and communication as well as measurement instrumentations and platforms. These proceedings provide insights into the latest developments in underwater acoustics, promoting the exchange of ideas for the benefit of future research.

  15. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; hide


    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  16. Internet Technology on Spacecraft (United States)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)


    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project has shown that Internet technology works in space missions through a demonstration using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. An Internet Protocol (IP) stack was installed on the orbiting UoSAT-12 spacecraft and tests were run to demonstrate Internet connectivity and measure performance. This also forms the basis for demonstrating subsequent scenarios. This approach provides capabilities heretofore either too expensive or simply not feasible such as reconfiguration on orbit. The OMNI project recognized the need to reduce the risk perceived by mission managers and did this with a multi-phase strategy. In the initial phase, the concepts were implemented in a prototype system that includes space similar components communicating over the TDRS (space network) and the terrestrial Internet. The demonstration system includes a simulated spacecraft with sample instruments. Over 25 demonstrations have been given to mission and project managers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), contractor technologists and other decisions makers, This initial phase reached a high point with an OMNI demonstration given from a booth at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Inspection Day 99 exhibition. The proof to mission managers is provided during this second phase with year 2000 accomplishments: testing the use of Internet technologies onboard an actual spacecraft. This was done with a series of tests performed using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. This spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 6 months! On board software was modified to add an IP stack to support basic IP communications. Also added was support for ping, traceroute and network timing protocol (NTP) tests. These tests show that basic Internet functionality can be used onboard spacecraft. The performance of data was measured to show no degradation from current

  17. Mechanical Design of Spacecraft (United States)


    In the spring of 1962, engineers from the Engineering Mechanics Division of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a series of lectures on spacecraft design at the Engineering Design seminars conducted at the California Institute of Technology. Several of these lectures were subsequently given at Stanford University as part of the Space Technology seminar series sponsored by the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Presented here are notes taken from these lectures. The lectures were conceived with the intent of providing the audience with a glimpse of the activities of a few mechanical engineers who are involved in designing, building, and testing spacecraft. Engineering courses generally consist of heavily idealized problems in order to allow the more efficient teaching of mathematical technique. Students, therefore, receive a somewhat limited exposure to actual engineering problems, which are typified by more unknowns than equations. For this reason it was considered valuable to demonstrate some of the problems faced by spacecraft designers, the processes used to arrive at solutions, and the interactions between the engineer and the remainder of the organization in which he is constrained to operate. These lecture notes are not so much a compilation of sophisticated techniques of analysis as they are a collection of examples of spacecraft hardware and associated problems. They will be of interest not so much to the experienced spacecraft designer as to those who wonder what part the mechanical engineer plays in an effort such as the exploration of space.

  18. Statistics of Acoustic Pulse Signals Through Nonlinear Internal Waves on the Continental Shelf of the Northeastern South China Sea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reeves, Justin M


    ...) was conducted from 13 - 15 April 2005 on the continental shelf in the northeast portion of the South China Sea to study the effects of nonlinear internal waves on the transmission of a 400-Hz signal...

  19. Standardizing the information architecture for spacecraft operations (United States)

    Easton, C. R.


    This paper presents an information architecture developed for the Space Station Freedom as a model from which to derive an information architecture standard for advanced spacecraft. The information architecture provides a way of making information available across a program, and among programs, assuming that the information will be in a variety of local formats, structures and representations. It provides a format that can be expanded to define all of the physical and logical elements that make up a program, add definitions as required, and import definitions from prior programs to a new program. It allows a spacecraft and its control center to work in different representations and formats, with the potential for supporting existing spacecraft from new control centers. It supports a common view of data and control of all spacecraft, regardless of their own internal view of their data and control characteristics, and of their communications standards, protocols and formats. This information architecture is central to standardizing spacecraft operations, in that it provides a basis for information transfer and translation, such that diverse spacecraft can be monitored and controlled in a common way.

  20. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...

  1. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence (United States)

    Hwang, Victor


    The EPOXI flight mission has been testing a new commercial system, Splunk, which employs data mining techniques to organize and present spacecraft telemetry data in a high-level manner. By abstracting away data-source specific details, Splunk unifies arbitrary data formats into one uniform system. This not only reduces the time and effort for retrieving relevant data, but it also increases operational visibility by allowing a spacecraft team to correlate data across many different sources. Splunk's scalable architecture coupled with its graphing modules also provide a solid toolset for generating data visualizations and building real-time applications such as browser-based telemetry displays.

  2. Dips spacecraft integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.


    The Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Department of Defense, has recently initiated the dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) demonstration program. DIPS is designed to provide 1 to 10 kW of electrical power for future military spacecraft. One of the near-term missions considered as a potential application for DIPS was the boost surveillance and tracking system (BSTS). A brief review and summary of the reasons behind a selection of DIPS for BSTS-type missions is presented. Many of these are directly related to spacecraft integration issues; these issues will be reviewed in the areas of system safety, operations, survivability, reliability, and autonomy

  3. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs


    As fire behaviour in manned spacecraft still remains poorly understood, an international topical team has been created to design a validation experiment that has an unprecedented large scale for a microgravity flammability experiment. While the validation experiment is being designed for a re-sup...

  4. PVT Degradation Studies: Acoustic Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Gerges [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tucker, Brian J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smith, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Under certain environmental conditions, polyvinyl toluene (PVT) plastic scintillator has been observed to undergo internal fogging. This document reports on a study of acoustic techniques to determine whether they can provide a diagnostic for the fogging of PVT. Different ultrasound techniques were employed for detecting the level of internal fogging in PVT, including wave velocity measurements, attenuation, nonlinear acoustics, and acoustic microscopy. The results indicate that there are linear relations between the wave velocity and wave attenuation with the level of internal fogging. The effects of fogging on ultrasound wave attenuation is further verified by acoustic microscopy imaging, where regions with fog in the specimen demonstration higher levels of attenuation compared to clear regions. Results from the nonlinear ultrasound measurements were inconclusive due to high sensitivities to transducer coupling and fixture variabilities.

  5. Ion acoustic waves in the solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Frank, L.A.


    Plasma wave measurements on the Helios I and 2 spacecraft have revealed the occurrence of electric field turbulence in the solar wind at frequencies between the electron and ion plasma frequencies. Wavelength measurements with the Imp 6 spacecraft now provide strong evidence that these waves are short-wavelength ion acoustic waves which are Doppler-shifted upward in frequency by the motion of the solar wind. Comparison of the Helios results with measurements from the earth-orbiting Imp 6 and 8 spacecraft shows that the ion acoustic turbulence detected in interplanetary space has characteristics essentially identical to those of bursts of electrostatic turbulence generated by protons streaming into the solar wind from the earth's bow shock. In a few cases, enhanced ion acoustic wave intensities have been observed in direct association with abrupt increases in the anisotropy of the solar wind electron distribution. This relationship strongly suggests that the ion acoustic waves detected by Helios far from the earth are produced by an electron heat flux instability, as was suggested by Forslund. Possible related mechanisms which could explain the generation of ion acoustic waves by protons streaming into the solar wind from the earth's bow shock are also considered

  6. Battlefield acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Damarla, Thyagaraju


    This book presents all aspects of situational awareness in a battlefield using acoustic signals. It starts by presenting the science behind understanding and interpretation of sound signals. The book then goes on to provide various signal processing techniques used in acoustics to find the direction of sound source, localize gunfire, track vehicles, and detect people. The necessary mathematical background and various classification and fusion techniques are presented. The book contains majority of the things one would need to process acoustic signals for all aspects of situational awareness in one location. The book also presents array theory, which is pivotal in finding the direction of arrival of acoustic signals. In addition, the book presents techniques to fuse the information from multiple homogeneous/heterogeneous sensors for better detection. MATLAB code is provided for majority of the real application, which is a valuable resource in not only understanding the theory but readers, can also use the code...

  7. Acoustics Research (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fisheries acoustics data are collected from more than 200 sea-days each year aboard the FRV DELAWARE II and FRV ALBATROSS IV (decommissioned) and the FSV Henry B....

  8. Room Acoustics (United States)

    Kuttruff, Heinrich; Mommertz, Eckard

    The traditional task of room acoustics is to create or formulate conditions which ensure the best possible propagation of sound in a room from a sound source to a listener. Thus, objects of room acoustics are in particular assembly halls of all kinds, such as auditoria and lecture halls, conference rooms, theaters, concert halls or churches. Already at this point, it has to be pointed out that these conditions essentially depend on the question if speech or music should be transmitted; in the first case, the criterion for transmission quality is good speech intelligibility, in the other case, however, the success of room-acoustical efforts depends on other factors that cannot be quantified that easily, not least it also depends on the hearing habits of the listeners. In any case, absolutely "good acoustics" of a room do not exist.

  9. Baseline and follow-up MRI of the internal auditory canal after suboccipital resection of acoustic schwannoma: appearances and clinical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Castillo, M.; Campbell, J.; Pillsbury, H.; Walters, T.


    Prospective baseline MRI was obtained on 31 patients who had ''total'' removal of acoustic schwannoma 6 months to 9 years previously. Follow-up MRI was performed after 1-2 years on patients with questionable abnormalities. We found four patterns (1) internal auditory canals (IAC) with nonenhancing soft-tissue strands, possibly scars or distorted residual nerves (8); (2) IAC with marginal enhancement-reactive dura mater (16); (3) IAC with contrast-enhancing globular tissues suggesting residual or recurrent tumour (5); (4) high-signal intensity in the IAC before contrast medium administration, probably related to graft with fat/fascia/muscle (2). Prospective 1- to 2-year follow-up studies were available in 8, 5, and 1 patients in groups 2, 3, and 4 respectively. In group 2, dural enhancement remained unchanged in 5 patients and decreased in 3. In group 3 follow-up showed 1 tumor recurrence (surgically confirmed) and 4 stable abnormalities. In group 4, follow-up in 1 of the 2 patients was stable. In groups 1 and 2, the MRI features correlate well with complete tumor removal. Whether follow-up in these groups is indicated needs to be determined. In group 3 residual or recurrent tumor cannot be excluded. In group 4, grafts may prevent adequate visualization of the IAC. (orig.)

  10. Spacecraft Thermal Management (United States)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller


    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  11. Acoustic of monolithic dome structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Refat Ismail


    The interior of monolithic domes have perfect, concave shapes to ensure that sound travels through the dome and perfectly collected at different vocal points. These dome structures are utilized for domestic use because the scale allows the focal points to be positioned across daily life activities, thereby affecting the sonic comfort of the internal space. This study examines the various acoustic treatments and parametric configurations of monolithic dome sizes. A geometric relationship of acoustic treatment and dome radius is established to provide architects guidelines on the correct selection of absorption needed to maintain the acoustic comfort of these special spaces.

  12. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag (United States)

    Baccus, Shelley


    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  13. Acoustic biosensors. (United States)

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice; Seshia, Ashwin A


    Resonant and acoustic wave devices have been researched for several decades for application in the gravimetric sensing of a variety of biological and chemical analytes. These devices operate by coupling the measurand (e.g. analyte adsorption) as a modulation in the physical properties of the acoustic wave (e.g. resonant frequency, acoustic velocity, dissipation) that can then be correlated with the amount of adsorbed analyte. These devices can also be miniaturized with advantages in terms of cost, size and scalability, as well as potential additional features including integration with microfluidics and electronics, scaled sensitivities associated with smaller dimensions and higher operational frequencies, the ability to multiplex detection across arrays of hundreds of devices embedded in a single chip, increased throughput and the ability to interrogate a wider range of modes including within the same device. Additionally, device fabrication is often compatible with semiconductor volume batch manufacturing techniques enabling cost scalability and a high degree of precision and reproducibility in the manufacturing process. Integration with microfluidics handling also enables suitable sample pre-processing/separation/purification/amplification steps that could improve selectivity and the overall signal-to-noise ratio. Three device types are reviewed here: (i) bulk acoustic wave sensors, (ii) surface acoustic wave sensors, and (iii) micro/nano-electromechanical system (MEMS/NEMS) sensors. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, A.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Di Gaetano, J.O.; D'Atellis, C.E.; Ruzzante, J.E.


    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  15. Building Acoustics (United States)

    Cowan, James

    This chapter summarizes and explains key concepts of building acoustics. These issues include the behavior of sound waves in rooms, the most commonly used rating systems for sound and sound control in buildings, the most common noise sources found in buildings, practical noise control methods for these sources, and the specific topic of office acoustics. Common noise issues for multi-dwelling units can be derived from most of the sections of this chapter. Books can be and have been written on each of these topics, so the purpose of this chapter is to summarize this information and provide appropriate resources for further exploration of each topic.

  16. Spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif


    The phenomenons and problems encountered when a rendezvous manoeuvre, and possible docking, of two spacecrafts has to be performed, have been the topic for numerous studies, and, details of a variety of scenarios has been analysed. So far, all solutions that has been brought into realization has...... been based entirely on direct human supervision and control. This paper describes a vision-based system and methodology, that autonomously generates accurate guidance information that may assist a human operator in performing the tasks associated with both the rendezvous and docking navigation...

  17. Toward autonomous spacecraft (United States)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.


    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  18. Airborne particulate matter and spacecraft internal environments (United States)

    Liu, Benjamin Y. H.; Rubow, Kenneth L.; Mcmurry, Peter H.; Kotz, Thomas J.; Russo, Dane


    Instrumentation, consisting of a Shuttle Particle Sampler (SPS) and a Shuttle Particle Monitor (SPM), has been developed to characterize the airborne particulate matter in the Space Shuttle cabin during orbital flight. The SPS size selectively collects particles in four size fractions (0-2.5, 2.5-10, 10-100, and greater than 100 microns) which are analyzed postflight for mass concentration and size distribution, elemental composition, and morphology. The SPM provides a continuous record of particle concentration through photometric light scattering. Measurements were performed onboard Columbia, OV-102, during the flight of STS-32 in January 1990. No significant changes were observed in the particle mass concentration, size distribution, or chemical composition in samples collected during flight-day 2 and flight-day 7. The total mass concentration was 56 microg/cu cm with approximately half of the particles larger than 100 microns. Elemental analysis showed that roughly 70 percent of the particles larger than 2.5 microns were carbonaceous with small amounts of other elements present. The SPM showed no temporal or spatial variation in particle mass concentration during the mission.

  19. Vibro-acoustic analysis of composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarigül, A S; Karagözlü, E


    Vibro-acoustic analysis plays a vital role on the design of aircrafts, spacecrafts, land vehicles and ships produced from thin plates backed by closed cavities, with regard to human health and living comfort. For this type of structures, it is required a coupled solution that takes into account structural-acoustic interaction which is crucial for sensitive solutions. In this study, coupled vibro-acoustic analyses of plates produced from composite materials have been performed by using finite element analysis software. The study has been carried out for E-glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy and Carbon/Epoxy plates with different ply angles and numbers of ply. The effects of composite material, ply orientation and number of layer on coupled vibro-acoustic characteristics of plates have been analysed for various combinations. The analysis results have been statistically examined and assessed

  20. Vibro-acoustic analysis of composite plates (United States)

    Sarigül, A. S.; Karagözlü, E.


    Vibro-acoustic analysis plays a vital role on the design of aircrafts, spacecrafts, land vehicles and ships produced from thin plates backed by closed cavities, with regard to human health and living comfort. For this type of structures, it is required a coupled solution that takes into account structural-acoustic interaction which is crucial for sensitive solutions. In this study, coupled vibro-acoustic analyses of plates produced from composite materials have been performed by using finite element analysis software. The study has been carried out for E-glass/Epoxy, Kevlar/Epoxy and Carbon/Epoxy plates with different ply angles and numbers of ply. The effects of composite material, ply orientation and number of layer on coupled vibro-acoustic characteristics of plates have been analysed for various combinations. The analysis results have been statistically examined and assessed.

  1. MIDN: A spacecraft Micro-dosimeter mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisacane, V. L.; Ziegler, J. F.; Nelson, M. E.; Caylor, M.; Flake, D.; Heyen, L.; Youngborg, E.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cucinotta, F.; Zaider, M.; Dicello, J. F.


    MIDN (Micro-dosimetry instrument) is a payload on the MidSTAR-I spacecraft (Midshipman Space Technology Applications Research) under development at the United States Naval Academy. MIDN is a solid-state system being designed and constructed to measure Micro-dosimetric spectra to determine radiation quality factors for space environments. Radiation is a critical threat to the health of astronauts and to the success of missions in low-Earth orbit and space exploration. The system will consist of three separate sensors, one external to the spacecraft, one internal and one embedded in polyethylene. Design goals are mass <3 kg and power <2 W. The MidSTAR-I mission in 2006 will provide an opportunity to evaluate a preliminary version of this system. Its low power and mass makes it useful for the International Space Station and manned and unmanned interplanetary missions as a real-time system to assess and alert astronauts to enhanced radiation environments. (authors)

  2. A user's guide to the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control Program (United States)

    Fedor, J. V.


    A guide to the use of the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics Program (FSD) is presented covering input requirements, control words, orbit generation, spacecraft description and simulation options, and output definition. The program can be used in dynamics and control analysis as well as in orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. The program is applicable to inertially oriented spinning, Earth oriented or gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. Internal and external environmental effects can be simulated.

  3. The mechanical design and dynamic testing of the IBEX-H1 electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardin, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baca, Allen G [SNL


    This paper presents the mechanical design, fabrication and dynamic testing of an electrostatic analyzer spacecraft instrument. The functional and environmental requirements combined with limited spacecraft accommodations, resulted in complex component geometries, unique material selections, and difficult fabrication processes. The challenging aspects of the mechanical design and several of the more difficult production processes are discussed. In addition, the successes, failures, and lessons learned from acoustic and random vibration testing of a full-scale prototype instrument are presented.



    Jansen, Frank


    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  5. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks (United States)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward


    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  6. Acoustic Territoriality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob


    Under the heading of "Gang i København" a number of initiatives was presented by the Lord Mayer and the Technical and Environmental Mayer of Copenhagen in May 2006. The aim of the initiative, which roughly translates to Lively Copenhagen, was both to make Copenhagen a livelier city in terms of city...... this article outline a few approaches to a theory of acoustic territoriality....

  7. Acoustic lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittmer, C.A.


    Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed

  8. Prototype acoustic resonance spectroscopy monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, D.N.; Olinger, C.T.


    This report reports on work performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the Program Office for Technical Assistance (POTAS). In this work, we investigate possible applications of nondestructive acoustics measurements to facilitate IAEA safeguards at bulk processing facilities. Two different acoustic techniques for verifying the internal structure of a processing tank were investigated. During this effort we also examined two acoustic techniques for assessing the fill level within a processing tank. The fill-level measurements could be made highly portable and have an added safeguards advantage that they can also detect stratification of fill material. This later application may be particularly useful in confirming the absence of stratification in plutonium processing tanks before accountability samples are withdrawn

  9. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew


    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  10. Evaluation of Ultrafiltration for Spacecraft Water Reuse (United States)

    Pickering, Karen D.; Wiesner, Mark R.


    Ultrafiltration is examined for use as the first stage of a primary treatment process for spacecraft wastewater. It is hypothesized that ultrafiltration can effectively serve as pretreatment for a reverse osmosis system, removing the majority of organic material in a spacecraft wastewater. However, it is believed that the interaction between the membrane material and the surfactant found in the wastewater will have a significant impact on the fouling of the ultrafiltration membrane. In this study, five different ultrafiltration membrane materials are examined for the filtration of wastewater typical of that expected to be produced onboard the International Space Station. Membranes are used in an unstirred batch cell. Flux, organic carbon rejection, and recovery from fouling are measured. The results of this evaluation will be used to select the most promising membranes for further study.

  11. NASA's Bio-Inspired Acoustic Absorber Concept (United States)

    Koch, L. Danielle


    Transportation noise pollutes our worlds cities, suburbs, parks, and wilderness areas. NASAs fundamental research in aviation acoustics is helping to find innovative solutions to this multifaceted problem. NASA is learning from nature to develop the next generation of quiet aircraft.The number of road vehicles and airplanes has roughly tripled since the 1960s. Transportation noise is audible in nearly all the counties across the US. Noise can damage your hearing, raise your heart rate and blood pressure, disrupt your sleep, and make communication difficult. Noise pollution threatens wildlife when it prevents animals from hearing prey, predators, and mates. Noise regulations help drive industry to develop quieter aircraft. Noise standards for aircraft have been developed by the International Civil Aviation Organization and adopted by the US Federal Aviation Administration. The US National Park Service is working with the Federal Aviation Administration to try to balance the demand for access to the parks and wilderness areas with preservation of the natural soundscape. NASA is helping by conceptualizing quieter, more efficient aircraft of the future and performing the fundamental research to make these concepts a reality someday. Recently, NASA has developed synthetic structures that can absorb sound well over a wide frequency range, and particularly below 1000 Hz, and which mimic the acoustic performance of bundles of natural reeds. We are adapting these structures to control noise on aircraft, and spacecraft. This technology might be used in many other industrial or architectural applications where acoustic absorbers have tight constraints on weight and thickness, and may be exposed to high temperatures or liquids. Information about this technology is being made available through reports and presentations available through the NASA Technical Report Server, Organizations who would like to collaborate with NASA or commercialize NASAs technology

  12. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation


    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  13. Spectra and spacecraft (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.


    In June 1999, Dr. Regis Courtin, Associate Editor of PSS, suggested that I write an article for the new section of this journal: "Planetary Pioneers". I hesitated , but decided to try. One of the reasons for my doubts was my primitive English, so I owe the reader an apology for this in advance. Writing took me much more time than I supposed initially, I have stopped and again returned to manuscript many times. My professional life may be divided into three main phases: pioneering work in ground-based IR astronomy with an emphasis on planetary spectroscopy (1955-1970), studies of the planets with spacecraft (1970-1989), and attempts to proceed with this work in difficult times. I moved ahead using the known method of trials and errors as most of us do. In fact, only a small percentage of efforts led to some important results, a sort of dry residue. I will try to describe below how has it been in my case: what may be estimated as the most important, how I came to this, what was around, etc.

  14. Acoustic Neuroma Association (United States)

    ... EVENTS DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing ... Brain Freeze ? READ MORE Read More What is acoustic neuroma? Identifying an AN Learn More Get Info ...

  15. Acoustical and optical radiation pressures and the development of single beam acoustical tweezers


    Thomas , Jean-Louis; Marchiano , Régis; Baresch , Diego


    International audience; Studies on radiation pressure in acoustics and optics have enriched one another and have a long common history. Acoustic radiation pressure is used for metrology, levitation, particle trapping and actuation. However, the dexterity and selectivity of single-beam optical tweezers are still to be matched with acoustical devices. Optical tweezers can trap, move and positioned micron size particles, biological samples or even atoms with subnanometer accuracy in three dimens...

  16. TTEthernet for Integrated Spacecraft Networks (United States)

    Loveless, Andrew


    Aerospace projects have traditionally employed federated avionics architectures, in which each computer system is designed to perform one specific function (e.g. navigation). There are obvious downsides to this approach, including excessive weight (from so much computing hardware), and inefficient processor utilization (since modern processors are capable of performing multiple tasks). There has therefore been a push for integrated modular avionics (IMA), in which common computing platforms can be leveraged for different purposes. This consolidation of multiple vehicle functions to shared computing platforms can significantly reduce spacecraft cost, weight, and design complexity. However, the application of IMA principles introduces significant challenges, as the data network must accommodate traffic of mixed criticality and performance levels - potentially all related to the same shared computer hardware. Because individual network technologies are rarely so competent, the development of truly integrated network architectures often proves unreasonable. Several different types of networks are utilized - each suited to support a specific vehicle function. Critical functions are typically driven by precise timing loops, requiring networks with strict guarantees regarding message latency (i.e. determinism) and fault-tolerance. Alternatively, non-critical systems generally employ data networks prioritizing flexibility and high performance over reliable operation. Switched Ethernet has seen widespread success filling this role in terrestrial applications. Its high speed, flexibility, and the availability of inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components make it desirable for inclusion in spacecraft platforms. Basic Ethernet configurations have been incorporated into several preexisting aerospace projects, including both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). However, classical switched Ethernet cannot provide the high level of network

  17. Spacecraft Charging and the Microwave Anisotropy Probe Spacecraft (United States)

    Timothy, VanSant J.; Neergaard, Linda F.


    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), a MIDEX mission built in partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), will study the cosmic microwave background. It will be inserted into a highly elliptical earth orbit for several weeks and then use a lunar gravity assist to orbit around the second Lagrangian point (L2), 1.5 million kilometers, anti-sunward from the earth. The charging environment for the phasing loops and at L2 was evaluated. There is a limited set of data for L2; the GEOTAIL spacecraft measured relatively low spacecraft potentials (approx. 50 V maximum) near L2. The main area of concern for charging on the MAP spacecraft is the well-established threat posed by the "geosynchronous region" between 6-10 Re. The launch in the autumn of 2000 will coincide with the falling of the solar maximum, a period when the likelihood of a substorm is higher than usual. The likelihood of a substorm at that time has been roughly estimated to be on the order of 20% for a typical MAP mission profile. Because of the possibility of spacecraft charging, a requirement for conductive spacecraft surfaces was established early in the program. Subsequent NASCAP/GEO analyses for the MAP spacecraft demonstrated that a significant portion of the sunlit surface (solar cell cover glass and sunshade) could have nonconductive surfaces without significantly raising differential charging. The need for conductive materials on surfaces continually in eclipse has also been reinforced by NASCAP analyses.

  18. Panel acoustic contribution analysis. (United States)

    Wu, Sean F; Natarajan, Logesh Kumar


    Formulations are derived to analyze the relative panel acoustic contributions of a vibrating structure. The essence of this analysis is to correlate the acoustic power flow from each panel to the radiated acoustic pressure at any field point. The acoustic power is obtained by integrating the normal component of the surface acoustic intensity, which is the product of the surface acoustic pressure and normal surface velocity reconstructed by using the Helmholtz equation least squares based nearfield acoustical holography, over each panel. The significance of this methodology is that it enables one to analyze and rank relative acoustic contributions of individual panels of a complex vibrating structure to acoustic radiation anywhere in the field based on a single set of the acoustic pressures measured in the near field. Moreover, this approach is valid for both interior and exterior regions. Examples of using this method to analyze and rank the relative acoustic contributions of a scaled vehicle cabin are demonstrated.

  19. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983 (United States)


    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  20. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Norman R; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky


    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data. (paper)

  1. Intelligent spacecraft module (United States)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana


    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  2. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; hide


    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  3. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad (United States)


    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (rear view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  4. Radiological evaluation of acoustic neurinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung So [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    All 25 patients surgically proven acoustic neurinoma was analysed clinically, radiographically at Severance Hospital of Yonsei Univ. The patients not proved surgically in spite of clinical diagnosis of acoustic neurinoma was excluded from this study. The results are summarized as follows; The clinical findings are; 1. The incidence of tumor in female was twice more frequent than in male and the range of age was 20-50 years peak of age at onset of symptom. 2. The clinical symptoms were variable from unilateral hearing impairment or less (100%), headache (84%) to tinnitus (60%) in order of frequency. 3. The tumor growth in the left cerebellopontine angle was twice more than in the right side with the radio of 16:8. However, in one case bilateral simultaneous growth of acoustic neurinoma was noted. The radiological findings are: The best radiographic method to study the shape and size of internal acoustic canal to demonstrate erosion or destruction of petrous pyramida was considered to be straight frontal view and tomography of the skull in our series. 1. The shape of internal acoustic canal in tumors were straight (in 2 cases), bulbous (in 12 cases), and flared (in 11 cases). Particularly there was erosion or destruction of petrous bone in all of the flared cases of canal. 2. The acoustic meatal erosion was mainly suprameatal in 14 cases of 17 which was noted definite erosion radiographically. 3. The difference of height (vertical diameter) of both side of acoustic canal were follows; 6 cases among 25 was in the range of 0-2 mm measurement, remainder was more than 2 mm. Hence the variation in greater than 1 mm in between both sides of canal in same patient should be regard as abnormal as of acoustic neurinoma. 4. The carotid angiogram shows hydrocephalic pattern in 12 cases among 17. 5. In the vertebral angiogram of 8 cases, anterolateral displacement of basilar artery (in 6 caes), the upward displacement of superior cerebellar artery (in 4 cases) was common findings

  5. Radiological evaluation of acoustic neurinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun; Choi, Byung So


    All 25 patients surgically proven acoustic neurinoma was analysed clinically, radiographically at Severance Hospital of Yonsei Univ. The patients not proved surgically in spite of clinical diagnosis of acoustic neurinoma was excluded from this study. The results are summarized as follows; The clinical findings are; 1. The incidence of tumor in female was twice more frequent than in male and the range of age was 20-50 years peak of age at onset of symptom. 2. The clinical symptoms were variable from unilateral hearing impairment or less (100%), headache (84%) to tinnitus (60%) in order of frequency. 3. The tumor growth in the left cerebellopontine angle was twice more than in the right side with the radio of 16:8. However, in one case bilateral simultaneous growth of acoustic neurinoma was noted. The radiological findings are: The best radiographic method to study the shape and size of internal acoustic canal to demonstrate erosion or destruction of petrous pyramida was considered to be straight frontal view and tomography of the skull in our series. 1. The shape of internal acoustic canal in tumors were straight (in 2 cases), bulbous (in 12 cases), and flared (in 11 cases). Particularly there was erosion or destruction of petrous bone in all of the flared cases of canal. 2. The acoustic meatal erosion was mainly suprameatal in 14 cases of 17 which was noted definite erosion radiographically. 3. The difference of height (vertical diameter) of both side of acoustic canal were follows; 6 cases among 25 was in the range of 0-2 mm measurement, remainder was more than 2 mm. Hence the variation in greater than 1 mm in between both sides of canal in same patient should be regard as abnormal as of acoustic neurinoma. 4. The carotid angiogram shows hydrocephalic pattern in 12 cases among 17. 5. In the vertebral angiogram of 8 cases, anterolateral displacement of basilar artery (in 6 caes), the upward displacement of superior cerebellar artery (in 4 cases) was common findings

  6. Acoustic transducer (United States)

    Drumheller, Douglas S.


    An active acoustic transducer tool for use down-hole applications. The tool includes a single cylindrical mandrel including a shoulder defining the boundary of a narrowed portion over which is placed a sandwich-style piezoelectric tranducer assembly. The piezoelectric transducer assembly is prestressed by being placed in a thermal interference fit between the shoulder of the mandrel and the base of an anvil which is likewise positioned over the narrower portion of the mandrel. In the preferred embodiment, assembly of the tool is accomplished using a hydraulic jack to stretch the mandrel prior to emplacement of the cylindrical sandwich-style piezoelectric transducer assembly and anvil. After those elements are positioned and secured, the stretched mandrel is allowed to return substantially to its original (pre-stretch) dimensions with the result that the piezoelectric transducer elements are compressed between the anvil and the shoulder of the mandrel.

  7. Acoustic cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, G.W.; Martin, R.A.; Radebaugh, R.


    This patent describes an acoustic cryocooler with no moving parts is formed from a thermoacoustic driver (TAD) driving a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR) through a standing wave tube. Thermoacoustic elements in the TAD are spaced apart a distance effect to accommodate the increased thermal penetration length arising from the relatively low TAD operating frequency in the range of 15--60 Hz. At these low operating frequencies, a long tube is required to support the standing wave. The tube may be coiled to reduce the overall length of the cryocooler. One or two PTR's are located on the standing wave tube adjacent antinodes in the standing wave to be driven by the standing wave pressure oscillations. It is predicted that a heat input of 1000 W at 1000 K will maintain a cooling load of 5 W at 80 K

  8. Use of acoustic vortices in acoustic levitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Juhl, Peter Møller


    Acoustic fields are known to exert forces on the surfaces of objects. These forces are noticeable if the sound pressure is sufficiently high. Two phenomena where acoustic forces are relevant are: i) acoustic levitation, where strong standing waves can hold small objects at certain positions......, counterbalancing their weight, and ii) acoustic vortices, spinning sound fields that can impinge angular momentum and cause rotation of objects. In this contribution, both force-creating sound fields are studied by means of numerical simulations. The Boundary Element Method is employed to this end. The simulation...... of acoustical vortices uses an efficient numerical implementation based on the superposition of two orthogonal sound fields with a delay of 90° between them. It is shown that acoustic levitation and the use of acoustic vortices can be combined to manipulate objects in an efficient and controlled manner without...

  9. Acoustic Tomography in the Canary Basin: Meddies and Tides (United States)

    Dushaw, Brian D.; Gaillard, Fabienne; Terre, Thierry


    An acoustic propagation experiment over 308 km range conducted in the Canary Basin in 1997-1998 was used to assess the ability of ocean acoustic tomography to measure the flux of Mediterranean water and Meddies. Instruments on a mooring adjacent to the acoustic path measured the southwestward passage of a strong Meddy in temperature, salinity, and current. Over 9 months of transmissions, the acoustic arrival pattern was an initial broad stochastic pulse varying in duration by 250-500 ms, followed eight stable, identified-ray arrivals. Small-scale sound speed fluctuations from Mediterranean water parcels littered around the sound channel axis caused acoustic scattering. Internal waves contributed more modest acoustic scattering. Based on simulations, the main effect of a Meddy passing across the acoustic path is the formation of many early-arriving, near-axis rays, but these rays are thoroughly scattered by the small-scale Mediterranean-water fluctuations. A Meddy decreases the deep-turning ray travel times by 10-30 ms. The dominant acoustic signature of a Meddy is therefore the expansion of the width of the initial stochastic pulse. While this signature appears inseparable from the other effects of Mediterranean water in this region, the acoustic time series indicates the steady passage of Mediterranean water across the acoustic path. Tidal variations caused by the mode-1 internal tides were measured by the acoustic travel times. The observed internal tides were partly predicted using a recent global model for such tides derived from satellite altimetry.

  10. Interior acoustic cloak


    Wael Akl; A. Baz


    Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which a...

  11. Trajectories of inner and outer heliospheric spacecraft: Predicted through 1999 (United States)

    Parthasarathy, R.; King, Joseph H.


    Information is presented in tabular and graphical form on the trajectories of the international fleet of spacecraft that will be probing the far reaches of the heliosphere during the 1990s. In particular, the following spacecraft are addressed: Pioneer 10 and 11, Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO), Voyager 1 and 2, Galileo, Ulysses, Suisei, Sakigake, Giotto, International Cometary Explorer (ICE), and Interplanetary Monitoring Platform 8 (IMP 8). Yearly resolution listing of position information in inertial space are given for Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft from the times of their launches in the 1970s. One series of plots shows the radial distances, latitudes, and longitudes of the Pioneers and Voyagers. The solar ecliptic inertial coordinate system is used. In this system, the Z axis is normal to the ecliptic plane and the X axis is towards the first point of Aries (from Sun to Earth on the vernal equinox).

  12. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath. (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin


    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  13. Flaw identification using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, B.; McDonald, N.R.


    Acoustic emission 'signatures' contain information about the fine structure of metallurgical source events and their interpretation may provide a means of assessing the severity of internal flaws as well as surface flaws. The ultimate aim of this research on signature analysis is to develop a real time non-destructive testing technique having the capability of flaw recognition as well as flaw location in nuclear reactor components and structures under stress. Thus the requisite, unlike that in most acoustic emission work to date, is for a technique which affords discrimination between acoustic emission from different types of flaws propagating simultaneously. The approach described here requires detailed analysis of the emission signatures in terms of a specific statistical parameter, energy spectral density. In order to realise the full inspection potential of acoustic emission monitoring data obtained from zirconium and steel testpieces have been correlated with metallurgical condition and mechanical behaviour, since the nature of emission signatures is strongly affected by the physical characteristics and internal structure of the material. (Auth.)

  14. Artist concept of Galileo spacecraft (United States)


    Galileo spacecraft is illustrated in artist concept. Gallileo, named for the Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician who is credited with construction of the first complete, practical telescope in 1620, will make detailed studies of Jupiter. A cooperative program with the Federal Republic of Germany the Galileo mission will amplify information acquired by two Voyager spacecraft in their brief flybys. Galileo is a two-element system that includes a Jupiter-orbiting observatory and an entry probe. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is Galileo project manager and builder of the main spacecraft. Ames Research Center (ARC) has responsibility for the entry probe, which was built by Hughes Aircraft Company and General Electric. Galileo will be deployed from the payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during mission STS-34.

  15. Springer Handbook of Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Rossing, Thomas D


    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and others. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents spanning: animal acoustics including infrasound and ultrasound, environmental noise control, music and human speech and singing, physiological and psychological acoustics, architectural acoustics, physical and engineering acoustics, signal processing, medical acoustics, and ocean acoustics. This handbook reviews the most important areas of acoustics, with emphasis on current research. The authors of the various chapters are all experts in their fields. Each chapter is richly illustrated with figures and tables. The latest rese...

  16. Responsive acoustic surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Brady; Tamke, Martin; Nielsen, Stig Anton


    Acoustic performance is defined by the parameter of reverberation time; however, this does not capture the acoustic experience in some types of open plan spaces. As many working and learning activities now take place in open plan spaces, it is important to be able to understand and design...... for the acoustic conditions of these spaces. This paper describes an experimental research project that studied the design processes necessary to design for sound. A responsive acoustic surface was designed, fabricated and tested. This acoustic surface was designed to create specific sonic effects. The design...... was simulated using custom integrated acoustic software and also using Odeon acoustic analysis software. The research demonstrates a method for designing space- and sound-defining surfaces, defines the concept of acoustic subspace, and suggests some new parameters for defining acoustic subspaces....

  17. Training for spacecraft technical analysts (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas J.; Bryant, Larry


    Deep space missions such as Voyager rely upon a large team of expert analysts who monitor activity in the various engineering subsystems of the spacecraft and plan operations. Senior teammembers generally come from the spacecraft designers, and new analysts receive on-the-job training. Neither of these methods will suffice for the creation of a new team in the middle of a mission, which may be the situation during the Magellan mission. New approaches are recommended, including electronic documentation, explicit cognitive modeling, and coached practice with archived data.

  18. Acoustics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kuttruff, Heinrich


    This definitive textbook provides students with a comprehensive introduction to acoustics. Beginning with the basic physical ideas, Acoustics balances the fundamentals with engineering aspects, applications and electroacoustics, also covering music, speech and the properties of human hearing. The concepts of acoustics are exposed and applied in:room acousticssound insulation in buildingsnoise controlunderwater sound and ultrasoundScientifically thorough, but with mathematics kept to a minimum, Acoustics is the perfect introduction to acoustics for students at any level of mechanical, electrical or civil engineering courses and an accessible resource for architects, musicians or sound engineers requiring a technical understanding of acoustics and their applications.

  19. Results from active spacecraft potential control on the Geotail spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Arends, H.; Pedersen, A.


    A low and actively controlled electrostatic potential on the outer surfaces of a scientific spacecraft is very important for accurate measurements of cold plasma electrons and ions and the DC to low-frequency electric field. The Japanese/NASA Geotail spacecraft carriers as part of its scientific payload a novel ion emitter for active control of the electrostatic potential on the surface of the spacecraft. The aim of the ion emitter is to reduce the positive surface potential which is normally encountered in the outer magnetosphere when the spacecraft is sunlit. Ion emission clamps the surface potential to near the ambient plasma potential. Without emission control, Geotail has encountered plasma conditions in the lobes of the magnetotail which resulted in surface potentials of up to about +70 V. The ion emitter proves to be able to discharge the outer surfaces of the spacecraft and is capable of keeping the surface potential stable at about +2 V. This potential is measured with respect to one of the electric field probes which are current biased and thus kept at a potential slightly above the ambient plasma potential. The instrument uses the liquid metal field ion emission principle to emit indium ions. The ion beam energy is about 6 keV and the typical total emission current amounts to about 15 μA. Neither variations in the ambient plasma conditions nor operation of two electron emitters on Geotail produce significant variations of the controlled surface potential as long as the resulting electron emission currents remain much smaller than the ion emission current. Typical results of the active potential control are shown, demonstrating the surface potential reduction and its stability over time. 25 refs., 5 figs

  20. Acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam (United States)

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian


    An acoustic source for generating an acoustic beam includes a housing; a plurality of spaced apart piezo-electric layers disposed within the housing; and a non-linear medium filling between the plurality of layers. Each of the plurality of piezoelectric layers is configured to generate an acoustic wave. The non-linear medium and the plurality of piezo-electric material layers have a matching impedance so as to enhance a transmission of the acoustic wave generated by each of plurality of layers through the remaining plurality of layers.

  1. Interior acoustic cloak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Akl


    Full Text Available Acoustic cloaks have traditionally been intended to externally surround critical objects to render these objects acoustically invisible. However, in this paper, the emphasis is placed on investigating the application of the acoustic cloaks to the interior walls of acoustic cavities in an attempt to minimize the noise levels inside these cavities. In this manner, the acoustic cloaks can serve as a viable and efficient alternative to the conventional passive noise attenuation treatments which are invariably heavy and bulky. The transformation acoustics relationships that govern the operation of this class of interior acoustic cloaks are presented. Physical insights are given to relate these relationships to the reasons behind the effectiveness of the proposed interior acoustic cloaks. Finite element models are presented to demonstrate the characteristics of interior acoustic cloaks used in treating the interior walls of circular and square cavities both in the time and frequency domains. The obtained results emphasize the effectiveness of the proposed interior cloaks in eliminating the reflections of the acoustic waves from the walls of the treated cavities and thereby rendering these cavities acoustically quiet. It is important to note here that the proposed interior acoustic cloaks can find applications in acoustic cavities such as aircraft cabins and auditoriums as well as many other critical applications.

  2. Charging in the environment of large spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.T.


    This paper discusses some potential problems of spacecraft charging as a result of interactions between a large spacecraft, such as the Space Station, and its environment. Induced electric field, due to VXB effect, may be important for large spacecraft at low earth orbits. Differential charging, due to different properties of surface materials, may be significant when the spacecraft is partly in sunshine and partly in shadow. Triple-root potential jump condition may occur because of differential charging. Sudden onset of severe differential charging may occur when an electron or ion beam is emitted from the spacecraft. The beam may partially return to the ''hot spots'' on the spacecraft. Wake effects, due to blocking of ambient ion trajectories, may result in an undesirable negative potential region in the vicinity of a large spacecraft. Outgassing and exhaust may form a significant spacecraft induced environment; ionization may occur. Spacecraft charging and discharging may affect the electronic components on board

  3. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft (United States)


    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  4. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing Symptoms Side Effects Keywords Questions to ask Choosing a healthcare provider ... Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation ...

  5. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing Symptoms Side Effects Keywords World Language Videos Questions to ask Choosing ... Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation ...

  6. Atlantic Herring Acoustic Surveys (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Advanced Sampling Technologies Research Group conducts annual fisheries acoustic surveys using state-of-the-art acoustic, midwater trawling, and underwater...

  7. Tethys Acoustic Metadata Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Tethys database houses the metadata associated with the acoustic data collection efforts by the Passive Acoustic Group. These metadata include dates, locations...

  8. Tutorial on architectural acoustics (United States)

    Shaw, Neil; Talaske, Rick; Bistafa, Sylvio


    This tutorial is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge and practice in architectural acoustics. Topics covered will include basic concepts and history, acoustics of small rooms (small rooms for speech such as classrooms and meeting rooms, music studios, small critical listening spaces such as home theatres) and the acoustics of large rooms (larger assembly halls, auditoria, and performance halls).

  9. Flow profiling of a surface acoustic wave nanopump


    Guttenberg, Z.; Rathgeber, A.; Keller, S.; Rädler, J. O.; Wixforth, A.; Kostur, M.; Schindler, M.; Talkner, P.


    The flow profile in a capillary gap and the pumping efficiency of an acoustic micropump employing Surface Acoustic Waves is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Such ultrasonic surface waves on a piezoelectric substrate strongly couple to a thin liquid layer and generate an internal streaming within the fluid. Such acoustic streaming can be used for controlled agitation during, e.g., microarray hybridization. We use fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and fluorescence microsc...

  10. Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For spacecraft design and development teams concerned with cost and schedule, the Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool (QuickSTAT) is an innovative software suite...

  11. Comprehension of Spacecraft Telemetry Using Hierarchical Specifications of Behavior (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus; Joshi, Rajeev


    A key challenge in operating remote spacecraft is that ground operators must rely on the limited visibility available through spacecraft telemetry in order to assess spacecraft health and operational status. We describe a tool for processing spacecraft telemetry that allows ground operators to impose structure on received telemetry in order to achieve a better comprehension of system state. A key element of our approach is the design of a domain-specific language that allows operators to express models of expected system behavior using partial specifications. The language allows behavior specifications with data fields, similar to other recent runtime verification systems. What is notable about our approach is the ability to develop hierarchical specifications of behavior. The language is implemented as an internal DSL in the Scala programming language that synthesizes rules from patterns of specification behavior. The rules are automatically applied to received telemetry and the inferred behaviors are available to ground operators using a visualization interface that makes it easier to understand and track spacecraft state. We describe initial results from applying our tool to telemetry received from the Curiosity rover currently roving the surface of Mars, where the visualizations are being used to trend subsystem behaviors, in order to identify potential problems before they happen. However, the technology is completely general and can be applied to any system that generates telemetry such as event logs.

  12. Multiple spacecraft Michelson stellar interferometer (United States)

    Stachnik, R. V.; Arnold, D.; Melroy, P.; Mccormack, E. F.; Gezari, D. Y.


    Results of an orbital analysis and performance assessment of SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry) are presented. The device considered includes two one-meter telescopes in orbits which are identical except for slightly different inclinations; the telescopes achieve separations as large as 10 km and relay starlight to a central station which has a one-meter optical delay line in one interferometer arm. It is shown that a 1000-km altitude, zero mean inclination orbit affords natural scanning of the 10-km baseline with departures from optical pathlength equality which are well within the corrective capacity of the optical delay line. Electric propulsion is completely adequate to provide the required spacecraft motions, principally those needed for repointing. Resolution of 0.00001 arcsec and magnitude limits of 15 to 20 are achievable.

  13. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity (United States)

    Anderson, John D.


    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  14. Attitude Fusion Techniques for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    Spacecraft platform instability constitutes one of the most significant limiting factors in hyperacuity pointing and tracking applications, yet the demand for accurate, timely and reliable attitude information is ever increasing. The PhD research project described within this dissertation has...... served to investigate the solution space for augmenting the DTU μASC stellar reference sensor with a miniature Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), thereby obtaining improved bandwidth, accuracy and overall operational robustness of the fused instrument. Present day attitude determination requirements are met...... of the instrument, and affecting operations during agile and complex spacecraft attitude maneuvers. As such, there exists a theoretical foundation for augmenting the high frequency performance of the μASC instrument, by harnessing the complementary nature of optical stellar reference and inertial sensor technology...

  15. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking (United States)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  16. Nonlinearity-induced spacecraft tumbling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, A.K.


    An existing tumbling criterion for the dumbbell satellite in planar librations is reexamined and modified to reflect a recently identified tumbling mode associated with the horizontal attitude orientation. It is shown that for any initial attitude there exists a critical angular rate below which the motion is oscillatory and harmonic and beyond which a continuous tumbling will ensue. If the angular rate is at the critical value the spacecraft drifts towards the horizontal attitude from which a spontaneous periodic tumbling occurs

  17. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History (United States)

    Johnson, Gary


    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  18. Parametric Room Acoustic Workflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Svidt, Kjeld; Molin, Erik


    The paper investigates and assesses different room acoustics software and the opportunities they offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs. The first step consists in the testing and benchmarking of different tools on the basis of accuracy, speed...... and interoperability with Grasshopper 3d. The focus will be placed to the benchmarking of three different acoustic analysis tools based on raytracing. To compare the accuracy and speed of the acoustic evaluation across different tools, a homogeneous set of acoustic parameters is chosen. The room acoustics parameters...... included in the set are reverberation time (EDT, RT30), clarity (C50), loudness (G), and definition (D50). Scenarios are discussed for determining at different design stages the most suitable acoustic tool. Those scenarios are characterized, by the use of less accurate but fast evaluation tools to be used...

  19. Integrating standard operating procedures with spacecraft automation, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft automation has the potential to assist crew members and spacecraft operators in managing spacecraft systems during extended space missions. Automation can...

  20. Acoustic scaling: A re-evaluation of the acoustic model of Manchester Studio 7 (United States)

    Walker, R.


    The reasons for the reconstruction and re-evaluation of the acoustic scale mode of a large music studio are discussed. The design and construction of the model using mechanical and structural considerations rather than purely acoustic absorption criteria is described and the results obtained are given. The results confirm that structural elements within the studio gave rise to unexpected and unwanted low-frequency acoustic absorption. The results also show that at least for the relatively well understood mechanisms of sound energy absorption physical modelling of the structural and internal components gives an acoustically accurate scale model, within the usual tolerances of acoustic design. The poor reliability of measurements of acoustic absorption coefficients, is well illustrated. The conclusion is reached that such acoustic scale modelling is a valid and, for large scale projects, financially justifiable technique for predicting fundamental acoustic effects. It is not appropriate for the prediction of fine details because such small details are unlikely to be reproduced exactly at a different size without extensive measurements of the material's performance at both scales.

  1. Manipulating Liquids With Acoustic Radiation Pressure Phased Arrays (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.


    High-intensity ultrasound waves can produce the effects of "Acoustic Radiation Pressure" (ARP) and "acoustic streaming." These effects can be used to propel liquid flows and to apply forces that can be used to move or manipulate floating objects or liquid surfaces. NASA's interest in ARP includes the remote-control agitation of liquids and the manipulation of bubbles and drops in liquid experiments and propellant systems. A high level of flexibility is attained by using a high-power acoustic phased array to generate, steer, and focus a beam of acoustic waves. This is called an Acoustic Radiation Pressure Phased Array, or ARPPA. In this approach, many acoustic transducer elements emit wavelets that converge into a single beam of sound waves. Electronically coordinating the timing, or "phase shift," of the acoustic waves makes it possible to form a beam with a predefined direction and focus. Therefore, a user can direct the ARP force at almost any desired point within a liquid volume. ARPPA lets experimenters manipulate objects anywhere in a test volume. This flexibility allow it to be used for multiple purposes, such as to agitate liquids, deploy and manipulate drops or bubbles, and even suppress sloshing in spacecraft propellant tanks.

  2. Spacecraft Jitter Attenuation Using Embedded Piezoelectric Actuators (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith


    Remote sensing from spacecraft requires precise pointing of measurement devices in order to achieve adequate spatial resolution. Unfortunately, various spacecraft disturbances induce vibrational jitter in the remote sensing instruments. The NASA Langley Research Center has performed analysis, simulations, and ground tests to identify the more promising technologies for minimizing spacecraft pointing jitter. These studies have shown that the use of smart materials to reduce spacecraft jitter is an excellent match between a maturing technology and an operational need. This paper describes the use of embedding piezoelectric actuators for vibration control and payload isolation. In addition, recent advances in modeling, simulation, and testing of spacecraft pointing jitter are discussed.

  3. Acoustic Measurement Of Periodic Motion Of Levitated Object (United States)

    Watkins, John L.; Barmatz, Martin B.


    Some internal vibrations, oscillations in position, and rotations of acoustically levitated object measured by use of microphone already installed in typical levitation chamber for tuning chamber to resonance and monitoring operation. Levitating acoustic signal modulated by object motion of lower frequency. Amplitude modulation detected and analyzed spectrally to determine amplitudes and frequencies of motions.

  4. Nanoliter-droplet acoustic streaming via ultra high frequency surface acoustic waves. (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J; Travagliati, Marco; Beltram, Fabio; Cecchini, Marco


    The relevant length scales in sub-nanometer amplitude surface acoustic wave-driven acoustic streaming are demonstrated. We demonstrate the absence of any physical limitations preventing the downscaling of SAW-driven internal streaming to nanoliter microreactors and beyond by extending SAW microfluidics up to operating frequencies in the GHz range. This method is applied to nanoliter scale fluid mixing. © 2014 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Acoustic Metamaterials in Aeronautics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Palma


    Full Text Available Metamaterials, man-made composites that are scaled smaller than the wavelength, have demonstrated a huge potential for application in acoustics, allowing the production of sub-wavelength acoustic absorbers, acoustic invisibility, perfect acoustic mirrors and acoustic lenses for hyper focusing, and acoustic illusions and enabling new degrees of freedom in the control of the acoustic field. The zero, or even negative, refractive sound index of metamaterials offers possibilities for the control of acoustic patterns and sound at sub-wavelength scales. Despite the tremendous growth in research on acoustic metamaterials during the last decade, the potential of metamaterial-based technologies in aeronautics has still not been fully explored, and its utilization is still in its infancy. Thus, the principal concepts mentioned above could very well provide a means to develop devices that allow the mitigation of the impact of civil aviation noise on the community. This paper gives a review of the most relevant works on acoustic metamaterials, analyzing them for their potential applicability in aeronautics, and, in this process, identifying possible implementation areas and interesting metabehaviors. It also identifies some technical challenges and possible future directions for research with the goal of unveiling the potential of metamaterials technology in aeronautics.

  6. Deep Space Networking Experiments on the EPOXI Spacecraft (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.


    NASA's Space Communications & Navigation Program within the Space Operations Directorate is operating a program to develop and deploy Disruption Tolerant Networking [DTN] technology for a wide variety of mission types by the end of 2011. DTN is an enabling element of the Interplanetary Internet where terrestrial networking protocols are generally unsuitable because they rely on timely and continuous end-to-end delivery of data and acknowledgments. In fall of 2008 and 2009 and 2011 the Jet Propulsion Laboratory installed and tested essential elements of DTN technology on the Deep Impact spacecraft. These experiments, called Deep Impact Network Experiment (DINET 1) were performed in close cooperation with the EPOXI project which has responsibility for the spacecraft. The DINET 1 software was installed on the backup software partition on the backup flight computer for DINET 1. For DINET 1, the spacecraft was at a distance of about 15 million miles (24 million kilometers) from Earth. During DINET 1 300 images were transmitted from the JPL nodes to the spacecraft. Then, they were automatically forwarded from the spacecraft back to the JPL nodes, exercising DTN's bundle origination, transmission, acquisition, dynamic route computation, congestion control, prioritization, custody transfer, and automatic retransmission procedures, both on the spacecraft and on the ground, over a period of 27 days. The first DINET 1 experiment successfully validated many of the essential elements of the DTN protocols. DINET 2 demonstrated: 1) additional DTN functionality, 2) automated certain tasks which were manually implemented in DINET 1 and 3) installed the ION SW on nodes outside of JPL. DINET 3 plans to: 1) upgrade the LTP convergence-layer adapter to conform to the international LTP CL specification, 2) add convergence-layer "stewardship" procedures and 3) add the BSP security elements [PIB & PCB]. This paper describes the planning and execution of the flight experiment and the

  7. The effect of air flow, panel curvature, and internal pressurization on field-incidence transmission loss. [acoustic propagation through aircraft fuselage (United States)

    Koval, L. R.


    In the context of sound transmission through aircraft fuselage panels, equations for the field-incidence transmission loss (TL) of a single-walled panel are derived that include the effects of external air flow, panel curvature, and internal fuselage pressurization. These effects are incorporated into the classical equations for the TL of single panels, and the resulting double integral for field-incidence TL is numerically evaluated for a specific set of parameters.

  8. Spacecraft Design Thermal Control Subsystem (United States)

    Miyake, Robert N.


    The Thermal Control Subsystem engineers task is to maintain the temperature of all spacecraft components, subsystems, and the total flight system within specified limits for all flight modes from launch to end-of-mission. In some cases, specific stability and gradient temperature limits will be imposed on flight system elements. The Thermal Control Subsystem of "normal" flight systems, the mass, power, control, and sensing systems mass and power requirements are below 10% of the total flight system resources. In general the thermal control subsystem engineer is involved in all other flight subsystem designs.

  9. Springer handbook of acoustics

    CERN Document Server


    Acoustics, the science of sound, has developed into a broad interdisciplinary field encompassing the academic disciplines of physics, engineering, psychology, speech, audiology, music, architecture, physiology, neuroscience, and electronics. The Springer Handbook of Acoustics is also in his 2nd edition an unparalleled modern handbook reflecting this richly interdisciplinary nature edited by one of the acknowledged masters in the field, Thomas Rossing. Researchers and students benefit from the comprehensive contents. This new edition of the Handbook features over 11 revised and expanded chapters, new illustrations, and 2 new chapters covering microphone arrays  and acoustic emission.  Updated chapters contain the latest research and applications in, e.g. sound propagation in the atmosphere, nonlinear acoustics in fluids, building and concert hall acoustics, signal processing, psychoacoustics, computer music, animal bioacousics, sound intensity, modal acoustics as well as new chapters on microphone arrays an...

  10. Vibro-acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Anders


    This three-volume book gives a thorough and comprehensive presentation of vibration and acoustic theories. Different from traditional textbooks which typically deal with some aspects of either acoustic or vibration problems, it is unique of this book to combine those two correlated subjects together. Moreover, it provides fundamental analysis and mathematical descriptions for several crucial phenomena of Vibro-Acoustics which are quite useful in noise reduction, including how structures are excited, energy flows from an excitation point to a sound radiating surface, and finally how a structure radiates noise to a surrounding fluid. Many measurement results included in the text make the reading interesting and informative. Problems/questions are listed at the end of each chapter and the solutions are provided. This will help the readers to understand the topics of Vibro-Acoustics more deeply. The book should be of interest to anyone interested in sound and vibration, vehicle acoustics, ship acoustics and inter...

  11. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  12. Handbook of Engineering Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Möser, Michael


    This book examines the physical background of engineering acoustics, focusing on empirically obtained engineering experience as well as on measurement techniques and engineering methods for prognostics. Its goal is not only to describe the state of art of engineering acoustics but also to give practical help to engineers in order to solve acoustic problems. It deals with the origin, the transmission and the methods of the abating different kinds of air-borne and structure-borne sounds caused by various mechanisms – from traffic to machinery and flow-induced sound. In addition the modern aspects of room and building acoustics, as well as psychoacoustics and active noise control, are covered.

  13. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed


    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  14. Acoustic Technology Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory contains an electro-magnetic worldwide data collection and field measurement capability in the area of acoustic technology. Outfitted by NASA Langley...

  15. Shallow Water Acoustic Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where high-frequency acoustic scattering and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures...

  16. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...

  17. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing (United States)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.


    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  18. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo


    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  19. Acoustic imagery applied to the examination of the internal condition of concrete structures; Imagerie acoustique appliquee a l`auscultation du beton de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhazi, J.; Ballivy, G.; Rivest, M.


    A new process in civil engineering that can be used to examine the internal condition of a concrete structure using non-intrusive data acquisition techniques was discussed. The process described combines elements of computerized tomography with scientific visualization techniques to obtain representation of the structure showing the spatial distribution of stress wave velocity within the structure. An overview of the theory, details of the experimental procedure, and treatment of the data obtained are provided. Application of the technique to an existing structure is described. 10 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  20. Acoustic Levitation With Less Equipment (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Jacobi, N.


    Certain chamber shapes require fewer than three acoustic drivers. Levitation at center of spherical chamber attained using only one acoustic driver. Exitation of lowest spherical mode produces asymmetric acoustic potential well.

  1. What Is an Acoustic Neuroma (United States)

    ... CALENDAR DONATE NEWS Home Learn Back Learn about acoustic neuroma AN Facts What is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing ... Italian Japanese Korean Portuguese Romanian Spanish What is Acoustic Neuroma? Each heading slides to reveal information. Important ...

  2. Control of cavity acoustics by surface waviness in landing configurations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dala, L


    Full Text Available ): 2321-3051 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN AERONAUTICAL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERING Control of Cavity Acoustics by Surface Waviness In Landing Configurations Laurent Dala CSIR, DPSS/Aeronautics Systems, Pretoria 0001, South Africa...

  3. Mesoscale variations in acoustic signals induced by atmospheric gravity waves. (United States)

    Chunchuzov, Igor; Kulichkov, Sergey; Perepelkin, Vitaly; Ziemann, Astrid; Arnold, Klaus; Kniffka, Anke


    The results of acoustic tomographic monitoring of the coherent structures in the lower atmosphere and the effects of these structures on acoustic signal parameters are analyzed in the present study. From the measurements of acoustic travel time fluctuations (periods 1 min-1 h) with distant receivers, the temporal fluctuations of the effective sound speed and wind speed are retrieved along different ray paths connecting an acoustic pulse source and several receivers. By using a coherence analysis of the fluctuations near spatially distanced ray turning points, the internal wave-associated fluctuations are filtered and their spatial characteristics (coherences, horizontal phase velocities, and spatial scales) are estimated. The capability of acoustic tomography in estimating wind shear near ground is shown. A possible mechanism describing the temporal modulation of the near-ground wind field by ducted internal waves in the troposphere is proposed.

  4. Acoustic-gravity modons in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Stenflo

    Full Text Available It is shown that the equations governing low-frequency acoustic-gravity waves in a stable stratified atmosphere can have localized dipole-vortex solutions (modons. They propagate in the horizontal direction with a speed that is larger than that of all possible linear internal waves.

  5. Acoustic detectability of Rhynchophorus cruentatus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) (United States)

    The palmetto weevil, Rhynchophorus cruentatus Fabricius, native to Florida, attacks palm trees. Like its economically destructive relatives, R. ferrugineus (Olivier) and R. palmarum L., it feeds internally and often is not detected until irreparable damage occurs. Acoustic methods previously used su...

  6. Three-Dimensional Shallow Water Acoustics (United States)


    medium properties, so horizontal refraction and reflection of sound can occur and produce significant three-dimensional (3-D) sound propagation the environmental factors existing commonly in the continental shelf and shelfbreak areas, such as slopes, submarine canyons, sub-bottom layers ...surface waves, internal waves and shelfbreak fronts. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Continental Shelf; 3-D Acoustics , Surface Waves, Sound Propagation 16

  7. Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.


    There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.

  8. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnikov, K.K.; Makletsov, A.A.; Mileev, V.N.; Novikov, L.S.; Sinolits, V.V.


    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language

  9. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Krupnikov, K K; Mileev, V N; Novikov, L S; Sinolits, V V


    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language.

  10. Spacecraft on-orbit deployment anomalies - What can be done? (United States)

    Freeman, Michael T.


    Modern communications satellites rely heavily upon deployable appendage (i.e. solar arrays, communications antennas, etc.) to perform vital functions that enable the spacecraft to effectively conduct mission objectives. Communications and telemetry antennas provide the radiofrequency link between the spacecraft and the earth ground station, permitting data to be transmitted and received from the satellite. Solar arrays serve as the principle source of electrical energy to the satellite, and recharge internal batteries during operation. However, since satellites cannot carry backup systems, if a solar array fails to deploy, the mission is lost. This article examines the subject of on-orbit anomalies related to the deployment of spacecraft appendage, and possible causes of such failures. Topics discussed shall include mechanical launch loading, on-orbit thermal and solar concerns, reliability of spacecraft pyrotechnics, and practical limitations of ground-based deployment testing. Of particular significance, the article will feature an in-depth look at the lessons learned from the successful recovery of the Telesat Canada Anik-E2 satellite in 1991.

  11. Optimal Autonomous Spacecraft Resiliency Maneuvers Using Metaheuristics (United States)


    This work was accepted for published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets in July 2014...publication in the AIAA Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets . Chapter 5 introduces an impulsive maneuvering strategy to deliver a spacecraft to its final...upon arrival r2 and v2 , respectively. The variable T2 determines the time of flight needed to make the maneuver, and the variable θ2 determines the

  12. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 30041 770-205-8211 The world’s #1 acoustic neuroma resource Click to learn more... ... is acoustic neuroma? Diagnosing Symptoms Side Effects Keywords World Language Videos Questions to ask Choosing a healthcare ...

  13. Acoustics Critical Readiness Review (United States)

    Ballard, Kenny


    This presentation reviews the status of the acoustic equipment from the medical operations perspective. Included is information about the acoustic dosimeters, sound level meter, and headphones that are planned for use while on orbit. Finally there is information about on-orbit hearing assessments.

  14. Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system (United States)

    Hamer, P. A.; Snowden, P. J.


    The baseline Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system (SCMS) concepts and the converted SCMS, residing on a DEC/VAX 8350 hardware, are considered. The main functions of the system include monitoring and displaying spacecraft telemetry, preparing spacecraft commands, producing hard copies of experimental data, and archiving spacecraft telemetry. The SCMS system comprises over 20 subsystems ranging from low-level utility routines to the major monitoring and control software. These in total consist of approximately 55,000 lines of FORTRAN source code and 100 VMS command files. The SCMS major software facilities are described, including database files, telemetry processing, telecommanding, archiving of data, and display of telemetry.

  15. Operationally Responsive Spacecraft Subsystem, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saber Astronautics proposes spacecraft subsystem control software which can autonomously reconfigure avionics for best performance during various mission conditions....

  16. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...... from different areas, will find the self-contained chapters accessible and will be interested in the similarities and differences between the approaches and techniques used in different areas of acoustics....

  17. Computational Ocean Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Finn B; Porter, Michael B; Schmidt, Henrik


    Since the mid-1970s, the computer has played an increasingly pivotal role in the field of ocean acoustics. Faster and less expensive than actual ocean experiments, and capable of accommodating the full complexity of the acoustic problem, numerical models are now standard research tools in ocean laboratories. The progress made in computational ocean acoustics over the last thirty years is summed up in this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new text. Written by some of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of America, Computational Ocean Acoustics presents the latest numerical techniques for solving the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors discuss various computational schemes in detail, emphasizing the importance of theoretical foundations that lead directly to numerical implementations for real ocean environments. To further clarify the presentation, the fundamental propagation features of the techniques are illustrated in color. Computational Ocean A...

  18. Calibration of acoustic emission transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leschek, W.C.


    A method is described for calibrating an acoustic emission transducer to be used in a pre-set frequency range. The absolute reception sensitivity of a reference transducer is determined at frequencies selected within the frequency range. The reference transducer and the acoustic emission transducer are put into acoustic communication with the surface of a limited acoustic medium representing an equivalent acoustic load appreciably identical to that of the medium in which the use of the acoustic emission transducer is intended. A blank random acoustic noise is emitted in the acoustic medium in order to establish a diffuse and reverberating sound field, after which the output responses of the reference transducer and of the acoustic emission transducer are obtained with respect to the diffuse and reverberating field, for selected frequencies. The output response of the acoustic emission transducer is compared with that of the reference transducer for the selected frequencies, so as to determine the reception sensitivity of the acoustic emission transducer [fr

  19. Multi-spacecraft observations of solar hard X-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, S.R.


    The role of multi-spacecraft observations in solar flare research is examined from the point of view of solar hard X-ray bursts and their implications with respect to models of the impulsive phase. Multi-spacecraft measurements provide a stereoscopic view of the flare region, and hence represent the only direct method of measuring directivity of X-rays. In absence of hard X-ray imaging instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, multi-spacecraft measurements provide the only means of determining the radial (vertical) structure of the hard X-ray source. This potential of the multi-spacecraft observations is illustrated with an analysis of the presently available observations of solar hard X-ray bursts made simultaneously by two or more of the following spacecraft: International Sun Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3), Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO), Helios-B and High Energy Astrophysical Observatory-A (HEAO-A). In particular, some conclusions have been drawn about the spatial structure and directivity of 50-100 keV X-rays from impulsive flares. Desirable features of future multi-spacecraft missions are briefly discussed followed by a short description of the hard X-ray experiment on the International Solar Polar Mission which has been planned specifically for multi-spacecraft observations of the Sun. (orig.)

  20. Parametric Room Acoustic workflows with real-time acoustic simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario


    The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages......The paper investigates and assesses the opportunities that real-time acoustic simulation offer to engage in parametric acoustics workflow and to influence architectural designs from early design stages...

  1. Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Arteries Juxtaposed with the Internal Acoustic Meatus and Their Relationship to the Cranial Nerve VII/VIII Complex. (United States)

    Alonso, Fernando; Kassem, Mohammad W; Iwanaga, Joe; Oskouian, Rod J; Loukas, Marios; Demerdash, Amin; Tubbs, R Shane


    Vascular loops in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and their relationship to cranial nerves have been used to explain neurological symptoms. The anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) has variable branches producing vascular loops that can compress the facial cranial nerve (CN) VII and vestibulocochlear (CN VIII) nerves. AICA compression of the facial-vestibulocochlear nerve complex can lead to various clinical presentations, including hemifacial spasm (HFS), tinnitus, and hemiataxia. The formation of arterial loops inside or outside of the internal auditory meatus (IAM) can cause abutment or compression of CN VII and CN VIII. Twenty-five (50 sides) fresh adult cadavers underwent dissection of the cerebellopontine angle in the supine position. In regard to relationships between the AICA and the nerves of the facial/vestibulocochlear complex, 33 arteries (66%) traveled in a plane between the facial/nervus intermedius nerves and the cochlear and vestibular nerves. Five arteries (10%) traveled below the CN VII/VIII complex, six (12%) traveled posterior to the nerve complex, four (8%) formed a semi-circle around the upper half of the nerve complex, and two (4%) traveled between and partially separated the nervus intermedius and facial nerve proper. Our study found that the majority of AICA will travel in a plane between the facial/nervus intermedius nerves and the cochlear and vestibular nerves. Although the relationship between the AICA and porus acusticus and AICA and the nerves of the CN VII/VIII complex are variable, based on our findings, some themes exist. Surgeons should consider these with approaches to the cerebellopontine angle.

  2. Design issues of the piezo motor for the spacecraft reflector control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Anton


    Full Text Available Creation of large-size reflectors for spacecrafts is a topical issue for the space industry. The accuracy of the reflecting surface form and the structure weight are the main criteria for the reflector design. The accuracy of the reflecting surface form during a long-term operation is provided by adjustment when using piezoelectric motors in the reflector design. These motors have small weight-size parameters and can reach great torque values. The piezo motor is a distributed mechanical-acoustic oscillation system. Mechanical-acoustic oscillations are generated in the piezo motor by a PZT-stack and transmitted to an oscillator element, and then from the oscillator element to a load action element. At high frequencies, when dimensions of the oscillator are proportionate to the wavelength, the energy is transmitted by means of acoustic waves. In this case, mechanical waves practically are not involved in the energy transmission process. This thesis shows a method for selecting the material of a mechanical-acoustic oscillation system according to the efficiency of the acoustic energy transmission via a piezoelectric layered structure.

  3. Acoustic Noise Prediction of the Amine Swingbed ISS ExPRESS Rack Payload (United States)

    Welsh, David; Smith, Holly; Wang, Shuo


    Acoustics plays a vital role in maintaining the health, safety, and comfort of crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In order to maintain this livable and workable environment, acoustic requirements have been established to ensure that ISS hardware and payload developers account for the acoustic emissions of their equipment and develop acoustic mitigations as necessary. These requirements are verified by an acoustic emissions test of the integrated hardware. The Amine Swingbed ExPRESS (Expedite the PRocessing of ExperimentS to Space) rack payload creates a unique challenge to the developers in that the payload hardware is transported to the ISS in phases, making an acoustic emissions test on the integrated flight hardware impossible. In addition, the payload incorporates a high back pressure fan and a diaphragm vacuum pump, which are recognized as significant and complex noise sources. In order to accurately predict the acoustic emissions of the integrated payload, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are first characterized. These characterizations are conducted though a series of acoustic emissions tests on the individual payload components. Secondly, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are incorporated into a virtual model of the integrated hardware. The virtual model is constructed with the use of hybrid method utilizing the Finite Element Acoustic (FEA) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques, which predict the overall acoustic emissions. Finally, the acoustic model is validated though an acoustic characterization test performed on an acoustically similar mock-up of the flight unit. The results of the validated acoustic model are then used to assess the acoustic emissions of the flight unit and define further acoustic mitigation efforts.

  4. Transmission acoustic microscopy investigation (United States)

    Maev, Roman; Kolosov, Oleg; Levin, Vadim; Lobkis, Oleg

    The nature of acoustic contrast, i.e. the connection of the amplitude and phase of the output signal of the acoustic microscope with the local values of the acoustic parameters of the sample (density, elasticity, viscosity) is a central problem of acoustic microscopy. A considerable number of studies have been devoted to the formation of the output signal of the reflection scanning acoustic microscope. For the transmission acoustic microscope (TAM) this problem has remained almost unstudied. Experimental investigation of the confocal system of the TAM was carried out on an independently manufactured laboratory mockup of the TAM with the working frequency of the 420 MHz. Acoustic lenses with the radius of curvature of about 500 microns and aperture angle of 45 deg were polished out in the end faces of two cylindrical sound conductors made from Al2O3 single crystals with an axis parallel to the axis C of the crystal (the length of the sound conductor is 20 mm; diameter, 6 mm). At the end faces of the sound conductor, opposite to the lenses, CdS transducers with a diameter of 2 mm were disposed. The electric channel of the TAM provided a possibility for registering the amplitude of the microscope output signal in the case of the dynamic range of the 50 dB.

  5. The accidental (acoustical) tourist (United States)

    Van Kirk, Wayne


    The acoustical phenomenon observed at an ancient temple in the Great Ball Court at Chichen Itza was described as ''little short of amazing--an ancient whispering gallery'' by Silvanus G. Morley, leader of the Carnegie Institute's archaeological team that excavated and restored these structures in the 1920s. Since then, many others have experienced the extraordinary acoustics at Chichen Itza and other Maya sites. Despite these reports, archaeologists and acousticians have until recently shown little interest in understanding these phenomena. After experiencing Chichen Itza's remarkable acoustics as a tourist in 1994, the author commenced collecting and disseminating information about acoustical phenomena there and at other Mayan sites, hoping to stimulate interest among archaeologists and acousticians. Were these designs accidental or intentional? If intentional, how was the knowledge obtained? How were acoustical features used? This paper highlights the author's collection of anecdotal reports of mysterious Mayan acoustics (http://, recommended reading for scientists and engineers who wish to pursue this fascinating study. Also recounted are some of the reactions of archaeologists-ranging from curious, helpful, and insightful to humorous and appalling--to outsiders' efforts to bring serious scientific attention to the new field of acoustical archaeology.

  6. Translational illusion of acoustic sources by transformation acoustics. (United States)

    Sun, Fei; Li, Shichao; He, Sailing


    An acoustic illusion of creating a translated acoustic source is designed by utilizing transformation acoustics. An acoustic source shifter (ASS) composed of layered acoustic metamaterials is designed to achieve such an illusion. A practical example where the ASS is made with naturally available materials is also given. Numerical simulations verify the performance of the proposed device. The designed ASS may have some applications in, e.g., anti-sonar detection.

  7. Acoustic building infiltration measurement system (United States)

    Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Raman, Ganesh


    Systems and methods of detecting and identifying a leak from a container or building. Acoustic pressure and velocity are measured. Acoustic properties are acquired from the measured values. The acoustic properties are converted to infiltration/leakage information. Nearfield Acoustic Holography (NAH) may be one method to detect the leakages from a container by locating the noise sources.

  8. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.


    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  9. Medical Significance of Microorganisms in Spacecraft Environment (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark


    Microorganisms can spoil food supplies, contaminate drinking water, release noxious volatile compounds, initiate allergic responses, contaminate the environment, and cause infectious diseases. International acceptability limits have been established for bacterial and fungal contaminants in air and on surfaces, and environmental monitoring is conducted to ensure compliance. Allowable levels of microorganism in water and food have also been established. Environmental monitoring of the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have allowed for some general conclusions. Generally, the bacteria found in air and on interior surfaces are largely of human origin such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp. Common environmental genera such as Bacillus spp. are the most commonly isolated bacteria from all spacecraft. Yeast species associated with humans such as Candida spp. are commonly found. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cladosporium spp. are the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi. Microbial levels in the environment differ significantly depending upon humidity levels, condensate accumulation, and availability of carbon sources. However, human "normal flora" of bacteria and fungi can result in serious, life-threatening diseases if human immunity is compromised. Disease incidence is expected to increase as mission duration increases.

  10. The acoustic environment in large HTGR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, T.E.


    Well-known techniques for estimating acoustic vibration of structures have been applied to a General Atomic high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) design. It is shown that one must evaluate internal loss factors for both fluid and structure modes, as well as radiation loss factors, to avoid large errors in estimated structural response. At any frequency above 1350 rad/s there are generally at least 20 acoustic modes contributing to acoustic pressure, so statistical energy analysis may be employed. But because the gas circuit consists mainly of high-aspect-ratio cavities, reverberant fields are nowhere isotropic below 7500 rad/s, and in some regions are not isotropic below 60 000 rad/s. In comparison with isotropic reverberant fields, these anistropic fields enhance the radiation efficiencies of some structural modes at low frequencies, but have surprisingly little effect at most frequencies. The efficiency of a dipole sound source depends upon its orientation. (Auth.)

  11. Facial neuroma masquerading as acoustic neuroma. (United States)

    Sayegh, Eli T; Kaur, Gurvinder; Ivan, Michael E; Bloch, Orin; Cheung, Steven W; Parsa, Andrew T


    Facial nerve neuromas are rare benign tumors that may be initially misdiagnosed as acoustic neuromas when situated near the auditory apparatus. We describe a patient with a large cystic tumor with associated trigeminal, facial, audiovestibular, and brainstem dysfunction, which was suspicious for acoustic neuroma on preoperative neuroimaging. Intraoperative investigation revealed a facial nerve neuroma located in the cerebellopontine angle and internal acoustic canal. Gross total resection of the tumor via retrosigmoid craniotomy was curative. Transection of the facial nerve necessitated facial reanimation 4 months later via hypoglossal-facial cross-anastomosis. Clinicians should recognize the natural history, diagnostic approach, and management of this unusual and mimetic lesion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acoustical heat pumping engine (United States)

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.


    The disclosure is directed to an acoustical heat pumping engine without moving seals. A tubular housing holds a compressible fluid capable of supporting an acoustical standing wave. An acoustical driver is disposed at one end of the housing and the other end is capped. A second thermodynamic medium is disposed in the housing near to but spaced from the capped end. Heat is pumped along the second thermodynamic medium toward the capped end as a consequence both of the pressure oscillation due to the driver and imperfect thermal contact between the fluid and the second thermodynamic medium. 2 figs.

  13. Deep Water Acoustics (United States)


    the Deep Water project and participate in the NPAL Workshops, including Art Baggeroer (MIT), J. Beron- Vera (UMiami), M. Brown (UMiami), T...Kathleen E . Wage. The North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory deep-water acoustic propagation experiments in the Philippine Sea. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 134(4...estimate of the angle α during PhilSea09, made from ADCP measurements at the site of the DVLA. Sim. A B1 B2 B3 C D E F Prof. # 0 4 4 4 5 10 16 20 α

  14. Radiation acoustics and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyamshev, L.M.


    Radiation acoustics is a new branch of acoustics, developing on the boundary of acoustics, nuclear physics, elementary particles and high-energy physics. Its fundamentals are laying in the research of acoustical effects due to the interaction of penetrating radiation with matter. The study of radiation-acoustical effects leads to the new opportunities in the penetration radiation research (acoustical detection, radiation-acoustical dosimetry), study of the physical parameters of matter, in a solution of some applied problems of nondestructive testing, and also for the radiation-acoustical influence on physical and chemical structure of the matter. Results of theoretical and experimental investigations are given. Different mechanisms of the sound generation by penetrating radiation of liquids and solids are considered. Some applications - the radiation acoustical microscopy and visualisation, the acoustical detection of high energy X-ray particles and possibility of using of high energy neutrino beams in geoacoustics - are discussed

  15. Acoustic valve leak detection in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmick, J.G.; Dickey, J.W.


    Internal valve leakage is a hidden energy loss and can cause or prolong a forced outage. Recent advances in acoustic detection of internal valve leakage have reduced piping system maintenance costs, unnecessary downtime, and energy waste. Extremely short payback periods have been reported by plants applying this technology to preventive maintenance, troubleshooting, energy conservation and outage planning. Sensors temporarily attached to the outside of valves and connected to the instruments detect ultrasonic acoustic emissions which are characteristic of internal valve leakage. Since the sensors are attached to the outside of the valves, the time and expense of dismantling the valves or removing them from the systems are eliminated. This paper describes the instrumentation and specific applications to nuclear plant valves, including independent verification of initial findings. Guidelines for potential users, including instrumentation selection, training requirements, application planning, and the choice of in-house versus contract services are discussed

  16. Numerical analysis on acoustic impulse response for watermelon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Sul; Yang, Dong Hoon; Choi, Young Jae; Bae, Tas Joo; So, Chul Ho; Lee, Yun Ho


    In this study, we conducted both analysis on impact pulse signal and acoustic impulse response method using numerical analysistic finite element method. Considering its velocity, density, Young's Modulus, and Poisson's Ratio, we extracted featured parameters and compared both results of analysis on impact pulse signal and numerical analysis on acoustic impulse response then we found the feature of generated acoustic sound signal by way of numerical analysis varying featured parameters and consequently intended to extract feature indices influenced on its internal maturity through analysis of acoustic impulse response. As we analyzed impact pulse signal and extracted featured parameters concerned with evaluation of its ripeness, we found the plausibility of progress on nondestructive evaluation of ripeness and adoption of numerical analysis on acoustic impulse response.

  17. Numerical analysis on acoustic impulse response for watermelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Sul; Yang, Dong Hoon; Choi, Young Jae; Bae, Tas Joo; So, Chul Ho [Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yun Ho [Korea Inspection and Engineering CO.,LTD., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, we conducted both analysis on impact pulse signal and acoustic impulse response method using numerical analysistic finite element method. Considering its velocity, density, Young's Modulus, and Poisson's Ratio, we extracted featured parameters and compared both results of analysis on impact pulse signal and numerical analysis on acoustic impulse response then we found the feature of generated acoustic sound signal by way of numerical analysis varying featured parameters and consequently intended to extract feature indices influenced on its internal maturity through analysis of acoustic impulse response. As we analyzed impact pulse signal and extracted featured parameters concerned with evaluation of its ripeness, we found the plausibility of progress on nondestructive evaluation of ripeness and adoption of numerical analysis on acoustic impulse response.

  18. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a healthcare provider Request a patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects Question To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation Radiation Surgery Choosing a healthcare ...

  19. Acoustic-Levitation Chamber (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Granett, D.; Lee, M. C.


    Uncontaminated environments for highly-pure material processing provided within completely sealed levitation chamber that suspends particles by acoustic excitation. Technique ideally suited for material processing in low gravity environment of space.

  20. Acoustic Casimir Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homes, Christopher


    ...). When the indirect manifestations of the ZPF are interpreted as due to radiation pressure, acoustic noise can provide an excellent analog to investigate the Casimir effect as well as other effects due to the ZPF...

  1. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing Symptoms Side effects ... To Ask Treatment Options Back Overview Observation Radiation Surgery Choosing a healthcare provider Request a patient kit ...

  2. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

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  3. Acoustic ambient noise recorder

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saran, A.K.; Navelkar, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; More, S.R.; Chodankar, P.V.; Murty, C.S.

    with a robust outfit that can withstand high pressures and chemically corrosion resistant materials. Keeping these considerations in view, a CMOS micro-controller-based marine acoustic ambient noise recorder has been developed with a real time clock...

  4. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn more about ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic Neuroma ... 8211 About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home Learn ...

  5. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

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  6. Electrostatic ion acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.


    In this paper, certain aspects of plasma physics are illustrated through a study of electrostatic ion acoustic waves. The paper consists of three Sections. Section II deals with linear properties of the ion acoustic wave including derivation of the dispersions relation with the effect of Landau damping and of an ambient magnetic field. The section also introduces the excitation processes of the ion acoustic wave due to an electron drift or to a stimulated Brillouin scattering. The nonlinear properties are introduced in Section III and IV. In Section III, incoherent nonlinear effects such as quasilinear and mode-coupling saturations of the instability are discussed. The coherent nonlinear effects such as the generation of ion acoustic solitons, shocks and weak double layers are presented in Section IV. (Auth.)

  7. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient kit Treatment Options Overview Observation Radiation Surgery What is acoustic neuroma Diagnosing ... Back Community Patient Stories Share Your Story Video Stories Caregivers Milestones Gallery Submit Your Milestone Team ANA Volunteer ...

  8. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

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  9. Autonomous Acoustic Receiver System (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Collects underwater acoustic data and oceanographic data. Data are recorded onboard an ocean buoy and can be telemetered to a remote ship or shore station...

  10. Acoustic MIMO signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yiteng; Chen, Jingdong


    A timely and important book addressing a variety of acoustic signal processing problems under multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenarios. It uniquely investigates these problems within a unified framework offering a novel and penetrating analysis.

  11. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Back Learn more about ANA About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Shop ANA Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Acoustic ... 205-8211 About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual Reports Shop ANA Home ...

  12. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  13. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

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  14. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

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  15. Acoustic Igniter, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An acoustic igniter eliminates the need to use electrical energy to drive spark systems to initiate combustion in liquid-propellant rockets. It does not involve the...

  16. Department of Cybernetic Acoustics (United States)

    The development of the theory, instrumentation and applications of methods and systems for the measurement, analysis, processing and synthesis of acoustic signals within the audio frequency range, particularly of the speech signal and the vibro-acoustic signal emitted by technical and industrial equipments treated as noise and vibration sources was discussed. The research work, both theoretical and experimental, aims at applications in various branches of science, and medicine, such as: acoustical diagnostics and phoniatric rehabilitation of pathological and postoperative states of the speech organ; bilateral ""man-machine'' speech communication based on the analysis, recognition and synthesis of the speech signal; vibro-acoustical diagnostics and continuous monitoring of the state of machines, technical equipments and technological processes.

  17. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

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  18. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

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  19. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

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  20. Acoustic imaging system (United States)

    Smith, Richard W.


    An acoustic imaging system for displaying an object viewed by a moving array of transducers as the array is pivoted about a fixed point within a given plane. A plurality of transducers are fixedly positioned and equally spaced within a laterally extending array and operatively directed to transmit and receive acoustic signals along substantially parallel transmission paths. The transducers are sequentially activated along the array to transmit and receive acoustic signals according to a preestablished sequence. Means are provided for generating output voltages for each reception of an acoustic signal, corresponding to the coordinate position of the object viewed as the array is pivoted. Receptions from each of the transducers are presented on the same display at coordinates corresponding to the actual position of the object viewed to form a plane view of the object scanned.

  1. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M


    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  2. Anal acoustic reflectometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Peter J; Klarskov, Niels; Telford, Karen J


    Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis.......Anal acoustic reflectometry is a new technique of assessing anal sphincter function. Five new variables reflecting anal canal function are measured: the opening and closing pressure, the opening and closing elastance, and hysteresis....

  3. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary


    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  4. Acoustic calibration apparatus for calibrating plethysmographic acoustic pressure sensors (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Davis, David C. (Inventor)


    An apparatus for calibrating an acoustic sensor is described. The apparatus includes a transmission material having an acoustic impedance approximately matching the acoustic impedance of the actual acoustic medium existing when the acoustic sensor is applied in actual in-service conditions. An elastic container holds the transmission material. A first sensor is coupled to the container at a first location on the container and a second sensor coupled to the container at a second location on the container, the second location being different from the first location. A sound producing device is coupled to the container and transmits acoustic signals inside the container.

  5. MR imaging of acoustic neurinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamachi, Keikichi; Aida, Toshimitsu; Abe, Hiroshi; Nomura, Mikio; Saitou, Hisatoshi.


    Fifteen cases of acoustic neurinomas were studied by the use of a 0.15 T magnetic resonance (MR) imager. Three of the patients were male, and twelve were female. The patients' ages ranged from 23 to 67 years. The tumors were measured by means of MR images; the maximum was 37.5 mm across, and the minimum, 10 mm. The MR images of the acoustic neurinomas were hypointense on the T 1 -weighted images except in one case (isointense), while all cases were hyperintense on the T 2 -weighted images. MRI was much better than contrastenhanced CT for internal auditory canal (IAC) tumors (78 % versus 36 %), especially by means of coronal oblique image on T 2 -weighted images. In addition, MRI was more useful in demonstrating a VII - VIII neurocomplex on the non-affected side than was CT (57 % versus 10 %), but it did not demonstrate a VII - VIII neurocomplex on the affected side when a 0.15 T MR imager was used. It is very effective to separate the tumor from the tentorium cerebelli when it is necessary to differentiate an acoustic neurinoma from a meningioma at the cerebellopontine angle. A coronal or coronal oblique image offers information for use in separating the tentorium cerebelli. In small IAC tumors, the increased protein content of the cerebro-spinal fluid in an obstructed IAC and the bound-water effect in small collections of fluid may shorten the relaxation times of the trapped intracanalicular fluid, producing difficulty in the ability to diagnosis small tumors. To reveal cystic components, it was found to be effective to use Gd-DTPA or short-TR short-TE spin-echo images. (author)

  6. SpaceX's Dragon America's next generation spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik


    This book describes Dragon V2, a futuristic vehicle that not only provides a means for NASA to transport its astronauts to the orbiting outpost but also advances SpaceX’s core objective of reusability. A direct descendant of Dragon, Dragon V2 can be retrieved, refurbished and re-launched. It is a spacecraft with the potential to completely revolutionize the economics of an industry where equipment costing hundreds of millions of dollars is routinely discarded after a single use. It was presented by SpaceX CEO Elon Musk in May 2014 as the spaceship that will carry NASA astronauts to the International Space Station as soon as 2016 SpaceX’s Dragon – America’s Next Generation Spacecraft describes the extraordinary feats of engineering and human achievement that have placed this revolutionary spacecraft at the forefront of the launch industry and positioned it as the precursor for ultimately transporting humans to Mars. It describes the design and development of Dragon, provides mission highlights of the f...

  7. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCamish, Shawn B


    This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems, including rendezvous...

  8. Spacecraft Swarm Coordination and Planning Tool, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fractionated spacecraft architectures to distribute mission performance from a single, monolithic satellite across large number of smaller spacecraft, for missions...

  9. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  10. SSTI- Lewis Spacecraft Nickel-Hydrogen Battery (United States)

    Tobias, R. F.


    Topics considered include: NASA-Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) objectives, SSTI-Lewis overview, battery requirement, two cells Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) design summary, CPV electric performance, battery design summary, battery functional description, battery performance.

  11. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  12. Automated constraint checking of spacecraft command sequences (United States)

    Horvath, Joan C.; Alkalaj, Leon J.; Schneider, Karl M.; Spitale, Joseph M.; Le, Dang


    Robotic spacecraft are controlled by onboard sets of commands called "sequences." Determining that sequences will have the desired effect on the spacecraft can be expensive in terms of both labor and computer coding time, with different particular costs for different types of spacecraft. Specification languages and appropriate user interface to the languages can be used to make the most effective use of engineering validation time. This paper describes one specification and verification environment ("SAVE") designed for validating that command sequences have not violated any flight rules. This SAVE system was subsequently adapted for flight use on the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft. The relationship of this work to rule-based artificial intelligence and to other specification techniques is discussed, as well as the issues that arise in the transfer of technology from a research prototype to a full flight system.

  13. Computational Model for Spacecraft/Habitat Volume (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Please note that funding to Dr. Simon Hsiang, a critical co-investigator for the development of the Spacecraft Optimization Layout and Volume (SOLV) model, was...

  14. Industry perspectives on Plug-& -Play Spacecraft Avionics (United States)

    Franck, R.; Graven, P.; Liptak, L.

    This paper describes the methodologies and findings from an industry survey of awareness and utility of Spacecraft Plug-& -Play Avionics (SPA). The survey was conducted via interviews, in-person and teleconference, with spacecraft prime contractors and suppliers. It focuses primarily on AFRL's SPA technology development activities but also explores the broader applicability and utility of Plug-& -Play (PnP) architectures for spacecraft. Interviews include large and small suppliers as well as large and small spacecraft prime contractors. Through these “ product marketing” interviews, awareness and attitudes can be assessed, key technical and market barriers can be identified, and opportunities for improvement can be uncovered. Although this effort focuses on a high-level assessment, similar processes can be used to develop business cases and economic models which may be necessary to support investment decisions.

  15. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.


    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  16. Mechanism of an acoustic wave impact on steel during solidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nowacki


    Full Text Available Acoustic steel processing in an ingot mould may be the final stage in the process of quality improvement of a steel ingot. The impact of radiation and cavitation pressure as well as the phenomena related to the acoustic wave being emitted and delivered to liquid steel affect various aspects including the internal structure fragmentation, rigidity or density of steel. The article provides an analysis of the mechanism of impact of physical phenomena caused by an acoustic wave affecting the quality of a steel ingot.

  17. Acoustic comfort in eating establishments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, David; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas


    The subjective concept of acoustic comfort in eating establishments has been investigated in this study. The goal was to develop a predictive model for the acoustic comfort, by means of simple objective parameters, while also examining which other subjective acoustic parameters could help explain...... the feeling of acoustic comfort. Through several layers of anal ysis, acoustic comfort was found to be rather complex, and could not be explained entirely by common subjective parameters such as annoyance, intelligibility or privacy. A predictive model for the mean acoustic comfort for an eating establishment...

  18. Formation of disintegration particles in spacecraft recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurnosova, L.V.; Fradkin, M.I.; Razorenov, L.A.


    Experiments performed on the spacecraft Salyut 1, Kosmos 410, and Kosmos 443 enable us to record the disintegration products of particles which are formed in the material of the detectors on board the spacecraft. The observations were made by means of a delayed coincidence method. We have detected a meson component and also a component which is apparently associated with the generation of radioactive isotopes in the detectors

  19. Power requirements for commercial communications spacecraft (United States)

    Billerbeck, W. J.


    Historical data on commercial spacecraft power systems are presented and their power requirements to the growth of satellite communications channel usage are related. Some approaches for estimating future power requirements of this class of spacecraft through the year 2000 are proposed. The key technology drivers in satellite power systems are addressed. Several technological trends in such systems are described, focusing on the most useful areas for research and development of major subsystems, including solar arrays, energy storage, and power electronics equipment.

  20. A Reconfigurable Testbed Environment for Spacecraft Autonomy (United States)

    Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Jain, Abhinandan


    A key goal of NASA's New Millennium Program is the development of technology for increased spacecraft on-board autonomy. Achievement of this objective requires the development of a new class of ground-based automony testbeds that can enable the low-cost and rapid design, test, and integration of the spacecraft autonomy software. This paper describes the development of an Autonomy Testbed Environment (ATBE) for the NMP Deep Space I comet/asteroid rendezvous mission.

  1. Flaw identification using acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, B.; McDonald, N.R.


    In order to realise the full inspection potential of acoustic emission monitoring, data obtained from zirconium and steel testpieces have been correlated with metallurgical condition and mechanical behaviour, since the nature of emission signatures is strongly affected by the physical characteristics and internal structure of the material. During experiments, signals were tape recorded and the surface of each testpiece was recorded on movie film or videotape so that acoustic and visual information could be correlated. Large numbers of tape-recorded bursts have been analysed with a real time spectrum analyser, and statistical parameters (such as mean energy density, mean frequency and variance) derived from the spectra were calculated by an IBM 360/50 computer and selectively displayed on a line plotter. In the case of zirconium, observed differences in these parameters were an indication that the emission signals were generated by three different metallurgical mechanisms. A movie film of testpiece surface deformation revealed the occurrence of twin initiation, twin broadening and slip. Fracture events either in the zirconium matrix or in second phase particles are also possible although not observed directly. A direct correlation was confirmed between twin initiations and emission signals. Work is proceeding on establishing a different correlation between emission signals and stress corrosion cracks

  2. Occupant satisfaction with the acoustical environment : green office buildings before and after treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). School of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Acoustics and Noise Research Group


    Sustainable architecture is meant to preserve the environment and conserve natural resources, as well as provide an environment for the occupants that promotes wellbeing and productivity. Occupants generally claim that the acoustical environment is the least satisfactory aspect of green office buildings. They are dissatisfied with excessive noise and poor speech privacy. This paper reported on the results of 2 studies of the acoustical environments in green office buildings before and after acoustical-control measures were installed. Acoustical quality was evaluated by occupant-satisfaction surveys and acoustical-parameter measurements. The first study, which involved 6 green office buildings, showed that buildings designed to obtain LEED ratings are unlikely to have satisfactory acoustical environments. A naturally-ventilated, green university building with a poor acoustical environment was examined in the second study. The results of this study suggest that improving acoustical environments in green buildings requires good acoustical design, with input from an acoustical specialist from the beginning of the design process. The design should consider site selection and building orientation; external envelope and penetrations in it; building layout and internal partitions; HVAC systems; appropriate dimensioning of spaces; and the amount and location of sound absorbing treatments. The study also showed that a building's energy efficiency, lighting, ventilation, air-quality and acoustics are interconnected, and that no aspect can be successfully designed in isolation. It was concluded that optimized engineering-control measures can improve poor acoustical environments. 11 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  3. Acoustic properties of a porous glass (vycor) at hypersonic frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levelut, C; Pelous, J


    Brillouin scattering experiments have been performed from 5 to 1600 K in vycor, a porous silica glass. The acoustic velocity and attenuation at hypersonic frequencies are compared to those of bulk silica and others porous silica samples. The experimental evidence for the influence of porosity on the scattering by acoustic waves is compared to calculations. The correlation between internal friction and thermal conductivity at low temperature is discussed

  4. Acoustic Emission Sensing for Maritime Diesel Engine Performance and Health (United States)


    system does not provide direct current power to the preamplifier, equivalent pre-amplifiers with external power inputs were purchased , but the... behaviour of piston ring/cylinder liner interaction in diesel engines using acoustic emission. Tribology International 39 (12) 12 / 01 / 1634-1642...diesel engine using in-cylinder pressure and acoustic emission techniques. Dyanmics for Sustainable Engineering 1 454-463 26. Lowe, D. P., et al

  5. Design of Launcher Towards Spacecraft Comfort: Ariane 6 Objectives (United States)

    Mourey, Patrick; Lambare, Hadrien; Valbuena, Matias F.


    Preliminary advanced studies were performed recently to select the possible concepts for a launcher that could succeed to Ariane 5. During the end of 2012 Space Ministry Conference, a configuration defining the propellant of the stages and the coarse staging ("PPH") was frozen in order to engage the preliminary selection concept studies. The first phase consisted to select the main features of the architecture in order to go deeper in the different matters or the advanced studies. The concept was selected mid of 2013.During all these phases of the preliminary project, different criteria (such as the recurring cost which is a major one) were used to quote the different concepts, among which the "payload comfort", ie the minimization of the environment generated by the launcher toward the satellites.The minimization of the environment was first expressed in term of objectives in the Mission Requirement Document (MRD) for the different mechanical environment such as quasi-static loads, dynamic loads, acoustics, shocks... Criteria such as usable volume, satellites frequency requirement and interface requirement are also expressed in the MRD.The definition of these different criteria was of course fixed taking benefit from the launcher operator experience based on a long story of dealing with spacecraft-launcher interface issues on Ariane, Soyouz and Vega. The general idea is to target improved or similar levels than those currently applicable for Ariane 5. For some environment for which a special need is anticipated from the potential end users, a special effort is aimed.The preliminary advanced study phase is currently running and has to address specific topics such as the definition of the upper part layout including geometry ofthe fairing, the definition of the launch pad with preliminary ideas to minimize acoustics and blast wave or first calculations on dimensioning dynamic load- cases such as thrust oscillations of the solid rocket motors (SRM).The present paper

  6. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Core Spacecraft Systems Engineering Challenges (United States)

    Bundas, David J.; ONeill, Deborah; Field, Thomas; Meadows, Gary; Patterson, Peter


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is a collaboration between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and other US and international partners, with the goal of monitoring the diurnal and seasonal variations in precipitation over the surface of the earth. These measurements will be used to improve current climate models and weather forecasting, and enable improved storm and flood warnings. This paper gives an overview of the mission architecture and addresses the status of some key trade studies, including the geolocation budgeting, design considerations for spacecraft charging, and design issues related to the mitigation of orbital debris.

  7. Development of Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos


    exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low...... of the spacecraft fire safety risk. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies who conduct research that is integrated into the overall experiment design. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted in an Orbital Sciences...

  8. Radiation Effects on Spacecraft Structural Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jy-An J.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Hunter, Hamilton T.; Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.


    Research is being conducted to develop an integrated technology for the prediction of aging behavior for space structural materials during service. This research will utilize state-of-the-art radiation experimental apparatus and analysis, updated codes and databases, and integrated mechanical and radiation testing techniques to investigate the suitability of numerous current and potential spacecraft structural materials. Also included are the effects on structural materials in surface modules and planetary landing craft, with or without fission power supplies. Spacecraft structural materials would also be in hostile radiation environments on the surface of the moon and planets without appreciable atmospheres and moons around planets with large intense magnetic and radiation fields (such as the Jovian moons). The effects of extreme temperature cycles in such locations compounds the effects of radiation on structural materials. This paper describes the integrated methodology in detail and shows that it will provide a significant technological advance for designing advanced spacecraft. This methodology will also allow for the development of advanced spacecraft materials through the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of material degradation in the space radiation environment. Thus, this technology holds a promise for revolutionary advances in material damage prediction and protection of space structural components as, for example, in the development of guidelines for managing surveillance programs regarding the integrity of spacecraft components, and the safety of the aging spacecraft. (authors)

  9. Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems (United States)

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.


    An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

  10. Ion- and electron-acoustic solitons in two-electron temperature space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhina, G. S.; Kakad, A. P.; Singh, S. V.; Verheest, F.


    Properties of ion- and electron-acoustic solitons are investigated in an unmagnetized multicomponent plasma system consisting of cold and hot electrons and hot ions using the Sagdeev pseudopotential technique. The analysis is based on fluid equations and the Poisson equation. Solitary wave solutions are found when the Mach numbers exceed some critical values. The critical Mach numbers for the ion-acoustic solitons are found to be smaller than those for electron-acoustic solitons for a given set of plasma parameters. The critical Mach numbers of ion-acoustic solitons increase with the increase of hot electron temperature and the decrease of cold electron density. On the other hand, the critical Mach numbers of electron-acoustic solitons increase with the increase of the cold electron density as well as the hot electron temperature. The ion-acoustic solitons have positive potentials for the parameters considered. However, the electron-acoustic solitons have positive or negative potentials depending whether the fractional cold electron density with respect to the ion density is greater or less than a certain critical value. Further, the amplitudes of both the ion- and electron-acoustic solitons increase with the increase of the hot electron temperature. Possible application of this model to electrostatic solitary waves observed on the auroral field lines by the Viking spacecraft is discussed

  11. Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Z.L.; Xie, W.J. [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Wei, B., E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China)


    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines. -- Highlights: → We experimentally observe the internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops. → We present a fascinating structure of vortex flow inside the levitated water drop. → This vortex flow rotates around the drop center in the meridional plane. → Velocity distribution information of this vortex flow is quantitatively analyzed.

  12. Vortex flow in acoustically levitated drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Z.L.; Xie, W.J.; Wei, B.


    The internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops is investigated experimentally. This study reveals a kind of vortex flow which rotates in the meridional plane of the levitated drop. The magnitude of fluid velocity is nearly vanishing at the drop center, whereas it increases toward the free surface of a levitated drop until the maximum value of about 80 mm/s. A transition of streamline shapes from concentric circles to ellipses takes place at the distance of about 1.2 mm from the drop center. The fluid velocity distribution is plotted as a function of polar angle for seven characteristic streamlines. -- Highlights: → We experimentally observe the internal flow of acoustically levitated water drops. → We present a fascinating structure of vortex flow inside the levitated water drop. → This vortex flow rotates around the drop center in the meridional plane. → Velocity distribution information of this vortex flow is quantitatively analyzed.

  13. Magnetoactive Acoustic Metamaterials. (United States)

    Yu, Kunhao; Fang, Nicholas X; Huang, Guoliang; Wang, Qiming


    Acoustic metamaterials with negative constitutive parameters (modulus and/or mass density) have shown great potential in diverse applications ranging from sonic cloaking, abnormal refraction and superlensing, to noise canceling. In conventional acoustic metamaterials, the negative constitutive parameters are engineered via tailored structures with fixed geometries; therefore, the relationships between constitutive parameters and acoustic frequencies are typically fixed to form a 2D phase space once the structures are fabricated. Here, by means of a model system of magnetoactive lattice structures, stimuli-responsive acoustic metamaterials are demonstrated to be able to extend the 2D phase space to 3D through rapidly and repeatedly switching signs of constitutive parameters with remote magnetic fields. It is shown for the first time that effective modulus can be reversibly switched between positive and negative within controlled frequency regimes through lattice buckling modulated by theoretically predicted magnetic fields. The magnetically triggered negative-modulus and cavity-induced negative density are integrated to achieve flexible switching between single-negative and double-negative. This strategy opens promising avenues for remote, rapid, and reversible modulation of acoustic transportation, refraction, imaging, and focusing in subwavelength regimes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Acoustic Characterization of Turbochargers and Pipe Terminations


    Tiikoja, Heiki


    In search for quieter engines there is a need for a better understanding of the acoustic properties of engine intake and exhaust system components. Besides mufflers which have the purpose of reducing pressure pulses originating from the internal combustion (IC) engine, there are many components in a modern car exhaust and intake system, e.g., air-filters, coolers, catalytic converters, particulate filters - all having an effect on the pressure pulses or sound field in the system. In this work...

  15. Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Active Acoustics Lab (AAAL) is a state-of-the-art Undersea Warfare (USW) acoustic data analysis facility capable of both active and passive underwater...

  16. Sea Turtle Acoustic Telemetry Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Acoustic transmitters attached to sea turtles captured in various fishing gear enable the animals to be passively tracked. Acoustic receivers set up in an array...

  17. Perspective: Acoustic metamaterials in transition

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying; Yang, Min; Sheng, Ping


    Acoustic metamaterials derive their novel characteristics from the interaction between acoustic waves with designed structures. Since its inception seventeen years ago, the field has been driven by fundamental geometric and physical principles

  18. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud


    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  19. Acoustic Levitation Containerless Processing (United States)

    Whymark, R. R.; Rey, C. A.


    This research program consists of the development of acoustic containerless processing systems with applications in the areas of research in material sciences, as well as the production of new materials, solid forms with novel and unusual microstructures, fusion target spheres, and improved optical fibers. Efforts have been focused on the containerless processing at high temperatures for producing new kinds of glasses. Also, some development has occurred in the areas of containerlessly supporting liquids at room temperature, with applications in studies of fluid dynamics, potential undercooling of liquids, etc. The high temperature area holds the greatest promise for producing new kinds of glasses and ceramics, new alloys, and possibly unusual structural shapes, such as very uniform hollow glass shells for fusion target applications. High temperature acoustic levitation required for containerless processing has been demonstrated in low-g environments as well as in ground-based experiments. Future activities include continued development of the signals axis acoustic levitator.

  20. Practical acoustic emission testing

    CERN Document Server


    This book is intended for non-destructive testing (NDT) technicians who want to learn practical acoustic emission testing based on level 1 of ISO 9712 (Non-destructive testing – Qualification and certification of personnel) criteria. The essential aspects of ISO/DIS 18436-6 (Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines – Requirements for training and certification of personnel, Part 6: Acoustic Emission) are explained, and readers can deepen their understanding with the help of practice exercises. This work presents the guiding principles of acoustic emission measurement, signal processing, algorithms for source location, measurement devices, applicability of testing methods, and measurement cases to support not only researchers in this field but also and especially NDT technicians.

  1. Topological Acoustic Delay Line (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan


    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  2. Acoustic detection of pneumothorax (United States)

    Mansy, Hansen A.; Royston, Thomas J.; Balk, Robert A.; Sandler, Richard H.


    This study aims at investigating the feasibility of using low-frequency (pneumothorax detection were tested in dogs. In the first approach, broadband acoustic signals were introduced into the trachea during end-expiration and transmitted waves were measured at the chest surface. Pneumothorax was found to consistently decrease pulmonary acoustic transmission in the 200-1200-Hz frequency band, while less change was observed at lower frequencies (ppneumothorax states (pPneumothorax was found to be associated with a preferential reduction of sound amplitude in the 200- to 700-Hz range, and a decrease of sound amplitude variation (in the 300 to 600-Hz band) during the respiration cycle (pPneumothorax changed the frequency and decay rate of percussive sounds. These results imply that certain medical conditions may be reliably detected using appropriate acoustic measurements and analysis. [Work supported by NIH/NHLBI #R44HL61108.

  3. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.


    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  4. Acoustic Liners for Turbine Engines (United States)

    Jones, Michael G (Inventor); Grady, Joseph E (Inventor); Kiser, James D. (Inventor); Miller, Christopher (Inventor); Heidmann, James D. (Inventor)


    An improved acoustic liner for turbine engines is disclosed. The acoustic liner may include a straight cell section including a plurality of cells with straight chambers. The acoustic liner may also include a bent cell section including one or more cells that are bent to extend chamber length without increasing the overall height of the acoustic liner by the entire chamber length. In some cases, holes are placed between cell chambers in addition to bending the cells, or instead of bending the cells.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Altukhov


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the method for formation of quality requirements to the images of emergency spacecrafts. The images are obtained by means of remote sensing of near-earth space orbital deployment in the visible range. of electromagnetic radiation. The method is based on a joint taking into account conditions of space survey, characteristics of surveillance equipment, main design features of the observed spacecrafts and orbital inspection tasks. Method. Quality score is the predicted linear resolution image that gives the possibility to create a complete view of pictorial properties of the space image obtained by electro-optical system from the observing satellite. Formulation of requirements to the numerical value of this indicator is proposed to perform based on the properties of remote sensing system, forming images in the conditions of outer space, and the properties of the observed emergency spacecraft: dimensions, platform construction of the satellite, on-board equipment placement. For method implementation the authors have developed a predictive model of requirements to a linear resolution for images of emergency spacecrafts, making it possible to select the intervals of space shooting and get the satellite images required for quality interpretation. Main results. To verify the proposed model functionality we have carried out calculations of the numerical values for the linear resolution of the image, ensuring the successful task of determining the gross structural damage of the spacecrafts and identifying changes in their spatial orientation. As input data were used with dimensions and geometric primitives corresponding to the shape of deemed inspected spacecrafts: Resurs-P", "Canopus-B", "Electro-L". Numerical values of the linear resolution images have been obtained, ensuring the successful task solution for determining the gross structural damage of spacecrafts.

  6. Densitometry By Acoustic Levitation (United States)

    Trinh, Eugene H.


    "Static" and "dynamic" methods developed for measuring mass density of acoustically levitated solid particle or liquid drop. "Static" method, unknown density of sample found by comparison with another sample of known density. "Dynamic" method practiced with or without gravitational field. Advantages over conventional density-measuring techniques: sample does not have to make contact with container or other solid surface, size and shape of samples do not affect measurement significantly, sound field does not have to be know in detail, and sample can be smaller than microliter. Detailed knowledge of acoustic field not necessary.

  7. Acoustic integrated extinction


    Norris, Andrew N.


    The integrated extinction (IE) is defined as the integral of the scattering cross section as a function of wavelength. Sohl et al. (2007 J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 122, 3206–3210. (doi:10.1121/1.2801546)) derived an IE expression for acoustic scattering that is causal, i.e. the scattered wavefront in the forward direction arrives later than the incident plane wave in the background medium. The IE formula was based on electromagnetic results, for which scattering is causal by default. Here, we der...

  8. Acoustic phenomena during boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, B.M.


    Applied and theoretical significance of investigation into acoustic phenomena on boiling is discussed. Effect of spatial and time conditions on pressure vapour bubble has been elucidated. Collective effects were considered: acoustic interaction of bubbles, noise formation ion developed boiling, resonance and hydrodynamic autooscillations. Different methods for predicting heat transfer crisis using changes of accompanying noise characteristics were analysed. Principle peculiarities of generation mechanism of thermoacoustic autooscillations were analysed as well: formation of standing waves; change of two-phase medium contraction in a channel; relation of alternating pressure with boiling process as well as with instantaneous and local temperatures of heat transfer surface and liquid in a boundary layer

  9. Shallow Water Acoustics Studies (United States)


    LE O CEAN RAPHIC I TITUTI Appli d Oc:ean Physics and E11gi1i,ering Depar1111,11t vember 9, 2017 Dr. Robert Headrick ffice of Naval Resear h, ode...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT Applied Ocean Physics and Engineering Department...2015). [3] J.F. Lynch and A.E. Newhall, "Shallow water acoustics", book chapter in "Practical Underwater Acoustics," L. Bjorno, T. Neighbors, and D

  10. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.; Whittaker, J.W.


    An intrusion detector is provided for detecting a forcible entry into a secured structure while minimizing false alarms. The detector uses a piezoelectric crystal transducer to sense acoustic emissions. The transducer output is amplified by a selectable gain amplifier to control the sensitivity. The rectified output of the amplifier is applied to a Schmitt trigger circuit having a preselected threshold level to provide amplitude discrimination. Timing circuitry is provided which is activated by successive pulses from the Schmitt trigger which lie within a selected time frame for frequency discrimination. Detected signals having proper amplitude and frequency trigger an alarm within the first complete cycle time of a detected acoustical disturbance signal

  11. Acoustic emission intrusion detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, D.W.


    In order to improve the security of handling special nuclear materials at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a sensitive acoustic emission detector has been developed that will detect forcible entry through block or tile walls, concrete floors, or concrete/steel vault walls. A small, low-powered processor was designed to convert the output from a sensitive, crystal-type acoustic transducer to an alarm relay signal for use with a supervised alarm loop. The unit may be used to detect forcible entry through concrete, steel, block, tile, and/or glass

  12. Room Acoustical Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Mechel, Fridolin


    This book presents the theory of room acoustical fields and revises the Mirror Source Methods for practical computational use, emphasizing the wave character of acoustical fields.  The presented higher methods include the concepts of “Mirror Point Sources” and “Corner sources which allow for an excellent approximation of complex room geometries and even equipped rooms. In contrast to classical description, this book extends the theory of sound fields describing them by their complex sound pressure and the particle velocity. This approach enables accurate descriptions of interference and absorption phenomena.

  13. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.


    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  14. Effect of Coversheet Materials on the Acoustic Performance of Melamine Foam (United States)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Hughes, William O.


    Melamine foam is a highly absorptive material that is often used inside the payload fairing walls of a launch vehicle. This foam reduces the acoustic excitation environment that the spacecraft experiences during launch. Often, the melamine foam is enclosed by thin coversheet materials for contamination protection, thermal protection, and electrostatic discharge control. Previous limited acoustic testing by NASA Glenn Research Center has shown that the presence of a coversheet material on the melamine foam can have a significant impact on the absorption coefficient and the transmission loss. As a result of this preliminary finding a more extensive acoustic test program using several different coversheet materials on melamine foam was performed. Those test results are summarized in this paper. Additionally, a method is provided to use the acoustic absorption and transmission loss data obtained from panel level testing to predict their combined effect for the noise reduction of a launch vehicle payload fairing.

  15. Fundamentals of Acoustics. Psychoacoustics and Hearing. Acoustical Measurements (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Ahumada, Al (Technical Monitor)


    These are 3 chapters that will appear in a book titled "Building Acoustical Design", edited by Charles Salter. They are designed to introduce the reader to fundamental concepts of acoustics, particularly as they relate to the built environment. "Fundamentals of Acoustics" reviews basic concepts of sound waveform frequency, pressure, and phase. "Psychoacoustics and Hearing" discusses the human interpretation sound pressure as loudness, particularly as a function of frequency. "Acoustic Measurements" gives a simple overview of the time and frequency weightings for sound pressure measurements that are used in acoustical work.

  16. Acoustic manipulation: Bessel beams and active carriers (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza


    In this paper, we address the interaction of zero-order acoustic Bessel beams as an acoustic manipulation tool, with an active spherical shell, as a carrier in drug, agent, or material delivery systems, in order to investigate the controllability of exerted acoustic radiation force as the driver. The active body is comprised of a spherical elastic shell stimulated in its monopole mode of vibrations with the same frequency as the incident wave field via an internally bonded and spatially uniformly excited piezoelectric actuator. The main aim of this work is to examine the performance of a nondiffracting and self-reconstructing zero-order Bessel beam to obtain the full manipulability condition of active carriers in comparison with the case of a plane wave field. The results unveil some unique potentials of the Bessel beams in the company of active carriers, with emphasis on the consumed power of the actuation system. This paper will widen the path toward the single-beam robust acoustic manipulation techniques and may lead to the prospect of combined tweezers and fields, with applications in delivery systems, microswimmers, and trapper designs.

  17. Modeling the fundamental characteristics and processes of the spacecraft functioning (United States)

    Bazhenov, V. I.; Osin, M. I.; Zakharov, Y. V.


    The fundamental aspects of modeling of spacecraft characteristics by using computing means are considered. Particular attention is devoted to the design studies, the description of physical appearance of the spacecraft, and simulated modeling of spacecraft systems. The fundamental questions of organizing the on-the-ground spacecraft testing and the methods of mathematical modeling were presented.

  18. Automating Trend Analysis for Spacecraft Constellations (United States)

    Davis, George; Cooter, Miranda; Updike, Clark; Carey, Everett; Mackey, Jennifer; Rykowski, Timothy; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)


    Spacecraft trend analysis is a vital mission operations function performed by satellite controllers and engineers, who perform detailed analyses of engineering telemetry data to diagnose subsystem faults and to detect trends that may potentially lead to degraded subsystem performance or failure in the future. It is this latter function that is of greatest importance, for careful trending can often predict or detect events that may lead to a spacecraft's entry into safe-hold. Early prediction and detection of such events could result in the avoidance of, or rapid return to service from, spacecraft safing, which not only results in reduced recovery costs but also in a higher overall level of service for the satellite system. Contemporary spacecraft trending activities are manually intensive and are primarily performed diagnostically after a fault occurs, rather than proactively to predict its occurrence. They also tend to rely on information systems and software that are oudated when compared to current technologies. When coupled with the fact that flight operations teams often have limited resources, proactive trending opportunities are limited, and detailed trend analysis is often reserved for critical responses to safe holds or other on-orbit events such as maneuvers. While the contemporary trend analysis approach has sufficed for current single-spacecraft operations, it will be unfeasible for NASA's planned and proposed space science constellations. Missions such as the Dynamics, Reconnection and Configuration Observatory (DRACO), for example, are planning to launch as many as 100 'nanospacecraft' to form a homogenous constellation. A simple extrapolation of resources and manpower based on single-spacecraft operations suggests that trending for such a large spacecraft fleet will be unmanageable, unwieldy, and cost-prohibitive. It is therefore imperative that an approach to automating the spacecraft trend analysis function be studied, developed, and applied to

  19. Robust Spacecraft Component Detection in Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanmao Wei


    Full Text Available Automatic component detection of spacecraft can assist in on-orbit operation and space situational awareness. Spacecraft are generally composed of solar panels and cuboidal or cylindrical modules. These components can be simply represented by geometric primitives like plane, cuboid and cylinder. Based on this prior, we propose a robust automatic detection scheme to automatically detect such basic components of spacecraft in three-dimensional (3D point clouds. In the proposed scheme, cylinders are first detected in the iteration of the energy-based geometric model fitting and cylinder parameter estimation. Then, planes are detected by Hough transform and further described as bounded patches with their minimum bounding rectangles. Finally, the cuboids are detected with pair-wise geometry relations from the detected patches. After successive detection of cylinders, planar patches and cuboids, a mid-level geometry representation of the spacecraft can be delivered. We tested the proposed component detection scheme on spacecraft 3D point clouds synthesized by computer-aided design (CAD models and those recovered by image-based reconstruction, respectively. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed scheme can detect the basic geometric components effectively and has fine robustness against noise and point distribution density.

  20. Robust Spacecraft Component Detection in Point Clouds. (United States)

    Wei, Quanmao; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Haopeng


    Automatic component detection of spacecraft can assist in on-orbit operation and space situational awareness. Spacecraft are generally composed of solar panels and cuboidal or cylindrical modules. These components can be simply represented by geometric primitives like plane, cuboid and cylinder. Based on this prior, we propose a robust automatic detection scheme to automatically detect such basic components of spacecraft in three-dimensional (3D) point clouds. In the proposed scheme, cylinders are first detected in the iteration of the energy-based geometric model fitting and cylinder parameter estimation. Then, planes are detected by Hough transform and further described as bounded patches with their minimum bounding rectangles. Finally, the cuboids are detected with pair-wise geometry relations from the detected patches. After successive detection of cylinders, planar patches and cuboids, a mid-level geometry representation of the spacecraft can be delivered. We tested the proposed component detection scheme on spacecraft 3D point clouds synthesized by computer-aided design (CAD) models and those recovered by image-based reconstruction, respectively. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed scheme can detect the basic geometric components effectively and has fine robustness against noise and point distribution density.

  1. Attitude coordination for spacecraft formation with multiple communication delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yaohua


    Full Text Available Communication delays are inherently present in information exchange between spacecraft and have an effect on the control performance of spacecraft formation. In this work, attitude coordination control of spacecraft formation is addressed, which is in the presence of multiple communication delays between spacecraft. Virtual system-based approach is utilized in case that a constant reference attitude is available to only a part of the spacecraft. The feedback from the virtual systems to the spacecraft formation is introduced to maintain the formation. Using backstepping control method, input torque of each spacecraft is designed such that the attitude of each spacecraft converges asymptotically to the states of its corresponding virtual system. Furthermore, the backstepping technique and the Lyapunov–Krasovskii method contribute to the control law design when the reference attitude is time-varying and can be obtained by each spacecraft. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed methodology is illustrated by the numerical simulations of a spacecraft formation.

  2. Non-invasive acoustic-based monitoring of uranium in solution and H/D ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Beedle, Christopher Craig [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lakis, Rollin Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The primary objective of this project is to adapt existing non-invasive acoustic techniques (Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry and Gaussian-pulse acoustic technique) for the purpose of demonstrating the ability to quantify U or H/D ratios in solution. Furthermore, a successful demonstration will provide an easily implemented, low cost, and non-invasive method for remote and unattended uranium mass measurements for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  3. Improved acoustic levitation apparatus (United States)

    Berge, L. H.; Johnson, J. L.; Oran, W. A.; Reiss, D. A.


    Concave driver and reflector enhance and shape levitation forces in acoustic resonance system. Single-mode standing-wave pattern is focused by ring element situated between driver and reflector. Concave surfaces increase levitating forces up to factor of 6 as opposed to conventional flat surfaces, making it possible to suspend heavier objects.

  4. Acoustic cavitation studies (United States)

    Crum, L. A.


    The primary thrust of this study was toward a more complete understanding of general aspects of acoustic cavitation. The effect of long-chain polymer additives on the cavitation threshold was investigated to determine if they reduced the acoustic cavitation threshold in a similar manner to the observed reduction in the cavitation index in hydrodynamic cavitation. Measurements were made of the acoustic cavitation threshold as a function of polymer concentration for additives such as guar gum and polyethelene oxide. The measurements were also made as a function of dissolved gas concentration, surface tension and viscosity. It was determined that there was a significant increase in the acoustic cavitation threshold for increased concentrations of the polymer additives (measurable effects could be obtained for concentrations as low as a few parts per million). One would normally expect that an additive that reduces surface tension to decrease the pressure required to cause a cavity to grow and thus these additives, at first thought, should reduce the threshold. However, even in the hydrodynamic case, the threshold was increased. In both of the hydrodynamic cases considered, the explanation for the increased threshold was given in terms of changed fluid dynamics rather than changed physical properties of the fluid.

  5. Acoustic Neuroma Educational Video

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cumming, GA 30041 770-205-8211 The world’s #1 acoustic neuroma resource Click to ... Cumming, GA 30041 770-205-8211 About ANA Mission, Vision & Values Leadership & Staff Annual ...

  6. Evoked acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, C; Parbo, J; Johnsen, N J


    Stimulated acoustic emissions were recorded in response to tonal stimuli at 60 dB p.e. SPL in a small group of normal-hearing adults. Power spectral analysis reveals that the evoked activity from each ear contains energy in preferential frequency bands and the change of stimulus frequency has only...

  7. Portable acoustic myography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Danneskiold-Samsøe, Bente; Bartels, Else Marie


    Muscle sound gives a local picture of muscles involved in a particular movement and is independent of electrical signals between nerve and muscle. Sound recording (acoustic myography) is a well-known noninvasive technique that has suffered from not being easily applicable, as well as not being able...

  8. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...

  9. Acoustic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitters, G.; Kamsma, D.; Thalhammer, G.; Ritsch-Marte, M.; Peterman, E.J.G.; Wuite, G.J.L.


    Force spectroscopy has become an indispensable tool to unravel the structural and mechanochemical properties of biomolecules. Here we extend the force spectroscopy toolbox with an acoustic manipulation device that can exert forces from subpiconewtons to hundreds of piconewtons on thousands of

  10. Underwater Acoustic Networking Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Otnes, Roald; Casari, Paolo; Goetz, Michael; Husøy, Thor; Nissen, Ivor; Rimstad, Knut; van Walree, Paul; Zorzi, Michele


    This literature study presents an overview of underwater acoustic networking. It provides a background and describes the state of the art of all networking facets that are relevant for underwater applications. This report serves both as an introduction to the subject and as a summary of existing protocols, providing support and inspiration for the development of network architectures.

  11. Acoustic Surface Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, A.G.


    Merely the presence of compressible entities, known as bubbles, greatly enriches the physical phenomena encountered when introducing ultrasound in a liquid. Mediated by the response of these bubbles, the otherwise diffuse and relatively low energy density of the acoustic field can induce strong,

  12. Select Internet Resources on Acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R. Davis


    Full Text Available Merriam-Webster (2016 defines acoustics as, “a science that deals with the production, control, transmission, reception, and effects of sounds.” According to Rossing (2014, the study of acoustics began in ancient Greece with Pythagoras’ study of vibrating strings on musical instruments. Since those early beginnings, famous scientists including Rayleigh, Alexander Graham Bell, and Thomas Edison, have helped expand the field of acoustics to include architectural, physical, engineering, structural, underwater, physiological and psychological, musical acoustics, and speech. Acoustics is a highly interdisciplinary field and researchers may need resources from physics, medicine, and engineering to understand all aspects of their research.

  13. Guidance and control of swarms of spacecraft (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel James

    There has been considerable interest in formation flying spacecraft due to their potential to perform certain tasks at a cheaper cost than monolithic spacecraft. Formation flying enables the use of smaller, cheaper spacecraft that distribute the risk of the mission. Recently, the ideas of formation flying have been extended to spacecraft swarms made up of hundreds to thousands of 100-gram-class spacecraft known as femtosatellites. The large number of spacecraft and limited capabilities of each individual spacecraft present a significant challenge in guidance, navigation, and control. This dissertation deals with the guidance and control algorithms required to enable the flight of spacecraft swarms. The algorithms developed in this dissertation are focused on achieving two main goals: swarm keeping and swarm reconfiguration. The objectives of swarm keeping are to maintain bounded relative distances between spacecraft, prevent collisions between spacecraft, and minimize the propellant used by each spacecraft. Swarm reconfiguration requires the transfer of the swarm to a specific shape. Like with swarm keeping, minimizing the propellant used and preventing collisions are the main objectives. Additionally, the algorithms required for swarm keeping and swarm reconfiguration should be decentralized with respect to communication and computation so that they can be implemented on femtosats, which have limited hardware capabilities. The algorithms developed in this dissertation are concerned with swarms located in low Earth orbit. In these orbits, Earth oblateness and atmospheric drag have a significant effect on the relative motion of the swarm. The complicated dynamic environment of low Earth orbits further complicates the swarm-keeping and swarm-reconfiguration problems. To better develop and test these algorithms, a nonlinear, relative dynamic model with J2 and drag perturbations is developed. This model is used throughout this dissertation to validate the algorithms

  14. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.


    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  15. Embedded Thermal Control for Spacecraft Subsystems Miniaturization (United States)

    Didion, Jeffrey R.


    Optimization of spacecraft size, weight and power (SWaP) resources is an explicit technical priority at Goddard Space Flight Center. Embedded Thermal Control Subsystems are a promising technology with many cross cutting NSAA, DoD and commercial applications: 1.) CubeSatSmallSat spacecraft architecture, 2.) high performance computing, 3.) On-board spacecraft electronics, 4.) Power electronics and RF arrays. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem technology development efforts focus on component, board and enclosure level devices that will ultimately include intelligent capabilities. The presentation will discuss electric, capillary and hybrid based hardware research and development efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem development program consists of interrelated sub-initiatives, e.g., chip component level thermal control devices, self-sensing thermal management, advanced manufactured structures. This presentation includes technical status and progress on each of these investigations. Future sub-initiatives, technical milestones and program goals will be presented.

  16. Low power arcjet system spacecraft impacts (United States)

    Pencil, Eric J.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Lichtin, D. A.; Palchefsky, J. W.; Bogorad, A. L.


    Potential plume contamination of spacecraft surfaces was investigated by positioning spacecraft material samples relative to an arcjet thruster. Samples in the simulated solar array region were exposed to the cold gas arcjet plume for 40 hrs to address concerns about contamination by backstreaming diffusion pump oil. Except for one sample, no significant changes were measured in absorptance and emittance within experimental error. Concerns about surface property degradation due to electrostatic discharges led to the investigation of the discharge phenomenon of charged samples during arcjet ignition. Short duration exposure of charged samples demonstrated that potential differences are consistently and completely eliminated within the first second of exposure to a weakly ionized plume. The spark discharge mechanism was not the discharge phenomenon. The results suggest that the arcjet could act as a charge control device on spacecraft.

  17. Relativistic Spacecraft Propelled by Directed Energy (United States)

    Kulkarni, Neeraj; Lubin, Philip; Zhang, Qicheng


    Achieving relativistic flight to enable extrasolar exploration is one of the dreams of humanity and the long-term goal of our NASA Starlight program. We derive a relativistic solution for the motion of a spacecraft propelled by radiation pressure from a directed energy (DE) system. Depending on the system parameters, low-mass spacecraft can achieve relativistic speeds, thus enabling interstellar exploration. The diffraction of the DE system plays an important role and limits the maximum speed of the spacecraft. We consider “photon recycling” as a possible method to achieving higher speeds. We also discuss recent claims that our previous work on this topic is incorrect and show that these claims arise from an improper treatment of causality.

  18. Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Sail Spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Usui, Hideyuki; Funaki, Ikkoh; Kojima, Hirotsugu


    To capture the kinetic energy of the solar wind by creating a large magnetosphere around the spacecraft, magneto-plasma sail injects a plasma jet into a strong magnetic field produced by an electromagnet onboard the spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) on the magnetosphere of magneto-plasma sail. First, using an axi-symmetric two-dimensional MHD code, we numerically confirm the magnetic field inflation, and the formation of a magnetosphere by the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic field. The expansion of an artificial magnetosphere by the plasma injection is then simulated, and we show that the magnetosphere is formed by the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic field expanded by the plasma jet from the spacecraft. This simulation indicates the size of the artificial magnetosphere becomes smaller when applying the IMF.

  19. Holograms for acoustics. (United States)

    Melde, Kai; Mark, Andrew G; Qiu, Tian; Fischer, Peer


    Holographic techniques are fundamental to applications such as volumetric displays, high-density data storage and optical tweezers that require spatial control of intricate optical or acoustic fields within a three-dimensional volume. The basis of holography is spatial storage of the phase and/or amplitude profile of the desired wavefront in a manner that allows that wavefront to be reconstructed by interference when the hologram is illuminated with a suitable coherent source. Modern computer-generated holography skips the process of recording a hologram from a physical scene, and instead calculates the required phase profile before rendering it for reconstruction. In ultrasound applications, the phase profile is typically generated by discrete and independently driven ultrasound sources; however, these can only be used in small numbers, which limits the complexity or degrees of freedom that can be attained in the wavefront. Here we introduce monolithic acoustic holograms, which can reconstruct diffraction-limited acoustic pressure fields and thus arbitrary ultrasound beams. We use rapid fabrication to craft the holograms and achieve reconstruction degrees of freedom two orders of magnitude higher than commercial phased array sources. The technique is inexpensive, appropriate for both transmission and reflection elements, and scales well to higher information content, larger aperture size and higher power. The complex three-dimensional pressure and phase distributions produced by these acoustic holograms allow us to demonstrate new approaches to controlled ultrasonic manipulation of solids in water, and of liquids and solids in air. We expect that acoustic holograms will enable new capabilities in beam-steering and the contactless transfer of power, improve medical imaging, and drive new applications of ultrasound.

  20. Autonomous Spacecraft Communication Interface for Load Planning (United States)

    Dever, Timothy P.; May, Ryan D.; Morris, Paul H.


    Ground-based controllers can remain in continuous communication with spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) with near-instantaneous communication speeds. This permits near real-time control of all of the core spacecraft systems by ground personnel. However, as NASA missions move beyond LEO, light-time communication delay issues, such as time lag and low bandwidth, will prohibit this type of operation. As missions become more distant, autonomous control of manned spacecraft will be required. The focus of this paper is the power subsystem. For present missions, controllers on the ground develop a complete schedule of power usage for all spacecraft components. This paper presents work currently underway at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous spacecraft, and focuses on the development of communication between the Mission Manager and the Autonomous Power Controller. These two systems must work together in order to plan future load use and respond to unanticipated plan deviations. Using a nominal spacecraft architecture and prototype versions of these two key components, a number of simulations are run under a variety of operational conditions, enabling development of content and format of the messages necessary to achieve the desired goals. The goals include negotiation of a load schedule that meets the global requirements (contained in the Mission Manager) and local power system requirements (contained in the Autonomous Power Controller), and communication of off-plan disturbances that arise while executing a negotiated plan. The message content is developed in two steps: first, a set of rapid-prototyping "paper" simulations are preformed; then the resultant optimized messages are codified for computer communication for use in automated testing.

  1. Characteristics of coupled acoustic wave propagation in metal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Wuk; Kim, Min Soo; Lee, Sang Kwon


    The circular cylinder pipes are used in the many industrial areas. In this paper, the acoustic wave propagation in the pipe containing gas is researched. First of all, the theory for the coupled acoustic wave propagation in a pipe is investigated. Acoustic wave propagation in pipe can not be occurred independently between the wave of the fluid and the shell. It requires complicated analysis. However, as a special case, the coupled wave in a high density pipe containing a light density medium is corresponded closely to the uncoupled in-vacuo shell waves and to the rigid-walled duct fluid waves. The coincidence frequencies of acoustic and shell modes contribute to the predominant energy transmission. The coincidence frequency means the frequency corresponding to the coincidence of the wavenumber in both acoustic and shell. In this paper, it is assumed that the internal medium is much lighter than the pipe shell. After the uncoupled acoustic wave in the internal medium and uncoupled shell wave are considered, the coincidence frequencies are found. The analysis is successfully confirmed by the verification of the experiment using the real long steel pipe. This work verifies that the coupled wave characteristic of the shell and the fluid is occurred as predominant energy transmission at the coincidence frequencies

  2. Acoustic field modulation in regenerators (United States)

    Hu, J. Y.; Wang, W.; Luo, E. C.; Chen, Y. Y.


    The regenerator is a key component that transfers energy between heat and work. The conversion efficiency is significantly influenced by the acoustic field in the regenerator. Much effort has been spent to quantitatively determine this influence, but few comprehensive experimental verifications have been performed because of difficulties in modulating and measuring the acoustic field. In this paper, a method requiring two compressors is introduced and theoretically investigated that achieves acoustic field modulation in the regenerator. One compressor outputs the acoustic power for the regenerator; the other acts as a phase shifter. A RC load dissipates the acoustic power out of both the regenerator and the latter compressor. The acoustic field can be modulated by adjusting the current in the two compressors and opening the RC load. The acoustic field is measured with pressure sensors instead of flow-field imaging equipment, thereby greatly simplifying the experiment.

  3. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea


    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  4. Testing programs for the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (United States)

    Greenwell, T. J.


    The Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) provides a standard spacecraft bus to a user for a variety of space missions ranging from near-earth to synchronous orbits. The present paper describes the philosophy behind the MMS module test program and discusses the implementation of the test program. It is concluded that the MMS module test program provides an effective and comprehensive customer buy-off at the subsystem contractor's plant, is an optimum approach for checkout of the subsystems prior to use for on-orbit servicing in the Shuttle Cargo Bay, and is a cost-effective technique for environmental testing.

  5. Robust Parametric Control of Spacecraft Rendezvous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Gu


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to design the robust parametric control for autonomous rendezvous of spacecrafts with the inertial information with uncertainty. We consider model uncertainty of traditional C-W equation to formulate the dynamic model of the relative motion. Based on eigenstructure assignment and model reference theory, a concise control law for spacecraft rendezvous is proposed which could be fixed through solving an optimization problem. The cost function considers the stabilization of the system and other performances. Simulation results illustrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control.

  6. Spacecraft charging: incoming and outgoing electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Shu T.


    This paper presents an overview of the roles played by incoming and outgoing electrons in spacecraft surface and stresses the importance of surface conditions for spacecraft charging. The balance between the incoming electron current from the ambient plasma and the outgoing currents of secondary electrons, backscattered electrons, and photoelectrons from the surfaces determines the surface potential. Since surface conditions significantly affect the outgoing currents, the critical temperature and the surface potential are also significantly affected. As a corollary, high level differential charging of adjacent surfaces with very different surface conditions is a space hazard.

  7. Event-triggered attitude control of spacecraft (United States)

    Wu, Baolin; Shen, Qiang; Cao, Xibin


    The problem of spacecraft attitude stabilization control system with limited communication and external disturbances is investigated based on an event-triggered control scheme. In the proposed scheme, information of attitude and control torque only need to be transmitted at some discrete triggered times when a defined measurement error exceeds a state-dependent threshold. The proposed control scheme not only guarantees that spacecraft attitude control errors converge toward a small invariant set containing the origin, but also ensures that there is no accumulation of triggering instants. The performance of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulation.

  8. The spacecraft encounters of Comet Halley (United States)

    Asoka Mendis, D.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.


    The characteristics of the Comet Halley spacecraft 'fleet' (VEGA 1 and VEGA 2, Giotto, Suisei, and Sakigake) are presented. The major aims of these missions were (1) to discover and characterize the nucleus, (2) to characterize the atmosphere and ionosphere, (3) to characterize the dust, and (4) to characterize the nature of the large-scale comet-solar wind interaction. While the VEGA and Giotto missions were designed to study all four areas, Suisei addressed the second and fourth. Sakigake was designed to study the solar wind conditions upstream of the comet. It is noted that NASA's Deep Space Network played an important role in spacecraft tracking.

  9. Acoustic Resonance Characteristics of Rock and Concrete Containing Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Seiji [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    In recent years, acoustic resonance has drawn great attention as a quantitative tool for characterizing properties of materials and detecting defects in both engineering and geological materials. In quasi-brittle materials such as rock and concrete, inherent fractures have a significant influence on their mechanical and hydraulic properties. Most of these fractures are partially open, providing internal boundaries that are visible to propagating seismic waves. Acoustic resonance occurs as a result of constructive and destructive interferences of propagating waves. Therefore the geometrical and mechanical properties of the fracture are also interrogated by the acoustic resonance characteristics of materials. The objective of this dissertation is to understand the acoustic resonance characteristics of fractured rock and concrete.

  10. Quasi-static acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry. (United States)

    Holt, R G; Luo, D; Gruver, N; Khismatullin, D B


    Essentials Blood coagulation measurement during contact with an artificial surface leads to unreliable data. Acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry is a novel non-contact method for coagulation monitoring. This method detects differences in the blood coagulation state within 10 min. Coagulation data were obtained using a much smaller sample volume (4 μL) than currently used. Background Thromboelastography is widely used as a tool to assess the coagulation status of critical care patients. It allows observation of changes in material properties of whole blood, beginning with early stages of clot formation and ending with clot lysis. However, the contact activation of the coagulation cascade at surfaces of thromboelastographic systems leads to inherent variability and unreliability in predicting bleeding or thrombosis risks. Objectives To develop acoustic tweezing thromboelastometry as a non-contact method for perioperative assessment of blood coagulation. Methods Acoustic tweezing is used to levitate microliter drops of biopolymer and human blood samples. By quasi-statically changing the acoustic pressure we control the sample drop location and deformation. Sample size, deformation and location are determined by digital imaging at each pressure. Results Simple Newtonian liquid solutions maintain a constant, reversible location vs. deformation curve. In contrast, the location/deformation curves for gelatin, alginate, whole blood and blood plasma uniquely change as the samples solidify. Increasing elasticity causes the sample to deform less, leading to steeper stress/strain curves. By extracting a linear regime slope, we show that whole blood or blood plasma exhibits a unique slope profile as it begins to clot. By exposing blood samples to pro- or antithrombotic agents, the slope profile changes, allowing detection of hyper- or hypocoagulable states. Conclusions We demonstrate that quasi-static acoustic tweezing can yield information about clotting onset, maturation

  11. Investigating broadband acoustic adsorption using rapid manufacturing (United States)

    Godbold, O.

    The reduction of nuisance noise and the removal of unwanted sound modes within a room or component enclosure-area can be accomplished through the use of acoustic absorbers. Sound absorption can be achieved through conversion of the kinetic energy associated with pressure waves, into heat energy via viscous dissipation. This occurs within open porous materials, or by utilising resonant effects produced using simple cavity and orifice configurations. The manufacture of traditional porous and resonant absorbers is commonly realised using basic manufacturing techniques. These techniques restrict the geometry of a given resonant construction, and limit the configuration of porous absorbers. The aim of this work is to exploit new and emerging capabilities of Rapid Manufacturing (RM) to produce components with geometrical freedom, and apply it to the development of broadband acoustic absorption. New and novel absorber geometric configurations are identified and their absorption performance is determined. The capabilities and limitations of RM processes in reproducing these configurations are demonstrated. The geometric configuration of RM resonant absorbers is investigated. Cavity modifications aimed at damping the resonant effect by restricting the motion of cavity air, and adding increased viscous resistance are explored. Modifications relating to cavity shape, the addition of internal perforations and increased cavity surface area have all been shown to add acoustic resistance, thereby increasing the bandwidth of absorption. Decreasing the hydraulic radius of the cavity cross section and reducing internal feature dimensions provide improved resistance over conventional configurations..

  12. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment (United States)

    Castro, V.A.; Ott, C.M.; Garcia, V.M.; John, J.; Buttner, M.P.; Cruz, P.; Pierson, D.L.


    The determination of risk from infectious disease during long-duration missions is composed of several factors including the concentration and the characteristics of the infectious agent. Thus, a thorough knowledge of the microorganisms aboard spacecraft is essential in mitigating infectious disease risk to the crew. While stringent steps are taken to minimize the transfer of potential pathogens to spacecraft, several medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. Thus, several pathogens may not have been detected, such as Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaire s disease. We hypothesize that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies will reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. The development of techniques for this flight experiment, operationally named SWAB, has already provided advances in NASA laboratory processes and beneficial information toward human health risk assessment. The translation of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria from the SWAB experiment to nominal operations has increased bacterial speciation of environmental isolates from previous flights three fold compared to previous conventional methodology. The incorporation of molecular-based DNA fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) into the capabilities of the laboratory has provided a methodology to track microorganisms between crewmembers and their environment. Both 16S ribosomal DNA

  13. Software for Engineering Simulations of a Spacecraft (United States)

    Shireman, Kirk; McSwain, Gene; McCormick, Bernell; Fardelos, Panayiotis


    Spacecraft Engineering Simulation II (SES II) is a C-language computer program for simulating diverse aspects of operation of a spacecraft characterized by either three or six degrees of freedom. A functional model in SES can include a trajectory flight plan; a submodel of a flight computer running navigational and flight-control software; and submodels of the environment, the dynamics of the spacecraft, and sensor inputs and outputs. SES II features a modular, object-oriented programming style. SES II supports event-based simulations, which, in turn, create an easily adaptable simulation environment in which many different types of trajectories can be simulated by use of the same software. The simulation output consists largely of flight data. SES II can be used to perform optimization and Monte Carlo dispersion simulations. It can also be used to perform simulations for multiple spacecraft. In addition to its generic simulation capabilities, SES offers special capabilities for space-shuttle simulations: for this purpose, it incorporates submodels of the space-shuttle dynamics and a C-language version of the guidance, navigation, and control components of the space-shuttle flight software.

  14. How Spacecraft Fly Spaceflight Without Formulae

    CERN Document Server

    Swinerd, Graham


    About half a century ago a small satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The satellite did very little other than to transmit a radio signal to announce its presence in orbit. However, this humble beginning heralded the dawn of the Space Age. Today literally thousands of robotic spacecraft have been launched, many of which have flown to far-flung regions of the Solar System carrying with them the human spirit of scientific discovery and exploration. Numerous other satellites have been launched in orbit around the Earth providing services that support our technological society on the ground. How Spacecraft Fly: Spaceflight Without Formulae by Graham Swinerd focuses on how these spacecraft work. The book opens with a historical perspective of how we have come to understand our Solar System and the Universe. It then progresses through orbital flight, rocket science, the hostile environment within which spacecraft operate, and how they are designed. The concluding chapters give a glimpse of what the 21st century may ...

  15. Parameter Estimation of Spacecraft Fuel Slosh Model (United States)

    Gangadharan, Sathya; Sudermann, James; Marlowe, Andrea; Njengam Charles


    Fuel slosh in the upper stages of a spinning spacecraft during launch has been a long standing concern for the success of a space mission. Energy loss through the movement of the liquid fuel in the fuel tank affects the gyroscopic stability of the spacecraft and leads to nutation (wobble) which can cause devastating control issues. The rate at which nutation develops (defined by Nutation Time Constant (NTC can be tedious to calculate and largely inaccurate if done during the early stages of spacecraft design. Pure analytical means of predicting the influence of onboard liquids have generally failed. A strong need exists to identify and model the conditions of resonance between nutation motion and liquid modes and to understand the general characteristics of the liquid motion that causes the problem in spinning spacecraft. A 3-D computerized model of the fuel slosh that accounts for any resonant modes found in the experimental testing will allow for increased accuracy in the overall modeling process. Development of a more accurate model of the fuel slosh currently lies in a more generalized 3-D computerized model incorporating masses, springs and dampers. Parameters describing the model include the inertia tensor of the fuel, spring constants, and damper coefficients. Refinement and understanding the effects of these parameters allow for a more accurate simulation of fuel slosh. The current research will focus on developing models of different complexity and estimating the model parameters that will ultimately provide a more realistic prediction of Nutation Time Constant obtained through simulation.

  16. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.


    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  17. Special Semaphore Scheme for UHF Spacecraft Communications (United States)

    Butman, Stanley; Satorius, Edgar; Ilott, Peter


    A semaphore scheme has been devised to satisfy a requirement to enable ultrahigh- frequency (UHF) radio communication between a spacecraft descending from orbit to a landing on Mars and a spacecraft, in orbit about Mars, that relays communications between Earth and the lander spacecraft. There are also two subsidiary requirements: (1) to use UHF transceivers, built and qualified for operation aboard the spacecraft that operate with residual-carrier binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) modulation at a selectable data rate of 8, 32, 128, or 256 kb/s; and (2) to enable low-rate signaling even when received signals become so weak as to prevent communication at the minimum BPSK rate of 8 kHz. The scheme involves exploitation of Manchester encoding, which is used in conjunction with residual-carrier modulation to aid the carrier-tracking loop. By choosing various sequences of 1s, 0s, or 1s alternating with 0s to be fed to the residual-carrier modulator, one would cause the modulator to generate sidebands at a fundamental frequency of 4 or 8 kHz and harmonics thereof. These sidebands would constitute the desired semaphores. In reception, the semaphores would be detected by a software demodulator.

  18. Accelerated life testing of spacecraft subsystems (United States)

    Wiksten, D.; Swanson, J.


    The rationale and requirements for conducting accelerated life tests on electronic subsystems of spacecraft are presented. A method for applying data on the reliability and temperature sensitivity of the parts contained in a sybsystem to the selection of accelerated life test parameters is described. Additional considerations affecting the formulation of test requirements are identified, and practical limitations of accelerated aging are described.

  19. Rotational Motion Control of a Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.


    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...... algorithm is validated for three-axis spacecraft attitude control...

  20. Rotational motion control of a spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.


    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...... algorithm is validated for three-axis spacecraft attitude control. Udgivelsesdato: APR...

  1. Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Education Program (United States)


    A NASA engineer with the Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP) at Stennis Space Center works with students from W.P. Daniels High School in New Albany, Miss., through NASA's Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Program. CRSP is teaching students to use remote sensing to locate a potential site for a water reservoir to offset a predicted water shortage in the community's future.

  2. Spacecraft Attitude Control in Hamiltonian Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafal


    The objective of this paper is to give a design scheme for attitude control algorithms of a generic spacecraft. Along with the system model formulated in the Hamilton's canonical form the algorithm uses information about a required potential energy and a dissipative term. The control action...

  3. The Effect of Golden Pothos in Reducing the Level of Volatile Organic Compounds in a Simulated Spacecraft Cabin (United States)

    Ursprung, Matthew; Amiri, Azita; Kayatin, Matthew; Perry, Jay


    The impact of Golden Pothos on indoor air quality was studied against a simulated spacecraft trace contaminant load model, consistent with the International Space Station (ISS), containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and formaldehyde. Previous research provides inconclusive results on the efficacy of plant VOC removal which this projects seeks to rectify through a better experimental design. This work develops a passive system for removing common VOC's from spacecraft and household indoor air and decreasing the necessity for active cabin trace contaminant removal systems.

  4. Acoustic energy harvesting based on a planar acoustic metamaterial (United States)

    Qi, Shuibao; Oudich, Mourad; Li, Yong; Assouar, Badreddine


    We theoretically report on an innovative and practical acoustic energy harvester based on a defected acoustic metamaterial (AMM) with piezoelectric material. The idea is to create suitable resonant defects in an AMM to confine the strain energy originating from an acoustic incidence. This scavenged energy is converted into electrical energy by attaching a structured piezoelectric material into the defect area of the AMM. We show an acoustic energy harvester based on a meta-structure capable of producing electrical power from an acoustic pressure. Numerical simulations are provided to analyze and elucidate the principles and the performances of the proposed system. A maximum output voltage of 1.3 V and a power density of 0.54 μW/cm3 are obtained at a frequency of 2257.5 Hz. The proposed concept should have broad applications on energy harvesting as well as on low-frequency sound isolation, since this system acts as both acoustic insulator and energy harvester.

  5. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai


    We design a flat sub-wavelength lens that can focus acoustic wave. We analytically study the transmission through an acoustic grating with curled slits, which can serve as a material with tunable impedance and refractive index for acoustic waves. The effective parameters rely on the geometry of the slits and are independent of frequency. A flat acoustic focusing lens by such acoustic grating with gradient effective refractive index is designed. The focusing effect is clearly observed in simulations and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  6. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)


    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems

  7. Simulated Aging of Spacecraft External Materials on Orbit (United States)

    Khatipov, S.

    Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MIFI), in cooperation with Air Force Research Laboratory's Satellite Assessment Center (SatAC), the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD), and the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), has developed a database describing the changes in optical properties of materials used on the external surfaces of spacecraft due to space environmental factors. The database includes data acquired from tests completed under contract with the ISTC and EOARD, as well as from previous Russian materials studies conducted within the last 30 years. The space environmental factors studied are for those found in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and Geosynchronous orbits (GEO), including electron irradiation at 50, 100, and 200 keV, proton irradiation at 50, 150, 300, and 500 keV, and ultraviolet irradiation equivalent to 1 sun-year. The material characteristics investigated were solar absorption (aS), spectral reflectance (rl), solar reflectance (rS), emissivity (e), spectral transmission coefficient (Tl), solar transmittance (TS), optical density (D), relative optical density (D/x), Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), and change of appearance and color in the visible wavelengths. The materials tested in the project were thermal control coatings (paints), multilayer insulation (films), and solar cells. The ability to predict changes in optical properties of spacecraft materials is important to increase the fidelity of space observation tools, better understand observation of space objects, and increase the longevity of spacecraft. The end goal of our project is to build semi-empirical mathematical models to predict the long-term effects of space aging as a function of time and orbit.

  8. Streamlined Modeling for Characterizing Spacecraft Anomalous Behavior (United States)

    Klem, B.; Swann, D.


    Anomalous behavior of on-orbit spacecraft can often be detected using passive, remote sensors which measure electro-optical signatures that vary in time and spectral content. Analysts responsible for assessing spacecraft operational status and detecting detrimental anomalies using non-resolved imaging sensors are often presented with various sensing and identification issues. Modeling and measuring spacecraft self emission and reflected radiant intensity when the radiation patterns exhibit a time varying reflective glint superimposed on an underlying diffuse signal contribute to assessment of spacecraft behavior in two ways: (1) providing information on body component orientation and attitude; and, (2) detecting changes in surface material properties due to the space environment. Simple convex and cube-shaped spacecraft, designed to operate without protruding solar panel appendages, may require an enhanced level of preflight characterization to support interpretation of the various physical effects observed during on-orbit monitoring. This paper describes selected portions of the signature database generated using streamlined signature modeling and simulations of basic geometry shapes apparent to non-imaging sensors. With this database, summarization of key observable features for such shapes as spheres, cylinders, flat plates, cones, and cubes in specific spectral bands that include the visible, mid wave, and long wave infrared provide the analyst with input to the decision process algorithms contained in the overall sensing and identification architectures. The models typically utilize baseline materials such as Kapton, paints, aluminum surface end plates, and radiators, along with solar cell representations covering the cylindrical and side portions of the spacecraft. Multiple space and ground-based sensors are assumed to be located at key locations to describe the comprehensive multi-viewing aspect scenarios that can result in significant specular reflection

  9. An acoustic prion assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Hayward


    Full Text Available An acoustic prion assay has been demonstrated for sheep brain samples. Only five false positives and no false negatives were observed in a test of 45 positive and 45 negative samples. The acoustic prion sensor was constructed using a thickness shear mode quartz resonator coated with a covalently bound recombinant prion protein. The characteristic indicator of a scrapie infected sheep brain sample was an observed shoulder in the frequency decrease in response to a sample.The response of the sensor aligns with a conformational shift in the surface protein and with the propagation mechanism of the disease. This alignment is evident in the response timing and shape, dependence on concentration, cross species behaviour and impact of blood plasma. This alignment is far from sufficient to prove the mechanism of the sensor but it does offer the possibility of a rapid and inexpensive additional tool to explore prion disease. Keywords: Prions, Thickness shear mode quartz sensor

  10. The acoustics of snoring. (United States)

    Pevernagie, Dirk; Aarts, Ronald M; De Meyer, Micheline


    Snoring is a prevalent disorder affecting 20-40% of the general population. The mechanism of snoring is vibration of anatomical structures in the pharyngeal airway. Flutter of the soft palate accounts for the harsh aspect of the snoring sound. Natural or drug-induced sleep is required for its appearance. Snoring is subject to many influences such as body position, sleep stage, route of breathing and the presence or absence of sleep-disordered breathing. Its presentation may be variable within or between nights. While snoring is generally perceived as a social nuisance, rating of its noisiness is subjective and, therefore, inconsistent. Objective assessment of snoring is important to evaluate the effect of treatment interventions. Moreover, snoring carries information relating to the site and degree of obstruction of the upper airway. If evidence for monolevel snoring at the site of the soft palate is provided, the patient may benefit from palatal surgery. These considerations have inspired researchers to scrutinize the acoustic characteristics of snoring events. Similarly to speech, snoring is produced in the vocal tract. Because of this analogy, existing techniques for speech analysis have been applied to evaluate snoring sounds. It appears that the pitch of the snoring sound is in the low-frequency range (noise-like', and has scattered energy content in the higher spectral sub-bands (>500 Hz). To evaluate acoustic properties of snoring, sleep nasendoscopy is often performed. Recent evidence suggests that the acoustic quality of snoring is markedly different in drug-induced sleep as compared with natural sleep. Most often, palatal surgery alters sound characteristics of snoring, but is no cure for this disorder. It is uncertain whether the perceived improvement after palatal surgery, as judged by the bed partner, is due to an altered sound spectrum. Whether some acoustic aspects of snoring, such as changes in pitch, have predictive value for the presence of

  11. Osmotic Acoustic Source (United States)


    Technology Transfer at (401) 832-1511. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT Approved for Public Release Distribution is unlimited Attorney Docket the enclosure through osmosis. Valves open at a specified time after the liquid injection to free flood between the enclosure and the...the timing of the salt jets and the free-flooding valves enables a repeatable Attorney Docket No. 300070 4 of 14 acoustic pulse at low

  12. Ocean acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornuelle, Bruce D; Worcester, Peter F; Dzieciuch, Matthew A


    Ocean acoustic tomography (OAT) was proposed in 1979 by Walter Munk and Carl Wunsch as an analogue to x-ray computed axial tomography for the oceans. The oceans are opaque to most electromagnetic radiation, but there is a strong acoustic waveguide, and sound can propagate for 10 Mm and more with distinct multiply-refracted ray paths. Transmitting broadband pulses in the ocean leads to a set of impulsive arrivals at the receiver which characterize the impulse response of the sound channel. The peaks observed at the receiver are assumed to represent the arrival of energy traveling along geometric ray paths. These paths can be distinguished by arrival time, and by arrival angle when a vertical array of receivers is available. Changes in ray arrival time can be used to infer changes in ocean structure. Ray travel time measurements have been a mainstay of long-range acoustic measurements, but the strong sensitivity of ray paths to range-dependent sound speed perturbations makes the ray sampling functions uncertain in real cases. In the ray approximation travel times are sensitive to medium changes only along the corresponding eigenrays. Ray theory is an infinite-frequency approximation, and its eikonal equation has nonlinearities not found in the acoustic wave equation. We build on recent seismology results (kernels for body wave arrivals in the earth) to characterize the kernel for converting sound speed change in the ocean to travel time changes using more complete propagation physics. Wave-theoretic finite frequency kernels may show less sensitivity to small-scale sound speed structure.

  13. Anisotropy of acoustic properties in paratellurite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parygin, Vladimir N.


    One of the peculiarities of the TeO 2 crystal consists of its strong acoustic anisotropy. This anisotropy demonstrates itself by acoustic energy walk-off and anisotropic distortion of an acoustic beam. Four constants completely characterise the acoustic anisotropy of the medium. In this paper these constants are calculated for various directions of the acoustic beam in crystal. (authors)

  14. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE) (United States)


    acoustic communications, acoustic navigation, or acoustic remote sensing of the ocean interior . RELATED PROJECTS The 2015 CANAPE pilot study was a...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE...ocean structure. Changes in sea ice and the water column affect both acoustic propagation and ambient noise. This implies that what was learned

  15. On the spacecraft attitude stabilization in the orbital frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipov Kirill A.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with spacecraft in the circular near-Earth orbit. The spacecraft interacts with geomagnetic field by the moments of Lorentz and magnetic forces. The octupole approximation of the Earth’s magnetic field is accepted. The spacecraft electromagnetic parameters, namely the electrostatic charge moment of the first order and the eigen magnetic moment are the controlled quasiperiodic functions. The control algorithms for the spacecraft electromagnetic parameters, which allows to stabilize the spacecraft attitude position in the orbital frame are obtained. The stability of the spacecraft stabilized orientation is proved both analytically and by PC computations.

  16. Acoustically enhanced heat transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ang, Kar M.; Hung, Yew Mun; Tan, Ming K., E-mail: [School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor (Malaysia); Yeo, Leslie Y. [Micro/Nanophysics Research Laboratory, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC 3001 (Australia); Friend, James R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)


    We investigate the enhancement of heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime by inducing high frequency acoustic waves (f ∼ 10{sup 6} Hz) on the heated surface. In the experiments, liquid droplets (deionized water) are dispensed directly onto a heated, vibrating substrate. At lower vibration amplitudes (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −9} m), the improved heat transfer is mainly due to the detachment of vapor bubbles from the heated surface and the induced thermal mixing. Upon increasing the vibration amplitude (ξ{sub s} ∼ 10{sup −8} m), the heat transfer becomes more substantial due to the rapid bursting of vapor bubbles happening at the liquid-air interface as a consequence of capillary waves travelling in the thin liquid film between the vapor bubble and the air. Further increases then lead to rapid atomization that continues to enhance the heat transfer. An acoustic wave displacement amplitude on the order of 10{sup −8} m with 10{sup 6} Hz order frequencies is observed to produce an improvement of up to 50% reduction in the surface temperature over the case without acoustic excitation.

  17. Bilateral acoustic neuromas. (United States)

    Anand, V T; Byrnes, D P; Walby, A P; Kerr, A G


    This article reviews 12 patients with bilateral acoustic neuromas. The sex incidence was equal and the mean age at diagnosis was 26.2 years. The family history was positive in nine of the patients. Five patients have had incomplete surgical removal of acoustic neuromas on both sides. Two of them are completely deaf and the other three have severe sensorineural hearing loss in one ear and no hearing in the other ear. In five patients the tumour on one side has been operated on and the other side is being observed with at least short-term preservation of good hearing. The remaining two patients died of intra-cranial complications, one of them post-operatively. Four patients developed facial palsy immediately following surgery and one developed facial weakness 6 months after surgery. Guidelines are discussed for the care of these patients including the timing of surgery and alternative treatment options (observation, radio-surgery and chemotherapy). This is essentially a group of young individuals who have had multiple operations for bilateral acoustic tumours and associated manifestations and for whom the disease and the sequelae of treatment can be tragic.

  18. Application of Space Environmental Observations to Spacecraft Pre-Launch Engineering and Spacecraft Operations (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.; Xapsos, Michael


    This presentation focuses on the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems and applying this knowledge to spacecraft pre-launch engineering and operations. Particle radiation, neutral gas particles, ultraviolet and x-rays, as well as micrometeoroids and orbital debris in the space environment have various effects on spacecraft systems, including degradation of microelectronic and optical components, physical damage, orbital decay, biasing of instrument readings, and system shutdowns. Space climate and weather must be considered during the mission life cycle (mission concept, mission planning, systems design, and launch and operations) to minimize and manage risk to both the spacecraft and its systems. A space environment model for use in the mission life cycle is presented.

  19. High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Darrell R


    High-Frequency Seafloor Acoustics is the first book in a new series sponsored by the Office of Naval Research on the latest research in underwater acoustics. This exciting new title provides ready access to experimental data, theory, and models relevant to high-frequency seafloor acoustics and will be of interest to sonar engineers and researchers working in underwater acoustics. The physical characteristics of the seafloor affecting acoustic propagation and scattering are covered, including physical and geoacoustic properties and surface roughness. Current theories for acoustic propagation in sediments are presented along with corresponding models for reflection, scattering, and seafloor penetration. The main text is backed up by an extensive bibliography and technical appendices.

  20. Fundamentals of Shallow Water Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Katsnelson, Boris; Lynch, James


    Shallow water acoustics (SWA), the study of how low and medium frequency sound propagates and scatters on the continental shelves of the world's oceans, has both technical interest and a large number of practical applications. Technically, shallow water poses an interesting medium for the study of acoustic scattering, inverse theory, and propagation physics in a complicated oceanic waveguide. Practically, shallow water acoustics has interest for geophysical exploration, marine mammal studies, and naval applications. Additionally, one notes the very interdisciplinary nature of shallow water acoustics, including acoustical physics, physical oceanography, marine geology, and marine biology. In this specialized volume, the authors, all of whom have extensive at-sea experience in U.S. and Russian research efforts, have tried to summarize the main experimental, theoretical, and computational results in shallow water acoustics, with an emphasis on providing physical insight into the topics presented.

  1. Modeling, Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis of Spacecraft Air Contaminants (United States)

    Ramirez, W. Fred; Skliar, Mikhail; Narayan, Anand; Morgenthaler, George W.; Smith, Gerald J.


    Control of air contaminants is a crucial factor in the safety considerations of crewed space flight. Indoor air quality needs to be closely monitored during long range missions such as a Mars mission, and also on large complex space structures such as the International Space Station. This work mainly pertains to the detection and simulation of air contaminants in the space station, though much of the work is easily extended to buildings, and issues of ventilation systems. Here we propose a method with which to track the presence of contaminants using an accurate physical model, and also develop a robust procedure that would raise alarms when certain tolerance levels are exceeded. A part of this research concerns the modeling of air flow inside a spacecraft, and the consequent dispersal pattern of contaminants. Our objective is to also monitor the contaminants on-line, so we develop a state estimation procedure that makes use of the measurements from a sensor system and determines an optimal estimate of the contamination in the system as a function of time and space. The real-time optimal estimates in turn are used to detect faults in the system and also offer diagnoses as to their sources. This work is concerned with the monitoring of air contaminants aboard future generation spacecraft and seeks to satisfy NASA's requirements as outlined in their Strategic Plan document (Technology Development Requirements, 1996).

  2. Chemical Pollution from Combustion of Modern Spacecraft Materials (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.


    Fire is one of the most critical contingencies in spacecraft and any closed environment including submarines. Currently, NASA uses particle based technology to detect fires and hand-held combustion product monitors to track the clean-up and restoration of habitable cabin environment after the fire is extinguished. In the future, chemical detection could augment particle detection to eliminate frequent nuisance false alarms triggered by dust. In the interest of understanding combustion from both particulate and chemical generation, NASA Centers have been collaborating on combustion studies at White Sands Test Facility using modern spacecraft materials as fuels, and both old and new technology to measure the chemical and particulate products of combustion. The tests attempted to study smoldering pyrolysis at relatively low temperatures without ignition to flaming conditions. This paper will summarize the results of two 1-week long tests undertaken in 2012, focusing on the chemical products of combustion. The results confirm the key chemical products are carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl), whose concentrations depend on the particular material and test conditions. For example, modern aerospace wire insulation produces significant concentration of HF, which persists in the test chamber longer than anticipated. These compounds are the analytical targets identified for the development of new tunable diode laser based hand-held monitors, to replace the aging electrochemical sensor based devices currently in use on the International Space Station.

  3. Spacecraft Fire Safety 1956 to 1999: An Annotated Bibliography (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Ruff, Gary A.


    Knowledge of fire safety in spacecraft has resulted from over 50 years of investigation and experience in space flight. Current practices and procedures for the operation of the Space Transportation System (STS) shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) have been developed from this expertise, much of which has been documented in various reports. Extending manned space exploration from low Earth orbit to lunar or Martian habitats and beyond will require continued research in microgravity combustion and fire protection in low gravity. This descriptive bibliography has been produced to document and summarize significant work in the area of spacecraft fire safety that was published between 1956 and July 1999. Although some important work published in the late 1990s may be missing, these citations as well as work since 2000 can generally be found in Web-based resources that are easily accessed and searched. In addition to the citation, each reference includes a short description of the contents and conclusions of the article. The bibliography contains over 800 citations that are cross-referenced both by topic and the authors and editors. There is a DVD that accompanies this bibliography (available by request from the Center for Aerospace Information) containing the full-text articles of selected citations as well as an electronic version of this report that has these citations as active links to their corresponding full-text article.

  4. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics (United States)


    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Shallow-Water Mud Acoustics William L. Siegmann...models and methods that explain observed material and acoustic properties of different physical types of shallow-ocean mud sediments. Other goals...are to assess prior data relating to the acoustic properties of mud and to provide guidance in the development and interpretation of experiments. A

  5. Coupled Acoustic-Mechanical Bandgaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Kook, Junghwan


    medium and the presence of acoustic resonances. It is demonstrated that corrugation of the plate structure can introduce bending wave bandgaps and bandgaps in the acoustic domain in overlapping and audible frequency ranges. This effect is preserved also when taking the physical coupling between the two...... domains into account. Additionally, the coupling is shown to introduce extra gaps in the band structure due to modal interaction and the appearance of a cut-on frequency for the fundamental acoustic mode....

  6. Comprehensive Fault Tolerance and Science-Optimal Attitude Planning for Spacecraft Applications (United States)

    Nasir, Ali

    Spacecraft operate in a harsh environment, are costly to launch, and experience unavoidable communication delay and bandwidth constraints. These factors motivate the need for effective onboard mission and fault management. This dissertation presents an integrated framework to optimize science goal achievement while identifying and managing encountered faults. Goal-related tasks are defined by pointing the spacecraft instrumentation toward distant targets of scientific interest. The relative value of science data collection is traded with risk of failures to determine an optimal policy for mission execution. Our major innovation in fault detection and reconfiguration is to incorporate fault information obtained from two types of spacecraft models: one based on the dynamics of the spacecraft and the second based on the internal composition of the spacecraft. For fault reconfiguration, we consider possible changes in both dynamics-based control law configuration and the composition-based switching configuration. We formulate our problem as a stochastic sequential decision problem or Markov Decision Process (MDP). To avoid the computational complexity involved in a fully-integrated MDP, we decompose our problem into multiple MDPs. These MDPs include planning MDPs for different fault scenarios, a fault detection MDP based on a logic-based model of spacecraft component and system functionality, an MDP for resolving conflicts between fault information from the logic-based model and the dynamics-based spacecraft models" and the reconfiguration MDP that generates a policy optimized over the relative importance of the mission objectives versus spacecraft safety. Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP) methods for the decomposition of the planning and fault detection MDPs are applied. To show the performance of the MDP-based frameworks and ADP methods, a suite of spacecraft attitude planning case studies are described. These case studies are used to analyze the content and

  7. Methodology for Developing a Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model of Spacecraft Rendezvous and Dockings (United States)

    Farnham, Steven J., II; Garza, Joel, Jr.; Castillo, Theresa M.; Lutomski, Michael


    In 2007 NASA was preparing to send two new visiting vehicles carrying logistics and propellant to the International Space Station (ISS). These new vehicles were the European Space Agency s (ESA) Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), the Jules Verne, and the Japanese Aerospace and Explorations Agency s (JAXA) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The ISS Program wanted to quantify the increased risk to the ISS from these visiting vehicles. At the time, only the Shuttle, the Soyuz, and the Progress vehicles rendezvoused and docked to the ISS. The increased risk to the ISS was from an increase in vehicle traffic, thereby, increasing the potential catastrophic collision during the rendezvous and the docking or berthing of the spacecraft to the ISS. A universal method of evaluating the risk of rendezvous and docking or berthing was created by the ISS s Risk Team to accommodate the increasing number of rendezvous and docking or berthing operations due to the increasing number of different spacecraft, as well as the future arrival of commercial spacecraft. Before the first docking attempt of ESA's ATV and JAXA's HTV to the ISS, a probabilistic risk model was developed to quantitatively calculate the risk of collision of each spacecraft with the ISS. The 5 rendezvous and docking risk models (Soyuz, Progress, Shuttle, ATV, and HTV) have been used to build and refine the modeling methodology for rendezvous and docking of spacecrafts. This risk modeling methodology will be NASA s basis for evaluating the addition of future ISS visiting spacecrafts hazards, including SpaceX s Dragon, Orbital Science s Cygnus, and NASA s own Orion spacecraft. This paper will describe the methodology used for developing a visiting vehicle risk model.

  8. Analysis on coverage ability of BeiDou navigation satellite system for manned spacecraft (United States)

    Zhao, Sihao; Yao, Zheng; Zhuang, Xuebin; Lu, Mingquan


    To investigate the service ability of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) for manned spacecraft, both the current regional and the future-planned global constellations of BDS are introduced and simulated. The orbital parameters of the International Space Station and China's Tiangong-1 spacelab are used to create the simulation scenario and evaluate the performance of the BDS constellations. The number of visible satellites and the position dilution (PDOP) of precision at the spacecraft-based receiver are evaluated. Simulation and analysis show quantitative results on the coverage ability and time percentages of both the current BDS regional and future global constellations for manned-space orbits which can be a guideline to the applications and mission design of BDS receivers on manned spacecraft.

  9. Tracking and Navigation of Future NASA Spacecraft with the Square Kilometer Array (United States)

    Resch, G. M.; Jones, D. L.; Connally, M. J.; Weinreb, S.; Preston, R. A.


    The international radio astronomy community is currently working on the design of an array of small radio antennas with a total collecting area of one square kilometer - more than a hundred times that of the largest existing (100-m) steerable antennas. An array of this size would provide obvious advantages for high data rate telemetry reception and for spacecraft navigation. Among these advantages are a two-orders-of-magnitude increase in sensitivity for telemetry downlink, flexible sub-arraying to track multiple spacecraft simultaneously, increased reliability through the use of large numbers of identical array elements, very accurate real-time angular spacecraft tracking, and a dramatic reduction in cost per unit area. NASA missions in many disciplines, including planetary science, would benefit from this increased ground-based tracking capability. The science return from planned missions could be increased, and opportunities for less expensive or completely new kinds of missions would be created.

  10. Acoustic Communications Measurement Systems (ACOMMS) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Design and develop adaptive signal processing techniques to improve underwater acoustic communications and networking. Phase coherent and incoherent signal...

  11. Sinusoidal Representation of Acoustic Signals (United States)

    Honda, Masaaki

    Sinusoidal representation of acoustic signals has been an important tool in speech and music processing like signal analysis, synthesis and time scale or pitch modifications. It can be applicable to arbitrary signals, which is an important advantage over other signal representations like physical modeling of acoustic signals. In sinusoidal representation, acoustic signals are composed as sums of sinusoid (sine wave) with different amplitudes, frequencies and phases, which is based on the timedependent short-time Fourier transform (STFT). This article describes the principles of acoustic signal analysis/synthesis based on a sinusoid representation with focus on sine waves with rapidly varying frequency.

  12. Guided acoustic wave inspection system (United States)

    Chinn, Diane J.


    A system for inspecting a conduit for undesirable characteristics. A transducer system induces guided acoustic waves onto said conduit. The transducer system detects the undesirable characteristics of the conduit by receiving guided acoustic waves that contain information about the undesirable characteristics. The conduit has at least two sides and the transducer system utilizes flexural modes of propagation to provide inspection using access from only the one side of the conduit. Cracking is detected with pulse-echo testing using one transducer to both send and receive the guided acoustic waves. Thinning is detected in through-transmission testing where one transducer sends and another transducer receives the guided acoustic waves.

  13. Tunable coupled surface acoustic cavities (United States)

    de Lima, M. M.; Santos, P. V.; Kosevich, Yu. A.; Cantarero, A.


    We demonstrate the electric tuning of the acoustic field in acoustic microcavities (MCs) defined by a periodic arrangement of metal stripes within a surface acoustic delay line on LiNbO3 substrate. Interferometric measurements show the enhancement of the acoustic field distribution within a single MC, the presence of a "bonding" and "anti-bonding" modes for two strongly coupled MCs, as well as the positive dispersion of the "mini-bands" formed by five coupled MCs. The frequency and amplitude of the resonances can be controlled by the potential applied to the metal stripes.

  14. Transition section for acoustic waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karplus, H.H.B.


    A means of facilitating the transmission of acoustic waves with minimal reflection between two regions having different specific acoustic impedances is described comprising a region exhibiting a constant product of cross-sectional area and specific acoustic impedance at each cross-sectional plane along the axis of the transition region. A variety of structures that exhibit this feature is disclosed, the preferred embodiment comprising a nested structure of doubly reentrant cones. This structure is useful for monitoring the operation of nuclear reactors in which random acoustic signals are generated in the course of operation

  15. Combined Environment Acoustic Chamber (CEAC) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The CEAC imposes combined acoustic, thermal and mechanical loads on aerospace structures. The CEAC is employed to measure structural response and determine...

  16. NDE Acoustic Microscopy Research Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to develop advanced, more effective high-resolution micro-NDE materials characterization methods using scanning acoustic microscopy. The laboratory's...

  17. Ion-acoustic plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychenkov, V.Y.; Silin, V.P.


    A theory is developed of the nonlinear state that is established in a plasma as a result of development of ion-acoustic instability. Account is taken simultaneously of the linear induced scattering of the waves by the ions and of the quasilinear relaxation of the electrons by the ion-acoustic pulsations. The distribution of the ion-acoustic turbulence in frequency and in angle is obtained. An Ohm's law is established and expressions are obtained for the electronic heat flux and for the relaxation time of the electron temperature in a turbulent plasma. Anomalously large absorption and scattering of the electromagnetic waves by the ion-acoustic pulsations is predicted

  18. DOD Recovery personnel and NASA technicians inspect Friendship 7 spacecraft (United States)


    Department of Defense Recovery personnel and spacecraft technicians from NASA adn McDonnell Aircraft Corp., inspect Astronaut John Glenn's Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, following its return to Cape Canaveral after recovery in the Atlantic Ocean.

  19. High-Performance Fire Detector for Spacecraft, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The danger from fire aboard spacecraft is immediate with only moments for detection and suppression. Spacecraft are unique high-value systems where the cost of...

  20. Acoustic design of open-plan offices and comparison of requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Møller; Rasmussen, Birgit


    In the Nordic countries, most office buildings include open-plan offices. However, to optimize working conditions, such spaces require special acoustic design to obtain reasonable sound attenuation between groups and satisfactory speech intelligibility internally in groups, although optimal worki...

  1. Space tribology: its role in spacecraft mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, E W


    The subject of tribology encompasses the friction, wear and lubrication of mechanical components such as bearings and gears. Tribological practices are aimed at ensuring that such components operate with high efficiency (low friction) and achieve long lives. On spacecraft mechanisms the route to achieving these goals brings its own unique challenges. This review describes the problems posed by the space environment, the types of tribological component used on spacecraft and the approaches taken to their lubrication. It is shown that in many instances lubrication needs can be met by synthetic oils having exceedingly low volatilities, but that at temperature extremes the only means of reducing friction and wear is by solid lubrication. As the demands placed on space engineering increase, innovatory approaches will be needed to solve future tribological problems. The direction that future developments might take is anticipated and discussed.

  2. Galileo spacecraft power management and distribution system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detwiler, R.C.; Smith, R.L.


    It has been twelve years since two Voyager spacecraft began the direct route to the outer planets. In October 1989 a single Galileo spacecraft started the return to Jupiter. Conceived as a simple Voyager look-alike, the Galileo power management and distribution (PMAD) system has undergone many iterations in configuration. Major changes to the PMAD resulted from dual spun slip ring limitations, variations in launch vehicle thrust capabilities, and launch delays. Lack of an adequate launch vehicle for an interplanetary mission of Galileo's size has resulted in an extremely long flight duration. A Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA) tour, vital to attain the required energy, results in a 6 year trip to Jupiter and its moons. This paper provides a description of the Galileo PMAD and documents the design drivers that established the final as-built hardware

  3. Improved techniques for predicting spacecraft power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.B.


    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are going to supply power for the NASA Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft now scheduled to be launched in 1989 and 1990. The duration of the Galileo mission is expected to be over 8 years. This brings the total RTG lifetime to 13 years. In 13 years, the RTG power drops more than 20 percent leaving a very small power margin over what is consumed by the spacecraft. Thus it is very important to accurately predict the RTG performance and be able to assess the magnitude of errors involved. The paper lists all the error sources involved in the RTG power predictions and describes a statistical method for calculating the tolerance

  4. Data combinations accounting for LISA spacecraft motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaddock, Daniel A.; Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, Frank B.; Armstrong, J.W.


    The laser interferometer space antenna is an array of three spacecraft in an approximately equilateral triangle configuration which will be used as a low-frequency gravitational wave detector. We present here new generalizations of the Michelson- and Sagnac-type time-delay interferometry data combinations. These combinations cancel laser phase noise in the presence of different up and down propagation delays in each arm of the array, and slowly varying systematic motion of the spacecraft. The gravitational wave sensitivities of these generalized combinations are the same as previously computed for the stationary cases, although the combinations are now more complicated. We introduce a diagrammatic representation to illustrate that these combinations are actually synthesized equal-arm interferometers

  5. The Stardust spacecraft arrives at KSC (United States)


    After arrival at the Shuttle Landing Facility in the early morning hours, the crated Stardust spacecraft waits to be unloaded from the aircraft. Built by Lockheed Martin Astronautics near Denver, Colo., for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) NASA, the spacecraft Stardust will use a unique medium called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of comet Wild 2 in January 2004, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. Stardust will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7426 rocket from Complex 17, Cape Canaveral Air Station, targeted for Feb. 6, 1999. The collected samples will return to Earth in a re- entry capsule to be jettisoned from Stardust as it swings by in January 2006.

  6. Close-Range Photogrammetry & Next Generation Spacecraft (United States)

    Pappa, Richard S.


    NASA is focusing renewed attention on the topic of large, ultra-lightweight space structures, also known as 'gossamer' spacecraft. Nearly all of the details of the giant spacecraft are still to be worked out. But it's already clear that one of the most challenging aspects will be developing techniques to align and control these systems after they are deployed in space. A critical part of this process is creating new ground test methods to measure gossamer structures under stationary, deploying and vibrating conditions for validation of corresponding analytical predictions. In addressing this problem, I considered, first of all, the possibility of simply using conventional displacement or vibration sensor that could provide spatial measurements. Next, I turned my attention to photogrammetry, a method of determining the spatial coordinates of objects using photographs. The success of this research and development has convinced me that photogrammetry is the most suitable method to solve the gossamer measurement problem.

  7. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier


    -based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal-gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame......Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due...... to the complexity, cost and risk associ-ated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground...

  8. FORTE spacecraft vibration mitigation. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, J.R.


    This report documents work that was performed by CSA Engineering, Inc., for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to reduce vibrations of the FORTE spacecraft by retrofitting damped structural components into the spacecraft structure. The technical objective of the work was reduction of response at the location of payload components when the structure is subjected to the dynamic loading associated with launch and proto-qualification testing. FORTE is a small satellite that will be placed in orbit in 1996. The structure weighs approximately 425 lb, and is roughly 80 inches high and 40 inches in diameter. It was developed and built by LANL in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque for the United States Department of Energy. The FORTE primary structure was fabricated primarily with graphite epoxy, using aluminum honeycomb core material for equipment decks and solar panel substrates. Equipment decks were bonded and bolted through aluminum mounting blocks to adjoining structure

  9. Acoustic transparency and slow sound using detuned acoustic resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    We demonstrate that the phenomenon of acoustic transparency and slowsound propagation can be realized with detuned acoustic resonators (DAR), mimicking thereby the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic physics. Sound propagation in a pipe with a series of side...

  10. Monitoring on board spacecraft by means of passive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrozova, I.; Brabcova, K.; Spurny, F.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Kartsev, I. S.; Tolochek, R. V.


    To estimate the radiation risk of astronauts during space missions, it is necessary to measure dose characteristics in various compartments of the spacecraft; this knowledge can be further used for estimating the health hazard in planned missions. This contribution presents results obtained during several missions on board the International Space Station (ISS) during 2005-09. A combination of thermoluminescent and plastic nuclear track detectors was used to measure the absorbed dose and dose equivalent. These passive detectors have several advantages, especially small dimensions, which enabled their placement at various locations in different compartments inside the ISS or inside the phantom. Variation of dosimetric quantities with the phase of the solar cycle and the position inside the ISS is discussed. (authors)

  11. Redundancy for electric motors in spacecraft applications (United States)

    Smith, Robert J.; Flew, Alastair R.


    The parts of electric motors which should be duplicated in order to provide maximum reliability in spacecraft application are identified. Various common types of redundancy are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each are noted. The principal types are illustrated by reference to specific examples. For each example, constructional details, basic performance data and failure modes are described, together with a discussion of the suitability of particular redundancy techniques to motor types.

  12. Research on spacecraft electrical power conversion (United States)

    Wilson, T. G.


    The history of spacecraft electrical power conversion in literature, research and practice is reviewed. It is noted that the design techniques, analyses and understanding which were developed make today's contribution to power computers and communication installations. New applications which require more power, improved dynamic response, greater reliability, and lower cost are outlined. The switching mode approach in electronic power conditioning is discussed. Technical aspects of the research are summarized.

  13. Schema for Spacecraft-Command Dictionary (United States)

    Laubach, Sharon; Garcia, Celina; Maxwell, Scott; Wright, Jesse


    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema was developed as a means of defining and describing a structure for capturing spacecraft command- definition and tracking information in a single location in a form readable by both engineers and software used to generate software for flight and ground systems. A structure defined within this schema is then used as the basis for creating an XML file that contains command definitions.

  14. Additive Manufacturing: Ensuring Quality for Spacecraft Applications (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore; Stephenson, Timothy


    Reliable manufacturing requires that material properties and fabrication processes be well defined in order to insure that the manufactured parts meet specified requirements. While this issue is now relatively straightforward for traditional processes such as subtractive manufacturing and injection molding, this capability is still evolving for AM products. Hence, one of the principal challenges within AM is in qualifying and verifying source material properties and process control. This issue is particularly critical for applications in harsh environments and demanding applications, such as spacecraft.

  15. Wheel speed management control system for spacecraft (United States)

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)


    A spacecraft attitude control system uses at least four reaction wheels. In order to minimize reaction wheel speed and therefore power, a wheel speed management system is provided. The management system monitors the wheel speeds and generates a wheel speed error vector. The error vector is integrated, and the error vector and its integral are combined to form a correction vector. The correction vector is summed with the attitude control torque command signals for driving the reaction wheels.

  16. The Manned Spacecraft Center and medical technology (United States)

    Johnston, R. S.; Pool, S. L.


    A number of medically oriented research and hardware development programs in support of manned space flights have been sponsored by NASA. Blood pressure measuring systems for use in spacecraft are considered. In some cases, complete new bioinstrumentation systems were necessary to accomplish a specific physiological study. Plans for medical research during the Skylab program are discussed along with general questions regarding space-borne health service systems and details concerning the Health Services Support Control Center.

  17. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems (United States)

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.


    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.

  18. Acoustic Emission Analysis Applet (AEAA) Software (United States)

    Nichols, Charles T.; Roth, Don J.


    NASA Glenn Research and NASA White Sands Test Facility have developed software supporting an automated pressure vessel structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on acoustic emissions (AE). The software, referred to as the Acoustic Emission Analysis Applet (AEAA), provides analysts with a tool that can interrogate data collected on Digital Wave Corp. and Physical Acoustics Corp. software using a wide spectrum of powerful filters and charts. This software can be made to work with any data once the data format is known. The applet will compute basic AE statistics, and statistics as a function of time and pressure (see figure). AEAA provides value added beyond the analysis provided by the respective vendors' analysis software. The software can handle data sets of unlimited size. A wide variety of government and commercial applications could benefit from this technology, notably requalification and usage tests for compressed gas and hydrogen-fueled vehicles. Future enhancements will add features similar to a "check engine" light on a vehicle. Once installed, the system will ultimately be used to alert International Space Station crewmembers to critical structural instabilities, but will have little impact to missions otherwise. Diagnostic information could then be transmitted to experienced technicians on the ground in a timely manner to determine whether pressure vessels have been impacted, are structurally unsound, or can be safely used to complete the mission.

  19. Resection planning for robotic acoustic neuroma surgery (United States)

    McBrayer, Kepra L.; Wanna, George B.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Balachandran, Ramya; Labadie, Robert F.; Noble, Jack H.


    Acoustic neuroma surgery is a procedure in which a benign mass is removed from the Internal Auditory Canal (IAC). Currently this surgical procedure requires manual drilling of the temporal bone followed by exposure and removal of the acoustic neuroma. This procedure is physically and mentally taxing to the surgeon. Our group is working to develop an Acoustic Neuroma Surgery Robot (ANSR) to perform the initial drilling procedure. Planning the ANSR's drilling region using pre-operative CT requires expertise and around 35 minutes' time. We propose an approach for automatically producing a resection plan for the ANSR that would avoid damage to sensitive ear structures and require minimal editing by the surgeon. We first compute an atlas-based segmentation of the mastoid section of the temporal bone, refine it based on the position of anatomical landmarks, and apply a safety margin to the result to produce the automatic resection plan. In experiments with CTs from 9 subjects, our automated process resulted in a resection plan that was verified to be safe in every case. Approximately 2 minutes were required in each case for the surgeon to verify and edit the plan to permit functional access to the IAC. We measured a mean Dice coefficient of 0.99 and surface error of 0.08 mm between the final and automatically proposed plans. These preliminary results indicate that our approach is a viable method for resection planning for the ANSR and drastically reduces the surgeon's planning effort.

  20. Spacecraft early design validation using formal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozzano, Marco; Cimatti, Alessandro; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Katsaros, Panagiotis; Mokos, Konstantinos; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas; Postma, Bart; Roveri, Marco


    The size and complexity of software in spacecraft is increasing exponentially, and this trend complicates its validation within the context of the overall spacecraft system. Current validation methods are labor-intensive as they rely on manual analysis, review and inspection. For future space missions, we developed – with challenging requirements from the European space industry – a novel modeling language and toolset for a (semi-)automated validation approach. Our modeling language is a dialect of AADL and enables engineers to express the system, the software, and their reliability aspects. The COMPASS toolset utilizes state-of-the-art model checking techniques, both qualitative and probabilistic, for the analysis of requirements related to functional correctness, safety, dependability and performance. Several pilot projects have been performed by industry, with two of them having focused on the system-level of a satellite platform in development. Our efforts resulted in a significant advancement of validating spacecraft designs from several perspectives, using a single integrated system model. The associated technology readiness level increased from level 1 (basic concepts and ideas) to early level 4 (laboratory-tested)

  1. Determination of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft (United States)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David


    This paper expands on previous work that examined how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). The previous work introduced a simplified model that treated the fire primarily as a source of heat and combustion products and sink for oxygen prescribed (input to the model) based on terrestrial standards. The model further treated the spacecraft as a closed system with no capability to vent to the vacuum of space. The model in the present work extends this analysis to more realistically treat the pressure relief system(s) of the spacecraft, include more combustion products (e.g. HF) in the analysis and attempt to predict the fire spread and limiting fire size (based on knowledge of terrestrial fires and the known characteristics of microgravity fires) rather than prescribe them in the analysis. Including the characteristics of vehicle pressure relief systems has a dramatic mitigating effect by eliminating vehicle overpressure for all but very large fires and reducing average gas-phase temperatures.

  2. Probing interferometric parallax with interplanetary spacecraft (United States)

    Rodeghiero, G.; Gini, F.; Marchili, N.; Jain, P.; Ralston, J. P.; Dallacasa, D.; Naletto, G.; Possenti, A.; Barbieri, C.; Franceschini, A.; Zampieri, L.


    We describe an experimental scenario for testing a novel method to measure distance and proper motion of astronomical sources. The method is based on multi-epoch observations of amplitude or intensity correlations between separate receiving systems. This technique is called Interferometric Parallax, and efficiently exploits phase information that has traditionally been overlooked. The test case we discuss combines amplitude correlations of signals from deep space interplanetary spacecraft with those from distant galactic and extragalactic radio sources with the goal of estimating the interplanetary spacecraft distance. Interferometric parallax relies on the detection of wavefront curvature effects in signals collected by pairs of separate receiving systems. The method shows promising potentialities over current techniques when the target is unresolved from the background reference sources. Developments in this field might lead to the construction of an independent, geometrical cosmic distance ladder using a dedicated project and future generation instruments. We present a conceptual overview supported by numerical estimates of its performances applied to a spacecraft orbiting the Solar System. Simulations support the feasibility of measurements with a simple and time-saving observational scheme using current facilities.

  3. On-orbit supervisor for controlling spacecraft (United States)

    Vandervoort, Richard J.


    Spacecraft systems of the 1990's and beyond will be substantially more complex than their predecessors. They will have demanding performance requirements and will be expected to operate more autonomously. This underscores the need for innovative approaches to Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR). A hierarchical expert system is presented that provides on-orbit supervision using intelligent FDIR techniques. Each expert system in the hierarchy supervises the operation of a local set of spacecraft functions. Spacecraft operational goals flow top down while responses flow bottom up. The expert system supervisors have a fairly high degree of autonomy. Bureaucratic responsibilities are minimized to conserve bandwidth and maximize response time. Data for FDIR can be acquired local to an expert and from other experts. By using a blackboard architecture for each supervisor, the system provides a great degree of flexibility in implementing the problem solvers for each problem domain. In addition, it provides for a clear separation between facts and knowledge, leading to an efficient system capable of real time response.

  4. Delamination Assessment Tool for Spacecraft Composite Structures (United States)

    Portela, Pedro; Preller, Fabian; Wittke, Henrik; Sinnema, Gerben; Camanho, Pedro; Turon, Albert


    Fortunately only few cases are known where failure of spacecraft structures due to undetected damage has resulted in a loss of spacecraft and launcher mission. However, several problems related to damage tolerance and in particular delamination of composite materials have been encountered during structure development of various ESA projects and qualification testing. To avoid such costly failures during development, launch or service of spacecraft, launcher and reusable launch vehicles structures a comprehensive damage tolerance verification approach is needed. In 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated an activity called “Delamination Assessment Tool” which is led by the Portuguese company HPS Lda and includes academic and industrial partners. The goal of this study is the development of a comprehensive damage tolerance verification approach for launcher and reusable launch vehicles (RLV) structures, addressing analytical and numerical methodologies, material-, subcomponent- and component testing, as well as non-destructive inspection. The study includes a comprehensive review of current industrial damage tolerance practice resulting from ECSS and NASA standards, the development of new Best Practice Guidelines for analysis, test and inspection methods and the validation of these with a real industrial case study. The paper describes the main findings of this activity so far and presents a first iteration of a Damage Tolerance Verification Approach, which includes the introduction of novel analytical and numerical tools at an industrial level. This new approach is being put to the test using real industrial case studies provided by the industrial partners, MT Aerospace, RUAG Space and INVENT GmbH

  5. Acoustic tomography for decay detection in black cherry trees (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Shanqing Liang


    This study investigated the potential of using acoustic tomography for detecting internal decay in high-value hardwood trees in the forest. Twelve black cherry (Prunus serotina) trees that had a wide range of physical characteristics were tested in a stand of second-growth hardwoods in Kane, PA, using a PiCUS Sonic Tomograph tool. The trees were felled after the field...

  6. Acoustical design of the new Cathay Pacific first class lounge (United States)

    Hong, Westwood K. W.

    Cathay Pacific Airways' requirement of a first class lounge for attracting the high-yield passenger market to Hong Kong presented a special challenge for the Acoustical consultant. The 500-seating lounge covers more than 2000 square meters and is claimed by Cathay to be the biggest in Asia for its first class passengers. Arup acoustics was required to design a space that provided a quiet and relaxed environment for the Commercial Important Persons after a 16 to 17-hour flight. Arup Acoustics has designed the acoustics of the Lounge in meeting a stringent low noise specification requested by the user. The design work gave a comprehensive service both to support the lead consultant Ova Arup & Partners in controlling the external aircraft noise and internal noise and to assist the architect and interior designer in providing an excellent acoustical atmosphere for the passengers to rest while waiting for an onward connection. This paper will discuss the design of the lightweight roof and special double glazing system, featured by a 20-mm-thick laminated glass for the outer pane and a 600 to 1000-mm air gap to combat aircraft noise at the Hong Kong International Airport.

  7. Acoustic Mechanical Feedthroughs (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Walkemeyer, Phillip; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea


    Electromagnetic motors can have problems when operating in extreme environments. In addition, if one needs to do mechanical work outside a structure, electrical feedthroughs are required to transport the electric power to drive the motor. In this paper, we present designs for driving rotary and linear motors by pumping stress waves across a structure or barrier. We accomplish this by designing a piezoelectric actuator on one side of the structure and a resonance structure that is matched to the piezoelectric resonance of the actuator on the other side. Typically, piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds without the need for gears. One can also use other actuation materials such as electrostrictive, or magnetostrictive materials in a benign environment and transmit the power in acoustic form as a stress wave and actuate mechanisms that are external to the benign environment. This technology removes the need to perforate a structure and allows work to be done directly on the other side of a structure without the use of electrical feedthroughs, which can weaken the structure, pipe, or vessel. Acoustic energy is pumped as a stress wave at a set frequency or range of frequencies to produce rotary or linear motion in a structure. This method of transferring useful mechanical work across solid barriers by pumping acoustic energy through a resonant structure features the ability to transfer work (rotary or linear motion) across pressure or thermal barriers, or in a sterile environment, without generating contaminants. Reflectors in the wall of barriers can be designed to enhance the efficiency of the energy/power transmission. The method features the ability to produce a bi-directional driving mechanism using higher-mode resonances. There are a variety of applications where the presence of a motor is complicated by thermal or chemical environments that would be hostile to the motor components and reduce life and, in some instances, not be

  8. MRI of acoustic neurinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Niitsu, Mamoru; Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yumiko; Anno, Izumi; Kuramoto, Kenmei; Itai, Yuji


    Thirty six patients were studied with a 1.5 T superconductive magnetic resonance imager. Small neurinomas appeared as homogenous intensities, large neurinomas as heterogenous intensities in T 1 and T 2 weighted images. Dural tail representing reactive change of the meninges was seen in our three acoustic neurinomas. High resolution, thin slice, MR imaging was particularly useful for intracanalicular tumor to see the relationship between the tumor and facial nerve. Total or near-total removal of tumor was performed in thirteen cases, in which functional preservation of the cochlear nerve was achieved in only three cases. (author)

  9. Lecture Notes On Acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yang Han


    This book mentions string vibration and wave, one-dimension wave and wave equation, characteristic impedance, governing equation of string, and wave energy from string, wave equation of wave and basic physical quantity like one-dimension wave equation, sound unit, sound intensity and energy, sound movement in a surface of discontinuity with transmission loss of sound by partition, and Snell's law, radiation, scatter and diffraction and sound in closed space with Sabine's theory, sound characteristic of closed space and duct acoustics.

  10. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul


    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  11. Acoustic classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardi, Umberto; Rasmussen, Birgit


    insulation performance, national schemes for sound classification of dwellings have been developed in several European countries. These schemes define acoustic classes according to different levels of sound insulation. Due to the lack of coordination among countries, a significant diversity in terms...... exchanging experiences about constructions fulfilling different classes, reducing trade barriers, and finally increasing the sound insulation of dwellings.......Schemes for the classification of dwellings according to different building performances have been proposed in the last years worldwide. The general idea behind these schemes relates to the positive impact a higher label, and thus a better performance, should have. In particular, focusing on sound...

  12. Acoustic leak detection development in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, D.A.; Malovrh, J.W.; Magee, P.M.


    Acoustic monitoring systems that detect and locate a leak of water/steam from a defective tube in an LMFBR steam generator have been developed in the United States. A low frequency (approx. 10 KHz) system was developed by General Electric, and a high frequency (200 to 300 KHz) system by Rockwell International with support from Argonne National Laboratory. A comprehensive base technology program provided absolute signal amplitudes, background noise amplitudes, and signal source-to-detector transfer functions. Field tests of these systems demonstrated an ability to detect and locate simulated leaks under operating and quiescent conditions in an LMFBR steam generator. (author)

  13. International hearing protector standardization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben


    Hearing protectors shall fulfill some minimum requirements to their performance. As hearing protector manufacturers sell the products all over the world, the testing and certification of hearing protectors has become an international issue. The ISO working group WG17 under the headlines Acoustics...

  14. A numerical study on acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I Sun; Sohn, Chae Hoon


    Acoustic behavior in gas turbine combustor with acoustic resonator is investigated numerically by adopting linear acoustic analysis. Helmholtz-type resonator is employed as acoustic resonator to suppress acoustic instability passively. The tuning frequency of acoustic resonator is adjusted by varying its length. Through harmonic analysis, acoustic-pressure responses of chamber to acoustic excitation are obtained and the resonant acoustic modes are identified. Acoustic damping effect of acoustic resonator is quantified by damping factor. As the tuning frequency of acoustic resonator approaches the target frequency of the resonant mode to be suppressed, mode split from the original resonant mode to lower and upper modes appears and thereby complex patterns of acoustic responses show up. Considering mode split and damping effect as a function of tuning frequency, it is desirable to make acoustic resonator tuned to broad-band frequencies near the maximum frequency of those of the possible upper modes

  15. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Miller, Sharon K.; Porter, Ron; Schneider, Todd A.; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge of the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will help serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environments and spacecraft effects (SENSE) organization. This SENSE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Engineering effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system and system-level selection and the testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with the numerous programs within NASA, other federal

  16. Acoustic Levitation With One Driver (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Rudnick, I.; Elleman, D. D.; Stoneburner, J. D.


    Report discusses acoustic levitation in rectangular chamber using one driver mounted at corner. Placement of driver at corner enables it to couple effectively to acoustic modes along all three axes. Use of single driver reduces cost, complexity and weight of levitation system below those of three driver system.

  17. Acoustic Levitation With One Transducer (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.


    Higher resonator modes enables simplification of equipment. Experimental acoustic levitator for high-temperature containerless processing has round cylindrical levitation chamber and only one acoustic transducer. Stable levitation of solid particle or liquid drop achieved by exciting sound in chamber to higher-order resonant mode that makes potential well for levitated particle or drop at some point within chamber.

  18. Digital Controller For Acoustic Levitation (United States)

    Tarver, D. Kent


    Acoustic driver digitally controls sound fields along three axes. Allows computerized acoustic levitation and manipulation of small objects for such purposes as containerless processing and nuclear-fusion power experiments. Also used for controlling motion of vibration-testing tables in three dimensions.

  19. Acoustic engineering and technology '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Acoustic monitoring, testing and diagnosis in machines, production processes and products enhance the uptimes and profitability of machinery and plants. 18 papers discuss the current state of the art of acoustic monitoring systems including integrated factory planning as well as industrial health, and noise protection. (DG) [de

  20. Scattering Of Nonplanar Acoustic Waves (United States)

    Gillman, Judith M.; Farassat, F.; Myers, M. K.


    Report presents theoretical study of scattering of nonplanar acoustic waves by rigid bodies. Study performed as part of effort to develop means of predicting scattering, from aircraft fuselages, of noise made by rotating blades. Basic approach was to model acoustic scattering by use of boundary integral equation to solve equation by the Galerkin method.

  1. Acoustical Properties of Contemporary Mosques


    Karaman Özgül Yılmaz; Güzel Neslihan Onat


    Religious buildings are important for many communities because of their representation of different beliefs. In such structures, the sense of individuality or unity & togetherness are created according to variable worship activities; these different uses have also different acoustical requirements. In order to create the desired feeling in the space at the required time, rooms should be evaluated in terms of acoustical conditions.

  2. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staffeldt, Henrik


    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  3. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans


    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  4. Acoustic Emission Technology and Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Y. S.; Lim, S. H.; Eom, H. S.; Kim, J. H.; Jung, H. K.


    Acoustic emission is the elastic wave that is generated by the rapid release of energy from the localized sources within a material. After the observation of acoustic emission phenomenon in 1950, the research and further investigation had been performed. Acoustic emission examination becomes a rapidly matured nondestructive testing method with demonstrated capabilities for characterizing material behavior and for detecting the defect. It is of interest as a possible passive monitoring technique for detecting, locating and characterizing the defects in component and structure. Acoustic emission technology has recently strengthened the on-line monitoring application for the detection of incipient failures and the assurance of structural integrity. The field of acoustic emission testing is still growing vigorously and presents many challenges. Especially, acoustic emission has been successfully applied in the leak detection of primary pressure boundary of nuclear power plants. In this state-of-art report, the principle, measurement and field applications of acoustic emission technique is reviewed and summarized. Acoustic emission technology will contribute to the assurance of nuclear safety as the on-line monitoring technique of structural integrity of NSSS components and structures

  5. Quantification and localization of internal pipe damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, B.B.S.A.; Golombok, M.


    Internal pipeline defects are detectable and locatable from guided acoustic wave reflections using sensors mounted on the outer wall of a pipe. We demonstrate pipeline integrity monitoring with only two single acoustic sensors. Multi-mode dispersion imaging of shear displacement shows that the pure

  6. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.


    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  7. Acoustic emission linear pulse holography (United States)

    Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.


    This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.

  8. Foam/Aerogel Composite Materials for Thermal and Acoustic Insulation and Cryogen Storage (United States)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Fesmire, James E. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); Sass, Jared P. (Inventor)


    The invention involves composite materials containing a polymer foam and an aerogel. The composite materials have improved thermal insulation ability, good acoustic insulation, and excellent physical mechanical properties. The composite materials can be used, for instance, for heat and acoustic insulation on aircraft, spacecraft, and maritime ships in place of currently used foam panels and other foam products. The materials of the invention can also be used in building construction with their combination of light weight, strength, elasticity, ability to be formed into desired shapes, and superior thermal and acoustic insulation power. The materials have also been found to have utility for storage of cryogens. A cryogenic liquid or gas, such as N.sub.2 or H.sub.2, adsorbs to the surfaces in aerogel particles. Thus, another embodiment of the invention provides a storage vessel for a cryogen.

  9. Acoustics and Hearing

    CERN Document Server

    Damaske, Peter


    When one listens to music at home, one would like to have an acoustic impression close to that of being in the concert hall. Until recently this meant elaborate multi-channelled sound systems with 5 or more speakers. But head-related stereophony achieves the surround-sound effect in living rooms with only two loudspeakers. By virtue of their slight directivity as well as an electronic filter the limitations previously common to two-speaker systems can be overcome and this holds for any arbitrary two-channel recording. The book also investigates the question of how a wide and diffuse sound image can arise in concert halls and shows that the quality of concert halls decisively depends on diffuse sound images arising in the onset of reverberation. For this purpose a strong onset of reverberation is modified in an anechoic chamber by electroacoustic means. Acoustics and Hearing proposes ideas concerning signal processing in the auditory system that explain the measured results and the resultant sound effects plea...

  10. Omnidirectional ventilated acoustic barrier (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-long; Zhu, Yi-fan; Liang, Bin; Yang, Jing; Yang, Jun; Cheng, Jian-chun


    As an important problem in acoustics, sound insulation finds applications in a great variety of situations. In the existing schemes, however, there has always been a trade-off between the thinness of sound-insulating devices and their ventilating capabilities, limiting their potentials in the control of low-frequency sound in high ventilation environments. Here, we design and experimentally implement an omnidirectional acoustic barrier with a planar profile, subwavelength thickness ( 0.18 λ ), yet high ventilation. The proposed mechanism is based on the interference between the resonant scattering of discrete states and the background scattering of continuous states which induces a Fano-like asymmetric transmission profile. Benefitting from the binary-structured design of the coiled unit and hollow pipe, it maximally simplifies the design and fabrication while ensuring the ventilation for all the non-resonant units with open tubes. The simulated and measured results agree well, showing the effectiveness of our proposed mechanism to block low frequency sound coming from various directions while allowing 63% of the air flow to pass. We anticipate our design to open routes to design sound insulators and to enable applications in traditionally unattainable cases such as those calling for noise reduction and cooling simultaneously.

  11. [Acoustical parameters of toys]. (United States)

    Harazin, Barbara


    Toys play an important role in the development of the sight and hearing concentration in children. They also support the development of manipulation, gently influence a child and excite its emotional activities. A lot of toys emit various sounds. The aim of the study was to assess sound levels produced by sound-emitting toys used by young children. Acoustical parameters of noise were evaluated for 16 sound-emitting plastic toys in laboratory conditions. The noise level was recorded at four different distances, 10, 20, 25 and 30 cm, from the toy. Measurements of A-weighted sound pressure levels and noise levels in octave band in the frequency range from 31.5 Hz to 16 kHz were performed at each distance. Taking into consideration the highest equivalent A-weighted sound levels produced by tested toys, they can be divided into four groups: below 70 dB (6 toys), from 70 to 74 dB (4 toys), from 75 to 84 dB (3 toys) and from 85 to 94 dB (3 toys). The majority of toys (81%) emitted dominant sound levels in octave band at the frequency range from 2 kHz to 4 kHz. Sound-emitting toys produce the highest acoustic energy at the frequency range of the highest susceptibility of the auditory system. Noise levels produced by some toys can be dangerous to children's hearing.

  12. Review of Progress in Acoustic Levitation (United States)

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.


    Acoustic levitation uses acoustic radiation forces to counteract gravity and suspend objects in mid-air. Although acoustic levitation was first demonstrated almost a century ago, for a long time, it was limited to objects much smaller than the acoustic wavelength levitating at fixed positions in space. Recent advances in acoustic levitation now allow not only suspending but also rotating and translating objects in three dimensions. Acoustic levitation is also no longer restricted to small objects and can now be employed to levitate objects larger than the acoustic wavelength. This article reviews the progress of acoustic levitation, focusing on the working mechanism of different types of acoustic levitation devices developed to date. We start with a brief review of the theory. Then, we review the acoustic levitation methods to suspend objects at fixed positions, followed by the techniques that allow the manipulation of objects. Finally, we present a brief summary and offer some future perspectives for acoustic levitation.

  13. Contemporary state of spacecraft/environment interaction research

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, L S


    Various space environment effects on spacecraft materials and equipment, and the reverse effects of spacecrafts and rockets on space environment are considered. The necessity of permanent updating and perfection of our knowledge on spacecraft/environment interaction processes is noted. Requirements imposed on models of space environment in theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the spacecraft/environment interaction problem are formulated. In this field, main problems which need to be solved today and in the nearest future are specified. The conclusion is made that the joint analysis of both aspects of spacecraft/environment interaction problem promotes the most effective solution of the problem.

  14. Spacecraft Charging: Hazard Causes, Hazard Effects, Hazard Controls (United States)

    Koontz, Steve.


    Spacecraft flight environments are characterized both by a wide range of space plasma conditions and by ionizing radiation (IR), solar ultraviolet and X-rays, magnetic fields, micrometeoroids, orbital debris, and other environmental factors, all of which can affect spacecraft performance. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of spacecraft charging and charging effects that can be applied to solving practical spacecraft and spacesuit engineering design, verification, and operations problems, with an emphasis on spacecraft operations in low-Earth orbit, Earth's magnetosphere, and cis-Lunar space.

  15. Structural Dynamic Analyses And Test Predictions For Spacecraft Structures With Non-Linearities (United States)

    Vergniaud, Jean-Baptiste; Soula, Laurent; Newerla, Alfred


    The overall objective of the mechanical development and verification process is to ensure that the spacecraft structure is able to sustain the mechanical environments encountered during launch. In general the spacecraft structures are a-priori assumed to behave linear, i.e. the responses to a static load or dynamic excitation, respectively, will increase or decrease proportionally to the amplitude of the load or excitation induced. However, past experiences have shown that various non-linearities might exist in spacecraft structures and the consequences of their dynamic effects can significantly affect the development and verification process. Current processes are mainly adapted to linear spacecraft structure behaviour. No clear rules exist for dealing with major structure non-linearities. They are handled outside the process by individual analysis and margin policy, and analyses after tests to justify the CLA coverage. Non-linearities can primarily affect the current spacecraft development and verification process on two aspects. Prediction of flights loads by launcher/satellite coupled loads analyses (CLA): only linear satellite models are delivered for performing CLA and no well-established rules exist how to properly linearize a model when non- linearities are present. The potential impact of the linearization on the results of the CLA has not yet been properly analyzed. There are thus difficulties to assess that CLA results will cover actual flight levels. Management of satellite verification tests: the CLA results generated with a linear satellite FEM are assumed flight representative. If the internal non- linearities are present in the tested satellite then there might be difficulties to determine which input level must be passed to cover satellite internal loads. The non-linear behaviour can also disturb the shaker control, putting the satellite at risk by potentially imposing too high levels. This paper presents the results of a test campaign performed in

  16. Acoustic design of open plan schools and comparison of requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Petersen, Claus; Rasmussen, Birgit


    between groups and satisfac¬tory speech intelligibility internally in groups. This paper describes the newest Danish requirements and recommendations for such open plan areas and presents the design, measurements and subjective evaluation of two newer Danish schools. According to the users, the general...... conditions at both schools are satisfactory due to both optimized acoustical conditions and teaching methods adapted to the special open environment. The results from room acoustical modelling, verification measurements and questionnaire survey are presented and evaluated in relation to the newest Danish...

  17. Horizontal cloaking and vertical reflection by transformation acoustics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyung Lee


    Full Text Available This investigation shows that if an acoustic metamaterial bounded by an external rectangle and an internal circular cavity is properly engineered by a set of transformation equations that satisfy certain requirements, it can virtually cloak an object against incoming acoustic waves in one direction and make an incoming wave along the orthogonal direction reflected by an object located inside its inner cavity. The specific transformation equations realizing the metamaterial are suggested and an analysis is carried out to investigate the wave phenomena taking place along the cavity boundary.

  18. SHARP - Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. G.


    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  19. SHARP: Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status (United States)

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. Gaius


    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  20. Research-Based Monitoring, Prediction, and Analysis Tools of the Spacecraft Charging Environment for Spacecraft Users (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti A.; Maddox, Marlo M.; Mays, Mona Leila


    The Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc. at NASA Goddard, part of the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (, is committed to providing research-based forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs, in addition to its critical role in space weather education. It provides a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, and weekly summaries and reports. In this paper, we focus on how (near) real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the integrated Space Weather Analysis system (, enable monitoring, analyzing, and predicting the spacecraft charging environment for spacecraft users. Relevant tools and resources are discussed.

  1. Simulation of sound transmission through the porous material, determining the parameters of acoustic absorption and sound reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvolenský Peter


    Full Text Available Currently, the quality of structural design of a railway coach is evaluated by so called acoustic comfort, which is characterized by achieved levels of internal noise. Therefore, acoustic parameters of car body are being developed purposely. The paper presents the results of the computer simulation of noise transmission through the wagon walls and the use of noise tests from the train running. The acoustic properties of the original and new materials in the care body are compared.

  2. Cluster PEACE observations of electrons of spacecraft origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Szita


    Full Text Available The two PEACE (Plasma Electron And Current Experiment sensors on board each Cluster spacecraft sample the electron velocity distribution across the full 4 solid angle and the energy range 0.7 eV to 26 keV with a time resolution of 4 s. We present high energy and angular resolution 3D observations of electrons of spacecraft origin in the various environments encountered by the Cluster constellation, including a lunar eclipse interval where the spacecraft potential was reduced but remained positive, and periods of ASPOC (Active Spacecraft POtential Control operation which reduced the spacecraft potential. We demonstrate how the spacecraft potential may be found from a gradient change in the PEACE low energy spectrum, and show how the observed spacecraft electrons are confined by the spacecraft potential. We identify an intense component of the spacecraft electrons with energies equivalent to the spacecraft potential, the arrival direction of which is seen to change when ASPOC is switched on. Another spacecraft electron component, observed in the sunward direction, is reduced in the eclipse but unaffected by ASPOC, and we believe this component is produced in the analyser by solar UV. We find that PEACE anodes with a look direction along the spacecraft surfaces are more susceptible to spacecraft electron contamination than those which look perpendicular to the surface, which justifies the decision to mount PEACE with its field-of-view radially outward rather than tangentially.Key words. Magnetosheric physics (general or miscellaneous Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging

  3. Electromagnetic Dissociation and Spacecraft Electronics Damage (United States)

    Norbury, John W.


    When protons or heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) or solar particle events (SPE) interact with target nuclei in spacecraft, there can be two different types of interactions. The more familiar strong nuclear interaction often dominates and is responsible for nuclear fragmentation in either the GCR or SPE projectile nucleus or the spacecraft target nucleus. (Of course, the proton does not break up, except possibly to produce pions or other hadrons.) The less familiar, second type of interaction is due to the very strong electromagnetic fields that exist when two charged nuclei pass very close to each other. This process is called electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) and primarily results in the emission of neutrons, protons and light ions (isotopes of hydrogen and helium). The cross section for particle production is approximately defined as the number of particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions or other types of reactions. (There are various kinematic and other factors which multiply the particle number to arrive at the cross section.) Strong, nuclear interactions usually dominate the nuclear reactions of most interest that occur between GCR and target nuclei. However, for heavy nuclei (near Fe and beyond) at high energy the EMD cross section can be much larger than the strong nuclear interaction cross section. This paper poses a question: Are there projectile or target nuclei combinations in the interaction of GCR or SPE where the EMD reaction cross section plays a dominant role? If the answer is affirmative, then EMD mechanisms should be an integral part of codes that are used to predict damage to spacecraft electronics. The question can become more fine-tuned and one can ask about total reaction cross sections as compared to double differential cross sections. These issues will be addressed in the present paper.

  4. Spacecraft fabrication and test MODIL. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.T.


    This report covers the period from October 1992 through the close of the project. FY 92 closed out with the successful briefing to industry and with many potential and important initiatives in the spacecraft arena. Due to the funding uncertainties, we were directed to proceed as if our funding would be approximately the same as FY 92 ($2M), but not to make any major new commitments. However, the MODIL`s FY 93 funding was reduced to $810K and we were directed to concentrate on the cryocooler area. The cryocooler effort completed its demonstration project. The final meetings with the cryocooler fabricators were very encouraging as we witnessed the enthusiastic reception of technology to help them reduce fabrication uncertainties. Support of the USAF Phillips Laboratory cryocooler program was continued including kick-off meetings for the Prototype Spacecraft Cryocooler (PSC). Under Phillips Laboratory support, Gill Cruz visited British Aerospace and Lucas Aerospace in the United Kingdom to assess their manufacturing capabilities. In the Automated Spacecraft & Assembly Project (ASAP), contracts were pursued for the analysis by four Brilliant Eyes prime contractors to provide a proprietary snap shot of their current status of Integrated Product Development. In the materials and structure thrust the final analysis was completed of the samples made under the contract (``Partial Automation of Matched Metal Net Shape Molding of Continuous Fiber Composites``) to SPARTA. The Precision Technologies thrust funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to prepare a plan to develop a Computer Aided Alignment capability to significantly reduce the time for alignment and even possibly provide real time and remote alignment capability of systems in flight.

  5. Spacecraft computer technology at Southwest Research Institute (United States)

    Shirley, D. J.


    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed and delivered spacecraft computers for a number of different near-Earth-orbit spacecraft including shuttle experiments and SDIO free-flyer experiments. We describe the evolution of the basic SwRI spacecraft computer design from those weighing in at 20 to 25 lb and using 20 to 30 W to newer models weighing less than 5 lb and using only about 5 W, yet delivering twice the processing throughput. Because of their reduced size, weight, and power, these newer designs are especially applicable to planetary instrument requirements. The basis of our design evolution has been the availability of more powerful processor chip sets and the development of higher density packaging technology, coupled with more aggressive design strategies in incorporating high-density FPGA technology and use of high-density memory chips. In addition to reductions in size, weight, and power, the newer designs also address the necessity of survival in the harsh radiation environment of space. Spurred by participation in such programs as MSTI, LACE, RME, Delta 181, Delta Star, and RADARSAT, our designs have evolved in response to program demands to be small, low-powered units, radiation tolerant enough to be suitable for both Earth-orbit microsats and for planetary instruments. Present designs already include MIL-STD-1750 and Multi-Chip Module (MCM) technology with near-term plans to include RISC processors and higher-density MCM's. Long term plans include development of whole-core processors on one or two MCM's.

  6. Effects of Spacecraft Landings on the Moon (United States)

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.


    The rocket exhaust of spacecraft landing on the Moon causes a number of observable effects that need to be quantified, including: disturbance of the regolith and volatiles at the landing site; damage to surrounding hardware such as the historic Apollo sites through the impingement of high-velocity ejecta; and levitation of dust after engine cutoff through as-yet unconfirmed mechanisms. While often harmful, these effects also beneficially provide insight into lunar geology and physics. Some of the research results from the past 10 years is summarized and reviewed here.

  7. Fault Detection and Isolation for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for actuators, given there is no measurement of the states in the actuators. The Fault Detection and Isolation of the actuators is instead based on angular velocity measurement of the spacecraft and knowledge about the dynamics...... of the satellite. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach to achieve nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation. The proposed algorithms are tested in a simulation study and the pros and cons of the algorithms are discussed....

  8. Aircraft, ships, spacecraft, nuclear plants and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, M.G.


    A few quality assurance programs outside the purview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were studied to identify features or practices which the NRC could use to enhance its program for assuring quality in the design and construction of nuclear power plants. The programs selected were: the manufacture of large commercial transport aircraft, regulated by the Federal Aviation Administration; US Navy shipbuilding; commercial shipbuilding regulated by the Maritime Administration and the US Coast Guard; Government-owned nuclear plants under the Department of Energy; spacecraft under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and the construction of nuclear power plants in Canada, West Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom

  9. SSS-A spacecraft and experiment description. (United States)

    Longanecker, G. W.; Hoffman, R. A.


    The scientific objectives of the Explorer-45 mission are discussed. The primary objective is the study of the ring current responsible for the main phase of magnetic storms. Closely associated with this objective is the determination of the relationship between magnetic storms, substorms, and the acceleration of charged particles in the magnetosphere. Further objectives are the measurement of a wide range of proton, electron and alpha-particle energies, and studies of wave-particle interactions responsible for particle transport and loss in the inner magnetosphere. The orbital parameters, the spacecraft itself, and some of its unique features, such as the data handling system, which is programmable from the ground, are described.

  10. Relaxation time of acoustically disturbed plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkrtchyan, K.S.; Abrahamyan, A.S.


    The conservation time of an acoustic structure in plasma after relieving of external acoustic influence is investigated. Dependences of the conservation time on discharge parameters are presented. It is asserted that the plasma becomes an anisotropic uniaxial medium with an acoustic superlattice under the acoustic influence

  11. Itzhack Y. Bar-Itzhack Memorial Symposium on Estimation, Navigation, and Spacecraft Control

    CERN Document Server

    Oshman, Yaakov; Thienel, Julie; Idan, Moshe


    This book presents selected papers of the Itzhack Y. Bar-Itzhack Memorial Sympo- sium on Estimation, Navigation, and Spacecraft Control. Itzhack Y. Bar-Itzhack, professor Emeritus of Aerospace Engineering at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, was a prominent and world-renowned member of the applied estimation, navigation, and spacecraft attitude determination communities. He touched the lives of many. He had a love for life, an incredible sense of humor, and wisdom that he shared freely with everyone he met. To honor Professor Bar-Itzhack's memory, as well as his numerous seminal professional achievements, an international symposium was held in Haifa, Israel, on October 14–17, 2012, under the auspices of the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering at the Technion and the Israeli Association for Automatic Control. The book contains 27 selected, revised, and edited contributed chapters written by eminent international experts. The book is organized in three parts: (1) Estimation, (2) Navigation and (3)...

  12. MR of acoustic neuromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kadoya, Masumi; Takahashi, Shiroh; Miyayama, Shiroh; Taira, Sakae; Kashihara, Kengo; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Itoh, Haruhide


    In this report, the relationship of acoustic neuromas to the adjacent cranial nerves is discussed. On T 1 -weighted images, the trigeminal nerve was detected in all 13 cases. Mild to marked compression of these nerves by the tumors was observed in eight cases. The extent of compression did not always correspond to the clinical symptoms. In four cases with a maximum tumor diameter of 2 cm or less, the 7th and 8th cranial nerves were identified. There was no facial palsy in these patients. Two patients with a tumor diameter of more than 2 cm also had no facial palsy. All patients, including those with small tumors, complained of hearing loss and/or tinnitus. While MR imaging has some limitations, it is an effective imaging modality for showing the relationship between tumors and nerves. (author)

  13. The electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churches, D.K.


    The research work explores the Electromagnetic and Acoustic Properties of Smoke Particulates from real fires, and the initial development of an alternative method of smoke detection based on the study work. The research was entirely self-funded including the purchase of the experimental apparatus, test equipment and calibration to international standards. The study includes the properties of solid and liquid post combustion particulates in air suspension forming smoke plumes, and the associated fluid flow dynamics. As part of the study the electromagnetic and acoustic properties of smoke particulates, a somewhat unique detection method described as the ''Double Matrix Board System'' was developed and used. It was initially developed to assist in the electromagnetic study work, and was later modified to examine the acoustic properties. The published results of the research on the ''Double Matrix Board System'' and the details of the patent application for the device are included in the Appendices to the Thesis document. (author)

  14. Acoustic fluidization and the scale dependence of impact crater morphology (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.; Gaffney, E. S.


    A phenomenological Bingham plastic model has previously been shown to provide an adequate description of the collapse of impact craters. This paper demonstrates that the Bingham parameters may be derived from a model in which acoustic energy generated during excavation fluidizes the rock debris surrounding the crater. Experimental support for the theoretical flow law is presented. Although the Bingham yield stress cannot be computed without detailed knowledge of the initial acoustic field, the Bingham viscosity is derived from a simple argument which shows that it increases as the 3/2 power of crater diameter, consistent with observation. Crater collapse may occur in material with internal dissipation Q as low as 100, comparable to laboratory observations of dissipation in granular materials. Crater collapse thus does not require that the acoustic field be regenerated during flow.

  15. New schools design: Acoustics as main target (United States)

    Maffei, Luigi; Lembo, Paola


    The effects of poor intelligibility and high background noise levels on the cognitive development of school children and on the dissatisfaction of teachers has been largely investigated. National standards have been implemented and attempts to harmonize these standards in international guidelines are ongoing. All these activities have led to the awareness that design of new schools must be centered on the achievement of a good acoustic environment. At this point a strong research effort to study and implement best solutions must be conducted, in collaboration, by architects, acousticians, pedagogues, psychologists, builders and acoustic materials producers. Recently an international competition for the planning of new primary schools in Rome, Italy has been announced. The aim of the competition is to study new architectural and running features of primary schools to obtain, among other parameters such as lighting, low cost energy solutions and air quality, the control of reverberation time, sound insulation and mechanical equipments noise. In these school buildings, as innovative requirement, children must be also able to elaborate interpretative hypothesis of physical phenomena such as sound emission and perception and be aware of their influence on these phenomena. Different possible solutions are presented.

  16. Acoustics of friction (United States)

    Akay, Adnan


    This article presents an overview of the acoustics of friction by covering friction sounds, friction-induced vibrations and waves in solids, and descriptions of other frictional phenomena related to acoustics. Friction, resulting from the sliding contact of solids, often gives rise to diverse forms of waves and oscillations within solids which frequently lead to radiation of sound to the surrounding media. Among the many everyday examples of friction sounds, violin music and brake noise in automobiles represent the two extremes in terms of the sounds they produce and the mechanisms by which they are generated. Of the multiple examples of friction sounds in nature, insect sounds are prominent. Friction also provides a means by which energy dissipation takes place at the interface of solids. Friction damping that develops between surfaces, such as joints and connections, in some cases requires only microscopic motion to dissipate energy. Modeling of friction-induced vibrations and friction damping in mechanical systems requires an accurate description of friction for which only approximations exist. While many of the components that contribute to friction can be modeled, computational requirements become prohibitive for their contemporaneous calculation. Furthermore, quantification of friction at the atomic scale still remains elusive. At the atomic scale, friction becomes a mechanism that converts the kinetic energy associated with the relative motion of surfaces to thermal energy. However, the description of the conversion to thermal energy represented by a disordered state of oscillations of atoms in a solid is still not well understood. At the macroscopic level, friction interacts with the vibrations and waves that it causes. Such interaction sets up a feedback between the friction force and waves at the surfaces, thereby making friction and surface motion interdependent. Such interdependence forms the basis for friction-induced motion as in the case of

  17. Anti-sound and Acoustical Cloaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veturia CHIROIU


    Full Text Available The principles by which the acoustics can be mimicked in order to reduce or cancel the vibrational field are based on anti-sound concept which can be materialized by acoustic cloaks. Geometric transformations open an elegant way towards the unconstrained control of sound through acoustic metamaterials. Acoustic cloaks can be achieved through geometric transformations which bring exotic metamaterial properties into the acoustic equations. Our paper brings new ideas concerning the technological keys for manufacturing of novel metamaterials based on the spatial compression of Cantor structures, and the architecture of 3D acoustic cloaks in a given frequency band, with application to architectural acoustics.

  18. Perspective: Acoustic metamaterials in transition

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying


    Acoustic metamaterials derive their novel characteristics from the interaction between acoustic waves with designed structures. Since its inception seventeen years ago, the field has been driven by fundamental geometric and physical principles that guide the structure design rules as well as provide the basis for wave functionalities. Recent examples include resonance-based acoustic metasurfaces that offer flexible control of acoustic wave propagation such as focusing and re-direction; parity-time (PT)-symmetric acoustics that utilizes the general concept of pairing loss and gain to achieve perfect absorption at a single frequency; and topological phononics that can provide one-way edge state propagation. However, such novel functionalities are not without constraints. Metasurface elements rely on resonances to enhance their coupling to the incident wave; hence, its functionality is limited to a narrow frequency band. Topological phononics is the result of the special lattice symmetry that must be fixed at the fabrication stage. Overcoming such constraints naturally forms the basis for further developments. We identify two emergent directions: Integration of acoustic metamaterial elements for achieving broadband characteristics as well as acoustic wave manipulation tasks more complex than the single demonstrative functionality; and active acoustic metamaterials that can adapt to environment as well as to go beyond the constraints on the passive acoustic metamaterials. Examples of a successful recent integration of multi-resonators in achieving broadband sound absorption can be found in optimal sound-absorbing structures, which utilize causality constraint as a design tool in realizing the target-set absorption spectrum with a minimal sample thickness. Active acoustic metamaterials have also demonstrated the capability to tune bandgaps as well as to alter property of resonances in real time through stiffening of the spring constants, in addition to the PT symmetric

  19. Industrial installation surveillance acoustic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Jean; Audenard, Bernard.


    The purpose of this invention is the detection of possible impacts of bodies migrating inside the installation, using acoustic sensors of the waves emitted at the time of impact of the migrating bodies. This device makes it possible to take into account only those acoustic signals relating to the impacts of bodies migrating in the area under surveillance, to the exclusion of any other acoustic or electric perturbing phenomenon. The invention has a preferential use in the case of a linear shape installation in which a fluid flows at high rate, such as a section of the primary system of a pressurized water nuclear reactor [fr

  20. Flat acoustic lens by acoustic grating with curled slits

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai; Xiao, Bingmu; Wu, Ying


    and well predicted by the theory. We demonstrate that despite the large impedance mismatch between the acoustic lens and the matrix, the intensity at the focal point is still high due to Fabry-Perot resonance.

  1. Focusing of Acoustic Waves through Acoustic Materials with Subwavelength Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Bingmu


    -domain (FDTD) method for the two-dimensional acoustic wave equation. The theory provides the effective impedance and refractive index functions for the equivalent medium, which can reproduce the transmission and reflection spectral responses of the original

  2. Benefits of a Single-Person Spacecraft for Weightless Operations (United States)

    Griffin, Brand Norman


    Historically, less than 20 percent of crew time related to extravehicular activity (EVA) is spent on productive external work. For planetary operations space suits are still the logical choice; however for safe and rapid access to the weightless environment, spacecraft offer compelling advantages. FlexCraft, a concept for a single-person spacecraft, enables any-time access to space for short or long excursions by different astronauts. For the International Space Station (ISS), going outside is time-consuming, requiring pre-breathing, donning a fitted space suit, and pumping down an airlock. For each ISS EVA this is between 12.5 and 16 hours. FlexCraft provides immediate access to space because it operates with the same cabin atmosphere as its host. Furthermore, compared to the space suit pure oxygen environment, a mixed gas atmosphere lowers the fire risk and allows use of conventional materials and systems. For getting to the worksite, integral propulsion replaces hand-over-hand translation or having another crew member operate the robotic arm. This means less physical exertion and more time at the work site. Possibly more important, in case of an emergency, FlexCraft can return from the most distant point on ISS in less than a minute. The one-size-fits-all FlexCraft means no on-orbit inventory of parts or crew time required to fit all astronauts. With a shirtsleeve cockpit, conventional displays and controls are used, there is no suit trauma and because the work is not strenuous, no rest days are required. Furthermore, there is no need to collect hand tools because manipulators are equipped with force multiplying end-effectors that can deliver the precise torque for the job. FlexCraft is an efficient solution for asteroid exploration allowing all crew to use one vehicle with no risk of contamination. And, because FlexCraft is a vehicle, its design offers better radiation and micro-meteoroid protection than space suits.

  3. Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology (SMART) Platform (United States)

    Esper, Jaime; Flatley, Thomas P.; Bull, James B.; Buckley, Steven J.


    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Department of Defense Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office are exercising a multi-year collaborative agreement focused on a redefinition of the way space missions are designed and implemented. A much faster, leaner and effective approach to space flight requires the concerted effort of a multi-agency team tasked with developing the building blocks, both programmatically and technologically, to ultimately achieve flights within 7-days from mission call-up. For NASA, rapid mission implementations represent an opportunity to find creative ways for reducing mission life-cycle times with the resulting savings in cost. This in tum enables a class of missions catering to a broader audience of science participants, from universities to private and national laboratory researchers. To that end, the SMART (Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology) micro-spacecraft prototype demonstrates an advanced avionics system with integrated GPS capability, high-speed plug-and-playable interfaces, legacy interfaces, inertial navigation, a modular reconfigurable structure, tunable thermal technology, and a number of instruments for environmental and optical sensing. Although SMART was first launched inside a sounding rocket, it is designed as a free-flyer.

  4. Time delay interferometry with moving spacecraft arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.


    Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel-times will necessarily be unequal, time varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up and down links. The reduction of data from moving interferometric laser arrays in solar orbit will in fact encounter nonsymmetric up- and down-link light time differences that are about 100 times larger than has previously been recognized. The time-delay interferometry (TDI) technique uses knowledge of these delays to cancel the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and yields a variety of data combinations sensitive to gravitational waves. Under the assumption that the (different) up- and down-link time delays are constant, we derive the TDI expressions for those combinations that rely only on four interspacecraft phase measurements. We then turn to the general problem that encompasses time dependence of the light-travel times along the laser links. By introducing a set of noncommuting time-delay operators, we show that there exists a quite general procedure for deriving generalized TDI combinations that account for the effects of time dependence of the arms. By applying our approach we are able to re-derive the 'flex-free' expression for the unequal-arm Michelson combinations X 1 , and obtain the generalized expressions for the TDI combinations called relay, beacon, monitor, and symmetric Sagnac

  5. Relativistic effects of spacecraft with circumnavigating observer (United States)

    Shanklin, Nathaniel; West, Joseph

    A variation of the recently introduced Trolley Paradox, itself is a variation of the Ehrenfest Paradox is presented. In the Trolley Paradox, a ``stationary'' set of observers tracking a wheel rolling with a constant velocity find that the wheel travels further than its rest length circumference during one revolution of the wheel, despite the fact that the Lorentz contracted circumference is less than its rest value. In the variation presented, a rectangular spacecraft with onboard observers moves with constant velocity and is circumnavigated by several small ``sloops'' forming teams of inertial observers. This whole precession moves relative to a set of ``stationary'' Earth observers. Two cases are presented, one in which the sloops are evenly spaced according to the spacecraft observers, and one in which the sloops are evenly spaced according to the Earth observes. These two cases, combined with the rectangular geometry and an emphasis on what is seen by, and what is measured by, each set of observers is very helpful in sorting out the apparent contradictions. To aid in the visualizations stationary representations in excel along with animation in Visual Python and Unity are presented. The analysis presented is suitable for undergraduate physics majors.

  6. Spacecraft Dynamic Characterization by Strain Energies Method (United States)

    Bretagne, J.-M.; Fragnito, M.; Massier, S.


    In the last years the significant increase in satellite broadcasting demand, with the wide band communication dawn, has given a great impulse to the telecommunication satellite market. The big demand is translated from operators (such as SES/Astra, Eutelsat, Intelsat, Inmarsat, EuroSkyWay etc.) in an increase of orders of telecom satellite to the world industrials. The largest part of these telecom satellite orders consists of Geostationary platforms which grow more and more in mass (over 5 tons) due to an ever longer demanded lifetime (up to 20 years), and become more complex due to the need of implementing an ever larger number of repeaters, antenna reflectors and feeds, etc... In this frame, the mechanical design and verification of these large spacecraft become difficult and ambitious at the same time, driven by the dry mass limitation objective. By the Finite Element Method (FEM), and on the basis of the telecom satellite heritage of a world leader constructor such as Alcatel Space Industries it is nowadays possible to model these spacecraft in a realistic and confident way in order to identify the main global dynamic aspects such as mode shapes, mass participation and/or dynamic responses. But on the other hand, one of the main aims consists in identifying soon in a program the most critical aspects of the system behavior in the launch dynamic environment, such as possible dynamic coupling between the different subsystems and secondary structures of the spacecraft (large deployable reflectors, thrusters, etc.). To this aim a numerical method has been developed in the frame of the Alcatel SPACEBUS family program, using MSC/Nastran capabilities and it is presented in this paper. The method is based on Spacecraft sub-structuring and strain energy calculation. The method mainly consists of two steps : 1) subsystem modal strain energy ratio (with respect to the global strain energy); 2) subsystem strain energy calculation for each mode according to the base driven

  7. Classroom acoustics in public schools: A case study (United States)

    Loro, Carmen P.; Zannin, Paulo T.


    The acoustic quality of a standard classroom (Standard 23) of the public school system in the city of Curitiba has been evaluated. This standard has a central circulation aisle with two classrooms in each side. Each room has windows to the outside and to the internal aisle. Additionally, the aisle has a 6-m-high zenithal skylight, together composing the building's main lighting and ventilation system. But, Standard 23 lacks acoustic quality of the classrooms. In order to assay this, measurements have been performed under several conditions, using the Building Acoustics System of Bruel & Kjaer. The measured reverberation time (RT) of the four classrooms for a frequency of 500 Hz was: 1.65 s (empty classroom), 1.15 s (20 students in the room), and 0.76 s (40 students). According to WHO recommendations, the ideal RT in classrooms should be around 0.6 s. DIN 18041 establishes an RT between 0.8 and 1.0 s, to allow for adequate intelligibility. Background noise in an empty room was 63.3 dB (A), above the limit established by the Brazilian standard of acoustic comfort: 40 dB (A). The reaction of students and teachers has indicated that the main source of acoustic discomfort is the noise generated by the neighboring classrooms.

  8. Modeling the SAR Signature of Nonlinear Internal Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lettvin, Ellen E


    Nonlinear Internal Waves are pervasive globally, particularly in coastal waters. The currents and displacements associated with internal waves influence acoustic propagation and underwater navigation, as well as ocean transport and mixing...

  9. Effects of subsampling of passive acoustic recordings on acoustic metrics. (United States)

    Thomisch, Karolin; Boebel, Olaf; Zitterbart, Daniel P; Samaran, Flore; Van Parijs, Sofie; Van Opzeeland, Ilse


    Passive acoustic monitoring is an important tool in marine mammal studies. However, logistics and finances frequently constrain the number and servicing schedules of acoustic recorders, requiring a trade-off between deployment periods and sampling continuity, i.e., the implementation of a subsampling scheme. Optimizing such schemes to each project's specific research questions is desirable. This study investigates the impact of subsampling on the accuracy of two common metrics, acoustic presence and call rate, for different vocalization patterns (regimes) of baleen whales: (1) variable vocal activity, (2) vocalizations organized in song bouts, and (3) vocal activity with diel patterns. To this end, above metrics are compared for continuous and subsampled data subject to different sampling strategies, covering duty cycles between 50% and 2%. The results show that a reduction of the duty cycle impacts negatively on the accuracy of both acoustic presence and call rate estimates. For a given duty cycle, frequent short listening periods improve accuracy of daily acoustic presence estimates over few long listening periods. Overall, subsampling effects are most pronounced for low and/or temporally clustered vocal activity. These findings illustrate the importance of informed decisions when applying subsampling strategies to passive acoustic recordings or analyses for a given target species.

  10. An Experimental Introduction to Acoustics (United States)

    Black, Andy Nicholas; Magruder, Robert H.


    Learning and understanding physics requires more than studying physics texts. It requires doing physics. Doing research is a key opportunity for students to connect physical principles with their everyday experience. A powerful way to introduce students to research and technique is through subjects in which they might find interest. Presented is an experiment that serves to introduce an advanced undergraduate or high school student to conducting research in acoustics via an experiment involving a standard dreadnought acoustic guitar, recording industry-related equipment, and relevant industrial analysis software. This experimental process is applicable to a wide range of acoustical topics including both acoustic and electric instruments. Also, the student has a hands-on experience with relevant audio engineering technology to study physical principles.

  11. Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The very large Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility (RATF) at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Plum Brook Station, is currently under construction and is due to...

  12. Physical acoustics principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P


    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume IV, Part B: Applications to Quantum and Solid State Physics provides an introduction to the various applications of quantum mechanics to acoustics by describing several processes for which such considerations are essential. This book discusses the transmission of sound waves in molten metals. Comprised of seven chapters, this volume starts with an overview of the interactions that can happen between electrons and acoustic waves when magnetic fields are present. This text then describes acoustic and plasma waves in ionized gases wherein oscillations are subject to hydrodynamic as well as electromagnetic forces. Other chapters examine the resonances and relaxations that can take place in polymer systems. This book discusses as well the general theory of the interaction of a weak sinusoidal field with matter. The final chapter describes the sound velocities in the rocks composing the Earth. This book is a valuable resource for physicists and engineers.

  13. Acoustic holograms of active regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Dean-Yi


    We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.

  14. Acoustic holograms of active regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Dean-Yi [Physics Department, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail:


    We propose a method to study solar magnetic regions in the solar interior with the principle of optical holography. A magnetic region in the solar interior scatters the solar background acoustic waves. The scattered waves and background waves could form an interference pattern on the solar surface. We investigate the feasibility of detecting this interference pattern on the solar surface, and using it to construct the three-dimensional scattered wave from the magnetic region with the principle of optical holography. In solar acoustic holography, the background acoustic waves play the role of reference wave; the magnetic region plays the role of the target object; the interference pattern, acoustic power map, on the solar surface plays the role of the hologram.

  15. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T


    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  16. Acoustic agglomeration methods and apparatus (United States)

    Barmatz, M. B. (Inventor)


    Methods are described for using acoustic energy to agglomerate fine particles on the order of one micron diameter that are suspended in gas, to provide agglomerates large enough for efficient removal by other techniques. The gas with suspended particles, is passed through the length of a chamber while acoustic energy at a resonant chamber mode is applied to set up one or more acoustic standing wave patterns that vibrate the suspended particles to bring them together so they agglomerate. Several widely different frequencies can be applied to efficiently vibrate particles of widely differing sizes. The standing wave pattern can be applied along directions transversed to the flow of the gas. The particles can be made to move in circles by applying acoustic energy in perpendicular directions with the energy in both directions being of the same wavelength but 90 deg out of phase.

  17. A programmable nonlinear acoustic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianzhi Yang


    Full Text Available Acoustic metamaterials with specifically designed lattices can manipulate acoustic/elastic waves in unprecedented ways. Whereas there are many studies that focus on passive linear lattice, with non-reconfigurable structures. In this letter, we present the design, theory and experimental demonstration of an active nonlinear acoustic metamaterial, the dynamic properties of which can be modified instantaneously with reversibility. By incorporating active and nonlinear elements in a single unit cell, a real-time tunability and switchability of the band gap is achieved. In addition, we demonstrate a dynamic “editing” capability for shaping transmission spectra, which can be used to create the desired band gap and resonance. This feature is impossible to achieve in passive metamaterials. These advantages demonstrate the versatility of the proposed device, paving the way toward smart acoustic devices, such as logic elements, diode and transistor.

  18. Spacecraft Dynamics Should be Considered in Kalman Filter Attitude Estimation (United States)

    Yang, Yaguang; Zhou, Zhiqiang


    Kalman filter based spacecraft attitude estimation has been used in some high-profile missions and has been widely discussed in literature. While some models in spacecraft attitude estimation include spacecraft dynamics, most do not. To our best knowledge, there is no comparison on which model is a better choice. In this paper, we discuss the reasons why spacecraft dynamics should be considered in the Kalman filter based spacecraft attitude estimation problem. We also propose a reduced quaternion spacecraft dynamics model which admits additive noise. Geometry of the reduced quaternion model and the additive noise are discussed. This treatment is more elegant in mathematics and easier in computation. We use some simulation example to verify our claims.

  19. Electromagnetic Forces on a Relativistic Spacecraft in the Interstellar Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoang, Thiem [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail:, E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    A relativistic spacecraft of the type envisioned by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative will inevitably become charged through collisions with interstellar particles and UV photons. Interstellar magnetic fields would therefore deflect the trajectory of the spacecraft. We calculate the expected deflection for typical interstellar conditions. We also find that the charge distribution of the spacecraft is asymmetric, producing an electric dipole moment. The interaction between the moving electric dipole and the interstellar magnetic field is found to produce a large torque, which can result in fast oscillation of the spacecraft around the axis perpendicular to the direction of motion, with a period of ∼0.5 hr. We then study the spacecraft rotation arising from impulsive torques by dust bombardment. Finally, we discuss the effect of the spacecraft rotation and suggest several methods to mitigate it.

  20. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.


    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.