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Sample records for spacecraft eyes comet

  1. The spacecraft encounters of Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka Mendis, D.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1986-01-01

    The characteristics of the Comet Halley spacecraft 'fleet' (VEGA 1 and VEGA 2, Giotto, Suisei, and Sakigake) are presented. The major aims of these missions were (1) to discover and characterize the nucleus, (2) to characterize the atmosphere and ionosphere, (3) to characterize the dust, and (4) to characterize the nature of the large-scale comet-solar wind interaction. While the VEGA and Giotto missions were designed to study all four areas, Suisei addressed the second and fourth. Sakigake was designed to study the solar wind conditions upstream of the comet. It is noted that NASA's Deep Space Network played an important role in spacecraft tracking.

  2. Comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.W.

    1982-01-01

    Comets are objects of considerable fascination and this paper reviews the present knowledge of the physical structure of the cometary nucleus, coma and tail, the orbits of comets in the Solar System, the proposed mechanisms of cometary origin, the decay processes suffered by comets, and the ways in which they can be observed from Earth and by spacecraft. (author)

  3. Organics Captured from Comet Wild 2 by the Stardust Spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanford, S A; Aleon, J; O' D. Alexander, C M; Araki, T; Bajt, S; Baratta, G A; Borg, J; Brucato, J R; Burchell, M J; Busemann, H; Butterworth, A; Clemett, S J; Cody, G; Colangeli, L; Cooper, G; D' Hendecourt, L; Djouadi, Z; Dworkin, J P; Ferrini, G; Fleckenstein, H; Flynn, G; Franchi, I A; Fries, M; Gilles, M K; Glavin, D P; Gounelle, M; Grossemy, F; Jacobsen, C; Keller, L P; Kilcoyne, A D; Leitner, J; Matrajt, G; Meibom, A; Mennella, V; Mostefaoui, S; Nittler, L R; Palumbo, M E; Robert, F; Rotundi, A; Snead, C J; Spencer, M K; Steele, A; Stephan, T; Tyliszczak, T; Westphal, A J; Wirick, S; Wopenka, B; Yabuta, H; Zare, R N; Zolensky, M

    2006-10-11

    -ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), infrared and Raman spectroscopy, Ion Chromatography with conductivity detection (IC), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) (6). These techniques provide a wealth of information about the chemical nature and relative abundance of the organics in the samples. Our results are compared to organic materials found in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the stratosphere, well as to astronomical and spacecraft observations of comets. Despite some uncertainties associated with the presence of contaminants and alteration of the samples during the capture process, considerable information about the nature of the organics in the samples can be determined.

  4. Trajectories for spacecraft encounters with Comet Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova in 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, David W.; Jen, Shao-Chiang; Farquhar, Robert W.

    1989-01-01

    Early in 1996, the relatively bright short-period Comet Honda-Mrkos-Pajdusakova (HMP) will pass only 0.17 astronomical unit from the earth, providing both an unusually favorable apparition for ground-based observers and an opportunity for a spacecraft to reach Comet HMP on relatively low-energy trajectories. The Japanense Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences Sakigake spacecraft is expected to fly by Comet HMP on February 3, 1996, after utilizing four earth swingbys to modify its orbit. If the camera on the ESA Giotto spacecraft is inoperable, Giotto may also be sent to Comet HMP. In addition, 1-year earth-return trajectories to Comet HMP are described, along with some that can be extended to encounter Comet Giacobini-Zinner in 1998.

  5. Encounter of the Ulysses Spacecraft with the Ion Tail of Comet McNaught

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Gosling, J. T.; Rees, A.; Skoug, R.; Goldstein, B. E.; Armstrong, T. P.; Combi, M. R.; Makinen, T.; McComas, D. J.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Comet McNaught was the brightest comet observed from Earth in the last 40 years. For a period of five days in early 2007 February, four instruments on the Ulysses spacecraft directly measured cometary ions and key properties of the interaction of the comet's ion tail with the high-speed solar wind from the polar regions of the Sun. Because of the record-breaking duration of the encounter, the data are unusually comprehensive. O3(+) ions were detected for the first time in a comet tail, coexisting with singly charged molecular ions with masses in the range 28-35 amu. The presence of magnetic turbulence and of ions with energies up to approximately 200 keV indicate that at a distance of approximately 1.6 AU from the comet nucleus, the ion tail McNaught had not yet reached equilibrium with the surrounding solar wind.

  6. First spacecraft observations of energetic particles near comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, A.J.; Szegoe, K.; Gringauz, K.I.

    1986-04-01

    The TUENDE-M energetic particle instrument on board of VEGA-1 detected intense fluxes of energetic (>- 40 keV) ions in the vicinity of comet Halley, at a distance of 10sup(7) km. Three regions of different ion characteristics were identified. An outer region at several 10sup(6) km contains pick up ions in the solar wind. A second region of an extent of several 10sup(5) km inside the bow shock contains the most intense fluxes, whereas the innermost region of 10sup(4) km is characterized by lower intensities and sharp spikes around closest approach (8900 km from the nucleus). (author)

  7. New Mission Old Spacecraft: EPOXI's Approach to the Comet Hartley-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieber, Richard R.; LaBorde, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Deep Impact mission ended successfully in 2005 after an impact and close flyby of the comet 9P/Tempel-1. The Flyby spacecraft was placed in hibernation and was left to orbit the sun. In 2007, engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory brought the spacecraft out of hibernation and successfully performed two additional missions. These missions were EPOCh, Extra-solar Planetary Observation and Characterization, a photometric investigation of transiting exo-planets, and DIXI, Deep Impact eXtended Investigation, which maneuvered the Flyby spacecraft towards a close encounter with the comet 103P/Hartley- 2 on 4 November 2010. The names of these two scientific investigations combine to form the overarching mission's name, EPOXI. The encounter with 103P/Hartley-2 was vastly different from the prime mission's encounter with 9P/Tempel-1. The geometry of encounter was nearly 180 ? different and 103P/Hartley-2 was approximately one-quarter the size of 9P/Tempel-1. Mission operations for the comet flyby were broken into three phases: a) Approach, b) Encounter, and c) Departure. This paper will focus on the approach phase of the comet encounter. It will discuss the strategies used to decrease both cost and risk while maximizing science return and some of the challenges experienced during operations.

  8. SOHO/SWAN OBSERVATIONS OF SHORT-PERIOD SPACECRAFT TARGET COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Lee, Y.; Patel, T. S.; Maekinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.

    2011-01-01

    SWAN, the Solar Wind ANisotropies all-sky hydrogen Lyα camera on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory spacecraft that makes all-sky images of interplanetary neutral hydrogen, has an ongoing campaign to make special observations of comets, both short- and long-period ones, in addition to the serendipitous observations of comets as part of the all-sky monitoring program. We report here on a study of several short-period comets that were detected by SWAN: 21P/Giacobini-Zinner (1998 and 2005 apparitions), 19P/Borrelly (2001 apparition), 81P/Wild 2 (1997 apparition), and 103P/Hartley 2 (1997 apparition). SWAN observes comets over long continuous stretches of their visible apparitions and therefore provides excellent temporal coverage of the water production. For some of the observations we are also able to analyze an entire sequence of images over many days to several weeks/months using our time-resolved model and extract daily average water production rates over continuous periods of several days to months. The short-term (outburst) and long-term behavior can be correlated with other observations. The overall long-term variation is examined in light of seasonal effects seen in the pre- to post-perihelion differences. For 21P/Giacobini-Zinner and 81P/Wild 2 the activity variations over each apparition were more continuously monitored but nonetheless consistent with previous observations. For 19P/Borrelly we found a very steep variation of water production rates, again consistent with some previous observations, and a variation over six months around perihelion that was reasonably consistent with the spin-axis model of Schleicher et al. and the illumination of the main active areas. During the 1997-1998 apparition of 103P/Hartley 2, the target comet of the EPOXI mission (the Deep Impact extended mission), we found a variation with heliocentric distance (∼r -3.6 ) that was almost as steep as 19P/Borrelly and, given the small measured radius near aphelion, this places

  9. Groundbased investigation of comet 67p/churyumov- gerasimenko, target of the spacecraft Mission Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, A. A.; Trevisan Sanzovo, D.; Sanzovo, G. C.; Boczko, R.; Miguel Torres, R.

    In this work, we make a comparative study of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, target of Mission Rosetta, with Comets 1P/Halley and Hyakutake(C/1996 B2). Water and gas) release rates are derived from visual magnitudes (mv), determined mostly by amateur astronomers, and listed in several issues of International Comet Quarterly(ICQ). We make a systematic and uniform analysis of continuum fluxes obtained at visual wavelengths and, using the framework of photometric theory of Newburn & Spinrad (1985, 1989), we estimate dust release rates, qd (in g/s), effective particle sizes, a (in micron), and dust-to-gas mass ratios, for this important sample of comets. We also determine the color excess of the dust particles, CE, relative to the Sun at wavelength ranges 477.0-524.0 nm in the 1996 return of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and 365.0-484.5 nm for Comets 1P/Halley and C/1996 B2.

  10. WATER PRODUCTION BY COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2 OBSERVED WITH THE SWAN INSTRUMENT ON THE SOHO SPACECRAFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.; Ferron, S.; Maekinen, J. T. T.

    2011-01-01

    Global water production rates were determined from the Lyα emission of hydrogen around comet 103P/Hartley 2, observed with the SWAN (Solar Wind Anisotropies) all-sky camera on the SOHO spacecraft from 2010 September 14 through December 12. This time period included the November 4 flyby by the EPOXI spacecraft. Water production was three times lower than during the 1997 apparition also measured by SWAN. In 2010, it increased by a factor of ∼2.5 within one day on September 30 with a similar corresponding drop between November 24 and 30. The total surface area of sublimating water within ±20 days of perihelion was ∼0.5 km 2 , about half of the mean cross section of the nucleus. Outside this period it was ∼0.2 km 2 . The peak value was 90%, implying a significant water production by released nucleus icy fragments.

  11. P/Halley the model comet, in view of the imaging experiment aboard the VEGA spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegoe, K.

    1989-07-01

    In this paper those results of the VEGA imaging experiments are summarized which probably have general validity for any comet. Shape, size, surface structure, jet activity, rotation patterns are considered in this respect. It is pointed out that imaging data provide indispensable information to the understanding of cometary activity. (author) 27 refs

  12. Touchless Despinning of Asteroids and Comets via Neutral Beam Emitting Spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, build, and test a device that is capable of despinning an asteroid without the need for affixing the spacecraft to the surface. This...

  13. Physics of comets

    CERN Document Server

    Krishna Swamy, K S

    1997-01-01

    The study of Comet Halley in 1986 was a tremendous success for cometary science. In March of that year, six spacecrafts passed through Comet Halley as close as 600 km from the nucleus and made the in situ measurements of various kinds. These space missions to Comet Halley and that of the ICE spacecraft to Comet Giacobini-Zinner combined with studies, both ground-based and above the atmosphere, have increased our knowledge of cometary science in a dramatic way.This new edition of Physics of Comets incorporates these new and exciting findings. The emphasis of the book is on the physical processe

  14. Evaluating Fault Management Operations Concepts for Next-Generation Spacecraft: What Eye Movements Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Ravinder, Ujwala; McCann, Robert S.; Beutter, Brent; Spirkovska, Lily

    2009-01-01

    Performance enhancements associated with selected forms of automation were quantified in a recent human-in-the-loop evaluation of two candidate operational concepts for fault management on next-generation spacecraft. The baseline concept, called Elsie, featured a full-suite of "soft" fault management interfaces. However, operators were forced to diagnose malfunctions with minimal assistance from the standalone caution and warning system. The other concept, called Besi, incorporated a more capable C&W system with an automated fault diagnosis capability. Results from analyses of participants' eye movements indicate that the greatest empirical benefit of the automation stemmed from eliminating the need for text processing on cluttered, text-rich displays.

  15. ISO's analysis of Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory ISO inspected Comet Hall-Bopp during the spring and autumn of 1996. The need to keep ISO's telescope extremely cold restricts the spacecraft's pointing in relation to the Sun and the Earth and it ruled out observations at other times. The analyses of the 1996 observations are not yet complete, but already they give new insight into the nature of comets. Comet Hale-Bopp is believed to be a large comet with a nucleus up to 40 kilometres wide. It was discovered in July 1995 by two American astronomers working independently, Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp. At that time, the comet was a billion kilometres away from the Sun, but 200 times brighter than Halley's Comet was, when at a comparable distance. Comet Hale-Bopp will make its closest approach to the Earth on 22 March, and its closest approach to the Sun (perihelion) on 1 April 1997. Some scientific results from ISO The discovery of Comet Hale-Bopp occurred before ISO's launch in November 1995. When first observed by ISO in March and April 1996, the comet was still 700 million kilometres from the Sun, and almost as far from the Earth and ISO. With its privileged view of infrared wavebands inaccessible from the Earth's surface, ISO's photometer ISOPHOT discovered that carbon dioxide was an important constituent of the comet's emissions of vapour.ISOPHOT measured the temperature of the dust cloud around Comet Hale-Bopp. In March 1996, when the comet was still more than 700 million kilometres from the Sun, the dust cloud was at minus 120 degrees C. When ISOPHOT made similar observations in October 1996, the comet was 420 million kilometres from the Sun, and the dust cloud had warmed to about minus 50 degrees C. Intensive observations of Comet Hale-Bopp were also made by ISO's Short-Wave Spectrometer SWS, the Long-Wave Spectrometer LWS, and the ISOPHOT spectrometer PHOT-S. Results are due for publication at the end of March. They will give details about the composition

  16. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety: A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    2016-07-01

    Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to maintain low self-esteem; and (2) Competitive Memory Training (COMET), which aims to activate positive representations for enhancing self-esteem. A Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) was used with a crossover design. Group 1 received six sessions EMDR first and then six sessions COMET; group 2 vice versa. Assessments were made at baseline (T0), end of first treatment (T1), and end of second treatment (T2). Main outcome was self-esteem. We included 47 patients and performed Linear Mixed Models. COMET showed more improvements in self-esteem than EMDR: effect-sizes 1.25 versus 0.46 post-treatment. Unexpectedly, when EMDR was given first, subsequent effects of COMET were significantly reduced in comparison to COMET as the first intervention. For EMDR, sequence made no difference. Reductions in anxiety and depression were mediated by better self-esteem. COMET was associated with significantly greater improvements in self-esteem than EMDR in patients with anxiety disorders. EMDR treatment reduced the effectiveness of subsequent COMET. Improved self-esteem mediated reductions in anxiety and depression symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Postencounter view of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Ground-based and space observations of Comet Halley during its 1986 perihelion passage are reviewed, with an emphasis on their implications for theoretical models. Consideration is given to the shape, surface morphology, and composition of the comet nucleus; the shape, dynamics, and composition of the dust tail; neutral and ionic gas species in the head and plasma tail; and the comet/solar-wind interaction. Extensive diagrams, graphs, and sample images are provided, and the potential value of the new kinds of data to be obtained with the NASA Comet-Rendezvous/Asteroid-Flyby spacecraft is discussed. 139 references

  18. Potential applications of MMC and aluminum-lithium alloys in cameras for CRAF spacecraft. [Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Marc; Hsieh, Cheng; Adams, Lloyd

    1989-01-01

    In undertaking the design of a 2000-mm focal length camera for the Mariner Mark II series of spacecraft, JPL sought novel materials with the requisite dimensional and thermal stability, outgassing and corrosion resistance, low mass, high stiffness, and moderate cost. Metal-matrix composites and Al-Li alloys have, in addition to excellent mechanical properties and low density, a suitably low coefficient of thermal expansion, high specific stiffness, and good electrical conductivity. The greatest single obstacle to application of these materials to camera structure design is noted to have been the lack of information regarding long-term dimensional stability.

  19. Comets and their composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, H.

    1987-01-01

    Recent theoretical and observational studies of comets are reviewed, with an emphasis on in situ data from spacecraft encounters with P/Giacobini-Zinner (September 1985) and P/Halley (March 1986). Topics addressed include clues on the origin and permanence of the Oort cometary cloud, observations of cometary nuclei far from the sun, the Halley nucleus, compositional and physical data from comae studies, and the parent molecules in comet ices. Also discussed are quantitative analyses of coma production; special features in the tail of P/Giacobini-Zinner; and proposals for (1) observations to detect distant giant comets, (2) high-resolution spectroscopic studies of comae, and (3) additional spacecraft missions such as the NASA Comet Rendezvous and Asteroid Flyby. 121 references

  20. Comet thermal modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.; Kieffer, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    The past year was one of tremendous activity because of the appearance of Halley's Comet. Observations of the comet were collected from a number of sources and compared with the detailed predictions of the comet thermal modeling program. Spacecraft observations of key physical parameters for cometary nucleus were incorporated into the thermal model and new cases run. These results have led to a much better understanding of physical processes on the nucleus and have pointed the way for further improvements to the modeling program. A model for the large-scale structure of cometary nuclei was proposed in which comets were envisioned as loosely bound agglomerations of smaller icy planetesimals, essentially a rubble pile of primordial dirty snowballs. In addition, a study of the physical history of comets was begun, concentrating on processes during formation and in the Oort cloud which would alter the volatile and nonvolatile materials in cometary nuclei from their pristine state before formation

  1. Comet mission hopes to uncover Earth's origins

    CERN Multimedia

    Henderson, M

    2004-01-01

    "A European spacecraft that will hunt down a comet in search of clues to the origin of life on Earth will blast off tomorrow from the Kourou spaceport in French Guiana. The Rosetta probe will take 12 years to catch up with Churyumov-Gerasimenko before becoming the first spacecraft to make a soft, controlled landing on a comet's nucleus" (1 page).

  2. Inside look at Halley's comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatty, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    The 1985-1986 emergence of Halley's comet, the first since the advent of the space age, was explored by a variety of spacecraft. The Vega 1, launched by the USSR together with the Eastern-block alliance, passed 5523 miles from the comet's nucleus at 7:20:06 Universal time. It indicated that the comet was about 300 miles closer to the sun than had been predicted. The Japanese spacecraft, Suisei, was created to map the distribution of neutral hydrogen atoms outside Halley's visible coma. Its pictures indicated that the comet's output of water varied between 25 and 60 tons per second. Five days after the Vega 2's passage through the comet, the Giotto (sponsored by the European Space Agency) probe appeared. Giotto's close approach took place 3.1 minutes after midnight UT on March 14th; the craft had passed 376 miles from its target. Giotto's data indicated that the nucleus was bigger than expected, and that the comet was composed primarily of water, CO2 and N2. The Vegas and Giotto found that as the solar wind approaches Halley, it slows gradually and the solar magnetic lines embedded in the wind begin to pile up. Pick-up ions, from the comet's halo of neutral hydrogen, were found in this solar wind. Sensors on the Vega spacecraft found a variety of plasma waves propagating inside the bow wave. In order to synthesize all the results, a conference on the exploration of Halley's comet will be held this October

  3. SQCX X-ray Observations Of The Deep Impact Spacecraft Close Encounters With Comets 9P/Tempel 1 And 103P/Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Dennerl, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Christian, D. J.; Bodewits, D.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Combi, M.

    2010-03-01

    We present results from the extensive Chandra, SWIFT, Spitzer, and groundbased observing campaigns studying Comet 9P/Tempel 1 in support of NASA's Deep Impact (DI) mission as an indication of the results expected for the next DI flyby of comet 103P/Hartley 2 at 0.1 AU geocentric distance in November 2010. 9P/Tempel 1 was observed for 300 ksec between 30th June and 24th July 2005, and continuously for 60 ksec on July 4th during the impact event. X-ray emission qualitatively similar to that observed for the collisionally thin, cold wind comet 2P/Encke system (Lisse et al. 2005) was found, with emission morphology centered on the nucleus and emission lines due to C, N, O, and Ne solar wind minor ions. The comet was relatively faint on July 4th, and the total increase in x-ray flux due to the Deep Impact excavation was small, 20% of the immediate pre-impact value, consistent with estimates that the total coma neutral gas release due to the impact was 5 x 106 kg ( 10 hrs of normal coma outflow). Over time, other temporally variable spectral features due to changing solar wind flux densities and charge states were clearly seen. Good agreement between the Chandra and SWIFT x-ray photometry was found. Two flares, much stronger than the man-made increase due to Deep Impact, were found in the observed x-rays on June 30th and July 8th, 2005, and are coincident with increases in the solar wind flux arriving at the comet. Modeling of the Chandra data using observed Spitzer gas production rates and ACE solar wind ion fluxes with a SWCX mechanism for the emission was found to be consistent with the temporal- and spectral behavior expected for a slow, hot wind typical of low latitude emission from the solar corona interacting with the comet's neutral coma.

  4. Observing comets

    CERN Document Server

    James, Nick

    2003-01-01

    Since comet Shoemaker-Levy collided with the planet Jupiter with stupendous force in 1994 there has been an upsurge of amateur interest in comets Most comets are first discovered by amateur astronomers because there are so many amateurs looking for them, and techniques and instruments have improved dramatically in the past few years After a short but detailed introduction to the comets themselves Nick James and Gerald North describe comet hunting, photographing and imaging comets, and digital image processing The use of computers for orbital calculations and even helping to discover new comets is given a full chapter, as are advanced techniques including comet photometry and spectroscopy This comprehensive book has an accompanying CD-ROM and is at once a "primer" for comet hunters and a reference text for more advanced amateur astronomers

  5. Comet prospects for 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanklin, J. D.

    2003-12-01

    2004 sees the return of 18 periodic comets. None are particularly bright and the best are likely to be 78P/Gehrels and 88P/Howell. Three new long period comets are likely to put on a good show: 2001 Q4 (NEAT) reaches perihelion in May, when it could make at least 3rd magnitude. Northern hemisphere observers will first pick it up just after perihelion as it rapidly moves north. 2002 T7 (LINEAR) could also reach 3rd magnitude at closest approach in May, however northern hemisphere observers will have lost it as a binocular object in mid-March. Observers at far southern latitudes may be able to see these two naked eye comets at the same time. 2003 K4 (LINEAR) could reach 6th magnitude as it brightens on its way to perihelion. Several other long period comets discovered in previous years are also still visible.

  6. Statistical analysis of dust signals observed by ROSINA/COPS onboard of the Rosetta spacecraft at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzou, Chia-Yu; altwegg, kathrin; Bieler, Andre; Calmonte, Ursina; Gasc, Sébastien; Le Roy, Léna; Rubin, Martin

    2016-10-01

    ROSINA is the in situ Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis on board of Rosetta, one of the corner stone missions of the European Space Agency (ESA) to land and orbit the Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). ROSINA consists of two mass spectrometers and a pressure sensor. The Reflectron Time of Flight Spectrometer (RTOF) and the Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS) complement each other in mass and time resolution.The Comet Pressure Sensor (COPS) provides density measurements of the neutral molecules in the cometary coma of 67P. COPS has two gauges, a nude gauge that measures the total neutral density and a ram gauge that measures the dynamic pressure from the comet. Combining the two COPS is also capable of providing gas dynamic information such as gas velocity and gas temperature of the coma.While Rosetta started orbiting around 67P in August 2014, COPS observed diurnal and seasonal variations of the neutral gas density in the coma. Surprisingly, additional to these major density variation patterns, COPS occasionally observed small spikes in the density that are associated with dust. These dust signals can be interpreted as a result of cometary dust releasing volatiles while heated up near COPS. A statistical analysis of dust signals detected by COPS will be presented.

  7. Comets in the space age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, F.L.

    1989-01-01

    The historical development of the study of the nature of comets and their origin is discussed, emphasizing the use of aerospace technology in cometary science. The use of satellites to study the Comet Kohoutek 1973 XII, advances between Kohoutek and P/Halley, and studies of P/Halley during its 1986 return are examined. Consideration is given to data from ground, air, and space sensors, and from the Giotto and Vega spacecraft missions. Also, the physical structure of the nucleus of Comet Halley is described. 136 refs

  8. Encounter with comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on an international armada of six spacecraft which encountered the comet Halley and performed in-situ measurements. These encounters led to the discovery of a number of cometary plasma physics phenomena. Another important result was that a value for the average density of the cometary nucleus could be estimated, which is found to be compatible with snow ball models for the nucleus

  9. The Photometric lightcurve of Comet 1P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Allison N.; Schleicher, David G.

    2014-11-01

    Comet 1P/Halley is considered an important object for a number of reasons. Not only is it the first-identified and brightest periodic comet, being the only periodic comet visible to the naked eye at every apparition, but in 1986 Halley became the first comet to be imaged by fly-by spacecraft. The NASA-funded International Halley Watch (IHW) directly supported the spacecraft by providing narrowband filters for groundbased photometric observations, and until the arrival of Hale-Bopp (1995 O1), Halley was the subject of the largest groundbased observational campaign in history. Following considerable controversy regarding its rotation period, it was eventually determined to be in complex rotation -- the first comet to be so identified. While the overall brightness variations of the coma repeated with a period of about 7.4 days, the detailed period and shape of the lightcurve constantly evolved. The determination of the specific characteristics of each of the two components of its non-principal axis rotational state has remained elusive.To resolve this situation we have now incorporated all of the narrowband photometry, taken by 21 telescopes from around the world and submitted to the IHW archive, to create the most complete homogeneous lightcurve possible. Using measurements of three gas species and the dust, the lightcurve was investigated and found to alternate between a double- and triple-peaked shape, with no single feature being present throughout the entire duration of our dataset (316 days). The apparent period as a function of time was extracted and seen to vary in a step-wise manner between 7.27 and 7.60 days. Taken together, these results were used to produce a synthetic lightcurve revealing Halley's behavior even when no data were available. Details of this and other results, to be used to constrain future detailed modeling, will be presented. This research is supported by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres Program.

  10. CO2 Orbital Trends in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Feaga, Lori; Bodewits, Dennis; McKay, Adam; Snodgrass, Colin; Wooden, Diane

    2014-12-01

    Spacecraft missions to comets return a treasure trove of details of their targets, e.g., the Rosetta mission to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the Deep Impact experiment at comet 9P/Tempel 1, or even the flyby of C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) at Mars. Yet, missions are rare, the diversity of comets is large, few comets are easily accessible, and comet flybys essentially return snapshots of their target nuclei. Thus, telescopic observations are necessary to place the mission data within the context of each comet's long-term behavior, and to further connect mission results to the comet population as a whole. We propose a large Cycle 11 project to study the long-term activity of past and potential future mission targets, and select bright Oort cloud comets to infer comet nucleus properties, which would otherwise require flyby missions. In the classical comet model, cometary mass loss is driven by the sublimation of water ice. However, recent discoveries suggest that the more volatile CO and CO2 ices are the likely drivers of some comet active regions. Surprisingly, CO2 drove most of the activity of comet Hartley 2 at only 1 AU from the Sun where vigorous water ice sublimation would be expected to dominate. Currently, little is known about the role of CO2 in comet activity because telluric absorptions prohibit monitoring from the ground. In our Cycle 11 project, we will study the CO2 activity of our targets through IRAC photometry. In conjunction with prior observations of CO2 and CO, as well as future data sets (JWST) and ongoing Earth-based projects led by members of our team, we will investigate both long-term activity trends in our target comets, with a particular goal to ascertain the connections between each comet's coma and nucleus.

  11. Comet 67P Through the Lens of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    that were found in the comet's coma with the ROSINA instrument: in particular, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. Interactive: Augmented Reality (AR) Inspired by spectroscopic data from OSIRIS, I introduce AR to reveal a "hidden" layer. I am highlighting that some scientific information can only be viewed by using special instruments, in this case - instruments on board the Rosetta spacecraft. Viewers can see a virtual layer on top of my paintings using a readily available instrument - ones cellphone. RGB colors, of a particular wavelength, will be introduced to the generally monochromatic paintings. Through my art I study the relationship between humans and the Universe, understanding the connection, the influence and the effect they have on each other. ESA's example of human scientists ambitiously exploring a distant cosmic object empowers me to create and share my personal exploration. This is the way I would like to share comet 67P with the world. I invite you to look through an artist's eyes and see science with renewed beauty and wonder. To view the artwork: http://www.ekaterina-smirnova.com/67p/ http://www.ekaterina-smirnova.com/67p-sculptures/

  12. The comet rendezvous asteroid flyby mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.; Neugebauer, M.; Weissman, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) mission is designed to answer the many questions raised by the Halley missions by exploring a cometary nucleus in detail, following it around its orbit and studying its changing activity as it moves closer to and then away from the Sun. In addition, on its way to rendezvous with the comet, CRAF will fly by a large, primitive class main belt asteroid and will return valuable data for comparison with the comet results. The selected asteroid is 449 Hamburga with a diameter of 88 km and a surface composition of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. The expected flyby date is January, 1998. The CRAF spacecraft will continue to make measurements in orbit around the cometary nucleus as they both move closer to the Sun, until the dust and gas hazard becomes unsafe. At that point the spacecraft will move in and out between 50 and 2,500 kilometers to study the inner coma and the cometary ionosphere, and to collect dust and gas samples for onboard analysis. Following perihelion, the spacecraft will make a 50,000 km excursion down the comet's tail, further investigating the solar wind interaction with the cometary atmosphere. The spacecraft will return to the vicinity of the nucleus about four months after perihelion to observe the changes that have taken place. If the spacecraft remains healthy and adequate fuel is still onboard, an extended mission to follow the comet nucleus out to aphelion is anticipated

  13. Comparison of Wave Energy Transport at the Comets p/Halley and p/Giacobini-Zinner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sding, A.; Glassmeir, K. H.; Fuselier, S. A.; Neubauer, Fritz M.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1995-01-01

    Using magnetic field, plasma density and flow observations from spacecraft flybys of two comets, Eler variables are determined in order to study wave propogation directions. We investigate the inbound path of the Giotto spacecraft flyby of comet p/Halley outside the bow shock, and the inbound and outbound path of the ICE spacecraft flyby of comet p/Giacobini-Zinner outsinde of the bow wave.

  14. Comet radar explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  15. COMET concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsmeyer, H.; Tromm, W.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of the COMET core catcher concept developed for a future PWR have been continued. The concept is based on the spreading of a core melt on a sacrificial layer and its erosion, until a subsequent addition of water from below causes a fragmentation of the melt. A porous solidification of the melt would then admit a complete flooding within a short period. (orig.)

  16. COMET concept; COMET-Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alsmeyer, H.; Tromm, W.

    1995-08-01

    Studies of the COMET core catcher concept developed for a future PWR have been continued. The concept is based on the spreading of a core melt on a sacrificial layer and its erosion, until a subsequent addition of water from below causes a fragmentation of the melt. A porous solidification of the melt would then admit a complete flooding within a short period. (orig.)

  17. Comparison of eye-safe solid state laser DIAL with passive gas filter correlation measurements from aircraft and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert V.; Staton, Leo D.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Wang, Liang-Guo

    1992-01-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) using solid state Ti:sapphire lasers finds current application in the NASA/LASE Project for H2O vapor measurements in the approximately = 0.820 micron region for the lower and mid-troposphere and in potential future applications in planned measurements of the approximately = 0.940 micron region where both strong and weak absorption lines enables measurements throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere. The challenge exists to perform measurements in the eye-safe greater than 1.5 micron region. A comparison between DIAL and passive Gas Filter Correlation Radiometer (GFCR) measurements is made. The essence of the differences in signal to noise ratio for DIAL and passive GFCR measurements is examined. The state of the art of lasers and optical parametric oscillators (OPO's) is discussed.

  18. Comet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  19. New Image of Comet Halley in the Cold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    international spacecraft armada when it last passed through the inner solar system in 1986? And which put on a fine display in the sky at that time? Now, 17 years after that passage, this cosmic traveller has again been observed at the European Southern Observatory. Moving outward along its elongated orbit into the deep-freeze outer regions of the solar system, it is now almost as far away as Neptune, the most distant giant planet in our system. At 4,200 million km from the Sun, Comet Halley has now completed four-fifths of its travel towards the most distant point of this orbit. As the motion is getting ever slower, it will reach that turning point in December 2023, after which it begins its long return towards the next passage through the inner solar system in 2062. The new image of Halley was taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal (Chile); a "cleaned" version is shown in PR Photo 27a/03 . It was obtained as a byproduct of an observing program aimed at studying the population of icy bodies at the rim of the solar system. The image shows the raven-black, 10-km cometary nucleus of ice and dust as an unresolved faint point of light, without any signs of activity. A cold and inactive "dirty snowball" The brightness of the comet was measured as visual magnitude V = 28.2, or nearly 1000 million times fainter than the faintest objects that can be perceived in a dark sky with the unaided eye. The pitch black nucleus of Halley reflects about 4% of the sunlight; it is a very "dirty" snowball indeed. We know from the images obtained by the ESA Giotto spacecraft in 1986 that it is avocado-shaped and on the average measures about 10 km diameter across. The VLT observation is therefore equivalent to seeing a 5-cm piece of coal at a distance of 20,500 km (about the distance between the Earth's poles) and to do so in the evening twilight. This is because at the large distance of Comet Halley, the infalling sunlight is 800 times fainter than here on Earth. The measured

  20. Comet West: a view from the HELIOS zodiacal light photometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benensohn, R.M.; Jackson, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    Comet West passed through perihelion on February 25, 1976. The comet crossed the HELIOS A and B spacecraft zodiacal light photometer fields of view as the spacecraft orbited the Sun, allowing them to record the brightness, polarization, and color of the comet and its surrounding interplanetary medium. Data from the U, B, and V photometers across the tail shows a distinct bluing followed by a slight reddening corresponding to the ion and dust tails, respectively, entering the field of view. The non-Earth perspective of the HELIOS photometers allows a comparison of the tail with Earth observations at the same time. Precise location of the nucleus and tail allow the photometer data to be searched for evidence of the comet bow shock and orbital dust. A brightness bump present in the data before the comet reaches some photometer positions, can be shown to approximately form a parabolic shape Sunward and ahead of the orbital motion of the Comet West nucleus. If this is the comet bow shock or bow compression, then it corresponds to a density enhancement of the ambient medium by 1.5 to 2 times in the vicinity of the comet. The distance of the brightness increase from the nucleus by comparison with Comet Halley implies a neutral gas production rate of approximately 3 times that of Halley

  1. Radar observations of Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.B.; Harmon, J.K.; Shapiro, I.I.

    1989-01-01

    Five nights of Arecibo radar observations of Comet Halley are reported which reveal a feature in the overall average spectrum which, though weak, seems consistent with being an echo from the comet. The large radar cross section and large bandwidth of the feature suggest that the echo is predominantly from large grains which have been ejected from the nucleus. Extrapolation of the dust particle size distribution to large grain sizes gives a sufficient number of grains to account for the echo. The lack of a detectable echo from the nucleus, combined with estimates of its size and rotation rate from spacecraft encounters and other data, indicate that the nucleus has a surface of relatively high porosity. 33 references

  2. Comet Halley, parameter study I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Fikani, M.M.

    1982-06-01

    To aid in defining a mission to comet P/Halley, its inner coma is simulated by a computer program that models time-dependent chemical reactions in a radially and isentropically expanding gas, taking into account attenuation of solar ultraviolet radiation in the subsolar direction. Column density predictions are based on intelligently selected combinations of poorly known values for nucleus parameters that include size, visual albedo, and infrared emissivity. Only one chemical composition and a minor modification of it are considered here; the dust-to-gas ratio in this model is zero. Although the somewhat optimistically volatile composition chosen here favors a smaller nucleus, a mean nuclear radius of only 0.5 km is unlikely. No significant increase of molecular column density is predicted by this model as a spacecraft approaches, once it is less than a few 10 4 km from the nucleus. Predictions are made for various heliocentric distances of interest for comet missions and for ground observations

  3. Comet Halley: nucleus and jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagdeev, R.Z.; Avanesov, G.A.; Barinov, I.V.

    1986-06-01

    The VEGA-1 and VEGA-2 spacecrafts made their closest approach to Comet Halley on 6 and 9 March, respectively. In this paper results of the onboard imaging experiment are discussed. The nucleus of the comet was clearly identifyable as an irregularly shaped object with overall dimensions of (16+-1)x(8+-1)x(8+-1) km. The nucleus rotates around its axis which is nearly perpendicular to the orbital plane, with a period of 53+-2 hours. Its albedo is only 0.04+-002. Most of the jet features observed during the second fly-by were spatially reconstructed. These sources form a quasi-linear structure on the surface. The dust above the surface is shown to be optically thin except certain specific dust jets. Brightness features on the surface are clearly seen. Correlating the data with other measurements it is concluded that the dirty snow-ball model probably has to be revised. (author)

  4. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A B P; van den Berg, D P G; Cath, D C; Schoorl, M; Engelhard, I M; Korrelboom, C W

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  5. Self-esteem treatment in anxiety : A randomized controlled crossover trial of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) versus Competitive Memory Training (COMET) in patients with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A. B. P.; van den Berg, D. P. G.; Cath, D. C.; Schoorl, M.; Engelhard, I. M.; Korrelboom, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Little is known about treating low self-esteem in anxiety disorders. This study evaluated two treatments targeting different mechanisms: (1) Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), which aims to desensitize negative memory representations that are proposed to

  6. Stardust: Catching a Comet and Bringing it Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, Donald E.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA STARDUST mission collected thousands of particles from Comet Wild 2 that are now being studied by two hundred scientists around the world. The spacecraft captured the samples during a close flyby of the comet in 2004 and returned them to Earth with a dramatic entry into the atmosphere early in 2006. The precious cargo of comet dust is being studied to determine new information about the origin of the Sun and planets. The comet formed at the edge of the solar system, beyond the orbit of Neptune, and is a sample of the material from which the solar system was formed. One of the most dramatic early findings from the mission was that a comet that formed in the coldest place in the solar system contained minerals that formed in the hottest place in the solar system. The comet samples are telling stories of fire and ice and they providing fascinating and unexpected information about our origins.

  7. Amino Acids from a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie Elisla

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Stardust spacecraft returned samples from comet 81P/Wild 2 to Earth in January 2006. Examinations of the organic compounds in cometary samples can reveal information about the prebiotic organic inventory present on the early Earth and within the early Solar System, which may have contributed to the origin of life. Preliminary studies of Stardust material revealed the presence of a suite of organic compounds including several amines and amino acids, but the origin of these compounds (cometary- vs. terrestrial contamination) could not be identified. We have recently measured the carbon isotopic ratios of these amino acids to determine their origin, leading to the first detection of a coetary amino acid.

  8. Disintegration of comet nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V.

    2012-02-01

    The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet nuclei and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet nuclei and other Solar System bodies.

  9. Comet or Asteroid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    , Institute of Planetary Exploration) soon thereafter obtained seven unfiltered CCD images on three consecutive nights with the 60-cm `Bochum telescope' at La Silla, Uri Carsenty found a tail extending 15 arcseconds in the WSE direction from the point source, cf. ESO Press Photo 31b/97. The (red) magnitude was about 19, or 150,000 times fainter than what is visible to the naked eye. More observations were obtained at La Silla during the following nights, confirming the persistent presence of this tail. NTT observations confirm the cometary nature of P/1997 T3 ESO Press Photo 31c/97 ESO Press Photo 31c/97 [JPG, 52k] Caption: Deep NTT image of P/1997 T3. This image covers a field of 105 x 60 arcsec and is a composite of several CCD exposures. It was taken with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT) and the EMMI multi-mode instrument by ESO astronomers Hermann Boehnhardt and Olivier Hainaut on different days between 21 and 25 October 1997. By computer processing, the images of P/1997 T3 are aligned to the same pixel position and co-added in order to increase the visibility of the comet. Due to the motion of the comet, multiple images of several galaxies and stars appear in this photo. At the time of the observations, the comet was about 3.34 AU from Earth and about 4.30 AU from the Sun. A larger version [JPG, 384k] is also available. In late October 1997, further images of the new object and its tail were taken with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at La Silla, cf. ESO Press Photo 31c/97. On these, the narrow tail was seen to be at least 90 arcsec long and pointing roughly in the Sun direction . The steady appearance and the sunward orientation of the tail indicates that it consists of dust. Moreover, a preliminary image analysis shows the presence of a weak and very condensed coma of dust grains around the nucleus. Interestingly, a series of images through several broadband filters with a total of almost 30 min exposure time did not show any trace of a normal, anti

  10. Photochemistry of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    The classification of comets, chemically rich mixtures of volatile materials and refractory grains, is described. The developments of coma and tails, and the composition and structure of coma, plasma tails, dust, and nucleus are examined. The differences between comets and planetary atmospheres are investigated. Three hypotheses on the origin of comets are proposed; one states that comets formed in the region of the giant planets, the second theory has the development of comets occuring in the outer parts of the solar nebula, and the third states that comets formed in a companion fragment of the nebula. The use of radar, photometric, spectral, and laboratory measurements for modeling comets is discussed. The physics and main photolytic and chemical reaction processes of a collision-dominated coma are analyzed; the influence of the solar wind on the coma is studied. A comparison of the model with observed data is presented; good correlation of data is observed. The features of Halley's Comet and other comets with distinctive characteristics are examined. Future comet exploration missions and the need to improve comet models are discussed. 31 references

  11. Visually observing comets

    CERN Document Server

    Seargent, David A J

    2017-01-01

    In these days of computers and CCD cameras, visual comet observers can still contribute scientifically useful data with the help of this handy reference for use in the field. Comets are one of the principal areas for productive pro-amateur collaboration in astronomy, but finding comets requires a different approach than the observing of more predictable targets. Principally directed toward amateur astronomers who prefer visual observing or who are interested in discovering a new comet or visually monitoring the behavior of known comets, it includes all the advice needed to thrive as a comet observer. After presenting a brief overview of the nature of comets and how we came to the modern understanding of comets, this book details the various types of observations that can usefully be carried out at the eyepiece of a telescope. Subjects range from how to search for new comets to visually estimating the brightness of comets and the length and orientation of tails, in addition to what to look for in comet heads a...

  12. Mission to the comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.

    1980-01-01

    The plans of space agencies in the United States and Europe for an exploratory comet mission including a one year rendezvous with comet Temple-2 and a fast fly-by of comet Halley are discussed. The mission provides an opportunity to make comparative measurements on the two different types of comets and also satisfies the three major scientific objectives of cometary missions namely: (1) To determine the chemical nature and the physical structure of cometary nuclei, and the changes that occur with time and orbital position. (2) To study the chemical and physical nature of the atmospheres and ionospheres of comets, the processes that occur in them, and their development with time and orbital position. (3) To determine the nature of the tails of comets and the processes by which they are formed, and to characterise the interaction of comets with solar wind. (UK)

  13. Comet Tempel 1 Went Back to Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Astronomers Having Used ESO Telescopes Start Analysing Unique Dataset on the Comet Following the Deep Impact Mission Ten days after part of the Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface, astronomers are back in the ESO Offices in Santiago, after more than a week of observing at the ESO La Silla Paranal Observatory. In this unprecedented observing campaign - among the most ambitious ever conducted by a single observatory - the astronomers have collected a large amount of invaluable data on this comet. The astronomers have now started the lengthy process of data reduction and analysis. Being all together in a single place, and in close contacts with the space mission' scientific team, they will try to assemble a clear picture of the comet and of the impact. The ESO observations were part of a worldwide campaign to observe this unique experiment. During the campaign, ESO was connected by phone, email, and videoconference with colleagues in all major observatories worldwide, and data were freely exchanged between the different groups. This unique collaborative spirit provides astronomers with data taken almost around the clock during several days and this, with the largest variety of instruments, making the Deep Impact observing campaign one of the most successful of its kind, and thereby, ensuring the greatest scientific outcome. From the current analysis, it appears most likely that the impactor did not create a large new zone of activity and may have failed to liberate a large quantity of pristine material from beneath the surface. ESO PR Photo 22/05 ESO PR Photo 22/05 Evolution of Comet Tempel 1 (FORS2/VLT) [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 701 pix - 128k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 1401 pix - 357k] ESO PR Photo 22/05 Animated Gif Caption: ESO PR Photo 22/05 shows the evolution of Comet Tempel 1 as observed with the FORS2 instrument on Antu (VLT). The images obtained at the VLT show that

  14. Comments on comet shapes and aggregation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, W.K.

    1989-01-01

    An important question for a comet mission is whether comet nuclei preserve information clarifying aggregation processes of planetary matter. New observational evidence shows that Trojan asteroids, as a group, display a higher fraction of highly-elongated objects than the belt. More recently evidence has accumulated that comet nuclei, as a group, also display highly-elongated shapes at macro-scale. This evidence comes from the several comets whose nuclear lightcurves or shapes have been well studied. Trojans and comet nuclei share other properties. Both groups have extremely low albedos and reddish-to neutral-black colors typical of asteroids of spectral class D, P, and C. Both groups may have had relatively low collision frequencies. An important problem to resolve with spacecraft imaging is whether these elongated shapes are primordial, or due to evolution of the objects. Two hypotheses that might be tested by a combination of global-scale and close-up imaging from various directions are: (1) The irregular shapes are primordial and related to the fact that these bodies have had lower collision frequencies than belt asteroids; or (2) The irregular shapes may be due to volatile loss

  15. Comet Giacobini-Zinner - a normal comet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, A.L.; Barker, E.S.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of Comet Giacobini-Zinner were obtained during its 1985 apparition using an IDS spectrograph at McDonald Observatory. Column densities and production rates were computed. The production rates were compared to observations of other normal comets. Giacobini-Zinner is shown to be depleted in C2 and C3 relative to CN. These production rates are down by a factor of 5. 12 references

  16. A Reconfigurable Testbed Environment for Spacecraft Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Jain, Abhinandan

    1996-01-01

    A key goal of NASA's New Millennium Program is the development of technology for increased spacecraft on-board autonomy. Achievement of this objective requires the development of a new class of ground-based automony testbeds that can enable the low-cost and rapid design, test, and integration of the spacecraft autonomy software. This paper describes the development of an Autonomy Testbed Environment (ATBE) for the NMP Deep Space I comet/asteroid rendezvous mission.

  17. Mystery of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whipple, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    An account is given of the growth of human understanding of comets with emphasis initially placed on theories developed before the twentieth century and subsequently on information regarding the nature of comets, their origin and possible relation to life on earth. Special consideration is given to a description of how the author arrived at his own model of the origin and nature of comets, the dirty snowball theory. The significance of comets (i.e. the hazards they may represent) is assessed and space missions to Halley's comet together with the first landing on a comet (tentatively planned for 1995) are described. It is noted that this growth of cometary understanding is presented as an integral part of the growth of science and technology. 14 references

  18. Ammonia abundances in comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.; Engel, L.

    The emission band strengths of the NH2 bands of Comets Halley, Hartley-Good, Thiele, and Borrelly were measured to determine the NH2 column densities for the comets. Production rates obtained using the Haser and vectorial models are in agreement within the observational errors, suggesting that a simple two-step decay model may be used to approximate the NH2 distribution in a comet's coma. Ammonia-to-water abundance ratios from 0.01 to 0.4 percent were found for the four comets. The ratio in Comet Halley is found to be Q(NH3)/Q(H2O) = 0.002 + or - 0.001. No significant difference in the ammonia abundance was found before or after perihelion in Comet Halley.

  19. Autonomous Navigation Performance During The Hartley 2 Comet Flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J; Kennedy, Brian A.; Bhaskaran, Shyam

    2012-01-01

    On November 4, 2010, the EPOXI spacecraft performed a 700-km flyby of the comet Hartley 2 as follow-on to the successful 2005 Deep Impact prime mission. EPOXI, an extended mission for the Deep Impact Flyby spacecraft, returned a wealth of visual and infrared data from Hartley 2, marking the fifth time that high-resolution images of a cometary nucleus have been captured by a spacecraft. The highest resolution science return, captured at closest approach to the comet nucleus, was enabled by use of an onboard autonomous navigation system called AutoNav. AutoNav estimates the comet-relative spacecraft trajectory using optical measurements from the Medium Resolution Imager (MRI) and provides this relative position information to the Attitude Determination and Control System (ADCS) for maintaining instrument pointing on the comet. For the EPOXI mission, AutoNav was tasked to enable continuous tracking of a smaller, more active Hartley 2, as compared to Tempel 1, through the full encounter while traveling at a higher velocity. To meet the mission goal of capturing the comet in all MRI science images, position knowledge accuracies of +/- 3.5 km (3-?) cross track and +/- 0.3 seconds (3-?) time of flight were required. A flight-code-in-the-loop Monte Carlo simulation assessed AutoNav's statistical performance under the Hartley 2 flyby dynamics and determined optimal configuration. The AutoNav performance at Hartley 2 was successful, capturing the comet in all of the MRI images. The maximum residual between observed and predicted comet locations was 20 MRI pixels, primarily influenced by the center of brightness offset from the center of mass in the observations and attitude knowledge errors. This paper discusses the Monte Carlo-based analysis that led to the final AutoNav configuration and a comparison of the predicted performance with the flyby performance.

  20. Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem (ADCS) Preparations for the EPOXI Flyby of Comet Haley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Michael E.; Collins, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    On November 4, 2010 the already "in-flight" Deep Impact spacecraft flew within 700km of comet 103P/Hartley 2 as part of its extended mission EPOXI, the 5th time to date any spacecraft visited a comet. In 2005, the spacecraft had previously imaged a probe impact comet Tempel 1. The EPOXI flyby marked the first time in history that two comets were explored with the same instruments on a re-used spacecraft-with hardware and software originally designed and optimized for a different mission. This made the function of the attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) critical to the successful execution of the EPOXI flyby. As part of the spacecraft team preparations, the ADCS team had to perform thorough sequence reviews, key spacecraft activities and onboard calibrations. These activities included: review of background sequences for the initial conditions vector, sun sensor coefficients, and reaction wheel assembly (RWA) de-saturations; design and execution of 10 trajectory correction maneuvers; science calibration of the two telescope instruments; a flight demonstration of the fastest turns conducted by the spacecraft between Earth and comet point; and assessment of RWA health (given RWA problems on other spacecraft).

  1. Optical observation of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Hiroyoshi

    1974-01-01

    The observation of comets is proposed to study the state of interplanetary space. The behavior of the tails of comets shows the state of solar wind. On July 4, 1964, large bending was seen in the tail of the Tomita-Gerber-Handa comet. Then, on July 7, 1964, geomagnetic disturbance was observed. Disturbance in the tail of Kohoutek comet was seen on Jan. 19, 1974, and Ksub(p)--5 on the ground on Jan. 25. The effort for the quantitative measurement of the parameters of solar wind has been continued in various countries. Recently, the large scale observation of the Kohoutek comet was carried out in the world. Preliminary report is presented in this paper. Waving in the type 1 tail of the comet was seen, and this phenomenon may show some instability due to the interaction between the tail and the solar wind. Periodic variation of the direction of the tail has been reported. The present result also confirmed this report. In case of small comets, flare-up occurs and original luminous intensity is regained after several days. Measurement of the spectrum at the time of flare-up may show information concerning temporary variation of the state of interplanetary space. For the tracking of time variation of comets, cooperation of a number of stations at different positions is required. (Kato, T.)

  2. Disintegration of comet nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V

    2012-01-01

    The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet nuclei and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet nuclei and other Solar System bodies. (physics of our days)

  3. Giotto observations of the bow shock at Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formisano, V.; Amata, E.; Wilken, B.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary results from the JPA instrument on Giotto indicate that Comet Halley, even on the flanks, has a bow shock which moves backwards and forwards over the spacecraft. To understand the structure properly will require more detailed investigation of the relationships between three particle populations, cometary ions, solar wind ions and electrons

  4. Composition of faint comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.W.

    1986-01-01

    The study uses an emission line, differential imaging camera built by the Science Operations Branch. This instrument allows photometric data to be obtained over a large area of a comet in a large number of resolution elements. The detector is a 100x100 Reticon array which with interchangeable optics can give resolutions from 2'' to 30'' over a field of 1' to 15'. The camera through its controlling computer can simultaneously take images in on-line and continuum filters and through computer subtraction and calibration present a photometric image of the comet produced by only the emission of the molecule under study. Initial work has shown two significant problems. First the auxiliary equipment of the telescope has not allowed the unambiguous location of faint comets so that systematic observations could be made, and secondly initial data has not shown much molecular emission from the faint comets which were located. Work last year on a software and hardware display system and this year on additional guide motors on the 36-inch telescope has allowed the differential camera to act as its own finder and guide scope. Comet IRAS was observed in C2 and CO+, as well as an occultation by the comet of SAO029103. The perodic comet Giacobini-Zinner was also observed in C2

  5. Realm of the comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of Jovian perturbations of the orbits of long-period comets led to the concept of the Oort cloud of 180 billion comets at 50,000-150,000 AU from the sun. Several comets are induced to move toward the sun every million years by the passage of a star at a distance of a few light years. The location of the cloud has since been revised to 20,000-100,000 AU, and comets are now accepted as remnant material fron the proto-solar system epoch. The galactic disk and random, close-passing stars may also cause rare, large perturbations in the orbits of the cloud comets, sending large numbers of comets through the inner solar system. The resulting cometary storm is a candidate cause for the wholesale extinction of dinosaurs in the Cretaceous-Terniary transition due to large number of planetesimals, or one large comet, striking the earth, in a short period of time. The IRAS instruments have detected similar clouds of material around other stars

  6. Autonomous Onboard Science Data Analysis for Comet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.; Tran, Daniel Q.; McLaren, David; Chien, Steve A.; Bergman, Larry; Castano, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Estlin, Tara; Lenda, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Coming years will bring several comet rendezvous missions. The Rosetta spacecraft arrives at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. Subsequent rendezvous might include a mission such as the proposed Comet Hopper with multiple surface landings, as well as Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) and Coma Rendezvous and Sample Return (CRSR). These encounters will begin to shed light on a population that, despite several previous flybys, remains mysterious and poorly understood. Scientists still have little direct knowledge of interactions between the nucleus and coma, their variation across different comets or their evolution over time. Activity may change on short timescales so it is challenging to characterize with scripted data acquisition. Here we investigate automatic onboard image analysis that could act faster than round-trip light time to capture unexpected outbursts and plume activity. We describe one edge-based method for detect comet nuclei and plumes, and test the approach on an existing catalog of comet images. Finally, we quantify benefits to specific measurement objectives by simulating a basic plume monitoring campaign.

  7. Origin and development of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresak, L.

    1989-01-01

    The comets are the most primitive and probably also the oldest members of the solar system. Comet cores are brittle bodies of an irregular shape and of a size of 1 to 10 km whose main component is ice. Around 130 comets move along short-period paths whose aphelia are concentrated in the area of Jupiter. They are in the last stage of development. About 20 comets have periods of 20 to 200 years and feature higher motion stability. Roughly 180 comets have elliptical orbits of a period exceeding 200 years, 200 comets have parabolic and 120 comets have hyperbolic orbits. The most distant comets form the Oort cloud around the solar system consisting of about one billion comets. Comets originated roughly 4.6 thousand million years ago together with planets, probably inside the Oort cloud. (M.D.). 11 figs

  8. Comets in UV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B.; Sachkov, M.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; Vallejo, J. C.; Kanev, E.; Dorofeeva, V.

    2018-04-01

    Comets are important "eyewitnesses" of Solar System formation and evolution. Important tests to determine the chemical composition and to study the physical processes in cometary nuclei and coma need data in the UV range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Comprehensive and complete studies require additional ground-based observations and in situ experiments. We briefly review observations of comets in the ultraviolet (UV) and discuss the prospects of UV observations of comets and exocomets with space-borne instruments. A special reference is made to the World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) project.

  9. Physics of comets

    CERN Document Server

    Krishna Swamy, K S

    2010-01-01

    This revised edition places a unique emphasis on all the new results from ground-based, satellites and space missions - detection of molecule H2 and prompt emission lines of OH for the first time; discovery of X-rays in comets; observed diversity in chemical composition among comets; the puzzle of the constancy of spin temperature; the well-established mineralogy of cometary dust; extensive theoretical modeling carried out for understanding the observed effects; and, the similarity in the mineralogy of dust in circumstellar shell of stars, comets, meteorites, asteroids and IDPs, thus indicatin

  10. Outbursts and diamagnetic cavities in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2018-03-01

    On 2014 August 06 the Rosetta spacecraft arrived at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Since then, the spacecraft accompanied the comet on its journey around the Sun (Glassmeier et al. 2007), until the end of the mission on 2016 September 30. This work tries to understand the possible connections between the 665 reported diamagnetic regions (Goetz et al. 2016), detected from April 2015 to February 2016 around the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, with the fluxgate magnetometer of the Rosetta Plasma Consortium (RPC-MAG), when the heliocentric distance of the comet from the sun varied from 1.8 to 2.4 AU and the 34 reported outbursts (Vincent et al. 2016), detected from July to September 2015, with the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) cameras, when the ESA's Rosetta spacecraft changed the cometocentric distance from 155 to 817 km.

  11. On the relationship between gas and dust in 15 comets: an application to Comet 103P/Hartley 2 target of the NASA EPOXI mission of opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzovo, G. C.; Sanzovo, D. Trevisan; de Almeida, A. A.

    After the success of Deep Impact mission to hit the nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 with an impactor, the concerns are turned now to the possible reutilization of this dormant flyby spacecraft in the study of another comet, for only about 10% of the cost of the original mission. Comet 103P/Hartley 2 on UT 2010 October 11 is the most attractive target in terms of available fuel at rendezvous and arrival time at the comet. In addition, the comet has a low inclination so that major orbital plane changes in the spacecraft trajectory are unnecessary. In an effort to provide information concerning the planning of this new NASA EPOXI space mission of opportunity, we use in this work, visual magnitudes measurements available from International Comet Quarterly (ICQ) to obtain, applying the Semi-Empirical Method of Visual Magnitudes - SEMVM (de Almeida, Singh, & Huebner 1997), the water production rates (in molecules/s) related to its perihelion passage of 1997. When associated to the water vaporization theory of Delsemme (1982), these rates allowed the acquisition of the minimum dimension for the effective nuclear radius of the comet. The water production rates were then converted into gas production rates (in g/s) so that, with the help of the strong correlation between gas and dust found for 12 periodic comets and 3 non-period comets (Trevisan Sanzovo 2006), we obtained the dust loss rates (in g/s), its behavior with the heliocentric distance and the dust-to-gas ratios in this physically attractive rendezvous target-comet to Deep Impact spacecraft at a closest approach of 700 km.

  12. DIRBE Comet Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Re-examination of the COBE DIRBE data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails.The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported.The known trails of 2P/Encke, and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 microns surface brightnesses of trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals one additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  13. Rosetta - a comet ride to solve planetary mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Comets are very interesting objects for scientists, since their composition reflects how the Solar System was when it was very young and still 'unfinished', more than 4600 million years ago. Comets have not changed much since then. By orbiting Comet Wirtanen and landing on it, Rosetta will collect essential information to understand the origin and evolution of our Solar System. It will also help discover whether comets contributed to the beginnings of life on Earth. In fact comets are carriers of complex organic molecules, that - delivered to Earth through impacts - perhaps played a role in the origin of living forms. Furthermore, “volatile” light elements carried by comets may have also played an important role in forming the Earth’s oceans and atmopshere. “Rosetta is one of the most challenging missions ever undertaken so far”, says Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, “No one before attempted a similar mission, unique for its scientific implications as well as for its complex and spectacular interplanetary space manoeuvres”. Before reaching its target in 2011, Rosetta will circle the Sun almost four times on wide loops in the inner Solar System. During its long trek, the spacecraft will have to endure some extreme thermal conditions. Once it is close to Comet Wirtanen, scientists will take it through a delicate braking manoeuvre; then the spacecraft will closely orbit the comet, and gently drop a lander on it. It will be like landing on a small, fast-moving cosmic bullet that still has - at present - an almost unknown 'geography'. An amazing 8-year interplanetary trek Rosetta is a 3-tonne box-type spacecraft about 3 metres high, with two 14-metre long solar panels. It consists of an orbiter and a lander. The lander is approximately 1 metre across and 80 centimetres high. It will be attached to the side of the Rosetta orbiter during the journey to Comet Wirtanen. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total, 10 of them on the lander. They will

  14. Physical processes in comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newburn, R.L. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When this program began in 1975 only limited photometry had been carried out on comets at any wavelength. Program goals were to observe many comets, including faint periodic comets, at a range of heliocentric distances in order to begin to understand the range of behavior among comets and in a given comet during its approach and departure from the sun. Then a study of the continuum of scattered light from dust was added. More recently the value of joint team observations in visible and infrared light has been recognized and utilized as often as possible. All 1978 to 1982 data was reanalyzed and 1983 to 1986 data analyzed in the framwork of the post-Halley paradigm, covering 25 comets in all. Four observing runs (June, July, Sept., and Jan.) with Hanner produced excellent results on Wilson, Bradfield, P/Klemola, and P/Borrelly and lesser data on other objects, including the last reported IR photometry of P/Halley. The Wilson and Halley data have been reduced

  15. Where are the mini Kreutz-family comets?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Wiegert, Paul A.; Hui, Man-To; Kracht, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The Kreutz family of sungrazing comets contains over 2000 known members, many of which are believed to be under ∼100 m sizes (mini comets) and have only been studied at small heliocentric distances (r H ) with space-based SOHO/STEREO spacecraft. To understand the brightening process of mini Kreutz comets, we conducted a survey using CFHT/MegaCam at moderate r H guided by SOHO/STEREO observations. We identify two comets that should be in our search area but are not detected, indicating that the comets have either followed a steeper brightening rate within the previously reported rapid brightening stage (the brightening burst), or the brightening burst starts earlier than expected. We present a composite analysis of the pre-perihelion light curves of five Kreutz comets that cover to ∼1 AU. We observe significant diversity in the light curves that can be used to grossly classify them into two types: C/Ikeya-Seki and C/SWAN follow the canonical r H −4 while the others follow r H −7 . In particular, C/SWAN seems to have undergone an outburst (Δm > 5 mag) or a rapid brightening (n ≳ 11) between r H = 1.06 AU and 0.52 AU, and shows hints of structural/compositional differences compared to other bright Kreutz comets. We also find evidence that the Kreutz comets as a population lose their mass less efficiently than the dynamically new comet, C/ISON, and are relatively devoid of species that drive C/ISON's activity at large r H . Concurrent observations of C/STEREO in different wavelengths also suggest that a blueward species such as CN may be the main driver for brightening bursts, instead of sodium as previously thought

  16. The Rosetta Mission to Comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2017-06-01

    As remnant bodies left over from the formation of the Solar System, comets offer clues to the physical conditions and architecture of the protosolar nebula. The Rosetta spacecraft, which included an orbiter and a lander that were built and managed by the European Space Agency with NASA contributing four instruments and scientific expertise, was the first mission to orbit and study a comet through a perihelion passage. The targeted Jupiter-family comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko, is seemingly two distinct planetesimals stuck together. The comet has not melted or been processed substantially, except for its outer layers, which consist of reaccreted dust and a crust of heated, devolatized, and annealed refractory materials and organics. The exceptionally low density (0.53 gm/cc) of 67P/ implies it is a rubble pile. The comet also appears to contain a hierarchy of building blocks: smaller spherically shaped meter-sized bodies can be seen in its interior, and even smaller cm-sized pebbles were imaged by the camera as the spacecraft made a soft crash landing on the comet’s surface on 30 September 2016. The unexpected discovery of molecular oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen imply that 67P/ was formed under cold conditions not exceeding 30K. The discovery of many organic compounds, including the amino acid glycine, lends support to the idea that comets, which originate in the Kuiper Belt and the Oort Cloud, brought the building blocks of life to Earth. More laboratory data on organic compounds would help to identify additional organic compounds on the comet. The differences between cometary and terrestrial D/H ratios suggest that comets are not the primary source of terrestrial water, although data on more comets is needed to confirm this result.Besides being primordial objects offering a window into the formation of solar systems, comets are astrophysical laboratories, ejecting dust and charged particles into the plasma comprising the solar wind. Several unusual phenomena

  17. Infrared imaging and photometry of Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campins, H.

    1986-01-01

    Infrared images and photometry were obtained to determine the spatial distribution and physical characteristics (temperature, albedo, size distribution, total mass, etc.) of the grains in the coma of Comet GZ. A 10.8 m image of Comet GZ obtained on August 4 represents the first ground-based thermal-infrared image of a Comet. Among the most significant results are: (1) an estimate of the number of grains that the ICE spacecraft must have encountered, which led the plasma wave team to conclude that they could only detect impacts on the antennae and not on the whole body of the ICE spacecraft; (2) the discovery of a population of large grains (radius > 100 micrometer), not observed in most other comets, which formed a curved tail near the nucleus (within 80 arcsec or 34,000 km); and (3) the detection of structure in the spatial distribution in the coma of the particle albedo, which was tentatively attributed to the presence of very fluffy grains which are likely to have multiple internal scattering of incident sunlight. The albedo map of Comet GZ was obtained by combining the 10.8 micrometer image shown with a simultaneous image taken at 0.68 micrometer, a bandpass which isolates the scattered continuum

  18. THE PLASMA ENVIRONMENT IN COMETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES: APPLICATION TO COMET C/2006 P1 (MCNAUGHT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou, Y.; Combi, M.; Gombosi, T.; Toth, G. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jia, Y.-D. [IGPP, and EPSS, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rubin, M. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse. 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-08-20

    On 2007 January 12, comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) passed its perihelion at 0.17 AU. Abundant remote observations offer plenty of information on the neutral composition and neutral velocities within 1 million kilometers of the comet nucleus. In early February, the Ulysses spacecraft made an in situ measurement of the ion composition, plasma velocity, and magnetic field when passing through the distant ion tail and the ambient solar wind. The measurement by Ulysses was made when the comet was at around 0.8 AU. With the constraints provided by remote and in situ observations, we simulated the plasma environment of Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) using a multi-species comet MHD model over a wide range of heliocentric distances from 0.17 to 1.75 AU. The solar wind interaction of the comet at various locations is characterized and typical subsolar standoff distances of the bow shock and contact surface are presented and compared to analytic solutions. We find the variation in the bow shock standoff distances at different heliocentric distances is smaller than the contact surface. In addition, we modified the multi-species model for the case when the comet was at 0.7 AU and achieved comparable water group ion abundances, proton densities, plasma velocities, and plasma temperatures to the Ulysses/SWICS and SWOOPS observations. We discuss the dominating chemical reactions throughout the comet-solar wind interaction region and demonstrate the link between the ion composition near the comet and in the distant tail as measured by Ulysses.

  19. THE PLASMA ENVIRONMENT IN COMETS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES: APPLICATION TO COMET C/2006 P1 (MCNAUGHT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shou, Y.; Combi, M.; Gombosi, T.; Toth, G.; Jia, Y.-D.; Rubin, M.

    2015-01-01

    On 2007 January 12, comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) passed its perihelion at 0.17 AU. Abundant remote observations offer plenty of information on the neutral composition and neutral velocities within 1 million kilometers of the comet nucleus. In early February, the Ulysses spacecraft made an in situ measurement of the ion composition, plasma velocity, and magnetic field when passing through the distant ion tail and the ambient solar wind. The measurement by Ulysses was made when the comet was at around 0.8 AU. With the constraints provided by remote and in situ observations, we simulated the plasma environment of Comet C/2006 P1 (McNaught) using a multi-species comet MHD model over a wide range of heliocentric distances from 0.17 to 1.75 AU. The solar wind interaction of the comet at various locations is characterized and typical subsolar standoff distances of the bow shock and contact surface are presented and compared to analytic solutions. We find the variation in the bow shock standoff distances at different heliocentric distances is smaller than the contact surface. In addition, we modified the multi-species model for the case when the comet was at 0.7 AU and achieved comparable water group ion abundances, proton densities, plasma velocities, and plasma temperatures to the Ulysses/SWICS and SWOOPS observations. We discuss the dominating chemical reactions throughout the comet-solar wind interaction region and demonstrate the link between the ion composition near the comet and in the distant tail as measured by Ulysses

  20. Comets in Australian Aboriginal Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.; Norris, Ray P.

    2011-03-01

    We present 25 accounts of comets from 40 Australian Aboriginal communities, citing both supernatural perceptions of comets and historical accounts of historically bright comets. Historical and ethnographic descriptions include the Great Comets of 1843, 1861, 1901, 1910, and 1927. We describe the perceptions of comets in Aboriginal societies and show that they are typically associated with fear, death, omens, malevolent spirits, and evil magic, consistent with many cultures around the world. We also provide a list of words for comets in 16 different Aboriginal languages.

  1. MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN OORT CLOUD COMET 1P/HALLEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, M.; Altwegg, K. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Dishoeck, E. F. van [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Schwehm, G. [ESA (retired) Science Operations Department, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2015-12-10

    Recently, the ROSINA mass spectrometer suite on board the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft discovered an abundant amount of molecular oxygen, O{sub 2}, in the coma of Jupiter family comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko of O{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O = 3.80 ± 0.85%. It could be shown that O{sub 2} is indeed a parent species and that the derived abundances point to a primordial origin. Crucial questions are whether the O{sub 2} abundance is peculiar to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko or Jupiter family comets in general, and also whether Oort cloud comets such as comet 1P/Halley contain similar amounts of molecular oxygen. We investigated mass spectra obtained by the Neutral Mass Spectrometer instrument during the flyby by the European Space Agency's Giotto probe of comet 1P/Halley. Our investigation indicates that a production rate of O{sub 2} of 3.7 ± 1.7% with respect to water is indeed compatible with the obtained Halley data and therefore that O{sub 2} might be a rather common and abundant parent species.

  2. The Stardust spacecraft arrives at KSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    After arrival at the Shuttle Landing Facility in the early morning hours, the crated Stardust spacecraft waits to be unloaded from the aircraft. Built by Lockheed Martin Astronautics near Denver, Colo., for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) NASA, the spacecraft Stardust will use a unique medium called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of comet Wild 2 in January 2004, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. Stardust will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7426 rocket from Complex 17, Cape Canaveral Air Station, targeted for Feb. 6, 1999. The collected samples will return to Earth in a re- entry capsule to be jettisoned from Stardust as it swings by in January 2006.

  3. Jupiter Laser Facility - COMET Laser

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — COMET has 4 beam configurations with uncompressed pulse lengths from 500 ps to 6 ns, compressed pulses to 0.5 ps, and beam energies up to 20 J. COMET can fire every...

  4. The Halley comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encrenaz, T.; Festou, M.

    1985-01-01

    The conspicuous part of a comet, made of tenuous gas and dusts, represents only a tiny part of its mass. The main information is hidden in the central part: a solid nucleus, ice and rock blocks with a radius less than 10 km, completely invisible from the Earth. The knowledge of the nucleus structure and its composition could give the key of the planet creation mechanisms. That is a reason why it has been decided to send an automatic device to penetrate the Halley comet atmosphere and that two Soviet probes, Vega 1 and 2, one European probe Giotto, and two Japanese, Planet-A and MS-TS, will explore in-situ in March 1986, for the first time, a comet at atmosphere [fr

  5. Astrobiology of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Wickramasinghe, Nalin C.; Wallis, Max K.; Sheldon, Robert B.

    2004-01-01

    We review the current state of knowledge concerning microbial extremophiles and comets and the potential significance of comets to Astrobiology. We model the thermal history of a cometary body, regarded as an assemblage of boulders, dust, ices and organics, as it approaches a perihelion distance of - IAU. The transfer of incident energy from sunlight into the interior leads to the melting of near surface ices, some under stable porous crust, providing possible habitats for a wide range of microorganisms. We provide data concerning new evidence for indigenous microfossils in CI meteorites, which may be the remains of extinct cometary cores. We discuss the dominant microbial communities of polar sea-ice, Antarctic ice sheet, and cryoconite environments as possible analogs for microbial ecosystems that may grow in sub-crustal pools or in ice/water films in comets.

  6. Comet: Multifunction VOEvent broker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinbank, John

    2014-04-01

    Comet is a Python implementation of the VOEvent Transport Protocol (VTP). VOEvent is the IVOA system for describing transient celestial events. Details of transients detected by many projects, including Fermi, Swift, and the Catalina Sky Survey, are currently made available as VOEvents, which is also the standard alert format by future facilities such as LSST and SKA. The core of Comet is a multifunction VOEvent broker, capable of receiving events either by subscribing to one or more remote brokers or by direct connection from authors; it can then both process those events locally and forward them to its own subscribers. In addition, Comet provides a tool for publishing VOEvents to the global VOEvent backbone.

  7. Adaptation of G-TAG Software for Validating Touch-and-Go Comet Surface Sampling Design Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Blackmore, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The G-TAG software tool was developed under the R&TD on Integrated Autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control for Comet Sample Return, and represents a novel, multi-body dynamics simulation software tool for studying TAG sampling. The G-TAG multi-body simulation tool provides a simulation environment in which a Touch-and-Go (TAG) sampling event can be extensively tested. TAG sampling requires the spacecraft to descend to the surface, contact the surface with a sampling collection device, and then to ascend to a safe altitude. The TAG event lasts only a few seconds but is mission-critical with potentially high risk. Consequently, there is a need for the TAG event to be well characterized and studied by simulation and analysis in order for the proposal teams to converge on a reliable spacecraft design. This adaptation of the G-TAG tool was developed to support the Comet Odyssey proposal effort, and is specifically focused to address comet sample return missions. In this application, the spacecraft descends to and samples from the surface of a comet. Performance of the spacecraft during TAG is assessed based on survivability and sample collection performance. For the adaptation of the G-TAG simulation tool to comet scenarios, models are developed that accurately describe the properties of the spacecraft, approach trajectories, and descent velocities, as well as the models of the external forces and torques acting on the spacecraft. The adapted models of the spacecraft, descent profiles, and external sampling forces/torques were more sophisticated and customized for comets than those available in the basic G-TAG simulation tool. Scenarios implemented include the study of variations in requirements, spacecraft design (size, locations, etc. of the spacecraft components), and the environment (surface properties, slope, disturbances, etc.). The simulations, along with their visual representations using G-View, contributed to the Comet Odyssey New Frontiers proposal

  8. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  9. Nature and origin of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Jockers, K.

    1983-01-01

    The review examines basic history and morphology, motion, dynamic evolution, physical properties of neutral gaseous matter, vaporization of gases and outflow from the nucleus, chemistry of the coma gases, the comet nucleus, dust particles, solar wind-comet interactions and tail formation and the origin of comets. (U.K.)

  10. Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem (ADCS) Preparations for the EPOXI Flyby of Comet Hartley 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Michael E.; Collins, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    On November 4, 2010 the former "Deep Impact" spacecraft, renamed "EPOXI" for its extended mission, flew within 700km of comet 103P/Hartley 2. In July 2005, the spacecraft had previously imaged a probe impact of comet Tempel 1. The EPOXI flyby was the fifth close encounter of a spacecraft with a comet nucleus and marked the first time in history that two comet nuclei were imaged at close range with the same suite of onboard science instruments. This challenging objective made the function of the attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS) critical to the successful execution of the EPOXI flyby.As part of the spacecraft flyby preparations, the ADCS operations team had to perform meticulous sequence reviews, implement complex spacecraft engineering and science activities and perform numerous onboard calibrations. ADCS contributions included design and execution of 10 trajectory correction maneuvers, the science calibration of the two telescopic instruments, an in-flight demonstration of high-rate turns between Earth and comet point, and an ongoing assessment of reaction wheel health. The ADCS team was also responsible for command sequences that included updates to the onboard ephemeris and sun sensor coefficients and implementation of reaction wheel assembly (RWA) de-saturations.

  11. Comets - cosmic 'snowballs'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luest, R.

    1979-01-01

    Non-periodic comets come from regions at the limit of our solar system and have conserved their original structure and composition since they have originated from a pre-solar nebuly together with the sun and the planets about 4.5 x 10 9 years ago. They are icy bodies of kilometer size whose structure and chemical composition is of great interest also with respect to the origin of the solar system. It is hoped to send a space craft to comet Halley in 1986 to get more detailed informations. (orig.) [de

  12. Comets, Asteroids, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, the role of comets in the delivery of water, organics, and prebiotic chemicals to the Biosphere of Earth during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Ga) period of heavy bombardment has become more widely accepted. However comets are still largely regarded as frigid, pristine bodies of protosolar nebula material that are entirely devoid of liquid water and consequently unsuitable for life in any form. Complex organic compounds have been observed comets and on the water rich asteroid 1998 KY26, which has color and radar reflectivity similar to the carbonaceous meteorites. Near infrared observations have indicated the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate on the large Kuiper Belt object (50000) Quaoar with resurfacing that may indicate cryovolcanic outgassing and the Cassini spacecraft has detected water-ice geysers on Saturn s moon Enceladus. Spacecraft observations of the chemical compositions and characteristics of the nuclei of several comets (Halley, Borrelly, Wild 2, and Tempel 1) have now firmly established that comets contain a suite of complex organic chemicals; water is the predominant volatile; and that extremely high temperatures (approx.350-400 K) can be reached on the surface of the very black (albedo-0.03) nuclei when the comets are with 1.5 AU from the Sun. Impact craters and pinnacles observed on comet Wild 2 suggest a thick crust and episodic outbursts and jets observed on the nuclei of several comets are interpreted as indications that localized regimes of liquid water and water vapor can periodically exist beneath the crust of some comets. The Deep Impact observations indicate that the temperature on the nucleus of of comet Tempel 1 at 1.5 AU varied from 330K on the sunlit side to a minimum of 280+/-8 K. It is interesting that even the coldest region of the comet surface was slightly above the ice/liquid water phase transition temperature. These results suggest that pools and films of liquid water can exist in a wide

  13. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, Horst Uwe; Kuhrt, Ekkehard; A'Hearn, Michael; Altwegg, Kathrin; Betrand, Regis; Busemann, Henner; Capria, Maria Teresa; Colangeli, Luigi

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA s Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three samples of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-and-go sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  14. Application of MCM image construction to IRAS comet observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapfer, Martin F.; Walker, Russell G.

    1994-01-01

    There is a wealth of IRAS comet data, obtained in both the survey and pointed observations modes. However, these measurements have remained largely untouched due to difficulties in removing instrumental effects from the data. We have developed a version of the Maximum Correlation Method for Image Construction algorithm (MCM) which operates in the moving coordinate system of the comet and properly treats both real cometary motion and apparent motion due to spacecraft parallax. This algorithm has been implemented on a 486/33 PC in FORTRAN and IDL codes. Preprocessing of the IRAS CRDD includes baseline removal, deglitching, and removal of long tails due to dielectric time constants of the detectors. The resulting images are virtually free from instrumental effects and have the highest possible spatial resolution consistent with the data sampling. We present examples of high resolution IRAS images constructed from survey observations of Comets P/Tempel 1 and P/Tempel 2, and pointed observations of IRAS-Araki-Alcock.

  15. Comets in Indian Scriptures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Gupta, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Indo-Aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times in order to conduct sacrificial rites ordained by the Vedas. Naturally, they would have sighted comets and referred to them in the Vedic texts. In Rigveda (circa 1700-1500 BC) and Atharvaveda (circa 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Rigveda speaks of a fig tree whose aerial roots spread out in the sky (Parpola 2010). Had this imagery been inspired by the resemblance of a comet's tail with long and linear roots of a banyan tree (ficus benghalensis)? Varahamihira (AD 550) and Ballal Sena (circa AD 1100-1200) described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers, such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, and Garga, to name a few. In this article, we propose that an episode in Mahabharata in which a radiant king, Nahusha, who rules the heavens and later turns into a serpent after he kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  16. Comet 2001 Q2

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Bouma, R. J.; Raymundo, P. M.

    č. 7687 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  17. Death of a comet

    CERN Multimedia

    Hawkes, N

    2000-01-01

    The comet Linear dissolved as it made its closest approach to the sun on July 25th. The first stages of its breakup had been witnessed by the Hubble telescope when it threw off a piece of its crust (3 paragraphs).

  18. Halley's Comet: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Ruth S., Comp.

    Included in this bibliography are over 3,200 references to publications on Halley's Comet, its history, orbital motion, and physical characteristics, meteor streams associated with it, preparations for space missions to study it in 1986, and popular reaction to its appearances. Also cited are a few papers that, although they devote little…

  19. Asteroids, meteorites, and comets

    CERN Document Server

    Elkins-Tanton, Linda T

    2010-01-01

    Asteroids, Comets, and Meteorites provides students, researchers, and general readers with the most up-to-date information on this fascinating field. From the days of the dinosaurs to our modern environment, this book explores all aspects of these cosmic invaders.

  20. DRBE comet trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr −1 , respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  1. DRBE comet trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.G.Arendt@nasa.gov [CREST/UMBC, Code 665, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr{sup −1}, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  2. Disappearance and disintegration of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation has the objective to provide a summary of the existing evidence on the disappearance of comets and to draw conclusions regarding the physical processes involved in the disappearance. Information concerning the classification of evidence and the causes of apparent disappearance of comets is presented in a table. Attention is given to the dissipating comets, the headless sungrazing comet 1887 I, and the physical behavior of the dissipating comets and the related phenomena. It is found that all comets confined to the planetary region of the solar system decay on astronomically short time scales. However, only some of them appear to perish catastrophically. Some of the observed phenomena could be successfully interpreted. But little insight has been obtained into the character of the processes which the dissipating comets experience.

  3. Ammonia abundances in four comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickoff, S.; Tegler, S.C.; Engel, L.

    1991-01-01

    NH2 emission band strengths were measured in four comets and the NH2 column densities were determined in order to measure the ammonia content of the comets. The mean ammonia/water abundance ratio derived for the four comets is found to be 0.13 + or - 0.06 percent, with no significant variation among the comets. The uniformity of this abundance attests to a remarkable degree of chemical homogeneity over large scales in the comet-forming region of the primordial solar nebula, and contrasts with the CO abundance variations found previously in comets. The N2 and NH3 abundances indicate a condensation temperature in the range 20-160 K, consistent with virtually all comet formation hypotheses. 64 refs

  4. Cometography a catalog of comets

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W; Seargent, David A J

    2017-01-01

    Cometography is a multi-volume catalog of every comet observed from ancient times up to the 1990s, when the internet took off as a medium of scientific record. It uses the most reliable orbits known to determine the distances from the Earth and Sun at the time of discovery and last observation, as well as the largest and smallest angular distance to the Sun, most northerly and southerly declination, closest distance to the Earth, and other details, to enable the reader to understand each comet's physical appearance. Volume 6, the final volume in the catalog, covers the observations and pertinent calculations for every comet seen between 1983 and 1993. The comets are listed in chronological order, with complete references to publications relating to each comet and physical descriptions of each comet's development throughout its apparition. Cometography is the definitive reference on comets through the ages, for astronomers and historians of science.

  5. Spacecraft operations

    CERN Document Server

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  6. Optical Detection of Anomalous Nitrogen in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    . Introducing instead the terrestrial ratio for nitrogen-15 (1/272) significantly degrades the fit and thus that ratio can clearly be ruled out in Comet LINEAR. At the time of the VLT observations, the comet was of 9th magnitude, i.e. about 15 times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye. The distance from the Sun was about 180 million km; the distance from the Earth was 186 million km. The observations included calibration spectra of sunlight reflected from the lunar surface; they were used to "subtract" the solar signatures in the comet's spectrum, caused by reflection of sunlight from the dust particles around the comet. As expected, in addition to emission from "normal" CN-molecules ( 12 C 14 N), the UVES data also show emission lines of the 13 C 14 N-molecule that contains the rare isotope carbon-13. The derived 12 C/ 13 C isotopic ratio is 115 ± 20, quite similar to the "standard" solar system value of 89. However, there is also a series of weak features that are positioned exactly at the theoretical wavelengths of emission lines from 12 C 15 N-molecules, cf. PR Photo 28c/03 . The excellent fit that is evident in this diagram proves beyond any doubt the presence of nitrogen-15 in Comet LINEAR and allows a quite accurate determination of the isotopic ratio. The "anomalous" nitrogen isotope ratio in comets In 1997, the same group of astronomers obtained spectra of the (at that time) much brighter Comet Hale-Bopp with the 2.6-m NOT telescope (Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) in order to investigate the isotopic ratio of carbon-12 to carbon-13. Claude Arpigny remembers: " Interestingly, our spectra of Hale-Bopp showed a number of weak and unidentified emission lines. We later realised that they were positioned close to the theoretical wavelengths of some lines from the 12 C 15 N-molecule. This was a pleasant surprise, as lines from that molecular species were previously believed to be so faint that they would not be

  7. 67P, Singing Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Ekaterina

    2017-04-01

    I would like to propose to present a short science-art-music collaboration film called "67P, Singing Comet" (5:27 min). If time of the session will allow, prior to the film I would like to make a slide show introduction to this project, highlighting the inspiration - the mission Rosetta by the European Space Agency (ESA) - and the artistic collaboration that took place in creating this piece. Inspired by the ESA Rosetta mission to the comet 67P, Ekaterina Smirnova (artist and project director, New York), Lee Mottram (clarinetist, Wales), Takuto Fukuda (composer, Japan) and Brian Hekker (video editor, New York) collaborated to create a unique atmospheric piece. Water and the origins of life throughout the Universe (specifically the Earth) is an element of the mission and the focus of Ekaterina's artistic vision. Ekaterina literally and figuratively paints a sensory assemblage using a combination of synthetic and natural elements to shape this artistic creation. To paint her watercolor works she is using a replica of the water found on the comet and implementing her own heartbeat into the music to create a recognizable inward sound of life. The Electro-Acoustic composition by Takuto Fukuda features an electronically manipulated performance by clarinetist Lee Mottram. The piece ceremoniously begins with reverberant bursts of low-register atonal bells transporting the listener to their ethereal inner origins of body and mind. The imagination takes the experience to an unknown destination as it gains speed gliding through the visual and audible textures of space and time. The comet's water similarly reacts with an ebb and flow thawing ice to potentially give life a chance as it is thrust along an orbit around the Sun. Near then far from the heat the comet forms frozen particles from vapors as it reaches it's furthest stretches creating an aerodynamic tail of icicles that slowly dissipate in a cycle that repeats itself until the comet's ultimate collision with an

  8. Numerical simulations of comets - predictions for Comet Giacobini-Zinner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedder, J.A.; Lyon, J.G.; Giuliani, J.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Simulations of Comet Giacobini-Zinner's interaction with solar wind are described and results are presented. The simulations are carried out via the numerical solution of the ideal MHD equations as an initial value problem in a uniform solar wind. The calculations are performed on a Cartesian mesh centered at the comet. Results reveal that the first significant modifications of the solar wind along the ISEE/ICE trajectory will occur 100,000 km from the solar wind comet axis. 6 references

  9. The Comet Radar Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, Erik; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Chesley, Steve; Delbo, Marco; Farnham, Tony; Gim, Yonggyu; Grimm, Robert; Herique, Alain; Kofman, Wlodek; Oberst, Juergen; Orosei, Roberto; Piqueux, Sylvain; Plaut, Jeff; Robinson, Mark; Sava, Paul; Heggy, Essam; Kurth, William; Scheeres, Dan; Denevi, Brett; Turtle, Elizabeth; Weissman, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Missions to cometary nuclei have revealed major geological surprises: (1) Global scale layers - do these persist through to the interior? Are they a record of primary accretion? (2) Smooth regions - are they landslides originating on the surface? Are they cryovolcanic? (3) Pits - are they impact craters or sublimation pits, or rooted in the interior? Unambiguous answers to these and other questions can be obtained by high definition 3D radar reflection imaging (RRI) of internal structure. RRI can answer many of the great unknowns in planetary science: How do primitive bodies accrete? Are cometary nuclei mostly ice? What drives their spectacular activity and evolution? The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) mission will image the detailed internal structure of the nucleus of 10P/Tempel 2. This ~16 x 8 x 7 km Jupiter Family Comet (JFC), or its parent body, originated in the outer planets region possibly millions of years before planet formation. CORE arrives post-perihelion and observes the comet’s waning activity from safe distance. Once the nucleus is largely dormant, the spacecraft enters a ~20-km dedicated Radar Mapping Orbit (RMO). The exacting design of the RRI experiment and the precise navigation of RMO will achieve a highly focused 3D radar reflection image of internal structure, to tens of meters resolution, and tomographic images of velocity and attenuation to hundreds of meters resolution, tied to the gravity model and shape. Visible imagers will produce maps of the surface morphology, albedo, color, texture, and photometric response, and images for navigation and shape determination. The cameras will also monitor the structure and dynamics of the coma, and its dusty jets, allowing their correlation in 3D with deep interior structures and surface features. Repeated global high-resolution thermal images will probe the near-surface layers heated by the Sun. Derived maps of thermal inertia will be correlated with the radar boundary response, and photometry and

  10. CINE: Comet INfrared Excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Val-Borro, Miguel; Cordiner, Martin A.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2017-08-01

    CINE calculates infrared pumping efficiencies that can be applied to the most common molecules found in cometary comae such as water, hydrogen cyanide or methanol. One of the main mechanisms for molecular excitation in comets is the fluorescence by the solar radiation followed by radiative decay to the ground vibrational state. This command-line tool calculates the effective pumping rates for rotational levels in the ground vibrational state scaled by the heliocentric distance of the comet. Fluorescence coefficients are useful for modeling rotational emission lines observed in cometary spectra at sub-millimeter wavelengths. Combined with computational methods to solve the radiative transfer equations based, e.g., on the Monte Carlo algorithm, this model can retrieve production rates and rotational temperatures from the observed emission spectrum.

  11. Comets and their origin the tools to decipher a comet

    CERN Document Server

    Meierhenrich, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    Divided into two parts, the first four chapters of Comets and their Origin refer to comets and their formation in general, describing cometary missions, comet remote observations, astrochemistry, artificial comets, and the chirality phenomenon.The second part covers the cometary Rosetta mission, its launch, journey, scientific objectives, and instrumentations, as well as the landing scenario on a cometary nucleus. Along the way, the author presents general questions concerning the origin of terrestrial water and the molecular beginnings of lifeon Earth, as well as how the instruments used on

  12. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  13. First in situ plasma and neutral gas measurements at comet Halley: initial VEGA results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gringauz, K.I.; Remizov, A.P.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1986-04-01

    The first in situ observations and a description of the large scale behaviour of comet Halley's plasma environment are presented. The scientific objectives of the PLASMAG-1 experiment were as follows: to study the change of plasma parameters and distributions as a function of cometocentric distance; to investigate the existence and structure of the cometary bow shock; to determine the change in chemical composition of the heavily mass loaded plasma as the spacecraft approached the comet; and to measure the neutral gas distribution along the spacecraft trajectory. (author)

  14. Singing comet changes its song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volwerk, M.; Goetz, C.; Delva, M.; Richter, I.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Eriksson, A.; Odelstad, E.; Meier, P.; Nilsson, H.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2017-09-01

    The singing comet was discovered at the beginning of the Rosetta mission around comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Large amplitude compressional waves with frequencies between 10 and 100 mHz were observed. When the comet became more active this signal was no longer measured. During the so-called tail excursion, late in the mission after perihelion, with again a less active comet, the singing was observed again and interestingly, going from 26 March to 27 March 2016 the character of the singing changed.

  15. Blazing a ghostly trail ISON and great comets of the past and future

    CERN Document Server

    Grego, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A special celestial event climaxes towards the end of 2013, the arrival, fresh from the Oort Cloud, of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON). By all predictions, this comet was set to be one of the most dazzling comets seen in modern history.   Sky watchers will have already been primed for C/2012 (ISON) earlier in 2013 with the apparition of another naked-eye comet, C/2011 L4 (PanSTARRS), and following C/2012 S1 (ISON) there is the prospect of 2012 K1 (PanSTARRS) reaching naked-eye visibility in August 2014. And there will be other bright cometary prospects in the near future, if we take into account the latest predictions.   This book sets the scene for the arrival of Comet C/2012 S1 and those comets following it over the next few years. It explains how sky watchers and amateur astronomers can practically follow comets, observe them, and record them. This is also a guide on how to keep abreast of the latest cometary discoveries and how to use publications, websites, programs, and apps to visualize and plan observations....

  16. Technical manual for COMET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Jin Ho; Kwon, Young Min; Kim, Taek Mo; Lee, Sang Jong; Jeong, Hae Yong

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a description for a COMET computer code which is to be used in the analysis of mass and energy releases during post-blowdown phase of LOCA. The mass and energy data re to be used as input data for the containment functional design. This report contains a brief description of analytical models and guidelines for the usage of the computer code. This computer code is to be used for both cold leg and hot leg break analyses. A verification analyses are performed for Ulchin 3 and 4 cold and hot leg break. 11 figs (Author)

  17. On the origin of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, A.; Alfven, H.

    1976-01-01

    Physico-chemical processes leading to the dynamic formation and physical evolution of comets are reviewed in relationship to the various theories that propose solar origins, protoplanetary origins, planetary origins and interstellar origins. Evidence points to the origins of comets by the growth and agglomeration of small particles from gas and dust at very low temperatures at undetermined regions in space.

  18. Molecular ions in comet tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Wehinger, P.A.

    1976-01-01

    Band intensities of the molecular ions CH + , CO + , N 2 + , and H 2 O + have been determined on an absolute scale from tail spectra of comet Kohoutek (1973f) and comet Bradfield (1974b). Photoionization and photodissociation rates have been computed for CH, CO, and N 2 . Also emission rate excitation g-factors for (1) photoionization plus excitation and (2) resonance fluorescence have been computed for the observed ions. It is shown that resonance fluorescence is the dominant excitation mechanism for observed comet tail ions at rapprox. =1 AU. Band system luminosities and molecular ion abundances within a projected nuclear distance rho 4 km have been determined for CH + , CO + , N 2 + , and H 2 O + in comet Kohoutek, and for H 2 O + in comet Bradfield. Estimates are also given for column densities of all observed ions at rhoapprox. =10 4 km on the tailward side of the coma. The observed H 2 O + column densities were found to be roughly the same in comet Kohoutek and comet Bradfield et equal heliocentric distances, while CO + was found to be approximately 100 times more abundant than H 2 O + , N 2 + , and CH + at rhoapprox. =10 4 km in comet Kohoutek. Finally, the relative abundances of the observed ions and of the presumed parent neutral species are briefly discussed

  19. Detecting active comets with SDSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solontoi, Michael; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; West, Andrew A.; /MIT, MKI; Claire, Mark; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, Mario; /Princeton U. Observ.; Becker, Andrew; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Hall, Patrick B.; /York U., Canada; Kent, Steve; /Fermilab; Lupton, Robert H.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Quinn, Tom; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Princeton U. Observ.

    2010-12-01

    Using a sample of serendipitously discovered active comets in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we develop well-controlled selection criteria for greatly increasing the efficiency of comet identification in the SDSS catalogs. After follow-up visual inspection of images to reject remaining false positives, the total sample of SDSS comets presented here contains 19 objects, roughly one comet per 10 million other SDSS objects. The good understanding of selection effects allows a study of the population statistics, and we estimate the apparent magnitude distribution to r {approx} 18, the ecliptic latitude distribution, and the comet distribution in SDSS color space. The most surprising results are the extremely narrow range of colors for comets in our sample (e.g. root-mean-square scatter of only {approx}0.06 mag for the g-r color), and the similarity of comet colors to those of jovian Trojans. We discuss the relevance of our results for upcoming deep multi-epoch optical surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey, Pan-STARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and estimate that LSST may produce a sample of about 10,000 comets over its 10-year lifetime.

  20. Comet Halley and interstellar chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    How complex is the chemistry of the interstellar medium? How far does it evolve and how has it interacted with the chemistry of the solar system? Are the galactic chemical processes destroyed, preserved, or even enhanced in comets? Are biogenic molecules formed in space and have the formation mechanisms interacted in any way with prebiotic organic chemical processes on the early earth? Radio molecular studies of comets are important for probing deep into the coma and nuclear region and thus may help answer these questions. Comets are believed to be pristine samples of the debris left from the formation of the solar system and may have been the carrier between interstellar and terrestrial prebiotic chemistries. Recent observations of Comet Halley and subsequent comets have given the author an excellent opportunity to study the relationship between interstellar molecular chemistry and cometary chemistry

  1. Comet Dust: The Diversity of Primitive Particles and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Bradley; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples (IDPs and AMMs) and of comet dust samples (Stardust and Rosetta's COSIMA), as well as through remote sensing (spectroscopy and imaging) via Spitzer and via spacecraft encounters with 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Microscale investigations show that comet dust and cosmic dust are particles of unequilibrated materials, including aggregates of materials unequilibrated at submicron scales. We call unequilibrated materials "primitive" and we deduce they were incorporated into ice-­-rich (H2O-, CO2-, and CO-ice) parent bodies that remained cold, i.e., into comets, because of the lack of aqueous or thermal alteration since particle aggregation; yet some Stardust olivines suggest mild thermal metamorphism. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; size and size distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and organic matter; D-, N-, and O- isotopic enhancements over solar; Mg-, Fe-contentsof thesilicate minerals; the compositions and concentrations of sulfides, and of less abundant mineral species such as chondrules, CAIs and carbonates. The unifomity within a group of samples points to: aerodynamic sorting of particles and/or particle constituents; the inclusion of a limited range of oxygen fugacities; the inclusion or exclusion of chondrules; a selection of organics. The properites of primitive particles imply there were disk processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disk present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.

  2. Comet Dust: The Diversity of "Primitive" Particles and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Ishii, Hope A.; Bradley, John P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Comet dust is primitive and shows significant diversity. Our knowledge of the properties of primitive particles has expanded significantly through microscale investigations of cosmic dust samples ( IDP's(Interplanetary Dust Particles) and AMM's (Antarctic Micrometeorites)) and of comet dust samples (Stardust and Rosetta's COSIMA), as well as through remote sensing (spectroscopy and imaging) via Spitzer and via spacecraft encounters with 103P/Hartley 2 and 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Microscale investigations show that comet dust and cosmic dust are particles of unequilibrated materials, including aggregates of materials unequilibrated at submicron scales. We call unequilibrated materials "primitive" and we deduce they were incorporated into ice-rich (H2O-, CO2-, and CO-ice) parent bodies that remained cold, i.e., into comets, because of the lack of aqueous or thermal alteration since particle aggregation; yet some Stardust olivines suggest mild thermal metamorphism. Primitive particles exhibit a diverse range of: structure and typology; size and size distribution of constituents; concentration and form of carbonaceous and organic matter; D-, N-, and O- isotopic enhancements over solar; Mg-, Fe-contents of the silicate minerals; the compositions and concentrations of sulfides, and of less abundant mineral species such as chondrules, CAIs and carbonates. The uniformity within a group of samples points to: aerodynamic sorting of particles and/or particle constituents; the inclusion of a limited range of oxygen fugacities; the inclusion or exclusion of chondrules; a selection of organics. The properties of primitive particles imply there were disk processes that resulted in different comets having particular selections of primitive materials. The diversity of primitive particles has implications for the diversity of materials in the protoplanetary disk present at the time and in the region where the comets formed.

  3. Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muinonen, K.; Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Virkki, A.; Fedorets, G.; Wilkman, O.; Kohout, T.

    2014-08-01

    Asteroids, Comets, Meteors focuses on the research of small Solar System bodies. Small bodies are the key to understanding the formation and evolution of the Solar System, carrying signals from pre-solar times. Understanding the evolution of the Solar System helps unveil the evolution of extrasolar planetary systems. Societally, small bodies will be important future resources of minerals. The near-Earth population of small bodies continues to pose an impact hazard, whether it be small pieces of falling meteorites or larger asteroids or cometary nuclei capable of causing global environmental effects. The conference series entitled ''Asteroids, Comets, Meteors'' constitutes the leading international series in the field of small Solar System bodies. The first three conferences took place in Uppsala, Sweden in 1983, 1985, and 1989. The conference is now returning to Nordic countries after a quarter of a century. After the Uppsala conferences, the conference has taken place in Flagstaff, Arizona, U.S.A. in 1991, Belgirate, Italy in 1993, Paris, France in 1996, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. in 1999, in Berlin, Germany in 2002, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 2005, in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. in 2008, and in Niigata, Japan in 2012. ACM in Helsinki, Finland in 2014 will be the 12th conference in the series.

  4. Hyperactivity and Dust Composition of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 During the EPOXI Encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, David E.; Woodward, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Wooden, Diane H.

    2018-05-01

    Short-period comet 103P/Hartley 2 (103P) was the flyby target of the Deep Impact eXtended Investigation on 2010 November 4 UT. This comet has a small hyperactive nucleus, i.e., it has a high water production rate for its surface area. The underlying cause of the hyperactivity is unknown; the relative abundances of volatiles in the coma of 103P are not unusual. However, the dust properties of this comet have not been fully explored. We present four epochs of mid-infrared spectra and images of comet 103P observed from Gemini-South +T-ReCS on 2010 November 5, 7, 21 and December 13 UT, near and after the spacecraft encounter. Comet 103P exhibited a weak 10 μm emission feature ≃1.14 ± 0.01 above the underlying local 10 μm continuum. Thermal dust grain modeling of the spectra shows the grain composition (mineralogy) was dominated by amorphous carbon and amorphous pyroxene with evidence for Mg-rich crystalline olivine. The grain size has a peak grain radius range of a peak ∼ 0.5–0.9 μm. On average, the crystalline silicate mass fraction is ≃0.24, fairly typical of other short-period comets. In contrast, the silicate-to-carbon ratio of ≃0.48–0.64 is lower compared to other short-period comets, which indicates that the flux measured in the 10 μm region of 103P was dominated by amorphous carbon grains. We conclude that the hyperactivity in comet 103P is not revealing dust properties similar to the small grains seen with the Deep Impact experiment on comet 9P/Tempel 1 or from comet C/1995 O1 (Hale–Bopp).

  5. Comets, Asteroids, Meteorites, and the Origin of the Biosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    During the past few decades, the delivery of water, organics, and prebiotic chemicals to the Biosphere of Earth during the Hadean (4.5-3.8 Ga) period of heavy bombardment by comets and asteroids has become more widely accepted. Comets are still largely regarded as frigid, pristine bodies of protosolar nebula material that are devoid of liquid water and therefore unsuitable for life. Complex organic compounds have been observed in comets and on the water-rich asteroid 1998 KY26 and near IR observations have indicated the presence of crystalline water ice and ammonia hydrate on the large Kuiper Belt object (50000) Quaoar that has resurfacing suggesting cryovolcanic outgassing. Spacecraft observations of the chemical compositions and characteristics of the nuclei of several comets (Halley, Borrelly, Wild 2, and Tempel 1) have shown that comets contain complex organic chemicals; that water is the predominant volatile; and that extremely high temperatures (approx. 350-400 K) can be reached on the surfae of the very black (albedo approx. 0.03) nuclei of comets when they approach the Sun. Impact craters and pinnacles observed on comet Wild 2 suggest a thick crust. Episodic outbursts and jets from the nuclei of several comets indicate that localized regimes of liquid water and water vapor can periodically exist beneath the comet crust. The Deep Impact mission found the temperature of the nucleus of comet Tempel 1 at 1.5 AU varied from a minimum of 280 plus or minus 8 K the 330K (57 C) on the sunlit side. In this paper it is argued that that pools and films of liquid water exist (within a wide range of temperatures) in cavities and voids just beneath the hot, black crust. The possibility of liquid water existing over a wide range of temperatures significantly enhances the possibility that comets might contain niches suitable for the growth of microbial communities and ecosystems. These regimes would be ideal for the growth of psychrophilic, mesophilic, and thermophilic

  6. EPOXI: Comet 103p/Hartley 2 Observations from a Worldwide Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, K. J.; Hearn, M. F. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Bonev, B. P.; Charnley, S. B.; DiSanti, M. A.; Gersch, A.; Immler, S. M.; Kaluna, H. M.; Keane, J. V.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Earth- and space-based observations provide synergistic information for space mission encounters by providing data over longer timescales. at different wavelengths and using techniques that are impossible with an in situ flyby. We report here such observations in support of the EPOXI spacecraft flyby of comet 103P (Hartley 2. The nucleus is small and dark, and exhibited a very rapidly changing rotation period. Prior to the onset of activity, the period was approximately 16.4 hr. Starting in 2010 August the period changed from 16.6 hr to near 19 hr in December. With respect to dust composition, most volatiles and carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, the comet is similar to other Jupiter-family comets. What is unusual is the dominance of CO2-driven activity near perihelion, which likely persists out to aphelion. Near perihelion the comet nucleus was surrounded by a large halo of water-ice grains that contributed significantly to the total water production.

  7. Interaction of the solar wind with comets: a Rosetta perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2017-07-13

    The Rosetta mission provides an unprecedented possibility to study the interaction of comets with the solar wind. As the spacecraft accompanies comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from its very low-activity stage through its perihelion phase, the physics of mass loading is witnessed for various activity levels of the nucleus. While observations at other comets provided snapshots of the interaction region and its various plasma boundaries, Rosetta observations allow a detailed study of the temporal evolution of the innermost cometary magnetosphere. Owing to the short passage time of the solar wind through the interaction region, plasma instabilities such as ring--beam and non-gyrotropic instabilities are of less importance during the early life of the magnetosphere. Large-amplitude ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, the 'singing' of the comet, is probably due to a modified ion Weibel instability. This instability drives a cross-field current of implanted cometary ions unstable. The initial pick-up of these ions causes a major deflection of the solar wind protons. Proton deflection, cross-field current and the instability induce a threefold structure of the innermost interaction region with the characteristic Mach cone and Whistler wings as stationary interaction signatures as well as the ULF waves representing the dynamic aspect of the interaction.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Authors.

  8. Laboratory Studies of Cometary Materials - Continuity Between Asteroid and Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Walker, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory analysis of cometary samples have been enabled by collection of cometary dust in the stratosphere by high altitude aircraft and by the direct sampling of the comet Wild-2 coma by the NASA Stardust spacecraft. Cometary materials are composed of a complex assemblage of highly primitive, unprocessed interstellar and primordial solar system materials as well as a variety of high temperature phases that must have condensed in the inner regions of the protoplanetary disk. These findings support and contradict conclusions of comet properties based solely on astronomical observations. These sample return missions have instead shown that there is a continuity of properties between comets and asteroids, where both types of materials show evidence for primitive and processed materials. Furthermore, these findings underscore the importance and value of direct sample return. There will be great value in comparing the findings of the Stardust cometary coma sample return mission with those of future asteroid surface sample returns OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa II as well as future comet nucleus sample returns.

  9. Spacecraft radiator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  10. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  11. EPOXI at comet Hartley 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hearn, Michael F; Belton, Michael J S; Delamere, W Alan; Feaga, Lori M; Hampton, Donald; Kissel, Jochen; Klaasen, Kenneth P; McFadden, Lucy A; Meech, Karen J; Melosh, H Jay; Schultz, Peter H; Sunshine, Jessica M; Thomas, Peter C; Veverka, Joseph; Wellnitz, Dennis D; Yeomans, Donald K; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Bowling, Timothy J; Carcich, Brian T; Collins, Steven M; Farnham, Tony L; Groussin, Olivier; Hermalyn, Brendan; Kelley, Michael S; Kelley, Michael S; Li, Jian-Yang; Lindler, Don J; Lisse, Carey M; McLaughlin, Stephanie A; Merlin, Frédéric; Protopapa, Silvia; Richardson, James E; Williams, Jade L

    2011-06-17

    Understanding how comets work--what drives their activity--is crucial to the use of comets in studying the early solar system. EPOXI (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Deep Impact Extended Investigation) flew past comet 103P/Hartley 2, one with an unusually small but very active nucleus, taking both images and spectra. Unlike large, relatively inactive nuclei, this nucleus is outgassing primarily because of CO(2), which drags chunks of ice out of the nucleus. It also shows substantial differences in the relative abundance of volatiles from various parts of the nucleus.

  12. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  13. Comets, impacts, and atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Tobias; Bar-Nun, Akiva

    Studies of element abundances and values of D/H in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Titan have emphasized the important role of icy planetesimals in the formation of these bodies. In these atmospheres, C/H and D/H increase as the relative masses of the 'cores' of the planets increase. N/H appears to deviate from this trend in an interesting way. In the inner solar system, the traditional approach of using carbonaceous chondrites as the source of planetary volatiles is in serious trouble because of the depletion of xenon and the unusual pattern of xenon isotopes found in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars, and because of the solar-type abundance ratios of argon, krypton and xenon and the large amounts of neon and argon on Venus. Recent studies of elemental abundances in comets, especially P/Halley, coupled with laboratory studies of the trapping of gas in ice formed at low temperatures by A. Bar-Nun et al. provide a consistent interpretation of all of these results. This interpretation emphasizes the fundamental importance of icy planetesimals (comets) and the randomness of early impacts in the formation of planetary systems. Cometary delivery by itself will not explain the noble gas abundances on the inner planets. There is good evidence for at least one additional source, which presumably consists of the rocky material making up the bulk of the planets. The existence of this rocky reservoir is manifested in the nucleogenic isotopes and in the neon which is found in all these atmospheres and is also present in the Earth's mantle. This neon may well be a relic of the planets' earliest, accretional atmospheres.

  14. 3D radar wavefield tomography of comet interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sava, Paul; Asphaug, Erik

    2018-04-01

    Answering fundamental questions about the origin and evolution of small planetary bodies hinges on our ability to image their surface and interior structure in detail and at high resolution. The interior structure is not easily accessible without systematic imaging using, e.g., radar transmission and reflection data from multiple viewpoints, as in medical tomography. Radar tomography can be performed using methodology adapted from terrestrial exploration seismology. Our feasibility study primarily focuses on full wavefield methods that facilitate high quality imaging of small body interiors. We consider the case of a monostatic system (co-located transmitters and receivers) operated in various frequency bands between 5 and 15 MHz, from a spacecraft in slow polar orbit around a spinning comet nucleus. Using realistic numerical experiments, we demonstrate that wavefield techniques can generate high resolution tomograms of comets nuclei with arbitrary shape and complex interior properties.

  15. Particle acceleration in the plasma fields near comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, A.J.; Erdoes, G.; Shapiro, V.D.; Shevchenko, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    Spacecraft VEGA-1 approached Halley comet to distances less than 10 million km in March 1986. It was equipped with devices capable to detect and measure the energies of charged particles (higher than 50 keV). After a survey of acceleration mechanisms the properties of the 50-800 keV charged particle fluxes observed in various regions around Halley comet are reported. In particular, the regions outside the cometary bow shock, the region between the bow shock and the cometopause, and inside the latter, especially in the magnetic pile-up region are considered. Possible mechanisms responsible for the accelerations of the particle fluxes described are discussed. (author) 73 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs

  16. Comet rendezvous mission design using Solar Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackett, L. L.; Hastrup, R. C.; Yen, C.-W. L.; Wood, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    A dual comet (Halley Flyby/Tempel 2 Rendezvous) mission, which is planned to be the first to use the Solar Electric Propulsion System (SEPS), is to be launched in 1985. The purpose of this paper is to describe how the mission design attempts to maximize science return while working within spacecraft and other constraints. Science requirements and desires are outlined and specific instruments are considered. Emphasis is on the strategy for operations in the vicinity of Tempel 2, for which a representative profile is described. The mission is planned to extend about one year past initial rendezvous. Because of the large uncertainty in the comet environment the Tempel 2 operations strategy must be highly adaptive.

  17. The solar panels of the spacecraft Stardust are deployed before undergoing lighting test in the PHSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers look over the solar panels on the Stardust spacecraft that are deployed for lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  18. Nitrogen abundance in Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Tegler, S.C.; Engel, L.

    1991-01-01

    Data on the nitrogen-containing compounds that observed spectroscopically in the coma of Comet Halley are summarized, and the elemental abundance of nitrogen in the Comet Halley nucleus is derived. It is found that 90 percent of elemental nitrogen is in the dust fraction of the coma, while in the gas fraction, most of the nitrogen is contained in NH3 and CN. The elemental nitrogen abundance in the ice component of the nucleus was found to be deficient by a factor of about 75, relative to the solar photosphere, indicating that the chemical partitioning of N2 into NH3 and other nitrogen compounds during the evolution of the solar nebula cannot account completely for the low abundance ratio N2/NH3 = 0.1, observed in the comet. It is suggested that the low N2/NH3 ratio in Comet Halley may be explained simply by physical fractionation and/or thermal diffusion. 88 refs

  19. Comet Hyakutake to Approach the Earth in Late March 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Astronomers Prepare for a Rare Event In the early morning of January 31, 1996, Japanese amateur astronomer Yuji Hyakutake made his second comet discovery within five weeks. He found the new comet near the border between the southern constellations of Hydra (The Water-Snake) and Libra (The Scales), amazingly just three degrees from the position where he detected another comet on December 26, 1995. After two weeks of hectic activity among amateur and professional astronomers all over the world, much interesting information has now been gathered about the new comet which has been designated C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) . In particular, it has been found to move in a near-parabolic orbit that will bring it unusually close to the Earth next month. It is then expected to become bright enough to be seen with the unaided eye and to remain so during several weeks thereafter. Preparations are now made to observe the celestial visitor with a large number of telescopes, on the ground and in space. This event offers a rare opportunity to study the immediate surroundings of a cometary nucleus in detail and the specialists intend to make the most of it. Discovery and orbit Yuji Hyakutake, of profession photoengraver and a well-known amateur astronomer, announced his new discovery without delay, and within 24 hours, it had been sighted by several other observers in Japan and Australia. Experienced comet-watchers described its appearance as `diffuse with central condensation and of magnitude 11-12', i.e. a little more than 100 times fainter than what can be seen with the unaided eye. This brightness is not unusual for a comet discovered by an amateur, although it would probably have been missed, had it been just a little fainter. In the present case, the decisive factors for Hyakutake's success were undoubtedly his very powerful equipment (25 x 150 binoculars) and the advantageous combination of the comet's southern position in the sky and his location in Kagoshima, the southernmost

  20. Craters on comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J.; Oklay, N.; Marchi, S.; Höfner, S.; Sierks, H.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the observations of crater-like features on cometary nuclei. ''Pits'' have been observed on almost all cometary nuclei but their origin is not fully understood [1,2,3,4]. It is currently assumed that they are created mainly by the cometary activity with a pocket of volatiles erupting under a dust crust, leaving a hole behind. There are, however, other features which cannot be explained in this way and are interpreted alternatively as remnants of impact craters. This work focusses on the second type of pit features: impact craters. We present an in-depth review of what has been observed previously and conclude that two main types of crater morphologies can be observed: ''pit-halo'' and ''sharp pit''. We extend this review by a series of analysis of impact craters on cometary nuclei through different approaches [5]: (1) Probability of impact: We discuss the chances that a Jupiter Family Comet like 9P/Tempel 1 or the target of Rosetta 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko can experience an impact, taking into account the most recent work on the size distribution of small objects in the asteroid Main Belt [6]. (2) Crater morphology from scaling laws: We present the status of scaling laws for impact craters on cometary nuclei [7] and discuss their strengths and limitations when modeling what happens when a rocky projectile hits a very porous material. (3) Numerical experiments: We extend the work on scaling laws by a series of hydrocode impact simulations, using the iSALE shock physics code [8,9,10] for varying surface porosity and impactor velocity (see Figure). (4) Surface processes and evolution: We discuss finally the fate of the projectile and the effects of the impact-induced surface compaction on the activity of the nucleus. To summarize, we find that comets do undergo impacts although the rapid evolution of the surface erases most of the features and make craters difficult to detect. In the case of a collision between a rocky body and a highly porous

  1. A Starry Diamond in a Veil of Light: Artistic and Literary Suggestions of a Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperini, A.; Galli, D.

    2016-01-01

    Donati's Comet, discovered in Florence on June 2, 1858, was one of the most spectacular astronomical events of the nineteenth century. It could be seen with the naked eye during September and October 1858, when it reached its highest splendour. The sight of the comet, with its bright nucleus and its long, curved tail, inspired paintings, watercolors, engravings, and sketches by artists such as William Dyce, Samuel Palmer, and William Turner of Oxford. Donati's Comet is mentioned in the works of several contemporary writers and poets (Hawthorne, Dickens, Hardy, and Verne), and in the diaries of explorers and travelers all around the world. Long-lasting traces of the impression left by Donati's Comet are found in many forms of popular art and literature (ladies' magazines, children's books, collection cards, and advertisements) until the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper focuses on a few examples of this fascination, emphasizing the connections among the astronomical event and the artistic sensibility of the period.

  2. Connecting eye to eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Rask, Anders Bindslev

    2017-01-01

    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is used a frame for supporting online and blended learning in educations. The online communication and collaboration are afforded by the social collaboration. However, the social collaboration is based on the establishment of direct eye contact...... (Khalid, Deska & Hugenberg, 2016), but direct eye contact is challenged by the position of the digital devices and thus CSCL. Lack of eye contact is the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition (Lapidot-Lefler & Barak, 2012) and the problem is the location of the web camera...... at the computer. Eye contact is challenged by the displacement between the senders´ and receivers´ focus on the screen picture and the camera's location at the top or bottom of screens on all digital devices. The aim of this paper is accordingly to investigate the influence of the displacement in eye contact...

  3. Dust photometry in the near nucleus region of comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szegoe, K.; Szatmary, Z.; Kondor, A.; Merenyi, E.; Toth, I.; Smith, B.A.

    1988-08-01

    The dust-jet radial brightness has been analyzed along jet cores on images taken by the tv experiment aboard VEGA 2 spacecraft, during the close encounter with comet Halley in 1986 March. Applying the RFIT code for fitting the data obtained it was shown that there is a breakpoint in the radial brightness distribution which occurs at about 40 km above the surface. These results are interpreted as consequences of the heat shock induced disintegration of dust particles as they are ejected into the near-nucleus environment. (R.P.) 22 refs.; 4 tabs

  4. Infrared color gradient in the inner coma of Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campins, H.; Rieke, M.J.; Rieke, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    A well-defined gradient is noted in the J-H and H-K colors of near-IR images obtained for Comet Halley in November, 1985, within about 8000 km of the nucleus; the bluest colors are at the photocenter, in conjunction with surface brightness profiles that are steeper than those expected. The color gradient and the brightness profiles are both explainable by the present analysis in terms of the presence of volatile, dirty-ice grains in the inner coma. An outburst of Rayleigh-scattering dust particles (unsupported by spacecraft measurements obtained to date) may also account for the observational data. 27 references

  5. An early look of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring): Breathtaker or nightmare?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Hui, Man-To

    2014-01-01

    The dynamically new comet, C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring), is to make a close approach to Mars on 2014 October 19 at 18:30 UT at a distance of 40 ± 1 Martian radii. Such an extremely rare event offers a precious opportunity for the spacecrafts on Mars to closely study a dynamically new comet itself as well as the planet-comet interaction. Meanwhile, the high-speed meteoroids released from C/Siding Spring also pose a threat to physically damage the spacecrafts. Here we present our observations and modeling results of C/Siding Spring to characterize the comet and assess the risk posed to the spacecrafts on Mars. We find that the optical tail of C/Siding Spring is dominated by larger particles at the time of the observation. Synchrone simulation suggests that the comet was already active in late 2012 when it was more than 7 AU from the Sun. By parameterizing the dust activity with a semi-analytic model, we find that the ejection speed of C/Siding Spring is comparable to comets such as the target of the Rosetta mission, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Under a nominal situation, the simulated dust cone will miss the planet by about 20 Martian radii. At the extreme ends of uncertainties, the simulated dust cone will engulf Mars, but the meteoric influx at Mars is still comparable to the nominal sporadic influx, seemly indicating that an intense and enduring meteoroid bombardment due to C/Siding Spring is unlikely. Further simulation also suggests that gravitational disruption of the dust tail may be significant enough to be observable at Earth.

  6. Fast Variations In Spectrum of Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borysenko, S. A.

    The goal of this work is to research fast variations of spectral lines intensities in spectra of comet Halley. The present research was made on the basis of more then 500 high- resolution spectrogram obtained by L.M. Shulman and H.K. Nazarchuk in November- December, 1985 at the 6-m telescope (SAO, Russia). Some fast variations with different quasiperiods were detected in all the spectrograms. Quasiperiods of these variations were from 15 - 40 min to 1.5 - 2 hours. As data from spacecraft "Vega-2" show, more fast variations with quasiperiods 5 - 10 min are obviously present in cometary time variations. Only the most important lines so as C2, C3, CN, CH and NH2 were analyzed. False periods were checked by comparison of the power spectra of the variations with the computed spectral window of the data. Only false periods about 400 sec (the avarage period of exposition) were detected. An algorithm for analysis of locally Poisson's time series was proposed. Two types of fast variations are detected: 1)high amplitude variations with more long quasiperiods (1.5 - 2 hours) and the coefficient of crosscorrelations between line intensities about 0.9 - 0.95; 2)low amplitude variations with short periods (15 - 40 min), which look like white noise and have the coefficient of crosscorrelations about 0.1 - 0.3. This difference may be caused by nature of variations. The first type variations may be an effect of both active processes in cometary nucleus and streams of solar protons. Analysis of solar proton flux variation with energies >1 MeV in November - Decem- ber 1985 confirms the above-mentioned version. In the second case it may by only inner processes in the nucleus that generate the observed variations. For determination of general parameters of cometary atmosphere, such as the produc- tion rates of radicals C2, C3, CN, CH, and NH2 it was necessary to estimate the contri- bution of dust grains luminiscence into the continuum of the comet. Space and wave- length distribution

  7. High Resolution 3D Radar Imaging of Comet Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asphaug, E. I.; Gim, Y.; Belton, M.; Brophy, J.; Weissman, P. R.; Heggy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Knowing the interiors of comets and other primitive bodies is fundamental to our understanding of how planets formed. We have developed a Discovery-class mission formulation, Comet Radar Explorer (CORE), based on the use of previously flown planetary radar sounding techniques, with the goal of obtaining high resolution 3D images of the interior of a small primitive body. We focus on the Jupiter-Family Comets (JFCs) as these are among the most primitive bodies reachable by spacecraft. Scattered in from far beyond Neptune, they are ultimate targets of a cryogenic sample return mission according to the Decadal Survey. Other suitable targets include primitive NEOs, Main Belt Comets, and Jupiter Trojans. The approach is optimal for small icy bodies ~3-20 km diameter with spin periods faster than about 12 hours, since (a) navigation is relatively easy, (b) radar penetration is global for decameter wavelengths, and (c) repeated overlapping ground tracks are obtained. The science mission can be as short as ~1 month for a fast-rotating JFC. Bodies smaller than ~1 km can be globally imaged, but the navigation solutions are less accurate and the relative resolution is coarse. Larger comets are more interesting, but radar signal is unlikely to be reflected from depths greater than ~10 km. So, JFCs are excellent targets for a variety of reasons. We furthermore focus on the use of Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) to rendezvous shortly after the comet's perihelion. This approach leaves us with ample power for science operations under dormant conditions beyond ~2-3 AU. This leads to a natural mission approach of distant observation, followed by closer inspection, terminated by a dedicated radar mapping orbit. Radar reflections are obtained from a polar orbit about the icy nucleus, which spins underneath. Echoes are obtained from a sounder operating at dual frequencies 5 and 15 MHz, with 1 and 10 MHz bandwidths respectively. The dense network of echoes is used to obtain global 3D

  8. Comet showers and Nemesis, the death star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    The recently proposed hypothesis that the periodic extinctions of terrestrial species are the result of comet showers catalyzed by a hypothetical distant solar companion, Nemesis, a tale of global death by comet bombardment of the earth, is discussed

  9. Airborne spectrophotometry of Comet Halley from 5 to 9 microns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campins, H.; Bregman, J. D.; Witteborn, F. C.; Wooden, D. H.; Rank, D. M.; Cohen, M.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1986-01-01

    Spectrophotometry from 5 to 9 microns (resolution = 0.02) of comet Halley was obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory on 1985 Dec. 12.1 and 1986 April 8.6 and 10.5 UT. Two spectral features are apparent in all the observations, one from 5.24 to 5.6 microns, and the silicate emission feature which has an onset between 7 and 8 microns. There is no evidence for the 7.5 microns feature observed by the Vega 1 spacecraft; the large difference between the areal coverage viewed from the spacecraft and the airplane may explain the discrepancy. Color temperatures significantly higher than a blackbody indicate that small particles are abundant in the coma. Significant spatial and temporal variations in the spectrum show trends similar to those observed from the ground.

  10. Disintegration phenomena in Comet West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Two peculiarities of Comet West, the multiple splitting of the nucleus as seen in telescope observations and the complex structure of the dust tail, are discussed. A method of analysis based on the premise that the observed rate of separation of a fragment from the principal nucleus is determined by the difference in effective solar attraction acting on the bodies is applied to investigate the motion of the four fragments that separated from the nucleus of Comet West. The predicted motion of the fragments is in good agreement with available observations. It is suggested that the 'synchronic' bands of the dust tail consist of tiny fragments from relatively large particles that burst after release from the comet. The unusual orientation of these bands and their high surface brightness relative to the diffuse tail are explained by a sudden increase in the particle acceleration and in the total scattering surface as the result of the disintegration of the larger particles.

  11. CATASTROPHIC DISRUPTION OF COMET ISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel; Meech, Karen J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Milam, Stefanie N.; Charnley, Steven B. [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA GSFC, MS 690, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Coulson, Iain M. [Joint Astronomy Center, 660 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Sekanina, Zdenek [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kracht, Rainer, E-mail: keane@ifa.hawaii.edu [Ostlandring 53, D-25335 Elmshorn, Schleswig-Holstein (Germany)

    2016-11-10

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 μ m dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31–0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 ( r {sub h} = 0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60″ (>10{sup 5} km) in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 μ m image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producing ∼5.2 × 10{sup 10} kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.

  12. Comet-Narval acquisition notice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bris, J.; Sellem, R.; Artiges, J.C.; Clavelin, J.F.; Du, S.; Grave, X.; Hubert, O.; Sauvage, J.; Roussiere, B.

    2006-01-01

    The COMET cards (encoding and time marking) serve to determine the energies and the time correlations of radiations detected during a multiparameter experiment while avoiding any extra specific module like coincidence circuits or delays) to set this time correlation. For each detected radiation, the arrival time information as well as the amplitude of the detected signal, are encoded. The results of these amplitude and time coding are associated to create an event. In this way, each detector is an independent source which provides a building block of the general information obtained by all the detectors. The COMET cards are associated with a NARVAL data acquisition system. This document is the instruction booklet of the COMET-NARVAL acquisition system

  13. Evolution of comets into asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.; A'hearn, M.F.; Rickman, H.; Mcfadden, L.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents observational evidence, together with recent theoretical developments, supporting the hypothesis that at least some asteroids might be extinct or dormant cometary nuclei. The observations include the discovery of a number of apparent asteroids in chaotic Jupiter-crossing orbits; the IRAS discovery of 1983 TB, an asteroid in the same orbit as the Geminid meteor shower; the apparent low activity levels determined for several short-period comet nuclei including Comet Halley; and observations of possible cometary activity in some earth-crossing asteroids. Theoretical developments include explorations of dynamical mechanisms capable of delivering main-belt asteroids into earth-crossing orbits, and an understanding of possible processes which may affect comets during their long residence in the Oort cloud and lead to the formation of nonvolatile crusts before and after they enter the planetary system. 143 refs

  14. Catastrophic Disruption of Comet ISON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Jacqueline V.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Coulson, Iain M.; Kleyna, Jan T.; Sekanina, Zdenek; Kracht, Rainer; Riesen, Timm-Emmanuel; Meech, Karen J.; Charnley, Steven B.

    2016-01-01

    We report submillimeter 450 and 850 microns dust continuum observations for comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) obtained at heliocentric distances 0.31-0.08 au prior to perihelion on 2013 November 28 (rh?=?0.0125 au). These observations reveal a rapidly varying dust environment in which the dust emission was initially point-like. As ISON approached perihelion, the continuum emission became an elongated dust column spread out over as much as 60? (greater than 10(exp 5) km in the anti-solar direction. Deconvolution of the November 28.04 850 microns image reveals numerous distinct clumps consistent with the catastrophic disruption of comet ISON, producing approximately 5.2?×?10(exp 10) kg of submillimeter-sized dust. Orbital computations suggest that the SCUBA-2 emission peak coincides with the comet's residual nucleus.

  15. Hummingbird Comet Nucleus Analysis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel; Carle, Glenn C.; Lasher, Larry E.

    2000-01-01

    Hummingbird is a highly focused scientific mission, proposed to NASA s Discovery Program, designed to address the highest priority questions in cometary science-that of the chemical composition of the cometary nucleus. After rendezvous with the comet, Hummingbird would first methodically image and map the comet, then collect and analyze dust, ice and gases from the cometary atmosphere to enrich characterization of the comet and support landing site selection. Then, like its namesake, Hummingbird would carefully descend to a pre-selected surface site obtaining a high-resolution image, gather a surface material sample, acquire surface temperature and then immediately return to orbit for detailed chemical and elemental analyses followed by a high resolution post-sampling image of the site. Hummingbird s analytical laboratory contains instrumentation for a comprehensive molecular and elemental analysis of the cometary nucleus as well as an innovative surface sample acquisition device.

  16. Tabulation of comet observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Concerning comets: 1957 III Arend-Roland, 1957 V Mrkos, 1958 III Burnham, 1959 III Bester-Hoffmeister, 1959 VI Alcock, 1959 VIII P/Giacobini-Zinner, 1960 I P/Wild 1, 1960 II Burnham, 1960 III P/Schaumasse, 1960 VIII P/Finlay, 1961 V Wilson-Hubbard, 1961 VIII Seki, 1962 III Seki-Lines, 1962 VIII Humason, 1963 I Ikeya, 1963 III Alcock, 1963 V Pereyra, 1964 VI Tomita-Gerber-Honda, 1964 VIII Ikeya, 1964 IX Everhart, 1979 X Bradfield, 1980 X P/Stephan-Oterma, 1980 XII Meier, 1980 XIII P/Tuttle, 1981 II Panther, 1982 I Bowell, 1982 IV P/Grigg-Skjellerup, 1982 VII P/d'Arrest, 1986 III P/Halley, 1987 IV Shoemaker, 1987 XII P/Hartley 3, 1987 XIX P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 2, 1987 XXIX Bradfield, 1987 XXX Levy, 1987 XXXII McNaught, 1987 XXXIII P/Borrelly, 1987 XXXVI P/Parker-Hartley, 1987 XXXVII P/Helin- Roman-Alu 1, 1988 III Shoemaker-Holt, 1988 V Liller, 1988 VIII P/Ge-Wang, 1988 XI P/Shoemaker-Holt 2, 1988 XIV P/Tempel 2, 1988 XV Machholz, 1988 XX Yanaka, 1988 XXI Shoemaker, 1988 XXIV Yanaka, 1989 III Shoemaker, 1989 V Shoemaker-Holt-Rodriquez, 1989 VIII P/Pons-Winnecke, 1989 X P/Brorsen-Metcalf, 1989 XI P/Gunn, 1989 XIII P/Lovas 1, 1989 XVIII McKenzie-Russell, 1989 XIX Okazaki-Levy-Rudenko, 1989 XX P/Clark, 1989 XXI Helin-Ronan-Alu, 1989 XXII Aarseth-Brewington, 1989h P/Van Biesbroeck, 1989t P/Wild 2, 1989u P/Kearns-Kwee, 1989c1 Austin, 1989e1 Skorichenko-George, 1990a P/Wild 4, 1990b Černis-Kiuchi-Nakamura, 1990c Levy, 1990e P/Wolf-Harrington, 1990f P/Honda-Mrkos-Pajdušáková, 1990g McNaught-Hughes, 1990i Tsuchiya-Kiuchi, 1990n P/Taylor, 1990ο P/Shoemaker-Levy 1, 1991a P/Metcalf-Brewington, 1991b Arai, 1991c P/Swift-Gehrels, 1991d Shoemaker-Levy, 1991e P/Shoemaker-Levy 3, 1991h P/Takamizawa, 1991j P/Hartley 1, 1991k P/Mrkos, 1991l Helin-Lawrence, 1991n P/Faye, 1991q P/Levy, 1991t P/Hartley 2, P/Encke, P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1.

  17. Comet Mineralogy as Inferred from Infrared Spectra of Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.

    2006-01-01

    For most comets, infrared (IR) spectroscopy (remote sensing) is the method through which we diagnose the mineralogy and size distribution of dust in their comae. The shape and contrast of the IR spectral features depend on the particle size: optically active minerals (absorbing of visible and near-IR solar photons) and submicron solid grains or highly porous (> 90% vacuum) grains primarily contribute to the shapes of the observed resonances. Comet mineralogies typically are determined by fitting thermal emission models of ensembles of discrete mineral grains to observed IR spectral energy distributions. The absorptivities (Q-abs) and scattering efficiencies (Q-scat) of the discrete mineral grains are computed using Mie scattering, Maxwell-Garnet mixing, Discrete Dipole Approximation, and Multi-Layered Sphere codes. These techniques when applied to crystalline minerals, specifically olivine (Mg_x, Fe_1-x)2 Si04, x>0.9, require the use of ellipsoidal shaped particles with elongated axial ratios or hollow spheres to produce the shapes of the resonances observed both from comet comae and laboratory samples. The wavelength positions of the distinct resonances from submicron-radii crystalline silicates, as well as their thermal equilibrium temperatures, constrain the crystalline olivine to have a relatively high Mg-content (x>0.9, or Fo>90). Only resonances computed for submicron Mg-rich crystalline olivine and crystalline orthopyroxene match the observed IR spectral features. However, this has led to the interpretation that micron-radii and larger crystals are absent from comet comae. Furthermore, the mass fraction of silicate crystals is dependent upon whether just the submicron portion of the size distribution is being compared or the submicron crystals compare to the aggregates of porous amorphous silicates that are computationally tractable as porous spheres. We will discuss the Deep Impact results as examples of these challenges to interpreting mid-IR spectra of

  18. Comet 81P/Wild 2 under a microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownlee, D; Tsou, P; Aleon, J; Alexander, C; Araki, T; Bajt, S; Baratta, G A; Bastien, R; Bland, P; Bleuet, P; Borg, J; Bradley, J P; Brearley, A; Brenker, F; Brennan, S; Bridges, J C; Browning, N; Brucato, J R; Bullock, E; Burchell, M J; Busemann, H; Butterworth, A; Chaussidon, M; Cheuvront, A; Chi, M; Cintala, M J; Clark, B C; Clemett, S J; Cody, G; Colangeli, L; Cooper, G; Cordier, P; Daghlian, C; Dai, Z R; D' Hendecourt, L; Djouadi, Z; Dominguez, G; Duxbury, T; Dworkin, J P; Ebel, D; Economou, T E; Fairey, S J; Fallon, S; Ferrini, G; Ferroir, T; Fleckenstein, H; Floss, C; Flynn, G; Franchi, I A; Fries, M; Gainsforth, Z; Gallien, J; Genge, M; Gilles, M K; Gillet, P; Gilmour, J; Glavin, D P; Gounelle, M; Grady, M M; Graham, G A; Grant, P G; Green, S F; Grossemy, F; Grossman, L; Grossman, J; Guan, Y; Hagiya, K; Harvey, R; Heck, P; Herzog, G F; Hoppe, P; Horz, F; Huth, J; Hutcheon, I D; Ishii, H; Ito, M; Jacob, D; Jacobsen, C; Jacobsen, S; Joswiak, D; Kearsley, A T; Keller, L; Khodja, H; Kilcoyne, A D; Kissel, J; Krot, A; Langenhorst, F; Lanzirotti, A; Le, L; Leshin, L; Leitner, J; Lemelle, L; Leroux, H; Liu, M; Luening, K; Lyon, I; MacPherson, G; Marcus, M A; Marhas, K; Matrajt, G; Meibom, A; Mennella, V; Messenger, K; Mikouchi, T; Mostefaoui, S; Nakamura, T; Nakano, T; Newville, M; Nittler, L R; Ohnishi, I; Ohsumi, K; Okudaira, K; Papanastassiou, D A; Palma, R; Palumbo, M E; Pepin, R O; Perkins, D; Perronnet, M; Pianetta, P; Rao, W; Rietmeijer, F; Robert, F; Rost, D; Rotundi, A; Ryan, R; Sandford, S A; Schwandt, C S; See, T H; Schlutter, D; Sheffield-Parker, J; Simionovici, A; Simon, S; Sitnitsky, I; Snead, C J; Spencer, M K; Stadermann, F J; Steele, A; Stephan, T; Stroud, R; Susini, J; Sutton, S R; Taheri, M; Taylor, S; Teslich, N; Tomeoka, K; Tomioka, N; Toppani, A; Trigo-Rodriguez, J M; Troadec, D; Tsuchiyama, A; Tuzolino, A J; Tyliszczak, T; Uesugi, K; Velbel, M; Vellenga, J; Vicenzi, E; Vincze, L; Warren, J; Weber, I; Weisberg, M; Westphal, A J; Wirick, S; Wooden, D; Wopenka, B; Wozniakiewicz, P; Wright, I; Yabuta, K; Yano, H; Young, E D; Zare, R N; Zega, T

    2006-10-12

    The Stardust spacecraft collected thousands of particles from comet 81P/Wild 2 and returned them to Earth for laboratory study. The preliminary examination of these samples shows that the nonvolatile portion of the comet is an unequilibrated assortment of materials that have both presolar and solar system origin. The comet contains an abundance of silicate grains that are much larger than predictions of interstellar grain models, and many of these are high-temperature minerals that appear to have formed in the inner regions of the solar nebula. Their presence in a comet proves that the formation of the solar system included mixing on the grandest scales. Stardust was the first mission to return solid samples from a specific astronomical body other than the Moon. The mission, part of the NASA Discovery program, retrieved samples from a comet that is believed to have formed at the outer fringe of the solar nebula, just beyond the most distant planet. The samples, isolated from the planetary region of the solar system for billions of years, provide new insight into the formation of the solar system. The samples provide unprecedented opportunities both to corroborate astronomical (remote sensing) and sample analysis information (ground truth) on a known primitive solar system body and to compare preserved building blocks from the edge of the planetary system with sample-derived and astronomical data for asteroids, small bodies that formed more than an order of magnitude closer to the Sun. The asteroids, parents of most meteorites, formed by accretion of solids in warmer, denser, more collisionally evolved inner regions of the solar nebula where violent nebular events were capable of flash-melting millimeter-sized rocks, whereas comets formed in the coldest, least dense region. The samples collected by Stardust are the first primitive materials from a known body, and as such they provide contextual insight for all primitive meteoritic samples. About 200 investigators

  19. Optical spectrophotometry of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner and emission profiles of H2O+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, M. A.; Mccarthy, P. J.; Spinrad, H.

    1986-01-01

    Two-dimensional CCD spectrograms were obtained of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner (1984e) on five occasions between July and October 1985. Spatial emission profiles of H2O+ were extracted at 6198 angstroms (the strongest ionic line in the visible spectrum). This emission line traces the extent of the ion, or plasma, tail. The spectrographic slit was placed approximately along the trajectory of the ICE spacecraft on September 11, 1985; the resulting H2O+ profile has a full-width-half-maximum of about 5700 km, about three times that of the plasma density profile measured by ICE, and has a full-width-zero-intensity of about 30,000 km, very similar to the ICE values. H2O production rates for the comet are derived and compared with those of Comet P/Halley (1982i).

  20. Supporting online materials for mineralogy and petrology of Comet81P/Wild 2 nucleus samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Zega, Thomas J.; Yano, Hajime; Wirick, Sue; Westphal, Andrew J.; Weisberg, Mike K.; Weber, Iris; Warren, Jack L.; Velbel, Michael A.; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Tsou, Peter; Toppani, Alice; Tomioka, Naotaka; Tomeoka, Kazushige; Teslich, Nick; Taheri, Mitra; Susini, Jean; Stroud, Rhonda; Stephan, Thomas; Stadermann, Frank J.; Snead, Christopher J.; Simon, Steven B.; Simionovici, Alexandre; See,Thomas H.; Robert Francois; Rietmeijer, Frans J.M.; Rao, William; Perronnet, Murielle C.; Papanastassiou, Dimitri A.; Okudaira, Kyoko; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Ohnishi, Ichiro; Nakamura-Messenger, Keilo; Nakamura,Tomoki; Mostefaoui, Smail; Mikouchi, Takashi; Meibom, Anders; Matrajt,Graciela; Marcus, Matthew A.; Leroux, Hugues; Lemelle, Laurence; Antonio,Loan Le; Lanzirotti, Antonio; Langenhorst, Falko; Krot, Alexander N.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Kearsley, Anton T.; Joswiak, Davis; Jacob, Damien; Ishii, Hope; Harvey, Ralph; Hagiya, Kenji; Grossman, Lawrence; Grossman,Jeffrey N.; Graham, Giles A.; Gounelle, Matthieu; Gillet, Philippe; Genge, Matthew J.; Flynn, George; Ferroir, Tristan; Fallow, Stewart; Ebel, Denton S.; Dai, Zu Rong; Cordier, Patrick; Clark, Benton; Chi,Miaofang; Butterworth, Anna L.; Brownlee, Donald E.; Bridges, John C.; Brennan, Sean; Brearley, Adrian; Bradley, John P.; Bleuet, Pierre; Bland,Phil A.; Bastien, Ron

    2006-01-01

    The bulk of the comet 81P/Wild 2 (hereafter Wild 2) samples returned to Earth by the Stardust spacecraft appear to be weakly constructed mixtures of nanometer-scale grains, with occasional much larger (over 1 micrometer) ferromagnesian silicates, Fe-Ni sulfides, Fe-Ni metal, and accessory phases. The very wide range of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions in comet Wild 2 requires a wide range of formation conditions, probably reflecting very different formation locations in the protoplanetary disk. The restricted compositional ranges of Fe-Ni sulfides, the wide range for silicates, and the absence of hydrous phases indicate that comet Wild 2 experienced little or no aqueous alteration. Less abundant Wild 2 materials include a refractory particle, whose presence appears to require radial transport in the early protoplanetary disk.

  1. Comet C/2001 J1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Helin, E.; Lawrence, K.; Kotková, Lenka; Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.

    č. 7623 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. The COMET Sleep Research Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Deborah A; DeSalvo, Steven; Miller, Richard A; Jónsson, Darrell; Griffin, Kara S; Hyde, Pamela R; Walsh, James K; Kushida, Clete A

    2014-01-01

    The Comparative Outcomes Management with Electronic Data Technology (COMET) platform is extensible and designed for facilitating multicenter electronic clinical research. Our research goals were the following: (1) to conduct a comparative effectiveness trial (CET) for two obstructive sleep apnea treatments-positive airway pressure versus oral appliance therapy; and (2) to establish a new electronic network infrastructure that would support this study and other clinical research studies. The COMET platform was created to satisfy the needs of CET with a focus on creating a platform that provides comprehensive toolsets, multisite collaboration, and end-to-end data management. The platform also provides medical researchers the ability to visualize and interpret data using business intelligence (BI) tools. COMET is a research platform that is scalable and extensible, and which, in a future version, can accommodate big data sets and enable efficient and effective research across multiple studies and medical specialties. The COMET platform components were designed for an eventual move to a cloud computing infrastructure that enhances sustainability, overall cost effectiveness, and return on investment.

  3. Modeling Formaldehyde Emission in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanti, M. A.; Reuter, D. C.; Bonev, B. P.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.

    Modeling fluorescent emission from monomeric formaldehyde (H2CO) forms an integral part of our overall comprehensive program of measuring the volatile composition of comets through high-resolution (RP ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy using CSHELL at the IRTF and NIRSPEC at Keck II. The H2CO spectra contain lines from both the nu1 (symmetric CH2 stretch) and nu5 (asymmetric CH2 stretch) bands near 3.6 microns. We have acquired high-quality spectra of twelve Oort cloud comets, and at least six of these show clear emission from H2CO. We also detected H2CO with NIRSPEC in one Jupiter Family comet, 9P/Tempel 1, during Deep Impact observations. Our H2CO model, originally developed to interpret low-resolution spectra of comets Halley and Wilson (Reuter et al. 1989 Ap J 341:1045), predicts individual line intensities (g-factors) as a function of rotational temperature for approximately 1300 lines having energies up to approximately 400 cm^-1 above the ground state. Recently, it was validated through comparison with CSHELL spectra of C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), where newly developed analyses were applied to obtain robust determinations of both the rotational temperature and abundance of H2CO (DiSanti et al. 2006 Ap J 650:470). We are currently in the process of extending the model to higher rotational energy (i.e., higher rotational quantum number) in an attempt to improve the fit to high-J lines in our spectra of C/T7 and other comets. Results will be presented, and implications discussed.Modeling fluorescent emission from monomeric formaldehyde (H2CO) forms an integral part of our overall comprehensive program of measuring the volatile composition of comets through high-resolution (RP ~ 25,000) infrared spectroscopy using CSHELL at the IRTF and NIRSPEC at Keck II. The H2CO spectra contain lines from both the nu1 (symmetric CH2 stretch) and nu5 (asymmetric CH2 stretch) bands near 3.6 microns. We have acquired high-quality spectra of twelve Oort cloud comets, and at least six of

  4. Periodic Comet Machholz and its idiosyncrasies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics and physical characteristics of Comet P/Machholz are analyzed. The discovery of the comet (Machholz, 1986) is discussed, including the observational conditions and the theory that the comet is inactive over extensive periods of time. Consideration is given to observations of the two tails of Comet P/Machholz (Emerson, 1986), the brightness variations and light curve of the comet, and nuclear photometry of the comet (Green, 1987). It is suggested that the increase in activity beginning one day after perihelion was triggered by a discrete source within 15 deg of the rotation pole that became sunlit after perihelion. Also, the possibility that Comet P/Machholz is associated with a meteor stream is examined. 45 refs

  5. Spacecraft Spin Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to correct unbalances of spacecraft by using dynamic measurement techniques and static/coupled measurements to provide products of...

  6. First in-situ measurements of a highly fragmented comet: ACE SWICS and WIND STICS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, S. T.; Gilbert, J. A.; Rubin, M.; Zurbuchen, T.; Combi, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    While many of the characteristics of comets and their local plasma environment are obtained using remote sensing via spectroscopic methods, space-based mass spectrometers allow a unique opportunity to directly sample cometary material in situ. To date there have been only a handful of in-situ spacecraft encounters with comets, such as 1P/Halley, 103P/Hartley, 81P/Wild and others. Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann started to disintegrate in 1995, two major components B and C were recovered in 2001, and it burst into more than 36 pieces during its passage near the Earth in 2006. Serendipitously, some very distant fragmentation members, well-separated from the major identified fragments, passed between the Earth and Sun. Cometary pickup ions and possibly recombined solar wind minor ions convected past the Earth in late May 2006 and were observed by both the ACE/SWICS and WIND/STICS mass spectrometers, which are located in halo orbits around the Earth-Sun L1 Lagrange point. Most of these observations took place a few days after the main comet fragments passed through the ecliptic, when their orbits crossed the spacecraft-Sun line, suggesting additional pieces lagging far behind the main fragments. In this paper, we present the first in-situ observation of these pieces that passed very close to the spacecraft (<0.07AU) and conduct a comparative analysis of composition and characteristics of pick-up ions originating from a number of the cometary fragments. We find that the pick-up ion trail related to the comet fragments is much longer than expected. We constrain the C+/O+ and He+/He++ ratio and discuss the implications for the production rates of different fragments.

  7. Quasi-periodic variations of cometary ion fluxes at large distances from comet Halley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, A.K.; Daly, P.W.; Verigin, M.I.; Gringauz, K.I.; Erdos, G.; Kecskemety, K.; Somogyi, A.J.; Szego, K.; Varga, A.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.

    1989-04-01

    Large variations, with a period of about 4 h, in the energetic ion fluxes have been observed far upstream (between 2 and 10 million kilometers) of comet Halley on both the Vega-1 and Giotto spacecraft. We have fitted the cometocentric distances of the occurrences to a simple model of expanding shells of neutral particles, the production of which is modulated by the spin of the comet nucleus, and have achieved excellent agreement between the two spacecraft. We derive an expansion speed for the neutrals of 6.18 +- 0.14 km s/sup -1/. Possible candidates for the neutrals are hydrogen atoms, created by the photo-dissociation of OH with a speed of 8 km s/sup -1/, or oxygen atoms, produced from the photo-dissociation of CO/sub 2/ with a speed of 6.5 km s/sup -1/.

  8. Eye Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries.

  9. Spacecraft Charge Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goembel, L.

    2003-12-01

    We are currently developing a flight prototype Spacecraft Charge Monitor (SCM) with support from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The device will use a recently proposed high energy-resolution electron spectroscopic technique to determine spacecraft floating potential. The inspiration for the technique came from data collected by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites in the 1970s. The data available from the AE satellites indicate that the SCM may be able to determine spacecraft floating potential to within 0.1 V under certain conditions. Such accurate measurement of spacecraft charge could be used to correct biases in space plasma measurements. The device may also be able to measure spacecraft floating potential in the solar wind and in orbit around other planets.

  10. The Rosetta Mission - Where no Spacecraft has gone before

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    This Talk will provide an overview on the Scientific Highlights of the Rosetta Mission. After travelling through the Solar System for nearly 10 years Rosetta arrived at its main target, Comet 67/P Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in August 2014. Following an initial characterisation of the Comet, the lander unit Philae touched down on the partly active Nucleus on November 12 of the same year. The data acquired from the numerous instruments onboard the Spacecraft provides a unique insight into the properties of the Comets. While most of the measurements and processing of the data are still ongoing, the results from the Mission provide continuous surprises to the scientific community. While the Lander has been reactivated with some difficulties after a few months of inactivity due to low insolation levels, the Orbiter is pursuing its main mission objectives until the end of its extended Mission in Autumn 2016. During the long journey, the Spacecraft had encountered Earth, Mars and two Asteroids ( 2867 Šteins and 21 Lu...

  11. Near-infrared polarization and color of Comet Halley: What can we learn about the grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, T.Y.; Knacke, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The near infrared polarization and JHK colors of light scattered by dust grains in comet Halley were measured over a wide range in phase angle and heliocentric distance. Colors were redder than solar with no statistically significant variation with phase angle, heliocentric distance, or pre- and post-perihelion. This suggests that the grain population did not change drastically over time and that the data may be combined and modeled. However, short term variations in visible polarization and dust albedo were seen in Halley. Also, near infrared colors became systematically bluer after the observations were completed. The near infrared colors of Halley fall in the range of those of other comets. The near infrared polarization is similar to the visible polarization of Halley and other comets in showing a negative branch at small phase angles and an approximately linear rise toward positive values at larger phase angles. Mie theory calculations and a size distribution based on spacecraft data were used to model the near infrared polarization and color of comet Halley. Numerous lines of evidence point to the presence of dark, absorbing, probably carbonaceous materials in comets

  12. Comet Halley and its historic passages during the past millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    The March 12, 1759 return of Comet Halley verified Halley's hypothesis on the existence of periodic comets and supported Newton's principle of universal attraction. Comet Halley's appearances before the 16th century are traced and it is noted that the length of the comet's tail has varied greatly. The comet's rendezvous with ESA's satellite Giotto is discussed briefly

  13. 100 and counting : SOHO's score as the world's top comet finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    comet hunters," said Shanklin, who is director of the British Astronomical Association's comet section. "It allows amateurs to discover some of the smallest comets ever seen. Yet they link us to sightings of great comets going back more than 2000 years." Nine of the comets found with LASCO, including SOHO-100, 101 and 102, passed the Sun at a safe distance. SOHO-49, which showed up in LASCO images in May 1998 and was designated as Comet 1998 J1, became visible to the naked eye in the southern hemisphere. But the great majority of SOHO's comets failed to survive very close encounters with the Sun. Snowballs in hell Of the first 100 SOHO comets, 92 vaporized in the solar atmosphere. Isaac Newton suggested 300 years ago that infalling comets might supply the Sun with fuel, but no one has ever tracked a comet that definitely hit the bright surface. Near misses are well known, and 100 years ago Heinrich Kreutz in Kiel, Germany, realized that several comets seen buzzing the Sun seemed to have a common origin, because they came from the same direction among the stars. These comets are now called the Kreutz sungrazers, and the 92 vanishing SOHO comets belong to that class. They were not unexpected. Between 1979 and 1989 the P78-1 and SMM solar satellites spotted 16 comets closing with the Sun. Life is perilous for a sungrazer. The mixture of ice and dust that makes up a comet's nucleus is heated like the proverbial snowball in hell, and can survive its visit to the Sun only if it is quite large. What's more, the very strong tidal effect of the Sun's gravity can tear the loosely glued nucleus apart. The disruption that created the many SOHO sungrazers was similar to the fate of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, which went too close to Jupiter and broke up into many pieces that eventually fell into the massive planet in 1994. "SOHO is seeing fragments from the gradual break-up of a great comet, perhaps the one that the Greek astronomer Ephorus saw in 372 BC," commented Brian Marsden of the

  14. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    1990-01-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  15. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks.

  16. Solar wind stagnation near comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galeev, A.A.; Cravens, T.E.; Gombosi, T.I.

    1983-03-01

    The nature of the solar wind flow near comets is examined analytically. In particular, the typical values for the stagnation pressure and magnetic barrier strength are estimated, taking into account the magnetic field line tension and the charge exchange cooling of the mass loaded solar wind. Knowledge of the strength of the magnetic barrier is required in order to determine the location of the contact discontinuity which separates the contaminated solar wind plasma and the outflowing plasma of the cometary ionosphere. (author)

  17. Mission operations for unmanned nuclear electric propulsion outer planet exploration with a thermionic reactor spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, R. J.; Prickett, W. Z.; Garate, J. A.; Firth, W. L.

    1971-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration NEP spacecraft employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference missions are the Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. The characteristics of the baseline multi-mission NEP spacecraft are presented and its performance in other outer planet missions, such as Saturn and Uranus orbiters and a Neptune flyby, are discussed. Candidate mission operations are defined from spacecraft assembly to mission completion. Pre-launch operations are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur D-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and the heliocentric mission phases. The sequence and type of operations are basically identical for all missions investigated.

  18. Comet coma sample return instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albee, A. L.; Brownlee, Don E.; Burnett, Donald S.; Tsou, Peter; Uesugi, K. T.

    1994-01-01

    The sample collection technology and instrument concept for the Sample of Comet Coma Earth Return Mission (SOCCER) are described. The scientific goals of this Flyby Sample Return are to return to coma dust and volatile samples from a known comet source, which will permit accurate elemental and isotopic measurements for thousands of individual solid particles and volatiles, detailed analysis of the dust structure, morphology, and mineralogy of the intact samples, and identification of the biogenic elements or compounds in the solid and volatile samples. Having these intact samples, morphologic, petrographic, and phase structural features can be determined. Information on dust particle size, shape, and density can be ascertained by analyzing penetration holes and tracks in the capture medium. Time and spatial data of dust capture will provide understanding of the flux dynamics of the coma and the jets. Additional information will include the identification of cosmic ray tracks in the cometary grains, which can provide a particle's process history and perhaps even the age of the comet. The measurements will be made with the same equipment used for studying micrometeorites for decades past; hence, the results can be directly compared without extrapolation or modification. The data will provide a powerful and direct technique for comparing the cometary samples with all known types of meteorites and interplanetary dust. This sample collection system will provide the first sample return from a specifically identified primitive body and will allow, for the first time, a direct method of matching meteoritic materials captured on Earth with known parent bodies.

  19. Halley comet, implication on the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Festou, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    One will first give a rapid description of the different parts that compose a comet coma. Then one will describe the spectrum of comets from the UV to the IR regions with special emphasis on how information relative to the physico-chemistry of comet atmospheres can be retrieved. Our basic knowledge about the composition of comets before 1985 will be summarized and the input of the 1985-86 observing campaign of comet Halley will be shown (in situ, ground-based and space borne observations). One will see then that the chemical composition of comets appears as of today completely compatible with a formation from pre-solar matter that condensed inside the solar system [fr

  20. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...

  1. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  2. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  3. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  4. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa

    2006-01-01

    .... Models were developed from a customer-centric perspective to assess different fractionated spacecraft architectures relative to traditional spacecraft architectures using multi-attribute analysis...

  5. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  6. Spacecraft Material Outgassing Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of outgassing data of materials intended for spacecraft use were obtained at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), utilizing equipment developed...

  7. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  8. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  9. Deployable Brake for Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, J. R.; Maloney, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Aerodynamic shield that could be opened and closed proposed. Report presents concepts for deployable aerodynamic brake. Brake used by spacecraft returning from high orbit to low orbit around Earth. Spacecraft makes grazing passes through atmosphere to slow down by drag of brake. Brake flexible shield made of woven metal or ceramic withstanding high temperatures created by air friction. Stored until needed, then deployed by set of struts.

  10. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... away? If you guessed the eye, you're right! Your eyes are at work from the moment you wake up to the ... the eye is seeing. A Muscle Makes It Work The lens is suspended in ... of the lens. That's right — the lens actually changes shape right inside your ...

  11. Dynamic Acquisition and Retrieval Tool (DART) for Comet Sample Return : Session: 2.06.Robotic Mobility and Sample Acquisition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bonitz, Robert; Kulczycki, Erick; Aisen, Norman; Dandino, Charles M.; Cantrell, Brett S.; Gallagher, William; Shevin, Jesse; Ganino, Anthony; Haddad, Nicolas; hide

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 Decadal Survey for planetary science released by the National Research Council of the National Academies identified Comet Surface Sample Return (CSSR) as one of five high priority potential New Frontiers-class missions in the next decade. The main objectives of the research described in this publication are: develop a concept for an end-to-end system for collecting and storing a comet sample to be returned to Earth; design, fabricate and test a prototype Dynamic Acquisition and Retrieval Tool (DART) capable of collecting 500 cc sample in a canister and eject the canister with a predetermined speed; identify a set of simulants with physical properties at room temperature that suitably match the physical properties of the comet surface as it would be sampled. We propose the use of a dart that would be launched from the spacecraft to impact and penetrate the comet surface. After collecting the sample, the sample canister would be ejected at a speed greater than the comet's escape velocity and captured by the spacecraft, packaged into a return capsule and returned to Earth. The dart would be composed of an inner tube or sample canister, an outer tube, a decelerator, a means of capturing and retaining the sample, and a mechanism to eject the canister with the sample for later rendezvous with the spacecraft. One of the significant unknowns is the physical properties of the comet surface. Based on new findings from the recent Deep Impact comet encounter mission, we have limited our search of solutions for sampling materials to materials with 10 to 100 kPa shear strength in loose or consolidated form. As the possible range of values for the comet surface temperature is also significantly different than room temperature and testing at conditions other than the room temperature can become resource intensive, we sought sample simulants with physical properties at room temperature similar to the expected physical properties of the comet surface material. The chosen

  12. Global moedeling of comets: nucleus, neutral and ionized coma of comets 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and 46P/Wirtanen. Preparations for the ROSETTA radio science investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertzen, J. von

    2003-01-01

    Models of the thermal behaviour of a cometary nucleus, the evolution of the neutral gas coma, the ionized cometary coma and of the interaction of the cometary plasma with the solar wind are studied in this work. The general aim is to develop a global model of the comet and its environment in order to characterize the physical conditions around comets 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and 46P/Wirtanen with respect to the heliocentric distance. The model of the heat diffusion within the cometary nucleus is one-dimensional. A grid of one-dimensional models is distributed over the nucleus in order to determine the temperature distribution and the sublimation characteristics of the comet on the whole surface of the comet. A heat balance equation is applied as boundary condition on the surface. Many parameters that have to be accounted for in a heat diffusion model are not precisely known to date. The variation of these parameters within reasonable limits yields a wide range of possible results. The heat diffusion within the cometary nucleus is derived from an energy conservation equation that includes heat conduction through the porous cometary material and heat convection due to the transport of latent heat by the gas phase within the nucleus. Model results are evaluated by a comparison of modeled and observed global gas production rates. Exemplary maps of the local temperature distribution and local sublimation rates at particular heliocentric distances are also provided. The neutral gas coma of the comet is modeled with a hydrodynamic approximation. The acceleration of the spacecraft due to the gas mass flux is evaluated with the model results. The ionized coma of a comet can also have an effect on the carrier signal. A one-dimensional model of the plasma density at the comet-sun axis is developed. The assumption of photochemical equilibrium is not necessarily justified within the coma of weak outgassing comets. The continuity equation of the plasma density has to be solved

  13. Spectrophotometry of 25 comets - Post-Halley updates for 17 comets plus new observations for eight additional comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburn, Ray L., Jr.; Spinrad, Hyron

    1989-01-01

    The best possible production figures within the current post-Halley framework and available observations are given for H2O, O(1D), CN, C3, C2 and dust in 25 comets. Of these, the three objects with the smallest mixing ratios of all minor species have moderate to little or no dust and appear 'old'. Comets with large amounts of CN are very dusty, and there is a clear correlation of CN with dust, although comets with little or no dust still have some CN. Thus, CN appears to have at least two sources, dust and one or more parent gases. Also, the C2/CN production ratio changes continuously with heliocentric distance in every comet considered, suggesting that C2 production may be a function of coma density as well as parental abundance. Dust production ranges from essentially zero in Comet Sugano-Saigusa-Fujikawa up to 67,000 kg/s for Halley on March 14, 1986.

  14. Comet Dust After Deep Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Harker, David E.; Woodward, Charles E.

    2006-01-01

    When the Deep Impact Mission hit Jupiter Family comet 9P/Tempel 1, an ejecta crater was formed and an pocket of volatile gases and ices from 10-30 m below the surface was exposed (A Hearn et aI. 2005). This resulted in a gas geyser that persisted for a few hours (Sugita et al, 2005). The gas geyser pushed dust grains into the coma (Sugita et a1. 2005), as well as ice grains (Schulz et al. 2006). The smaller of the dust grains were submicron in radii (0-25.3 micron), and were primarily composed of highly refractory minerals including amorphous (non-graphitic) carbon, and silicate minerals including amorphous (disordered) olivine (Fe,Mg)2SiO4 and pyroxene (Fe,Mg)SiO3 and crystalline Mg-rich olivine. The smaller grains moved faster, as expected from the size-dependent velocity law produced by gas-drag on grains. The mineralogy evolved with time: progressively larger grains persisted in the near nuclear region, having been imparted with slower velocities, and the mineralogies of these larger grains appeared simpler and without crystals. The smaller 0.2-0.3 micron grains reached the coma in about 1.5 hours (1 arc sec = 740 km), were more diverse in mineralogy than the larger grains and contained crystals, and appeared to travel through the coma together. No smaller grains appeared at larger coma distances later (with slower velocities), implying that if grain fragmentation occurred, it happened within the gas acceleration zone. These results of the high spatial resolution spectroscopy (GEMINI+Michelle: Harker et 4. 2005, 2006; Subaru+COMICS: Sugita et al. 2005) revealed that the grains released from the interior were different from the nominally active areas of this comet by their: (a) crystalline content, (b) smaller size, (c) more diverse mineralogy. The temporal changes in the spectra, recorded by GEMIM+Michelle every 7 minutes, indicated that the dust mineralogy is inhomogeneous and, unexpectedly, the portion of the size distribution dominated by smaller grains has

  15. Numerical images applied to the spatial technics: the discovery of the Halley's comet nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abergel, A.

    1988-01-01

    For the first time, the solide nucleus of a comet was observed by the 2 soviet spacecraft VEGA on 6 and 9 March 1986. They were followed by the european spacecraft GIOTTO on 14 march. The numerical images transmitted by the 3 spacecraft have been corrected from instrumental degradations and allowed a unique description of the shape and the movement of Halley's comet nucleus. Thus the contours become clearly apparent. Its volume can be described by an ellipsoid which principal axis are equal to 16, 8.2 and 7.5 km: it has an oblate rugby balloon shape. Its rational movement is complicated, but we are able to analyse it with the identification of details seen on the surface at three different moments. The nucleus is greater than expected in the past. It is made of a mixture of water ice and dust, and is covered by a dust dark mantle: it is one of the darkest objects in the solar system. This mantle is not uniform, as shown by the images sent by the 3 spacecraft. They display a spectacular distribution of dust jets emitted by very active regions on the nucleus surface [fr

  16. On the nature of the Halley comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrovol'skij, O.V.; Ioffe, Z.M.

    1987-01-01

    The results of study of the Halley comet by means of the ''Vega'', ''Suisej'', ''Sakigaki'' and ''Jotton'' space probes are presented in the popular form. The form and composition of the comet nucleus, its atmosphere and processes ocurring when moving in the near-the-solar space are described

  17. Origin of comets - implications for planetary formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.; Arizona Univ., Tucson)

    1985-01-01

    Primordial and episodic theories for the origin of comets are discussed. The implications of the former type for the origin of the solar system are considered. Candidate sites for the formation of comets are compared. The possible existence of a massive inner Oort cloud is discussed

  18. Meteoroid Streams from Sunskirter Comet Breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenniskens, P. M.

    2012-12-01

    In its first year of operations, the CAMS project (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance) has measured 47,000 meteoroid orbits at Earth, including some that pass the Sun as close as 0.008 AU. The population density increases significantly above perihelion distance q = 0.037 AU. Meteoroid streams are known with q about 0.1 AU. The Sun has a profound effect on comets that pass at 0.04-0.16 AU distance, called the sunskirter comets. SOHO and STEREO see families of small comets called the Marsden and Kracht groups. Sunlight is efficiently scattered by small 10-m sized fragments, making those fragments visible even when far from Earth. These comet groups are associated with meteor showers on Earth, in particular the Daytime Arietids and Delta Aquariids. All are related to 96P/Machholz, a highly inclined short-period (5.2 year) Jupiter family comet that comes to within 0.12 AU from the Sun, the smallest perihelion distance known among numbered comets. The proximity of the Sun speeds up the disintegration process, providing us a unique window on this important decay mechanism of Jupiter family comets and creating meteoroid streams. These are not the only sunskirting comets, however. In this presentation, we will present CAMS observations of the complete low-q meteoroid population at Earth and review their association with known parent bodies.

  19. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 meets Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D. H.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Shoemaker, C. S.

    1995-08-01

    The impact of comet D/1993 F2 (Shoemaker-Levy 9) with Jupiter was unforgettable, an event probably not to be repeated for millennia to come. One year later the astronomers who first spotted the comet reflect on their discovery, on the anxious months of anticipation before the collision and on what has been learned since.

  20. Internet Technology on Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project has shown that Internet technology works in space missions through a demonstration using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. An Internet Protocol (IP) stack was installed on the orbiting UoSAT-12 spacecraft and tests were run to demonstrate Internet connectivity and measure performance. This also forms the basis for demonstrating subsequent scenarios. This approach provides capabilities heretofore either too expensive or simply not feasible such as reconfiguration on orbit. The OMNI project recognized the need to reduce the risk perceived by mission managers and did this with a multi-phase strategy. In the initial phase, the concepts were implemented in a prototype system that includes space similar components communicating over the TDRS (space network) and the terrestrial Internet. The demonstration system includes a simulated spacecraft with sample instruments. Over 25 demonstrations have been given to mission and project managers, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Department of Defense (DoD), contractor technologists and other decisions makers, This initial phase reached a high point with an OMNI demonstration given from a booth at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Inspection Day 99 exhibition. The proof to mission managers is provided during this second phase with year 2000 accomplishments: testing the use of Internet technologies onboard an actual spacecraft. This was done with a series of tests performed using the UoSAT-12 spacecraft. This spacecraft was reconfigured on orbit at very low cost. The total period between concept and the first tests was only 6 months! On board software was modified to add an IP stack to support basic IP communications. Also added was support for ping, traceroute and network timing protocol (NTP) tests. These tests show that basic Internet functionality can be used onboard spacecraft. The performance of data was measured to show no degradation from current

  1. Hummingbird - A Very Low Cost, High Delta V Spacecraft for Solar System Exploration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on Microcosm's development of a high delta-V small Earth observation spacecraft called NanoEye, with a planned recurring cost of $2 million, Microcosm will...

  2. Origin of Short-Perihelion Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    New regularities for short-perihelion comets are found. Distant nodes of cometary orbits of Kreutz family are concentrated in a plane with ascending node 76 and inclination 267 at the distance from 2 up to 3 a.u. and in a very narrow interval of longitudes. There is a correlation dependence between q and cos I concerning the found plane (coefficient of correlation 0.41). Similar results are received regarding to cometary families of Meyer, Kracht and Marsden. Distant nodes of these comets are concentrated close three planes (their parameters are discussed in the article) and at distances 1.4; 0.5; 6 a.u. accordingly. It is concluded that these comet groups were formed as a result of collision of parent bodies with meteoric streams. One more group, consisting of 7 comets is identified. 5 comet pairs are selected among sungrazers.

  3. Comets and How to Observe Them

    CERN Document Server

    Schmude, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Comets have inspired wonder, excitement and even fear ever since they were first observed. They contain material from early in the life of the Solar System, held in deep-freeze. This makes them key in our understanding of the formation and evolution of many Solar System bodies. Recent ground- and space-based observations have changed much in our understanding of comets. Comets and How to Observe Them gives a summary of our current knowledge and describes how amateur astronomers can contribute to the body of scientific knowledge of comets. This book contains many practical examples of how to construct comet light-curves, measure how fast a comet’s coma expands, and determine the rotation period of the nucleus. All these examples are illustrated with drawings and photographs.

  4. Mechanical Design of Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    In the spring of 1962, engineers from the Engineering Mechanics Division of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a series of lectures on spacecraft design at the Engineering Design seminars conducted at the California Institute of Technology. Several of these lectures were subsequently given at Stanford University as part of the Space Technology seminar series sponsored by the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Presented here are notes taken from these lectures. The lectures were conceived with the intent of providing the audience with a glimpse of the activities of a few mechanical engineers who are involved in designing, building, and testing spacecraft. Engineering courses generally consist of heavily idealized problems in order to allow the more efficient teaching of mathematical technique. Students, therefore, receive a somewhat limited exposure to actual engineering problems, which are typified by more unknowns than equations. For this reason it was considered valuable to demonstrate some of the problems faced by spacecraft designers, the processes used to arrive at solutions, and the interactions between the engineer and the remainder of the organization in which he is constrained to operate. These lecture notes are not so much a compilation of sophisticated techniques of analysis as they are a collection of examples of spacecraft hardware and associated problems. They will be of interest not so much to the experienced spacecraft designer as to those who wonder what part the mechanical engineer plays in an effort such as the exploration of space.

  5. Suprathermal electron environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Observations from the Rosetta Ion and Electron Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G.; Broiles, T. W.; Burch, J. L.; Collinson, G. A.; Cravens, T.; Frahm, R. A.; Goldstein, J.; Goldstein, R.; Mandt, K.; Mokashi, P.; Samara, M.; Pollock, C. J.

    2015-11-01

    Context. The Rosetta spacecraft is currently escorting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko until its perihelion approach at 1.2 AU. This mission has provided unprecedented views into the interaction of the solar wind and the comet as a function of heliocentric distance. Aims: We study the interaction of the solar wind and comet at large heliocentric distances (>2 AU) using data from the Rosetta Plasma Consortium Ion and Electron Sensor (RPC-IES). From this we gain insight into the suprathermal electron distribution, which plays an important role in electron-neutral chemistry and dust grain charging. Methods: Electron velocity distribution functions observed by IES fit to functions used to previously characterize the suprathermal electrons at comets and interplanetary shocks. We used the fitting results and searched for trends as a function of cometocentric and heliocentric distance. Results: We find that interaction of the solar wind with this comet is highly turbulent and stronger than expected based on historical studies, especially for this weakly outgassing comet. The presence of highly dynamical suprathermal electrons is consistent with observations of comets (e.g., Giacobinni-Zinner, Grigg-Skjellerup) near 1 AU with higher outgassing rates. However, comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is much farther from the Sun and appears to lack an upstream bow shock. Conclusions: The mass loading process, which likely is the cause of these processes, plays a stronger role at large distances from the Sun than previously expected. We discuss the possible mechanisms that most likely are responsible for this acceleration: heating by waves generated by the pick-up ion instability, and the admixture of cometary photoelectrons.

  6. Antioxidants and the Comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemeli, Eduardo; Baumgartner, Adolf; Anderson, Diana

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that antioxidants, either endogenous or from the diet, play a key role in preserving health. They are able to quench radical species generated in situations of oxidative stress, either triggered by pathologies or xenobiotics, and they protect the integrity of DNA from genotoxicants. Nevertheless, there are still many compounds with unclear or unidentified prooxidant/antioxidant activities. This is of concern since there is an increase in the number of compounds synthesized or extracted from vegetables to which humans might be exposed. Despite the well-established protective effects of fruit and vegetables, the antioxidant(s) responsible have not all been clearly identified. There might also be alternative mechanisms contributing to the protective effects for which a comprehensive description is lacking. In the last two decades, the Comet assay has been extensively used for the investigation of the effects of antioxidants and many reports can be found in the literature. The Comet assay, a relatively fast, simple, and sensitive technique for the analysis of DNA damage in all cell types, has been applied for the screening of chemicals, biomonitoring and intervention studies. In the present review, several of the most well-known antioxidants are considered. These include: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, selenium, iron chelators, melatonin, melanin, vitamins (A, B, C and E), carotenes, flavonoids, isoflavones, tea polyphenols, wine polyphenols and synthetic antioxidants. Investigations showing beneficial as well as non-beneficial properties of the antioxidants selected, either at the in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo level are discussed.

  7. comets in the STIP context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid descriptions of plasma motion through a cometary coma are briefly sketched, distinguishing the bow shock and ionizing flow region mainly within it, the tail region and ray structure, and the 'ionosphere' coupled closely to the expanding cometary gas. Whether there is a contact discontinuity or continuous transition between the incoming flow and the ionosphere depends on solar fluxes rather than comet size. A discontinuity as observed requires much faster ionization in the inner coma or severe collisional cooling of incoming plasma. Changes in structure and brightness may reflect solar UV and solar plasma variations, but may also be evidence of intrinsic instabilities of hydrodynamic/MHD or chemically-reactive flow. Molecular ionization and dissociation processes strongly influence the stagnation region ahead of the comet, and make it particularly susceptible to flow instabilities. Solar UV variations are energetically dominant within the ionosphere, changing the evaporation and chemical reaction rates, and probably stimulate dust halos. Shocked changes in the solar wind propagating through the head can trigger structural and intensity fluctuations in the plasma, notably disruptions of the plasma tail. (Auth.)

  8. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...

  9. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The EPOXI flight mission has been testing a new commercial system, Splunk, which employs data mining techniques to organize and present spacecraft telemetry data in a high-level manner. By abstracting away data-source specific details, Splunk unifies arbitrary data formats into one uniform system. This not only reduces the time and effort for retrieving relevant data, but it also increases operational visibility by allowing a spacecraft team to correlate data across many different sources. Splunk's scalable architecture coupled with its graphing modules also provide a solid toolset for generating data visualizations and building real-time applications such as browser-based telemetry displays.

  10. Dips spacecraft integration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Department of Defense, has recently initiated the dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) demonstration program. DIPS is designed to provide 1 to 10 kW of electrical power for future military spacecraft. One of the near-term missions considered as a potential application for DIPS was the boost surveillance and tracking system (BSTS). A brief review and summary of the reasons behind a selection of DIPS for BSTS-type missions is presented. Many of these are directly related to spacecraft integration issues; these issues will be reviewed in the areas of system safety, operations, survivability, reliability, and autonomy

  11. OpenComet: An automated tool for comet assay image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Gyori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires laborious manual tagging of cells. This paper presents OpenComet, an open-source software tool providing automated analysis of comet assay images. It uses a novel and robust method for finding comets based on geometric shape attributes and segmenting the comet heads through image intensity profile analysis. Due to automation, OpenComet is more accurate, less prone to human bias, and faster than manual analysis. A live analysis functionality also allows users to analyze images captured directly from a microscope. We have validated OpenComet on both alkaline and neutral comet assay images as well as sample images from existing software packages. Our results show that OpenComet achieves high accuracy with significantly reduced analysis time.

  12. IN SITU PLASMA MEASUREMENTS OF FRAGMENTED COMET 73P SCHWASSMANN–WACHMANN 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Combi, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Rubin, M.

    2015-01-01

    The interiors of comets contain some of the most pristine material in the solar system. Comet 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3, discovered in 1930, is a Jupiter-family comet with a 5.34-year period. This comet split into 5 fragments in 1995 and disintegrated into nearly 70 major pieces in 2006. In 2006 May and June, recently ionized cometary particles originating from fragments including and surrounding some of these major objects were collected with the ACE/SWICS and Wind/STICS sensors. Due to a combination of the instrument characteristics and the close proximity of the fragments passing between those spacecraft and the Sun, unique measurements regarding the charge state composition and the elemental abundances of both cometary and heliospheric plasma were made during that time. The cometary material released from some of these fragments can be identified by the concentrations of water-group pickup ions having a mass-per-charge ratio of 16–18 amu e −1 , indicating that while these fragments are small, they are still actively sublimating. We present an analysis of cometary composition, spatial distribution, and heliospheric interactions, with a focus on helium, C + /O + , and water-group ions

  13. In Situ Plasma Measurements of Fragmented Comet 73P Schwassmann-Wachmann 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Rubin, M.; Combi, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2015-12-01

    The interiors of comets contain some of the most pristine material in the solar system. Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, discovered in 1930, is a Jupiter-family comet with a 5.34-year period. This comet split into 5 fragments in 1995 and disintegrated into nearly 70 major pieces in 2006. In 2006 May and June, recently ionized cometary particles originating from fragments including and surrounding some of these major objects were collected with the ACE/SWICS and Wind/STICS sensors. Due to a combination of the instrument characteristics and the close proximity of the fragments passing between those spacecraft and the Sun, unique measurements regarding the charge state composition and the elemental abundances of both cometary and heliospheric plasma were made during that time. The cometary material released from some of these fragments can be identified by the concentrations of water-group pickup ions having a mass-per-charge ratio of 16-18 amu e-1, indicating that while these fragments are small, they are still actively sublimating. We present an analysis of cometary composition, spatial distribution, and heliospheric interactions, with a focus on helium, C+/O+, and water-group ions.

  14. EPOXI: COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2 OBSERVATIONS FROM A WORLDWIDE CAMPAIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meech, K. J.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bodewits, D.; Adams, J. A.; Bacci, P.; Bai, J.; Barrera, L.; Battelino, M.; Bauer, J. M.; Becklin, E.; Bhatt, B.; Biver, N.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Boehnhardt, H.; Boissier, J.; Bonev, B. P.; Borghini, W.; Brucato, J. R.; Bryssinck, E.; Buie, M. W.

    2011-01-01

    Earth- and space-based observations provide synergistic information for space mission encounters by providing data over longer timescales, at different wavelengths and using techniques that are impossible with an in situ flyby. We report here such observations in support of the EPOXI spacecraft flyby of comet 103P/Hartley 2. The nucleus is small and dark, and exhibited a very rapidly changing rotation period. Prior to the onset of activity, the period was ∼16.4 hr. Starting in 2010 August the period changed from 16.6 hr to near 19 hr in December. With respect to dust composition, most volatiles and carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, the comet is similar to other Jupiter-family comets. What is unusual is the dominance of CO 2 -driven activity near perihelion, which likely persists out to aphelion. Near perihelion the comet nucleus was surrounded by a large halo of water-ice grains that contributed significantly to the total water production.

  15. IN SITU PLASMA MEASUREMENTS OF FRAGMENTED COMET 73P SCHWASSMANN–WACHMANN 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Combi, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rubin, M., E-mail: jagi@umich.edu [Universität Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-12-10

    The interiors of comets contain some of the most pristine material in the solar system. Comet 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3, discovered in 1930, is a Jupiter-family comet with a 5.34-year period. This comet split into 5 fragments in 1995 and disintegrated into nearly 70 major pieces in 2006. In 2006 May and June, recently ionized cometary particles originating from fragments including and surrounding some of these major objects were collected with the ACE/SWICS and Wind/STICS sensors. Due to a combination of the instrument characteristics and the close proximity of the fragments passing between those spacecraft and the Sun, unique measurements regarding the charge state composition and the elemental abundances of both cometary and heliospheric plasma were made during that time. The cometary material released from some of these fragments can be identified by the concentrations of water-group pickup ions having a mass-per-charge ratio of 16–18 amu e{sup −1}, indicating that while these fragments are small, they are still actively sublimating. We present an analysis of cometary composition, spatial distribution, and heliospheric interactions, with a focus on helium, C{sup +}/O{sup +}, and water-group ions.

  16. THE CARBON MONOXIDE ABUNDANCE IN COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2 DURING THE EPOXI FLYBY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, H. A.; Dello Russo, N.; Feldman, P. D.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Stern, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the detection of several emission bands in the CO Fourth Positive Group from comet 103P/Hartley 2 during ultraviolet spectroscopic observations from the Hubble Space Telescope on 2010 November 4 near the time of closest approach by NASA's EPOXI spacecraft. The derived CO/H 2 O ratio is 0.15%-0.45%, which places 103P/Hartley 2 among the most CO-depleted comets. Apparently this highly volatile species, whose abundance varies by a factor of ∼50 among the comets observed to date, does not play a major role in producing the strong and temporally variable activity in 103P/Hartley 2. The CO emissions varied by ∼30% between our two sets of observations, apparently in phase with the temporal variability measured for several gases and dust by other observers. The low absolute abundance of CO in 103P/Hartley 2 suggests several possibilities: the nucleus formed in a region of the solar nebula that was depleted in CO or too warm to retain much CO ice, repeated passages through the inner solar system have substantially depleted the comet's primordial CO reservoir, or any CO still in the nucleus is buried below the regions that contribute significantly to the coma.

  17. Comet Halley Returns. A Teacher's Guide, 1985-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert D.; Bondurant, R. Lynn, Jr.

    This booklet was designed as an aid for elementary and secondary school teachers. It is divided into two distinct parts. Part I is a brief tutorial which introduces some of the most important concepts about comets. Areas addressed include: the historical importance of Comet Halley; how comets are found and names; cometary orbits; what Comet Halley…

  18. The Comet Halley Handbook: An Observer's Guide. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Donald K.

    This handbook contains information on: (1) the orbit of comet Halley; (2) the expected physical behavior of comet Halley in 1985-1986, considering brightness estimates, coma diameters, and tail lengths; (3) observing conditions for comet Halley in 1985-1986; and (4) observing conditions for the dust tail of comet Halley in 1985-1986. Additional…

  19. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  20. COLOR SYSTEMATICS OF COMETS AND RELATED BODIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewitt, David, E-mail: jewitt@ucla.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, UCLA, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Most comets are volatile-rich bodies that have recently entered the inner solar system following long-term storage in the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud reservoirs. These reservoirs feed several distinct, short-lived “small body” populations. Here, we present new measurements of the optical colors of cometary and comet-related bodies including long-period (Oort cloud) comets, Damocloids (probable inactive nuclei of long-period comets) and Centaurs (recent escapees from the Kuiper belt and precursors to the Jupiter family comets). We combine the new measurements with published data on short-period comets, Jovian Trojans and Kuiper belt objects to examine the color systematics of the comet-related populations. We find that the mean optical colors of the dust in short-period and long-period comets are identical within the uncertainties of measurement, as are the colors of the dust and of the underlying nuclei. These populations show no evidence for scattering by optically small particles or for compositional gradients, even at the largest distances from the Sun, and no evidence for ultrared matter. Consistent with earlier work, ultrared surfaces are common in the Kuiper belt and on the Centaurs, but not in other small body populations, suggesting that this material is hidden or destroyed upon entry to the inner solar system. The onset of activity in the Centaurs and the disappearance of the ultrared matter in this population begin at about the same perihelion distance (∼10 AU), suggesting that the two are related. Blanketing of primordial surface materials by the fallback of sub-orbital ejecta, for which we calculate a very short timescale, is the likely mechanism. The same process should operate on any mass-losing body, explaining the absence of ultrared surface material in the entire comet population.

  1. A Comet Engulfs Mars: MAVEN Observations of Comet Siding Spring's Influence on the Martian Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espley, Jared R.; Dibraccio, Gina A.; Connerney, John E. P.; Brain, David; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Soobiah, Yasir; Halekas, Jasper S.; Combi, Michael; Luhmann, Janet; Ma, Yingjuan

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) passed within 141,000?km of Mars on 19 October 2014. Thus, the cometary coma and the plasma it produces washed over Mars for several hours producing significant effects in the Martian magnetosphere and upper atmosphere. We present observations from Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN's (MAVEN's) particles and field's instruments that show the Martian magnetosphere was severely distorted during the comet's passage. We note four specific major effects: (1) a variable induced magnetospheric boundary, (2) a strong rotation of the magnetic field as the comet approached, (3) severely distorted and disordered ionospheric magnetic fields during the comet's closest approach, and (4) unusually strong magnetosheath turbulence lasting hours after the comet left. We argue that the comet produced effects comparable to that of a large solar storm (in terms of incident energy) and that our results are therefore important for future studies of atmospheric escape, MAVEN's primary science objective.

  2. A dynamical study on extrasolar comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loibnegger, B.; Dvorak, R.

    2017-09-01

    Since the detection of absorption features in spectra of beta Pictoris varying on short time scales it is known that comets exist in other stellar systems. We investigate the dynamics of comets in two differently build systems (HD 10180 and HIP 14810). The outcomes of the scattering process, as there are collisions with the planets, captures and ejections from the systems are analysed statistically. Collisions and close encounters with the planets are investigated in more detail in order to conclude about transport of water and organic material. We will also investigate the possibility of detection of comets in other planetary systems.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of a Tethered Harpoon for Comet Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a dynamic model and simulation results of a tethered harpoon for comet sampling. This model and simulation was done in order to carry out an initial sensitivity analysis for key design parameters of the tethered system. The harpoon would contain a canister which would collect a sample of soil from a cometary surface. Both a spring ejected canister and a tethered canister are considered. To arrive in close proximity of the spacecraft at the end of its trajectory so it could be captured, the free-flying canister would need to be ejected at the right time and with the proper impulse, while the tethered canister must be recovered by properly retrieving the tether at a rate that would avoid an excessive amplitude of oscillatory behavior during the retrieval. The paper describes the model of the tether dynamics and harpoon penetration physics. The simulations indicate that, without the tether, the canister would still reach the spacecraft for collection, that the tether retrieval of the canister would be achievable with reasonable fuel consumption, and that the canister amplitude upon retrieval would be insensitive to variations in vertical velocity dispersion.

  4. A New Orbit for Comet C/1865 B1 (Great Southern Comet of 1865)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branham, Richard L., Jr.

    2018-04-01

    Comet C/1865 B1 (Great southern comet of 1865), observed only in the southern hemisphere, is one of a large number of comets with parabolic orbits. Given that there are 202 observations in right ascension and 165 in declination it proves possible to calculate a better orbit than that Körber published in 1887, the orbit used in various catalogs and data bases. C/1865 B1's orbit is hyperbolic and statistically distinguishable from a parabola. This object, therefore, cannot be considered an NEO. The comet has a small perihelion distance of 0.026 AU.

  5. In-situ measurements of a highly fragmented comet: WIND STICS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, S. T.; Gilbert, J. A.; Gruesbeck, J. R.; Rubin, M.; Gershman, D. J.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present in-situ observations of cometary fragments associated with Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann as it passed very close to the Earth (<0.07AU) in 2006. We examine the spatial distribution of the fragments and the characteristics of the picked up ion velocity distributions. Comet 73P started to disintegrate in 1995, two major components B and C were recovered in 2001, and it burst into more than 36 pieces during its passage near the Earth in 2006. Distant fragmentation members, well-separated from the major identified fragments, passed between the Earth and Sun so that cometary pickup ions and possibly recombined solar wind minor ions convected past the WIND spacecraft in late May 2006. The Suprathermal Ion Composition Spectrometer on WIND provides a rare and detailed 3D glimpse of the newly picked up ion properties.

  6. The analysis of the neutral gas measurements near comet P/Halley based on observations by VEGA-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gringauz, K.I.; Verigin, M.I.; Remizov, A.P.; Oraevskij, A.A.; Szegoe, K.; Varga, A.

    1989-04-01

    The in-situ measurements of secondary electrons and sputtered ions caused by impacts of neutral particles on metallic surfaces of the Ram Faraday Cup and Plasma Impact Detector sensors in PLAZMAG-1 instrument aboard VEGA 1,2 spacecraft are used to estimate neutral particle density distribution (n n ) around comet P/Halley up to distances of approximately 3x10 σ km. Asymmetries in n n distributions along inbound and outbound legs of spacecraft trajectory are attributed to solar radiation pressure. A model calculation, taking into account solar radiation pressure, leads to 'tear drop' shaped distribution of neutral particles around the cometary nucleus. (author) 46 refs.; 11 figs

  7. Scientists Revise Thinking on Comets, Planet Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Discusses scientific information obtained from Pioneer 10's Jupiter flyby and the comet Kohoutek's first trip around the sun, including the high hydrogen emission of Jupiter's principal moon, Io. (CC)

  8. Comet C/2004 P1 (NEAT)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.; Kušnirák, Peter

    -, č. 8383 (2004), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : new comet * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  9. Comet P/2004 F3 (NEAT)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.; Kušnirák, Peter

    -, č. 8313 (2004), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  10. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DUST IN A COMETARY COMA: APPLICATION TO COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenishev, Valeriy; Combi, Michael R.; Rubin, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. With a limited amount of available observational data, planning of the mission as well as the interpretation of measurements obtained by instruments on board the spacecraft requires modeling of the dusty/gas environment of the comet. During the mission, the collision regime in the inner coma will change starting from transitional to fully collisionless. As a result, a physically correct model has to be valid at conditions that are far from equilibrium and account for the kinetic nature of the processes occurring in the coma. A study of the multi-species coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is presented in our previous paper, where we describe our kinetic model and discuss the results of its application to cases that correspond to the different stages during the mission. In this work, we focus on numerical modeling of the dust phase in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and its interaction with the surrounding gas. The basic phenomena that govern the dynamics and energy balance of the dust grains are outlined. The effect of solar radiation pressure and the nucleus gravity in limiting the maximum liftable mass of the grains is discussed. The distribution of the terminal velocity of the dust grains as a function of subsolar angle is derived in the paper. We have found that in the regions with high gradients of the gas density, spike-like features can form in the dust flow. The obtained results represent the state of the coma in the vicinity of the nucleus for a series of stages throughout the Rosetta mission. The implications of the model results for future measurements by the GIADA instrument are discussed.

  11. X-ray emission from comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennerl, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    When comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) encountered Earth in March 1996 at a minimum distance of only 15 million kilometers (40 times the distance of the moon), x-ray and extreme ultraviolet emission was discovered for the first time from a comet. The observations were performed with the astronomy satellites ROSAT and EUVE. A systematic search for x-rays from comets in archival data, obtained during the ROSAT all-sky survey in 1990/91, resulted in the discovery of x-ray emission from four additional comets. They were detected at seven occasions in total, when they were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. These findings indicated that comets represent a new class of celestial x-ray sources. Subsequent detections of x-ray emission from additional comets with the satellites ROSAT, EUVE, and BeppoSAX confirmed this conclusion. The x-ray observations have obviously revealed the presence of a process in comets which had escaped attention until recently. This process is most likely charge exchange between highly charged heavy ions in the solar wind and cometary neutrals. The solar wind, a stream of particles continuously emitted from the sun with ≅ 400 km s -1 , consists predominantly of protons, electrons, and alpha particles, but contains also a small fraction (≅0.1%) of highly charged heavier ions, such as C 6+ ,O 6+ ,Ne 8+ ,Si 9+ ,Fe 11+ . When these ions capture electrons from the cometary gas, they attain highly excited states and radiate a large fraction of their excitation energy in the extreme ultraviolet and x-ray part of the spectrum. Charge exchange reproduces the intensity, the morphology and the spectrum of the observed x-ray emission from comets very well

  12. Comet Halley - Chapter I in cometary exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newburn, R.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The information gained on the Comet Halley by the international probe studies is presented. The new information includes data on the true size and shape of the cometary nucleus and the mass of its dust grains, the chemical composition of the nucleus, and the characteristics of the bow wave of the comet. The requirements of future missions for solving the many questions that are still open are discussed

  13. The singing comet 67P: utilizing fully kinetic simulations to study its interaction with the solar wind plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deca, J.; Divin, A. V.; Horanyi, M.; Henri, P.

    2016-12-01

    We present preliminary results of the first 3-D fully kinetic and electromagnetic simulations of the solar wind interaction with 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at 3 AU, before the comet transitions into its high-activity phase. We focus on the global cometary environment and the electron-kinetic activity of the interaction. In addition to the background solar wind plasma flow, our model includes also plasma-driven ionization of cometary neutrals and collisional effects. We approximate mass loading of cold cometary oxygen and hydrogen using a hyperbolic relation with distance to the comet. We consider two primary cases: a weak outgassing comet (with the peak ion density 10x the solar wind density) and a moderately outgassing comet (with the peak ion density 50x the solar wind density). The weak comet is characterized by the formation of a narrow region containing a compressed solar wind (the density of the solar wind ion population is 3x the value far upstream of the comet) and a magnetic barrier ( 2x to 4x the interplanetary magnetic field). Blobs of plasma are detached continuously from this sheath region. Standing electromagnetic waves are excited in the cometary wake due to a strong anisotropy in the plasma pressure, as the density and the magnetic field magnitude are anti-correlated.The moderate mass-loading case shows more dynamics at the dayside region. The stagnation of the solar wind flow is accompanied by the formation of elongated density stripes, indicating the presence of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability. These density cavities are elongated in the direction of the magnetic field and encompass the dayside ionopause. To conclude, we believe that our results provide vital information to disentangle the observations made by the Rosetta spacecraft and compose a global solar wind - comet interaction model.

  14. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  15. Comet showers and the steady-state infall of comets from the Oort cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The appearance of an inner edge to the Oort comet cloud at a semimajor axis of a = (1--2) x 10 4 AU is an observational artifact. Stellar perturbations are frequent enough and strong enough to assure that a constant fraction of the comets with semimajor axes greater than this are in orbits which bring them within the planetary region. Only infrequent, close stellar encounters are able to repopulate the planet-crossing orbits of comets with smaller semimajor axes. Owing to their relatively short orbital periods which return them frequently to the planetary system, the comets in these more tightly bound orbits will be deflected by Jupiter into drastically different orbits or be destroyed by solar heating before another close stellar passage repopulates their numbers. Comets with semimajor axes less than 2 x 10 4 AU appear in the inner solar system only in intense bursts or showers which last for a few orbital periods after the close passage of a star to the Sun. This is followed by a much longer span of time during which only comets with a>2 x 10 4 AU enter the planetary system. The theoretically determined location of the boundary between the semimajor axes of those comets which enter the planetary system only in bursts or showers and those which arrive in a steady stream is very abrupt and falls at the observed inner edge of the Oort cloud. We propose that the comets formed in the outer parts of the collapsing protosun, which had a radius of less than 5 x 10 3 AU. If this produced a first-generation comet cloud with a radius of 10 3 AU or greater, the coupled dynamical perturbations of passing stars and Jupiter will, of necessity, lead to the formation of a comet cloud similar that of the observed Oort comet cloud

  16. Characterization of dust aggregates in the vicinity of the Rosetta spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güttler, C.; Hasselmann, P. H.; Li, Y.; Fulle, M.; Tubiana, C.; Kovacs, G.; Agarwal, J.; Sierks, H.; Fornasier, S.; Hofmann, M.; Gutiérrez Marqués, P.; Ott, T.; Drolshagen, E.; Bertini, I.; Osiris Team

    2017-09-01

    In a Rosetta/OSIRIS imaging activity in June 2015, we have observed the dynamic motion of particles close to the spacecraft. Due to the focal setting of the OSIRIS Wide Angle Camera (WAC), these particles were blurred, which can be used to measure their distances to the spacecraft. We detected 108 dust aggregates over a 130 minutes long sequence, and find that their sizes are around a millimetre and their distances cluster between 2 m and 40 m from the spacecraft. Their number densities are about a factor 10 higher than expected for the overall coma and highly fluctuating. Their velocities are small compared to the spacecraft orbital motion and directed away from the spacecraft, towards the comet. From this we conclude that they have interacted with the spacecraft and assess three possible scenarios. We prefer a scenario where centimeter-sized aggregates collide with the spacecraft and we would observe the fragments. Ablation of a dust layer on the spacecraft's z panel when rotated towards the sun is a reasonable alternative. We could also measure an acceleration for a subset of 18 aggregates, which is directed away from the sun and can be explain by a rocket effect, which requires a minimum ice fraction in the order of 0.1%

  17. A PROTOSOLAR NEBULA ORIGIN FOR THE ICES AGGLOMERATED BY COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousis, O.; Vernazza, P. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Lunine, J. I. [Center For Radiophysics And Space Research, Space Sciences Building Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Luspay-Kuti, A.; Hässig, M.; Waite, J. H. [Department of Space Research, Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Guillot, T. [Laboratoire J.-L. Lagrange, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice (France); Marty, B. [CRPG-CNRS, Nancy-Université, 15 rue Notre Dame des Pauvres, F-54501 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Ali-Dib, M. [Université de Franche-Comté, Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, Besançon Cedex (France); Wurz, P.; Altwegg, K.; Bieler, A.; Rubin, M., E-mail: olivier.mousis@lam.fr [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-10

    The nature of the icy material accreted by comets during their formation in the outer regions of the protosolar nebula (PSN) is a major open question in planetary science. Some scenarios of comet formation predict that these bodies agglomerated from crystalline ices condensed in the PSN. Concurrently, alternative scenarios suggest that comets accreted amorphous ice originating from the interstellar cloud or from the very distant regions of the PSN. On the basis of existing laboratory and modeling data, we find that the N{sub 2}/CO and Ar/CO ratios measured in the coma of the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis instrument on board the European Space Agency’s Rosetta spacecraft match those predicted for gases trapped in clathrates. If these measurements are representative of the bulk N{sub 2}/CO and Ar/CO ratios in 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, it implies that the ices accreted by the comet formed in the nebula and do not originate from the interstellar medium, supporting the idea that the building blocks of outer solar system bodies have been formed from clathrates and possibly from pure crystalline ices. Moreover, because 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is impoverished in Ar and N{sub 2}, the volatile enrichments observed in Jupiter’s atmosphere cannot be explained solely via the accretion of building blocks with similar compositions and require an additional delivery source. A potential source may be the accretion of gas from the nebula that has been progressively enriched in heavy elements due to photoevaporation.

  18. Solar wind interaction with comet 67P: Impacts of corotating interaction regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, N. J. T.; Eriksson, A. I.; Odelstad, E.; Vigren, E.; Andrews, D. J.; Johansson, F.; Burch, J. L.; Carr, C. M.; Cupido, E.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Goldstein, R.; Halekas, J. S.; Henri, P.; Koenders, C.; Mandt, K.; Mokashi, P.; Nemeth, Z.; Nilsson, H.; Ramstad, R.; Richter, I.; Wieser, G. Stenberg

    2016-02-01

    We present observations from the Rosetta Plasma Consortium of the effects of stormy solar wind on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Four corotating interaction regions (CIRs), where the first event has possibly merged with a coronal mass ejection, are traced from Earth via Mars (using Mars Express and Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN mission) to comet 67P from October to December 2014. When the comet is 3.1-2.7 AU from the Sun and the neutral outgassing rate ˜1025-1026 s-1, the CIRs significantly influence the cometary plasma environment at altitudes down to 10-30 km. The ionospheric low-energy (˜5 eV) plasma density increases significantly in all events, by a factor of >2 in events 1 and 2 but less in events 3 and 4. The spacecraft potential drops below -20 V upon impact when the flux of electrons increases. The increased density is likely caused by compression of the plasma environment, increased particle impact ionization, and possibly charge exchange processes and acceleration of mass-loaded plasma back to the comet ionosphere. During all events, the fluxes of suprathermal (˜10-100 eV) electrons increase significantly, suggesting that the heating mechanism of these electrons is coupled to the solar wind energy input. At impact the magnetic field strength in the coma increases by a factor of 2-5 as more interplanetary magnetic field piles up around the comet. During two CIR impact events, we observe possible plasma boundaries forming, or moving past Rosetta, as the strong solar wind compresses the cometary plasma environment. We also discuss the possibility of seeing some signatures of the ionospheric response to tail disconnection events.

  19. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  20. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ages. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, eds. Taylor and Hoyt's Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 96. Orge FH, Grigorian F. Examination and common problems of the neonatal eye. ...

  1. New Observations of Comet Hale-Bopp from La Silla

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Methanol and Hydrogen Cyanide Detected at Record Distance Observations of famous Comet Hale-Bopp continue with the 15-m Swedish-ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) at the La Silla Observatory. They show amazingly strong activity of this unusual object, also at the present, very large distance from the Sun. The radio observations document in detail the release of various molecules from the comet's icy nucleus. Of particular interest is the observed emission from methanol ( CH 3 OH ) and hydrogen cyanide ( HCN ) molecules, never before detected in any comet this far away. Comet Hale-Bopp still going strong Just over 18 months after its perihelion passage on April 1, 1997, Comet Hale-Bopp (official designation C/1995 O1 ) is continuing its outward journey through the Solar System. It is now about 1,000 million kilometres (6.7 AU) from the Sun and the Earth, i.e. almost at the same distance as when it was first discovered in July 1995. After having traversed the northern sky in 1996 and 1997, the comet passed the celestial equator in late June 1997 and is now seen in the southern constellation Volans (The Flying Fish), i.e. just east of the Large Magellanic Cloud. It can only be observed from southern latitudes. The comet's brightness has decreased by a factor of more than 10,000 since it was at its brightest in March 1997, just before perihelion. However, the magnitude is still around 9 - 10, or only about 20-40 times fainter than what can be seen with the unaided eye. Hale-Bopp is therefore visible in binoculars to southern observers as a fuzzy object with a diameter of a few arcminutes. New observations from La Silla Several telescopes at La Silla are following the evolution of the activity of Comet Hale-Bopp as it recedes from the Sun. In particular, the comet is observed monthly with SEST , a 15-m diameter submillimetre telescope operated jointly by the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden) and ESO; it is the only

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  4. Kinetic simulation of neutral/ionized gas and electrically charged dust in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenishev, Valeriy; Rubin, Martin; Combi, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The cometary coma is a unique phenomenon in the solar system being a planetary atmosphere influenced by little or no gravity. As a comet approaches the sun, the water vapor with some fraction of other gases sublimate, generating a cloud of gas, ice and other refractory materials (rocky and organic dust) ejected from the surface of the nucleus. Sublimating gas molecules undergo frequent collisions and photochemical processes in the near-nucleus region. Owing to its negligible gravity, comets produce a large and highly variable extensive dusty coma with a size much larger than the characteristic size of the cometary nucleus.The Rosetta spacecraft is en route to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for a rendezvous, landing, and extensive orbital phase beginning in 2014. Both, interpretation of measurements and safety consideration of the spacecraft require modeling of the comet's dusty gas environment.In this work we present results of a numerical study of multispecies gaseous and electrically charged dust environment of comet Chyuryumov-Gerasimenko. Both, gas and dust phases of the coma are simulated kinetically. Photolytic reactions are taken into account. Parameters of the ambient plasma as well as the distribution of electric/magnetic fields are obtained from an MHD simulation of the coma connected to the solar wind. Trajectories of ions and electrically charged dust grains are simulated by accounting for the Lorentz force and the nucleus gravity.

  5. Characteristics of circular features on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deller, J. F.; Güttler, C.; Tubiana, C.; Hofmann, M.; Sierks, H.

    2017-09-01

    Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko shows a large variety of circular structures such as pits, elevated roundish features in Imhotep, and even a single occurrence of a plausible fresh impact crater. Imaging the pits in the Ma'at region, aiming to understand their structure and origin drove the design of the final descent trajectory of the Rosetta spacecraft. The high-resolution images obtained during the last mission phase allow us to study these pits as exemplary circular features. A complete catalogue of circular features gives us the possibility to compare and classify these structures systematically.

  6. Reasonable threshold value used to segment the individual comet from the comet assay image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Xuekun; Chen Ying; Du Jie; Zhang Xueqing; Luo Yisheng

    2009-01-01

    Reasonable segmentation of the individual comet contour from the Comet Assay (CA) images is the precondition for all of parameters analysis during the automatic analyzing for the CA. The Otsu method and several arithmetic operators for image segmentation, such as Sobel, Prewitt, Roberts and Canny were used to segment the comet contour, and characters of the CA images were analyzed firstly. And then the segmentation methods which had been adopted in the software for CA automatic analysis, such as the CASP, the TriTek CometScore TM , were put for-ward and compared. At last, a two-step procedure for threshold calculation based on image-content analysis is adopted to segment the individual comet from the CA images, and several principles for the segmentation are put forward too.(authors)

  7. The McDonald Observatory Faint Comet Survey - Gas production in 17 comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Anita L.; Barker, Edwin S.; Ramseyer, Tod F.; Storrs, Alex D.

    1992-01-01

    The complete Intensified Dissector Scanner data set on 17 comets is presented, and production rates are derived and analyzed. It is shown that there is a strong degree of homogenization in the production rate ratios of many comets. It also appears that the ratio of the production rates of the various species has no heliocentric distance dependence, except for the case of NH2. When speaking of the gas in the coma of a comet, it appears that comets must have been formed under remarkably uniform conditions, and that they must have evolved and formed their comae in a similar manner. The data presented here constitute strong evidence that the minor species must be bound up in a lattice and that the interior of a comet must be reasonably uniform.

  8. Particle acceleration near Halley's comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, Antal

    1987-01-01

    Vega and Giotto space probes observed energetic ions of cometary origin near Halley's comet. The water molecules evaporating from the cometary nucleus were ionized by the solar UV radiation. These 'standing' ions were accelerated from 1 km/s to a few 1000 km/s. Present paper analyses the possible mechanisms of acceleration based on the data of TUENDE detector (constructed by CRIP, Hungary) working on board of Vega probes. The basic mechanism is the ExB Lorentz acceleration by interplanetary magnetic field and electric field induced by magnetic field frozen into solar wind plasma. It is followed by an acceleration caused by the adiabatic compression of the plasma at shock wave front. These processes can not explain the observed velocity of ions. It is shown that the second order Fermi acceleration which dissipates the ion distribution in the velocity space can lead to the observed velocities. The circumstances required to the occurrence of this process are present at the cometary environment. (D.G.) 2 figs

  9. Spectrophotometry of 25 comets - Post-Halley updates for 17 comets plus new observations for eight additional comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newburn, R.L. Jr.; Spinrad, H.

    1989-01-01

    The best possible production figures within the current post-Halley framework and available observations are given for H2O, O(1D), CN, C3, C2 and dust in 25 comets. Of these, the three objects with the smallest mixing ratios of all minor species have moderate to little or no dust and appear 'old'. Comets with large amounts of CN are very dusty, and there is a clear correlation of CN with dust, although comets with little or no dust still have some CN. Thus, CN appears to have at least two sources, dust and one or more parent gases. Also, the C2/CN production ratio changes continuously with heliocentric distance in every comet considered, suggesting that C2 production may be a function of coma density as well as parental abundance. Dust production ranges from essentially zero in Comet Sugano-Saigusa-Fujikawa up to 67,000 kg/s for Halley on March 14, 1986. 61 references

  10. Spacecraft exploration of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, J.; Langevin, Y.; Farquhar, R.; Fulchignoni, M.

    1989-01-01

    After two decades of spacecraft exploration, we still await the first direct investigation of an asteroid. This paper describes how a growing international interest in the solar system's more primitive bodies should remedy this. Plans are under way in Europe for a dedicated asteroid mission (Vesta) which will include multiple flybys with in situ penetrator studies. Possible targets include 4 Vesta, 8 Flora and 46 Hestia; launch its scheduled for 1994 or 1996. In the United States, NASA plans include flybys of asteroids en route to outer solar system targets

  11. Spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenons and problems encountered when a rendezvous manoeuvre, and possible docking, of two spacecrafts has to be performed, have been the topic for numerous studies, and, details of a variety of scenarios has been analysed. So far, all solutions that has been brought into realization has...... been based entirely on direct human supervision and control. This paper describes a vision-based system and methodology, that autonomously generates accurate guidance information that may assist a human operator in performing the tasks associated with both the rendezvous and docking navigation...

  12. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  13. Water ice grains in comet C/2013 US10 (Catalina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protopapa, Silvia; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Yang, Bin; Woodward, Charles E.; Sunshine, Jessica M.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the the physical properties of water ice in cometary nuclei is critical in determining how the Solar System was formed. While it is difficult to directly study the properties of water ice in comet nuclei, we can study comet interiors through their comae. Cometary activity makes the interiors of these objects available for characterization. However, the properties (grain size, abundance, purity, chemical state) of water-ice grains detected in the coma do not necessarily represent the characteristics of the water ice on the surface and/or in the interior of the nucleus. This is due to the potential physical and chemical evolution of the emitted material. Once in the coma, water-ice grains are heated by sunlight, and if temperatures are warm enough, they sublime. In this case, their sizes and potentially their ice-to-dust fractions are reduced.We present IRTF/SpeX measurements of the Oort cloud comet C/2013 US10 (Catalina), which reached perihelion in Nov 2015 at a heliocentric distance Rh=0.822 AU. Observations of US10 were acquired on UT 2014-08-13, 2016-01-12, and 2016-08-13 (Rh=5.9, 1.3, and 3.9 AU). This set of measurements, spanning a broad range in Rh, are rare and fundamental for estimating how ice grains evolve in the coma. The spectrum obtained close to perihelion is featureless and red sloped, which is consistent with a dust-dominated coma. Conversely, the spectra acquired on August 2014 and 2016 display neutral slopes and absorption bands at 1.5 and 2.0 μm, consistent with the presence of water-ice grains. These variations in water ice with heliocentric distance are correlated with sublimation rates. Additionally, the measurements obtained at 5.8 AU and 3.9 AU are nearly identical, suggesting that water-ice grains, once in the coma, do not sublime significantly. Therefore, the properties of these long-lived water-ice grains may represent their state in the nucleus or immediately after insertion into the coma. We will present radiative

  14. Observational Evidence For The Comet-Like Heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzowski, M.; Czechowski, A.; Funsten, H. O.; Grygorczuk, J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Kubiak, M. A.; Moebius, E.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N.; Sokol, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Zirnstein, E.

    2017-12-01

    spacecraft and measurement techniques, supports a homogeneous and consistent picture of the heliosphere with a comet-like shape and organized by the plane of approximate mirror symmetry.

  15. Abundant Solar Nebula Solids in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Nguyen, A. N.; Clemett, S.

    2016-01-01

    Comets have been proposed to consist of unprocessed interstellar materials together with a variable amount of thermally annealed interstellar grains. Recent studies of cometary solids in the laboratory have shown that comets instead consist of a wide range of materials from across the protoplanetary disk, in addition to a minor complement of interstellar materials. These advances were made possible by the return of direct samples of comet 81P/Wild 2 coma dust by the NASA Stardust mission and recent advances in microscale analytical techniques. Isotopic studies of 'cometary' chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles (CP-IDPs) and comet 81P/Wild 2 Stardust samples show that preserved interstellar materials are more abundant in comets than in any class of meteorite. Identified interstellar materials include sub-micron-sized presolar silicates, oxides, and SiC dust grains and some fraction of the organic material that binds the samples together. Presolar grain abundances reach 1 weight percentage in the most stardust-rich CP-IDPs, 50 times greater than in meteorites. Yet, order of magnitude variations in presolar grain abundances among CP-IDPs suggest cometary solids experienced significant variations in the degree of processing in the solar nebula. Comets contain a surprisingly high abundance of nebular solids formed or altered at high temperatures. Comet 81P/Wild 2 samples include 10-40 micron-sized, refractory Ca- Al-rich inclusion (CAI)-, chondrule-, and ameboid olivine aggregate (AOA)-like materials. The O isotopic compositions of these refractory materials are remarkably similar to their meteoritic counterparts, ranging from 5 percent enrichments in (sup 16) O to near-terrestrial values. Comet 81P/Wild 2 and CP-IDPs also contain abundant Mg-Fe crystalline and amorphous silicates whose O isotopic compositions are also consistent with Solar System origins. Unlike meteorites, that are dominated by locally-produced materials, comets appear to be composed of

  16. A GREAT search for Deuterium in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Comets are understood to be the most pristine bodies in the Solar System. Their compositions reflect the chemical state of materials at the very earliest evolutionary stages of the protosolar nebula and, as such, they provide detailed insight into the physical and chemical processes operating in planet-forming disks. Isotopic fractionation ratios of the molecular ices in the nucleus are regarded as signatures of formation processes. These ratios provide unique information on the natal heritage of those ices, and can also test the proposal that Earth's water and other volatiles were delivered by cometary bombardment. Measurement of deuterium fractionation ratios is thus a major goal in contemporary cometary science and the D/H ratio of water - the dominant volatile in comets - holds great promise for testing the formation history of cometary matter. The D/H ratio in cometary water has been measured in only eight comets. Seven were from the Oort Cloud reservoir and the D/H ratio was about twice that of the Earth's oceans. However, the recent Herschel measurement of HDO/H2O in 103P/Hartley-2 (the first from the Kuiper Belt) was consistent with exogenous delivery of Earth's water by comets. Outstanding questions remain: are cometary HDO/H2O ratios consistent with current theories of nebular chemical evolution or with an interstellar origin? Does the HDO/H2O ratio vary substantially among comet populations? Hartley-2 is the only Kuiper Belt comet with measured HDO/H2O, are there comets with similar ratios in the Oort cloud? These questions can only be addressed by measuring HDO/H2O ratios in many more suitable bright comets. We therefore propose to measure the D/H ratio in water in a suitable target-of-opportunity comet by performing observations of HDO and OH with the GREAT spectrometer on SOFIA. A multi-wavelength, ground-based observing campaign will also be conducted in support of the airborne observations.

  17. Comet assay on mice testicular cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Kumar Sharma

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Heritable mutations may result in a variety of adverse outcomes including genetic disease in the offspring. In recent years the focus on germ cell mutagenicity has increased and the “Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS” has published classification criteria for germ cell mutagens (Speit et al., 2009. The in vivo Comet assay is considered a useful tool for investigating germ cell genotoxicity. In the present study DNA strand breaks in testicular cells of mice were investigated. Different classes of chemicals were tested in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the comet assay in testicular cells. The chemicals included environmentally relevant substances such as Bisphenol A, PFOS and Tetrabrombisphenol A. Statistical power calculations will be presented to aid in the design of future Comet assay studies on testicular cells. Power curves were provided with different fold changes in % tail DNA, different number of cells scored and different number of gels (Hansen et al., 2014. An example is shown in Figure 1. A high throughput version of the Comet assay was used. Samples were scored with a fully automatic comet assay scoring system that provided faster scoring of randomly selected cells.

  18. Study of Comets Composition and Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, S. Z.; Selman, A. A.; Ali, H. S.

    2008-12-01

    The present paper focuses on the nature of the different interactions between cometary nucleus and tail with solar wind. The dynamics of the comet will impose many features that provide unique behavior of the comet when entering the solar system. These features are reviewed in this paper and few investigations are made. The calculations made in this work represent the analysis and interpretation of the different features of the comet, such as perihelion and eccentricity dependence on the gas production rate, and the dependence of the latter on the composition of the comet nucleus. The dependences of the heliocentric, bow shock, contact surface, and stand-off distances with gas production rate for many types of comets that cover linear and non-linear types are studied in this work. Important results are obtained which indicated the different physical interactions between cometary ions and solar wind. Furthermore, the important relation between mean molecular weight and gas production rate are analyzed and studied in this work and a conclusion is made that, as the gas production rate increases, the mean molecular weight will decrease exponentially. A detailed discussion for this unique relation is given.

  19. Inverting Comet Acoustic Surface Sounding Experiment (CASSE) touchdown signals to measure the elastic modulus of comet material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W.; Faber, C.; Knapmeyer, M.; Witte, L.; Schröder, S.; Tune, J.; Möhlmann, D.; Roll, R.; Chares, B.; Fischer, H.; Seidensticker, K.

    2014-07-01

    The landing of Philae on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is scheduled for November 11, 2014. Each of the three landing feet of Philae house a triaxial acceleration sensor of CASSE, which will thus be the first sensors to be in mechanical contact with the cometary surface. CASSE will be in listening mode to record the deceleration of the lander, when it impacts with the comet at a velocity of approx. 0.5 m/s. The analysis of this data yields information on the reduced elastic modulus and the yield stress of the comet's surface material. We describe a series of controlled landings of a lander model. The tests were conducted in the Landing & Mobility Test Facility (LAMA) of the DLR Institute of Space Systems in Bremen, Germany, where an industrial robot can be programmed to move landers or rovers along predefined paths, allowing to adapt landing procedures with predefined velocities. The qualification model of the Philae landing gear was used in the tests. It consists of three legs manufactured of carbon fiber and metal joints. A dead mass of the size and mass of the lander housing is attached via a damper above the landing gear to represent the lander structure as a whole. Attached to each leg is a foot with two soles and a mechanically driven fixation screw (''ice screw'') to secure the lander on the comet. The right soles, if viewed from the outside towards the lander body, house a Brüel & Kjaer DeltaTron 4506 triaxial piezoelectric accelerometer as used on the spacecraft. Orientation of the three axes was such that one of the axes, here the X-axis of the accelerometer, points downwards, while the Y- and Z-axes are horizontal. Data were recorded at a sampling rate of 8.2 kHz within a time gate of 2 s. In parallel, a video sequence was taken, in order to monitor the touchdown on the sand and the movement of the ice screws. Touchdown measurements were conducted on three types of ground with landing velocities between 0.1 to 1.1 m/s. Landings with low velocities were

  20. Castalia: A European Mission to a Main Belt Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Colin; Castalia mission science Team

    2013-10-01

    Main Belt Comets (MBCs) are a newly identified population, with stable asteroid-like orbits in the outer main belt and a comet-like appearance. It is believed that they survived the age of the solar system in a dormant state and that their activity occurred only recently. Water ice is the only volatile expected to survive, and only when buried under an insulating surface. Excavation by impact could bring the water ice (closer) to the surface and trigger the start of MBC activity. The specific science goals of the Castalia mission are: 1. Characterize a new Solar System family, the MBCs, by in-situ investigation 2. Understand the physics of activity on MBCs 3. Directly detect water in the asteroid belt 4. Test if MBCs are a viable source for Earth’s water 5. Use MBCs as tracers of planetary system formation and evolution These goals can be achieved by a spacecraft designed to rendezvous with and orbit an MBC for some months, arriving before the active period begins for mapping before directly sampling the gas and dust released during the active phase. Given the low level of activity of MBCs, and the expectation that their activity comes from only a localized patch on the surface, the orbiting spacecraft will have to be able to maintain a very close orbit over extended periods - the Castalia plan envisages an orbiter capable of ‘hovering’ autonomously at distances of only a few km from the surface of the MBC. The straw-man instrument payload is made up of: - Visible and near-infrared spectral imager - Thermal infrared imager - Radio science - Dust impact detector - Dust composition analyzer - Neutral/ion mass spectrometer - Magnetometer - Plasma package In addition to this, the option of a surface science package is being considered. At the moment MBC 133P/Elst-Pizarro is the best-known target for such a mission. A design study for the Castalia mission has been carried out in partnership between the science team, DLR and OHB Systems. This study looked at

  1. Castalia - European Mission to a Main Belt Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchenbach, M.

    2013-12-01

    Main Belt Comets (MBCs) are a recently identified new solar system population with stable asteroid-like orbits and a comet-like appearance. It is believed that they survived the age of the solar system in a dormant state and that their activity occurred only recently. Buried water ice is the only volatile expected to survive under an insulating surface. Excavation by an impact might expose the ice and trigger the start of MBC activity. The specific science goals of the Castalia mission are: 1. Characterize a new Solar System family, the MBCs, by in-situ investigation 2. Understand the physics of activity on MBCs 3. Directly detect water in the asteroid belt 4. Test if MBCs are a viable source for Earth's water 5. Use MBCs as tracers of planetary system formation and evolution These goals can be achieved by a spacecraft designed to rendezvous with and orbit an MBC for a time interval of some months, arriving before the active period for mapping and then directly sampling the gas and dust released during the active phase. Given the low level of activity of MBCs, and the expectation that their activity comes from only a localized patch on the surface, the orbiting spacecraft will have to be able to maintain a very close orbit over extended periods - the Castalia plan envisages an orbiter capable of ';hovering' autonomously at distances of only a few km from the surface of the MBC. The straw-man instrument payload is made up of: - Visible and near-infrared spectral imager - Thermal infrared imager - Radio science - Dust impact detector - Dust composition analyzer - Neutral/ion mass spectrometer - Magnetometer - Plasma package In addition to this, the option of a surface science package is being considered. At the moment MBC 133P/Elst-Pizarro is the best-known target for such a mission. A design study for the Castalia mission has been carried out in partnership between the science team, DLR and OHB Systems. This study looked at possible missions to 133P with launch

  2. Comets As Objects of High Energy Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibadov, S.

    2000-10-01

    Strong soft X-ray emission from comet Hyakutake C/1996 B2 was discovered with ROSAT in March 27, 1996 (Lisse et al. 1996, Science 274, 205-209) and the results of a theoretical approach (Ibadov 1990, Icarus 86, 283-288) served as a motive for that observations (Dennerl, Lisse and Truemper 1998, Private Communications). It is now well established that comets emit EUV and X-rays regularly (Dennerl, Englhauser and Truemper 1997, Science 277, 1625-1630; Dennerl 1998, Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Atomic Physics, Windsor, Ontario, Canada). To explain this phenomenon different theoretical models were proposed (Krasnopolsky 1997, Icarus 128, 365-385; Ibadov 1998, Proc. First XMM Workshop, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, and references therein). In the paper the problem of identifying X-ray generation mechanisms in comets will be considered.

  3. Dynamics of comets: their origin and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carusi, A.; Valsecchi, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    Comets can be considered as remnants of the original population of planetesimals and the study of their origin and dynamical histories can provide insight into the accretion phenomena; the original mass, energy and angular momentum distribution across the solar system; the collisional fragmentation of minor bodies; the impact rates on planets and the nature of impacting bodies. The interaction of comets with other solar system bodies certainly provides one of the best possibilities for a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the whole system, and a challenging test for all theories of celestial mechanics dealing with the gravitational behaviour of multiple-body systems. Comets could also be considered as the last footprints left by the interaction of the protosun and its original galactic environment. (orig.)

  4. Dynamical evolution and disintegration of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, L.

    Current concepts of the origin and evolution of comets are reviewed. The place of their formation from which they have been delivered into the Oort reservoir is still an open problem, but the region of the outermost planets appears most probable. The interplay of stellar and planetary perturbations can be traced by model computations which reveal both the general trends and the variety of individual evolutionary paths. The present structure of the system of comets is controlled by the dynamical evolution of its individual members, limited by their physical aging by disintegration. Where the lifetimes are short, as in the Jupiter family of short-period comets, an equilibrium between elimination and replenishment is established. The role of different destructive processes and the resulting survival times are discussed.

  5. Dynamical evolution and disintegration of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresak, L.

    1982-01-01

    Current concepts of the origin and evolution of comets are reviewed. The place of their formation from which they have been delivered into the Oort reservoir is still an open problem, but the region of the outermost planets appears most probable. The interplay of stellar and planetary perturbations can be traced by model computations which reveal both the general trends and the variety of individual evolutionary paths. The present structure of the system of comets is controlled by the dynamical evolution of its individual members limited by their physical aging by disintegration. Where the lifetimes are short, as in the Jupiter family of short-period comets, an equilibrium between elimination and replenishment is established. The role of different destructive processes and the resulting survival times are discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Spiral arms, comets and terrestrial catastrophism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clube, S.V.M.; Napier, W.M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of an hypothesis of terrestrial catastrophism in which comets grow in molecular clouds and are captured by the Sun as it passes through the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Assuming that comets are a major supplier of the Earth-crossing (Appollo) asteroid population, the latter fluctuates correspondingly and leads to episodes of terrestrial bombardment. Changes in the rotational momentum of core and mantle, generated by impacts, lead to episodes of magnetic field reversal and tectonic activity, while surface phenomena lead to ice-ages and mass extinctions. An episodic geophysical history with an interstellar connection is thus implied. If comets in spiral arms are necessary intermediaries in the process of star formation, the theory also has implications relating to early solar system history and galactic chemistry. These aspects are briefly discussed with special reference to the nature of spiral arms. (author)

  7. The mass disruption of Jupiter Family comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    2015-01-01

    I show that the size-distribution of small scattered-disk trans-neptunian objects when derived from the observed size-distribution of Jupiter Family comets (JFCs) and other observational constraints implies that a large percentage (94-97%) of newly arrived active comets within a range of 0.2-15.4 km effective radius must physically disrupt, i.e., macroscopically disintegrate, within their median dynamical lifetime. Additional observational constraints include the numbers of dormant and active nuclei in the near-Earth object (NEO) population and the slope of their size distributions. I show that the cumulative power-law slope (-2.86 to -3.15) of the scattered-disk TNO hot population between 0.2 and 15.4 km effective radius is only weakly dependent on the size-dependence of the otherwise unknown disruption mechanism. Evidently, as JFC nuclei from the scattered disk evolve into the inner Solar System only a fraction achieve dormancy while the vast majority of small nuclei (e.g., primarily those with effective radius <2 km) break-up. The percentage disruption rate appears to be comparable with that of the dynamically distinct Oort cloud and Halley type comets (Levison, H.F., Morbidelli, A., Dones, L., Jedicke, R., Wiegert, P.A., Bottke Jr., W.F. [2002]. Science 296, 2212-2215) suggesting that all types of comet nuclei may have similar structural characteristics even though they may have different source regions and thermal histories. The typical disruption rate for a 1 km radius active nucleus is ∼5 × 10-5 disruptions/year and the dormancy rate is typically 3 times less. We also estimate that average fragmentation rates range from 0.01 to 0.04 events/year/comet, somewhat above the lower limit of 0.01 events/year/comet observed by Chen and Jewitt (Chen, J., Jewitt, D.C. [1994]. Icarus 108, 265-271).

  8. Comet nuclei and Trojan asteroids - A new link and a possible mechanism for comet splittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, W.K.; Tholen, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Relatively elongated shapes, implied by recent evidence of a greater incidence of high amplitude lightcurves for comet nuclei and Trojan asteroids than for similarly scaled main belt asteroids, are suggested to have evolved among comet nuclei and Trojans due to volatile loss. It is further suggested that such an evolutionary course may account for observed comet splitting; rotational splitting may specifically occur as a result of evolution in the direction of an elongated shape through sublimation. Supporting these hypotheses, the few m/sec separation velocities projected for rotationally splitting elongated nuclei are precisely in the observed range. 40 refs

  9. ORIGIN OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousis, O.; Ronnet, T.; Brugger, B.; Vernazza, P. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Ozgurel, O.; Pauzat, F.; Ellinger, Y.; Markovits, A. [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7616, F-75252 Paris CEDEX 05 (France); Maggiolo, R. [Royal Institute for Space Aeronomy, 3 Avenue Circulaire, Brussels (Belgium); Wurz, P.; Altwegg, K.; Bieler, A.; Rubin, M. [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Lunine, J. I. [Department of Astronomy and Carl Sagan Institute, Space Sciences Building Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Luspay-Kuti, A.; Mandt, K. E., E-mail: olivier.mousis@lam.fr [Department of Space Research, Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Rd., San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Molecular oxygen has been detected in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko with abundances in the 1%–10% range by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis-Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft. Here we find that the radiolysis of icy grains in low-density environments such as the presolar cloud may induce the production of large amounts of molecular oxygen. We also show that molecular oxygen can be efficiently trapped in clathrates formed in the protosolar nebula (PSN), and that its incorporation as crystalline ice is highly implausible, because this would imply much larger abundances of Ar and N{sub 2} than those observed in the coma. Assuming that radiolysis has been the only O{sub 2} production mechanism at work, we conclude that the formation of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is possible in a dense and early PSN in the framework of two extreme scenarios: (1) agglomeration from pristine amorphous icy grains/particles formed in ISM and (2) agglomeration from clathrates that formed during the disk’s cooling. The former scenario is found consistent with the strong correlation between O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O observed in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko’s coma while the latter scenario requires that clathrates formed from ISM icy grains that crystallized when entering the PSN.

  10. ORIGIN OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV–GERASIMENKO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousis, O.; Ronnet, T.; Brugger, B.; Vernazza, P.; Ozgurel, O.; Pauzat, F.; Ellinger, Y.; Markovits, A.; Maggiolo, R.; Wurz, P.; Altwegg, K.; Bieler, A.; Rubin, M.; Lunine, J. I.; Luspay-Kuti, A.; Mandt, K. E.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular oxygen has been detected in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko with abundances in the 1%–10% range by the Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis-Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft. Here we find that the radiolysis of icy grains in low-density environments such as the presolar cloud may induce the production of large amounts of molecular oxygen. We also show that molecular oxygen can be efficiently trapped in clathrates formed in the protosolar nebula (PSN), and that its incorporation as crystalline ice is highly implausible, because this would imply much larger abundances of Ar and N_2 than those observed in the coma. Assuming that radiolysis has been the only O_2 production mechanism at work, we conclude that the formation of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is possible in a dense and early PSN in the framework of two extreme scenarios: (1) agglomeration from pristine amorphous icy grains/particles formed in ISM and (2) agglomeration from clathrates that formed during the disk’s cooling. The former scenario is found consistent with the strong correlation between O_2 and H_2O observed in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko’s coma while the latter scenario requires that clathrates formed from ISM icy grains that crystallized when entering the PSN.

  11. The Nucleus of Comet 9P-Tempel 1: Shape and Geology from Two Flybys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P.; A'Hearn, M.; Belton, M. J. S.; Brownlee, D.; Carcich, B.; Hermalyn, B.; Klaasen, K.; Sackett, S.; Schultz, P. H.; Veverka, J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The nucleus of comet Tempel 1 has been investigated at close range during two spacecraft missions separated by one comet orbit of the Sun, 5 1/2 years. The combined imaging covers 70% of the surface of this object which has a mean radius of 2.83 +/- 0.1 km. The surface can be divided into two terrain types: rough, pitted terrain and smoother regions of varying local topography. The rough surface has round depressions from resolution limits (10 m/pixel) up to 1 km across, spanning forms from crisp steep-walled pits, to subtle albedo rings, to topographic rings, with all ranges of morphologic gradation. Three gravitationally low regions of the comet have smoother terrain, parts of which appear to be deposits from minimally modified flows, with other parts likely to be heavily eroded portions of multiple layer piles. Changes observed between the two missions are primarily due to backwasting of scarps bounding one of these probable flow deposits. This style of erosion is also suggested by remnant mesa forms in other areas of smoother terrain. The two distinct terrains suggest either an evolutionary change in processes, topographically- controlled processes, or a continuing interaction of erosion and deposition.

  12. Detection of radiation-induced apoptosis using the comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Funayama, Tomoo; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Khoa, Tran Van; Natsuhori, Masahiro; Ito, Nobuhiko

    2003-01-01

    The electrophoresis pattern of apoptotic cells detected by the comet assay has a characteristic small head and spread tail. This image has been referred to as an apoptotic comet, but it has not been previously proven to be apoptotic cells by any direct method. In order to identify this image obtained by the comet assay as corresponding to an apoptotic cell, the frequency of appearance of apoptosis was examined using CHO-K1 and L5178Y cells which were exposed to gamma irradiation. As a method for detecting apoptosis, the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used. When the frequency of appearance of apoptotic cells following gamma irradiation was observed over a period of time, there was a significant increase in appearance of apoptosis when using the TUNEL assay. However, there was only a slight increase when using the comet assay. In order to verify the low frequency of appearance of apoptosis when using the comet assay, we attempted to use the TUNEL assay to satin the apoptotic comets detected in the comet assay. The apoptotic comets were TUNEL positive and the normal comets were TUNEL negative. This indicates that the apoptotic comets were formed from DNA fragments with 3'-hydroxy ends that are generated as cells undergo apoptosis. Therefore, it was understood that the characteristic pattern of apoptotic comets detected by the comet assay corresponds to cells undergoing apoptosis. (author)

  13. To Catch A Comet...Learning From Halley's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Comet chronicles and stories extend back over thousands of years. A common theme has been that comets are a major cause of catastrophe and tragedy here on earth. In addition, both Aristotle and Ptolemy believed that comets were phenomena within the earth's atmosphere, and it wasn't until the 16th century, when Danish astronomer Tycho Brache…

  14. The shortage of long-period comets in elliptical orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everhart, E.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the number of 'new' comets seen on near-parabolic orbits, one can predict the number of comets that should be found on definitely elliptical orbits on their subsequent returns. The author shows that about three out of four of these returning comets are not observed. (Auth.)

  15. Spectrophotometry of seventeen comets. II - The continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburn, R. L., Jr.; Spinrad, H.

    1985-01-01

    One-hundred-twenty IDS scans of the continua in 17 comets are analyzed to determine dust production rates and color as a function of heliocentric distance. Improved theory indicates that the dust loading of gas typically varies between 0.05 and 0.3 by mass (assuming a geometric albedo of 0.05 and oxygen expansion at 1 km/s) except during outbursts, when it rises much higher. P/Encke near perihelion falls much lower yet, to 0.004 or less. Dust loading is not always constant as a function of time in a given comet. Dust color is typically reddish, as has often been noted before.

  16. CometQ: An automated tool for the detection and quantification of DNA damage using comet assay image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Sreelatha; Muraleedharan, Aparna; Sathidevi, Puthumangalathu Savithri; Chand, Parkash; Rajkumar, Ravi Philip

    2016-09-01

    DNA damage analysis plays an important role in determining the approaches for treatment and prevention of various diseases like cancer, schizophrenia and other heritable diseases. Comet assay is a sensitive and versatile method for DNA damage analysis. The main objective of this work is to implement a fully automated tool for the detection and quantification of DNA damage by analysing comet assay images. The comet assay image analysis consists of four stages: (1) classifier (2) comet segmentation (3) comet partitioning and (4) comet quantification. Main features of the proposed software are the design and development of four comet segmentation methods, and the automatic routing of the input comet assay image to the most suitable one among these methods depending on the type of the image (silver stained or fluorescent stained) as well as the level of DNA damage (heavily damaged or lightly/moderately damaged). A classifier stage, based on support vector machine (SVM) is designed and implemented at the front end, to categorise the input image into one of the above four groups to ensure proper routing. Comet segmentation is followed by comet partitioning which is implemented using a novel technique coined as modified fuzzy clustering. Comet parameters are calculated in the comet quantification stage and are saved in an excel file. Our dataset consists of 600 silver stained images obtained from 40 Schizophrenia patients with different levels of severity, admitted to a tertiary hospital in South India and 56 fluorescent stained images obtained from different internet sources. The performance of "CometQ", the proposed standalone application for automated analysis of comet assay images, is evaluated by a clinical expert and is also compared with that of a most recent and related software-OpenComet. CometQ gave 90.26% positive predictive value (PPV) and 93.34% sensitivity which are much higher than those of OpenComet, especially in the case of silver stained images. The

  17. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye can be caused by a work-related accident. It can also be caused by common household ... hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and ... A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  18. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...

  19. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Note your findings in an orderly fashion: orbit, lids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber, iris, pupil reaction, lens, fundus. • Stain cornea with fluorescein. It is advisable to examine the eye as soon as possible since a delay will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. This can ...

  20. Coma morphology of comet 67P controlled by insolation over irregular nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Hu, X.; Mottola, S.; Sierks, H.; Keller, H. U.; Rose, M.; Güttler, C.; Fulle, M.; Fornasier, S.; Agarwal, J.; Pajola, M.; Tubiana, C.; Bodewits, D.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Boudreault, S.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Davidsson, B.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Deller, J.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Naletto, G.; Oklay, N.; Toth, I.; Vincent, J.-B.

    2018-05-01

    While the structural complexity of cometary comae is already recognizable from telescopic observations1, the innermost region, within a few radii of the nucleus, was not resolved until spacecraft exploration became a reality2,3. The dust coma displays jet-like features of enhanced brightness superposed on a diffuse background1,4,5. Some features can be traced to specific areas on the nucleus, and result conceivably from locally enhanced outgassing and/or dust emission6-8. However, diffuse or even uniform activity over topographic concavity can converge to produce jet-like features9,10. Therefore, linking observed coma morphology to the distribution of activity on the nucleus is difficult11,12. Here, we study the emergence of dust activity at sunrise on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using high-resolution, stereo images from the OSIRIS camera onboard the Rosetta spacecraft, where the sources and formation of the jet-like features are resolved. We perform numerical simulations to show that the ambient dust coma is driven by pervasive but non-uniform water outgassing from the homogeneous surface layer. Physical collimations of gas and dust flows occur at local maxima of insolation and also via topographic focusing. Coma structures are projected to exhibit jet-like features that vary with the perspective of the observer. For an irregular comet such as 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, near-nucleus coma structures can be concealed in the shadow of the nucleus, which further complicates the picture.

  1. Comets and the origin and evolution of life

    CERN Document Server

    McKay, Christopher P

    2006-01-01

    Nine years after the publication of Comets and the Origin and Evolution of Life, one of the pioneering books in Astrobiology, this second edition revisits the role comets may have played in the origins and evolution of life. Recent analyses of Antarctic micrometeorites and ancient rocks in Australia and South Africa, the continuing progress in discovering complex organic macromolecules in comets, protostars and interstellar clouds, new insights into organic synthesis in comets, and numerical simulations of comet impacts on the Earth and other members of the solar system yield a spectacular wea

  2. OpenComet: An automated tool for comet assay image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gyori, Benjamin M.; Venkatachalam, Gireedhar; Thiagarajan, P.S.; Hsu, David; Clement, Marie-Veronique

    2014-01-01

    Reactive species such as free radicals are constantly generated in vivo and DNA is the most important target of oxidative stress. Oxidative DNA damage is used as a predictive biomarker to monitor the risk of development of many diseases. The comet assay is widely used for measuring oxidative DNA damage at a single cell level. The analysis of comet assay output images, however, poses considerable challenges. Commercial software is costly and restrictive, while free software generally requires ...

  3. Surface Activity Distributions of Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko Derived from VIRTIS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fougere, Nicolas; Combi, Michael R.; Tenishev, Valeriy; Migliorini, Alessandra; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Fink, Uwe; Filacchione, Gianrico; Rinaldi, Giovanna; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Toth, Gabor; Gombosi, T. I.; Hansen, Kenneth C.; Huang, Zhenguang; Shou, Yinsi; VIRTIS Team

    2017-10-01

    The outgassing mechanism of comets still remains a critical question to better understand these objects. The Rosetta mission gave some insight regarding the potential activity distribution from the surface of the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Fougere et al. (2016, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 588, id.A134, 11 pp and Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 462, Issue Suppl_1, p.S156-S169) used a spherical harmonics inversion scheme with in-situ measurements from the ROSINA instrument to derive mapping of the broad distribution of potential activity at the surface of the nucleus. Marschall et al. (2016, Astronomy & Astrophysics, doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/201730849) based on the appearance of dust active areas suggested that the so-called “neck” region and regions with fractured cliffs and locally steep slopes show more activity than the rest of comet 67P’s nucleus. Using in situ ROSINA measurements from a distance makes it difficult to distinguish between these two scenarios because the fast expansion of the gas and large molecular mean free paths prevents distinguishing small outgassing features even when the spacecraft was in bound orbits within 10 km from the nucleus. In this paper, we present a similar numerical inversion approach using VIRTIS images, which should better probe the very inner coma of comet 67P and give more detailed information about the outgassing activity. Support from contracts JPL #1266314 and #1266313 from the US Rosetta Project and grant NNX14AG84G from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program are gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Mapping of coma anisotropies to plasma structures of weak comets: a 3-D hybrid simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Gortsas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of coma anisotropies on the plasma environment of comets have been studied by means of a 3-D hybrid model which treats electrons as a massless, charge-neutralizing fluid, whereas ion dynamics are covered by a kinetic approach. From Earth-based observations as well as from in-situ spacecraft measurements the shape of the coma of many comets is ascertained to be anisotropic. However, most plasma simulation studies deploy a spherically symmetric activity pattern. In this paper anisotropy is studied by considering three different coma shape models. The first model is derived from the Haser model and is characterised by spherically symmetry. This reference model is then compared with two different neutral gas shape models: the dayside restricted model with no nightside activity and a cone shaped model with opening angle of π/2. In all models the integrated surface activity is kept constant. The simulations have been done for the Rosetta target comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for two heliocentric distances, 1.30 AU and 3.25 AU. It is found that shock formation processes are modified as a result of increasing spatial confinement. Characteristic plasma structures of comets such as the bow shock, magnetic barrier region and the ion composition boundary exhibit a shift towards the sun. In addition, the cone shaped model leads to a strong increase of the mass-loaded region which in turn leads to a smooth deceleration of the solar wind flow and an increasing degree of mixture between the solar wind and cometary ion species. This creates an additional transport channel of the magnetic field from the magnetic barrier region away which in turn leads to a broadening of this region. In addition, it leads to an ion composition boundary which is only gradually developed.

  5. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  6. COMETARY VOLATILES AND THE ORIGIN OF COMETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A' Hearn, Michael F.; Feaga, Lori M.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L.; Kelley, Michael S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Keller, H. Uwe [Institute for Geophysics and Extraterrestrial Physics, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Kawakita, Hideyo [Department of Physics, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo JP Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan); Hampton, Donald L. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 903 Koyukuk Drive, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Kissel, Jochen [Max-Planck-Institut for Solar System Research, Max-Planck-Strasse 2, D-37191 Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany); Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Yeomans, Donald K. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); McFadden, Lucy A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Meech, Karen J. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Schultz, Peter H. [Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Thomas, Peter C.; Veverka, Joseph [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Groussin, Olivier [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Lisse, Carey M., E-mail: ma@astro.umd.edu [Space Department, JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); and others

    2012-10-10

    We describe recent results on the CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O composition of comets together with a survey of older literature (primarily for CO/H{sub 2}O) and compare these with models of the protoplanetary disk. Even with the currently small sample, there is a wide dispersion in abundance ratios and little if any systematic difference between Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) and long-period and Halley-type comets (LPCs and HTCs). We argue that the cometary observations require reactions on grain surfaces to convert CO to CO{sub 2} and also require formation of all types of comets in largely, but not entirely, overlapping regions, probably between the CO and CO{sub 2} snow lines. Any difference in the regions of formation is in the opposite direction from the classical picture with the JFCs having formed closer to the Sun than the LPCs. In the classical picture, the LPCs formed in the region of the giant planets and the JFCs formed in the Kuiper Belt. However, these data suggest, consistent with suggestions on dynamical grounds, that the JFCs and LPCs formed in largely overlapping regions where the giant planets are today and with JFCs on average forming slightly closer to the Sun than did the LPCs. Presumably at least the JFCs passed through the scattered disk on their way to their present dynamical family.

  7. COMETARY VOLATILES AND THE ORIGIN OF COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.; Feaga, Lori M.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Besse, Sebastien; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony L.; Kelley, Michael S.; Keller, H. Uwe; Kawakita, Hideyo; Hampton, Donald L.; Kissel, Jochen; Klaasen, Kenneth P.; Yeomans, Donald K.; McFadden, Lucy A.; Meech, Karen J.; Schultz, Peter H.; Thomas, Peter C.; Veverka, Joseph; Groussin, Olivier; Lisse, Carey M.

    2012-01-01

    We describe recent results on the CO/CO 2 /H 2 O composition of comets together with a survey of older literature (primarily for CO/H 2 O) and compare these with models of the protoplanetary disk. Even with the currently small sample, there is a wide dispersion in abundance ratios and little if any systematic difference between Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) and long-period and Halley-type comets (LPCs and HTCs). We argue that the cometary observations require reactions on grain surfaces to convert CO to CO 2 and also require formation of all types of comets in largely, but not entirely, overlapping regions, probably between the CO and CO 2 snow lines. Any difference in the regions of formation is in the opposite direction from the classical picture with the JFCs having formed closer to the Sun than the LPCs. In the classical picture, the LPCs formed in the region of the giant planets and the JFCs formed in the Kuiper Belt. However, these data suggest, consistent with suggestions on dynamical grounds, that the JFCs and LPCs formed in largely overlapping regions where the giant planets are today and with JFCs on average forming slightly closer to the Sun than did the LPCs. Presumably at least the JFCs passed through the scattered disk on their way to their present dynamical family.

  8. Comet assay. Pt.1. Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszewski, M.; Wojewodzka, M.; Iwanenko, T.

    1996-01-01

    Comet assay is a new method for measuring DNA breakage in a single cell. The main applications of the method are estimation of DNA single and double strand breaks, oxidative damage, pyrimidine dimers and (6-4)photoproducts, DNA-DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks. The method is used for studying DNA damage and its repair. (author).19 refs, 9 figs

  9. Comet C/2001 A1 (Linear)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blythe, M.; Dawson, M.; Kornos, L.; Koleny, P.; Kotková, Lenka; Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.

    č. 7561 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  10. Comet C/2001 Q1 (Neat)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lawrence, K. J.; Helin, E. F.; Pravdo, S. H.; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Kočer, M.; Spahr, T. B.

    č. 7685 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  11. Comet P/2001 T3 (Neat)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lawrence, K. J.; Pravdo, S. H.; Helin, E. F.; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Tichá, J.; Tichý, M.; Jelínek, P.

    č. 7733 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  12. Comet P/2001 MD 7 (Linear)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blythe, M.; Kotková, Lenka; Marsden, B. G.

    č. 7660 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  13. New Application of the Comet Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I.; Dávila-Rodríguez, Martha I.; Fernández, José Luís; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálbez, Altea; Gosálvez, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    The comet assay is a well-established, simple, versatile, visual, rapid, and sensitive tool used extensively to assess DNA damage and DNA repair quantitatively and qualitatively in single cells. The comet assay is most frequently used to analyze white blood cells or lymphocytes in human biomonitoring studies, although other cell types have been examined, including buccal, nasal, epithelial, and placental cells and even spermatozoa. This study was conducted to design a protocol that can be used to generate comets in subnuclear units, such as chromosomes. The new technique is based on the chromosome isolation protocols currently used for whole chromosome mounting in electron microscopy, coupled to the alkaline variant of the comet assay, to detect DNA damage. The results show that migrant DNA fragments can be visualized in whole nuclei and isolated chromosomes and that they exhibit patterns of DNA migration that depend on the level of DNA damage produced. This protocol has great potential for the highly reproducible study of DNA damage and repair in specific chromosomal domains. PMID:21540337

  14. Comet C/2001 A2 (Linear)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravec, Petr; Kotková, Lenka; Tichý, M.; Kočer, M.

    č. 7564 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  15. Comet C/2001 Q6 (Neat)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pravdo, S. H.; Helin, E. F.; Lawrence, K. J.; Tichý, M.; Kotková, Lenka; Wolf, M.; Balam, D.; Shelus, P. J.

    č. 7698 (2001), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : comet s * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  16. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  18. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  20. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  1. Report of Some Comets: The Discovery of Uranus and Comets by William, Caroline, and John Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery and drawings of comets by William, Caroline, and John Herschel. The first discovery, by William Herschel, in 1781 from Bath, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society with the title "Report of a Comet," turned out to be Uranus, the first planet ever discovered, Mercury through Saturn having been known since antiquity. William's sister Caroline was given duties of sweeping the skies and turned out to be a discoverer of 8 comets in her own right, in addition to keeping William's notes. Caroline's comets were discovered from Slough between 1786 and 1797. In the process, we also discuss original documents from the archives of the Royal Society and of the Royal Astronomical Society. We conclude by showing comet drawings that we have recently attributed to John Herschel, including Halley's Comet from 1836, recently located in the Ransom Center of the University of Texas at Austin. Acknowledgments: Planetary astronomy at Williams College is supported in part by grant NNX08AO50G from NASA Planetary Astronomy. We thank Peter Hingley of the Royal Astronomical Society and Richard Oram of the Harry Ransom Center of The University of Texas at Austin for their assistance.

  2. Physical Mechanism of Comet Outbursts: The Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William K.

    2014-11-01

    During experiments conducted in 1976 at the NASA Ames Research Center’s Vertical Gun Facility (VGF), the author studied low velocity impacts into simulated regolith powders and gravels, in order to examine physics of low-velocity collisions during early solar system planetesimal formation. In one “accidental” experiment, the bucket of powder remained gas-charged during evacuation of the VGF vacuum chamber. The impactor, moving at 5.5 m/s, disturbed the surface, initiating eruptions of dust-charged gas, shooting in jets from multiple vents at speeds up to about 3 m/s, with sporadic venting until 17 seconds after the impact. This experiment was described in [1], which concluded that it simulated comet eruption phenomena. In this hypothesis, a comet nucleus develops a lag deposit of regolith in at least some regions. At a certain distance from the sun, the thermal wave penetrates to an ice-rich depth, causing sublimation. Gas rises into the regolith, collects in pore spaces, and creates a gas-charged powder, as in our experiment. Any surface disturbance, such as a meteoroid, may initiate a temporary eruption, or eventually the gas pressure becomes sufficient to blow off the overburden. Our observed ejection speed would be sufficient to launch dust off of a kilometer-scale comet nucleus.Film (100 frames/s) of the event was obtained, but was partially torn up in a projector. It has recently been reconstituted (Centric Photo Labs, Tucson) and dramatically illustrates various cometary phenomena. Parabolic curtains of erupted material resemble curtains of material photographed from earth in real comet comas, “falling back” under solar wind forces. In retrospect, the mechanism photographed here helps explain:*sporadic eruptions in Comet P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 (near-circular orbit at ~6 A.U., where repeated recharge may occur).*sporadic eruptions on “asteroid” 2060 Chiron (which stays beyond 8.5 A.U.). *the thicker dust curtain (and longer eruption?) than

  3. Spacecraft fabrication and test MODIL. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T.T.

    1994-05-01

    This report covers the period from October 1992 through the close of the project. FY 92 closed out with the successful briefing to industry and with many potential and important initiatives in the spacecraft arena. Due to the funding uncertainties, we were directed to proceed as if our funding would be approximately the same as FY 92 ($2M), but not to make any major new commitments. However, the MODIL`s FY 93 funding was reduced to $810K and we were directed to concentrate on the cryocooler area. The cryocooler effort completed its demonstration project. The final meetings with the cryocooler fabricators were very encouraging as we witnessed the enthusiastic reception of technology to help them reduce fabrication uncertainties. Support of the USAF Phillips Laboratory cryocooler program was continued including kick-off meetings for the Prototype Spacecraft Cryocooler (PSC). Under Phillips Laboratory support, Gill Cruz visited British Aerospace and Lucas Aerospace in the United Kingdom to assess their manufacturing capabilities. In the Automated Spacecraft & Assembly Project (ASAP), contracts were pursued for the analysis by four Brilliant Eyes prime contractors to provide a proprietary snap shot of their current status of Integrated Product Development. In the materials and structure thrust the final analysis was completed of the samples made under the contract (``Partial Automation of Matched Metal Net Shape Molding of Continuous Fiber Composites``) to SPARTA. The Precision Technologies thrust funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to prepare a plan to develop a Computer Aided Alignment capability to significantly reduce the time for alignment and even possibly provide real time and remote alignment capability of systems in flight.

  4. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  5. Spectra and spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. I.

    2001-02-01

    In June 1999, Dr. Regis Courtin, Associate Editor of PSS, suggested that I write an article for the new section of this journal: "Planetary Pioneers". I hesitated , but decided to try. One of the reasons for my doubts was my primitive English, so I owe the reader an apology for this in advance. Writing took me much more time than I supposed initially, I have stopped and again returned to manuscript many times. My professional life may be divided into three main phases: pioneering work in ground-based IR astronomy with an emphasis on planetary spectroscopy (1955-1970), studies of the planets with spacecraft (1970-1989), and attempts to proceed with this work in difficult times. I moved ahead using the known method of trials and errors as most of us do. In fact, only a small percentage of efforts led to some important results, a sort of dry residue. I will try to describe below how has it been in my case: what may be estimated as the most important, how I came to this, what was around, etc.

  6. Once a myth, now an object of study - How the perception of comets has changed over the centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    was seen by Fred Hoyle, the British astrophysicist, as a possible explanation for the great hiatal breaks in history. He took the view that such extraordinary developments as the extinction of the mammoth were attributable to strikes by comet fragments. His views incorporated the theory advanced by British astronomers Victor Clube and Bill Napier in 1982 that a giant comet was trapped by our solar system 15000 years ago. With the return of that comet every 1600 years, the accompanying debris - so the argument goes - prompted some of the world’s great turning points. This might also be an explanation for such legends as the Flood. A lump of icy sludgew So what does the actual nucleus of a comet look like? One answer was supplied by the Giotto space probe in a mission masterminded by ESA. The probe was named after the major Italian painter Giotto di Bondone, who, in the early 14th century, portrayed a comet in his fresco in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua. On 14 March 1986, the probe succeeded in taking 100-metre-resolution pictures of the nucleus of Halley’s Comet from only 600 kilometres away. In the words of Uwe Keller: “The mission forced us to revisit our long-standing image of a comet nucleus as a ‘dirty snowball’. The pictures showed that it was more like a lump of icy sludge. The solid part of the nucleus is much larger than the icy part.” Bur hardly had Giotto trained its electronic eye on the heavenly body than the photo opportunity was already over; a dust particle measuring about a millimetre hit the probe. As the velocity differential between probe and comet was at that point 68.4 km per second, the force of the involuntary encounter was enough to put paid to any further snapshots. All the same, despite the damage to the camera, it proved possible to go on with the mission. Following two periods of “hibernation”, Giotto achieved a successful flyby of the Grigg-Skjellerup comet on 10 July 1992. Rosetta should now bring us entirely new knowledge

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  10. Migration of Interplanetary Dust and Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    Our studies of migration of interplanetary dust and comets were based on the results of integration of the orbital evolution of 15,000 dust particles and 30,000 Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) [1-3]. For asteroidal and cometary particles, the values of the ratio β between the radiation pressure force and the gravitational force varied from 1000 and 1 microns. The probability of a collision of a dust particle started from an asteroid or JFC with the Earth during a lifetime of the particle was maximum at diameter d ˜100 microns. For particles started from asteroids and comet 10P, this maximum probability was ˜0.01. Different studies of migration of dust particles and small bodies testify that the fraction of cometary dust particles of the overall dust population inside Saturn's orbit is considerable and can be dominant: (1) Cometary dust particles produced both inside and outside Jupiter's orbit are needed to explain the observed constant number density of dust particles at 3-18 AU. The number density of migrating trans-Neptunian particles near Jupiter's orbit is smaller by a factor of several than that beyond Saturn's orbit. Only a small fraction of asteroidal particles can get outside Jupiter's orbit. (2) Some (less than 0.1%) JFCs can reach typical near-Earth object orbits and remain there for millions of years. Dynamical lifetimes of most of the former JFCs that have typical near-Earth object orbits are about 106 -109 yr, so during most of these times they were extinct comets. Such former comets could disintegrate and produce a lot of mini-comets and dust. (3) Comparison of the velocities of zodiacal dust particles (velocities of MgI line) based on the distributions of particles over their orbital elements obtained in our runs [3-4] with the velocities obtained at the WHAM observations shows that only asteroidal dust particles cannot explain these observations, and particles produced by comets, including high-eccentricity comets, are needed for such explanation

  11. Unveiling the formation and evolution of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, J.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Botet, R.; Coradini, A.; Desanctis, M. C.; Kofman, W.

    2007-08-01

    Comet nuclei are considered as the most pristine bodies of the solar system and consequently their study sheds an important light on the processes occurring during the initial stages of the solar system formation. The analysis of the porosity and bulk density of such primordial bodies is especially important to understand their capacity to retain volatile components (organics and ices) present in the early solar nebula. Typical tensile strengths deduced for comet nuclei range from below 102N.m-2 from the Deep Impact mission [1] up to 104N.m-2 from the study of comet C/1999 S4 LINEAR breakup [2] and meteoroids [3]. A bulk density of about 350 kg/m3 has been obtained for 9P/Tempel 1 from the Deep Impact mission [4]. Moreover the properties of dust released from the comets strongly confirm such values. Instruments flying-by comet 1P/Halley had discovered the presence of organics, and pointed out the dust low albedo and extremely low density while analyses of Interplanetary Dust Particles collected in the stratosphere and remote spectroscopic observations have indicated that cometary dust consists of an un-equilibrated heterogeneous mixture of organic refractory materials and of amorphous and crystalline silicate minerals [5], as recently confirmed by Stardust [6]. Observations of the solar scattered light, together with elaborate simulations, give an estimation of the mass ratio between silicates and absorbing organics, the size distribution and the structure of the dust particles, suggesting that a fair amount consists in fluffy aggregates built up from submicronic grains [7,8], as recently confirmed by the analysis of dust craters and aerogel tracks on Stardust collector showing for some large particles (up to 100 μm) an extraordinary fluffy structure [9]. Simulations have been developed in our teams to describe the aspects of comet aggregation and evolution that have not been thoroughly explained yet. Particle aggregation simulations taking into account cohesive

  12. Spacecraft Charging and the Microwave Anisotropy Probe Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy, VanSant J.; Neergaard, Linda F.

    1998-01-01

    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), a MIDEX mission built in partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), will study the cosmic microwave background. It will be inserted into a highly elliptical earth orbit for several weeks and then use a lunar gravity assist to orbit around the second Lagrangian point (L2), 1.5 million kilometers, anti-sunward from the earth. The charging environment for the phasing loops and at L2 was evaluated. There is a limited set of data for L2; the GEOTAIL spacecraft measured relatively low spacecraft potentials (approx. 50 V maximum) near L2. The main area of concern for charging on the MAP spacecraft is the well-established threat posed by the "geosynchronous region" between 6-10 Re. The launch in the autumn of 2000 will coincide with the falling of the solar maximum, a period when the likelihood of a substorm is higher than usual. The likelihood of a substorm at that time has been roughly estimated to be on the order of 20% for a typical MAP mission profile. Because of the possibility of spacecraft charging, a requirement for conductive spacecraft surfaces was established early in the program. Subsequent NASCAP/GEO analyses for the MAP spacecraft demonstrated that a significant portion of the sunlit surface (solar cell cover glass and sunshade) could have nonconductive surfaces without significantly raising differential charging. The need for conductive materials on surfaces continually in eclipse has also been reinforced by NASCAP analyses.

  13. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  14. Study of the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko based on the ROSINA/RTOF instrument onboard Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, M.; Garnier, P.; Lasue, J.; Reme, H.; Altwegg, K.; Balsiger, H. R.; Bieler, A. M.; Calmonte, U.; Fiethe, B.; Galli, A.; Gasc, S.; Gombosi, T. I.; Jäckel, A.; Mall, U.; Le Roy, L.; Rubin, M.; Tzou, C. Y.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Wurz, P.

    2015-12-01

    The ROSETTA spacecraft of ESA is in the environment of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 2014. Among the experiments onboard the spacecraft, the ROSINA experiment (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis) includes two mass spectrometers (DFMS and RTOF) to analyze the composition of neutrals and ions, and a pressure sensor (COPS) to monitor the density and velocity of neutrals in the coma [1]. We will here analyze and discuss the data of the ROSINA/RTOF instrument during the comet escort phase. The Reflectron-type Time-Of-Flight (RTOF) mass spectrometer possesses a wide mass range and a high temporal resolution [1,2]. It was designed to measure cometary neutral gas as well as cometary ions. A detailed description of the main volatiles (H2O, CO2, CO) dynamics and of the heterogeneities of the coma will then be provided. The influence of various parameters on the coma measurements is investigated on a statistical basis, with the parameters being distance to the comet, heliocentric distance, longitude and latitude of nadir point. Our analysis of the northern hemisphere summer season shows the presence of water vapor mostly in the illuminated northern hemisphere near the neck region with cyclic diurnal variations whereas CO2 was confined to the cold southern hemisphere with a more spatially homogeneous composition, in agreement with previous observations of 67P [2] or Hartley 2 [3]. A comparison will also be provided with the COPS total density and DFMS abundance measurements. [1] Balsiger et al., "ROSINA - Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis", Space Sci. Rev., 2007. [2] Scherer et al., "A novel principle for an ion mirror design in time-of-flight mass spectrometry," Int. Jou. Mass Spectr., 2006. [3] Hässig et al., "Time variability and heterogeneity in the coma of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko", Science, 2015. [4] A'Hearn et al., "EPOXI at comet Hartley 2", Science, 2011.

  15. Cometary water-group ions in the region surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner - Distribution functions and bulk parameter estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, K.; Balogh, A.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Richardson, I. G.; Sanderson, T. R.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1991-01-01

    The bulk parameters (number density and thermal energy density) of cometary water-group ions in the region surrounding Comet Giacobini-Zinner have been derived using data from the EPAS instrument on the ICE spacecraft. The derivation is based on the assumption that the pick-up ion distribution function is isotropic in the frame of the bulk flow, an approximation which has previously been shown to be reasonable within about 400,000 km of the comet nucleus along the spacecraft trajectory. The transition between the pick-up and mass-loaded regions occurs at the cometary shock, which was traversed at a cometocentric distance of about 100,000 km along the spacecraft track. Examination of the ion distribution functions in this region, transformed to the bulk flow frame, indicates the occurrence of a flattened distribution in the vicinity of the local pick-up speed, and a steeply falling tail at speeds above, which may be approximated as an exponential in ion speed.

  16. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  17. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Norman R; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data. (paper)

  18. MESSENGER's Special Delivery: Gas and Dust Production from Comets 2P/Encke and C/2012 S1 (ISON) at Small Heliocentric Distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Y. R.; Vervack, R. J., Jr.; Knight, M. M.; McCandliss, S. R.; Dello Russo, N.; Feldman, P.; Lisse, C. M.; Tamblyn, P.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of comets when they are close to the Sun can potentially reveal interesting aspects of their behavior, composition, and structure, thanks to the rapid change both of seasons on the nucleus and of the local insolation environment. However this is typically a difficult time to make observations from Earth, so studies of comets that are near the Sun generally require special facilities. In late 2013, the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft observed comets C/2012 S1 (ISON) and 2P/Encke from its vantage point at Mercury when both comets were poorly located for most Earth-based telescopes. The observations included visible-wavelength, multi-filter imaging as well as ultraviolet spectroscopy, using the MDIS and MASCS instruments. Both comets were observed down to about 0.3 AU from the Sun. In Encke's case, it was followed through perihelion, which has rarely been done before. In ISON's case, it was observed while rapidly changing in the days preceding its catastrophic breakup just before perihelion. The data let us constrain the dust and gas production rates of both comets over several weeks, and we can investigate how the rates change with time, rotational phase, and heliocentric distance. We will present preliminary analyses of this time-series photometry and spectroscopy, and compare results to other studies of these comets' behavior when they are farther from the Sun. This work is supported by NASA grant NNX16AJ02G, and makes use of data from the Planetary Data System.

  19. Intelligent spacecraft module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  20. Lifetime of a spacecraft around a synchronous system of asteroids using a dipole model

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Leonardo Barbosa Torres; de Almeida Prado, Antonio F. Bertachini; Sanchez, Diogo Merguizo

    2017-11-01

    Space missions allow us to expand our knowledge about the origin of the solar system. It is believed that asteroids and comets preserve the physical characteristics from the time that the solar system was created. For this reason, there was an increase of missions to asteroids in the past few years. To send spacecraft to asteroids or comets is challenging, since these objects have their own characteristics in several aspects, such as size, shape, physical properties, etc., which are often only discovered after the approach and even after the landing of the spacecraft. These missions must be developed with sufficient flexibility to adjust to these parameters, which are better determined only when the spacecraft reaches the system. Therefore, conducting a dynamic investigation of a spacecraft around a multiple asteroid system offers an extremely rich environment. Extracting accurate information through analytical approaches is quite challenging and requires a significant number of restrictive assumptions. For this reason, a numerical approach to the dynamics of a spacecraft in the vicinity of a binary asteroid system is offered in this paper. In the present work, the equations of the Restricted Synchronous Four-Body Problem (RSFBP) are used to model a binary asteroid system. The main objective of this work is to construct grids of initial conditions, which relates semi-major axis and eccentricity, in order to quantify the lifetime of a spacecraft when released close to the less massive body of the binary system (modeled as a rotating mass dipole). We performed an analysis of the lifetime of the spacecraft considering several mass ratios of a binary system of asteroids and investigating the behavior of a spacecraft in the vicinity of this system. We analyze direct and retrograde orbits. This study investigated orbits that survive for at least 500 orbital periods of the system (which is approximately one year), then not colliding or escaping from the system during this

  1. Identification of irradiated pepper with comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, Enrique Fco.; Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Carro Palacio, Sandra; Iglesia Enriquez, Isora

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing radiations is a technological process utilized in order to increase the hygienic quality and the storage time of the foods. Several methods of detection of irradiated foods have been recommended. The comet assay of DNA is one fast and economical technique for the qualitative identification of irradiated foods. The objective of the present paper was to identify with the comet assay technique the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated pepper storage at environment and refrigeration temperatures and different post-irradiation times for different absorbed dose values, (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy). It was demonstrated that for the high absorbed dose values was observed a greater break into fragments of the DNA molecule, which shows the application of this technique for the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  2. Comet assay on tetraploid yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rank, Jette; Syberg, Kristian; Jensen, Klara

    2009-01-01

    Tetraploid yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) were used in the comet assay with the intention of developing a new, fast and easy assay for detecting environmental genotoxic agents without using higher organisms. Two DNA-damaging chemicals, H2O2 and acrylamide, together with wastewater from...... three municipal treatment plants were tested for their effect on the yeast-cell DNA. The main problem with using yeast in the comet assay is the necessity to degrade the cell wall. This was achieved by using Zymolase 100 T twice during the procedure, since Zymolase 20 T did not open the cell wall....... Analytical problems that arose due to the small amount of DNA in the yeast nuclei in haploid and diploid cells, which contain 13 Mbp and 26 Mbp DNA per cell, respectively, were solved by using tetraploid yeast cells (52 Mbp) instead. DNA damage was shown after exposure to H2O2 and acrylamide. The lowest dose...

  3. On the photometric parameters of comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, I.

    1984-12-01

    Halley's comet is one of the brightest comets in the absolute sense. The paper describes the expectations about its brightness parameters, and the main physical properties of the nucleus can be derived from photometry up to the last opposition. Results were obtained relating to the decrease of absolute magnitude and the possible period of brightness fluctuation according to data obtained at CFHT on 4 th Feb. 1984. The slope of decrease of absolute magnitude is about 0.17 magnitude per revolution. On 4th Feb. 1984, the brightness fluctuations had a period about 9.0+-0.5 hr but it seems that the general form of fluctuations on a large time-scale is not a clear sinosoidal shape, and the most probable periods are between 9 and 48 hrs. (author)

  4. The cyanogen band of Comet Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, J. B.; Campbell, E. C.

    The results of improved whole disk solar irradiance spectrum calculations performed for projected Halley's Comet heliocentric radial velocity and distance are provided. The computations were carried out to account for Doppler effects in the Fraunhofer lines of rotational excitation bands of violet CN emissions from the comet in its encounters with solar radiation. The calculations spanned every half-day for 200 days before and after perihelion. The 801 computer images of the expected intensities were photographed in sequence to form an animated film paced by background music from Liszt's Second Hungarian Rhapsody. The results are intended for accounting for spectral changes observed due to Doppler effects induced by changing velocity and distance, rather than physical mechanisms of the emitting processes.

  5. Systematic random sampling of the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Darragh G; Wasson, Gillian R; McKerr, George; Saetzler, Kurt; Reed, Matt; Howard, C Vyvyan

    2009-07-01

    The comet assay is a technique used to quantify DNA damage and repair at a cellular level. In the assay, cells are embedded in agarose and the cellular content is stripped away leaving only the DNA trapped in an agarose cavity which can then be electrophoresed. The damaged DNA can enter the agarose and migrate while the undamaged DNA cannot and is retained. DNA damage is measured as the proportion of the migratory 'tail' DNA compared to the total DNA in the cell. The fundamental basis of these arbitrary values is obtained in the comet acquisition phase using fluorescence microscopy with a stoichiometric stain in tandem with image analysis software. Current methods deployed in such an acquisition are expected to be both objectively and randomly obtained. In this paper we examine the 'randomness' of the acquisition phase and suggest an alternative method that offers both objective and unbiased comet selection. In order to achieve this, we have adopted a survey sampling approach widely used in stereology, which offers a method of systematic random sampling (SRS). This is desirable as it offers an impartial and reproducible method of comet analysis that can be used both manually or automated. By making use of an unbiased sampling frame and using microscope verniers, we are able to increase the precision of estimates of DNA damage. Results obtained from a multiple-user pooled variation experiment showed that the SRS technique attained a lower variability than that of the traditional approach. The analysis of a single user with repetition experiment showed greater individual variances while not being detrimental to overall averages. This would suggest that the SRS method offers a better reflection of DNA damage for a given slide and also offers better user reproducibility.

  6. Comet C/2012 S1 (Ison)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granslo, B. H.; Nakano, S.

    2013-12-01

    16.88 16 11 31.6 +19 45 05 0.07+ 0.14+ 15.5 Unsuccessful visual searches for the comet, with estimated limiting magnitudes: Dec. 4.26 UT, [8.0 (B. H. Granslo, Roverkollen, Oslo, Norway, 0.08-m refractor; altitude 5 degrees in twilight); Dec. 8.8, [10.6 (Akie Hashimoto, Chichibu, Saitama-ken, Japan, 25x150 binoculars; communicated by S. Nakano, Sumoto, Japan).

  7. CONSTRAINING THE DUST COMA PROPERTIES OF COMET C/SIDING SPRING (2013 A1) AT LARGE HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Mutchler, Max J.; Lisse, Carey M.; Delamere, W. Alan

    2014-01-01

    The close encounter of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) with Mars on 2014 October 19 presented an extremely rare opportunity to obtain the first flyby quality data of the nucleus and inner coma of a dynamically new comet. However, the comet's dust tail potentially posed an impact hazard to those spacecraft orbiting Mars. To characterize the comet at large heliocentric distances, study its long-term evolution, and provide critical inputs to hazard modeling, we imaged C/Siding Spring with the Hubble Space Telescope when the comet was at 4.58, 3.77, and 3.28 AU from the Sun. The dust production rate, parameterized by the quantity Afρ, was 2500, 2100, and 1700 cm (5000 km radius aperture) for the three epochs, respectively. The color of the dust coma is (5.0 ± 0.3)%/100 nm for the first two epochs, and (9.0 ± 0.3)%/100 nm for the last epoch, and reddens with increasing cometocentric distance out to ∼3000 km from the nucleus. The spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of the dust color are most consistent with the existence of icy grains in the coma. Two jet-like dust features appear in the northwest and south-southeast directions projected in the sky plane. Within each epoch of 1-2 hr, no temporal variations were observed for either feature, but the position angle of the south-southeastern feature varied between the three epochs by ∼30°. The dust feature morphology suggests two possible orientations for the rotational pole of the nucleus, (R.A., decl.) = (295° ± 5°, +43° ± 2°) and (190° ± 10°, +50° ± 5°), or their diametrically opposite orientations

  8. CONSTRAINING THE DUST COMA PROPERTIES OF COMET C/SIDING SPRING (2013 A1) AT LARGE HELIOCENTRIC DISTANCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian-Yang; Samarasinha, Nalin H. [Planetary Science Institute, 1700 East Fort Lowell Road, Suite 106, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Kelley, Michael S. P.; Farnham, Tony L.; A' Hearn, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mutchler, Max J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218-2463 (United States); Lisse, Carey M. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Space Department, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Delamere, W. Alan, E-mail: jyli@psi.edu, E-mail: nalin@psi.edu, E-mail: msk@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: farnham@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: ma@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: mutchler@stsci.edu, E-mail: carey.lisse@jpuapl.edu, E-mail: alan@delamere.biz [Delamere Support Service, Boulder, CO 80304 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    The close encounter of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) with Mars on 2014 October 19 presented an extremely rare opportunity to obtain the first flyby quality data of the nucleus and inner coma of a dynamically new comet. However, the comet's dust tail potentially posed an impact hazard to those spacecraft orbiting Mars. To characterize the comet at large heliocentric distances, study its long-term evolution, and provide critical inputs to hazard modeling, we imaged C/Siding Spring with the Hubble Space Telescope when the comet was at 4.58, 3.77, and 3.28 AU from the Sun. The dust production rate, parameterized by the quantity Afρ, was 2500, 2100, and 1700 cm (5000 km radius aperture) for the three epochs, respectively. The color of the dust coma is (5.0 ± 0.3)%/100 nm for the first two epochs, and (9.0 ± 0.3)%/100 nm for the last epoch, and reddens with increasing cometocentric distance out to ∼3000 km from the nucleus. The spatial distribution and the temporal evolution of the dust color are most consistent with the existence of icy grains in the coma. Two jet-like dust features appear in the northwest and south-southeast directions projected in the sky plane. Within each epoch of 1-2 hr, no temporal variations were observed for either feature, but the position angle of the south-southeastern feature varied between the three epochs by ∼30°. The dust feature morphology suggests two possible orientations for the rotational pole of the nucleus, (R.A., decl.) = (295° ± 5°, +43° ± 2°) and (190° ± 10°, +50° ± 5°), or their diametrically opposite orientations.

  9. Comets: Role and importance to exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsemme, Armand H.

    1992-01-01

    The transfer of organic compounds from interstellar space to the outskirts of a protoplanetary disk, their accretion into cometary objects, and the transport of the latter into the inner solar system by orbital diffusion throw a new light on the central problem of exobiology. It suggests the existence of a cosmic mechanism, working everywhere, that can supply prebiotic compounds to ubiquitous rocky planets, in search of the proper environment to start life in many places in the Universe. Under the heading of chemistry of the cometary nucleus, the following topics are covered: radial homogeneity of the nucleus; the dust-to-ice ratio; nature of the dust grains; origin of the dust in comets; nature of the volatile fraction; the CO distribution in comet Halley; dust contribution to the volatile fraction; elemental balance sheet of comet Halley; quantitative molecular analysis of the volatile fraction; and isotopic ratios. Under the heading of exogenous origin of carbon on terrestrial planets the following topics are covered: evidence for a high-temperature phase; from planetesimals to planets; a veneer of volatile and organic material; and cometary contribution.

  10. Comet Halley: An optical continuum study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoban, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    From an analysis of narrowband CCD images of Comet Halley from 1986 January, March, and April, certain dust structures which are redder than the remainder of the dust coma have become apparent. Mie calculations suggest that this reddening is due to an enhancement of particles with sizes comparable to the observing wavelengths. Although the mass range derived from the calculations presented here is somewhat uncertain as a result of the limitations of Mie theory, these values are in the expected range derived from the calculations presented here is somewhat uncertain as a result of particle sizes which would be both sensitive to radiation pressure and significantly reddened with respect to the solar spectrum at the observing wavelengths. Thus, the red envelopes are plausibly the result of size sorting by solar radiation pressure. The red jets observed on 1986 January 10, March 1 and March 9 can then be explained by the enhanced dust flux at the jet sources, and the subsequent trapping of a relative excess of intermediate mass (i.e. red) particles into the jets which are visible in the continuum images. Analysis of narrowband photometry of the optical continuum of Comet Halley reveals no correlation between the color of the dust and heliocentric distance, phase angle, strength of the continuum or gas-to-dust ratio. The photometric data are thus consistent with a post-ejection sorting mechanism. Chemical inhomogeneities of the nucleus are therefore not necessary to explain the observed structure in the color of the dust in Comet Halley

  11. The C-12/C-13 abundance ratio in Comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyckoff, S.; Lindholm, E.; Wehinger, P.A.; Peterson, B.A.; Zucconi, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The individual (C-13)N rotational lines in Comet Halley are resolved using high-resolution spectra of the CN B2Sigma(+)-X2Sigma(+) (0,0) band. The observe C-12/C-13 abundance ratio excludes a site of origin for the comet near Uranus and Neptune and suggests a condensation environment quite distinct from other solar system bodies. Two theories are presented for the origin of Comet Halley. One theory suggest that the comet originated 4.5 Gyr ago in an inner Oort cloud at a heliocentric distance greater than 100 AU where chemical fractionation led to the C-13 enrichment in the CN parent molecule prior to condensation of the comet nucleus. According to the other, more plausible theory, the comet nucleus condensed relatively recently from the interstellar medium which has become enriches in C-13 and was subsequently gravitationally captured by the solar system. 107 refs

  12. Solar wind interaction with type-1 comet tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershkovich, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    A comet tail is considered as a plasma cylinder separated by a tangential discontinuity surface from the solar wind. Under typical conditions a comet tail boundary is shown to undergo the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. With infinite amplitude the stabilizing effect of the magnetic field increases, and waves become stable. The proposed model supplies the detailed quantitative description of helical waves observed in type-1 comet tails. This theory enables the evaluation of the comet tail magnetic field by means of the observations of helical waves. The magnetic field in the comet tail turns out to be of the order of the interplanetary field. This conclusion seems to be in accordance with Alfven's idea that the magnetic field in type-1 comet tails is a captured interplanetary field. (Auth.)

  13. Nucleus of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcock (1983 VII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1988-01-01

    Optical, radar, infrared, UV, and microwave-continuum observations of Comet IRAS-Araki-Alcok were obtained in May 1983, the week of the comet's close approach to earth. The comet has a nucleus dimension and a rotation period which are similar to those of Comet Halley, but a different morphological signature (a persisting sunward fan-shaped coma). Time variations are noted in the projected nucleus cross section. Results suggest significant limb-darkening effects in the relevant domains of radio waves, and that the comet's interior must be extremely cold. It is found that the thermal-infrared fluxes from the inner coma of the comet are dominated by the nucleus. 63 references

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  16. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  18. Discovering the cosmos with small spacecraft the American explorer program

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Explorer was the original American space program and Explorer 1 its first satellite, launched in 1958. Sixty years later, it is the longest continuously running space program in the world, demonstrating to the world how we can explore the cosmos with small spacecraft. Almost a hundred Explorers have already been launched.  Explorers have made some of the fundamental discoveries of the Space Age.Explorer 1 discovered Earth’s radiation belts. Later Explorers surveyed the Sun, the X-ray and ultraviolet universes, black holes, magnetars and gamma ray bursts. An Explorer found the remnant of the Big Bang. One Explorer chased and was the first to intercept a comet. The program went through a period of few launches during the crisis of funding for space science in the 1980s. However, with the era of ‘faster, cheaper, better,’ the program was reinvented, and new exiting missions began to take shape, like Swift and the asteroid hunter WISE.  Discovering the Cosmos with Small Spacecraft gives an account of ...

  19. On the formation of meteor showers of comet Halley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babadzhanov, P.B.; Obrubov, J.V.; Pushkarev, A.N.; Hajduk, A.

    1987-01-01

    The orbits of test particles ejected from the nucleus of Halley comet at its perihelion passage in 1910 with different velocities are studied for the next three passages of the comet up to 2134 taking into consideration perturbations from all planets. Some characteristics of the stream formation are presented. The calculations show that the return of the comet to its perihelion cannot produce an immediate influence on the activity of its meteor showers. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 13 refs

  20. Giacobini-Zinner comet: polarimetric and physical observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, M.T.; Maines, P.; Grudzinska, S.; Stawikowski, A.

    1984-10-01

    The results of observations of the Giacobini-Zinner comet on 25 and 31 October 1959 are presented. The magnitude of the comet was measured photoelectrically in two spectral regions. The radius is on the order of one kilometer. The photoelectric measurements of comets 1959b and 1957c were used to measure the abundances of the CN and C2 radicals and of solid particles in the heads

  1. Reservoirs for Comets: Compositional Differences Based on Infrared Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disanti, Michael A.; Mumma, Michael J.

    Tracing measured compositions of comets to their origins continues to be of keen interest to cometary scientists and to dynamical modelers of Solar System formation and evolution. This requires building a taxonomy of comets from both present-day dynamical reservoirs: the Kuiper Belt (hereafter KB), sampled through observation of ecliptic comets (primarily Jupiter Family comets, or JFCs), and the Oort cloud (OC), represented observationally by the long-period comets and by Halley Family comets (HFCs). Because of their short orbital periods, JFCs are subjected to more frequent exposure to solar radiation compared with OC comets. The recent apparitions of the JFCs 9P/Tempel 1 and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 permitted detailed observations of material issuing from below their surfaces—these comets added significantly to the compositional database on this dynamical class, which is under-represented in studies of cometary parent volatiles. This chapter reviews the latest techniques developed for analysis of high-resolution spectral observations from ˜2-5 μm, and compares measured abundances of native ices among comets. While no clear compositional delineation can be drawn along dynamical lines, interesting comparisons can be made. The sub-surface composition of comet 9P, as revealed by the Deep Impact ejecta, was similar to the majority of OC comets studied. Meanwhile, 73P was depleted in all native ices except HCN, similar to the disintegrated OC comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR). These results suggest that 73P may have formed in the inner giant planets' region while 9P formed farther out or, alternatively, that both JFCs formed farther from the Sun but with 73P forming later in time.

  2. The persistent coma of Comet P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewitt, D.

    1990-01-01

    Time-series photometry of Comet P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 in both 1987 and 1988 shows that this comet is continually active despite its large heliocentric distance. The observed activity, upon which the famous outbursts of this comet are superposed, may be driven by the sublimation of crystalline water ice at the nucleus surface. A simple model which accounts for both the continuous activity and the sporadic outbursts is suggested. 34 refs

  3. Hyakutake, Hale-Bopp and the chemistry of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachiller, R.; Planesas, P.

    1997-01-01

    Comets can be regarded as messengers from the primitive solar system which can provide precious pieces of information on the composition of the protosolar nebula. Physical and chemical phenomena within comets (shock waves, photodissociation caused by solar radiation, some endothermic chemical reactions, etc) are of the highest interest and cannot be reproduced at terrestrial laboratories in many cases. The passage of Hyakutake in 1996 and that of Hale-Bopp in 1997 are allowing remarkable progress in the understanding of the physico-chemistry of comets. Observations of such comets can be crucial in the study of the origin of life on Earth. (Author)

  4. X-rays from comets - a surprising discovery

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    Comets are kilometre-size aggregates of ice and dust, which remained from the formation of the solar system. It was not obvious to expect X-ray emission from such objects. Nevertheless, when comet Hyakutake (C/1996 B2) was observed with the ROSAT X-ray satellite during its close approach to Earth in March 1996, bright X-ray emission from this comet was discovered. This finding triggered a search in archival ROSAT data for comets, which might have accidentally crossed the field of view during observations of unrelated targets. To increase the surprise even more, X-ray emission was detected from four additional comets, which were optically 300 to 30 000 times fainter than Hyakutake. For one of them, comet Arai (C/1991 A2), X-ray emission was even found in data which were taken six weeks before the comet was optically discovered. These findings showed that comets represent a new class of celestial X-ray sources. The subsequent detection of X-ray emission from several other comets in dedicated observations confir...

  5. Studying Short-Period Comets and Long-Period Comets Detected by WISE/NEOWISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Emily A.; Fernández, Yanga R.; Bauer, James M.; Stevenson, Rachel; Mainzer, Amy K.; Grav, Tommy; Masiero, Joseph; Walker, Russell G.; Lisse, Carey M.

    2014-11-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission surveyed the sky in four infrared wavelength bands (3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22-micron) between January 2010 and February 2011 [1, 2]. During the mission, WISE serendipitously observed 160 comets, including 21 newly discovered objects. About 89 of the comets observed by WISE displayed a significant dust tail in the 12 and 22-micron (thermal emission) bands, showing a wide range of activity levels and dust morphology. Since the observed objects are a mix of both long-period comets (LPCs) and short-period comets (SPCs), differences in their activity can be used to better understand the thermal evolution that each of these populations has undergone. For the comets that displayed a significant dust tail, we have estimated the sizes and ages of the particles using dynamical models based on the Finson-Probstein method [3, 4]. For a selection of 40 comets, we have then compared these models to the data using a novel tail-fitting method that allows the best-fit model to be chosen analytically rather than subjectively. For comets that were observed multiple times by WISE, the dust tail particle properties were estimated separately, and then compared. We find that the dust tails of both LPCs and SPCs are primarily comprised of ~mm to cm sized particles, which were the result of emission that occurred several months to several years prior to the observations. The LPCs nearly all have strong dust emission close to the comet's perihelion distance, and the SPCs mostly have strong dust emission close to perihelion, but some have strong dust emission well before perihelion. Acknowledgments: This publication makes use of data products from (1) WISE, which is a joint project of UCLA and JPL/Caltech, funded by NASA; and (2) NEOWISE, which is a project of JPL/Caltech, funded by the Planetary Science Division of NASA. EK was supported by a NASA Earth and Space Sciences Fellowship. RS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA

  6. Analysis of the Touch-And-Go Surface Sampling Concept for Comet Sample Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandic, Milan; Acikmese, Behcet; Bayard, David S.; Blackmore, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the Touch-and-Go (TAG) concept for enabling a spacecraft to take a sample from the surface of a small primitive body, such as an asteroid or comet. The idea behind the TAG concept is to let the spacecraft descend to the surface, make contact with the surface for several seconds, and then ascend to a safe location. Sampling would be accomplished by an end-effector that is active during the few seconds of surface contact. The TAG event is one of the most critical events in a primitive body sample-return mission. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a representative spacecraft during the TAG event, i.e., immediately prior, during, and after surface contact of the sampler. The study evaluates the sample-collection performance of the proposed sampling end-effector, in this case a brushwheel sampler, while acquiring material from the surface during the contact. A main result of the study is a guidance and control (G&C) validation of the overall TAG concept, in addition to specific contributions to demonstrating the effectiveness of using nonlinear clutch mechanisms in the sampling arm joints, and increasing the length of the sampling arms to improve robustness.

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. Sclera (SKLEH-ruh) ... the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  9. Fluorescein eye stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... object in eye ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  13. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...

  14. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  15. Artist concept of Galileo spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Galileo spacecraft is illustrated in artist concept. Gallileo, named for the Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician who is credited with construction of the first complete, practical telescope in 1620, will make detailed studies of Jupiter. A cooperative program with the Federal Republic of Germany the Galileo mission will amplify information acquired by two Voyager spacecraft in their brief flybys. Galileo is a two-element system that includes a Jupiter-orbiting observatory and an entry probe. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is Galileo project manager and builder of the main spacecraft. Ames Research Center (ARC) has responsibility for the entry probe, which was built by Hughes Aircraft Company and General Electric. Galileo will be deployed from the payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during mission STS-34.

  16. Training for spacecraft technical analysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Thomas J.; Bryant, Larry

    1989-01-01

    Deep space missions such as Voyager rely upon a large team of expert analysts who monitor activity in the various engineering subsystems of the spacecraft and plan operations. Senior teammembers generally come from the spacecraft designers, and new analysts receive on-the-job training. Neither of these methods will suffice for the creation of a new team in the middle of a mission, which may be the situation during the Magellan mission. New approaches are recommended, including electronic documentation, explicit cognitive modeling, and coached practice with archived data.

  17. Earth-based Observing Campaign For Comet 103p/hartley 2 For The Dixi Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meech, Karen Jean; Kelley, M. S.; A'Hearn, M. F.; DIXI Observing Team

    2011-01-01

    The Deep Impact Extended mission (DIXI) is part of the EPOXI mission and will rendezvous with the comet 103P/Hartley 2 on 4 Nov. 2010 at 13:50 UT. Many of the anticipated key science results will come from the combined interpretation of the in-situ spacecraft data and the Earth- and space-based observing campaigns. DIXI in-situ objectives include characterizing the nucleus properties, understanding the activity (outbursts, and sources), mapping the surface and correlating surface albedo, color and temperature with topography to understand the thermal properties of the surface. The Earth-based observations provide a longer-term context for the in-situ observations, and will characterize the activity levels leading up to the encounter, including assessing the dust environment and volatile species production rates. Earth-based observations will search for outbursts and jets that might be linked to activity. The international observing campaign scheduled at more than 20 observatories, began in March 2010, and will continue beyond January 2011, although selected observations began in 2008 with the recovery of the nucleus (Snodgrass et al., (2010), A&A, 516L) and Spitzer IR observations (Lisse et al., (2009) PASP 121, 968), and in 2009 with the measurement of the rotational light curve. We will report on Earth-based observing highlights and their synergies with the in-situ observations. With these combined data we can not only better understand comet Hartley 2, but through the legacy of telescopic observations we may also better understand comets as a whole.

  18. Ground-based multiwavelength observations of comet 103P/Hartley 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gicquel, A.; Villanueva, G. L.; Cordiner, M. A.; Milam, S. N.; Charnley, S. B.; Remijan, A. J.; Coulson, I. M.; Chuang, Y.-L.; Kuan, Y.-J.

    2014-01-01

    The Jupiter-family comet 103P/Hartley 2 (103P) was the target of the NASA EPOXI mission. In support of this mission, we conducted observations from radio to submillimeter wavelengths of comet 103P in the three weeks preceding the spacecraft rendezvous on UT 2010 November 4.58. This time period included the passage at perihelion and the closest approach of the comet to the Earth. Here, we report detections of HCN, H 2 CO, CS, and OH and upper limits for HNC and DCN toward 103P using the Arizona Radio Observatory Kitt Peak 12 m telescope (ARO 12 m) and submillimeter telescope (SMT), the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), and the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The water production rate, Q H 2 O = (0.67-1.07) × 10 28 s –1 , was determined from the GBT OH data. From the average abundance ratios of HCN and H 2 CO relative to water (0.13 ± 0.03% and 0.14 ± 0.03%, respectively), we conclude that H 2 CO is depleted and HCN is normal with respect to typically observed cometary mixing ratios. However, the abundance ratio of HCN with water shows a large diversity with time. Using the JCMT data, we measured an upper limit for the DCN/HCN ratio <0.01. Consecutive observations of ortho-H 2 CO and para-H 2 CO on November 2 (from data obtained at the JCMT) allowed us to derive an ortho:para ratio (OPR) of ≈2.12 ± 0.59 (1σ), corresponding to T spin > 8 K (2σ).

  19. DASTCOM5: A Portable and Current Database of Asteroid and Comet Orbit Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgini, Jon D.; Chamberlin, Alan B.

    2014-11-01

    A portable direct-access database containing all NASA/JPL asteroid and comet orbit solutions, with the software to access it, is available for download (ftp://ssd.jpl.nasa.gov/pub/xfr/dastcom5.zip; unzip -ao dastcom5.zip). DASTCOM5 contains the latest heliocentric IAU76/J2000 ecliptic osculating orbital elements for all known asteroids and comets as determined by a least-squares best-fit to ground-based optical, spacecraft, and radar astrometric measurements. Other physical, dynamical, and covariance parameters are included when known. A total of 142 parameters per object are supported within DASTCOM5. This information is suitable for initializing high-precision numerical integrations, assessing orbit geometry, computing trajectory uncertainties, visual magnitude, and summarizing physical characteristics of the body. The DASTCOM5 distribution is updated as often as hourly to include newly discovered objects or orbit solution updates. It includes an ASCII index of objects that supports look-ups based on name, current or past designation, SPK ID, MPC packed-designations, or record number. DASTCOM5 is the database used by the NASA/JPL Horizons ephemeris system. It is a subset exported from a larger MySQL-based relational Small-Body Database ("SBDB") maintained at JPL. The DASTCOM5 distribution is intended for programmers comfortable with UNIX/LINUX/MacOSX command-line usage who need to develop stand-alone applications. The goal of the implementation is to provide small, fast, portable, and flexibly programmatic access to JPL comet and asteroid orbit solutions. The supplied software library, examples, and application programs have been verified under gfortran, Lahey, Intel, and Sun 32/64-bit Linux/UNIX FORTRAN compilers. A command-line tool ("dxlook") is provided to enable database access from shell or script environments.

  20. Ground-based multiwavelength observations of comet 103P/Hartley 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gicquel, A.; Villanueva, G. L.; Cordiner, M. A. [Catholic University of America, Physics Department, 620 Michigan Avenue NE, Washington, DC (United States); Milam, S. N.; Charnley, S. B. [Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Remijan, A. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Coulson, I. M. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 North A' ohoku Place University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chuang, Y.-L.; Kuan, Y.-J., E-mail: adeline.gicquel@nasa.gov, E-mail: stefanie.n.milam@nasa.gov, E-mail: geronimo.l.villanueva@nasa.gov, E-mail: steven.b.charnley@nasa.gov, E-mail: martin.a.cordiner@nasa.gov, E-mail: aremijan@nrao.edu, E-mail: i.coulson@jach.hawaii.edu, E-mail: ylchuang@std.ntnu.edu.tz, E-mail: kuan@ntnu.edu.tw [National Taiwan Normal University, 88 Sec. 4 Ting-Chou Road, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-10

    The Jupiter-family comet 103P/Hartley 2 (103P) was the target of the NASA EPOXI mission. In support of this mission, we conducted observations from radio to submillimeter wavelengths of comet 103P in the three weeks preceding the spacecraft rendezvous on UT 2010 November 4.58. This time period included the passage at perihelion and the closest approach of the comet to the Earth. Here, we report detections of HCN, H{sub 2}CO, CS, and OH and upper limits for HNC and DCN toward 103P using the Arizona Radio Observatory Kitt Peak 12 m telescope (ARO 12 m) and submillimeter telescope (SMT), the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), and the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). The water production rate, Q{sub H{sub 2O}} = (0.67-1.07) × 10{sup 28} s{sup –1}, was determined from the GBT OH data. From the average abundance ratios of HCN and H{sub 2}CO relative to water (0.13 ± 0.03% and 0.14 ± 0.03%, respectively), we conclude that H{sub 2}CO is depleted and HCN is normal with respect to typically observed cometary mixing ratios. However, the abundance ratio of HCN with water shows a large diversity with time. Using the JCMT data, we measured an upper limit for the DCN/HCN ratio <0.01. Consecutive observations of ortho-H{sub 2}CO and para-H{sub 2}CO on November 2 (from data obtained at the JCMT) allowed us to derive an ortho:para ratio (OPR) of ≈2.12 ± 0.59 (1σ), corresponding to T {sub spin} > 8 K (2σ).

  1. Results from active spacecraft potential control on the Geotail spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Arends, H.; Pedersen, A.

    1995-01-01

    A low and actively controlled electrostatic potential on the outer surfaces of a scientific spacecraft is very important for accurate measurements of cold plasma electrons and ions and the DC to low-frequency electric field. The Japanese/NASA Geotail spacecraft carriers as part of its scientific payload a novel ion emitter for active control of the electrostatic potential on the surface of the spacecraft. The aim of the ion emitter is to reduce the positive surface potential which is normally encountered in the outer magnetosphere when the spacecraft is sunlit. Ion emission clamps the surface potential to near the ambient plasma potential. Without emission control, Geotail has encountered plasma conditions in the lobes of the magnetotail which resulted in surface potentials of up to about +70 V. The ion emitter proves to be able to discharge the outer surfaces of the spacecraft and is capable of keeping the surface potential stable at about +2 V. This potential is measured with respect to one of the electric field probes which are current biased and thus kept at a potential slightly above the ambient plasma potential. The instrument uses the liquid metal field ion emission principle to emit indium ions. The ion beam energy is about 6 keV and the typical total emission current amounts to about 15 μA. Neither variations in the ambient plasma conditions nor operation of two electron emitters on Geotail produce significant variations of the controlled surface potential as long as the resulting electron emission currents remain much smaller than the ion emission current. Typical results of the active potential control are shown, demonstrating the surface potential reduction and its stability over time. 25 refs., 5 figs

  2. Carbonaceous Components in the Comet Halley Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenkova, M. N.; Chang, S.; Mukhin, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    Cometary grains containing large amounts of carbon and/or organic matter (CHON) were discovered by in situ measurements of comet Halley dust composition during VEGA and GIOTTO flyby missions. In this paper, we report the classification of these cometary, grains by means of cluster analysis, discuss the resulting compositional groups, and compare them with substances observed or hypothesized in meteorites, interplanetary dust particles, and the interstellar medium. Grains dominated by carbon and/or organic matter (CHON grains) represent approx. 22% of the total population of measured cometary dust particles. They, usually contain a minor abundance of rock-forming elements as well. Grains having organic material are relatively more abundant in the vicinity of the nucleus than in the outer regions of the coma, which suggests decomposition of the organics in the coma environment. The majority of comet Halley organic particles are multicomponent mixtures of carbon phases and organic compounds. Possibly, the cometary CHON grains may be related to kerogen material of an interstellar origin in carbonaceous meteorites. Pure carbon grains, hydrocarbons and polymers of cyanopolyynes, and multi-carbon monoxides are present in cometary dust as compositionally simple and distinctive components among a variety of others. There is no clear evidence of significant presence of pure formaldehyde or HCN polymers in Halley dust particles. The diversity of types of cometary organic compounds is consistent with the inter-stellar dust model of comets and probably reflects differences in composition of precursor dust. Preservation of this heterogeneity among submicron particles suggest the gentle formation of cometary, nucleus by aggregation of interstellar dust in the protosolar nebula without complete mixing or chemical homogenization at the submicron level.

  3. Relationship between wave energy and free energy from pickup ions in the Comet Halley environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, D. E.; Johnstone, A. D.

    1992-01-01

    The free energy available from the implanted heavy ion population at Comet Halley is calculated by assuming that the initial unstable velocity space ring distribution of the ions evolves toward a bispherical shell. Ultimately this free energy adds to the turbulence in the solar wind. Upstream and downstream free energies are obtained separately for the conditions observed along the Giotto spacecraft trajectory. The results indicate that the waves are mostly upstream propagating in the solar wind frame. The total free energy density always exceeds the measured wave energy density because, as expected in the nonlinear process of ion scattering, the available energy is not all immediately released. An estimate of the amount which has been released can be obtained from the measured oxygen ion distributions and again it exceeds that observed. The theoretical analysis is extended to calculate the k spectrum of the cometary-ion-generated turbulence.

  4. Physical process in the coma of comet 67P derived from narrowband imaging of fragment species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Lopez, F.; Küppers, M.; Marín-Yaseli de la Parra, J.; Besse, S.; Moissl, R.

    2017-09-01

    During the rendezvous of the Rosetta spacecraft with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the OSIRIS scientific cameras monitored the near-nucleus gas environment in various narrow-band filters, observing various fragment species. It turned out that the excitation processes in the innermost coma are significantly different from the overall coma, as observed from the ground [1]. In particular, some of the observed emissions of fragments (daughter molecules) are created by direct dissociation of parent molecules, and in those cases the spatial distribution of the emission directly maps the distribution of parent molecules. We investigate the evolution of the brightness and distribution of the emissions over time to improve our understanding of the underlying emission mechanisms and to derive the spatial distribution of H2O and CO2. The outcome will provide constraints on the homogeneity of the cometary nucleus.

  5. Comet and meteorite traditions of Aboriginal Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-06-01

    This research contributes to the disciplines of cultural astronomy (the academic study of how past and present cultures understand and utilise celestial objects and phenomena) and geomythology (the study of geological events and the formation of geological features described in oral traditions). Of the hundreds of distinct Aboriginal cultures of Australia, many have oral traditions rich in descriptions and explanations of comets, meteors, meteorites, airbursts, impact events, and impact craters. These views generally attribute these phenomena to spirits, death, and bad omens. There are also many traditions that describe the formation of meteorite craters as well as impact events that are not known to Western science.

  6. The Comet Assay: Tails of the (Unexpected. Use of the comet assay in pharmaceutical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas-jan Van Der Leede

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In genotoxicity testing of pharmaceuticals the rodent alkaline comet assay is being increasingly used as a second in vivo assay in addition to the in vivo micronucleus assay to mitigate in vitro positive results as recommended by regulatory guidance. In this presentation we want to give insight into the circumstances in vivo comet assay is deployed in a Genetic Toxicology Department of a pharmaceutical company. As the in vivo comet assay is a salvage assay, it means that some events have occurred in an in vitro assay and that the compound (or metabolite responsible for this signal is potentially deselected for further development. More than often the decision to perform an in vivo comet assay is at a very early stage in development and the first time that the compound will be tested in vivo at high/toxic dose levels. As almost no toxicokinetic data and tissue distribution data are available a careful design with maximizes the chances for successful mitigation is necessary. Decisions on acute or repeated dosing need to be made and arrangements for combining the in vivo comet assay with the in vivo micronucleus assay are to be considered. Often synthesis methods need to be scaled up fast to provide the required amount of compound and information on suitable formulations needs to be in place. As exposure data is crucial for interpretation of results, analytical methods need to be brought in place rapidly. An experienced multi skilled and communicative team needs to be available to deploy successfully this kind of assays at an early stage of development. We will present a few scenarios on study conduct and demonstrate how this assay can make a difference for the further development of a new drug.

  7. Upstream region, foreshock and bow shock wave at Halley's Comet from plasma electron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, K.A.; Carlson, C.W.; Curtis, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Halley plasma electron parameters from 2.7 million km from the comet nucleus to the bow shock wave at 1.1 million km and beyond are surveyed. The features of the electron foreshock lying outside the shock to a distance of 230,000 km are described. It is a region of intense solar wind-comet plasma interaction in which energetic electrons are prominent. Several spikes of electrons whose energies extend to 2.5 keV appear in front of the shock. These energetic electrons may be accelerated in the same way electrons are accelerated at the Earth's bow shock to energies of 1 to 10 keV. The direction of the electron bulk flow direction changes abruptly between 1920 and 1922 UT, and the flow speed begins a sharp decline at the same time. It is suggested that the spacecraft entered the bow shock wave between 1920 and 1922 UT. Electron density variations at Halley are very much smaller than those at Giacobini-Zinner

  8. Negative Ion Chemistry in the Coma of Comet 1P/Halley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordiner, M. A.; Charnley, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    Negative ions (anions) were identified in the coma of comet 1P/Halley from in-situ measurements performed by the Giotto spacecraft in 1986. These anions were detected with masses in the range 7-110 amu, but with insufficient mass resolution to permit unambiguous identification. We present details of a new chemical-hydrodynamic model for the coma of comet Halley that includes - for the first time - atomic and molecular anions, in addition to a comprehensive hydrocarbon chemistry. Anion number densities arc calculated as a function of radius in the coma, and compared with the Giotto results. Important anion production mechanisms arc found to include radiative electron attachment, polar photodissociation, dissociative electron attachment, and proton transfer. The polyyne anions C4H(-) and C6H(-) arc found to be likely candidates to explain the Giotto anion mass spectrum in the range 49-73 amu. Thc CN(-) anion probably makes a significant contribution to the mass spectrum at 26 amu. Larger carbon-chain anions such as C8H(1) can explain the peak near 100 amu provided there is a source of large carbon-chain-bearing molecules from the cometary nucleus.

  9. Planetary perturbations and the origins of short-period comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, T.; Tremaine, S.; Duncan, M.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the dynamical plausibility of possible sources for the short-period comets, a representative sample of comet orbits in the field of the sun and the giant planets was integrated, with the aim to determine whether the distribution of orbits from a proposed source that reach observable perihelia (q less than 2.5 AU) matches the observed distribution of short-period orbits. It is found that the majority of the short-period comets, those with orbital period P less than 20 yr (the Jupiter family), cannot arise from isotropic orbits with perihelia near Jupiter's orbit, because the resulting observable comet orbits have the wrong distribution in period, inclination, and argument of perihelion. The simulations also show that Jupiter-family comets cannot arise from isotropic orbits with perihelia in the Uranus-Neptune region. On the other hand, a source of low-inclination Neptune-crossing orbits yields a distribution of observable Jupiter-family comets that is consistent with the data in all respects. These results imply that the Jupiter-family comets arise from a disk source in the outer solar system rather than from the Oort comet cloud. 30 refs

  10. On the existence of a comet belt beyond Neptune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The possible existence of a comet belt in connection with the origin of the short-period comets is analysed. It is noted that the current theory - that these comets originate as near-parabolic comets captured by Jupiter and the other giant planets - implies an excessive wastage of comets lost in hyperbolic orbits, which is avoided in the present model. The following picture is predicted. Solid conglomerates up to approximately 10 18 g were formed by gravitational instabilities in the belt region (about 35 to 50 AU). A further fragmentation-accretion process led to a power-law mass distribution similar to that observed in the asteroids. Since then, close encounters between members of the belt have provoked the diffusion of some of them with the effect that they have become subject to the strong perturbations of Neptune. Of these a small number pass from one planet to the next inside and end as short-period comets. By means of a Monte Carlo method, the influence of close encounters between belt comets is then studied in relation to the diffusion of their orbits. It is concluded that if such a belt contains members with masses equal to or greater than that of Ceres, the orbital diffusion could proceed fast enough to maintain the number of observed short-period comets in a steady state. (author)

  11. Mission to a comet that could save earth

    CERN Multimedia

    Utton, T

    2003-01-01

    Scientists are going to attempt to land a probe on the comet Wirtanen. The GBP640million unmanned craft will travel four billion miles before catching up with the comet Wirtanen and launching a robotic lander called Rosetta, on to its surface (1/2 page).

  12. Ensemble Properties of Comets in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solontoi, Michael; /Adler Planetarium, Chicago; Ivezic, Zeljko; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Juric, Mario; /Harvard Coll. Observ.; Becker, Andrew C.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Jones, Lynne; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; West, Andrew A.; /Boston U.; Kent, Steve; /Fermilab; Lupton, Robert H.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Claire, Mark; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Knapp, Gillian R.; /Princeton U. Observ.; Quinn, Tom; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Princeton U. Observ.

    2012-02-01

    We present the ensemble properties of 31 comets (27 resolved and 4 unresolved) observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This sample of comets represents about 1 comet per 10 million SDSS photometric objects. Five-band (u, g, r, i, z) photometry is used to determine the comets colors, sizes, surface brightness profiles, and rates of dust production in terms of the Afp formalism. We find that the cumulative luminosity function for the Jupiter Family Comets in our sample is well fit by a power law of the form N(comets. The resolved comets show an extremely narrow distribution of colors (0.57 {+-} 0.05 in g - r for example), which are statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jupiter Trojans. Further, there is no evidence of correlation between color and physical, dynamical, or observational parameters for the observed comets.

  13. Charging in the environment of large spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses some potential problems of spacecraft charging as a result of interactions between a large spacecraft, such as the Space Station, and its environment. Induced electric field, due to VXB effect, may be important for large spacecraft at low earth orbits. Differential charging, due to different properties of surface materials, may be significant when the spacecraft is partly in sunshine and partly in shadow. Triple-root potential jump condition may occur because of differential charging. Sudden onset of severe differential charging may occur when an electron or ion beam is emitted from the spacecraft. The beam may partially return to the ''hot spots'' on the spacecraft. Wake effects, due to blocking of ambient ion trajectories, may result in an undesirable negative potential region in the vicinity of a large spacecraft. Outgassing and exhaust may form a significant spacecraft induced environment; ionization may occur. Spacecraft charging and discharging may affect the electronic components on board

  14. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO AT 5.5-4.3 AU FROM THE SUN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, Michael S.; Wooden, Diane H.; Tubiana, Cecilia; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Woodward, Charles E.; Harker, David E.

    2009-01-01

    We report Spitzer Space Telescope observations of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko at 5.5 and 4.3 AU from the Sun, post-aphelion. Comet 67P is the primary target of the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission. The Rosetta spacecraft will rendezvous with the nucleus at heliocentric distances similar to our observations. Rotationally resolved observations at 8 and 24 μm (at a heliocentric distance, r h , of 4.8 AU) that sample the size and color-temperature of the nucleus are combined with aphelion R-band light curves observed at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and yield a mean effective radius of 2.04 ± 0.11 km, and an R-band geometric albedo of 0.054 ± 0.006. The amplitudes of the R-band and mid-infrared light curves agree, which suggests that the variability is dominated by the shape of the nucleus. We also detect the dust trail of the comet at 4.8 and 5.5 AU, constrain the grain sizes to be ∼ h = 4 AU in 2014.

  15. THE VOLATILE COMPOSITION AND ACTIVITY OF COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2 DURING THE EPOXI CLOSEST APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dello Russo, N.; Vervack, R. J. Jr; Lisse, C. M.; Weaver, H. A.; Kawakita, H.; Kobayashi, H.; Cochran, A. L.; Harris, W. M.; McKay, A. J.; Biver, N.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report time-resolved measurements of the absolute and relative abundances of eight parent volatiles (H 2 O, CH 3 OH, C 2 H 6 , C 2 H 2 , NH 3 , HCN, H 2 CO, and HC 3 N) in the coma of 103P/Hartley 2 on UT 2010 November 4, the date the EPOXI spacecraft made its closest approach to the comet, using high-dispersion infrared spectroscopy with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory. Overall gas and dust production increased by roughly 60% between UT 10:49 and 15:54. Differences in the spatial distributions of species in the coma suggest icy sources of different composition in the nucleus of 103P/Hartley 2. However, differences in the relative abundances of species with time are minor, suggesting either internal compositional heterogeneity in 103P/Hartley 2 is small compared with the diversity of chemistry observed within the comet population, or more significant heterogeneity exists on scales smaller than our spatial resolution. Observations contemporaneous with the EPOXI encounter test how compositional heterogeneity over the surface and the inner coma of a comet manifests itself in remote-sensing observations of the bulk coma.

  16. Pickup Ions in the Plasma Environments of Mars, Comets, and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, T.; Rahmati, A.; Sakai, S.; Madanian, H.; Larson, D. E.; Lillis, R. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Goldstein, R.; Burch, J. L.; Clark, G. B.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Ions created within a flowing plasma by ionization of neutrals respond to the electric and magnetic fields associated with the flow becoming what are called pick-up ions (PUI). PUI play an important role in many solar system plasma environments and affect the energy and momentum balance of the plasma flow. PUI have been observed during several recent space missions and PUI data will be compared and interpreted using models. Pick-up oxygen ions were observed in the solar wind upstream of Mars by the Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) and Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) instruments on NASA's MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN) spacecraft. The pick-up oxygen ions are created when atoms in the hot corona are ionized by solar radiation and charge exchange with solar wind protons. The ion fluxes measured by SEP can constrain the oxygen escape rate from Mars. PUI were also been detected at distances of 10 - 100 km from the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko (67P/CG) by plasma instruments (IES and ICA) onboard the Rosetta Orbiter when the comet was at 3 AU. The newly-born cometary ions are accelerated by the solar wind motional electric field but remain un-magnetized, as suggested by pre-encounter models (Rubin et al., 2014). The inner magnetosphere of Saturn and the water plume of the icy satellite Enceladus provide a third example of PUI. H2O+ ions created by ionization of neutral water producing ions that are picked-up by the co-rotating magnetospheric plasma flow. These ions then undergo a complex interaction with the plume gas including collisions that convert most H2O+ ions to H3O+, as measured by the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft.

  17. The exploration of Halley's comet - An example of international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahe, Jurgen H.; Newburn, Ray L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The history of international cooperation in studies of comets started with observations in 1577 and 1680, when Tycho Brahe and Newton, respectively, collected position measurements made in different countries to determine the paths of the comets observed. In the fall of 1979, a worldwide Comet Halley watch was proposed. As a result of international cooperation, Comet Halley was explored during its recent appearance from the ground, earth orbit, Venus orbit, interplanetary space, and from within the comet itself. The various activities in space were coordinated by the ESA, the USSR Intercosmos, the Japanese ISAS, and NASA, through the Inter-Agency Consultative Group. The activities of the ground-based observers were coordinated by the International Halley Watch.

  18. COMET Multimedia modules and objects in the digital library system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, T. C.; Lamos, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    Over the past ten years of developing Web- and CD-ROM-based training materials, the Cooperative Program for Operational Meteorology, Education and Training (COMET) has created a unique archive of almost 10,000 multimedia objects and some 50 web based interactive multimedia modules on various aspects of weather and weather forecasting. These objects and modules, containing illustrations, photographs, animations,video sequences, audio files, are potentially a valuable resource for university faculty and students, forecasters, emergency managers, public school educators, and other individuals and groups needing such materials for educational use. The COMET Modules are available on the COMET educational web site http://www.meted.ucar.edu, and the COMET Multimedia Database (MMDB) makes a collection of the multimedia objects available in a searchable online database for viewing and download over the Internet. Some 3200 objects are already available at the MMDB Website: http://archive.comet.ucar.edu/moria/

  19. THE PHOTODISSOCIATION OF FORMALDEHYDE IN COMETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Paul D., E-mail: pfeldman@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Observations of comets in the 905–1180 Å spectral band made with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer in 2001 and 2004 show unusual features in the fluorescent emissions of CO and H{sub 2}. These include emission from a non-thermal high-J rotational population of CO and solar Lyα induced fluorescence from excited vibrational levels of H{sub 2}, both of which are attributed to the photodissociation of formaldehyde. In this paper we model the large number of observed H{sub 2} lines and demonstrate the dependence of the pumping on the heliocentric velocity of the comet and the solar line profiles. We also derive the rotational and vibrational populations of H{sub 2} and show that they are consistent with the results of laboratory studies of the photodissociation of H{sub 2}CO. In addition to the principal series of H i and O i, the residual spectrum is found to consist mainly of the Rydberg series of C i multiplets from which we derive the mean carbon column abundance in the coma. Fluorescent emissions from N i and N{sub 2} are also searched for.

  20. Model of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, D.C.; Huebner, W.F.; Keady, J.J.; Schmidt, H.U.; Wegmann, R.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner is presented which contains photo-processes, gas-phase chemical kinetics, energy balance. Multifluid hydrodynamics with a transition to free molecular flow, and solar wind interaction. Recently, the physics for electrons in the model has been improved by including electron impact ionization and dissociation and separately accounting for electron energetics. Electron heating and cooling mechanisms include photoprocesses, recombination processes, inelastic and elastic collisions with heavy molecules, and expansion cooling. The model incorporates an internally consistent interaction of the solar wind with the coma gas using the axisymmetric ideal fluid dynamic equations. The nuclear size and composition have been chosen to make the calculations relevant to the 11 September 1985 International Cometary Explorer (ICE) encounter with Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner. Model profiles of the temperature, velocity, and number density of the electrons are in good agreement with measurements along ICE's trajectory. These results indicate that the probe passed through a region of the coma at the onset of the plasma tail

  1. Theories of comets to the age of Laplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    Although the development of ideas about cometary motion has been investigated in several projects, a comprehensive and detailed survey of physical theories of comets has not been conducted. The available works either illustrate relatively short periods in the history of physical cometology or portray a landscape view without adequate details. The present study is an attempt to depict the details of the major physical theories of comets from Aristotle to the age of Laplace. The basic question from which this project originated was simple: how did natural philosophers and astronomers define the nature and place of a new category of celestial objects--the comets--after Brahe's estimation of cometary distances? However, a study starting merely from Brahe without covering classical and medieval thought about comets would be incomplete. Thus, based on the fundamental physical characteristics attributed to comets, the history of cometology may be divided into three periods: from Aristotle to Brahe, in which comets were assumed to be meteorological phenomena; from Brahe to Newton, when comets were admitted as celestial bodies but with unknown trajectories; and from Newton to Laplace, in which they were treated as members of the solar system having more or less the same properties of the planets. By estimating the mass of comets in the 1800s, Laplace diverted cometology into a different direction wherein they were considered among the smallest bodies in the solar system and deprived of the most important properties that had been used to explain their physical constitution during the previous two millennia. Ideas about the astrological aspects of comets are not considered in this study. Also, topics concerning the motion of comets are explained to the extent that is helpful in illustrating their physical properties. The main objective is to demonstrate the foundations of physical theories of comets, and the interaction between observational and mathematical astronomy, and

  2. Comets as a possible source of nanodust in the Solar System cloud and in planetary debris discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid

    2017-07-13

    Comets, comet-like objects and their fragments are the most plausible source for the dust in both the inner heliosphere and planetary debris discs around other stars. The smallest size of dust particles in debris discs is not known and recent observational results suggest that the size distribution of the dust extends down to sizes of a few nanometres or a few tens of nanometres. In the Solar System, electric field measurements from spacecraft observe events that are explained with high-velocity impacts of nanometre-sized dust. In some planetary debris discs an observed mid- to near-infrared emission supposedly results from hot dust located in the vicinity of the star. And the observed emission is characteristic of dust of sizes a few tens of nanometres. Rosetta observations, on the other hand, provide little information on the presence of nanodust near comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This article describes why this is not in contradiction to the observations of nanodust in the heliosphere and in planetary debris discs. The direct ejection of nanodust from the nucleus of the comet would not contribute significantly to the observed nanodust fluxes. We discuss a scenario that nanodust forms in the interplanetary dust cloud through the high-velocity collision process in the interplanetary medium for which the production rates are highest near the Sun. Likewise, fragmentation by collisions occurs near the star in planetary debris discs. The collisional fragmentation process in the inner Solar System occurs at similar velocities to those of the collisional evolution in the interstellar medium. A question for future studies is whether there is a common magic size of the smallest collision fragments and what determines this size.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Rosetta comet-chaser takes a close look at planet Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Its final destination is comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko, which it will reach only in 2014, after travelling some 6000 million kilometres in 10 years (its epic voyage began on 2 March 2004 with a launch by an Ariane 5 rocket). Rosetta will next be heading for the Sun, and its journey will require two more swing-bys around the Earth, in November this year and November 2009. Once at its destination, Rosetta will first deposit, from a height of about one kilometre, a small but very complex lander on the comet’s nucleus. This lander, a sort of miniature chemical laboratory packed with sophisticated instruments, will analyse the surface and provide information on the nucleus. The Rosetta probe will then chase the comet for one year and observe its nucleus as it continues on its trip towards the inner solar system at a speed of 135,000 km per hour. There is still a long way to go, but so far everything seems to be going exactly according to plan. ESA's Director of Science, David Southwood, witnessing the Mars swing-by at ESOC with scientists involved in the mission and the operations teams, said: "Interplanetary expeditions rely on very complex communication links. ESA’s mission operations centre here in Darmstadt is doing a great job. I and all the scientists involved in the mission are grateful to the experts who are taking such good care of 'our baby'. And this is only the beginning. The true excitement of targeting and releasing the lander on the comet’s nucleus is yet to come. Today we have reached another milestone on the way to finding an answer to questions such as whether life on Earth began with the help of comets." “The successful Mars swingby of the ESA Rosetta spacecraft has been the most critical event in the mission since launch. Now we are heading back to Earth in order to gain, in November this year, further momentum for the subsequent visits of the asteroids and the comet. I would like to thank all those who have contributed to this achievement

  4. Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For spacecraft design and development teams concerned with cost and schedule, the Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool (QuickSTAT) is an innovative software suite...

  5. What's Causing the Activity on Comet 67P?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    Comet 67P/ChuryumovGerasimenko made famous by the explorations of the Rosetta mission has been displaying puzzling activity as it hurtles toward the Sun. However, recent modeling of the comet by a group of scientists from the Cte dAzur University may now explain whats causing 67Ps activity.Shadowed ActivityA model of comet 67P, with the colors indicating the rate of change of the temperature on the comets surface. The most rapid temperature changes are seen at the comets neck, in the same locations as the early activity seen in the Rosetta images. [Al-Lagoa et al. 2015] Between June and September of 2014, Rosetta observed comet 67P displaying early activity in the form of jets of dust emitted from near the neck of the comet (its narrowest point). Such activity is usually driven by the sublimation of volatiles from the comets surface as a result of sun exposure. But the neck of the comet is frequently shadowed as the comet rotates, and it receives significantly less sunlight than the rest of the comet. So why would the early activity originate from the comets neck?The authors of a recent study, led by Victor Al-Lagoa, hypothesize that its precisely because the neck is receiving alternating sunlight/shadows that its displaying activity. They suggest that thermal cracking of the surface of the comet is happening faster in this region, due to the rapid changes in temperature that result from the shadows cast by the surrounding terrain. The cracking exposes subsurface ices in the neck faster than in other regions, and the ensuing sublimation of that ice is what creates the activity were seeing.Temperature Models: To test their hypothesis, the authors study the surface temperatures on comet 67P by means of a thermophysical model a model used to calculate the temperatures on an airless body, both on and below the surface. The model takes into account factors like thermal inertia (how quickly the bodys temperature responds to changes in the incident energy), shadowing, and

  6. Multiple spacecraft Michelson stellar interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, R. V.; Arnold, D.; Melroy, P.; Mccormack, E. F.; Gezari, D. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an orbital analysis and performance assessment of SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry) are presented. The device considered includes two one-meter telescopes in orbits which are identical except for slightly different inclinations; the telescopes achieve separations as large as 10 km and relay starlight to a central station which has a one-meter optical delay line in one interferometer arm. It is shown that a 1000-km altitude, zero mean inclination orbit affords natural scanning of the 10-km baseline with departures from optical pathlength equality which are well within the corrective capacity of the optical delay line. Electric propulsion is completely adequate to provide the required spacecraft motions, principally those needed for repointing. Resolution of 0.00001 arcsec and magnitude limits of 15 to 20 are achievable.

  7. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John D.

    1997-01-01

    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  8. Attitude Fusion Techniques for Spacecraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    Spacecraft platform instability constitutes one of the most significant limiting factors in hyperacuity pointing and tracking applications, yet the demand for accurate, timely and reliable attitude information is ever increasing. The PhD research project described within this dissertation has...... served to investigate the solution space for augmenting the DTU μASC stellar reference sensor with a miniature Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), thereby obtaining improved bandwidth, accuracy and overall operational robustness of the fused instrument. Present day attitude determination requirements are met...... of the instrument, and affecting operations during agile and complex spacecraft attitude maneuvers. As such, there exists a theoretical foundation for augmenting the high frequency performance of the μASC instrument, by harnessing the complementary nature of optical stellar reference and inertial sensor technology...

  9. A quantitative comet infection assay for influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Stephen M.; Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

    2011-01-01

    Summary The virus comet assay is a cell-based virulence assay used to evaluate an antiviral drug or antibody against a target virus. The comet assay differs from the plaque assay in allowing spontaneous flows in 6-well plates to spread virus. When implemented quantitatively the comet assay has been shown to have an order-of-magnitude greater sensitivity to antivirals than the plaque assay. In this study, a quantitative comet assay for influenza virus is demonstrated, and is shown to have a 13-fold increase in sensitivity to ribavirin. AX4 cells (MDCK cells with increased surface concentration of α2–6 sialic acid, the influenza virus receptor) have reduced the comet size variability relative to MDCK cells, making them a better host cell for use in this assay. Because of enhanced antiviral sensitivity in flow-based assays, less drug is required, which could lead to lower reagent costs, reduced cytotoxicity, and fewer false-negative drug screen results. The comet assay also serves as a readout of flow conditions in the well. Observations from comets formed at varying humidity levels indicate a role for evaporation in the mechanism of spontaneous fluid flow in wells. PMID:22155578

  10. CLATHRATE HYDRATES FORMATION IN SHORT-PERIOD COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marboeuf, Ulysse; Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc; Schmitt, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The initial composition of current models of cometary nuclei is only based on two forms of ice: crystalline ice for long-period comets and amorphous ice for short-period comets. A third form of ice, i.e., clathrate hydrate, could exist within the short-period cometary nuclei, but the area of formation of this crystalline structure in these objects has never been studied. Here, we show that the thermodynamic conditions in the interior of short-period comets allow the existence of clathrate hydrates in Halley-type comets. We show that their existence is viable in the Jupiter family comets only when the equilibrium pressure of CO clathrate hydrate is at least 1 order of magnitude lower than the usually assumed theoretical value. We calculate that the amount of volatiles that could be trapped in the clathrate hydrate layer may be orders of magnitude greater than the daily amount of gas released at the surface of the nucleus at perihelion. The formation and the destruction of the clathrate hydrate cages could then explain the diversity of composition of volatiles observed in comets, as well as some pre-perihelion outbursts. We finally show that the potential clathrate hydrate layer in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko would, unfortunately, be deep inside the nucleus, out of reach of the Rosetta lander. However, such a clathrate hydrate layer would show up by the gas composition of the coma.

  11. Vaporization of comet nuclei: Light curves and life times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, J J [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (USA). Center for Astrophysics; A' Hearn, M F [Maryland Univ., College Park (USA)

    1979-10-01

    The authors have examined the effects of vaporization from the nucleus of a comet and show that a latitude dependence of vaporization can, in some cases, explain asymmetries in commetary light curves. They also find that a non-uniform distribution of solar radiation over a comet can considerably shorten the vaporization lifetime compared to the results normally obtained by assuming that the nuclear surface is isothermal. Independent of any latitude effects, comets with CO/sub 2/-dominated nuclei and with periherlion distances less than 0.5 AU have vaporization lifetimes less than or comparable to their dynamical ejection times. This may explain the observed deficit of comets with small perihelion distances. Similarly comets with CO/sub 2/-dominated nuclei and perihelia near Jupiter's orbit have vaporization lifetimes that are shorter than the time for capture into short-period orbits. They suggest, therefore, that at least some new comets are composed in large part of CO/sub 2/, while only H/sub 2/O-dominated comets, with lower vaporization rates, can survive to be captured into short-period orbits.

  12. COMET SHOWERS ARE NOT INDUCED BY INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, D.E.

    1985-11-01

    Encounters with interstellar clouds (IC) have been proposed by Rampino and Stothers as a cause of quasi-periodic intense comet showers leading to earth impacts, in order to explain the periodicity in marine mass extinctions found by Raup and Sepkoski. The model was described further, criticized and defended. The debate has centered on the question of whether the scale height of the clouds is small enough (in comparison to the amplitude of the oscillation of the solar system about the plane of the Galaxy) to produce a modulation in the rate of encounters. We wish to point out another serious, we believe fatal, defect in this model - the tidal fields of ICs are not strong enough to produce intense comet showers leading to earth impacts by bringing comets of the postulated inner Oort cloud into earth crossing orbits, except possibly during very rare encounters with very dense clouds. We will show that encounters with abundant clouds of low density cannot produce comet showers; cloud density N > 10{sup 3} atoms cm{sup -3} is needed to produce an intense comet shower leading to earth impacts. Furthermore, the tidal field of a dense cloud during a distant encounter is too weak to produce such showers. As a consequence, comet showers induced by ICs will be far less frequent than showers caused by passing stars. This conclusion is independent of assumptions about the radial distribution of comets in the inner Oort cloud.

  13. Halley comet position in structure of the comet origin general scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydov, V.D.

    1988-01-01

    Attempt to explain data on the Halley comet nucleus figure by photographes received from space probes in 1986 was undertaken. Peanut-like nucleus might be formed from two bodies former system under specific conditions. This hypothesis preliminary development is made; solution way for the problem about quantitative characteristics of collision and destruction is found. Quantitative assessments confirm retention possibility of two space icebergs original form after their ''docking'' within relative velocity range up to a few meters per second. Then complex with visible saddle point between two jointed fragments is formed. The hypothesis suggested is well inscribed in the origin general scheme of comets with nucleus different types, and from general scheme one may draw up the most important details to this hypothesis (for example, power mechanism of binary system formation and reasons of its destabilization)

  14. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  15. Nonlinearity-induced spacecraft tumbling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    An existing tumbling criterion for the dumbbell satellite in planar librations is reexamined and modified to reflect a recently identified tumbling mode associated with the horizontal attitude orientation. It is shown that for any initial attitude there exists a critical angular rate below which the motion is oscillatory and harmonic and beyond which a continuous tumbling will ensue. If the angular rate is at the critical value the spacecraft drifts towards the horizontal attitude from which a spontaneous periodic tumbling occurs

  16. Localized irradiations, Evaluation through ''comet assay''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgio, M.D.; Taja, M.R.; Nasazzi, N.B.; Bustos, N.; Cavalieri, H.; Bolgiani, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last 50 years various radiation accidents involving localized irradiations occurred, resulting mainly from improper handling of sealed sources Co 60 , Cs 137 or Ir 192 at workplaces for industrial gammagraphy. Severe skin reaction may develop at the contact sites. Such inhomogeneous irradiations lead to a differential exposure of lymphocytes in lymphatic tissues or other organs that may recirculate into the peripheral blood producing a mixed irradiated and unirradiated population of lymphocytes. Applying the mathematical models ''Contaminated Poisson'' of Dolphin and Qdr method of Sasaki, a mean dose in the irradiated body area and its size can be estimated from unstable chromosome aberration scoring. This give an indication of the proportion of haemopoietic stem cell compartment involved in the overexposure. There are also different biophysical techniques that can give responses in biological dosimetry. The ''Comet Assay'' (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive and rapid method for DNA strand break detection in individual cells. The advantages of the technique include: collection of data at the level of individual cell; the need for small numbers of cells per sample; its sensitivity for detecting DNA damage and that virtually any eukaryote cell population is amenable to analysis. The objective of this work is to apply ''Comet Assay'' method to evaluate the effect of radiation on skin and subcutaneous tissues, differentiating irradiated from unirradiated body areas. It could provide a useful tool to estimate the extension and the dose in the irradiated region, contributing with the current techniques. In this first study, we evaluate the alkaline comet assay as a method for detection of DNA radiation induced damage in keratinocytes from primary culture obtained from full thickness skin biopsies of patients requiring grafts. Skin and, particularly, keratinocytes were selected as an appropriate cellular system due to: Skin, the first barrier

  17. Localized irradiations, evaluation through 'Comet Assay'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giorgio, Marina; Taja, Maria R.; Nasazzi, Nora B.; Bustos, N.; Cavalieri, H.; Bolgiani, A.

    2000-01-01

    During the last 50 years various radiation accidents involving localized irradiations occurred, resulting mainly from improper handling of sealed sources of Cobalt 60, Cesium 137 or Iridium 192 at work placed for industrial gammagraphy and other radiation sources. Severe skin reaction may developed at the contact sites. Such inhomogeneous irradiations lead to a differential exposure of lymphocytes in lymphatic tissues or other organs that may recirculate into the peripheral blood producing a mixed irradiated and unirradiated population of lymphocytes. Applying the mathematical models 'Contaminated Poisson' of Dolphin and Qdr method of Sasaki, a mean dose in the irradiated body area and its size can be estimated from unstable chromosome aberration scoring. There are also different biophysical techniques that can give response in localized irradiations. Biological dosimetry is a necessary complement to physical and clinical dosimetries. Thus, there is increasing interest in the assessment of biological markers that permit the detection of radiation induced damage in the localized irradiations. The 'Comet Assay' (single cell gel electrophoresis) is a sensitive, rapid and relatively inexpensive method for measuring DNA damage in individual cells. Single cells are embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed to remove the majority of the proteins, electrophoresed, then stained with ethidium bromide in order to visualize the DNA. When visualized using a fluorescent microscope, DNA of undamaged cells appears as a spherical mass occupying the cavity formed by the lysed cell. Following radiation damage, the smaller the fragment size and the grater the number of fragments of DNA, the grater the percentage of DNA that it is able to migrate in an electric field, forming a comet image. The assay can be performed under alkaline conditions to examine DNA single strand breaks (SSBs), or in non denaturing (neutral) conditions to measure double strand breaks (DSBs) in individual

  18. Outbursting comet P/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murakami): A miniature comet Holmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiguro, Masateru [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jewitt, David [Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, 595 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1567 (United States); Hanayama, Hidekazu; Miyaji, Takeshi; Fukushima, Hideo; Watanabe, Jun-ichi [Ishigakijima Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Ishigaki, Okinawa 907-0024 (Japan); Usui, Fumihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Tomohiko [Department of Teacher Training, Hokkaido University of Education, 9 Hokumon, Asahikawa 070-8621 (Japan); Yanagisawa, Kenshi; Kuroda, Daisuke [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asaguchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Yoshida, Michitoshi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Ohta, Kouji [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawai, Nobuyuki [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-05-20

    The short-period comet P/2010 V1 (Ikeya-Murakami, hereafter {sup V}1{sup )} was discovered visually by two amateur astronomers. The appearance of the comet was peculiar, consisting of an envelope, a spherical coma near the nucleus and a tail extending in the anti-solar direction. We investigated the brightness and the morphological development of the comet by taking optical images with ground-based telescopes. Our observations show that V1 experienced a large-scale explosion between UT 2010 October 31 and November 3. The color of the comet was consistent with the Sun (g' – R {sub C} = 0.61 ± 0.20, R {sub C} – I {sub C} = 0.20 ± 0.20, and B – R {sub C} = 0.93 ± 0.25), suggesting that dust particles were responsible for the brightening. We used a dynamical model to understand the peculiar morphology, and found that the envelope consisted of small grains (0.3-1 μm) expanding at a maximum speed of 500 ± 40 m s{sup –1}, while the tail and coma were composed of a wider range of dust particle sizes (0.4-570 μm) and expansion speeds 7-390 m s{sup –1}. The total mass of ejecta is ∼5 × 10{sup 8} kg and kinetic energy ∼5 × 10{sup 12} J. These values are much smaller than in the historic outburst of 17P/Holmes in 2007, but the energy per unit mass (1 × 10{sup 4} J kg{sup –1}) is comparable. The energy per unit mass is about 10% of the energy released during the crystallization of amorphous water ice suggesting that crystallization of buried amorphous ice can supply the mass and energy of the outburst ejecta.

  19. Recommendations for safety testing with the in vivo comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Marie Z

    2012-08-30

    While the in vivo comet assay increases its role in regulatory safety testing, deliberations about the interpretation of comet data continue. Concerns can arise regarding comet assay publications with limited data from non-blind testing of positive control compounds and using protocols (e.g. dose concentrations, sample times, and tissues) known to give an expected effect. There may be a tendency towards bias when the validation or interpretation of comet assay data is based on results generated by widely accepted but non-validated assays. The greatest advantages of the comet assay are its sensitivity and its ability to detect genotoxicity in tissues and at sample times that could not previously be evaluated. Guidelines for its use and interpretation in safety testing should take these factors into account. Guidelines should be derived from objective review of data generated by blind testing of unknown compounds dosed at non-toxic concentrations and evaluated in a true safety-testing environment, where the experimental design and conclusions must be defensible. However, positive in vivo comet findings with such compounds are rarely submitted to regulatory agencies and this data is typically unavailable for publication due to its proprietary nature. To enhance the development of guidelines for safety testing with the comet assay, and with the permission of several sponsors, this paper presents and discusses relevant data from multiple GLP comet studies conducted blind, with unknown pharmaceuticals and consumer products. Based on these data and the lessons we have learned through the course of conducting these studies, I suggest significant adjustments to the current conventions, and I provide recommendations for interpreting in vivo comet assay results in situations where risk must be evaluated in the absence of carcinogenicity or clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  1. Integrating standard operating procedures with spacecraft automation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft automation has the potential to assist crew members and spacecraft operators in managing spacecraft systems during extended space missions. Automation can...

  2. Comet LINEAR C/1999 S4 - an absolutely well-behaved comet before breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschke, S. B.; Lisse, C. M.; Fernandez, Y. R.; Ressler, M.; Stickel, M.; Kaminski, C.; Golish, B.

    2000-10-01

    We present results from infrared imaging of comet LINEAR C/1999 S4 on June 17 - 19, 2000 (pre-breakup), using the near-IR camera NSFCAM and the mid-IR camera MIRLIN at the 3m NASA/IRTF. Images and multi-wavelength spectroscopy were obtained in the zJHK'L'MNQ bands, and were used to create a 1.0 - 25 μ m SED of the comet's dust and nucleus. The coma's contribution at each wavelength was modeled using spatial fitting (Fernandez 1999, PhD thesis; Lisse et al. 1999, Icarus 140, 189). The resulting comatic and nuclear SEDs were then modeled using modified Mie theory (Lisse et al. 1998, ApJ 496, 971) and the standard nuclear thermal models (Lebofsky and Spencer 1989, Asteroids II, 128), respectively. We report the resulting dust PSD, mass loss rate, and albedo, as well as the nuclear radius, and we compare these results to those obtained by others from optical data both before and after the comet's breakup in late July 2000.

  3. Nonlinear low frequency (LF) waves - Comets and foreshock phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1991-01-01

    A review is conducted of LF wave nonlinear properties at comets and in the earth's foreshock, engaging such compelling questions as why there are no cometary cyclotron waves, the physical mechanism responsible for 'dispersive whiskers', and the character of a general description of linear waves. Attention is given to the nonlinear properties of LF waves, whose development is illustrated by examples of waves and their features at different distances from the comet, as well as by computer simulation results. Also discussed is a curious wave mode detected from Comet Giacobini-Zinner, both at and upstream of the bow shock/wave.

  4. Comet P/Machholtz and the Quadrantid meteor stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcintosh, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    Attention is drawn to the suggestive similarities between the calculated perturbation behavior of Comet P/Machholtz 1986 VIII, on the one hand, and on the other those of the Quadrantid, Delta Aquarid, and Arietid meteor streams. There appears to be adequate evidence for the formation by the Comets P/Machholtz and 1491-I, together with the three meteor streams, of a related complex controlled by Jupiter's gravitational perturbations; there is no comparably compelling information, however, bearing on the questions of parent-offspring or sibling relationships among these comets and meteor streams. 13 refs

  5. Atlas of Comet Halley 1910 II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, J.C.; Donn, B.

    1986-01-01

    An Atlas of Comet Halley 1910 II photographs and spectra is being prepared. The major section consists of 838 photographic observations from fifteen observatories around the world. Multiple images of many photographs are reproduced to bring out detail in the near nucleus region, in the coma and in the tail. The Atlas contains a total of 1209 photographic images of the 1910 apparition. In addition there are sections showing drawings from 1935 and 1910. A short section compares 1910 drawings and photographs. The final two sections display digitally processed images from 1910 and 1910 spectra. A three part appendix contains diagrams of various data associated with the 1910 apparition, a set of tables of all 1910 images and a bibliography

  6. Spectrophotometry of Comet West 1976 VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenbush, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Spectra obtained for the coma, nuclear fragments A and D, and tail of Comet West 1976 VI on April 1, 2 and 7, 1976 are noted to encompass coma spectra which differed from those of the nuclear fragments, which exhibited a strong continuum with superimposed emissions that included a stronger CO(+)-band system than that of the coma. A detailed comparison between fragment spectra has revealed great differences in both quasi-simultaneously obtained and five-day-separated cases. The relative intensities of different CO(+) bands are compared to the theoretical ones, and the abundances of CO(+) ions corresponding to different vibrational transitions are determined relative to that of CN. 24 references

  7. Controlling variation in the comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Richard Collins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Variability of the comet assay is a serious issue, whether it occurs from experiment to experiment in the same laboratory, or between different laboratories analysing identical samples. Do we have to live with high variability, just because the comet assay is a biological assay rather than analytical chemistry? Numerous attempts have been made to limit variability by standardising the assay protocol, and the critical steps in the assay have been identified; agarose concentration, duration of alkaline incubation, and electrophoresis conditions (time, temperature and voltage gradient are particularly important. Even when these are controlled, variation seems to be inevitable. It is helpful to include in experiments reference standards, i.e. cells with a known amount of specific damage to the DNA. They can be aliquots frozen from a single large batch of cells, either untreated (negative controls or treated with, for example, H2O2 or X-rays to induce strand breaks (positive control for the basic assay, or photosensitiser plus light to oxidise guanine (positive control for Fpg- or OGG1-sensitive sites. Reference standards are especially valuable when performing a series of experiments over a long period - for example, analysing samples of white blood cells from a large human biomonitoring trial - to check that the assay is performing consistently, and to identify anomalous results necessitating a repeat experiment. The reference values of tail intensity can also be used to iron out small variations occurring from day to day. We present examples of the use of reference standards in human trials, both within one laboratory and between different laboratories, and describe procedures that can be used to control variation.

  8. The search for main-belt comets: The Pan-STARRS1 perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, H.; Denneau, L.; Wainscoat, R.; Jedicke, R.; Schorghofer, N.; Micheli, M.; Veres, P.; Kleyna, J.; Bolin, B.

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of objects have been discovered in the main asteroid belt that exhibit comet-like activity. Some instances of activity are believed to result from sublimation of volatile sub-surface ice, and the objects exhibiting this type of activity have come to be known as main-belt comets (MBCs; Hsieh & Jewitt 2006). For most MBCs, the presence of gas is only inferred from visible dust emission, although water vapor outgassing has recently been directly detected from (1) Ceres (Kuppers et al. 2014), indicating that water sublimation on MBCs could also be possible. In other instances, comet-like dust emission has been found to result from impacts onto otherwise inert objects, rotational disruption, or a combination of effects (cf., Jewitt 2012). In these cases, the objects can be referred to as disrupted asteroids. Collectively, MBCs and disrupted asteroids are known as active asteroids. MBCs have attracted interest in astrobiology due to theoretical studies indicating that material from the asteroid belt region could have been a significant primordial source of the water and other volatiles on the Earth. Icy asteroids also contain some of the least altered material from the inner protosolar disk still in existence today, presenting us with opportunities to learn about the earliest stages of our solar system's formation. The added bonus of the MBCs' relatively close proximity in the asteroid belt means that in situ spacecraft studies are entirely feasible using present-day technology. Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) is a wide-field synoptic survey telescope located on Halekala in Hawaii. It employs a 3.2×3.2 deg 1.4 gigapixel camera and uses an SDSS-like filter system. As of 2014 March 31, the Pan-STARRS1 survey has discovered three MBCs --- P/2006 VW139, P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS), and P/2013 R3 (Catalina-PANSTARRS) --- as well as one disrupted asteroid (P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS)), two active Centaurs, 33 Jupiter-family comets, and 17 long-period comets. For

  9. Eyes Wide Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Manesi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.

  10. Spacecraft Jitter Attenuation Using Embedded Piezoelectric Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    1995-01-01

    Remote sensing from spacecraft requires precise pointing of measurement devices in order to achieve adequate spatial resolution. Unfortunately, various spacecraft disturbances induce vibrational jitter in the remote sensing instruments. The NASA Langley Research Center has performed analysis, simulations, and ground tests to identify the more promising technologies for minimizing spacecraft pointing jitter. These studies have shown that the use of smart materials to reduce spacecraft jitter is an excellent match between a maturing technology and an operational need. This paper describes the use of embedding piezoelectric actuators for vibration control and payload isolation. In addition, recent advances in modeling, simulation, and testing of spacecraft pointing jitter are discussed.

  11. Dry eyes : a commonly missed eye condition

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Mario;

    2014-01-01

    Tears are an important component in providing moisture and lubrication for the eyes, thereby maintaining vision and comfort. Dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) result when there is either decreased production of tears or by poor tear quality which in turn lead to more rapid evaporation.

  12. Interaction of the plasma tail of comet Bradfield 1979L on 1980 February 6 with a possibly flare-generated solar-wind disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedner, M.B. Jr.; Brandt, J.C.; Zwickl, R.D.; Bame, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Solar-wind plasma data from the ISEE-3 and Helios 2 spacecraft have been examined in order to explain a uniquely rapid 10 0 turning of the plasma tail of comet Bradfield 1979L on 1980 February 6. An earlier study conducted before the availability of in situ solar-wind data (Brandt et al., 1980) suggested that the tail position angle change occurred in response to a solar-wind velocity shear across which the polar component changed by approx. 50 km s - 1 . The present contribution confirms this result and further suggests that the comet-tail activity was caused by non-corotating, disturbed plasma flows probably associated with an Importance 1B solar flare

  13. The starry room naked eye astronomy in the intimate universe

    CERN Document Server

    Schaaf, Fred

    2002-01-01

    This inspiring and enriching book, a collection of essays that evokes the beauty and wonder of the night sky, explains to beginning skywatchers how to find and where to look for specific celestial objects. Author Fred Schaaf, once described as a naturalist in the tradition of Henry David Thoreau and John Burroughs, reveals an intense love of his subject and a keen knowledge of the optimum ways of viewing astronomical phenomena with the naked eye. Schaaf not only describes such special sights as an eyelash-thin moon, a shooting star, streaking comets, and a lunar eclipse, but he also explains w

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Sep. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay ... tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part ... Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  17. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or child care if you're not able to take time off — just stay consistent in practicing good hygiene. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in the mother's birth canal. ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... much as it does on your eyes. ... of Health | USA.gov NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ...

  20. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of ... layer cleans the eye, washing away particles that do not belong in the eye. This layer comes ...

  4. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  5. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships ... Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes ...

  6. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office ... Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and ...

  7. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on ...

  8. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  10. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet ...

  13. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ... website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  15. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ...

  16. Remote comets and related bodies - VJHK colorimetry and surface materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Degewij, J.

    1982-01-01

    VJHK colors for a number of asteroids and eight comets at various solar distances and levels of activity were obtained, and the observations are interpreted in terms of a two-component mixing model in which outer solar system interplanetary bodies are viewed as mixtures of ice and dark carbonaceous-type (RD and C) dirt. It is inferred that the observed comets have comae, and perhaps surfaces, of dirty ice or ice dirt grains colored by an RD-dirt component. This inference is supported by systematics of an 'alpha index' based on VJHK colors and empirically correlated with albedo and ice/dirt ratio. Among comets the alpha index correlates with solar distance in a way that suggests comets emit dirty ice grains which are stable at large solar distance but from which the ice component sublimes and leaves dirt grains at small solar distance.

  17. Comet P/2004 T1 (LINEAR-NEAT)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, M.; Kušnirák, Peter

    -, č. 8416 (2004), s. 1 ISSN 0081-0304 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3003204 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : new comet * astrometry Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  18. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. The Meteoroid Fluence at Mars Due to Comet Siding Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.

    2014-01-01

    Long-period comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) is headed for a close encounter with Mars on 2014 Oct 19. A collision between the comet and the planet has been ruled out, but the comets coma may envelop Mars and its man-made satellites. We present an analytic model of the dust component of cometary comae that describes the spatial distribution of cometary dust and meteoroids and their size distribution. If the coma reaches Mars, we estimate a total incident particle fluence on the planet and its satellites of 0.01 particles per square meter. We compare our model with numerical simulations, data from past comet missions, and recent Siding Spring observations.

  20. Physical Mechanism of Comet (and Asteroid) Outbursts: The Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    2015-07-01

    A film made during impact experiments at NASA Ames illustrates a mechanism in which regolith can become gas charged and then erupt to create outbursts as observed on comets (and "asteroids" such as 2060 Chiron).

  1. Comets Nature, Dynamics, Origin, and their Cosmogonical Relevance

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Julio Angel

    2005-01-01

    The book covers the most recent ideas about the nature and dynamics of comets, including a thorough discussion on Oort cloud dynamics which has not received due attention in other books on the subject. It also discusses the most relevant aspects of the physics and chemistry of comet nuclei, highlighting their importance as relics of the protoplanetary disk and, perhaps, as carriers of water and organics that permitted the development of life on Earth. The book contains several tables with useful data, and an ample bibliography covering the most recent work as well as some historical key contributions to the subject. It may be suitable as a textbook for graduate students with some basic knowledge of celestial mechanics and astrophysics, as well as a consult book for comet researchers, or researchers from other related fields willing to start working on comets, or get an updated view of the subject.

  2. Immunology of the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Weronika Ratajczak; Beata Tokarz-Deptuła; Wiesław Deptuła

    2018-01-01

    The eye is an organ of sight characterized by unusual immunological properties, resulting from its anatomical structure and physiology, as well as the presence of specific elements that, through the mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity, provide homeostasis of the eyeball. This article reviews the defensive elements of individual eye structures: conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, anterior chamber of the eye, uvea, retina and eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT), where we distinguish a...

  3. Colour, albedo and nucleus size of Halley's comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Tholen, D. J.; Hartmann, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Photometry of Halley's comet in the B, J, V, and K broadband filters during a time when the coma was very weak and presumed to contribute negligibly to the broadband photometry is reported. The V-J and J-K colors suggest that the color of the nucleus of Halley's comet is similar to that of the D-type asteroids, which in turn suggests that the surface of the nucleus has an albedo less than 0.1.

  4. An analysis of the BVRI colors of 22 active comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzler, A. S.; Almeida, R. S.; Cerqueira, W. J.; Araujo, L. A.; Prazeres, C. J. M.; Jesus, J. N.; Bispo, P. A. S.; Andrade, V. B.; Freitas, Y. A. S.; Betzler, L. B. S.

    2017-08-01

    Our aim was to analyze the variation of Johnson-Kron-Cousins BVRI color indexes of a sample with 22 active comets of various dynamic groups with the time, geometrical, observational and dynamical parameters. We performed photometric observations of 16 comets between 2010 and 2014, using robotic telescopes in three continents. In addition to the sample, we used data of six comets available in the literature. A statistical comparison between the distributions of color indexes was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis H-test. The color indexes of active comets can vary a few tenths up to a magnitude on time scales that range from hours to weeks. Using the B-V colors of the observed comets, we generated a relationship that correlates the cometary visual and CCD magnitudes. We did not identify any relationship between B-V and V-R colors with heliocentric distance and phase angle. The color B-V is correlated with the photometric aperture that can be described by a logarithmic function. We did not identify any differences in the distribution of B-V color among the comets analyzed at a confidence level equal to or greater than 95%. The mean color of active comets are B-R = 1.20 ± 0.24 , B-V = 0.76 ± 0.16 and V-R = 0.42 ± 0.16 . Active comets with V-R colors outside the three standard deviation interval can be considered objects with unusual physical characteristics.

  5. 3 micron spectrophotometry of Comet Halley - Evidence for water ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregman, Jesse D.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Witteborn, Fred C.; Rank, David M.; Wooden, Diane

    1988-01-01

    Structure has been observed in the 3-3.6 micron preperihelion spectrum of Comet Halley consistent with either an absorption band near 3.1 microns or emission near 3.3 microns. The results suggest that a large fraction of the water molecules lost by the comet are initially ejected in the form of small ice particles rather than in the gas phase.

  6. Comets, Charisma, and Celebrity: Reflections on Their Deep Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    In celebration of the Deep Impact Mission, this essay explores the influence of comets on the arts and sciences since the beginning of recorded time. Through images, ranging from the sublime to the humorous, it probes the reasons why comets are among the most charismatic visual spectacles in the universe and why, even as scientific missions unmask their mysteries, they remain iconic symbols and harbingers of change.

  7. Constraints on Comet 332P/Ikeya-Murakami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Man-To; Ye, Quan-Zhi; Wiegert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Encke-type comet 332P/Ikeya-Murakami is experiencing cascading fragmentation events during its 2016 apparition. It is likely the first splitting Encke-type comet ever observed. A nongravitational solution to the astrometry reveals a statistical detection of the radial and transverse nongravitational parameters, {A}1=(1.54+/- 0.39)× {10}-8 au day‑2 and {A}2=(7.19+/- 1.92)× {10}-9 au day‑2, respectively, which implies a nucleus erosion rate of (9.1+/- 1.7)‰ per orbital revolution. The mass-loss rate likely has to be supported by a much larger fraction of an active surface area than known cases of short-period comets; it may be relevant to the ongoing fragmentation. We failed to detect any serendipitous pre-discovery observations of the comet in archival data from major sky surveys, whereby we infer that 332P used to be largely inactive, and is perhaps among the few short-period comets that have been reactivated from weakly active or dormant states. We therefore constrain an upper limit to the nucleus size as 2.0 ± 0.2 km in radius. A search for small bodies in similar orbits to that of 332P reveals comet P/2010 B2 (WISE) to be the best candidate. From an empirical generalized Jupiter-family (Encke-type included) comet population model, we estimate the likelihood of a chance alignment of the 332P–P/2010 B2 pair to be 1 in 33, a small number indicative of a genetic linkage between the two comets on a statistical basis. The pair possibly originated from a common progenitor, which underwent a disintegration event well before the twentieth century.

  8. [COMETE: a tool to develop psychosocial competences in patient education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugeron, Benoit; Sonnier, Pierre; Marchais, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a detailed description of the development and use of the COMETE tool. The COMETE tool is designed to help medical teams identify, develop or evaluate psychosocial skills in patient education and counselling. This tool, designed in the form of a briefcase, proposes methodological activities and cards that assess psychosocial skills during a shared educational assessment, group meetings or during an individual evaluation. This tool is part of a support approach for medical teams caring for patients with chronic diseases.

  9. Spacecraft Design Thermal Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Robert N.

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal Control Subsystem engineers task is to maintain the temperature of all spacecraft components, subsystems, and the total flight system within specified limits for all flight modes from launch to end-of-mission. In some cases, specific stability and gradient temperature limits will be imposed on flight system elements. The Thermal Control Subsystem of "normal" flight systems, the mass, power, control, and sensing systems mass and power requirements are below 10% of the total flight system resources. In general the thermal control subsystem engineer is involved in all other flight subsystem designs.

  10. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  12. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  13. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  14. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilova, G.V.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  15. Rocket Detection of Argon in Comet Hale-Bopp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. A.; Festou, M. C.; Parker, J. Wm.; Slater, D. C.; Gladstone, G. R.; A'Hearn, M. F.

    1998-12-01

    The EUVS planetary sounding rocket spectrograph was flown on 30.2 March 1997 (UT) from White Sands, New Mexico to observe comet Hale-Bopp in the bandpass from 830--1120 A. At the time of launch the comet was near perihelion, 0.915 AU from the Sun, 1.340 AU from Earth, and traveling at a heliocentric radial velocity of +0.70 km/s. EUVS obtained its primary spectra of the comet at resolution near 12 A, collecting 9340 counts over approximately 330 seconds of integration time. To our knowledge, the resulting dataset is both the most sensitive and the highest spectral resolution probe of a comet in the UV below 1200 A as yet achieved, and contains signatures of both the 1048.2 A and 1066.7 A Ar I resonance lines. These features represent the first-ever detections of any noble gas in a comet. The spectrum also includes significant detections which we tentatively attribute to due to 834 A 0 II, 972 A Lyman gamma, 989 A O I, the 1026 A H I Lyman beta/O I. We will discuss the Ar features, retrieve the Ar column in the coma, and discuss the implications of the total Ar/O abundance ratio in Hale-Bopp for the comet's origin.

  16. A catalog of observed nuclear magnitudes of Jupiter family comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancredi, G.; Fernández, J. A.; Rickman, H.; Licandro, J.

    2000-10-01

    A catalog of a sample of 105 Jupiter family (JF) comets (defined as those with Tisserand constants T > 2 and orbital periods P International Comet Quarterly Archive of Cometary Photometric Data, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) data base, IAU Circulars, International Comet Quarterly, and a few papers devoted to some particular comets, together with our own observations. Photometric data previous to 1990 have mainly been taken from the Comet Light Curve Catalogue (CLICC) compiled by Kamél (\\cite{kamel}). We discuss the reliability of the reported nuclear magnitudes in relation to the inherent sources of errors and uncertainties, in particular the coma contamination often present even at large heliocentric distances. A large fraction of the JF comets of our sample indeed shows various degrees of activity at large heliocentric distances, which is correlated with recent downward jumps in their perihelion distances. The reliability of coma subtraction methods to compute the nuclear magnitude is also discussed. Most absolute nuclear magnitudes are found in the range 15 - 18, with no magnitudes fainter than H_N ~ 19.5. The catalog can be found at: http://www.fisica.edu.uy/ ~ gonzalo/catalog/. Table 2 and Appendix B are only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Table 5 is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  17. Results from the UMD physical properties of comets survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey M.; A'Hearn, Michael F.; Fernandez, Yanga R.

    2005-01-01

    We report on an ongoing statistical study of the emitted dust and exposed nuclei of a survey of the brightest near-Earth comets over the last 13 years. Combined thermal infrared and optical observations are analyzed using dynamical spectral and morphological coma models [123] to update and improve dust emission rates [4] and nucleus size estimates [5]. Using these results we show that 1) there is more than enough dust emitted from short period comets into bound solar system orbits to create and support the current interplanetary dust cloud (IPD); 2) that a population of dormant or extinct comets in the solar system is quite plausible; and 3) that the lifetime versus sublimation for the short period comets is much longer than their dynamical lifetime. [1] C.M. Lisse et al. (1998) Ap J 496 971. [2] C.M. Lisse et al. (1999) Icarus 140 189. [3] Y.R. Fernandez et al. (2000) Icarus 147 145 [4] L. Kresak and M. Kresakova (1987) in Symposium on Diversity and Similarity of Comets ESA SP-278 739 [5] D.C.Jewitt (1991) in Comets in the Post-Halley Era (R.L. Newburn M. Neugebauer and J. Rahe Eds.) Kluwer Academic Dordecht 19.

  18. The comet assay: ready for 30 more years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Peter

    2018-02-24

    During the last 30 years, the comet assay has become widely used for the measurement of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. A landmark achievement was reached in 2016 when the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development adopted a comet assay guideline for in vivo testing of DNA strand breaks in animals. However, the comet assay has much more to offer than being an assay for testing DNA strand breaks in animal organs. The use of repair enzymes increases the range of DNA lesions that can be detected with the assay. It can also be modified to measure DNA repair activity. Still, despite the long-term use of the assay, there is a need for studies that assess the impact of variation in specific steps of the procedure. This is particularly important for the on-going efforts to decrease the variation between experiments and laboratories. The articles in this Special Issue of Mutagenesis cover important technical issues of the comet assay procedure, nanogenotoxicity and ionising radiation sensitivity on plant cells. The included biomonitoring studies have assessed seasonal variation and certain predictors for the basal level of DNA damage in white blood cells. Lastly, the comet assay has been used in studies on genotoxicity of environmental and occupational exposures in human biomonitoring studies and animal models. Overall, the articles in this Special Issue demonstrate the versatility of the comet assay and they hold promise that the assay is ready for the next 30 years.

  19. Extension of the comet method to 2-D hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, Kevin John; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang

    2011-01-01

    The capability of the heterogeneous coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) method developed at Georgia Tech has been expanded. COMET is now able to treat hexagonal geometry in two dimensions, allowing reactor problems to be solved for those next-generation reactors which utilize prismatic block structure and hexagonal lattice geometry in their designs. The COMET method is used to solve whole core reactor analysis problems without resorting to homogenization or low-order transport approximations. The eigenvalue and fission density distribution of the reactor are determined iteratively using response functions. The method has previously proven accurate in solving PWR, BWR, and CANDU eigenvalue problems. In this paper, three simple test cases inspired by high temperature test reactor material cross sections and fuel block geometry are presented. These cases are given not in an attempt to model realistic nuclear power systems, but in order to test the ability of the improved method. Solutions determined by the new hexagonal version of COMET, COMET-Hex, are compared with solutions determined by MCNP5, and the results show the accuracy and efficiency of the improved COMET-Hex method in calculating the eigenvalue and fuel pin fission density in sample full-core problems. COMETHex determines the eigenvalues of these simple problems to an order of within 50 pcm of the reference solutions and all pin fission densities to an average error of 0.2%, and it requires fewer than three minutes to produce these results. (author)

  20. The "silent world" of Comet 15P/Finlay

    CERN Document Server

    Beech, M; Jones, J

    1999-01-01

    Comet 15P/Finlay is unusual in that, contrary to ab initio expectations, it demonstrates no apparent linkage to any known meteor shower. Using data contained within the Electronic Atlas of Dynamical Evolutions of Short-Period Comets, the authors evaluate theoretical shower radiants for Comet 15P/Finlay, but find no evidence to link it to any meteoric anomalies in recorded antiquity. This result, however, must be tempered by the fact that any Comet 15P/Finlay- derived meteoroids will have a low, 16 km s/sup -1/, encounter velocity with Earth's atmosphere. Typically, therefore, one would expect mostly faint meteors to be produced during an encounter with a Comet 15P/Finlay-derived meteoroid stream. they have conducted a D- criterion survey of meteoroid orbits derived from three southern hemisphere meteor radar surveys conducted during the 1960s, and again they find no evidence for any Comet 15P/Finlay-related activity. Numerical calculations following the orbital evolution of hypothetical meteoroids ejected fro...

  1. Assessment and reduction of comet assay variation in relation to DNA damage: studies from the European Comet Assay Validation Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peter; Möller, Lennart; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2010-01-01

    The alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay has become a widely used method for the detection of DNA damage and repair in cells and tissues. Still, it has been difficult to compare results from different investigators because of differences in assay conditions and because the data...... are reported in different units. The European Comet Assay Validation Group (ECVAG) was established for the purpose of validation of the comet assay with respect to measures of DNA damage formation and its repair. The results from this inter-laboratory validation trail showed a large variation in measured level...... reliability for the measurement of DNA damage by the comet assay but there is still a need for further validation to reduce both assay and inter-laboratory variation....

  2. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Injuries First Aid for Eye Scratches Protective Eyewear Children’s Eye Injuries: Prevention and Care Eye Injuries ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  3. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  4. Ion Composition of Comet 19P/Borrelly as Measured by the PEPE Ion Mass Spectrometer on DS1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, J. E.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Wiens, R. C.; Gary, P.

    2002-12-01

    Cometary compositions are of great interest because they hold important clues to the formation of the outer solar system, and to the sources of volatiles in the solar system, including the terrestrial planets. In order to understand the primordial compositions of cometary nuclei, it is important to also understand their evolution, as many of the comets most accessible to spacecraft are highly evolved. It is also important to understand the ion and neutral chemistry that occurs in the coma surrounding the nucleus if the coma ion composition is to be used to determine the original composition of the nucleus. Deep Space One (DS1) was only the second spacecraft, after Giotto, to use an ion mass-resolving instrument to explore cometary coma compositions in-situ, which it did during the flyby of Comet Borrelly on September 22, 2001. Borrelly is significantly more evolved than Halley. In addition, the encounter occurred at a significantly greater distance from the sun (1.36 AU vs 0.9 AU for Giotto at Halley). The Plasma Experiment for Planetary Exploration (PEPE) on board DS1 was capable of resolving electron and ion energy, angle of incidence, and ion mass composition. The PEPE ion data from the seven minutes surrounding closest approach (2171 km) have been extensively analyzed. The instrument response was modeled using SIMION and TRIM codes for all of the major species through 20 AMU plus CO (at its operating voltage PEPE was very insensitive to heavier molecules). Chi-squared minimization analysis is being carried out to determine the best fit and the uncertainties. Preliminary results for the predominant heavy ions are OH+ at (72 +/- 9)% of the total water-group ion density, H2O+ at (25 +/- 7)%, CH3+ at (5 +/- 3)%, and O+ at (4 +/- 5)%. Uncertainties are quoted at the 90% confidence level. Comparison with reported Halley compositions from Giotto shows that Borrelly clearly has a lower H3O+ abundance (< 9%), consistent with a more evolved comet. The presence of

  5. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuganth Varatharajoo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  6. Perfil do idoso acusado de cometer crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Vieira Brandão

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available É verdade que o idoso, muitas vezes, é vítima de diversas formas de agressões, mas também é agente da prática de delitos. Por meio de pesquisa documental realizada em 2013 com todos os boletins de ocorrência registrados na delegacia de polícia de Imbé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, realizamos análise estatística e evidenciamos o perfil do idoso acusado de cometer crime e os tipos de crimes cometidos. No período pesquisado, 3,28% do total de idosos de Imbé foi acusado de cometer algum tipo de crime. Este artigo recomenda uma ação contínua e integrada da rede de saúde e de segurança pública com as demais áreas sociais para antecipar situações de risco para idosos (e comunidade em geral, de modo a promover a cidadania, gerenciar conflitos e reduzir a violência urbana. It is genuine that the elderly frequently are victims of several kinds of hostility, but the fact remains that he or she, too, is also an agent of the committal of criminal offenses. Through documentary research realized in 2013 with the total occurrences bulletins registered in police stations in Imbé, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, we realize statistical analysis and show the profile of the elderly accused of committing crime and the types of crimes committed. In the period surveyed, 3.28% of the total number of elderly of Imbé was accused of committing some type of crime. Profile of the Elderly Accused of Committing Crime recommends a continuous and integrated action of the health and public safety network with the other social areas to anticipate risk situations for the elderly (and the community in general, in order to promote citizenship, manage conflicts and reduce urban violence. Keywords: violence, seniors, aging, public health, crime

  7. A Study of Learning Curve Impact on Three Identical Small Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangming; McLennan, Douglas D.

    2003-01-01

    With an eye to the future strategic needs of NASA, the New Millennium Program is funding the Space Technology 5 (ST-5) project to address the future needs in the area of small satellites in constellation missions. The ST-5 project, being developed at Goddard Space Flight Center, involves the development and simultaneous launch of three small, 20-kilogram-class spacecraft. ST-5 is only a test drive and future NASA science missions may call for fleets of spacecraft containing tens of smart and capable satellites in an intelligent constellation. The objective of ST-5 project is to develop three such pioneering small spacecraft for flight validation of several critical new technologies. The ST-5 project team at Goddard Space Flight Center has completed the spacecraft design, is now building and testing the three flight units. The launch readiness date (LRD) is in December 2005. A critical part of ST-5 mission is to prove that it is possible to build these small but capable spacecraft with recurring cost low enough to make future NASA s multi- spacecraft constellation missions viable from a cost standpoint.

  8. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  9. Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.

    2013-01-01

    There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.

  10. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupnikov, K.K.; Makletsov, A.A.; Mileev, V.N.; Novikov, L.S.; Sinolits, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language

  11. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Krupnikov, K K; Mileev, V N; Novikov, L S; Sinolits, V V

    1999-01-01

    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language.

  12. Terrestrial cometary tail and lunar corona induced by small comets: Predictions for Galileo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessler, A.J.; Sandel, B.R.; Vasyliunas, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    A search for small comets near 1 AU is an objective of the Galileo mission. If small comets are as numerous and behave as has been proposed, two near-Earth signatures of small comets should be observable by the UVS experiment on the Earth flybys of Galileo; (1) a comet-like tail of Earth created by small comets that come close to Earth, break up and vaporize, but just miss the atmosphere and proceed back into interplanetary space, and (2) a corona surrounding the Moon induced by lunar impact of small comets

  13. Time-dependent injection of Oort Cloud comets into earth-crossing orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Ip, W.H.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau, West Germany)

    1987-01-01

    The present consideration of close stellar encounter-induced modulations of the influx rate of Oort Cloud comets notes that comet showers sufficiently intense for emergence in cratering statistics are produced at 80-Myr intervals, on the assumption of an Oort Cloud heavy comet core. Numerical simulations of the time evolution of comet showers or bursts indicate that a long tail of residual shower comets follows the major event with an intensity of about 0.01 of the peak rate after 20-30 Myr, thereby suggesting that residual comet showers are primarily clustered in certain areas of the sky, rendering them observable at virtually any time. 33 references

  14. Refractory Organics in Comet 69P Churyumov-Gerasimenko: Additional Evidence for Large-scale Mixing in the Primitive Solar Nebula?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, J. A.; Johnson, N. M.; Ferguson, F. T.; Hilchenbach, M.; Merouane, S.; Paquette, J. A.; Stenzel, O.; Cottin, H.; Fray, N.; Bardyn, A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The COSIMA instrument onboard the Rosetta spacecraft collected and analyzed samples of individual particles from the coma of Comet67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Initial results of the analysis of several particles have been presented elsewhere while analyses of the organic component of the dust particles has been shown to compare favor ably to laboratory spectra of IOM extracted from the Orguil and Murchison meteorites. Here we will compare the spectra of the same two particles to laboratory spectra of organic grain coatings produced via Surface Mediated Reactions of CO, H2 and N2 on amorphous iron silicate grains.

  15. Giant comets and mass extinctions of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, W. M.

    2015-03-01

    I find evidence for clustering in age of well-dated impact craters over the last 500 Myr. At least nine impact episodes are identified, with durations whose upper limits are set by the dating accuracy of the craters. Their amplitudes and frequency are inconsistent with an origin in asteroid breakups or Oort cloud disturbances, but are consistent with the arrival and disintegration in near-Earth orbits of rare, giant comets, mainly in transit from the Centaur population into the Jupiter family and Encke regions. About 1 in 10 Centaurs in Chiron-like orbits enter Earth-crossing epochs, usually repeatedly, each such epoch being generally of a few thousand years' duration. On time-scales of geological interest, debris from their breakup may increase the mass of the near-Earth interplanetary environment by two or three orders of magnitude, yielding repeated episodes of bombardment and stratospheric dusting. I find a strong correlation between these bombardment episodes and major biostratigraphic and geological boundaries, and propose that episodes of extinction are most effectively driven by prolonged encounters with meteoroid streams during bombardment episodes. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  16. Comets and the origin of life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delsemme, A H

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and evolution of the universe and of the earth are summarized as a background to the discussion of the origin of life on earth as the result of the transport of the necessary materials to earth by comets. Evidence for the origin of the universe in the Big Bang supplied by observations of the expansion of the universe and the cosmic microwave background is discussed, and the condensation of primordial matter into galaxies and stars and the chemical processes in stars converting primordial hydrogen and helium into heavy elements as the stars evolve giving rise to an interstellar medium are considered. Attention is then given to the birth of the solar system from the contraction of a dark interstellar cloud containing gas, dust and interstellar molecules, and in particular to the origin of the terrestrial planets and the cometary contributions to the terrestrial crust, oceans and atmosphere. Finally, the chronology of the universe from the Big Bang to the present and that of the earth from its formation to the present are reviewed.

  17. Optimal Autonomous Spacecraft Resiliency Maneuvers Using Metaheuristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-15

    This work was accepted for published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets in July 2014...publication in the AIAA Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets . Chapter 5 introduces an impulsive maneuvering strategy to deliver a spacecraft to its final...upon arrival r2 and v2 , respectively. The variable T2 determines the time of flight needed to make the maneuver, and the variable θ2 determines the

  18. Infrared Spectroscopy of Parent Volatiles in Comets: Implications for Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSanti, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Current cometary orbits provide information on their recent dynamical history. However, determining a given comet's formation region from its current dynamical state alone is complicated by radial migration in the proto-planetary disk and by dynamical interactions with the growing giant planets. Because comets reside for long periods of time in the outer Solar System, the ices contained in their nuclei (native ices) retain a relatively well-preserved footprint of when and where they formed, and this in turn can provide clues to conditions in the formation epoch. As a comet approaches the Sun, sublimation of its native ices releases parent volatiles into the coma where they can be measured spectroscopically. The past to - 15 years have seen the advent of infrared spectrometers with high sensitivity between about 2.8 and 5.0 micron, enabling a taxonomy among comets based on abundances of parent volatiles (e.g., H2O, CO, CH4, C2H6, HCN, CH30H, H2CO, NH3). Such molecules are of keen interest to Astrobiology, as they include important pre-biotic species that likely were required for the emergence of life on Earth and perhaps elsewhere. Approximately 20 comets have thus far been characterized, beginning with C/1996 82 (Hyakutake) in 1996. Molecular production rates are established through comparison of observed emission line intensities with those predicted by quantum mechanical fluorescence models. Abundances of parent volatiles (relative to H2O) vary among even the relatively small number of comets sampled, with the most volatile species (CO and CH4) displaying the largest variations. Techniques developed for measuring parent volatile abundances in comets will be discussed, as will possible implications for their formation.

  19. Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, P. A.; Snowden, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    The baseline Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system (SCMS) concepts and the converted SCMS, residing on a DEC/VAX 8350 hardware, are considered. The main functions of the system include monitoring and displaying spacecraft telemetry, preparing spacecraft commands, producing hard copies of experimental data, and archiving spacecraft telemetry. The SCMS system comprises over 20 subsystems ranging from low-level utility routines to the major monitoring and control software. These in total consist of approximately 55,000 lines of FORTRAN source code and 100 VMS command files. The SCMS major software facilities are described, including database files, telemetry processing, telecommanding, archiving of data, and display of telemetry.

  20. Operationally Responsive Spacecraft Subsystem, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saber Astronautics proposes spacecraft subsystem control software which can autonomously reconfigure avionics for best performance during various mission conditions....

  1. Solar-insolation-induced changes in the coma morphology of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Optical monitoring with the Nordic Optical Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaprudin, B.; Lehto, H. J.; Nilsson, K.; Somero, A.; Pursimo, T.; Snodgrass, C.; Schulz, R.

    2017-07-01

    Context. 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) is a short-period Jupiter family comet with an orbital period of 6.55 yr. Being the target comet of ESA's Rosetta mission, 67P/C-G has become one of the most intensively studied minor bodies of the solar system. The Rosetta Orbiter and the Philae Lander have brought us unique information about the structure and activity of the comet nucleus, as well as its activity along the orbit, composition of gas, and dust particles emitted into the coma. However, as Rosetta stayed in very close proximity to the cometary nucleus (less than 500 km with a few short excursions reaching up to 1500 km), it could not see the global picture of a coma at the scales reachable by telescopic observations (103 - 105 km). Aims: In this work we aim to connect in-situ observations made by Rosetta with the morphological evolution of the coma structures monitored by the ground-based observations. In particular, we concentrate on causal relationships between the coma morphology and evolution observed with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) in the Canary Islands, and the seasonal changes of the insolation and the activity of the comet observed by the Rosetta instruments. Methods: Comet 67P/C-G was monitored with the NOT in imaging mode in two colors. Imaging optical observations were performed roughly on a weekly basis, which provides good coverage of short- and long-term variability. With the three dimensional modeling of the coma produced by active regions on the southern hemisphere, we aim to qualify the observed morphology by connecting it to the activity observed by Rosetta. Results: During our monitoring program, we detected major changes in the coma morphology of comet 67P/C-G. These were long-term and long-lasting changes. They do not represent any sudden outburst or short transient event, but are connected to seasonal changes of the surface insolation and the emergence of new active regions on the irregular shaped comet nucleus. We have also

  2. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  3. EyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Hornof, Anthony J.; Sato, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Though musical performers routinely use eye movements to communicate with each other during musical performances, very few performers or composers have used eye tracking devices to direct musical compositions and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions. The eye movements can directly control the music, or the music can respond to the eyes moving around a visual scene. EyeMusic is implemented so that any composer using established...

  4. The use of comet assay in plant toxicology: recent advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição LV Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The systematic study of genotoxicity in plants induced by contaminants and other stress agents has been hindered to date by the lack of reliable and robust biomarkers. The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damages and DNA repair capacity at single-cell level. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, and the small number of cells required to obtain robust results, the use of plant comet assay has drastically increased in the last decade. For years its use was restricted to a few model species, e.g. Allium cepa, Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba, or Arabidopsis thaliana but this number largely increased in the last years. Plant comet assay has been used to study the genotoxic impact of radiation, chemicals including pesticides, phytocompounds, heavy metals, nanoparticles or contaminated complex matrices. Here we will review the most recent data on the use of this technique as a standard approach for studying the genotoxic effects of different stress conditions on plants. Also, we will discuss the integration of information provided by the comet assay with other DNA-damage indicators, and with cellular responses including oxidative stress, cell division or cell death. Finally, we will focus on putative relations between transcripts related with DNA damage pathways, DNA replication and repair, oxidative stress and cell cycle progression that have been identified in plant cells with comet assays demonstrating DNA damage.

  5. The use of comet assay in plant toxicology: recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Conceição L. V.; Pourrut, Bertrand; Ferreira de Oliveira, José M. P.

    2015-01-01

    The systematic study of genotoxicity in plants induced by contaminants and other stress agents has been hindered to date by the lack of reliable and robust biomarkers. The comet assay is a versatile and sensitive method for the evaluation of DNA damages and DNA repair capacity at single-cell level. Due to its simplicity and sensitivity, and the small number of cells required to obtain robust results, the use of plant comet assay has drastically increased in the last decade. For years its use was restricted to a few model species, e.g., Allium cepa, Nicotiana tabacum, Vicia faba, or Arabidopsis thaliana but this number largely increased in the last years. Plant comet assay has been used to study the genotoxic impact of radiation, chemicals including pesticides, phytocompounds, heavy metals, nanoparticles or contaminated complex matrices. Here we will review the most recent data on the use of this technique as a standard approach for studying the genotoxic effects of different stress conditions on plants. Also, we will discuss the integration of information provided by the comet assay with other DNA-damage indicators, and with cellular responses including oxidative stress, cell division or cell death. Finally, we will focus on putative relations between transcripts related with DNA damage pathways, DNA replication and repair, oxidative stress and cell cycle progression that have been identified in plant cells with comet assays demonstrating DNA damage. PMID:26175750

  6. Isotopic ratios in outbursting comet C/2015 ER61

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Hutsemékers, Damien; Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Opitom, Cyrielle; Manfroid, Jean; Jehin, Emmanuël; Meech, Karen J.; Hainaut, Olivier R.; Keane, Jacqueline V.; Gillon, Michaël

    2018-02-01

    Isotopic ratios in comets are critical to understanding the origin of cometary material and the physical and chemical conditions in the early solar nebula. Comet C/2015 ER61 (PANSTARRS) underwent an outburst with a total brightness increase of 2 magnitudes on the night of 2017 April 4. The sharp increase in brightness offered a rare opportunity to measure the isotopic ratios of the light elements in the coma of this comet. We obtained two high-resolution spectra of C/2015 ER61 with UVES/VLT on the nights of 2017 April 13 and 17. At the time of our observations, the comet was fading gradually following the outburst. We measured the nitrogen and carbon isotopic ratios from the CN violet (0, 0) band and found that 12C/13C = 100 ± 15, 14N/15N = 130 ± 15. In addition, we determined the 14N/15N ratio from four pairs of NH2 isotopolog lines and measured 14N/15N = 140 ± 28. The measured isotopic ratios of C/2015 ER61 do not deviate significantly from those of other comets.

  7. Detection of irradiation treatment of foods using DNA 'comet assay'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Hasan M.; Delincee, Henry

    1998-01-01

    Microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA comet assay) has been investigated to detect irradiation treatment of some food samples. These samples of fresh and frozen rainbow trout, red lentil, gram and sliced almonds were irradiated to 1 or 2 kGy using 10 MeV electron beam from a linear accelerator. Rainbow trout samples yielded good results with samples irradiated to 1 or 2 kGy showing fragmentation of DNA and, therefore, longer comets with no intact cells. Unirradiated samples showed shorter comets with a significant number of intact cells. For rainbow trout stored in a freezer for 11 days the irradiated samples can still be discerned by electrophoresis from unirradiated samples, however, the unirradiated trouts also showed some longer comets besides some intact cells. Radiation treatment of red lentils can also be detected by this method, i.e. no intact cells in 1 or 2 kGy irradiated samples and shorter comets and some intact cells in unirradiated samples. However, the results for gram and sliced almond samples were not satisfactory since some intact DNA cells were observed in irradiated samples as well. Probably, incomplete lysis has led to these deviating results

  8. Catastrophic disruptions as the origin of bilobate comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen R.; Michel, Patrick; Jutzi, Martin; Marchi, Simone; Zhang, Yun; Richardson, Derek C.

    2018-05-01

    Several comets observed at close range have bilobate shapes1, including comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G), which was imaged by the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission2,3. Bilobate comets are thought to be primordial because they are rich in supervolatiles (for example, N2 and CO) and have a low bulk density, which implies that their formation requires a very low-speed accretion of two bodies. However, slow accretion does not only occur during the primordial phase of the Solar System; it can also occur at later epochs as part of the reaccumulation process resulting from the collisional disruption of a larger body4, so this cannot directly constrain the age of bilobate comets. Here, we show by numerical simulation that 67P/C-G and other elongated or bilobate comets can be formed in the wake of catastrophic collisional disruptions of larger bodies while maintaining their volatiles and low density throughout the process. Since this process can occur at any epoch of our Solar System's history, from early on through to the present day5, there is no need for these objects to be formed primordially. These findings indicate that observed prominent geological features, such as pits and stratified surface layers4,5, may not be primordial.

  9. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...

  10. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  11. LASIK eye surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... cornea (curvature) and the length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  13. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ...

  15. WATER PRODUCTION IN COMETS 2001 Q4 (NEAT) AND 2002 T7 (LINEAR) DETERMINED FROM SOHO/SWAN OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M. R.; Lee, Y.; Maekinen, J. T. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quemerais, E.

    2009-01-01

    The SWAN all-sky camera on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft detected the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (Lyα) comae of comets 2001 Q4 NEAT and 2002 T7 LINEAR for large portions of their perihelion apparitions in 2003 and 2004. C/2001 Q4 NEAT was observed from 2003 September 14 through 2004 November 2, covering heliocentric distances from 3.23 AU before perihelion to 2.75 AU after, and C/2002 T7 LINEAR was observed from 2003 December 4 through 2004 August 6, covering heliocentric distances from 2.52 AU before perihelion to 2.09 AU after. We combined the full set of comet specific and full-sky observations and used our time-resolved model (TRM), which enables us to extract continuous values of the daily-average value of the water production rate throughout most of this entire period. The average power-law fit to the production rate variation of C/2001 Q4 NEAT with heliocentric distance, r, gives 3.5 x 10 29 r -1.7 and that for C/2002 T7 LINEAR gives 4.6 x 10 29 r -2.0 . Both comets show roughly a factor of 2 asymmetry in activity about perihelion, being more active before perihelion. C/2001 Q4 NEAT showed a production rate outburst about 30 days before perihelion (2004 April 15) and then a large extended increase above the nominal trend from 50 to 70 days after perihelion (2004 July 5-July 25).

  16. TTEthernet for Integrated Spacecraft Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveless, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Aerospace projects have traditionally employed federated avionics architectures, in which each computer system is designed to perform one specific function (e.g. navigation). There are obvious downsides to this approach, including excessive weight (from so much computing hardware), and inefficient processor utilization (since modern processors are capable of performing multiple tasks). There has therefore been a push for integrated modular avionics (IMA), in which common computing platforms can be leveraged for different purposes. This consolidation of multiple vehicle functions to shared computing platforms can significantly reduce spacecraft cost, weight, and design complexity. However, the application of IMA principles introduces significant challenges, as the data network must accommodate traffic of mixed criticality and performance levels - potentially all related to the same shared computer hardware. Because individual network technologies are rarely so competent, the development of truly integrated network architectures often proves unreasonable. Several different types of networks are utilized - each suited to support a specific vehicle function. Critical functions are typically driven by precise timing loops, requiring networks with strict guarantees regarding message latency (i.e. determinism) and fault-tolerance. Alternatively, non-critical systems generally employ data networks prioritizing flexibility and high performance over reliable operation. Switched Ethernet has seen widespread success filling this role in terrestrial applications. Its high speed, flexibility, and the availability of inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components make it desirable for inclusion in spacecraft platforms. Basic Ethernet configurations have been incorporated into several preexisting aerospace projects, including both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). However, classical switched Ethernet cannot provide the high level of network

  17. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  18. Learned modesty and the first lady's comet: a commentary on Caroline Herschel (1787) 'An account of a new comet'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterburn, Emily

    2015-04-13

    Long before women were allowed to become Fellows of the Royal Society, or obtain university degrees, one woman managed to get her voice heard, her discovery verified and her achievement celebrated. That woman was Caroline Herschel, who, as this paper will discuss, managed to find ways to fit comet discoveries into her domestic life, and present them in ways that were socially acceptable. Caroline lived in a time when strict rules dictated how women (and men) should behave and present themselves and their work. Caroline understood these rules, and used them carefully as she announced each discovery, starting with this comet which she found in 1786. Caroline discovered her comets at a time when astronomers were mainly concerned with position, identifying where things were and how they were moving. Since her discoveries, research has moved on, as astronomers, using techniques from other fields, and most recently sending experiments into space, have learned more about what comets are and what they can tell us about our solar system. Caroline's paper marks one small, early step in this much bigger journey to understand comets. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  19. Plasma Waves Associated with Mass-Loaded Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Plasma waves and instabilities are integrally involved with the plasma "pickup" process and the mass loading of the solar wind (thus the formation of ion tails and the magnetic tails). Anisotropic plasmas generated by solar wind-comet interactions (the bow shock, magnetic field pileup) cause the generation of plasma waves which in turn "smooth out" these discontinuities. The plasma waves evolve and form plasma turbulence. Comets are perhaps the best "laboratories" to study waves and turbulence because over time (and distance) one can identify the waves and their evolution. We will argue that comets in some ways are better laboratories than magnetospheres, interplanetary space and fusion devices to study nonlinear waves and their evolution.

  20. Direct imaging and spectrophotometry of Comet P/Tempel 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehnhardt, H.; Beisser, K.; Vanysek, V.; Mueller, B.E.A.; Weiss, M.

    1990-01-01

    Both direct imaging and spectrophotometry of Comet P/Tempel 2 during May-November 1988 have led to a nuclear diameter determination of the order of about 10 km. Sekanina's (1987) spin-vector model for this comet is judged capable of qualitatively accounting for both the visual light curve of the comet during this period, which exhibited a steep increase perihelion despite the normal, moderate-decrease perihelion, and an asymmetric extension of the fanlike coma in the solar direction. The late activity onset, the possible constant visual brightness immediately afterward, and the deviation of the fan axis orientation from the predicted value in May 1988, may all furnish additional constraints for P/Tempel 2 nucleus modeling. 24 refs