Sample records for spacecraft applications final

  1. Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS) Applications Study. Volume II. Nuclear Integrated Multimission Spacecraft (NIMS) design definition. Final report


    The design requirements for the Nuclear Integrated Multimission Spacecraft. (NIMS) are discussed in detail. The requirements are a function of mission specifications, payload, control system requirements, electric system specifications, and cost limitations

  2. Spacecraft fabrication and test MODIL. Final report

    Saito, T.T.


    This report covers the period from October 1992 through the close of the project. FY 92 closed out with the successful briefing to industry and with many potential and important initiatives in the spacecraft arena. Due to the funding uncertainties, we were directed to proceed as if our funding would be approximately the same as FY 92 ($2M), but not to make any major new commitments. However, the MODIL`s FY 93 funding was reduced to $810K and we were directed to concentrate on the cryocooler area. The cryocooler effort completed its demonstration project. The final meetings with the cryocooler fabricators were very encouraging as we witnessed the enthusiastic reception of technology to help them reduce fabrication uncertainties. Support of the USAF Phillips Laboratory cryocooler program was continued including kick-off meetings for the Prototype Spacecraft Cryocooler (PSC). Under Phillips Laboratory support, Gill Cruz visited British Aerospace and Lucas Aerospace in the United Kingdom to assess their manufacturing capabilities. In the Automated Spacecraft & Assembly Project (ASAP), contracts were pursued for the analysis by four Brilliant Eyes prime contractors to provide a proprietary snap shot of their current status of Integrated Product Development. In the materials and structure thrust the final analysis was completed of the samples made under the contract (``Partial Automation of Matched Metal Net Shape Molding of Continuous Fiber Composites``) to SPARTA. The Precision Technologies thrust funded the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to prepare a plan to develop a Computer Aided Alignment capability to significantly reduce the time for alignment and even possibly provide real time and remote alignment capability of systems in flight.

  3. FORTE spacecraft vibration mitigation. Final report

    Maly, J.R.


    This report documents work that was performed by CSA Engineering, Inc., for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), to reduce vibrations of the FORTE spacecraft by retrofitting damped structural components into the spacecraft structure. The technical objective of the work was reduction of response at the location of payload components when the structure is subjected to the dynamic loading associated with launch and proto-qualification testing. FORTE is a small satellite that will be placed in orbit in 1996. The structure weighs approximately 425 lb, and is roughly 80 inches high and 40 inches in diameter. It was developed and built by LANL in conjunction with Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque for the United States Department of Energy. The FORTE primary structure was fabricated primarily with graphite epoxy, using aluminum honeycomb core material for equipment decks and solar panel substrates. Equipment decks were bonded and bolted through aluminum mounting blocks to adjoining structure

  4. Additive Manufacturing: Ensuring Quality for Spacecraft Applications

    Swanson, Theodore; Stephenson, Timothy


    Reliable manufacturing requires that material properties and fabrication processes be well defined in order to insure that the manufactured parts meet specified requirements. While this issue is now relatively straightforward for traditional processes such as subtractive manufacturing and injection molding, this capability is still evolving for AM products. Hence, one of the principal challenges within AM is in qualifying and verifying source material properties and process control. This issue is particularly critical for applications in harsh environments and demanding applications, such as spacecraft.

  5. Redundancy for electric motors in spacecraft applications

    Smith, Robert J.; Flew, Alastair R.


    The parts of electric motors which should be duplicated in order to provide maximum reliability in spacecraft application are identified. Various common types of redundancy are described. The advantages and disadvantages of each are noted. The principal types are illustrated by reference to specific examples. For each example, constructional details, basic performance data and failure modes are described, together with a discussion of the suitability of particular redundancy techniques to motor types.

  6. Rechargeable metal hydrides for spacecraft application

    Perry, J. L.


    Storing hydrogen on board the Space Station presents both safety and logistics problems. Conventional storage using pressurized bottles requires large masses, pressures, and volumes to handle the hydrogen to be used in experiments in the U.S. Laboratory Module and residual hydrogen generated by the ECLSS. Rechargeable metal hydrides may be competitive with conventional storage techniques. The basic theory of hydride behavior is presented and the engineering properties of LaNi5 are discussed to gain a clear understanding of the potential of metal hydrides for handling spacecraft hydrogen resources. Applications to Space Station and the safety of metal hydrides are presented and compared to conventional hydride storage. This comparison indicates that metal hydrides may be safer and require lower pressures, less volume, and less mass to store an equivalent mass of hydrogen.

  7. Final results of the Resonance spacecraft calibration effort

    Sampl, Manfred; Macher, Wolfgang; Gruber, Christian; Oswald, Thomas; Rucker, Helmut O.


    We report our dedicated analyses of electrical field sensors onboard the Resonance spacecraft with a focus on the high-frequency electric antennas. The aim of the Resonance mission is to investigate wave-particle interactions and plasma dynamics in the inner magnetosphere of the Earth, with a focus on phenomena occurring along the same field line and within the same flux tube of the Earth's magnetic field. Four spacecraft will be launched, in the middle of the next decade, to perform these observations and measurements. Amongst a variety of instruments and probes several low- and high-frequency electric sensors will be carried which can be used for simultaneous remote sensing and in-situ measurements. The high-frequency electric sensors consist of cylindrical antennas mounted on four booms extruded from the central body of the spacecraft. In addition, the boom rods themselves are used together with the these sensors for mutual impedance measurements. Due to the parasitic effects of the conducting spacecraft body the electrical antenna representations (effective length vector, capacitances) do not coincide with their physical representations. The analysis of the reception properties of these antennas is presented, along with a contribution to the understanding of their impairment by other objects; in particular the influence of large magnetic loop sensors is studied. In order to analyse the antenna system, we applied experimental and numerical methods. The experimental method, called rheometry, is essentially an electrolytic tank measurement, where a scaled-down spacecraft model is immersed into an electrolytic medium (water) with corresponding measurements of voltages at the antennas. The numerical method consists of a numerical solution of the underlying field equations by means of computer programs, which are based on wire-grid and patch-grid models. The experimental and numerical results show that parasitic effects of the antenna-spacecraft assembly alter the

  8. Applicability of ISO 16697 Data to Spacecraft Fire Fighting Strategies

    Hirsch, David B.; Beeson, Harold D.


    Presentation Agenda: (1) Selected variables affecting oxygen consumption during spacecraft fires, (2) General overview of ISO 16697, (3) Estimated amounts of material consumed during combustion in typical ISS enclosures, (4) Discussion on potential applications.

  9. A Fault-tolerant RISC Microprocessor for Spacecraft Applications

    Timoc, Constantin; Benz, Harry


    Viewgraphs on a fault-tolerant RISC microprocessor for spacecraft applications are presented. Topics covered include: reduced instruction set computer; fault tolerant registers; fault tolerant ALU; and double rail CMOS logic.

  10. Standardization and Economics of Nuclear Spacecraft, Final Report, Phase I, Sense Study


    Feasibility and cost benefits of nuclear-powered standardized spacecraft are investigated. The study indicates that two shuttle-launched nuclear-powered spacecraft should be able to serve the majority of unmanned NASA missions anticipated for the 1980's. The standard spacecraft include structure, thermal control, power, attitude control, some propulsion capability and tracking, telemetry, and command subsystems. One spacecraft design, powered by the radioisotope thermoelectric generator, can serve missions requiring up to 450 watts. The other spacecraft design, powered by similar nuclear heat sources in a Brayton-cycle generator, can serve missions requiring up to 21000 watts. Design concepts and trade-offs are discussed. The conceptual designs selected are presented and successfully tested against a variety of missions. The thermal design is such that both spacecraft are capable of operating in any earth orbit and any orientation without modification. Three-axis stabilization is included. Several spacecraft can be stacked in the shuttle payload compartment for multi-mission launches. A reactor-powered thermoelectric generator system, operating at an electric power level of 5000 watts, is briefly studied for applicability to two test missions of divers requirements. A cost analysis indicates that use of the two standardized spacecraft offers sizable savings in comparison with specially designed solar-powered spacecraft. There is a duplicate copy.

  11. Heat pipe applications for future Air Force spacecraft

    Mahefkey, T.; Barthelemy, R.R.


    This paper summarizes the envisioned, future usage of high and low temperature heat pipes in advanced Air Force spacecraft. Thermal control requirements for a variety of communications, surveillance, and space defense missions are forecast. Thermal design constraints implied by survivability to potential weapons effects are outlined. Applications of heat pipes to meet potential low and high power spacecraft mission requirements and envisioned design constraints are suggested. A brief summary of past Air Force sponsored heat pipe development efforts is presented and directions for future development outlined, including those applicable to advanced photovoltaic and nuclear power subsystem applications of heat pipes

  12. LDEF materials results for spacecraft applications: Executive summary

    Whitaker, A. F.; Dooling, D.


    To address the challenges of space environmental effects, NASA designed the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for an 18-month mission to expose thousands of samples of candidate materials that might be used on a space station or other orbital spacecraft. LDEF was launched in April 1984 and was to have been returned to Earth in 1985. Changes in mission schedules postponed retrieval until January 1990, after 69 months in orbit. Analyses of the samples recovered from LDEF have provided spacecraft designers and managers with the most extensive data base on space materials phenomena. Many LDEF samples were greatly changed by extended space exposure. Among even the most radially altered samples, NASA and its science teams are finding a wealth of surprising conclusions and tantalizing clues about the effects of space on materials. Many were discussed at the first two LDEF results conferences and subsequent professional papers. The LDEF Materials Results for Spacecraft Applications Conference was convened in Huntsville to discuss implications for spacecraft design. Already, paint and thermal blanket selections for space station and other spacecraft have been affected by LDEF data. This volume synopsizes those results.

  13. Application of Modern Fortran to Spacecraft Trajectory Design and Optimization

    Williams, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Beekman, Izaak B.


    In this paper, applications of the modern Fortran programming language to the field of spacecraft trajectory optimization and design are examined. Modern object-oriented Fortran has many advantages for scientific programming, although many legacy Fortran aerospace codes have not been upgraded to use the newer standards (or have been rewritten in other languages perceived to be more modern). NASA's Copernicus spacecraft trajectory optimization program, originally a combination of Fortran 77 and Fortran 95, has attempted to keep up with modern standards and makes significant use of the new language features. Various algorithms and methods are presented from trajectory tools such as Copernicus, as well as modern Fortran open source libraries and other projects.

  14. Materials and processes for spacecraft and high reliability applications

    D Dunn, Barrie


    The objective of this book is to assist scientists and engineers select the ideal material or manufacturing process for particular applications; these could cover a wide range of fields, from light-weight structures to electronic hardware. The book will help in problem solving as it also presents more than 100 case studies and failure investigations from the space sector that can, by analogy, be applied to other industries. Difficult-to-find material data is included for reference. The sciences of metallic (primarily) and organic materials presented throughout the book demonstrate how they can be applied as an integral part of spacecraft product assurance schemes, which involve quality, material and processes evaluations, and the selection of mechanical and component parts. In this successor edition, which has been revised and updated, engineering problems associated with critical spacecraft hardware and the space environment are highlighted by over 500 illustrations including micrographs and fractographs. Sp...

  15. Embedded Thermal Control for Subsystems for Next Generation Spacecraft Applications

    Didion, Jeffrey R.


    Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, Silver Spring MD NCTS 21070-15. NASA, the Defense Department and commercial interests are actively engaged in developing miniaturized spacecraft systems and scientific instruments to leverage smaller cheaper spacecraft form factors such as CubeSats. This paper outlines research and development efforts among Goddard Space Flight Center personnel and its several partners to develop innovative embedded thermal control subsystems. Embedded thermal control subsystems is a cross cutting enabling technology integrating advanced manufacturing techniques to develop multifunctional intelligent structures to reduce Size, Weight and Power (SWaP) consumption of both the thermal control subsystem and overall spacecraft. Embedded thermal control subsystems permit heat acquisition and rejection at higher temperatures than state of the art systems by employing both advanced heat transfer equipment (integrated heat exchangers) and high heat transfer phenomena. The Goddard Space Flight Center Thermal Engineering Branch has active investigations seeking to characterize advanced thermal control systems for near term spacecraft missions. The embedded thermal control subsystem development effort consists of fundamental research as well as development of breadboard and prototype hardware and spaceflight validation efforts. This paper will outline relevant fundamental investigations of micro-scale heat transfer and electrically driven liquid film boiling. The hardware development efforts focus upon silicon based high heat flux applications (electronic chips, power electronics etc.) and multifunctional structures. Flight validation efforts include variable gravity campaigns and a proposed CubeSat based flight demonstration of a breadboard embedded thermal control system. The CubeSat investigation is technology demonstration will characterize in long-term low earth orbit a breadboard embedded thermal subsystem and its individual components to develop

  16. Application of Space Environmental Observations to Spacecraft Pre-Launch Engineering and Spacecraft Operations

    Barth, Janet L.; Xapsos, Michael


    This presentation focuses on the effects of the space environment on spacecraft systems and applying this knowledge to spacecraft pre-launch engineering and operations. Particle radiation, neutral gas particles, ultraviolet and x-rays, as well as micrometeoroids and orbital debris in the space environment have various effects on spacecraft systems, including degradation of microelectronic and optical components, physical damage, orbital decay, biasing of instrument readings, and system shutdowns. Space climate and weather must be considered during the mission life cycle (mission concept, mission planning, systems design, and launch and operations) to minimize and manage risk to both the spacecraft and its systems. A space environment model for use in the mission life cycle is presented.

  17. Application of advanced electronics to a future spacecraft computer design

    Carney, P. C.


    Advancements in hardware and software technology are summarized with specific emphasis on spacecraft computer capabilities. Available state of the art technology is reviewed and candidate architectures are defined.

  18. Studies on black anodic coatings for spacecraft thermal control applications

    Uma Rani, R.; Subba Rao, Y.; Sharma, A.K. [ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India). Thermal Systems Group


    An inorganic black colouring process using nickel sulphate and sodium sulphide was investigated on anodized aluminium alloy 6061 to provide a flat absorber black coating for spacecraft thermal control applications. Influence of colouring process parameters (concentration, pH) on the physico-optical properties of black anodic film was investigated. The nature of black anodic film was evaluated by the measurement of film thickness, micro hardness and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies confirmed the presence of nickel and sulphur in the black anodic coating. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The environmental tests, namely, humidity, corrosion resistance, thermal cycling and thermo vacuum performance tests were used to evaluate the space worthiness of the coating. Optical properties of the film were measured before and after each environmental test to ascertain its stability in harsh space environment. The black anodic films provide higher thermal emittance ({proportional_to} 0.90) and solar absorptance ({proportional_to} 0.96) and their high stability during the environmental tests indicated their suitability for space and allied applications. (orig.)

  19. Cooper-Harper Experience Report for Spacecraft Handling Qualities Applications

    Bailey, Randall E.; Jackson, E. Bruce; Bilimoria, Karl D.; Mueller, Eric R.; Frost, Chad R.; Alderete, Thomas S.


    A synopsis of experience from the fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft communities in handling qualities development and the use of the Cooper-Harper pilot rating scale is presented as background for spacecraft handling qualities research, development, test, and evaluation (RDT&E). In addition, handling qualities experiences and lessons-learned from previous United States (US) spacecraft developments are reviewed. This report is intended to provide a central location for references, best practices, and lessons-learned to guide current and future spacecraft handling qualities RDT&E.

  20. Passive Wireless Sensors for Spacecraft Applications, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New classes of sensors are needed on spacecraft that can be interrogated remotely using RF signals and respond with the sensor's identity as well as the...

  1. Application of partial differential equation modeling of the control/structural dynamics of flexible spacecraft

    Taylor, Lawrence W., Jr.; Rajiyah, H.


    Partial differential equations for modeling the structural dynamics and control systems of flexible spacecraft are applied here in order to facilitate systems analysis and optimization of these spacecraft. Example applications are given, including the structural dynamics of SCOLE, the Solar Array Flight Experiment, the Mini-MAST truss, and the LACE satellite. The development of related software is briefly addressed.

  2. Stabilization of rotational motion with application to spacecraft attitude control

    Wisniewski, Rafal


    for global stabilization of a rotary motion. Along with a model of the system formulated in the Hamilton's canonical from the algorithm uses information about a required potential energy and a dissipation term. The control action is the sum of the gradient of the potential energy and the dissipation force......The objective of this paper is to develop a control scheme for stabilization of a hamiltonian system. The method generalizes the results available in the literature on motion control in the Euclidean space to an arbitrary differrential manifol equipped with a metric. This modification is essencial...... on a Riemannian manifold. The Lyapnov stability theory is adapted and reformulated to fit to the new framework of Riemannian manifolds. Toillustrate the results a spacecraft attitude control problem is considered. Firstly, a global canonical representation for the spacecraft motion is found, then three spacecraft...

  3. Stabilization of rotational motion with application to spacecraft attitude control

    Wisniewski, Rafal


    for global stabilization of a rotary motion. Along with a model of the system formulated in the Hamilton's canonical from the algorithm uses information about a required potential energy and a dissipation term. The control action is the sum of the gradient of the potential energy and the dissipation force......The objective of this paper is to develop a control scheme for stabilization of a hamiltonian system. The method generalizes the results available in the literature on motion control in the Euclidean space to an arbitrary differrential manifol equipped with a metric. This modification is essencial...... on a Riemannian manifold. The Lyapnov stability theory is adapted and reformulated to fit to the new framework of Riemannian manifolds. Toillustrate the results a spacecraft attitude control problem is considered. Firstly, a global canonical representation for the spacecraft motion is found, then three spacecraft...

  4. Application of square-root filtering for spacecraft attitude control

    Sorensen, J. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Goka, T.


    Suitable digital algorithms are developed and tested for providing on-board precision attitude estimation and pointing control for potential use in the Landsat-D spacecraft. These algorithms provide pointing accuracy of better than 0.01 deg. To obtain necessary precision with efficient software, a six state-variable square-root Kalman filter combines two star tracker measurements to update attitude estimates obtained from processing three gyro outputs. The validity of the estimation and control algorithms are established, and the sensitivity of their performance to various error sources and software parameters are investigated by detailed digital simulation. Spacecraft computer memory, cycle time, and accuracy requirements are estimated.

  5. Space tug applications. Final report


    This article is the final report of the conceptual design efforts for a 'space tug'. It includes preliminary efforts, mission analysis, configuration analysis, impact analysis, and conclusions. Of the several concepts evaluated, the nuclear bimodal tug was one of the top candidates, with the two options being the NEBA-1 and NEBA-3 systems. Several potential tug benefits were identified during the mission analysis. The tug enables delivery of large (>3,500 kg) payloads to the outer planets and it increases the GSO delivery capability by 20% relative to current systems. By providing end of life disposal, the tug can be used to extend the life of existing space assets. It can also be used to reboost satellites which were not delivered to their final orbit by the launch system. A specific mission model is the key to validating the tug concept. Once a mission model can be established, mission analysis can be used to determine more precise propellant quantities and burn times. In addition, the specific payloads can be evaluated for mass and volume capability with the launch systems. Results of the economic analysis will be dependent on the total years of operations and the number of missions in the mission model. The mission applications evaluated during this phase drove the need for large propellant quantities and thus did not allow the payloads to step down to smaller and less expensive launch systems

  6. Application of software technology to a future spacecraft computer design

    Labaugh, R. J.


    A study was conducted to determine how major improvements in spacecraft computer systems can be obtained from recent advances in hardware and software technology. Investigations into integrated circuit technology indicated that the CMOS/SOS chip set being developed for the Air Force Avionics Laboratory at Wright Patterson had the best potential for improving the performance of spaceborne computer systems. An integral part of the chip set is the bit slice arithmetic and logic unit. The flexibility allowed by microprogramming, combined with the software investigations, led to the specification of a baseline architecture and instruction set.

  7. Radioisotope AMTEC power system designs for spacecraft applications

    Ivanenok, J.F. III; Sievers, R.K.; Hunt, T.K.; Johnson, G.A.


    The Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Converter (AMTEC) system is an exceptional candidate for high performance spacecraft power systems including small systems powered by General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS). The AMTEC converter is best described as a thermally regenerative electrochemical concentration cell. AMTEC is a static energy conversion device and can operate at efficiencies between 15% and 30%. The single tube, remote condensed, wick return minicell design has been incorporated into a radioisotope powered system model. Reported cell efficiencies used for these system design studies ranged from 15% to 25%. This efficiency is significantly higher than other static conversion systems operating at the same temperatures. Savings in mass and cost, relative to other more conventional static conversion systems, have also been shown. The minicell used for this system study has many advanced features not combined in previous designs, including wick return, remote condensing, and hot zone feedthroughs. All of these features significantly enhance the performance of the AMTEC cell. Additionally, the cell end provides enough area for adequate heat transfer from the GPHS module, eliminating the need for a ''hot shoe'', and reducing the complexity and weight of the system. This paper describes and compares small (two module) and larger (16 module) AMTEC radioisotope powered systems and describes the computer model developed to predict their performance

  8. Multipurpose Electric Potential Sensor for Spacecraft Applications, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The original goal of Phase I was to study the feasibility of developing an electric sensor that can be used for as many NASA sensing applications as possible. During...

  9. Aerospace Vehicle Design, Spacecraft Section. Final Project Reports. Volume 2; Project Groups 6-8


    Three groups of student engineers in an aerospace vehicle design course present their designs for a vehicle that can be used to resupply the Space Station Freedam and provide emergency crew return to earth capability. The vehicle's requirements include a lifetime that exceeds six years, low cost, the capability for withstanding pressurization, launch, orbit, and reentry hazards, and reliability. The vehicle's subsystems are structures, communication and command data systems, attitude and articulation control, life support and crew systems, power and propulsion, reentry and recovery systems, and mission management, planning, and costing. Special attention is given to spacecraft communications.

  10. Application of Autonomous Spacecraft Power Control Technology to Terrestrial Microgrids

    Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry M.; Soeder, James F.


    This paper describes the potential of the power campus located at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio for microgrid development. First, the benefits provided by microgrids to the terrestrial power grid are described, and an overview of Technology Needs for microgrid development is presented. Next, GRC's work on development of autonomous control for manned deep space vehicles, which are essentially islanded microgrids, is covered, and contribution of each of these developments to the microgrid Technology Needs is detailed. Finally, a description is provided of GRC's existing physical assets which can be applied to microgrid technology development, and a phased plan for development of a microgrid test facility is presented.

  11. Advanced composite design data for spacecraft structural applications

    Haskins, J.F.


    An experimental study has been carried out to investigate the long-term effects of space environment on the mechanical properties and thermal expansion of two graphite/epoxy materials: T300/934, a high-strength system with a 350 F capability, and GY70/X30, an ultra-high-modulus system used for high-stiffness and thermally stable applications. The effects of space environment were simulated by exposing the materials to three levels of uniform radiation. Changes in mechanical properties due to radiation were small, except at high temperatures. Since radiation clearly lowered the glass transition temperature below the upper test temperature, both tensile and shear strengths were lowered at the elevated temperatures. There was also some indication that the lower radiation levels may even improve the mechanical properties, which however needs further investigation

  12. Study of radiation shielding requirements for n-MOS devices on the Exosat spacecraft. Final report


    The device-degradation and radiation-shielding problems presented by the probable use of an n-channel microprocessor integrated circuit of the 8080 type on the Exosat spacecraft of the European Space Agency, was studied. The radiation exposure likely for this device was calculated, using various assumptions for the amount of surrounding absorber, some being intentional shielding others being normal structure elements and device encapsulation. The conclusion was that this type of device could be used if careful engineering design and quality control were used. Mission doses vary between 5000 and 800 rads for various configurations and some patterns of MOS device will tolerate these doses. The use of specially thickened module covers was not recommended, a better method being upgrading device quality and applying internal (local) shielding when necessary and possibly modular addition of external plates in specific directions only. The result of this shielding philosophy would be much greater efficiency in weight use. The further development of a rads (reduction) per gram philosophy was strongly recommended. Throughout, the strong link between mission success and the choice (and control) of the correct MOS manufacturing technology is emphasized and some guidelines on control of manufactured MOS parts (n-channel and complementary type) with respect to tolerance to radiation are given

  13. Heat pipes et two-phase loops for spacecraft applications. ESA programmes

    Supper, W [European Space Agency / ESTEC. Thermal control and life support division (France)


    This document is a series of transparencies presenting the current and future applications of heat pipes in spacecraft and the activities in the field of capillary pumped two-phase loops: thermal tests, high-efficiency low pressure drop condensers, theoretical understanding of evaporator function, optimization of liquid and vapor flows, trade-off between low and high conductivity wicks, development of high capillary capacity wicks etc.. (J.S.)

  14. Heat pipes et two-phase loops for spacecraft applications. ESA programmes

    Supper, W. [European Space Agency / ESTEC. Thermal control and life support division (France)


    This document is a series of transparencies presenting the current and future applications of heat pipes in spacecraft and the activities in the field of capillary pumped two-phase loops: thermal tests, high-efficiency low pressure drop condensers, theoretical understanding of evaporator function, optimization of liquid and vapor flows, trade-off between low and high conductivity wicks, development of high capillary capacity wicks etc.. (J.S.)

  15. Manifold dynamics in the Earth-Moon system via isomorphic mapping with application to spacecraft end-of-life strategies

    Pontani, Mauro; Giancotti, Marco; Teofilatto, Paolo


    application of manifold dynamics to defining suitable, convenient end-of-life strategies for spacecraft orbiting the Earth. Seven distinct options are identified, and lead to placing the spacecraft into the final disposal orbit, which is either (a) a lunar capture orbit, (b) a lunar impact trajectory, (c) a stable lunar periodic orbit, or (d) an outer orbit, never approaching the Earth or the Moon. Two remarkable properties that relate the velocity variations with the spacecraft energy are employed for the purpose of identifying the optimal locations, magnitudes, and directions of the velocity impulses needed to perform the seven transfer trajectories. The overall performance of each end-of-life strategy is evaluated in terms of time of flight and propellant budget.

  16. The application of total quality management principles to spacecraft mission operations

    Sweetin, Maury


    By now, the philosophies of Total Quality Management have had an impact on every aspect of American industrial life. The trail-blazing work of Deming, Juran, and Crosby, first implemented in Japan, has 're-migrated' across the Pacific and now plays a growing role in America's management culture. While initially considered suited only for a manufacturing environment, TQM has moved rapidly into the 'service' areas of offices, sales forces, and even fast-food restaurants. The next logical step has also been taken - TQM has found its way into virtually all departments of the Federal Government, including NASA. Because of this widespread success, it seems fair to ask whether this new discipline is directly applicable to the profession of spacecraft operations. The results of quality emphasis on OAO Corporation's contract at JPL provide strong support for Total Quality Management as a useful tool in spacecraft operations.

  17. The application of total quality management principles to spacecraft mission operations

    Sweetin, Maury


    By now, the philosophies of Total Quality Management have had an impact on every aspect of American industrial life. The trail-blazing work of Deming, Juran, and Crosby, first implemented in Japan, has 're-migrated' across the Pacific and now plays a growing role in America's management culture. While initially considered suited only for a manufacturing environment, TQM has moved rapidly into the 'service' areas of offices, sales forces, and even fast-food restaurants. The next logical step has also been taken - TQM has found its way into virtually all departments of the Federal Government, including NASA. Because of this widespread success, it seems fair to ask whether this new discipline is directly applicable to the profession of spacecraft operations. The results of quality emphasis on OAO Corporation's contract at JPL provide strong support for Total Quality Management as a useful tool in spacecraft operations.

  18. The management of energy utilization in a spacecraft tracking station and its industrial applications

    Reynolds, R.; White, R. L.; Hume, P.


    The mission of a tracking station within the NASA/Jet Propulsion Deep Space Network is characterized by a wide diversity of spacecraft types, communications ranges, and data accuracy requirements. In the present paper, the system architecture, communications techniques, and operators interfaces for a utility controller are described. The control equipment as designed and installed is meant to be a tool to study applications of automated control in the dynamic environment of a tracking station. It allows continuous experimenting with new technology without disruption of the tracking activities.

  19. The achievement of spacecraft autonomy through the thematic application of multiple cooperating intelligent agents

    Rossomando, Philip J.


    A description is given of UNICORN, a prototype system developed for the purpose of investigating artificial intelligence (AI) concepts supporting spacecraft autonomy. UNICORN employs thematic reasoning, of the type first described by Rodger Schank of Northwestern University, to allow the context-sensitive control of multiple intelligent agents within a blackboard based environment. In its domain of application, UNICORN demonstrates the ability to reason teleologically with focused knowledge. Also presented are some of the lessons learned as a result of this effort. These lessons apply to any effort wherein system level autonomy is the objective.

  20. Electrically conductive, black thermal control coatings for spacecraft applications. III - Plasma-deposited ceramic matrix

    Hribar, V. F.; Bauer, J. L.; O'Donnell, T. P.


    Five black, electrically-conductive thermal control coatings have been formulated and tested for application on the Galileo spacecraft. The coatings consist of both organic and inorganic systems applied on titanium, aluminum, and glass/epoxy composite surfaces. The coatings were tested under simulated space environment conditions. Coated specimens were subjected to thermal radiation, convective and combustive heating, and cryogenic conditions over a temperature range between -196 C and 538 C. Mechanical, physical, thermal, electrical, and thermooptical properties are presented for one of these coatings. This paper describes the preparation, characteristics, and spraying of iron titanate on titanium and aluminum, and presents performance results.

  1. Spacecraft cabin environment effects on the growth and behavior of Chlorella vulgaris for life support applications

    Niederwieser, Tobias; Kociolek, Patrick; Klaus, David


    of C. vulgaris are not yet well understood. A summary of optimum growth parameter ranges for C. vulgaris is presented in this article as a guideline for designing and integrating an algal photobioreactor into a spacecraft life support system. Additional research challenges for evaluating as of yet uncharacterized parameters are also identified in this article that have the potential for improving spaceflight applications as well as terrestrial aquatic algal cultivation systems.

  2. Materials Characterization at Utah State University: Facilities and Knowledge-base of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging

    Dennison, J. R.; Thomson, C. D.; Kite, J.; Zavyalov, V.; Corbridge, Jodie


    In an effort to improve the reliability and versatility of spacecraft charging models designed to assist spacecraft designers in accommodating and mitigating the harmful effects of charging on spacecraft, the NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program has funded development of facilities at Utah State University for the measurement of the electronic properties of both conducting and insulating spacecraft materials. We present here an overview of our instrumentation and capabilities, which are particularly well suited to study electron emission as related to spacecraft charging. These measurements include electron-induced secondary and backscattered yields, spectra, and angular resolved measurements as a function of incident energy, species and angle, plus investigations of ion-induced electron yields, photoelectron yields, sample charging and dielectric breakdown. Extensive surface science characterization capabilities are also available to fully characterize the samples in situ. Our measurements for a wide array of conducting and insulating spacecraft materials have been incorporated into the SEE Charge Collector Knowledge-base as a Database of Electronic Properties of Materials Applicable to Spacecraft Charging. This Database provides an extensive compilation of electronic properties, together with parameterization of these properties in a format that can be easily used with existing spacecraft charging engineering tools and with next generation plasma, charging, and radiation models. Tabulated properties in the Database include: electron-induced secondary electron yield, backscattered yield and emitted electron spectra; He, Ar and Xe ion-induced electron yields and emitted electron spectra; photoyield and solar emittance spectra; and materials characterization including reflectivity, dielectric constant, resistivity, arcing, optical microscopy images, scanning electron micrographs, scanning tunneling microscopy images, and Auger electron spectra. Further

  3. The application of Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) for the sterilisation of spacecraft materials

    Rettberg, Petra; Barczyk, Simon; Morfill, Gregor; Thomas, Hubertus; Satoshi Shimizu, .; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Klaempfl, Tobias


    Plasma, oft called the fourth state of matter after solid, liquid and gas, is defined by its ionized state. Ionization can be induced by different means, such as a strong electromagnetic field applied with a microwave generator. The concentration and composition of reactive atoms and molecules produced in Cold Atmospheric Plasma (CAP) depends on the gases used, the gas flow, the power applied, the humidity level etc.. In medicine, low-temperature plasma is already used for the sterilization of surgical instruments, implants and packaging materials as plasma works at the atomic level and is able to reach all surfaces, even the interior of small hollow items like needles. Its ability to sterilise is due to the generation of biologically active bactericidal agents, such as free radicals and UV radiation. In the project PLASMA-DECON (DLR/BMWi support code 50JR1005) a prototype of a device for sterilising spacecraft material and components was built based on the surface micro-discharge (SMD) plasma technology. The produced plasma species are directed into a closed chamber which contains the parts that need to be sterilised. To test the inactivation efficiency of this new device bacterial spores were used as model organisms because in the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy all bioburden constraints are defined with respect to the number of spores (and other heat-tolerant aerobic microorganisms). Spores from different Bacillus species and strains, i.e. wildtype strains from culture collections and isolates from spacecraft assembly cleanrooms, were dried on three different spacecraft relevant materials and exposed to CAP. The specificity, linearity, precision, and effective range of the device was investigated. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the application of CAP proved to be a suitable method for bioburden reduction / sterilisation in the frame of planetary protection measures and the design of a larger plasma device is planned in the future.

  4. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF [Inertial Confinement Fusion] for interplanetary fusion propulsion applications

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.


    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted

  5. Evaluations of Silica Aerogel-Based Flexible Blanket as Passive Thermal Control Element for Spacecraft Applications

    Hasan, Mohammed Adnan; Rashmi, S.; Esther, A. Carmel Mary; Bhavanisankar, Prudhivi Yashwantkumar; Sherikar, Baburao N.; Sridhara, N.; Dey, Arjun


    The feasibility of utilizing commercially available silica aerogel-based flexible composite blankets as passive thermal control element in applications such as extraterrestrial environments is investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that aerogel blanket was thermally stable over - 150 to 126 °C. The outgassing behavior, e.g., total mass loss, collected volatile condensable materials, water vapor regained and recovered mass loss, was within acceptable range recommended for the space applications. ASTM tension and tear tests confirmed the material's mechanical integrity. The thermo-optical properties remained nearly unaltered in simulated space environmental tests such as relative humidity, thermal cycling and thermo-vacuum tests and confirmed the space worthiness of the aerogel. Aluminized Kapton stitched or anchored to the blanket could be used to control the optical transparency of the aerogel. These outcomes highlight the potential of commercial aerogel composite blankets as passive thermal control element in spacecraft. Structural and chemical characterization of the material was also done using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  6. Metal hydride hydrogen and heat storage systems as enabling technology for spacecraft applications

    Reissner, Alexander, E-mail: [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Pawelke, Roland H.; Hummel, Stefan; Cabelka, Dusan [FOTEC Forschungs- und Technologietransfer GmbH, Viktor Kaplan Straße 2, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Gerger, Joachim [University of Applied Sciences Wiener Neustadt, Johannes Gutenberg-Straße 3, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Farnes, Jarle, E-mail: [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Vik, Arild; Wernhus, Ivar; Svendsen, Tjalve [CMR Prototech AS, Fantoftvegen 38, PO Box 6034, 5892 Bergen (Norway); Schautz, Max, E-mail: [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands); Geneste, Xavier, E-mail: [European Space Agency, ESTEC – Keplerlaan 1, 2201 AZ Noordwijk Zh (Netherlands)


    Highlights: • A metal hydride tank concept for heat and hydrogen storage is presented. • The tank is part of a closed-loop reversible fuel cell system for space application. • For several engineering issues specific to the spacecraft application, solutions have been developed. • The effect of water contamination has been approximated for Ti-doped NaAlH{sub 4}. • A novel heat exchanger design has been realized by Selective Laser Melting. - Abstract: The next generation of telecommunication satellites will demand a platform payload performance in the range of 30+ kW within the next 10 years. At this high power output, a Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems (RFCS) offers an efficiency advantage in specific energy density over lithium ion batteries. However, a RFCS creates a substantial amount of heat (60–70 kJ per mol H{sub 2}) during fuel cell operation. This requires a thermal hardware that accounts for up to 50% of RFCS mass budget. Thus the initial advantage in specific energy density is reduced. A metal hydride tank for combined storage of heat and hydrogen in a RFCS may overcome this constraint. Being part of a consortium in an ongoing European Space Agency project, FOTEC is building a technology demonstrator for such a combined hydrogen and heat storage system.

  7. Application of dynamic uncertain causality graph in spacecraft fault diagnosis: Logic cycle

    Yao, Quanying; Zhang, Qin; Liu, Peng; Yang, Ping; Zhu, Ma; Wang, Xiaochen


    Intelligent diagnosis system are applied to fault diagnosis in spacecraft. Dynamic Uncertain Causality Graph (DUCG) is a new probability graphic model with many advantages. In the knowledge expression of spacecraft fault diagnosis, feedback among variables is frequently encountered, which may cause directed cyclic graphs (DCGs). Probabilistic graphical models (PGMs) such as bayesian network (BN) have been widely applied in uncertain causality representation and probabilistic reasoning, but BN does not allow DCGs. In this paper, DUGG is applied to fault diagnosis in spacecraft: introducing the inference algorithm for the DUCG to deal with feedback. Now, DUCG has been tested in 16 typical faults with 100% diagnosis accuracy.

  8. Comprehensive Fault Tolerance and Science-Optimal Attitude Planning for Spacecraft Applications

    Nasir, Ali

    Spacecraft operate in a harsh environment, are costly to launch, and experience unavoidable communication delay and bandwidth constraints. These factors motivate the need for effective onboard mission and fault management. This dissertation presents an integrated framework to optimize science goal achievement while identifying and managing encountered faults. Goal-related tasks are defined by pointing the spacecraft instrumentation toward distant targets of scientific interest. The relative value of science data collection is traded with risk of failures to determine an optimal policy for mission execution. Our major innovation in fault detection and reconfiguration is to incorporate fault information obtained from two types of spacecraft models: one based on the dynamics of the spacecraft and the second based on the internal composition of the spacecraft. For fault reconfiguration, we consider possible changes in both dynamics-based control law configuration and the composition-based switching configuration. We formulate our problem as a stochastic sequential decision problem or Markov Decision Process (MDP). To avoid the computational complexity involved in a fully-integrated MDP, we decompose our problem into multiple MDPs. These MDPs include planning MDPs for different fault scenarios, a fault detection MDP based on a logic-based model of spacecraft component and system functionality, an MDP for resolving conflicts between fault information from the logic-based model and the dynamics-based spacecraft models" and the reconfiguration MDP that generates a policy optimized over the relative importance of the mission objectives versus spacecraft safety. Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP) methods for the decomposition of the planning and fault detection MDPs are applied. To show the performance of the MDP-based frameworks and ADP methods, a suite of spacecraft attitude planning case studies are described. These case studies are used to analyze the content and

  9. Call for applications_2013_VA_Final

    Lindsay Beck


    Apr 12, 2013 ... graduate level field-‐school, taught by UNBC and CoPEH-‐Canada team members1 . Final ... and most of the sessions in the course will be given in English. ... o demonstrated interest in Ecosystem approaches to health.

  10. A Memory/Immunology-Based Control Approach with Applications to Multiple Spacecraft Formation Flying

    Liguo Weng


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of formation control for multiple spacecrafts in Planetary Orbital Environment (POE. Due to the presence of diverse interferences and uncertainties in the outer space, such as the changing spacecraft mass, unavailable space parameters, and varying gravity forces, traditional control methods encounter great difficulties in this area. A new control approach inspired by human memory and immune system is proposed, and this approach is shown to be capable of learning from past control experience and current behavior to improve its performance. It demands much less system dynamic information as compared with traditional controls. Both theoretic analysis and computer simulation verify its effectiveness.

  11. Application opportunities in wireless communications. Final report

    Abbott, R.E.; Blevins, R.P.; Olmstead, C.


    This report presents the results of examinations of wireless technologies and applications that may offer potential to utilities. Five different wireless technology areas are reviewed. Three areas--Communication Networks, Monitored Security Services, and Home Automation--potentially represent new business ventures for utilities. Two areas--Automatic Vehicle Location and Automated Field-Force Management--represent wireless applications with potential for reduced operating costs and improved customer relations

  12. Application of fusion plasma technology. Final report

    Sabri, Z.A.


    This report presents principal findings of studies conducted at Iowa State on Applications of Fusion Plasma Technology. Two tasks were considered. The first was to identify and investigate plasma processes for near term industrial applications of already developed plasma technology. The second was to explore the potential of reprocessing the fuel for fusion test facilities in a closed-cycle system. For the first task, two applications were considered. One was alumina reduction in magnetically confined plasmas, and the other was uranium enrichment using plasma centrifuges. For the second task, in-core and ex-core plasma purification were considered. Separation techniques that are compatible with the plasma state were identified and preliminary analysis of their effectiveness were carried out. The effects of differential ionization of impurities on the separation effectiveness are considered. Possible technical difficulties in both tasks are identified and recommendations for future work are given

  13. Economic benefits of the use of non-toxic mono-propellants for spacecraft applications

    Bombelli, V.; Simon, D.; Marée, T.; Moerel, J.L.


    The European Space Agency and other institutions have identified the use of non-toxic (or "green") propellants as a substantial cost saving opportunity in manufacturing and ground operating of spacecrafts. This paper attempts to identify and quantify this potential by replacing, in the near future,

  14. On the concept of survivability, with application to spacecraft and space-based networks

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.


    Survivability is an important attribute and requirement for military systems. Recently, survivability has become increasingly important for public infrastructure systems as well. In this work, we bring considerations of survivability to bear on space systems. We develop a conceptual framework and quantitative analyses based on stochastic Petri nets (SPN) to characterize and compare the survivability of different space architectures. The architectures here considered are a monolith spacecraft and a space-based network. To build the stochastic Petri net models for the degradations and failures of these two architectures, we conducted statistical analyses of historical multi-state failure data of spacecraft subsystems, and we assembled these subsystems, and their SPN models, in ways to create our monolith and networked systems. Preliminary results indicate, and quantify the extent to which, a space-based network is more survivable than the monolith spacecraft with respect to on-orbit anomalies and failures. For space systems, during the design and acquisition process, different architectures are benchmarked against several metrics; we argue that if survivability is not accounted for, then the evaluation process is likely to be biased in favor of the traditional dominant design, namely the monolith spacecraft. If however in a given context, survivability is a critical requirement for a customer, the survivability framework here proposed, and the stochastic modeling capability developed, can demonstrate the extent to which a networked space architecture may better satisfy this requirement than a monolith spacecraft. These results should be of interest to operators whose space assets require high levels of survivability, especially in the light of emerging threats.

  15. Potential applications of MMC and aluminum-lithium alloys in cameras for CRAF spacecraft. [Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby Mission

    Lane, Marc; Hsieh, Cheng; Adams, Lloyd


    In undertaking the design of a 2000-mm focal length camera for the Mariner Mark II series of spacecraft, JPL sought novel materials with the requisite dimensional and thermal stability, outgassing and corrosion resistance, low mass, high stiffness, and moderate cost. Metal-matrix composites and Al-Li alloys have, in addition to excellent mechanical properties and low density, a suitably low coefficient of thermal expansion, high specific stiffness, and good electrical conductivity. The greatest single obstacle to application of these materials to camera structure design is noted to have been the lack of information regarding long-term dimensional stability.

  16. The Development of Fuel Cell Technology for Electric Power Generation - From Spacecraft Applications to the Hydrogen Economy

    Scott, John H.


    The fuel cell uses a catalyzed reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer to directly produce electricity. Its high theoretical efficiency and low temperature operation made it a subject of much study upon its invention ca. 1900, but its relatively high life cycle costs kept it as "solution in search of a problem" for its first half century. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a cost effective solution was, starting in the 1960's that of a power source for NASA's manned spacecraft. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. However, starting in the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of terrestrial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but these advances are often in directions quite different from those needed for NASA spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's manned space program.

  17. Application of the NASCAP Spacecraft Simulation Tool to Investigate Electrodynamic Tether Current Collection in LEO

    Adams, Mitzi; HabashKrause, Linda


    Recent interest in using electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) for orbital maneuvering in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) has prompted the development of the Marshall ElectroDynamic Tether Orbit Propagator (MEDTOP) model. The model is comprised of several modules which address various aspects of EDT propulsion, including calculation of state vectors using a standard orbit propagator (e.g., J2), an atmospheric drag model, realistic ionospheric and magnetic field models, space weather effects, and tether librations. The natural electromotive force (EMF) attained during a radially-aligned conductive tether results in electrons flowing down the tether and accumulating on the lower-altitude spacecraft. The energy that drives this EMF is sourced from the orbital energy of the system; thus, EDTs are often proposed as de-orbiting systems. However, when the current is reversed using satellite charged particle sources, then propulsion is possible. One of the most difficult challenges of the modeling effort is to ascertain the equivalent circuit between the spacecraft and the ionospheric plasma. The present study investigates the use of the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) to calculate currents to and from the tethered satellites and the ionospheric plasma. NASCAP is a sophisticated set of computational tools to model the surface charging of three-dimensional (3D) spacecraft surfaces in a time-varying space environment. The model's surface is tessellated into a collection of facets, and NASCAP calculates currents and potentials for each one. Additionally, NASCAP provides for the construction of one or more nested grids to calculate space potential and time-varying electric fields. This provides for the capability to track individual particles orbits, to model charged particle wakes, and to incorporate external charged particle sources. With this study, we have developed a model of calculating currents incident onto an electrodynamic tethered satellite system, and first results are shown

  18. Development of an iodine generator for reclaimed water purification in manned spacecraft applications

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.


    A successful 30-day test is described of a prototype Iodine Generating and Dispensing System (IGDS). The IGDS was sized to iodinate the drinking water nominally consumed by six men, 4.5 to 13.6 kg (10 to 30 lb) water per man-day with a + or - 10 to 20% variation with iodine (I2) levels of 0.5 to 20 parts per million (ppm). The I2 treats reclaimed water to prevent or eliminate microorganism contamination. Treatment is maintained with a residual of I2 within the manned spacecraft water supply. A simplified version of the chlorogen water disinfection concept, developed by life systems for on-site generation of chlorine (Cl2), was used as a basis for IGDS development. Potable water contaminated with abundant E. Coliform Group organisms was treated by electrolytically generated I2 at levels of 5 to 10 ppm. In all instances, the E. coli were eliminated.

  19. 15 CFR 301.7 - Final disposition of an application.


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final disposition of an application. 301.7 Section 301.7 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS INSTRUMENTS...

  20. Final report: Compiled MPI. Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development

    Gropp, William Douglas [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)


    This is the final report on Compiled MPI: Cost-Effective Exascale Application Development, and summarizes the results under this project. The project investigated runtime enviroments that improve the performance of MPI (Message-Passing Interface) programs; work at Illinois in the last period of this project looked at optimizing data access optimizations expressed with MPI datatypes.

  1. Recent NASA progress in composites. [application to spacecraft and aircraft structures

    Heldenfels, R. R.


    The application of composites in aerospace vehicle structures is reviewed. Research and technology program results and specific applications to space vehicles, aircraft engines, and aircraft and helicopter structures are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is given to flight service evaluation programs that are or will be accumulating substantial experience with secondary and primary structural components on military and commercial aircraft to increase confidence in their use.

  2. Low-cost gossamer systems for solar sailing and spacecraft deorbiting applications.

    Fernandez, Juan M.


    Nowadays, a technology demonstrator platform popular amongst the research community given their relatively low cost and short development time are cubesats. Nevertheless, cubesats are by definition nano-satellites of small volume and mass, and therefore, they traditionally only allowed very limited sizes of any expandable structure onboard with final deployed areas in the order of a few square meters. This conflicts with the large areas required for efficient solar sails, making the demonstra...

  3. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene


    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  4. Review of thin film solar cell technology and applications for ultra-light spacecraft solar arrays

    Landis, Geoffrey A.


    Developments in thin-film amorphous and polycrystalline photovoltaic cells are reviewed and discussed with a view to potential applications in space. Two important figures of merit are discussed: efficiency (i.e., what fraction of the incident solar energy is converted to electricity), and specific power (power to weight ratio).

  5. A Research on the Electrical Test Fault Diagnostic and Data Mining of a Manned Spacecraft

    Yang Feng


    Full Text Available The paper introduces the modeling method and modeling tool for the fault diagnosis of manned spacecraft, the multi-signal flow graph model of a manned space equipment was established using this method; the framework of the fault detection and diagnosis system of manned spacecraft is proposed, the function of ground system and function of the spacecraft are clearly defined. The structure of the functional module is given separately; finally, the tool builds the fault detection and diagnosis system, the application of fault diagnosis method for manned spacecraft is used for reference.

  6. Creating a Prototype Web Application for Spacecraft Real-Time Data Visualization on Mobile Devices

    Lang, Jeremy S.; Irving, James R.


    Mobile devices (smart phones, tablets) have become commonplace among almost all sectors of the workforce, especially in the technical and scientific communities. These devices provide individuals the ability to be constantly connected to any area of interest they may have, whenever and wherever they are located. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is attempting to take advantage of this constant connectivity to extend the data visualization component of the Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC) to a person's mobile device. POIC users currently have a rather unique capability to create custom user interfaces in order to view International Space Station (ISS) payload health and status telemetry. These displays are used at various console positions within the POIC. The Software Engineering team has created a Mobile Display capability that will allow authenticated users to view the same displays created for the console positions on the mobile device of their choice. Utilizing modern technologies including, JavaScript, and HTML5, we have created a web application that renders the user's displays in any modern desktop or mobile web browser, regardless of the operating system on the device. Additionally, the application is device aware which enables it to render its configuration and selection menus with themes that correspond to the particular device. The Mobile Display application uses a communication mechanism known as signalR to push updates to the web client. This communication mechanism automatically detects the best communication protocol between the client and server and also manages disconnections and reconnections of the client to the server. One benefit of this application is that the user can monitor important telemetry even while away from their console position. If expanded to the scientific community, this application would allow a scientist to view a snapshot of the state of their particular experiment at any time or place

  7. Revamping Spacecraft Operational Intelligence

    Hwang, Victor


    The EPOXI flight mission has been testing a new commercial system, Splunk, which employs data mining techniques to organize and present spacecraft telemetry data in a high-level manner. By abstracting away data-source specific details, Splunk unifies arbitrary data formats into one uniform system. This not only reduces the time and effort for retrieving relevant data, but it also increases operational visibility by allowing a spacecraft team to correlate data across many different sources. Splunk's scalable architecture coupled with its graphing modules also provide a solid toolset for generating data visualizations and building real-time applications such as browser-based telemetry displays.

  8. Dips spacecraft integration issues

    Determan, W.R.; Harty, R.B.


    The Department of Energy, in cooperation with the Department of Defense, has recently initiated the dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) demonstration program. DIPS is designed to provide 1 to 10 kW of electrical power for future military spacecraft. One of the near-term missions considered as a potential application for DIPS was the boost surveillance and tracking system (BSTS). A brief review and summary of the reasons behind a selection of DIPS for BSTS-type missions is presented. Many of these are directly related to spacecraft integration issues; these issues will be reviewed in the areas of system safety, operations, survivability, reliability, and autonomy

  9. Supplements and other changes to an approved application. Final rule.


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on supplements and other changes to an approved application to implement the manufacturing changes provision of the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The final rule requires manufacturers to assess the effects of manufacturing changes on the identity, strength, quality, purity, and potency of a drug or biological product as those factors relate to the safety or effectiveness of the product. The final rule sets forth requirements for changes requiring supplement submission and approval before the distribution of the product made using the change, changes requiring supplement submission at least 30 days prior to the distribution of the product, changes requiring supplement submission at the time of distribution, and changes to be described in an annual report.

  10. The Application of Computer-Aided Discovery to Spacecraft Site Selection

    Pankratius, V.; Blair, D. M.; Gowanlock, M.; Herring, T.


    The selection of landing and exploration sites for interplanetary robotic or human missions is a complex task. Historically it has been labor-intensive, with large groups of scientists manually interpreting a planetary surface across a variety of datasets to identify potential sites based on science and engineering constraints. This search process can be lengthy, and excellent sites may get overlooked when the aggregate value of site selection criteria is non-obvious or non-intuitive. As planetary data collection leads to Big Data repositories and a growing set of selection criteria, scientists will face a combinatorial search space explosion that requires scalable, automated assistance. We are currently exploring more general computer-aided discovery techniques in the context of planetary surface deformation phenomena that can lend themselves to application in the landing site search problem. In particular, we are developing a general software framework that addresses key difficulties: characterizing a given phenomenon or site based on data gathered from multiple instruments (e.g. radar interferometry, gravity, thermal maps, or GPS time series), and examining a variety of possible workflows whose individual configurations are optimized to isolate different features. The framework allows algorithmic pipelines and hypothesized models to be perturbed or permuted automatically within well-defined bounds established by the scientist. For example, even simple choices for outlier and noise handling or data interpolation can drastically affect the detectability of certain features. These techniques aim to automate repetitive tasks that scientists routinely perform in exploratory analysis, and make them more efficient and scalable by executing them in parallel in the cloud. We also explore ways in which machine learning can be combined with human feedback to prune the search space and converge to desirable results. Acknowledgements: We acknowledge support from NASA AIST

  11. Spacecraft operations

    Sellmaier, Florian; Schmidhuber, Michael


    The book describes the basic concepts of spaceflight operations, for both, human and unmanned missions. The basic subsystems of a space vehicle are explained in dedicated chapters, the relationship of spacecraft design and the very unique space environment are laid out. Flight dynamics are taught as well as ground segment requirements. Mission operations are divided into preparation including management aspects, execution and planning. Deep space missions and space robotic operations are included as special cases. The book is based on a course held at the German Space Operation Center (GSOC).

  12. Internet Technology on Spacecraft

    Rash, James; Parise, Ron; Hogie, Keith; Criscuolo, Ed; Langston, Jim; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)


    approaches. The cost to implement is much less than current approaches due to the availability of highly reliable and standard Internet tools. Use of standard Internet applications onboard reduces the risk of obsolescence inherent in custom protocols due to extremely wide use across all domains. These basic building blocks provide the framework for building onboard software to support direct user communication with payloads including payload control. Other benefits are payload to payload communication from dissimilar spacecraft, constellations of spacecraft, and reconfigurability on orbit. This work is funded through contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  13. Space Processing Applications Rocket project, SPAR 1. Final report

    Reeves, F.; Chassay, R.


    The experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of nine scientific experiments conducted during the first Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight are summarized. The nine individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: solidification of Pb-Sb eutectic, feasibility of producing closed-cell metal foams, characterization of rocket vibration environment by measurement of mixing of two liquids, uniform dispersions of crystallization processing, direct observation of solidification as a function of gravity levels, casting thoria dispersion-strengthened interfaces, contained polycrystalline solidification, and preparation of a special alloy for manufacturing of magnetic hard superconductor under zero-g environment

  14. Space Processing Applications rocket project SPAR III. Final report

    Reeves, F.


    This document presents the engineering report and science payload III test report and summarizes the experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of five scientific experiments conducted during the third Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight flown by NASA in December 1976. The five individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: Liquid Mixing, Interaction of Bubbles with Solidification Interfaces, Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Film, Containerless Processing of Beryllium, and Contact and Coalescence of Viscous Bodies

  15. An Application of the "Virtual Spacecraft" Concept in Evaluation of the Mars Pathfinder Lander Low Gain Antenna

    Pogorzelski, R. J.; Beckon, R. J.


    The virtual spacecraft concept is embodied in a set of subsystems, either in the form of hardware or computational models, which together represent all, or a portion of, a spacecraft. For example, the telecommunications transponder may be a hardware prototype while the propulsion system may exist only as a simulation. As the various subsystems are realized in hardware, the spacecraft becomes progressively less virtual. This concept is enabled by JPL's Mission System Testbed which is a set of networked workstations running a message passing operating system called "TRAMEL" which stands for Task Remote Asynchronous Message Exchange Layer. Each simulation on the workstations, which may in fact be hardware controlled by the workstation, "publishes" its operating parameters on TRAMEL and other simulations requiring those parameters as input may "subscribe" to them. In this manner, the whole simulation operates as a single virtual system. This paper describes a simulation designed to evaluate a communications link between the earth and the Mars Pathfinder Lander module as it descends under a parachute through the Martian atmosphere toward the planet's surface. This link includes a transmitter and a low gain antenna on the spacecraft and a receiving antenna and receiver on the earth as well as a simulation of the dynamics of the spacecraft. The transmitter, the ground station antenna, the receiver and the dynamics are all simulated computationally while the spacecraft antenna is implemented in hardware on a very simple spacecraft mockup. The dynamics simulation is a record of one output of the ensemble of outputs of a Monte Carlo simulation of the descent. Additionally, the antenna/spacecraft mock-up system was simulated using APATCH, a shooting and bouncing ray code developed by Demaco, Inc. The antenna simulation, the antenna hardware, and the link simulation are all physically located in different facilities at JPL separated by several hundred meters and are linked via

  16. SKB's safety case for a final repository license application

    Hedin, Allan; Andersson, Johan


    The safety assessment SR-Site is a main component in SKB's license application, submitted in March 2011, to construct and operate a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, Sweden. Its role in the application is to demonstrate long-term safety for a repository at Forsmark. The assessment relates to the KBS-3 disposal concept in which copper canisters with a cast iron insert containing spent nuclear fuel are surrounded by bentonite clay and deposited at approximately 500 m depth in saturated, granitic rock. The principal regulatory acceptance criterion, issued by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM), requires that the annual risk of harmful effects after closure not exceed 10 -6 for a representative individual in the group exposed to the greatest risk. SSM's regulations also imply that the assessment time for a repository of this type is one million years after closure. The licence applied for is one in a stepwise series of permits, each requiring a safety report. The next step concerns a permit to start excavation of the repository and requires a preliminary safety assessment report (PSAR) covering both operational and post-closure safety. Later steps include permission to commence trial operation, to commence regular operation and to close the final repository. (authors)

  17. Spacecraft System Integration and Test: SSTI Lewis critical design audit

    Brooks, R. P.; Cha, K. K.


    The Critical Design Audit package is the final detailed design package which provides a comprehensive description of the SSTI mission. This package includes the program overview, the system requirements, the science and applications activities, the ground segment development, the assembly, integration and test description, the payload and technology demonstrations, and the spacecraft bus subsystems. Publication and presentation of this document marks the final requirements and design freeze for SSTI.

  18. Lithium-polymer batteries for EV applications. Final report

    Thomas, J.O. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry


    The project initially held a strong 'battery materials' profile, but has moved in its final year into more 'battery engineering' aspects; the performances of a range of potential materials have been screened, and candidates have emerged. It is noteworthy that these same materials have also now become 'best-choice' materials in commercial Japanese Li-ion batteries for mobile-phone, lap-top and, more recently, even electric-vehicle (EV) applications. It is now clear that the Li-ion (polymer) battery offers a genuinely viable option in electric and electric-hybrid vehicle concepts. Specifically, our work has involved synthetic, structural, morphological and electrochemical studies of lithium insertion mechanisms in TMO-based cathodes (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, V{sub 6}O{sub 13}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiFePO{sub 4}, etc) and graphitic carbon anodes. Performance has been optimised from cell capacity, power, shelf-life and safety viewpoints. Cost has also emerged as a critical variable. Novel methods have been developed within the project for elevated-temperature battery studies (up to 80 deg C); they have become widely applied internationally. The electrode materials which have been developed have subsequently been incorporated into laboratory-scale lithium-ion battery prototypes, whose performance has then been evaluated. The final phase of the project has focussed on a new cathode material (LiFePO{sub 4}) not in current commercial use and yet ideally suited to EV application by virtue of its cheapness, high capacity (ca 170 mAh/g), high voltage vs. Li (3.5V), and extremely flat discharge curve. This could well prove to be the 'best compromise' Li-ion battery cathode for EV applications in the future.

  19. Application and Network-Cognizant Proxies - Final Report

    Antonio Ortega; Daniel C. Lee


    OAK B264 Application and Network-Cognizant Proxies - Final Report. Current networks show increasing heterogeneity both in terms of their bandwidths/delays and the applications they are required to support. This is a trend that is likely to intensify in the future, as real-time services, such as video, become more widely available and networking access over wireless links becomes more widespread. For this reason they propose that application-specific proxies, intermediate network nodes that broker the interactions between server and client, will become an increasingly important network element. These proxies will allow adaptation to changes in network characteristics without requiring a direct intervention of either server or client. Moreover, it will be possible to locate these proxies strategically at those points where a mismatch occurs between subdomains (for example, a proxy could be placed so as to act as a bridge between a reliable network domain and an unreliable one). This design philosophy favors scalability in the sense that the basic network infrastructure can remain unchanged while new functionality can be added to proxies, as required by the applications. While proxies can perform numerous generic functions, such as caching or security, they concentrate here on media-specific, and in particular video-specific, tasks. The goal of this project was to demonstrate that application- and network-specific knowledge at a proxy can improve overall performance especially under changing network conditions. They summarize below the work performed to address these issues. Particular effort was spent in studying caching techniques and on video classification to enable DiffServ delivery. other work included analysis of traffic characteristics, optimized media scheduling, coding techniques based on multiple description coding, and use of proxies to reduce computation costs. This work covered much of what was originally proposed but with a necessarily reduced scope.

  20. Dynamics and control of high area-to-mass ratio spacecraft and its application to geomagnetic exploration

    Luo, Tong; Xu, Ming; Colombo, Camilla


    This paper studies the dynamics and control of a spacecraft, whose area-to-mass ratio is increased by deploying a reflective orientable surface such as a solar sail or a solar panel. The dynamical system describing the motion of a non-zero attitude angle high area-to-mass ratio spacecraft under the effects of the Earth's oblateness and solar radiation pressure admits the existence of equilibrium points, whose number and the eccentricity values depend on the semi-major axis, the area-to-mass ratio and the attitude angle of the spacecraft together. When two out of three parameters are fixed, five different dynamical topologies successively occur through varying the third parameter. Two of these five topologies are critical cases characterized by the appearance of the bifurcation phenomena. A conventional Hamiltonian structure-preserving (HSP) controller and an improved HSP controller are both constructed to stabilize the hyperbolic equilibrium point. Through the use of a conventional HSP controller, a bounded trajectory around the hyperbolic equilibrium point is obtained, while an improved HSP controller allows the spacecraft to easily transfer to the hyperbolic equilibrium point and to follow varying equilibrium points. A bifurcation control using topologies and changes of behavior areas can also stabilize a spacecraft near a hyperbolic equilibrium point. Natural trajectories around stable equilibrium point and these stabilized trajectories around hyperbolic equilibrium point can all be applied to geomagnetic exploration.

  1. Modeling Temporal Processes in Early Spacecraft Design: Application of Discrete-Event Simulations for Darpa's F6 Program

    Dubos, Gregory F.; Cornford, Steven


    While the ability to model the state of a space system over time is essential during spacecraft operations, the use of time-based simulations remains rare in preliminary design. The absence of the time dimension in most traditional early design tools can however become a hurdle when designing complex systems whose development and operations can be disrupted by various events, such as delays or failures. As the value delivered by a space system is highly affected by such events, exploring the trade space for designs that yield the maximum value calls for the explicit modeling of time.This paper discusses the use of discrete-event models to simulate spacecraft development schedule as well as operational scenarios and on-orbit resources in the presence of uncertainty. It illustrates how such simulations can be utilized to support trade studies, through the example of a tool developed for DARPA's F6 program to assist the design of "fractionated spacecraft".

  2. Final Report. Center for Scalable Application Development Software

    Mellor-Crummey, John [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)


    The Center for Scalable Application Development Software (CScADS) was established as a part- nership between Rice University, Argonne National Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, University of Tennessee – Knoxville, and University of Wisconsin – Madison. CScADS pursued an integrated set of activities with the aim of increasing the productivity of DOE computational scientists by catalyzing the development of systems software, libraries, compilers, and tools for leadership computing platforms. Principal Center activities were workshops to engage the research community in the challenges of leadership computing, research and development of open-source software, and work with computational scientists to help them develop codes for leadership computing platforms. This final report summarizes CScADS activities at Rice University in these areas.

  3. Spacecraft Actuator Diagnosis with Principal Component Analysis: Application to the Rendez-Vous Phase of the Mars Sample Return Mission

    Othman Nasri


    Full Text Available This paper presents a fault detection and isolation (FDI approach in order to detect and isolate actuators (thrusters and reaction wheels faults of an autonomous spacecraft involved in the rendez-vous phase of the Mars Sample Return (MSR mission. The principal component analysis (PCA has been adopted to estimate the relationships between the various variables of the process. To ensure the feasibility of the proposed FDI approach, a set of data provided by the industrial “high-fidelity” simulator of the MSR and representing the opening (resp., the rotation rates of the spacecraft thrusters (resp., reaction wheels has been considered. The test results demonstrate that the fault detection and isolation are successfully accomplished.

  4. Optimal Autonomous Spacecraft Resiliency Maneuvers Using Metaheuristics


    This work was accepted for published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets in July 2014...publication in the AIAA Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets . Chapter 5 introduces an impulsive maneuvering strategy to deliver a spacecraft to its final...upon arrival r2 and v2 , respectively. The variable T2 determines the time of flight needed to make the maneuver, and the variable θ2 determines the

  5. 10 CFR 52.157 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.


    ...; technical information in final safety analysis report. The application must contain a final safety analysis... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report. 52.157 Section 52.157 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES...

  6. 10 CFR 52.79 - Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report.


    ...; technical information in final safety analysis report. (a) The application must contain a final safety... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contents of applications; technical information in final safety analysis report. 52.79 Section 52.79 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES...

  7. Spacecraft radiator systems

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)


    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  8. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene


    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  9. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, Exploration, and Human Health and Safety

    Koontz, Steve


    In this presentation a review of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) effects on microelectronic systems and human health and safety is given. The methods used to evaluate and mitigate unwanted cosmic ray effects in ground-based, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments are also reviewed. However not all GCR effects are undesirable. We will also briefly review how observation and analysis of GCR interactions with planetary atmospheres and surfaces and reveal important compositional and geophysical data on earth and elsewhere. About 1000 GCR particles enter every square meter of Earth’s upper atmosphere every second, roughly the same number striking every square meter of the International Space Station (ISS) and every other low- Earth orbit spacecraft. GCR particles are high energy ionized atomic nuclei (90% protons, 9% alpha particles, 1% heavier nuclei) traveling very close to the speed of light. The GCR particle flux is even higher in interplanetary space because the geomagnetic field provides some limited magnetic shielding. Collisions of GCR particles with atomic nuclei in planetary atmospheres and/or regolith as well as spacecraft materials produce nuclear reactions and energetic/highly penetrating secondary particle showers. Three twentieth century technology developments have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems and assess effects on human health and safety effects. The key technology developments are: 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems. Space and geophysical exploration needs drove the development of the instruments and analytical tools needed to recover compositional and structural data from GCR induced nuclear reactions and secondary particle showers. Finally, the

  10. Artificial intelligence applications in logistics information systems : final report


    This report is the principal deliverable from the LIMSS-AI project. It summarizes the results of a survey of existing applications and discusses the feasibility and benefits of specific candidate logistics applications.

  11. Attitude coordination for spacecraft formation with multiple communication delays

    Guo Yaohua


    Full Text Available Communication delays are inherently present in information exchange between spacecraft and have an effect on the control performance of spacecraft formation. In this work, attitude coordination control of spacecraft formation is addressed, which is in the presence of multiple communication delays between spacecraft. Virtual system-based approach is utilized in case that a constant reference attitude is available to only a part of the spacecraft. The feedback from the virtual systems to the spacecraft formation is introduced to maintain the formation. Using backstepping control method, input torque of each spacecraft is designed such that the attitude of each spacecraft converges asymptotically to the states of its corresponding virtual system. Furthermore, the backstepping technique and the Lyapunov–Krasovskii method contribute to the control law design when the reference attitude is time-varying and can be obtained by each spacecraft. Finally, effectiveness of the proposed methodology is illustrated by the numerical simulations of a spacecraft formation.

  12. BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications (Final Report)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, BASINs and WEPP Climate Assessment Tools (CAT): Case Study Guide to Potential Applications. This report supports application of two recently developed water modeling tools, the Better Assessment Science Integrating point & ...

  13. Semiconductor-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide nanostructures on silicon substrate: Applications for thermal control of spacecraft

    Leahu, G. L.; Li Voti, R.; Larciprete, M. C.; Belardini, A.; Mura, F.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Fratoddi, I.


    We present a detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide (VO2) film deposited on silicon wafer. The VO2 phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The temperature behaviour of the emissivity during the SMT put into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in VO2 which has been explained by applying the Maxwell Garnett effective medium approximation theory, together with a strong hysteresis phenomenon, both useful to design tunable thermal devices to be applied for the thermal control of spacecraft. We have also applied the photothermal radiometry in order to study the changes in the modulated emissivity induced by laser. Experimental results show how the use of these techniques represent a good tool for a quantitative measurement of the optothermal properties of vanadium dioxide based structures

  14. DRIRU I/SKIRU - The application of the DTG to spacecraft attitude control. [Dynamically-Tuned Gyro for Inertial Reference Unit systems

    Swanson, C. O.


    The dynamically tuned gyro (DTG) was developed to replace the floated, rate integrating gyro used for space attitude control, as the DTG fulfills cost, performance, and reliability requirements not satisfied by its predecessor. The use of this gyro in the Dry Gyro Inertial Reference Unit I (DRIRU I) marked the first application of a DTG in a spacecraft attitude reference unit. Design and performance characteristics of DTG application in the Singer-Kearfott Inertial Reference Unit (SKIRU) are outlined, for example its minimal weight (7 lb), and operational reliability. The DTG has accomplished 156,000 failure-free hours, and a chart, logging test performance, indicates that this and other requirements were more than sufficiently satisfied. The unit has an unparalleled life span, with several units still operating after 70,000 to 130,000 hours, and a random drift which always remains under 0.0005 deg/h. Potential for improvements, such as drift performance, are considered.

  15. Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications. Final Report


    The Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications Study was conducted as part of the U.S. DOT's overall Rural Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program. The study examined the opportunities and challenges of planning and...

  16. Rural public transportation technologies : user needs and applications : final report


    The Rural Public Transportation Technologies: User Needs and Applications study was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (DOT) overall Rural Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Program. The study examined the opportuniti...

  17. Impact of Monoenergetic Photon Sources on Nonproliferation Applications Final Report

    Geddes, Cameron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Valentine, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quiter, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Descalle, Marie-Anne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Warren, Glen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinlaw, Matt [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Scott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chichester, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, Cameron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pozzi, Sara [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)


    Near-monoenergetic photon sources (MPSs) have the potential to improve sensitivity at greatly reduced dose in existing applications and enable new capabilities in other applications, particularly where passive signatures do not penetrate or are insufficiently accurate. MPS advantages include the ability to select energy, energy spread, flux, and pulse structures to deliver only the photons needed for the application, while suppressing extraneous dose and background. Some MPSs also offer narrow angular divergence photon beams which can target dose and/or mitigate scattering contributions to image contrast degradation. Current bremsstrahlung photon sources (e.g., linacs and betatrons) produce photons over a broad range of energies, thus delivering unnecessary dose that in some cases also interferes with the signature to be detected and/or restricts operations. Current sources must be collimated (reducing flux) to generate narrow divergence beams. While MPSs can in principle resolve these issues, they remain at relatively low TRL status. Candidate MPS technologies for nonproliferation applications are now being developed, each of which has different properties (e.g. broad vs. narrow angular divergence). Within each technology, source parameters trade off against one another (e.g. flux vs. energy spread), representing a large operation space. This report describes a broad survey of potential applications, identification of high priority applications, and detailed simulations addressing those priority applications. Requirements were derived for each application, and analysis and simulations were conducted to define MPS parameters that deliver benefit. The results can inform targeting of MPS development to deliver strong impact relative to current systems.

  18. Stationary battery guide: Design, application, and maintenance. Final report


    This guide has been prepared to assist a variety of users with stationary battery design, application, and maintenance. The following battery-related topics are discussed in detail: (1) fundamentals--how batteries are designed and how they work; (2) aging, degradation, and failures with an emphasis on how various maintenance tasks can prevent, detect, or repair certain degradation mechanisms; (3) applications--how batteries are designed for a specific purpose and how the battery industry has evolved; (4) sizing for different applications; (5) protection and charging; (6) periodic inspections and checks; (7) capacity discharge testing; (8) installation and replacement considerations; and (9) problems that can occur with battery systems. Since the original guide was published, new IEEE Recommended Practices related to stationary battery applications have been issued. This revision addresses those industry changes as well as some of the emerging issues related to the development of other industry documents. This guide has been prepared as a comprehensive reference source for stationary batteries and is intended to address the design, application, and maintenance needs of users. The technical discussions are at the application level. Fundamentals of battery design are covered in greater detail in this revision. More details related to internal cell materials, their operational relationship, and performance over the expected life of the battery cell are provided. This information has been included because many changes in battery cell materials, manufacturing and design processes are not always communicated to the user

  19. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 5A: Descriptions of astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations. Volume 5B: Descriptions of data sets from astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations

    Kim, Sang J. (Editor)


    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets of astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  20. Superhard nanophase cutter materials for rock drilling applications; FINAL

    Voronov, O.; Tompa, G.; Sadangi, R.; Kear, B.; Wilson, C.; Yan, P.


    The Low Pressure-High Temperature (LPHT) System has been developed for sintering of nanophase cutter and anvil materials. Microstructured and nanostructured cutters were sintered and studied for rock drilling applications. The WC/Co anvils were sintered and used for development of High Pressure-High Temperature (HPHT) Systems. Binderless diamond and superhard nanophase cutter materials were manufactured with help of HPHT Systems. The diamond materials were studied for rock machining and drilling applications. Binderless Polycrystalline Diamonds (BPCD) have high thermal stability and can be used in geothermal drilling of hard rock formations. Nanophase Polycrystalline Diamonds (NPCD) are under study in precision machining of optical lenses. Triphasic Diamond/Carbide/Metal Composites (TDCC) will be commercialized in drilling and machining applications

  1. Plan for advanced microelectronics processing technology application. Final report

    Goland, A.N.


    The ultimate objective of the tasks described in the research agreement was to identify resources primarily, but not exclusively, within New York State that are available for the development of a Center for Advanced Microelectronics Processing (CAMP). Identification of those resources would enable Brookhaven National Laboratory to prepare a program plan for the CAMP. In order to achieve the stated goal, the principal investigators undertook to meet the key personnel in relevant NYS industrial and academic organizations to discuss the potential for economic development that could accompany such a Center and to gauge the extent of participation that could be expected from each interested party. Integrated of these discussions was to be achieved through a workshop convened in the summer of 1990. The culmination of this workshop was to be a report (the final report) outlining a plan for implementing a Center in the state. As events unfolded, it became possible to identify the elements of a major center for x-ray lithography on Lone Island at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The principal investigators were than advised to substitute a working document based upon that concept in place of a report based upon the more general CAMP workshop originally envisioned. Following that suggestion from the New York State Science and Technology Foundation, the principals established a working group consisting of representatives of the Grumman Corporation, Columbia University, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Brookhaven National Laboratory. Regular meetings and additional communications between these collaborators have produced a preproposal that constitutes the main body of the final report required by the contract. Other components of this final report include the interim report and a brief description of the activities which followed the establishment of the X-ray Lithography Center working group.

  2. Solair heater program: solair applications study. Final report


    General Electric has designed and tested a low-cost solar system using a vacuum tube solar air heater under ERDA Contract E(11-1)-2705. This contract extension has been provided to evaluate various applications of this solar collector. The evaluation identified attractive applications, evaluated corresponding control procedures, estimated system performance, compared economically insolation and insulation, and evaluated the repackaging of off-the-shelf equipment for improved cost effectiveness. The results of this study prompted General Electric's marketing group to do a detailed commercialization study of a residential domestic water heating system using the Solair concept which has been selected as the most attractive application. Other attractive applications are space/domestic water heating and a heat pump assisted solar system/domestic water heating where the heat pump and the solar system function in parallel. A prime advantage of heated air solar systems over liquid systems is cost and longer life which results in higher BTU's/dollar. Other air system advantages are no liquid leakage problems, no toxicity of freezing problems, and less complicated equipment. A hybrid solar system has been identified that can improve the market penetration of solar energy. This system would use the existing mass of the house for energy storage thereby reducing solar cost and complexity. Adequate performance can be obtained with house temperature swings comparable to those used in nighttime setback of the thermostat. Details of this system are provided.

  3. Research Applications for Teaching (RAFT) Project. Final Report.

    Thomson, James R., Jr.; Handley, Herbert M.

    A report is given of the development and progress of the Research Applications for Teaching (RAFT) project, developed at Mississippi State University. Based upon research findings relative to effective teaching and effective schooling, five curriculum modules were prepared and implemented in instruction. In the second year of the project the…

  4. Final Report: Migration Mechanisms for Large-scale Parallel Applications

    Jason Nieh


    Process migration is the ability to transfer a process from one machine to another. It is a useful facility in distributed computing environments, especially as computing devices become more pervasive and Internet access becomes more ubiquitous. The potential benefits of process migration, among others, are fault resilience by migrating processes off of faulty hosts, data access locality by migrating processes closer to the data, better system response time by migrating processes closer to users, dynamic load balancing by migrating processes to less loaded hosts, and improved service availability and administration by migrating processes before host maintenance so that applications can continue to run with minimal downtime. Although process migration provides substantial potential benefits and many approaches have been considered, achieving transparent process migration functionality has been difficult in practice. To address this problem, our work has designed, implemented, and evaluated new and powerful transparent process checkpoint-restart and migration mechanisms for desktop, server, and parallel applications that operate across heterogeneous cluster and mobile computing environments. A key aspect of this work has been to introduce lightweight operating system virtualization to provide processes with private, virtual namespaces that decouple and isolate processes from dependencies on the host operating system instance. This decoupling enables processes to be transparently checkpointed and migrated without modifying, recompiling, or relinking applications or the operating system. Building on this lightweight operating system virtualization approach, we have developed novel technologies that enable (1) coordinated, consistent checkpoint-restart and migration of multiple processes, (2) fast checkpointing of process and file system state to enable restart of multiple parallel execution environments and time travel, (3) process migration across heterogeneous

  5. CO2 laser cutting of ultra thin (75 μm) glass based rigid optical solar reflector (OSR) for spacecraft application

    Mishra, Shubham; Sridhara, N.; Mitra, Avijit; Yougandar, B.; Dash, Sarat Kumar; Agarwal, Sanjay; Dey, Arjun


    Present study reports for the first time laser cutting of multilayered coatings on both side of ultra thin (i.e., 75 μm) glass substrate based rigid optical solar reflector (OSR) for spacecraft thermal control application. The optimization of cutting parameters was carried out as a function of laser power, cutting speed and number of cutting passes and their effect on cutting edge quality. Systematic and in-detail microstructural characterizations were carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques to study the laser affected zone and cutting edge quality. Sheet resistance and water contact angle experiments were also conducted locally both prior and after laser cut to investigate the changes of electrical and surface properties, if any.

  6. Hydrothermal Carbonization: Modeling, Final Properties Design and Applications: A Review

    Silvia Román


    Full Text Available Active research on biomass hydrothermal carbonization (HTC continues to demonstrate its advantages over other thermochemical processes, in particular the interesting benefits that are associated with carbonaceous solid products, called hydrochar (HC. The areas of applications of HC range from biofuel to doped porous material for adsorption, energy storage, and catalysis. At the same time, intensive research has been aimed at better elucidating the process mechanisms and kinetics, and how the experimental variables (temperature, time, biomass load, feedstock composition, as well as their interactions affect the distribution between phases and their composition. This review provides an analysis of the state of the art on HTC, mainly with regard to the effect of variables on the process, the associated kinetics, and the characteristics of the solid phase (HC, as well as some of the more studied applications so far. The focus is on research made over the last five years on these topics.

  7. Development of Advanced Polymeric Reflector for CSP Applications - Final Report

    Treglio, Richard, T; Boyle, Keith, A; Henderson, Hildie


    This project attempted to deposit extremely thick and dense protective barrier onto a mirror film stack with a PET substrate. The target thickness was very high for thin film products; particularly since large areas and long production lengths of film are needed to make the final product economic. The technical investigations in this project centered on maintaining a quality barrier (i.e. dense film) while evaporating alumina with a high deposition rate onto a low cost PET substrate. The project found that the proposed configuration, particularly direct ion bombardment, provides too narrow a solution space to effectively and economically produce the ASRM attempted. The initial project goals were met when depositing on a limited width and at a modest rate. However, expanding to wide deposition at aggressive deposition rates did not produce consistent film quality. Economic viability drives the process to maximize deposition rate. The current system configuration has a limiting upper rate threshold that does not appear economically viable. For future work, alternate approaches seem needed to address the challenges encountered in the scale-up phase of this project.

  8. Siting guidelines for utility application of wind turbines. Final report

    Pennell, W.T.


    Utility-oriented guidelines are described for identifying viable sites for wind turbines. Topics and procedures are also discussed that are important in carrying out a wind turbine siting program. These topics include: a description of the Department of Energy wind resource atlases; procedures for predicting wind turbine performance at potential sites; methods for analyzing wind turbine economics; procedures for estimating installation and maintenance costs; methods for anlayzing the distribution of wind resources over an area; and instrumentation for documenting wind behavior at potential sites. The procedure described is applicable to small and large utilities. Although the procedure was developed as a site-selection tool, it can also be used by a utility who wishes to estimate the potential for wind turbine penetration into its future generation mix.

  9. SIAM conference on inverse problems: Geophysical applications. Final technical report



    This conference was the second in a series devoted to a particular area of inverse problems. The theme of this series is to discuss problems of major scientific importance in a specific area from a mathematical perspective. The theme of this symposium was geophysical applications. In putting together the program we tried to include a wide range of mathematical scientists and to interpret geophysics in as broad a sense as possible. Our speaker came from industry, government laboratories, and diverse departments in academia. We managed to attract a geographically diverse audience with participation from five continents. There were talks devoted to seismology, hydrology, determination of the earth`s interior on a global scale as well as oceanographic and atmospheric inverse problems.

  10. Heat pumps for geothermal applications: availability and performance. Final report

    Reistad, G.M.; Means, P.


    A study of the performance and availability of water-source heat pumps was carried out. The primary purposes were to obtain the necessary basic information required for proper evaluation of the role of water-source heat pumps in geothermal energy utilization and/or to identify the research needed to provide this information. The Search of Relevant Literature considers the historical background, applications, achieved and projected performance evaluations and performance improvement techniques. The commercial water-source heat pump industry is considered in regard to both the present and projected availability and performance of units. Performance evaluations are made for units that use standard components but are redesigned for use in geothermal heating.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cells towards real life applications. Final report


    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells offer a clean and efficient way of producing electricity and heat from a wide selection of fuels. The project addressed three major challenges to be overcome by the technology to make commercialisation possible. (1) At the cell level, increased efficiency combined with production cost reduction has been achieved through an optimization of the manufacturing processes, b) by using alternative raw materials with a lower purchase price and c) by introducing a new generation of fuel cells with reduced loss and higher efficiency. (2) At the stack level, production cost reduction is reduced and manufacturing capacity is increased through an optimization of the stack production. (3) At the system level, development of integrated hotbox concepts for the market segments distributed generation (DG), micro combined heat and power (mCHP), and auxiliary power units (APU) have been developed. In the mCHP segment, two concepts have been developed and validated with regards to market requirements and scalability. In the APU-segment, different types of reformers have been tested and it has been proven that diesel can be reformed through appropriate reformers. Finally, operation experience and feedback has been gained by deployment of stacks in the test facility at the H.C. OErsted Power Plant (HCV). This demonstration has been carried out in collaboration between TOFC and DONG Energy Power A/S (DONG), who has participated as a subcontractor to TOFC. The demonstration has given valuable knowledge and experience with design, start-up and operation of small power units connected to the grid and future development within especially the mCHP segment will benefit from this. In this report, the project results are described for each of the work packages in the project. (Author)

  12. Dish/Stirling for Department of Defense applications final report

    Diver, R.B.; Menicucci, D.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy and Environment Div.


    This report describes a Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project to field a dish/Stirling system at a southwestern US military facility. This project entitled ``Dish/Stirling for DoD Applications`` was started in August 1993 and was completed in September 1996. The project`s objective was to assist military facilities to field and evaluate emerging environmentally sound and potentially economical dish/Stirling technology. Dish/Stirling technology has the potential to produce electricity at competitive costs while at the same time providing a secure and environmentally benign source of power. In accordance with the SERDP charter, this project leveraged a US Department of Energy (DOE) cost-shared project between Sandia National Laboratories and Cummins Power Generation, Inc. (CPG). CPG is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cummins Engine Company, a leading manufacturer of diesel engines. To accomplish this objective, the project called for the installation of a dish/Stirling system at a military facility to establish first-hand experience in the operation of a dish/Stirling system. To scope the potential DoD market for dish/Stirling technology and to identify the site for the demonstration, a survey of southwestern US military facilities was also conducted. This report describes the project history, the Cummins dish/Stirling system, results from the military market survey, and the field test results.


    A. S. Panasugin


    Full Text Available The methodology of rating of the galvanic final tailings applicability for further processing in the interests of needs of metallurgical production of the Republic Belarus is offered.

  14. Applications in soil-structure interactions. Final report, June 1979

    Jhaveri, D.P.


    Complex phenomenon of soil-structure interaction was assessed. Relationships between the characteristics of the earthquake ground motions, the local soil and geologic conditions, and the response of the structures to the ground motions were studied. (I) The use of the explicit finite-difference method to study linear elastic soil-structure interaction is described. A linear two-dimensional study of different conditions that influence the dynamic compliance and scattering properties of foundations is presented. (II) The FLUSH computer code was used to compute the soil-structure interaction during SIMQUAKE 1B, an experimental underground blast excitation of a 1/12-scale model of a nuclear containment structure. Evaluation was performed using transient excitation, applied to a finite-difference grid. Dynamic foundation properties were studied. Results indicate that the orientation and location of the source relative to the site and the wave environment at the site may be important parameters to be considered. Differences between the computed and experimental recorded responses are indicated, and reasons for the discrepancy are suggested. (III) A case study that examined structural and ground response data tabulated and catalogued from tests at the Nevada Test Site for its applicability to the soil-structure interaction questions of interest is presented. Description, methods, and evaluation of data on soil-structure interaction from forced vibration tests are presented. A two-dimensional finite-difference grid representing a relatively rigid structure resting on uniform ground was analyzed and monitored. Fourier spectra of monitored time histories were also evaluated and are presented. Results show clear evidence of soil-structure interaction and significant agreement with theory. 128 figures, 18 tables

  15. Case study applications of venture analysis: fluidized bed. Final report

    Mosle, R.


    In order to appraise the case for government intervention in the case of atmospheric fluid-bed combustion, Energy Resources Company and Rotan Mosle have developed a methodology containing four key elements. The first is an economic and environmental characterization of the new technology; the second, a survey of its prospective users and vendors; the third, a cost-benefit analysis of its prospective social benefits; and the fourth, an analytical model of its market penetration and the effects thereon of a basket of government incentives. Three major technical obstacles exist to continued AFBC development: feeding coal and limestone reliably to the boiler, tube erosion and corrosion, and developing boiler turndown capability. The review of the economic, environmental and technical attributes of the new technology has suggested that the preliminary venture can be selected with confidence as a commercial prospect capable of detailed evaluation from both private and public perspectives. The venture choice can therefore be considered firm: it will be the equipment required for the combustion of coal in atmospheric fluid beds as applied to industrial process steam in boilers of at least 83 Kpph capacity. The most effective demonstration of the potential of AFBC in the eyes of prospective industrial users is that provided by a project conducted by the private sector with minimal government direction. Unlike the ''experimental'' style of existing mixed public-private demonstration projects, the pressure to achieve reliability in more commercial applications would serve rapidly to reveal more clearly the potential of AFBC. The marketplace can be allowed to decide its fate thereafter. Once AFBC has been successfully demonstrated, the relative merits of AFBC and coal-FGD are best left to prospective users to evaluate.

  16. Spacecraft Spin Test Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to correct unbalances of spacecraft by using dynamic measurement techniques and static/coupled measurements to provide products of...

  17. Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor Final Report

    Modro, S.M.; Fisher, J.E.; Weaver, K.D.; Reyes, J.N.; Groome, J.T.; Babka, P.; Carlson, T.M.


    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objectives were to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility. This report presents the results of the project. After an initial exploratory and evolutionary process, as documented in the October 2000 report, the project focused on developing a modular reactor design that consists of a self-contained assembly with a reactor vessel, steam generators, and containment. These modular units would be manufactured at a single centralized facility, transported by rail, road, and/or ship, and installed as a series of self-contained units. This approach also allows for staged construction of an NPP and ''pull and replace'' refueling and maintenance during each five-year refueling cycle. Development of the baseline design concept has been sufficiently completed to determine that it complies with the safety requirements and criteria, and satisfies the major goals already noted. The more significant features of the baseline single-unit design concept include: (1) Thermal Power--150 MWt; (2) Net Electrical Output--35 MWe; (3) Steam Generator Type--Vertical, helical tubes; (4) Fuel UO 2 , 8% enriched; (5) Refueling Intervals--5 years; (6) Life-Cycle--60 years. The economic performance was assessed by designing a power plant with an electric generation capacity in the range of current and advanced evolutionary systems. This approach allows for direct comparison of economic performance and forms a basis for further evaluation, economic and technical, of the proposed design and for the design evolution towards a more cost competitive concept. Applications such as cogeneration

  18. Video-Game-Like Engine for Depicting Spacecraft Trajectories

    Upchurch, Paul R.


    GoView is a video-game-like software engine, written in the C and C++ computing languages, that enables real-time, three-dimensional (3D)-appearing visual representation of spacecraft and trajectories (1) from any perspective; (2) at any spatial scale from spacecraft to Solar-system dimensions; (3) in user-selectable time scales; (4) in the past, present, and/or future; (5) with varying speeds; and (6) forward or backward in time. GoView constructs an interactive 3D world by use of spacecraft-mission data from pre-existing engineering software tools. GoView can also be used to produce distributable application programs for depicting NASA orbital missions on personal computers running the Windows XP, Mac OsX, and Linux operating systems. GoView enables seamless rendering of Cartesian coordinate spaces with programmable graphics hardware, whereas prior programs for depicting spacecraft trajectories variously require non-Cartesian coordinates and/or are not compatible with programmable hardware. GoView incorporates an algorithm for nonlinear interpolation between arbitrary reference frames, whereas the prior programs are restricted to special classes of inertial and non-inertial reference frames. Finally, whereas the prior programs present complex user interfaces requiring hours of training, the GoView interface provides guidance, enabling use without any training.

  19. 76 FR 57646 - Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin


    ... Final Withdrawal of Certain Federal Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria Applicable to Wisconsin AGENCY... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to Wisconsin? C. Why is the EPA not withdrawing Wisconsin's chronic endrin aquatic life use criterion for waters designated as Warm Water Sportfish and Warm Water...

  20. Spacecraft Charge Monitor

    Goembel, L.


    We are currently developing a flight prototype Spacecraft Charge Monitor (SCM) with support from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The device will use a recently proposed high energy-resolution electron spectroscopic technique to determine spacecraft floating potential. The inspiration for the technique came from data collected by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites in the 1970s. The data available from the AE satellites indicate that the SCM may be able to determine spacecraft floating potential to within 0.1 V under certain conditions. Such accurate measurement of spacecraft charge could be used to correct biases in space plasma measurements. The device may also be able to measure spacecraft floating potential in the solar wind and in orbit around other planets.

  1. Claims Procedure for Plans Providing Disability Benefits; 90-Day Delay of Applicability Date. Final rule; delay of applicability


    This document delays for ninety (90) days--through April 1, 2018--the applicability of a final rule amending the claims procedure requirements applicable to ERISA-covered employee benefit plans that provide disability benefits (Final Rule). The Final Rule was published in the Federal Register on December 19, 2016, became effective on January 18, 2017, and was scheduled to become applicable on January 1, 2018. The delay announced in this document is necessary to enable the Department of Labor to carefully consider comments and data as part of its effort, pursuant to Executive Order 13777, to examine regulatory alternatives that meet its objectives of ensuring the full and fair review of disability benefit claims while not imposing unnecessary costs and adverse consequences.

  2. Attitude Fusion Techniques for Spacecraft

    Bjarnø, Jonas Bækby

    Spacecraft platform instability constitutes one of the most significant limiting factors in hyperacuity pointing and tracking applications, yet the demand for accurate, timely and reliable attitude information is ever increasing. The PhD research project described within this dissertation has...... served to investigate the solution space for augmenting the DTU μASC stellar reference sensor with a miniature Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), thereby obtaining improved bandwidth, accuracy and overall operational robustness of the fused instrument. Present day attitude determination requirements are met...... of the instrument, and affecting operations during agile and complex spacecraft attitude maneuvers. As such, there exists a theoretical foundation for augmenting the high frequency performance of the μASC instrument, by harnessing the complementary nature of optical stellar reference and inertial sensor technology...

  3. Fractionated Spacecraft Architectures Seeding Study

    Mathieu, Charlotte; Weigel, Annalisa


    .... Models were developed from a customer-centric perspective to assess different fractionated spacecraft architectures relative to traditional spacecraft architectures using multi-attribute analysis...

  4. Spacecraft momentum control systems

    Leve, Frederick A; Peck, Mason A


    The goal of this book is to serve both as a practical technical reference and a resource for gaining a fuller understanding of the state of the art of spacecraft momentum control systems, specifically looking at control moment gyroscopes (CMGs). As a result, the subject matter includes theory, technology, and systems engineering. The authors combine material on system-level architecture of spacecraft that feature momentum-control systems with material about the momentum-control hardware and software. This also encompasses material on the theoretical and algorithmic approaches to the control of space vehicles with CMGs. In essence, CMGs are the attitude-control actuators that make contemporary highly agile spacecraft possible. The rise of commercial Earth imaging, the advances in privately built spacecraft (including small satellites), and the growing popularity of the subject matter in academic circles over the past decade argues that now is the time for an in-depth treatment of the topic. CMGs are augmented ...

  5. Spacecraft Material Outgassing Data

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This compilation of outgassing data of materials intended for spacecraft use were obtained at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), utilizing equipment developed...

  6. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  7. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    Larsen, Brian Arthur


    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  8. Technical support document for land application of sewage sludge. Volume 1. Final report

    Jones, A.; Beyer, L.; Rookwood, M.; Pacenka, J.; Bergin, J.


    The document provides the technical background and justification for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) final regulation (40 CFR Part 503) covering the land application of sewage sludge. The document summarizes current practices in land application and presents data supporting the risk assessment methodology used to derive human health and environmental risk-based limits for contaminants in land applied sewage sludge. The management practices associated with land application are outlined and the different pathways by which contaminants reach highly-exposed individuals (HEIs) through land application are discussed

  9. Deployable Brake for Spacecraft

    Rausch, J. R.; Maloney, J. W.


    Aerodynamic shield that could be opened and closed proposed. Report presents concepts for deployable aerodynamic brake. Brake used by spacecraft returning from high orbit to low orbit around Earth. Spacecraft makes grazing passes through atmosphere to slow down by drag of brake. Brake flexible shield made of woven metal or ceramic withstanding high temperatures created by air friction. Stored until needed, then deployed by set of struts.

  10. Applications for approval to market a new drug; complete response letter; amendments to unapproved applications. Final rule.


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations on new drug applications (NDAs) and abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for approval to market new drugs and generic drugs (drugs for which approval is sought in an ANDA). The final rule discontinues FDA's use of approvable letters and not approvable letters when taking action on marketing applications. Instead, we will send applicants a complete response letter to indicate that the review cycle for an application is complete and that the application is not ready for approval. We are also revising the regulations on extending the review cycle due to the submission of an amendment to an unapproved application and starting a new review cycle after the resubmission of an application following receipt of a complete response letter. In addition, we are adding to the regulations on biologics license applications (BLAs) provisions on the issuance of complete response letters to BLA applicants. We are taking these actions to implement the user fee performance goals referenced in the Prescription Drug User Fee Amendments of 2002 (PDUFA III) that address procedures and establish target timeframes for reviewing human drug applications.

  11. 77 FR 50153 - Special Purpose Permit Application; Hawaii-Based Shallow-Set Longline Fishery; Final...


    ...-FF01M01000] Special Purpose Permit Application; Hawaii-Based Shallow-Set Longline Fishery; Final... of the Hawaii-based shallow-set longline fishery, which targets swordfish. After evaluating several... take of seabirds in the shallow-set longline fishery based in Hawaii. The analysis of alternatives is...

  12. Industry perspectives on Plug-& -Play Spacecraft Avionics

    Franck, R.; Graven, P.; Liptak, L.

    This paper describes the methodologies and findings from an industry survey of awareness and utility of Spacecraft Plug-& -Play Avionics (SPA). The survey was conducted via interviews, in-person and teleconference, with spacecraft prime contractors and suppliers. It focuses primarily on AFRL's SPA technology development activities but also explores the broader applicability and utility of Plug-& -Play (PnP) architectures for spacecraft. Interviews include large and small suppliers as well as large and small spacecraft prime contractors. Through these “ product marketing” interviews, awareness and attitudes can be assessed, key technical and market barriers can be identified, and opportunities for improvement can be uncovered. Although this effort focuses on a high-level assessment, similar processes can be used to develop business cases and economic models which may be necessary to support investment decisions.

  13. Mechanical Design of Spacecraft


    In the spring of 1962, engineers from the Engineering Mechanics Division of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory gave a series of lectures on spacecraft design at the Engineering Design seminars conducted at the California Institute of Technology. Several of these lectures were subsequently given at Stanford University as part of the Space Technology seminar series sponsored by the Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Presented here are notes taken from these lectures. The lectures were conceived with the intent of providing the audience with a glimpse of the activities of a few mechanical engineers who are involved in designing, building, and testing spacecraft. Engineering courses generally consist of heavily idealized problems in order to allow the more efficient teaching of mathematical technique. Students, therefore, receive a somewhat limited exposure to actual engineering problems, which are typified by more unknowns than equations. For this reason it was considered valuable to demonstrate some of the problems faced by spacecraft designers, the processes used to arrive at solutions, and the interactions between the engineer and the remainder of the organization in which he is constrained to operate. These lecture notes are not so much a compilation of sophisticated techniques of analysis as they are a collection of examples of spacecraft hardware and associated problems. They will be of interest not so much to the experienced spacecraft designer as to those who wonder what part the mechanical engineer plays in an effort such as the exploration of space.

  14. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 3B: Descriptions of data sets from low- and medium-altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations

    Jackson, John E. (Editor); Horowitz, Richard (Editor)


    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from low and medium altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  15. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 1B: Descriptions of data sets from planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and investigations

    Horowitz, Richard (Compiler); Jackson, John E. (Compiler); Cameron, Winifred S. (Compiler)


    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of planetary and heliocentric spacecraft and associated experiments. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  16. Data Catalog Series for Space Science and Applications Flight Missions. Volume 2B; Descriptions of Data Sets from Geostationary and High-Altitude Scientific Spacecraft and Investigations

    Schofield, Norman J. (Editor); Parthasarathy, R. (Editor); Hills, H. Kent (Editor)


    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets from geostationary and high altitude scientific spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  17. Spacecraft Attitude Determination

    Bak, Thomas

    This thesis describes the development of an attitude determination system for spacecraft based only on magnetic field measurements. The need for such system is motivated by the increased demands for inexpensive, lightweight solutions for small spacecraft. These spacecraft demands full attitude...... determination based on simple, reliable sensors. Meeting these objectives with a single vector magnetometer is difficult and requires temporal fusion of data in order to avoid local observability problems. In order to guaranteed globally nonsingular solutions, quaternions are generally the preferred attitude...... is a detailed study of the influence of approximations in the modeling of the system. The quantitative effects of errors in the process and noise statistics are discussed in detail. The third contribution is the introduction of these methods to the attitude determination on-board the Ørsted satellite...

  18. Electromagnetic Forces on a Relativistic Spacecraft in the Interstellar Medium

    Hoang, Thiem [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 34055 (Korea, Republic of); Loeb, Abraham, E-mail:, E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States)


    A relativistic spacecraft of the type envisioned by the Breakthrough Starshot initiative will inevitably become charged through collisions with interstellar particles and UV photons. Interstellar magnetic fields would therefore deflect the trajectory of the spacecraft. We calculate the expected deflection for typical interstellar conditions. We also find that the charge distribution of the spacecraft is asymmetric, producing an electric dipole moment. The interaction between the moving electric dipole and the interstellar magnetic field is found to produce a large torque, which can result in fast oscillation of the spacecraft around the axis perpendicular to the direction of motion, with a period of ∼0.5 hr. We then study the spacecraft rotation arising from impulsive torques by dust bombardment. Finally, we discuss the effect of the spacecraft rotation and suggest several methods to mitigate it.

  19. Intelligent spacecraft module

    Oungrinis, Konstantinos-Alketas; Liapi, Marianthi; Kelesidi, Anna; Gargalis, Leonidas; Telo, Marinela; Ntzoufras, Sotiris; Paschidi, Mariana


    The paper presents the development of an on-going research project that focuses on a human-centered design approach to habitable spacecraft modules. It focuses on the technical requirements and proposes approaches on how to achieve a spatial arrangement of the interior that addresses sufficiently the functional, physiological and psychosocial needs of the people living and working in such confined spaces that entail long-term environmental threats to human health and performance. Since the research perspective examines the issue from a qualitative point of view, it is based on establishing specific relationships between the built environment and its users, targeting people's bodily and psychological comfort as a measure toward a successful mission. This research has two basic branches, one examining the context of the system's operation and behavior and the other in the direction of identifying, experimenting and formulating the environment that successfully performs according to the desired context. The latter aspect is researched upon the construction of a scaled-model on which we run series of tests to identify the materiality, the geometry and the electronic infrastructure required. Guided by the principles of sensponsive architecture, the ISM research project explores the application of the necessary spatial arrangement and behavior for a user-centered, functional interior where the appropriate intelligent systems are based upon the existing mechanical and chemical support ones featured on space today, and especially on the ISS. The problem is set according to the characteristics presented at the Mars500 project, regarding the living quarters of six crew-members, along with their hygiene, leisure and eating areas. Transformable design techniques introduce spatial economy, adjustable zoning and increased efficiency within the interior, securing at the same time precise spatial orientation and character at any given time. The sensponsive configuration is

  20. Printable Spacecraft: Flexible Electronic Platforms for NASA Missions. Phase One

    Short, Kendra (Principal Investigator); Van Buren, David (Principal Investigator)


    Atmospheric confetti. Inchworm crawlers. Blankets of ground penetrating radar. These are some of the unique mission concepts which could be enabled by a printable spacecraft. Printed electronics technology offers enormous potential to transform the way NASA builds spacecraft. A printed spacecraft's low mass, volume and cost offer dramatic potential impacts to many missions. Network missions could increase from a few discrete measurements to tens of thousands of platforms improving areal density and system reliability. Printed platforms could be added to any prime mission as a low-cost, minimum resource secondary payload to augment the science return. For a small fraction of the mass and cost of a traditional lander, a Europa flagship mission might carry experimental printed surface platforms. An Enceladus Explorer could carry feather-light printed platforms to release into volcanic plumes to measure composition and impact energies. The ability to print circuits directly onto a variety of surfaces, opens the possibility of multi-functional structures and membranes such as "smart" solar sails and balloons. The inherent flexibility of a printed platform allows for in-situ re-configurability for aerodynamic control or mobility. Engineering telemetry of wheel/soil interactions are possible with a conformal printed sensor tape fit around a rover wheel. Environmental time history within a sample return canister could be recorded with a printed sensor array that fits flush to the interior of the canister. Phase One of the NIAC task entitled "Printable Spacecraft" investigated the viability of printed electronics technologies for creating multi-functional spacecraft platforms. Mission concepts and architectures that could be enhanced or enabled with this technology were explored. This final report captures the results and conclusions of the Phase One study. First, the report presents the approach taken in conducting the study and a mapping of results against the proposed

  1. Developing Sustainable Spacecraft Water Management Systems

    Thomas, Evan A.; Klaus, David M.


    It is well recognized that water handling systems used in a spacecraft are prone to failure caused by biofouling and mineral scaling, which can clog mechanical systems and degrade the performance of capillary-based technologies. Long duration spaceflight applications, such as extended stays at a Lunar Outpost or during a Mars transit mission, will increasingly benefit from hardware that is generally more robust and operationally sustainable overtime. This paper presents potential design and testing considerations for improving the reliability of water handling technologies for exploration spacecraft. Our application of interest is to devise a spacecraft wastewater management system wherein fouling can be accommodated by design attributes of the management hardware, rather than implementing some means of preventing its occurrence.

  2. On-orbit assembly of a team of flexible spacecraft using potential field based method

    Chen, Ti; Wen, Hao; Hu, Haiyan; Jin, Dongping


    In this paper, a novel control strategy is developed based on artificial potential field for the on-orbit autonomous assembly of four flexible spacecraft without inter-member collision. Each flexible spacecraft is simplified as a hub-beam model with truncated beam modes in the floating frame of reference and the communication graph among the four spacecraft is assumed to be a ring topology. The four spacecraft are driven to a pre-assembly configuration first and then to the assembly configuration. In order to design the artificial potential field for the first step, each spacecraft is outlined by an ellipse and a virtual leader of circle is introduced. The potential field mainly depends on the attitude error between the flexible spacecraft and its neighbor, the radial Euclidian distance between the ellipse and the circle and the classical Euclidian distance between the centers of the ellipse and the circle. It can be demonstrated that there are no local minima for the potential function and the global minimum is zero. If the function is equal to zero, the solution is not a certain state, but a set. All the states in the set are corresponding to the desired configurations. The Lyapunov analysis guarantees that the four spacecraft asymptotically converge to the target configuration. Moreover, the other potential field is also included to avoid the inter-member collision. In the control design of the second step, only small modification is made for the controller in the first step. Finally, the successful application of the proposed control law to the assembly mission is verified by two case studies.

  3. Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; Mckibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave


    This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

  4. Robust Spacecraft Component Detection in Point Clouds

    Quanmao Wei


    Full Text Available Automatic component detection of spacecraft can assist in on-orbit operation and space situational awareness. Spacecraft are generally composed of solar panels and cuboidal or cylindrical modules. These components can be simply represented by geometric primitives like plane, cuboid and cylinder. Based on this prior, we propose a robust automatic detection scheme to automatically detect such basic components of spacecraft in three-dimensional (3D point clouds. In the proposed scheme, cylinders are first detected in the iteration of the energy-based geometric model fitting and cylinder parameter estimation. Then, planes are detected by Hough transform and further described as bounded patches with their minimum bounding rectangles. Finally, the cuboids are detected with pair-wise geometry relations from the detected patches. After successive detection of cylinders, planar patches and cuboids, a mid-level geometry representation of the spacecraft can be delivered. We tested the proposed component detection scheme on spacecraft 3D point clouds synthesized by computer-aided design (CAD models and those recovered by image-based reconstruction, respectively. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed scheme can detect the basic geometric components effectively and has fine robustness against noise and point distribution density.

  5. Robust Spacecraft Component Detection in Point Clouds.

    Wei, Quanmao; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Haopeng


    Automatic component detection of spacecraft can assist in on-orbit operation and space situational awareness. Spacecraft are generally composed of solar panels and cuboidal or cylindrical modules. These components can be simply represented by geometric primitives like plane, cuboid and cylinder. Based on this prior, we propose a robust automatic detection scheme to automatically detect such basic components of spacecraft in three-dimensional (3D) point clouds. In the proposed scheme, cylinders are first detected in the iteration of the energy-based geometric model fitting and cylinder parameter estimation. Then, planes are detected by Hough transform and further described as bounded patches with their minimum bounding rectangles. Finally, the cuboids are detected with pair-wise geometry relations from the detected patches. After successive detection of cylinders, planar patches and cuboids, a mid-level geometry representation of the spacecraft can be delivered. We tested the proposed component detection scheme on spacecraft 3D point clouds synthesized by computer-aided design (CAD) models and those recovered by image-based reconstruction, respectively. Experimental results illustrate that the proposed scheme can detect the basic geometric components effectively and has fine robustness against noise and point distribution density.

  6. Spacecraft Thermal Management

    Hurlbert, Kathryn Miller


    In the 21st century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Russian Federal Space Agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine, the China National Space Administration, and many other organizations representing spacefaring nations shall continue or newly implement robust space programs. Additionally, business corporations are pursuing commercialization of space for enabling space tourism and capital business ventures. Future space missions are likely to include orbiting satellites, orbiting platforms, space stations, interplanetary vehicles, planetary surface missions, and planetary research probes. Many of these missions will include humans to conduct research for scientific and terrestrial benefits and for space tourism, and this century will therefore establish a permanent human presence beyond Earth s confines. Other missions will not include humans, but will be autonomous (e.g., satellites, robotic exploration), and will also serve to support the goals of exploring space and providing benefits to Earth s populace. This section focuses on thermal management systems for human space exploration, although the guiding principles can be applied to unmanned space vehicles as well. All spacecraft require a thermal management system to maintain a tolerable thermal environment for the spacecraft crew and/or equipment. The requirements for human rating and the specified controlled temperature range (approximately 275 K - 310 K) for crewed spacecraft are unique, and key design criteria stem from overall vehicle and operational/programatic considerations. These criteria include high reliability, low mass, minimal power requirements, low development and operational costs, and high confidence for mission success and safety. This section describes the four major subsystems for crewed spacecraft thermal management systems, and design considerations for each. Additionally, some examples of specialized or advanced thermal system technologies are presented

  7. Lead plant application of leak-before-break to high energy piping. Final report, January 1989


    This report presents the experience gained during a successful application of a leak-before-break program by Duquesne Light Company. This program was directed at the high energy nuclear piping at Beaver Valley Power Station - Unit 2. This experience can be applied to other nuclear plant leak-before-break efforts in order to minimize the number of pipe whip restraints, jet impingement shields, snubbers, and to discount the consideration of remaining pipe rupture dynamic effects. The chronology of events leading to Nuclear Regulatory Commission approval of the Beaver Valley Power Station - Unit 2 lead plant effort is described. The final report and pertinent sections of the final Safety Evaluation Report are also included. (author)

  8. Embedded Thermal Control for Spacecraft Subsystems Miniaturization

    Didion, Jeffrey R.


    Optimization of spacecraft size, weight and power (SWaP) resources is an explicit technical priority at Goddard Space Flight Center. Embedded Thermal Control Subsystems are a promising technology with many cross cutting NSAA, DoD and commercial applications: 1.) CubeSatSmallSat spacecraft architecture, 2.) high performance computing, 3.) On-board spacecraft electronics, 4.) Power electronics and RF arrays. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem technology development efforts focus on component, board and enclosure level devices that will ultimately include intelligent capabilities. The presentation will discuss electric, capillary and hybrid based hardware research and development efforts at Goddard Space Flight Center. The Embedded Thermal Control Subsystem development program consists of interrelated sub-initiatives, e.g., chip component level thermal control devices, self-sensing thermal management, advanced manufactured structures. This presentation includes technical status and progress on each of these investigations. Future sub-initiatives, technical milestones and program goals will be presented.

  9. Automating Trend Analysis for Spacecraft Constellations

    Davis, George; Cooter, Miranda; Updike, Clark; Carey, Everett; Mackey, Jennifer; Rykowski, Timothy; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)


    missions such as DRACO with the intent that mission operations costs be significantly reduced. The goal of the Constellation Spacecraft Trend Analysis Toolkit (CSTAT) project is to serve as the pathfinder for a fully automated trending system to support spacecraft constellations. The development approach to be taken is evolutionary. In the first year of the project, the intent is to significantly advance the state of the art in current trending systems through improved functionality and increased automation. In the second year, the intent is to add an expert system shell, likely through the adaptation of an existing commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) or government-off-the-shelf (GOTS) tool to implement some level of the trending intelligence that humans currently provide in manual operations. In the third year, the intent is to infuse the resulting technology into a near-term constellation or formation-flying mission to test it and gain experience in automated trending. The lessons learned from the real missions operations experience will then be used to improve the system, and to ultimately incorporate it into a fully autonomous, closed-loop mission operations system that is truly capable of supporting large constellations. In this paper, the process of automating trend analysis for spacecraft constellations will be addressed. First, the results of a survey on automation in spacecraft mission operations in general, and in trending systems in particular will be presented to provide an overview of the current state of the art. Next, a rule-based model for implementing intelligent spacecraft subsystem trending will be then presented, followed by a survey of existing COTS/GOTS tools that could be adapted for implementing such a model. The baseline design and architecture of the CSTAT system will be presented. Finally, some results obtained from initial software tests and demonstrations will be presented.

  10. Spacecraft exploration of asteroids

    Veverka, J.; Langevin, Y.; Farquhar, R.; Fulchignoni, M.


    After two decades of spacecraft exploration, we still await the first direct investigation of an asteroid. This paper describes how a growing international interest in the solar system's more primitive bodies should remedy this. Plans are under way in Europe for a dedicated asteroid mission (Vesta) which will include multiple flybys with in situ penetrator studies. Possible targets include 4 Vesta, 8 Flora and 46 Hestia; launch its scheduled for 1994 or 1996. In the United States, NASA plans include flybys of asteroids en route to outer solar system targets

  11. Spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    Jørgensen, John Leif


    The phenomenons and problems encountered when a rendezvous manoeuvre, and possible docking, of two spacecrafts has to be performed, have been the topic for numerous studies, and, details of a variety of scenarios has been analysed. So far, all solutions that has been brought into realization has...... been based entirely on direct human supervision and control. This paper describes a vision-based system and methodology, that autonomously generates accurate guidance information that may assist a human operator in performing the tasks associated with both the rendezvous and docking navigation...

  12. Toward autonomous spacecraft

    Fogel, L. J.; Calabrese, P. G.; Walsh, M. J.; Owens, A. J.


    Ways in which autonomous behavior of spacecraft can be extended to treat situations wherein a closed loop control by a human may not be appropriate or even possible are explored. Predictive models that minimize mean least squared error and arbitrary cost functions are discussed. A methodology for extracting cyclic components for an arbitrary environment with respect to usual and arbitrary criteria is developed. An approach to prediction and control based on evolutionary programming is outlined. A computer program capable of predicting time series is presented. A design of a control system for a robotic dense with partially unknown physical properties is presented.

  13. A technique for estimating the probability of radiation-stimulated failures of integrated microcircuits in low-intensity radiation fields: Application to the Spektr-R spacecraft

    Popov, V. D.; Khamidullina, N. M.


    In developing radio-electronic devices (RED) of spacecraft operating in the fields of ionizing radiation in space, one of the most important problems is the correct estimation of their radiation tolerance. The “weakest link” in the element base of onboard microelectronic devices under radiation effect is the integrated microcircuits (IMC), especially of large scale (LSI) and very large scale (VLSI) degree of integration. The main characteristic of IMC, which is taken into account when making decisions on using some particular type of IMC in the onboard RED, is the probability of non-failure operation (NFO) at the end of the spacecraft’s lifetime. It should be noted that, until now, the NFO has been calculated only from the reliability characteristics, disregarding the radiation effect. This paper presents the so-called “reliability” approach to determination of radiation tolerance of IMC, which allows one to estimate the probability of non-failure operation of various types of IMC with due account of radiation-stimulated dose failures. The described technique is applied to RED onboard the Spektr-R spacecraft to be launched in 2007.

  14. Low cost spacecraft computers: Oxymoron or future trend?

    Manning, Robert M.


    Over the last few decades, application of current terrestrial computer technology in embedded spacecraft control systems has been expensive and wrought with many technical challenges. These challenges have centered on overcoming the extreme environmental constraints (protons, neutrons, gamma radiation, cosmic rays, temperature, vibration, etc.) that often preclude direct use of commercial off-the-shelf computer technology. Reliability, fault tolerance and power have also greatly constrained the selection of spacecraft control system computers. More recently, new constraints are being felt, cost and mass in particular, that have again narrowed the degrees of freedom spacecraft designers once enjoyed. This paper discusses these challenges, how they were previously overcome, how future trends in commercial computer technology will simplify (or hinder) selection of computer technology for spacecraft control applications, and what spacecraft electronic system designers can do now to circumvent them.

  15. Application of a Barrier Filter at a High Purity Synthetic Graphite Plant, CRADA 99-F035, Final Report; FINAL

    National Energy Technology Laboratory


    Superior Graphite Company and the US Department of Energy have entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to study the application of ceramic barrier filters at its Hopkinsville, Kentucky graphite plant. Superior Graphite Company is a worldwide leader in the application of advanced thermal processing technology to produce high purity graphite and carbons. The objective of the CRADA is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of incorporating the use of high-temperature filters to improve the performance of the offgas treatment system. A conceptual design was developed incorporating the ceramic filters into the offgas treatment system to be used for the development of a capital cost estimate and economic feasibility assessment of this technology for improving particulate removal. This CRADA is a joint effort of Superior Graphite Company, Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the US Department of Energy (DOE)

  16. Internal Mass Motion for Spacecraft Dynamics and Control

    Hall, Christopher D


    We present a detailed description of the application of a noncanonical Hamiltonian formulation to the modeling, analysis, and simulation of the dynamics of gyrostat spacecraft with internal mass motion...

  17. The Physics and Technology of Solar Sail Spacecraft.

    Dwivedi, B. N.; McInnes, C. R.


    Various aspects of the solar sail spacecraft such as solar sailing, solar sail design, navigation with solar sails, solar sail mission applications and future prospects for solar sailing are described. Several possible student projects are suggested. (KR)

  18. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report


    The spent fuel management activities described in volume 1 are compared in three areas. The first section summarizes the spent fuel management options being followed in each country and compares those options with regard to cost, environmental impact and public acceptability. Next section reviews and compares national policies on nuclear power, spent fuel management and high-level waste disposal and assesses their impact on the development and licensing of nuclear power plants. The third section compares the regulatory requirements affecting spent fuel managementin terms of their overall spirit and characteristics and in terms of the responsibilities of the utilities and the regulatory authorities. Finally, the last section addresses the applicability to Sweden of the findings from these comparisons, focusing on cost efficiency, health and safety, environmental impact, public acceptance and licensing procedures

  19. Design, construction and conditions of the application of unreinforced concrete final lining in conventionally driven tunnels

    Faltýnek, Jan; Hořejší, Jiří; Mařík, Libor; Růžička, Pavel


    The way to an economic design in the final lining in conventionally driven tunnels lies in structural analysing based on the actually encountered geotechnical conditions. Regarding reinforced concrete structures, many standards and regulations applicable to designing and building structures and taking them over by the client before their commissioning and before the end of the warranty period respectively exist in the Czech Republic. If the local conditions allow it, it is possible to design the final lining as an unreinforced concrete structure. In such a case it is necessary to take the differences into consideration in the structural design and in the possibilities of the lining behaviour and to set criteria for taking over the lining allowing for its use. Setting too stringent criteria for cracking can lead to an increase in the contract price, either because of the necessity for reinforcing the lining or because of the fact that the contractor reduces the risk by incorporating the assumed cost of repairs into the total cost. The paper describes basic differences in the approach to reinforced concrete and unreinforced concrete linings, the possibilities of limiting formation of cracks by means of the concrete mix design, by selection of the technological procedure of the work and the method of curing after stripping. The text contains a comparison of criteria for assessing the surface of an unreinforced concrete lining with criteria in foreign regulations.

  20. Spacecraft Angular Rates Estimation with Gyrowheel Based on Extended High Gain Observer

    Xiaokun Liu


    Full Text Available A gyrowheel (GW is a kind of electronic electric-mechanical servo system, which can be applied to a spacecraft attitude control system (ACS as both an actuator and a sensor simultaneously. In order to solve the problem of two-dimensional spacecraft angular rate sensing as a GW outputting three-dimensional control torque, this paper proposed a method of an extended high gain observer (EHGO with the derived GW mathematical model to implement the spacecraft angular rate estimation when the GW rotor is working at large angles. For this purpose, the GW dynamic equation is firstly derived with the second kind Lagrange method, and the relationship between the measurable and unmeasurable variables is built. Then, the EHGO is designed to estimate and calculate spacecraft angular rates with the GW, and the stability of the designed EHGO is proven by the Lyapunov function. Moreover, considering the engineering application, the effect of measurement noise in the tilt angle sensors on the estimation accuracy of the EHGO is analyzed. Finally, the numerical simulation is performed to illustrate the validity of the method proposed in this paper.

  1. Protecting Spacecraft Fragments from Exposure to Small Debris

    V. V. Zelentsov


    Since the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite a large amount of space debris has been accumulated in near-earth space. This debris comprises the exhausted spacecrafts, final stages of rocket-carriers and boosters, technological space junk, consisting of the structure elements, which are separated when deploying the solar arrays, antennas etc., as well as when undocking a booster and a spacecraft. All the debris is divided into observable one of over 100 mm in size and unobservable ...

  2. Nano-Satellite Secondary Spacecraft on Deep Space Missions

    Klesh, Andrew T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.


    NanoSat technology has opened Earth orbit to extremely low-cost science missions through a common interface that provides greater launch accessibility. They have also been used on interplanetary missions, but these missions have used one-off components and architectures so that the return on investment has been limited. A natural question is the role that CubeSat-derived NanoSats could play to increase the science return of deep space missions. We do not consider single instrument nano-satellites as likely to complete entire Discovery-class missions alone,but believe that nano-satellites could augment larger missions to significantly increase science return. The key advantages offered by these mini-spacecrafts over previous planetary probes is the common availability of advanced subsystems that open the door to a large variety of science experiments, including new guidance, navigation and control capabilities. In this paper, multiple NanoSat science applications are investigated, primarily for high risk/high return science areas. We also address the significant challenges and questions that remain as obstacles to the use of nano-satellites in deep space missions. Finally, we provide some thoughts on a development roadmap toward interplanetary usage of NanoSpacecraft.

  3. Thermal design of spacecraft solar arrays using a polyimide foam

    Bianco, N; Iasiello, M; Naso, V


    The design of the Thermal Control System (TCS) of spacecraft solar arrays plays a fundamental role. Indeed, the spacecraft components must operate within a certain range of temperature. If this doesn't occur, their performance is reduced and they may even break. Solar arrays, which are employed to recharge batteries, are directly exposed to the solar heat flux, and they need to be insulated from the earth's surface irradiation. Insulation is currently provided either with a white paint coating or with a Multi Layer Insulation (MLI) system [1]. A configuration based on an open-cell polyimide foam has also been recently proposed [2]. Using polyimide foams in TCSs looks very attractive in terms of costs, weight and assembling. An innovative thermal analysis of the above cited TCS configurations is carried out in this paper, by solving the porous media energy equation, under the assumption of Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) between the two phases. Radiation effects through the solar array are also considered by using the Rosseland approximation. Under a stationary daylight condition, temperature profiles are obtained by means of the finite-element based code COMSOL Multiphysics ® . Finally, since the weight plays an important role in aerospace applications, weights of the three TCS configurations are compared. (paper)

  4. Thermal design of spacecraft solar arrays using a polyimide foam

    Bianco, N.; Iasiello, M.; Naso, V.


    The design of the Thermal Control System (TCS) of spacecraft solar arrays plays a fundamental role. Indeed, the spacecraft components must operate within a certain range of temperature. If this doesn't occur, their performance is reduced and they may even break. Solar arrays, which are employed to recharge batteries, are directly exposed to the solar heat flux, and they need to be insulated from the earth's surface irradiation. Insulation is currently provided either with a white paint coating or with a Multi Layer Insulation (MLI) system [1]. A configuration based on an open-cell polyimide foam has also been recently proposed [2]. Using polyimide foams in TCSs looks very attractive in terms of costs, weight and assembling. An innovative thermal analysis of the above cited TCS configurations is carried out in this paper, by solving the porous media energy equation, under the assumption of Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) between the two phases. Radiation effects through the solar array are also considered by using the Rosseland approximation. Under a stationary daylight condition, temperature profiles are obtained by means of the finite-element based code COMSOL Multiphysics®. Finally, since the weight plays an important role in aerospace applications, weights of the three TCS configurations are compared.

  5. A Quantized State Approach to On-line Simulation for Spacecraft Autonomy

    Alminde, Lars; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon


    Future space applications will require an increased level of operational autonomy. This calls for declarative methods for spacecraft state estimation and control, so that the spacecraft engineer can focus on modeling the spacecraft rather than implementing all details of the on-line system. Celeb...

  6. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.


    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  7. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 2 Final Report



    This report documents Phase 2 of a project to design, develop, and test a zinc/bromine battery technology for use in utility energy storage applications. The project was co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Power Technologies through Sandia National Laboratories. The viability of the zinc/bromine technology was demonstrated in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the technology developed during Phase 1 was scaled up to a size appropriate for the application. Batteries were increased in size from 8-cell, 1170-cm{sup 2} cell stacks (Phase 1) to 8- and then 60-cell, 2500-cm{sup 2} cell stacks in this phase. The 2500-cm{sup 2} series battery stacks were developed as the building block for large utility battery systems. Core technology research on electrolyte and separator materials and on manufacturing techniques, which began in Phase 1, continued to be investigated during Phase 2. Finally, the end product of this project was a 100-kWh prototype battery system to be installed and tested at an electric utility.

  8. Galileo spacecraft power management and distribution system

    Detwiler, R.C.; Smith, R.L.


    It has been twelve years since two Voyager spacecraft began the direct route to the outer planets. In October 1989 a single Galileo spacecraft started the return to Jupiter. Conceived as a simple Voyager look-alike, the Galileo power management and distribution (PMAD) system has undergone many iterations in configuration. Major changes to the PMAD resulted from dual spun slip ring limitations, variations in launch vehicle thrust capabilities, and launch delays. Lack of an adequate launch vehicle for an interplanetary mission of Galileo's size has resulted in an extremely long flight duration. A Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA) tour, vital to attain the required energy, results in a 6 year trip to Jupiter and its moons. This paper provides a description of the Galileo PMAD and documents the design drivers that established the final as-built hardware

  9. A user's guide to the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics and Control Program

    Fedor, J. V.


    A guide to the use of the Flexible Spacecraft Dynamics Program (FSD) is presented covering input requirements, control words, orbit generation, spacecraft description and simulation options, and output definition. The program can be used in dynamics and control analysis as well as in orbit support of deployment and control of spacecraft. The program is applicable to inertially oriented spinning, Earth oriented or gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. Internal and external environmental effects can be simulated.

  10. TTEthernet for Integrated Spacecraft Networks

    Loveless, Andrew


    Aerospace projects have traditionally employed federated avionics architectures, in which each computer system is designed to perform one specific function (e.g. navigation). There are obvious downsides to this approach, including excessive weight (from so much computing hardware), and inefficient processor utilization (since modern processors are capable of performing multiple tasks). There has therefore been a push for integrated modular avionics (IMA), in which common computing platforms can be leveraged for different purposes. This consolidation of multiple vehicle functions to shared computing platforms can significantly reduce spacecraft cost, weight, and design complexity. However, the application of IMA principles introduces significant challenges, as the data network must accommodate traffic of mixed criticality and performance levels - potentially all related to the same shared computer hardware. Because individual network technologies are rarely so competent, the development of truly integrated network architectures often proves unreasonable. Several different types of networks are utilized - each suited to support a specific vehicle function. Critical functions are typically driven by precise timing loops, requiring networks with strict guarantees regarding message latency (i.e. determinism) and fault-tolerance. Alternatively, non-critical systems generally employ data networks prioritizing flexibility and high performance over reliable operation. Switched Ethernet has seen widespread success filling this role in terrestrial applications. Its high speed, flexibility, and the availability of inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components make it desirable for inclusion in spacecraft platforms. Basic Ethernet configurations have been incorporated into several preexisting aerospace projects, including both the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS). However, classical switched Ethernet cannot provide the high level of network

  11. Research on spacecraft electrical power conversion

    Wilson, T. G.


    The history of spacecraft electrical power conversion in literature, research and practice is reviewed. It is noted that the design techniques, analyses and understanding which were developed make today's contribution to power computers and communication installations. New applications which require more power, improved dynamic response, greater reliability, and lower cost are outlined. The switching mode approach in electronic power conditioning is discussed. Technical aspects of the research are summarized.

  12. Qualification of final closure for disposal container I - applicability of TIG and EBW for overpack welding

    Asano, H.; Kawahara, K.; Ishii, J.; Shige, T.


    Regarding the final sealing technique of the overpack using carbon steel, one of the candidate materials for the disposal container in the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Japan, welding tests were conducted using TIG (GTAW), a typical arc welding process, and electron beam welding (EBW), a high-energy beam welding process. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the applicability, the scope of the applications and the conditions for the application of the existing techniques; while also examining the welding conditions and the weld quality. Regarding TIG, the optimum welding conditions (the conditions pertaining to the welding procedures and the groove geometry) were checked by using a specimen with a plate thickness of 50 mm, and then circumferential welding tests were conducted for cylindrical specimens with a groove depth of 100 mm and 150 mm. Radiographic testing showed that there was no significant weld defect in the weld and that the welding characteristics were satisfactory. The results of the test of the mechanical properties of the joint were also satisfactory. Measurement of the temperature distribution and the residual stress distribution at the time of the welding was conducted for an evaluation of the residual stress caused by the welding, and an appropriate residual stress analysis method was developed, which confirmed the generation of tensile stress along the circumferential direction of the weld. Then it was pointed out that a necessity of further consideration of how to reduce the stress and to examine the influence that residual stress has on corrosion property. The goal in the EBW test was to achieve a one-pass full penetration welding process for 190 mm while conducting a partial penetration welding test for a welding depth of 80 mm. Subsequent radiographic testing confirmed that there was no significant weld defect. (orig.)

  13. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew


    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  14. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation


    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  15. Spectra and spacecraft

    Moroz, V. I.


    In June 1999, Dr. Regis Courtin, Associate Editor of PSS, suggested that I write an article for the new section of this journal: "Planetary Pioneers". I hesitated , but decided to try. One of the reasons for my doubts was my primitive English, so I owe the reader an apology for this in advance. Writing took me much more time than I supposed initially, I have stopped and again returned to manuscript many times. My professional life may be divided into three main phases: pioneering work in ground-based IR astronomy with an emphasis on planetary spectroscopy (1955-1970), studies of the planets with spacecraft (1970-1989), and attempts to proceed with this work in difficult times. I moved ahead using the known method of trials and errors as most of us do. In fact, only a small percentage of efforts led to some important results, a sort of dry residue. I will try to describe below how has it been in my case: what may be estimated as the most important, how I came to this, what was around, etc.

  16. Spent fuel management strategies in eight countries and applicability to Sweden. Final report


    International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) undertook this study on behalf of Sweden's National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) from June to October 1986. The purpose of the project was to compare the programs and regulations for the management of spent fuel from nuclear power plants and disposal of high-level radioactive waste in eight countries: Belgium, Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Switzerland, the United Kingdom and the United States. This final report includes revisions requested by SKN upon review of the draft report dated in September 26, 1986. The study is presented in three volumes. Volume I (Section 2.0 of the report) consists of detailed country-specific reports on the policies, regulations and strategies for spent fuel and high-level waste management in each of the eight countries. The information contained in these country-specific reports was used as the basis for comparing the options in each country in terms of cost, environmental impact, and public acceptability, and for comparing the policies and regulatory requirements affecting these activities in each country. These comparisons are provided in Volume II (Section 3.0 of the report). Section 3.0 also includes a discussion of the applicability to Sweden of the strategies and policies in the eight countries studied. Finally, Volume III of the report (Section 4.0) presents the laws, regulations and other documents pertinent to spent fuel and high-level waste management in these countries. Descriptive summaries of the documents are provided in Section 4.0, a comparison guide to the documents themselves (the great majority of them in English) which are provided in 15 volumes of appendices

  17. Application of the final flotation waste for obtaining the glass-ceramic materials

    Cocić Mira


    Full Text Available This work describes the investigation of the final flotation waste (FFW, originating from the RTB Bor Company (Serbia, as the main component for the production of glass-ceramic materials. The glass-ceramics was synthesized by the sintering of FFW, mixtures of FFW with basalt (10%, 20%, and 40%, and mixtures of FFW with tuff (20% and 40%. The sintering was conducted at the different temperatures and with the different time duration in order to find the optimal composition and conditions for crystallization. The increase of temperature, from 1100 to 1480°C, and sintering time, from 4 to 6h resulted in a higher content of hematite crystal in the obtained glass-ceramic (up to 44%. The glass-ceramics sintered from pure FFW (1080°C/36h has good mechanical properties, such as high propagation speed (4500 m/s and hardness (10800 MPa, as well as very good thermal stability. The glass-ceramics obtained from mixtures shows weaker mechanical properties compared to that obtained from pure FFW. The mixtures of FFW with tuff have a significantly lower bulk density compared to other obtained glass-ceramics. Our results indicate that FFW can be applied as a basis for obtaining the construction materials. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 176010: Composition, genesis, application, and contribution to the environmental sustainability

  18. Novel Methodology for Control and Stabilization of Spacecraft with Captured Asteroid

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of novel spacecraft guidance control architectures and algorithms that work in conjunction with robot manipulator control for application to ARM mission...

  19. Spacecraft Charging and the Microwave Anisotropy Probe Spacecraft

    Timothy, VanSant J.; Neergaard, Linda F.


    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), a MIDEX mission built in partnership between Princeton University and the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), will study the cosmic microwave background. It will be inserted into a highly elliptical earth orbit for several weeks and then use a lunar gravity assist to orbit around the second Lagrangian point (L2), 1.5 million kilometers, anti-sunward from the earth. The charging environment for the phasing loops and at L2 was evaluated. There is a limited set of data for L2; the GEOTAIL spacecraft measured relatively low spacecraft potentials (approx. 50 V maximum) near L2. The main area of concern for charging on the MAP spacecraft is the well-established threat posed by the "geosynchronous region" between 6-10 Re. The launch in the autumn of 2000 will coincide with the falling of the solar maximum, a period when the likelihood of a substorm is higher than usual. The likelihood of a substorm at that time has been roughly estimated to be on the order of 20% for a typical MAP mission profile. Because of the possibility of spacecraft charging, a requirement for conductive spacecraft surfaces was established early in the program. Subsequent NASCAP/GEO analyses for the MAP spacecraft demonstrated that a significant portion of the sunlit surface (solar cell cover glass and sunshade) could have nonconductive surfaces without significantly raising differential charging. The need for conductive materials on surfaces continually in eclipse has also been reinforced by NASCAP analyses.

  20. MIDN: A spacecraft Micro-dosimeter mission

    Pisacane, V. L.; Ziegler, J. F.; Nelson, M. E.; Caylor, M.; Flake, D.; Heyen, L.; Youngborg, E.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Cucinotta, F.; Zaider, M.; Dicello, J. F.


    MIDN (Micro-dosimetry instrument) is a payload on the MidSTAR-I spacecraft (Midshipman Space Technology Applications Research) under development at the United States Naval Academy. MIDN is a solid-state system being designed and constructed to measure Micro-dosimetric spectra to determine radiation quality factors for space environments. Radiation is a critical threat to the health of astronauts and to the success of missions in low-Earth orbit and space exploration. The system will consist of three separate sensors, one external to the spacecraft, one internal and one embedded in polyethylene. Design goals are mass <3 kg and power <2 W. The MidSTAR-I mission in 2006 will provide an opportunity to evaluate a preliminary version of this system. Its low power and mass makes it useful for the International Space Station and manned and unmanned interplanetary missions as a real-time system to assess and alert astronauts to enhanced radiation environments. (authors)

  1. Spacecraft Environmental Interactions Technology, 1983


    State of the art of environment interactions dealing with low-Earth-orbit plasmas; high-voltage systems; spacecraft charging; materials effects; and direction of future programs are contained in over 50 papers.

  2. Gravity Probe B spacecraft description

    Bennett, Norman R; Burns, Kevin; Katz, Russell; Kirschenbaum, Jon; Mason, Gary; Shehata, Shawky


    The Gravity Probe B spacecraft, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, consisted of structures, mechanisms, command and data handling, attitude and translation control, electrical power, thermal control, flight software, and communications. When integrated with the payload elements, the integrated system became the space vehicle. Key requirements shaping the design of the spacecraft were: (1) the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), (2) precise attitude and translational control, (3) thermal protection of science hardware, (4) minimizing aerodynamic, magnetic, and eddy current effects, and (5) the need to provide a robust, low risk spacecraft. The spacecraft met all mission requirements, as demonstrated by dewar lifetime meeting specification, positive power and thermal margins, precision attitude control and drag-free performance, reliable communications, and the collection of more than 97% of the available science data. (paper)

  3. A geometric model of a V-slit Sun sensor correcting for spacecraft wobble

    Mcmartin, W. P.; Gambhir, S. S.


    A V-Slit sun sensor is body-mounted on a spin-stabilized spacecraft. During injection from a parking or transfer orbit to some final orbit, the spacecraft may not be dynamically balanced. This may result in wobble about the spacecraft spin axis as the spin axis may not be aligned with the spacecraft's axis of symmetry. While the widely used models in Spacecraft Attitude Determination and Control, edited by Wertz, correct for separation, elevation, and azimuthal mounting biases, spacecraft wobble is not taken into consideration. A geometric approach is used to develop a method for measurement of the sun angle which corrects for the magnitude and phase of spacecraft wobble. The algorithm was implemented using a set of standard mathematical routines for spherical geometry on a unit sphere.

  4. Space Environments and Spacecraft Effects Organization Concept

    Edwards, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Miller, Sharon K.; Porter, Ron; Schneider, Todd A.; Spann, James F.; Xapsos, Michael


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is embarking on a course to expand human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) while also expanding its mission to explore the solar system. Destinations such as Near Earth Asteroids (NEA), Mars and its moons, and the outer planets are but a few of the mission targets. Each new destination presents an opportunity to increase our knowledge of the solar system and the unique environments for each mission target. NASA has multiple technical and science discipline areas specializing in specific space environments disciplines that will help serve to enable these missions. To complement these existing discipline areas, a concept is presented focusing on the development of a space environments and spacecraft effects (SENSE) organization. This SENSE organization includes disciplines such as space climate, space weather, natural and induced space environments, effects on spacecraft materials and systems and the transition of research information into application. This space environment and spacecraft effects organization will be composed of Technical Working Groups (TWG). These technical working groups will survey customers and users, generate products, and provide knowledge supporting four functional areas: design environments, engineering effects, operational support, and programmatic support. The four functional areas align with phases in the program mission lifecycle and are briefly described below. Design environments are used primarily in the mission concept and design phases of a program. Engineering effects focuses on the material, component, sub-system and system-level selection and the testing to verify design and operational performance. Operational support provides products based on real time or near real time space weather to mission operators to aid in real time and near-term decision-making. The programmatic support function maintains an interface with the numerous programs within NASA, other federal

  5. 78 FR 20317 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... supplying information that competitors could use to compete with companies in the United States. DATES... or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087223XX and AP087223XA AGENCY: Export-Import...''), that Ex-Im Bank has received an application for final commitment for a long-term loan or financial...

  6. 77 FR 47382 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2012-0345] Application for Final Commitment...: Export-Import Bank of the U.S. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  7. 78 FR 21948 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0027] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  8. 78 FR 16852 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0024] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  9. 78 FR 39285 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0033] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  10. 78 FR 78955 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0060] Application for Final... AP088412XB AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United...

  11. 78 FR 59688 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0049] Application for Final... AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States...

  12. 78 FR 56227 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0045] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  13. 77 FR 74010 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2012-0546] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  14. 78 FR 1211 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2012-0558] Application for Final Commitment...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  15. 78 FR 23763 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0028] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  16. 78 FR 76614 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0059] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  17. 78 FR 16675 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0023] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  18. 78 FR 2673 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0102] Application for Final... AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States...

  19. 78 FR 42072 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0034] Application for Final...-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank...

  20. 78 FR 2672 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice: 2013-0101] Application for Final..., AP078595XB AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United...

  1. 78 FR 67144 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0050] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP086418XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has...

  2. 78 FR 69850 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ..., rail and port facilities in Australia. To the extent that Ex-Im Bank is reasonably aware, the item(s... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice: 2013-0054] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP086750XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the...

  3. 78 FR 33090 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ...-haul passenger service from Australia to other countries. To the extent that Ex-Im Bank is reasonably... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0030] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP087980XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...

  4. 77 FR 70161 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... the transaction: To support the export of U.S. manufactured aircraft under operating lease from the... China. To the extent that Ex-Im Bank is reasonably aware, the item(s) being exported are not expected to... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2012-0543] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan...

  5. 78 FR 20913 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... the transaction: To support the export of U.S. manufactured commercial aircraft to China. Brief non... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0024] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 million: AP087801XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...

  6. 77 FR 61750 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... export of a U.S.-manufactured satellite and associated services to China (Hong Kong). Brief non-proprietary description of the anticipated use of the items being exported: The U.S. exports will be used to... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES [Public Notice 2012-0528] Application for Final Commitment...

  7. 78 FR 13666 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... Telecommunications Company Limited. Guarantor(s): N/A. Description of Items Being Exported: To finance the... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0015] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan... States. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice is to inform the public, in accordance with Section 3(c)(10...

  8. Vibration and Acoustic Testing for Mars Micromission Spacecraft

    Kern, Dennis L.; Scharton, Terry D.


    spacecraft and the test fixture, alleviates the severe overtest at spacecraft resonances inherent in rigid fixture vibration tests. It has the distinct advantage over response limiting that the method is not dependent on the accuracy of a detailed dynamic model of the spacecraft. Combined loads, vibration, and modal testing were recently performed on the QuikSCAT spacecraft. The combined tests were performed in a single test setup per axis on a vibration shaker, reducing test time by a factor of two or three. Force gages were employed to measure the true c.g. acceleration of the spacecraft for structural loads verification using a sine burst test, to automatically notch random vibration test input accelerations at spacecraft resonances based on predetermined force limits, and to directly measure modal masses in a base drive modal test. In addition to these combined tests on the shaker, the QuikSCAT spacecraft was subjected to a direct field acoustic test by surrounding the spacecraft, still on the vibration shaker, with rock concert type acoustic speakers. Since the spacecraft contractor does not have a reverberant field acoustic test facility, performing a direct field acoustic test -saved the program nearly two weeks schedule time that would have been required for packing / unpacking and shipping of the spacecraft. This paper discusses the rationale behind and advantages of the above test approaches and provides examples of their actual implementation and comparisons to flight data. The applicability of the test approaches to Mars Micromission spacecraft qualification is discussed.

  9. Final Report for Project "Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations (FACETS)"

    Estep, Donald [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)


    This is the final report for the Colorado State University Component of the FACETS Project. FACETS was focused on the development of a multiphysics, parallel framework application that could provide the capability to enable whole-device fusion reactor modeling and, in the process, the development of the modeling infrastructure and computational understanding needed for ITER. It was intended that FACETS be highly flexible, through the use of modern computational methods, including component technology and object oriented design, to facilitate switching from one model to another for a given aspect of the physics, and making it possible to use simplified models for rapid turnaround or high-fidelity models that will take advantage of the largest supercomputer hardware. FACETS was designed in a heterogeneous parallel context, where different parts of the application can take advantage through parallelism based on task farming, domain decomposition, and/or pipelining as needed and applicable. As with all fusion simulations, an integral part of the FACETS project was treatment of the coupling of different physical processes at different scales interacting closely. A primary example for the FACETS project is the coupling of existing core and edge simulations, with the transport and wall interactions described by reduced models. However, core and edge simulations themselves involve significant coupling of different processes with large scale differences. Numerical treatment of coupling is impacted by a number of factors including, scale differences, form of information transferred between processes, implementation of solvers for different codes, and high performance computing concerns. Operator decomposition involving the computation of the individual processes individually using appropriate simulation codes and then linking/synchronizing the component simulations at regular points in space and time, is the defacto approach to high performance simulation of multiphysics

  10. Novel catalysts for hydrogen fuel cell applications:Final report (FY03-FY05).

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Jarek, Russell L.; Steen, William Arthur


    The goal of this project was to develop novel hydrogen-oxidation electrocatalyst materials that contain reduced platinum content compared to traditional catalysts by developing flexible synthesis techniques to fabricate supported catalyst structures, and by verifying electrochemical performance in half cells and ultimately laboratory fuel cells. Synthesis methods were developed for making small, well-defined platinum clusters using zeolite hosts, ion exchange, and controlled calcination/reduction processes. Several factors influence cluster size, and clusters below 1 nm with narrow size distribution have been prepared. To enable electrochemical application, the zeolite pores were filled with electrically-conductive carbon via infiltration with carbon precursors, polymerization/cross-linking, and pyrolysis under inert conditions. The zeolite host was then removed by acid washing, to leave a Pt/C electrocatalyst possessing quasi-zeolitic porosity and Pt clusters of well-controlled size. Plotting electrochemical activity versus pyrolysis temperature typically produces a Gaussian curve, with a peak at ca. 800 C. The poorer relative performances at low and high temperature are due to low electrical conductivity of the carbon matrix, and loss of zeolitic structure combined with Pt sintering, respectively. Cluster sizes measured via adsorption-based methods were consistently larger than those observed by TEM and EXAFS, suggesting , that a fraction of the clusters were inaccessible to the fluid phase. Detailed EXAFS analysis has been performed on selected catalysts and catalyst precursors to monitor trends in cluster size evolution, as well as oxidation states of Pt. Experiments were conducted to probe the electroactive surface area of the Pt clusters. These Pt/C materials had as much as 110 m{sup 2}/g{sub pt} electroactive surface area, an almost 30% improvement over what is commercially (mfg. by ETEK) available (86 m{sup 2}/g{sub pt}). These Pt/C materials also perform

  11. A small spacecraft for multipoint measurement of ionospheric plasma

    Roberts, T. M.; Lynch, K. A.; Clayton, R. E.; Weiss, J.; Hampton, D. L.


    Measurement of ionospheric plasma is often performed by a single in situ device or remotely using cameras and radar. This article describes a small, low-resource, deployed spacecraft used as part of a local, multipoint measurement network. A B-field aligned sounding rocket ejects four of these spin-stabilized spacecraft in a cross pattern. In this application, each spacecraft carries two retarding potential analyzers which are used to determine plasma density, flow, and ion temperature. An inertial measurement unit and a light-emitting diode array are used to determine the position and orientation of the devices after deployment. The design of this spacecraft is first described, and then results from a recent test flight are discussed. This flight demonstrated the successful operation of the deployment mechanism and telemetry systems, provided some preliminary plasma measurements in a simple mid-latitude environment, and revealed several design issues.

  12. 'Key' sectors in final energy consumption: an input-output application to the Spanish case

    Alcantara, Vicent; Padilla, Emilio


    In this paper we analyze the determination of 'key' sectors in the final energy consumption. We approach this issue from an input-output perspective and we design a methodology based on the elasticities of the demands of final energy consumption. As an exercise, we apply the proposed methodology to the Spanish economy. The analysis allows us to indicate the greater or lesser relevance of the different sectors in the consumption of final energy, pointing out which sectors deserve greater attention in the Spanish case and showing the implications for energy policy

  13. Final Report: Scintillator Materials for Medical Applications, December 1, 1997 - November 30, 1999

    Lempicki, A.; Brecher, C.; Wojtowicz, A.J.; Szupryczynski, P.


    From the very beginning of our program we regarded the understanding of the scintillation mechanism as our primary mission. If in addition this understanding could lead to the discovery of a new material, so much the better. When we began this work some nine years ago, the theoretical basis for the scintillation phenomenon was in disarray. The initial and final steps were reasonably well characterized, but there was no consensus on the crucial intermediate, the transfer of energy from the lattice to the emitting center. In the over 40 publications that resulted from this program, we demonstrated that despite the highly insulating nature of the hosts and the great magnitude of the band gap, the primary means of transport is through mobile charge carriers and their sequential capture by the emitting center. Although radical at the time, this picture is now generally accepted throughout the field. Subsequently, we also recognized the critical role that trapping centers localized at lattice defects can play in the process, not merely as passive sources of loss but as active participants in the kinetics. In this sense shallow traps can wreak more havoc than deep ones, impeding the rate by which carriers can reach the emitting centers and seriously slowing the resulting decay. And we established low-temperature thermoluminescence as a comprehensive tool for quantizing these effects. As for new and better materials, our work also had an impact. We were among the first to recognize the potential of LuAlO 3 (lutetium aluminum perovskite, or LuAP) as a detector for PET applications. Although this material has not supplanted LuSiO 5 (lutetium oxysilicate, or LSO) in terms of light output or absence of afterglow, LuAP still exhibits by far the highest figure of merit (light output divided by decay time) of any scintillator material currently known. Our work has also bought into stark view the dismaying realization of just how improbable it is that a material will ever be found

  14. Development and validation of three-dimensional CFD techniques for reactor safety applications. Final report

    Buchholz, Sebastian; Palazzo, Simone; Papukchiev, Angel; Scheurer Martina


    The overall goal of the project RS 1506 ''Development and Validation of Three Dimensional CFD Methods for Reactor Safety Applications'' is the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software for the simulation of three -dimensional thermo-hydraulic heat and fluid flow phenomena in nuclear reactors. For this purpose a wide spectrum of validation and test cases was selected covering fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in the downcomer and in the core of pressurized water reactors. In addition, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the CFD code ANSYS CFX was further developed and validated. The first choice were UPTF experiments where turbulent single- and two-phase flows were investigated in a 1:1 scaled model of a German KONVOI reactor. The scope of the CFD calculations covers thermal mixing and stratification including condensation in single- and two-phase flows. In the complex core region, the flow in a fuel assembly with spacer grid was simulated as defined in the OECD/NEA Benchmark MATIS-H. Good agreement are achieved when the geometrical and physical boundary conditions were reproduced as realistic as possible. This includes, in particular, the consideration of heat transfer to walls. The influence of wall modelling on CFD results was investigated on the TALL-3D T01 experiment. In this case, the dynamic three dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena were simulated in a Generation IV liquid metal cooled reactor. Concurrently to the validation work, the coupling of the system code ATHLET with the ANSYS CFX software was optimized and expanded for two-phase flows. Different coupling approaches were investigated, in order to overcome the large difference between CPU-time requirements of system and CFD codes. Finally, the coupled simulation system was validated by applying it to the simulation of the PSI double T-junction experiment, the LBE-flow in the MYRRA Spallation experiment and a demonstration test case simulating a pump trip

  15. Implementation of pesticide applicator certification schools and continuing education workshops : final report.


    The Oklahoma Department of Transportations (ODOT) herbicide applicator training program consists of initial pesticide applicator training schools followed by independent Certification testing and then on-going yearly continuing education workshops...

  16. Development of a standardised cup anemometer suited to wind energy applications. Final report

    Dahlberg, J.Aa.; Gustavsson, J.; Ronsten, G. [Aeronautical Research Inst. of Sweden, Bromma (Sweden); Friis Pedersen, T.; Schmidt Paulsen, U. [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark); Westermann, D. [German Wind Energy Inst., Wilhelmshaven (Germany)


    Errors associated with the measurements and interpretation of the measured wind speed are the major sources of uncertainties in power performance testing of wind turbines. Field comparisons of well calibrated anemometers of different types often show significant and not acceptable differences. The objective were to determine the optimum design for a cup anemometer which should be free from the design faults associated with all of the instruments currently commercially available. The objective were also to prepare a classification system for cup anemometers which will allow users of anemometry in the wind energy field to rank and select anemometers suited to specific required applications. The extensive experiments including tests in wind tunnels, of more than 500 anemometer configurations, fields tests and tests in laboratories together with the assessment and modelling work have helped to build up a thorough knowledge of the importance of different design parameters in terms of various behavioural effects. Influenced by trends from the international standardisation work, an early decision was made to focus on a vector, 3D, (angle-insensitive anemometer) cup-anemometer and to focus on conical cups since their sensitivity to vertical velocity components appeared to be less sensitive to the wind speed. The key measures taken to develop the new design consisted of an appropriate selection of the detailed design of the cup geometry's and mounting the cups at appropriate radius on a slender symmetric body. The development finally ended with an anemometer that gave a very good flat response within 1 % over the range from -45 deg to +35 deg and had a good linear calibration curve. Four prototypes of the anemometer optimised for flat response were produced. The flat response was also confirmed by field tests over the range {+-}20 deg. A patent application of the new anemometer was filed on the 6th of October 2000. By the time the project was initiated there was a

  17. Artist concept of Galileo spacecraft


    Galileo spacecraft is illustrated in artist concept. Gallileo, named for the Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician who is credited with construction of the first complete, practical telescope in 1620, will make detailed studies of Jupiter. A cooperative program with the Federal Republic of Germany the Galileo mission will amplify information acquired by two Voyager spacecraft in their brief flybys. Galileo is a two-element system that includes a Jupiter-orbiting observatory and an entry probe. Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is Galileo project manager and builder of the main spacecraft. Ames Research Center (ARC) has responsibility for the entry probe, which was built by Hughes Aircraft Company and General Electric. Galileo will be deployed from the payload bay (PLB) of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during mission STS-34.

  18. Training for spacecraft technical analysts

    Ayres, Thomas J.; Bryant, Larry


    Deep space missions such as Voyager rely upon a large team of expert analysts who monitor activity in the various engineering subsystems of the spacecraft and plan operations. Senior teammembers generally come from the spacecraft designers, and new analysts receive on-the-job training. Neither of these methods will suffice for the creation of a new team in the middle of a mission, which may be the situation during the Magellan mission. New approaches are recommended, including electronic documentation, explicit cognitive modeling, and coached practice with archived data.

  19. WTEC Panel on Power applications of superconductivity in Japan and Germany. Final report

    Shelton, R.D.; Larbalestier, David; Blaugher, Richard D.; Schwall, Robert E.; Sokolowski, Robert S.; Suenaga, Masaki; Willis, JefFR-ey O.


    In early 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation asked the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) to assemble a panel to assess, relative to the United States, how Japan and Germany are responding to the challenge of applying superconductivity to power and energy applications. Although the study was focused mostly on the impact of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) on the power applications field, the WTEC panel also looked at many applications for low-temperature superconductors (LTS). The market for low-temperature superconductor applications is well established, as is that for superconducting electronics, for which there is a separate WTEC panel. The panel on power applications of superconductivity was commissioned to identify the roles of public organizations, industry, and academia for advancing power applications of superconductivity, taking both a present and a long-term view

  20. WTEC Panel on Power applications of superconductivity in Japan and Germany. Final report

    Shelton, R D; Larbalestier, D; Schwall, R E; Sokolowski, R S; Suenaga, M; Willis, J E O


    In early 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation asked the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC) to assemble a panel to assess, relative to the United States, how Japan and Germany are responding to the challenge of applying superconductivity to power and energy applications. Although the study was focused mostly on the impact of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) on the power applications field, the WTEC panel also looked at many applications for low-temperature superconductors (LTS). The market for low-temperature superconductor applications is well established, as is that for superconducting electronics, for which there is a separate WTEC panel. The panel on power applications of superconductivity was commissioned to identify the roles of public organizations, industry, and academia for advancing power applications of superconductivity, taking both a present and a long-term view.

  1. Results from active spacecraft potential control on the Geotail spacecraft

    Schmidt, R.; Arends, H.; Pedersen, A.


    A low and actively controlled electrostatic potential on the outer surfaces of a scientific spacecraft is very important for accurate measurements of cold plasma electrons and ions and the DC to low-frequency electric field. The Japanese/NASA Geotail spacecraft carriers as part of its scientific payload a novel ion emitter for active control of the electrostatic potential on the surface of the spacecraft. The aim of the ion emitter is to reduce the positive surface potential which is normally encountered in the outer magnetosphere when the spacecraft is sunlit. Ion emission clamps the surface potential to near the ambient plasma potential. Without emission control, Geotail has encountered plasma conditions in the lobes of the magnetotail which resulted in surface potentials of up to about +70 V. The ion emitter proves to be able to discharge the outer surfaces of the spacecraft and is capable of keeping the surface potential stable at about +2 V. This potential is measured with respect to one of the electric field probes which are current biased and thus kept at a potential slightly above the ambient plasma potential. The instrument uses the liquid metal field ion emission principle to emit indium ions. The ion beam energy is about 6 keV and the typical total emission current amounts to about 15 μA. Neither variations in the ambient plasma conditions nor operation of two electron emitters on Geotail produce significant variations of the controlled surface potential as long as the resulting electron emission currents remain much smaller than the ion emission current. Typical results of the active potential control are shown, demonstrating the surface potential reduction and its stability over time. 25 refs., 5 figs

  2. Commercial-grade motors in safety-related applications: Final report

    Holzman, P.M.


    The objective of this project was to discuss the process necessary to utilize commercial grade equipment in safety related applications and to provide utilities with guidance for accepting commercial grade motors for safety-related applications. The generic commercial-grade concepts presented in this report can be successfully applied to motors. Commercial grade item utilization has the greatest applicability to motors in ''mild'' environments, because these motors are essentially similar to commercial grade motors in materials, construction methods, and capabilities. The acceptance process is less applicable to motors that are subject to ''harsh'' environments during postulated accidents, because of the unique design features and testing required to qualify these motors

  3. Final Report. Hydrodynamics by high-energy-density plasma flow and hydrodynamics and radiative hydrodynamics with astrophysical application

    R Paul Drake


    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves

  4. Mesh Network Architecture for Enabling Inter-Spacecraft Communication

    Becker, Christopher; Merrill, Garrick


    To enable communication between spacecraft operating in a formation or small constellation, a mesh network architecture was developed and tested using a time division multiple access (TDMA) communication scheme. The network is designed to allow for the exchange of telemetry and other data between spacecraft to enable collaboration between small spacecraft. The system uses a peer-to-peer topology with no central router, so that it does not have a single point of failure. The mesh network is dynamically configurable to allow for addition and subtraction of new spacecraft into the communication network. Flight testing was performed using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) formation acting as a spacecraft analogue and providing a stressing environment to prove mesh network performance. The mesh network was primarily devised to provide low latency, high frequency communication but is flexible and can also be configured to provide higher bandwidth for applications desiring high data throughput. The network includes a relay functionality that extends the maximum range between spacecraft in the network by relaying data from node to node. The mesh network control is implemented completely in software making it hardware agnostic, thereby allowing it to function with a wide variety of existing radios and computing platforms..

  5. The application of state-level integration of safeguards in Sweden. Final report

    Dahlin, G.; Haeggblom, E.; Larsson, Mats; Rehn, I


    results of SSAC/SKI activities as well as activities of the Euratom inspectorate. IAEA would be required to carry out the necessary measures, including sufficient independent verification activities, to assure that the results obtained are correct, and that they correctly represent the actual inventory of nuclear material. One or two unannounced inspections are foreseen to provide, as applicable, material balance verification and quality assurance, as well as to contribute to deterrence. It is expected, however, that such inspections will be co-ordinated between IAEA and Euratom to ensure the cost-effectiveness. The use of advanced technology, C/S and NDA instruments, with or without remote monitoring capability, would be limited to situations where repetition of costly verification measurements could be avoided. As regards fresh MOX, such instruments could be used to avoid costly measurements and to increase the detection capability of diversion, thus providing additional deterrence. Such technology and measures may also be used in special safeguard situations. The implementation of integrated safeguards in a cost-effective manner in Sweden would depend, on one hand, on the ability of the IAEA to ensure the application of all measures so that 'there is credible assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear materials' in Sweden. On the other hand, the increased use of SSAC/SKI and RSAC/Euratom would facilitate the optimal use of all resources involved in implementation of integrated safeguards in Sweden. In order to add credibility to any decision that would reduce measures aimed at assuring the absence of diversion of declared nuclear materials, the value of the measures of the Additional Protocol should be better understood in that respect. The confidence in the ability of the IAEA to draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities in a State is expected to increase as experience is gained. The roles and functional

  6. The application of state-level integration of safeguards in Sweden. Final report

    Dahlin, G.; Haeggblom, E.; Larsson, Mats; Rehn, I.


    SSAC/SKI activities as well as activities of the Euratom inspectorate. IAEA would be required to carry out the necessary measures, including sufficient independent verification activities, to assure that the results obtained are correct, and that they correctly represent the actual inventory of nuclear material. One or two unannounced inspections are foreseen to provide, as applicable, material balance verification and quality assurance, as well as to contribute to deterrence. It is expected, however, that such inspections will be co-ordinated between IAEA and Euratom to ensure the cost-effectiveness. The use of advanced technology, C/S and NDA instruments, with or without remote monitoring capability, would be limited to situations where repetition of costly verification measurements could be avoided. As regards fresh MOX, such instruments could be used to avoid costly measurements and to increase the detection capability of diversion, thus providing additional deterrence. Such technology and measures may also be used in special safeguard situations. The implementation of integrated safeguards in a cost-effective manner in Sweden would depend, on one hand, on the ability of the IAEA to ensure the application of all measures so that 'there is credible assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear materials' in Sweden. On the other hand, the increased use of SSAC/SKI and RSAC/Euratom would facilitate the optimal use of all resources involved in implementation of integrated safeguards in Sweden. In order to add credibility to any decision that would reduce measures aimed at assuring the absence of diversion of declared nuclear materials, the value of the measures of the Additional Protocol should be better understood in that respect. The confidence in the ability of the IAEA to draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear materials and activities in a State is expected to increase as experience is gained. The roles and functional responsibilities of the four

  7. Charging in the environment of large spacecraft

    Lai, S.T.


    This paper discusses some potential problems of spacecraft charging as a result of interactions between a large spacecraft, such as the Space Station, and its environment. Induced electric field, due to VXB effect, may be important for large spacecraft at low earth orbits. Differential charging, due to different properties of surface materials, may be significant when the spacecraft is partly in sunshine and partly in shadow. Triple-root potential jump condition may occur because of differential charging. Sudden onset of severe differential charging may occur when an electron or ion beam is emitted from the spacecraft. The beam may partially return to the ''hot spots'' on the spacecraft. Wake effects, due to blocking of ambient ion trajectories, may result in an undesirable negative potential region in the vicinity of a large spacecraft. Outgassing and exhaust may form a significant spacecraft induced environment; ionization may occur. Spacecraft charging and discharging may affect the electronic components on board

  8. Student Acceptance and Application of Peer Assessment in a Final Year Genetics Undergraduate Oral Presentation

    Verkade, Heather; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J.


    Undergraduate students benefit from observation of each other's oral presentations through both exposure to content and observation of presentation style. In order to increase the engagement and reflection of final year students in an oral presentation task, a peer assessment component was introduced using a rubric that emphasised scientific…

  9. Application of MARSSIM for Final Status Survey of the Decommissioning Project

    Hong, Sang Bum; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jin Ho; Chung, Un Soo


    The release of a site and building from regulatory control is the final stage of the decommissioning process. The MARSSIM (Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual) provides overall framework for conducting data collection for a final status survey to demonstrate compliance with site closure requirements. The KAERI carried out establishing a final status survey by using the guidance provided in the MARSSIM for of a site and building of the Korea Research Reactor. The release criteria for a site and building were set up based on these results of the site specific release levels which were calculated by using RESRAD and RESRAD-Build codes. The survey design for a site and building was classified by using the survey dataset and potential contamination. The number of samples in each survey unit was calculated by through a statistical test using the collected data from a scoping and characterization survey. The results of the final status survey were satisfied the release criteria based on an evaluation of the measured data.

  10. Airborne particulate matter in spacecraft


    Acceptability limits and sampling and monitoring strategies for airborne particles in spacecraft were considered. Based on instances of eye and respiratory tract irritation reported by Shuttle flight crews, the following acceptability limits for airborne particles were recommended: for flights of 1 week or less duration (1 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (AD) plus 1 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD); and for flights greater than 1 week and up to 6 months in duration (0.2 mg/cu m for particles less than 10 microns in AD plus 0.2 mg/cu m for particles 10 to 100 microns in AD. These numerical limits were recommended to aid in spacecraft atmosphere design which should aim at particulate levels that are a low as reasonably achievable. Sampling of spacecraft atmospheres for particles should include size-fractionated samples of 0 to 10, 10 to 100, and greater than 100 micron particles for mass concentration measurement and elementary chemical analysis by nondestructive analysis techniques. Morphological and chemical analyses of single particles should also be made to aid in identifying airborne particulate sources. Air cleaning systems based on inertial collection principles and fine particle collection devices based on electrostatic precipitation and filtration should be considered for incorporation into spacecraft air circulation systems. It was also recommended that research be carried out in space in the areas of health effects and particle characterization.

  11. Solar feasibility study for site-specific industrial-process-heat applications. Final report

    Murray, O.L.


    This study addresses the technical feasibility of solar energy in industrial process heat (IPH) applications in Mid-America. The study was one of two contracted efforts covering the MASEC 12-state region comprised of: Illinois, Michigan, North Dakota, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, Kansas, Nebraska, Wisconsin. The results of our study are encouraging to the potential future role of solar energy in supplying process heat to a varied range of industries and applications. We identified and developed Case Study documentation of twenty feasible solar IPH applications covering eight major SIC groups within the Mid-American region. The geographical distribution of these applications for the existing range of solar insolation levels are shown and the characteristics of the applications are summarized. The results of the study include process identification, analysis of process heat requirements, selection of preliminary solar system characteristics, and estimation of system performance and cost. These are included in each of the 20 Case Studies. The body of the report is divided into two primary discussion sections dealing with the Study Methodology employed in the effort and the Follow-On Potential of the identified applications with regard to possible demonstration projects. The 20 applications are rated with respect to their relative overall viability and procedures are discussed for possible demonstration project embarkment. Also, a possible extension of this present feasibility study for late-comer industrial firms expressing interest appears worthy of consideration.

  12. Passive Plasma Contact Mechanisms for Small-Scale Spacecraft

    McTernan, Jesse K.

    Small-scale spacecraft represent a paradigm shift in how entities such as academia, industry, engineering firms, and the scientific community operate in space. However, although the paradigm shift produces unique opportunities to build satellites in unique ways for novel missions, there are also significant challenges that must be addressed. This research addresses two of the challenges associated with small-scale spacecraft: 1) the miniaturization of spacecraft and associated instrumentation and 2) the need to transport charge across the spacecraft-environment boundary. As spacecraft decrease in size, constraints on the size, weight, and power of on-board instrumentation increase--potentially limiting the instrument's functionality or ability to integrate with the spacecraft. These constraints drive research into mechanisms or techniques that use little or no power and efficiently utilize existing resources. One limited resource on small-scale spacecraft is outer surface area, which is often covered with solar panels to meet tight power budgets. This same surface area could also be needed for passive neutralization of spacecraft charging. This research explores the use of a transparent, conductive layer on the solar cell coverglass that is electrically connected to spacecraft ground potential. This dual-purpose material facilitates the use of outer surfaces for both energy harvesting of solar photons as well as passive ion collection. Mission capabilities such as in-situ plasma measurements that were previously infeasible on small-scale platforms become feasible with the use of indium tin oxide-coated solar panel coverglass. We developed test facilities that simulate the space environment in low Earth orbit to test the dual-purpose material and the various application of this approach. Particularly, this research is in support of two upcoming missions: OSIRIS-3U, by Penn State's Student Space Programs Lab, and MiTEE, by the University of Michigan. The purpose of

  13. Long-term integrity of waste package final closure for HLW geological disposal, (2). Applicability of TIG welding method to overpack final closure

    Asano, Hidekazu; Sawa, Shuusuke; Aritomi, Masanori


    Overpack, a high-level radioactive waste package for geological disposal, seals vitrified waste and in line with Japan's waste management program is required to isolate it from contact with groundwater for 1,000 years. In this study, TIG (Tungsten Inert Gas) welding method, a typical arc welding method and widely used in various industries, was examined for its applicability to seal a carbon steel overpack lid with a thickness of 190 mm. Welding conditions and welding parameters were examined for multi-layer welding in a narrow gap for four different groove depths. Weld joint tests were conducted and weld flaws, macro- and microstructure, and mechanical properties were assessed within tentatively applied criteria for weld joints. Measurement and numerical calculation for residual stress were also conducted and the tendency of residual stress distribution was discussed. These test results were compared with the basic requirements of the welding method for overpack which were pointed out in our first report. It is assessed that the TIG welding method has the potential to provide the necessary requirements to complete the final closure of overpack with a maximum thickness of 190 mm. (author)

  14. Application of self-consolidating concrete in bridge structures : final report.


    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the feasibility and performance of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) made with local aggregates for use in cast-in-place and precast concrete applications and to develop draft specifications, acceptanc...

  15. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    Young, S. Lee


    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  16. Shutdown and degradation: Space computers for nuclear application, verification of radiation hardness. Final report

    Eichhorn, E.; Gerber, V.; Schreyer, P.


    (1) Employment of those radiation hard electronics which are already known in military and space applications. (2) The experience in space-flight shall be used to investigate nuclear technology areas, for example, by using space electronics to prove the range of applications in nuclear radiating environments. (3) Reproduction of a computer developed for telecommunication satellites; proof of radiation hardness by radiation tests. (4) At 328 Krad (Si) first failure of radiation tolerant devices with 100 Krad (Si) hardness guaranteed. (5) Using radiation hard devices of the same type you can expect applications at doses of greater than 1 Mrad (Si). Electronic systems applicable for radiation categories D, C and lower part of B for manipulators, vehicles, underwater robotics. (orig.) [de

  17. Demonstration of diesel fired coolant heaters in school bus applications : final report.


    Engine block pre-heating can reduce fuel consumption, decrease pollution, extend engine life, and it is often necessary for reliably starting diesel engines in cold climates. This report describes the application and experience of applying 36 diesel ...

  18. Spacecraft control center automation using the generic inferential executor (GENIE)

    Hartley, Jonathan; Luczak, Ed; Stump, Doug


    The increasing requirement to dramatically reduce the cost of mission operations led to increased emphasis on automation technology. The expert system technology used at the Goddard Space Flight Center (MD) is currently being applied to the automation of spacecraft control center activities. The generic inferential executor (GENIE) is a tool which allows pass automation applications to be constructed. The pass script templates constructed encode the tasks necessary to mimic flight operations team interactions with the spacecraft during a pass. These templates can be configured with data specific to a particular pass. Animated graphical displays illustrate the progress during the pass. The first GENIE application automates passes of the solar, anomalous and magnetospheric particle explorer (SAMPEX) spacecraft.

  19. Nuclear thermal rocket plume interactions with spacecraft. Final report

    Mauk, B.H.; Gatsonis, N.A.; Buzby, J.; Yin, X.


    This is the first study that has treated the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) effluent problem in its entirety, beginning with the reactor core, through the nozzle flow, to the plume backflow. The summary of major accomplishments is given below: (1) Determined the NTR effluents that include neutral, ionized and radioactive species, under typical NTR chamber conditions. Applied an NTR chamber chemistry model that includes conditions and used nozzle geometries and chamber conditions typical of NTR configurations. (2) Performed NTR nozzle flow simulations using a Navier-Stokes solver. We assumed frozen chemistry at the chamber conditions and used nozzle geometries and chamber conditions typical of NTR configurations. (3) Performed plume simulations using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code with chemistry. In order to account for radioactive trace species that may be important for contamination purposes we developed a multi-weighted DSMC methodology. The domain in our simulations included large regions downstream and upstream of the exit. Inputs were taken from the Navier-Stokes solutions

  20. Final disposal of the rad waste materials - question of the nuclear energy implementation and application perspectives

    Plecas, I.


    Two main problems that are denying and slowing down the development of nuclear energy are safe work of the nuclear power facilities (NEF) and disposal of the radioactive waste materials, produced from the NEF and infrastructure facilities of the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). Although nowadays worldwide knowledge, based on the 45 year of experiences in handling the radioactive waste materials, do not treat the problems of final disposal of the rad waste materials as a task of the primary importance in NFC, this subject still engage experts from this field of investigations, especially in the countries that developed all aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle. Techniques for final disposal of low and intermediate level rad waste materials, are well known and are in state of implementation. The importance of the fundamental safety principles, implemented in the IAEA documents, concerning handling, treatment and final disposal of the rad waste materials, is presented. Future usage of nuclear energy, taking into account all the facts that are dealing with problems of the rad waste materials produced in the NFC, can be a reality. (author.)

  1. Spacecraft Fire Safety Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Meyer, Marit


    Appropriate design of fire detection systems requires knowledge of both the expected fire signature and the background aerosol levels. Terrestrial fire detection systems have been developed based on extensive study of terrestrial fires. Unfortunately there is no corresponding data set for spacecraft fires and consequently the fire detectors in current spacecraft were developed based upon terrestrial designs. In low gravity, buoyant flow is negligible which causes particles to concentrate at the smoke source, increasing their residence time, and increasing the transport time to smoke detectors. Microgravity fires have significantly different structure than those in 1-g which can change the formation history of the smoke particles. Finally the materials used in spacecraft are different from typical terrestrial environments where smoke properties have been evaluated. It is critically important to detect a fire in its early phase before a flame is established, given the fixed volume of air on any spacecraft. Consequently, the primary target for spacecraft fire detection is pyrolysis products rather than soot. Experimental investigations have been performed at three different NASA facilities which characterize smoke aerosols from overheating common spacecraft materials. The earliest effort consists of aerosol measurements in low gravity, called the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME), and subsequent ground-based testing of SAME smoke in 55-gallon drums with an aerosol reference instrument. Another set of experiments were performed at NASAs Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), with additional fuels and an alternate smoke production method. Measurements of these smoke products include mass and number concentration, and a thermal precipitator was designed for this investigation to capture particles for microscopic analysis. The final experiments presented are from NASAs Gases and Aerosols from Smoldering Polymers (GASP) Laboratory, with selected

  2. Spacecraft computer technology at Southwest Research Institute

    Shirley, D. J.


    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has developed and delivered spacecraft computers for a number of different near-Earth-orbit spacecraft including shuttle experiments and SDIO free-flyer experiments. We describe the evolution of the basic SwRI spacecraft computer design from those weighing in at 20 to 25 lb and using 20 to 30 W to newer models weighing less than 5 lb and using only about 5 W, yet delivering twice the processing throughput. Because of their reduced size, weight, and power, these newer designs are especially applicable to planetary instrument requirements. The basis of our design evolution has been the availability of more powerful processor chip sets and the development of higher density packaging technology, coupled with more aggressive design strategies in incorporating high-density FPGA technology and use of high-density memory chips. In addition to reductions in size, weight, and power, the newer designs also address the necessity of survival in the harsh radiation environment of space. Spurred by participation in such programs as MSTI, LACE, RME, Delta 181, Delta Star, and RADARSAT, our designs have evolved in response to program demands to be small, low-powered units, radiation tolerant enough to be suitable for both Earth-orbit microsats and for planetary instruments. Present designs already include MIL-STD-1750 and Multi-Chip Module (MCM) technology with near-term plans to include RISC processors and higher-density MCM's. Long term plans include development of whole-core processors on one or two MCM's.

  3. Experience with the use of programmable logic controllers in nuclear safety applications. Final report

    Brown, E.M.; Stofko, M.J.


    This report describes the implementation and experience with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) for nuclear safety applications. Two applications are described. The first is an Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) mitigation system provided as a Diverse Auxiliary Feedwater Actuation System (DAFAS). It was implemented at Arizona Public Service's Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station and has been in commercial operation since early 1992. The second system described is an Emergency Diesel Generator Bus Load Sequencer installed at Florida Power and Light's Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant. This system was installed as part of an upgrade to the emergency power system in 1988. The experience gained in the design, development, implementation and qualification of these systems will be beneficial to utilities that are considering the utilization of PLCs for their plant applications

  4. A spacecraft computer repairable via command.

    Fimmel, R. O.; Baker, T. E.


    The MULTIPAC is a central data system developed for deep-space probes with the distinctive feature that it may be repaired during flight via command and telemetry links by reprogramming around the failed unit. The computer organization uses pools of identical modules which the program organizes into one or more computers called processors. The interaction of these modules is dynamically controlled by the program rather than hardware. In the event of a failure, new programs are entered which reorganize the central data system with a somewhat reduced total processing capability aboard the spacecraft. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of the system architecture and the final overall system design rather than the specific logic design.

  5. Planning Inmarsat's second generation of spacecraft

    Williams, W. P.


    The next generation of studies of the Inmarsat service are outlined, such as traffic forecasting studies, communications capacity estimates, space segment design, cost estimates, and financial analysis. Traffic forecasting will require future demand estimates, and a computer model has been developed which estimates demand over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian ocean regions. Communications estimates are based on traffic estimates, as a model converts traffic demand into a required capacity figure for a given area. The Erlang formula is used, requiring additional data such as peak hour ratios and distribution estimates. Basic space segment technical requirements are outlined (communications payload, transponder arrangements, etc), and further design studies involve such areas as space segment configuration, launcher and spacecraft studies, transmission planning, and earth segment configurations. Cost estimates of proposed design parameters will be performed, but options must be reduced to make construction feasible. Finally, a financial analysis will be carried out in order to calculate financial returns.

  6. Electromechanical properties of superconductors for DOE/OFE applications. Final report

    Ekin, J.W.; Bray, S.L.


    In many superconductor applications, especially large magnets, the superconductor is required to perform while under the influence of strong mechanical forces. These forces are commonly due to residual fabrication stress, differential thermal contraction of dissimilar materials, and electromagnetic forces generated within an energized magnet coil. Thorough knowledge of a superconductor's electrical performance under the influence of these forces (electromechanical properties) is required for successful magnet engineering. This report presents results of research conducted during the period from august 1993 through March 1997 on the electromechanical properties of superconductors for DOE/OFE fusion applications

  7. Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For spacecraft design and development teams concerned with cost and schedule, the Quick Spacecraft Thermal Analysis Tool (QuickSTAT) is an innovative software suite...

  8. Optimal trajectories of aircraft and spacecraft

    Miele, A.


    Work done on algorithms for the numerical solutions of optimal control problems and their application to the computation of optimal flight trajectories of aircraft and spacecraft is summarized. General considerations on calculus of variations, optimal control, numerical algorithms, and applications of these algorithms to real-world problems are presented. The sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) is examined for the numerical solution of optimal control problems of the Bolza type. Both the primal formulation and the dual formulation are discussed. Aircraft trajectories, in particular, the application of the dual sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (DSGRA) to the determination of optimal flight trajectories in the presence of windshear are described. Both take-off trajectories and abort landing trajectories are discussed. Take-off trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak deviation of the absolute path inclination from a reference value. Abort landing trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak drop of altitude from a reference value. Abort landing trajectories are optimized by minimizing the peak drop of altitude from a reference value. The survival capability of an aircraft in a severe windshear is discussed, and the optimal trajectories are found to be superior to both constant pitch trajectories and maximum angle of attack trajectories. Spacecraft trajectories, in particular, the application of the primal sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (PSGRA) to the determination of optimal flight trajectories for aeroassisted orbital transfer are examined. Both the coplanar case and the noncoplanar case are discussed within the frame of three problems: minimization of the total characteristic velocity; minimization of the time integral of the square of the path inclination; and minimization of the peak heating rate. The solution of the second problem is called nearly-grazing solution, and its merits are pointed out as a useful

  9. Application of solar energy in houses in Tilburg, Netherlands. Final report

    Janssen, J.M.


    The options to use solar energy for housing corporations, private renters, active associations of owners and owner-occupants in Tilburg, Netherlands, are outlined. Special attention is paid to the application of solar water heaters, because of their possibility to contribute to a sustainable energy supply

  10. Acquisition of Information to be Used in Programming for Pesticides Applicator Certification Training. Final Report.

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Extension Service.

    Five methods were evaluated for training Kansas agricultural producers for certification as Private Pesticide Applicators. The study involved 471 participants throughout the state. Comparison of pre- and post-test scores showed that teaching by video cassette caused the most improvement, followed by the traditional method using a team of…

  11. Multiple spacecraft Michelson stellar interferometer

    Stachnik, R. V.; Arnold, D.; Melroy, P.; Mccormack, E. F.; Gezari, D. Y.


    Results of an orbital analysis and performance assessment of SAMSI (Spacecraft Array for Michelson Spatial Interferometry) are presented. The device considered includes two one-meter telescopes in orbits which are identical except for slightly different inclinations; the telescopes achieve separations as large as 10 km and relay starlight to a central station which has a one-meter optical delay line in one interferometer arm. It is shown that a 1000-km altitude, zero mean inclination orbit affords natural scanning of the 10-km baseline with departures from optical pathlength equality which are well within the corrective capacity of the optical delay line. Electric propulsion is completely adequate to provide the required spacecraft motions, principally those needed for repointing. Resolution of 0.00001 arcsec and magnitude limits of 15 to 20 are achievable.

  12. Spacecraft Tests of General Relativity

    Anderson, John D.


    Current spacecraft tests of general relativity depend on coherent radio tracking referred to atomic frequency standards at the ground stations. This paper addresses the possibility of improved tests using essentially the current system, but with the added possibility of a space-borne atomic clock. Outside of the obvious measurement of the gravitational frequency shift of the spacecraft clock, a successor to the suborbital flight of a Scout D rocket in 1976 (GP-A Project), other metric tests would benefit most directly by a possible improved sensitivity for the reduced coherent data. For purposes of illustration, two possible missions are discussed. The first is a highly eccentric Earth orbiter, and the second a solar-conjunction experiment to measure the Shapiro time delay using coherent Doppler data instead of the conventional ranging modulation.

  13. Autonomous spacecraft rendezvous and docking

    Tietz, J. C.; Almand, B. J.

    A storyboard display is presented which summarizes work done recently in design and simulation of autonomous video rendezvous and docking systems for spacecraft. This display includes: photographs of the simulation hardware, plots of chase vehicle trajectories from simulations, pictures of the docking aid including image processing interpretations, and drawings of the control system strategy. Viewgraph-style sheets on the display bulletin board summarize the simulation objectives, benefits, special considerations, approach, and results.

  14. Nonlinearity-induced spacecraft tumbling

    Amos, A.K.


    An existing tumbling criterion for the dumbbell satellite in planar librations is reexamined and modified to reflect a recently identified tumbling mode associated with the horizontal attitude orientation. It is shown that for any initial attitude there exists a critical angular rate below which the motion is oscillatory and harmonic and beyond which a continuous tumbling will ensue. If the angular rate is at the critical value the spacecraft drifts towards the horizontal attitude from which a spontaneous periodic tumbling occurs

  15. Worldwide Spacecraft Crew Hatch History

    Johnson, Gary


    The JSC Flight Safety Office has developed this compilation of historical information on spacecraft crew hatches to assist the Safety Tech Authority in the evaluation and analysis of worldwide spacecraft crew hatch design and performance. The document is prepared by SAIC s Gary Johnson, former NASA JSC S&MA Associate Director for Technical. Mr. Johnson s previous experience brings expert knowledge to assess the relevancy of data presented. He has experience with six (6) of the NASA spacecraft programs that are covered in this document: Apollo; Skylab; Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP), Space Shuttle, ISS and the Shuttle/Mir Program. Mr. Johnson is also intimately familiar with the JSC Design and Procedures Standard, JPR 8080.5, having been one of its original developers. The observations and findings are presented first by country and organized within each country section by program in chronological order of emergence. A host of reference sources used to augment the personal observations and comments of the author are named within the text and/or listed in the reference section of this document. Careful attention to the selection and inclusion of photos, drawings and diagrams is used to give visual association and clarity to the topic areas examined.

  16. Integrating standard operating procedures with spacecraft automation, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft automation has the potential to assist crew members and spacecraft operators in managing spacecraft systems during extended space missions. Automation can...

  17. Methodology and application of surrogate plant PRA analysis to the Rancho Seco Power Plant: Final report

    Gore, B.F.; Huenefeld, J.C.


    This report presents the development and the first application of generic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) information for identifying systems and components important to public risk at nuclear power plants lacking plant-specific PRAs. A methodology is presented for using the results of PRAs for similar (surrogate) plants, along with plant-specific information about the plant of interest and the surrogate plants, to infer important failure modes for systems of the plant of interest. This methodology, and the rationale on which it is based, is presented in the context of its application to the Rancho Seco plant. The Rancho Seco plant has been analyzed using PRA information from two surrogate plants. This analysis has been used to guide development of considerable plant-specific information about Rancho Seco systems and components important to minimizing public risk, which is also presented herein

  18. SMART-1: the first spacecraft of the future


    gather high-value scientific and technological data. Another innovation lies in the industrial policy applied to this mission. SMART-1 is a good example of an ESA mission in which a comparatively small company such as the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has been selected as prime contractor. “The experience of SSC in highly successful projects at national level was a key factor in the decision, as was ESA's goal of fostering a balanced industrial landscape in Europe,” says Niels Jensen of ESA’s Directorate of Industrial Matters and Technology Programmes. The magic of ion engines Solar-electric propulsion, one of the main technologies to be tested by SMART-1, is a new technique that uses 'ion engines'. These work by expelling a continuous beam of charged particles --ions-- at the back of the engine, which produces a thrust in the opposite direction and therefore pushes the spacecraft forward. The energy to feed the engine comes from the solar panels, hence the name 'solar-electric propulsion'. Engineers have been working on ion engines for decades, but only recently have obstacles such as the lack of power availability from a spacecraft’s solar panels been overcome. Recent missions have been using ion thrusters mainly for attitude control and orbit station keeping. In the recent case of ESA’s telecommunication satellite Artemis, the onboard availability of ion thrusters was actually what allowed the mission to be rescued. Having been left by the launcher on an unplanned orbit, Artemis was slowly - but safely - brought up to its final working orbit by the power of its ion engines, initially designed for orbit maintenance only. Starting with SMART-1, the first European spacecraft to use an ion engine as its main propulsion system, the amazing advantages of this method can now be fully exploited. Ion engines are very efficient: they deliver about ten times as much impulse per kilogram of propellant used. This gives a substantial reduction in the mass of the fuel

  19. Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications development phase. Final report



    The deployment and operation of clean power generation is becoming critical as the energy and transportation sectors seek ways to comply with clean air standards and the national deregulation of the utility industry. However, for strategic business decisions, considerable analysis is required over the next few years to evaluate the appropriate application and value added from this emerging technology. To this end the Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC) is proposing a three-year industry-driven project that centers on the creation of ``The Center for Fuel Cell Research and Applications.`` A collaborative laboratory housed at and managed by HARC, the Center will enable a core group of six diverse participating companies--industry participants--to investigate the economic and operational feasibility of proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells in a variety of applications (the core project). This document describes the unique benefits of a collaborative approach to PEM applied research, among them a shared laboratory concept leading to cost savings and shared risks as well as access to outstanding research talent and lab facilities. It also describes the benefits provided by implementing the project at HARC, with particular emphasis on HARC`s history of managing successful long-term research projects as well as its experience in dealing with industry consortia projects. The Center is also unique in that it will not duplicate the traditional university role of basic research or that of the fuel cell industry in developing commercial products. Instead, the Center will focus on applications, testing, and demonstration of fuel cell technology.

  20. LDRD final report : robust analysis of large-scale combinatorial applications.

    Carr, Robert D.; Morrison, Todd (University of Colorado, Denver, CO); Hart, William Eugene; Benavides, Nicolas L. (Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA); Greenberg, Harvey J. (University of Colorado, Denver, CO); Watson, Jean-Paul; Phillips, Cynthia Ann


    Discrete models of large, complex systems like national infrastructures and complex logistics frameworks naturally incorporate many modeling uncertainties. Consequently, there is a clear need for optimization techniques that can robustly account for risks associated with modeling uncertainties. This report summarizes the progress of the Late-Start LDRD 'Robust Analysis of Largescale Combinatorial Applications'. This project developed new heuristics for solving robust optimization models, and developed new robust optimization models for describing uncertainty scenarios.

  1. Development of high field superconductors for fusion energy applications. Final report


    The purpose of this project was to develop a conductor design and a manufacturing procedure for a composite multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor suitable for winding a magnet for use in a fusion energy power plant. Effort was concentrated on the design of a conductor with tubular niobium filaments in a copper matrix. Bronze in the bores of the filaments would react with the niobium to form Nb 3 Sn on the inside diameter of the niobium tubular filaments during a heat treatment at final size. Four filament geometries were evaluated. The addition of titanium to the bronze was found to increase the current density. The use of a hydrogen atmosphre did not appear to cause any increase in current density. Primary billets were assembled and extruded with five tubular filament designs and for comparison, five rod type filament designs. Billet designs are described

  2. The Application of Adaptive Sampling and Analysis Program (ASAP) Techniques to NORM Sites; FINAL

    Johnson, Robert; Smith, Karen P.; Quinn, John


    The results from the Michigan demonstration establish that this type of approach can be very effective for NORM sites. The advantages include (1) greatly reduced per sample analytical costs; (2) a reduced reliance on soil sampling and ex situ gamma spectroscopy analyses; (3) the ability to combine characterization with remediation activities in one fieldwork cycle; (4) improved documentation; and (5) ultimately better remediation, as measured by greater precision in delineating soils that are not in compliance with requirements from soils that are in compliance. In addition, the demonstration showed that the use of real-time technologies, such as the RadInSoil, can facilitate the implementation of a Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM)-based final status survey program

  3. Accounting for Model Uncertainties Using Reliability Methods - Application to Carbon Dioxide Geologic Sequestration System. Final Report

    Mok, Chin Man; Doughty, Christine; Zhang, Keni; Pruess, Karsten; Kiureghian, Armen; Zhang, Miao; Kaback, Dawn


    A new computer code, CALRELTOUGH, which uses reliability methods to incorporate parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis into subsurface flow and transport models, was developed by Geomatrix Consultants, Inc. in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California at Berkeley. The CALREL reliability code was developed at the University of California at Berkely for geotechnical applications and the TOUGH family of codes was developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for subsurface flow and tranport applications. The integration of the two codes provides provides a new approach to deal with uncertainties in flow and transport modeling of the subsurface, such as those uncertainties associated with hydrogeology parameters, boundary conditions, and initial conditions of subsurface flow and transport using data from site characterization and monitoring for conditioning. The new code enables computation of the reliability of a system and the components that make up the system, instead of calculating the complete probability distributions of model predictions at all locations at all times. The new CALRELTOUGH code has tremendous potential to advance subsurface understanding for a variety of applications including subsurface energy storage, nuclear waste disposal, carbon sequestration, extraction of natural resources, and environmental remediation. The new code was tested on a carbon sequestration problem as part of the Phase I project. Phase iI was not awarded.

  4. Final report on LDRD project : coupling strategies for multi-physics applications.

    Hopkins, Matthew Morgan; Moffat, Harry K.; Carnes, Brian; Hooper, Russell Warren; Pawlowski, Roger P.


    Many current and future modeling applications at Sandia including ASC milestones will critically depend on the simultaneous solution of vastly different physical phenomena. Issues due to code coupling are often not addressed, understood, or even recognized. The objectives of the LDRD has been both in theory and in code development. We will show that we have provided a fundamental analysis of coupling, i.e., when strong coupling vs. a successive substitution strategy is needed. We have enabled the implementation of tighter coupling strategies through additions to the NOX and Sierra code suites to make coupling strategies available now. We have leveraged existing functionality to do this. Specifically, we have built into NOX the capability to handle fully coupled simulations from multiple codes, and we have also built into NOX the capability to handle Jacobi Free Newton Krylov simulations that link multiple applications. We show how this capability may be accessed from within the Sierra Framework as well as from outside of Sierra. The critical impact from this LDRD is that we have shown how and have delivered strategies for enabling strong Newton-based coupling while respecting the modularity of existing codes. This will facilitate the use of these codes in a coupled manner to solve multi-physic applications.

  5. Digital image transformation and rectification of spacecraft and radar images

    Wu, S. S. C.


    The application of digital processing techniques to spacecraft television pictures and radar images is discussed. The use of digital rectification to produce contour maps from spacecraft pictures is described; images with azimuth and elevation angles are converted into point-perspective frame pictures. The digital correction of the slant angle of radar images to ground scale is examined. The development of orthophoto and stereoscopic shaded relief maps from digital terrain and digital image data is analyzed. Digital image transformations and rectifications are utilized on Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars.

  6. Multi-kilowatt modularized spacecraft power processing system development

    Andrews, R.E.; Hayden, J.H.; Hedges, R.T.; Rehmann, D.W.


    A review of existing information pertaining to spacecraft power processing systems and equipment was accomplished with a view towards applicability to the modularization of multi-kilowatt power processors. Power requirements for future spacecraft were determined from the NASA mission model-shuttle systems payload data study which provided the limits for modular power equipment capabilities. Three power processing systems were compared to evaluation criteria to select the system best suited for modularity. The shunt regulated direct energy transfer system was selected by this analysis for a conceptual design effort which produced equipment specifications, schematics, envelope drawings, and power module configurations

  7. Glass fibre sensors for medical applications - fibre-optical dosimeter system. Cooperation project 1991-1994. Final report


    The final report summarizes the results of a cooperation project on the applications of fibre-optical sensors in medical technology. The FADOS dosimeter system is presented which comprises an implantable glass fibre dosimeter. It can be applied in radiotherapy for online dose metering directly at the tumour or in the surrounding healthy tissue. The dosimeter is placed in a tissue-compatible flexible catheter tube and remains inside the body during the radiotherapy treatiment. The measuring principle is based on the effect of radiation-induced damping inside a glass fibre. (DG) [de

  8. Safety case for license application for a final repository: The French example

    Boissier, Fabrice; Voinis, Sylvie


    The reversible repository in a deep geological formation is the French reference solution for the long-term management of high-level and intermediate-level long-lived radioactive waste (HLW and ILW). Twenty years of R and D work and conceptual and basic studies since the first French Act of 1991 led, in particular, to a feasibility demonstration in 2005. According to the French Act on Radioactive Waste of 28 of June 2006, Andra shall design a reversible repository in order to apply for license in 2015. In response to this demand, Andra developed the industrial project known as 'Cigeo', a reversible geological disposal facility for HLW and ILW located in Meuse/Haute-Marne. Two years before applying for authorisation, Andra's project is now focusing on three main targets: developing Cigeo's industrial design, preparing the authorisation process through increased exchanges with stakeholders and the preparation of a safety case to support authorisation application. The latter draws on the previous safety cases of 2005 and 2009, which give a sound basis to assess Cigeo's safety, both for the operational and post-closure periods. In this new stage of the project, the challenging issues for the preparation of the safety case are the following: - to identify the various regulatory frameworks (nuclear and non-nuclear) and guides applicable to the facility; - to ensure that the industrial design complies in particular with the safety requirements as presented in the safety case and its supporting safety assessment; - to identify crucial inputs (R and D, tests,...) needed to support the authorisation application, in particular, to bring convincing arguments to assess the technical feasibility of the design and when appropriate its ability to meet the safety requirements; - to ensure that all the requirements from previous regulatory and peer reviews (national and international?) are taken into account. (authors)

  9. High-Performance Reaction Wheel Optimization for Fine-Pointing Space Platforms: Minimizing Induced Vibration Effects on Jitter Performance plus Lessons Learned from Hubble Space Telescope for Current and Future Spacecraft Applications

    Hasha, Martin D.


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) applies large-diameter optics (2.5-m primary mirror) for diffraction-limited resolution spanning an extended wavelength range (approx. 100-2500 nm). Its Pointing Control System (PCS) Reaction Wheel Assemblies (RWAs), in the Support Systems Module (SSM), acquired an unprecedented set of high-sensitivity Induced Vibration (IV) data for 5 flight-certified RWAs: dwelling at set rotation rates. Focused on 4 key ratios, force and moment harmonic values (in 3 local principal directions) are extracted in the RWA operating range (0-3000 RPM). The IV test data, obtained under ambient lab conditions, are investigated in detail, evaluated, compiled, and curve-fitted; variational trends, core causes, and unforeseen anomalies are addressed. In aggregate, these values constitute a statistically-valid basis to quantify ground test-to-test variations and facilitate extrapolations to on-orbit conditions. Accumulated knowledge of bearing-rotor vibrational sources, corresponding harmonic contributions, and salient elements of IV key variability factors are discussed. An evolved methodology is presented for absolute assessments and relative comparisons of macro-level IV signal magnitude due to micro-level construction-assembly geometric details/imperfections stemming from both electrical drive and primary bearing design parameters. Based upon studies of same-size/similar-design momentum wheels' IV changes, upper estimates due to transitions from ground tests to orbital conditions are derived. Recommended HST RWA choices are discussed relative to system optimization/tradeoffs of Line-Of-Sight (LOS) vector-pointing focal-plane error driven by higher IV transmissibilities through low-damped structural dynamics that stimulate optical elements. Unique analytical disturbance results for orbital HST accelerations are described applicable to microgravity efforts. Conclusions, lessons learned, historical context/insights, and perspectives on future applications

  10. Cost-effective control systems for solar heating and cooling applications. Final report

    Pejsa, J. H.; Bassett, W. W.; Wenzler, S. A.; Nguyen, K. H.; Olson, T. J.


    A methodology has been defined to arrive at control recommendations for a variety of climate control system designs, applications and regions, and the results are presented in two parts. Part I consists of a literature and market-place survey, involving control strategies, functions, sensors, actuators, and the controllers themselves. Part II represents the bulk of the study effort - an attempt to simulate and evaluate system performance for several representative residential and commercial heating and cooling designs and thus to derive improved performance techniques within cost-effective control systems. (MHR)

  11. Water recovery and solid waste processing for aerospace and domestic applications. Volume 1: Final report

    Murray, R. W.


    A comprehensive study of advanced water recovery and solid waste processing techniques employed in both aerospace and domestic or commercial applications is reported. A systems approach was used to synthesize a prototype system design of an advanced water treatment/waste processing system. Household water use characteristics were studied and modified through the use of low water use devices and a limited amount of water reuse. This modified household system was then used as a baseline system for development of several water treatment waste processing systems employing advanced techniques. A hybrid of these systems was next developed and a preliminary design was generated to define system and hardware functions.

  12. Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator system. Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Anderson, D.J.; Anderson, E.R.; Bardwell, K.M.


    This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic system are described. The application is on an attractive new office building which represents a large potential market. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a roof-mounted, single-axis linear parabolic trough, using single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. A total of 6720 square feet of aperture is focussed on 13,944 PV cells. The photovoltaic system operates in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary loadsharing operating mode. The array is actively cooled and the thermal energy utilized for building heat during winter months. (WHK)

  13. Spacecraft Jitter Attenuation Using Embedded Piezoelectric Actuators

    Belvin, W. Keith


    Remote sensing from spacecraft requires precise pointing of measurement devices in order to achieve adequate spatial resolution. Unfortunately, various spacecraft disturbances induce vibrational jitter in the remote sensing instruments. The NASA Langley Research Center has performed analysis, simulations, and ground tests to identify the more promising technologies for minimizing spacecraft pointing jitter. These studies have shown that the use of smart materials to reduce spacecraft jitter is an excellent match between a maturing technology and an operational need. This paper describes the use of embedding piezoelectric actuators for vibration control and payload isolation. In addition, recent advances in modeling, simulation, and testing of spacecraft pointing jitter are discussed.

  14. Wavelet applications for modeling in the atmospheric sciences: Current status and potential extensions. Final report

    Envair, J.H.; Ekstrom, P.


    Wavelets are elementary mathematical functions used to construct, transform, and analyze higher functions and observational data. This report describes the results of an exploratory research effort to evaluate wavelet applications for numerically integrating differential equations associated with air pollution transport and conversion models. It is intended to provide a primer on wavelets, and specifically outlines the use of wavelets in a model that addresses derivative-evaluation and boundary-condition problems. Several factors complicate the use of wavelets for integrating differential equations. First, an enormous range of different wavelet types exists, making the choice of wavelet family for a given application challenging. Moreover, in contrast to the Fourier series, the functional derivatives necessary for numerical approximation are difficult to evaluate and consolidate in terms of wavelet expansions, introducing appreciable complexity into any attempt at wavelet-based integration. On the positive side, wavelet techniques do hold promise for effectively interfacing plume and other subgrid-scale phenomena in grid models. Moreover, workable techniques for derivative evaluation and simulation of boundary features appear feasible. Wavelet use may provide a viable, advantageous option for numerically integrating model equations describing fields on all scales of time and distance, especially where inhomogeneous fields exist, and provide a computationally efficient method of focusing on high-variability regions. The potential for wavelets to conduct integrations totally in transform space contrasts with Fourier-based approaches, which essentially preclude such treatments whenever nonlinear chemical processes occur in the modeled system


    Lundberg, W. L.; Christenson, James A.


    A project is discussed in which the possibilities for economical waste heat recovery and utilization in the food industry were examined. Waste heat availability and applications surveys were performed at two manufacturing plants engaged in low temperature (freezing) and high temperature (cooking, sterilizing, etc.) food processing. The surveys indicate usable waste heat is available in significant quantities which could be applied to existing, on-site energy demands resulting in sizable reductions in factory fuel and energy usage. At the high temperature plant, the energy demands involve the heating of fresh water for boiler make-up, for the food processes and for the daily clean-up operation. Clean-up poses an opportunity for thermal energy storage since waste heat is produced during the one or two production shifts of each working day while the major clean-up effort does not occur until food production ends. At the frozen food facility, the clean-up water application again exists and, in addition, refrigeration waste heat could also be applied to warm the soil beneath the ground floor freezer space. Systems to recover and apply waste heat in these situations were developed conceptually and thermal/economic performance predictions were obtained. The results of those studies indicate the economics of waste heat recovery can be attractive for facilities with high energy demand levels. Small factories, however, with relatively low energy demands may find the economics marginal although, percentagewise, the fuel and energy savings are appreciable.

  16. Application of aerospace failure-reporting systems to power plants. Final report

    Koukol, J.F.; Lapin, E.E.; Leverton, W.F.; Pickering, W.H.


    Failure reporting and analysis is a principal element of the overall quality assurance scheme that helped achieve, and now sustains, a high level of reliability in our national aerospace effort. The aerospace endeavor has many points of congruence with other highly technological activities. These are marked by great economic investment, an extended interval between concept and final implementation, the involvement of many independent entities with the government exercising a dominating influence, a considerable exposure to public view and review by public bodies, a notoriety accompanying untoward events, and extreme consequences attending failure. This report is written in the expectation that the lessons learned in arriving at the present state in aerospace can be adopted by others. It is the object of the report to illuminate the essential features of the aerospace failure reporting system. Two schemes are described. One typifies that which is currently employed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) operated by the California Institute of Technology for the NASA/JPL Voyager project and is based on procedures developed over several decades of deep space exploration. The other is typical of that employed by the Space Divison of the Air Force for military space programs

  17. Final Report of Optimization Algorithms for Hierarchical Problems, with Applications to Nanoporous Materials

    Nash, Stephen G.


    The research focuses on the modeling and optimization of nanoporous materials. In systems with hierarchical structure that we consider, the physics changes as the scale of the problem is reduced and it can be important to account for physics at the fine level to obtain accurate approximations at coarser levels. For example, nanoporous materials hold promise for energy production and storage. A significant issue is the fabrication of channels within these materials to allow rapid diffusion through the material. One goal of our research is to apply optimization methods to the design of nanoporous materials. Such problems are large and challenging, with hierarchical structure that we believe can be exploited, and with a large range of important scales, down to atomistic. This requires research on large-scale optimization for systems that exhibit different physics at different scales, and the development of algorithms applicable to designing nanoporous materials for many important applications in energy production, storage, distribution, and use. Our research has two major research thrusts. The first is hierarchical modeling. We plan to develop and study hierarchical optimization models for nanoporous materials. The models have hierarchical structure, and attempt to balance the conflicting aims of model fidelity and computational tractability. In addition, we analyze the general hierarchical model, as well as the specific application models, to determine their properties, particularly those properties that are relevant to the hierarchical optimization algorithms. The second thrust was to develop, analyze, and implement a class of hierarchical optimization algorithms, and apply them to the hierarchical models we have developed. We adapted and extended the optimization-based multigrid algorithms of Lewis and Nash to the optimization models exemplified by the hierarchical optimization model. This class of multigrid algorithms has been shown to be a powerful tool for

  18. [National Academies' Board on Mathematical Sciences and their Application] Final technical report

    Scott T. Weidman


    The National Academies' Board on Mathematical Sciences and their Applications (BMSA) is a primary interface between the research enterprise and federal agencies that rely on the mathematical sciences. The Board provides objective and authoritative advice on how best to apply the tools of mathematics, statistics, operations research, financial engineering, computational modeling, computational science, information analysis, and decision analysis to practical problems of national importance. In so doing, the Board strengthens the policy-making process and increases the visibility of, and appreciation for, the mathematical sciences while also identifying growth areas for the discipline. The Board consists of 18 pro bono experts from a broad range of quantitative fields, with experience in academia, industry, and national laboratories.

  19. Final LDRD report :ultraviolet water purification systems for rural environments and mobile applications.

    Banas, Michael Anthony; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Ruby, Douglas Scott; Ross, Michael P.; Nelson, Jeffrey Scott; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Boucher, Ray


    We present the results of a one year LDRD program that has focused on evaluating the use of newly developed deep ultraviolet LEDs in water purification. We describe our development efforts that have produced an LED-based water exposure set-up and enumerate the advances that have been made in deep UV LED performance throughout the project. The results of E. coli inactivation with 270-295 nm LEDs are presented along with an assessment of the potential for applying deep ultraviolet LED-based water purification to mobile point-of-use applications as well as to rural and international environments where the benefits of photovoltaic-powered systems can be realized.

  20. Application of an eddy current technique to steam generator U-bend characterization. Final report

    Cramer, W.E.; de la Pintiere, L.; Narita, S.; Bergander, M.J.


    Eddy current nondestructive testing techniques are used widely throughout the utility industry for the early detection of tube damage in critical power plant components such as steam generators. In this project, the application of an eddy current technique for the characterization of U-bend transitions in the first row tubing in Westinghouse 51 Series Steam Generators has been investigated. A method has been developed for detection of the opposite transition in the U-bend and for defining its severity. Investigation included two different types of U-bend transitions. Using the developed eddy current method for U-bend characterization, on-site inspection was performed on all tubes in the first row in four 51 Series steam generators in Power Plant Unit No. 2 and in one 51 Series steam generator in Power Plant Unit No. 1. The advantages and limitations of the developed method as well as the recommendations for further investigations are included

  1. Improved superconductor for transmission line applications, phase I. Final report, January 1, 1975--June 30, 1975

    Braginski, A.I.; Mauser, S.F.; Roland, G.W.; Burghardt, R.R.; Daniel, M.R.; Janocko, M.A.


    The analysis of an existing superconducting power transmission cable design indicated that economic benefits in the area of refrigeration can be derived from the substitution of Nb 3 Ge superconductor for the presently planned Nb 3 Sn. However, the cost of Nb 3 Ge must be comparable to that of Nb 3 Sn, which is achievable when preparing Nb 3 Ge by the chemical vapor deposition. Alternatively, technical benefits can be obtained. The most essential and prerequisite requirement is that the Nb 3 Ge critical current density be improved significantly over the present state-of-the art. Other properties of Nb 3 Ge are generally suitable for the transmission line application and/or require only moderate improvements. (auth)

  2. Use of geothermal heat for crop drying and related agricultural applications. Final report

    Gordon, T.J.; Wright, T.C.; Fein, E.; Munson, T.R.; Richmond, R.C.


    Observations led to the selection of the alfalfa dehydration industry for in-depth analysis of the application of moderate-temperature geothermal heat. Six geothermal heat exchanger/dryer configurations were examined. A low-temperature conveyor dryer using geothermal water to supply all required heat was chosen for site-specific analysis, the retrofitting of a large alfalfa dehydration plant within the Heber KGRA in the Imperial Valley, California. Even in the most favorable scenario--sharing a geothermal pipeline with the neighboring fertilizer plant--geothermal retrofitting would increase the price of the alfalfa ''dehy'' about 40 percent. The geothermal brine is estimated to cost $2.58/million Btu's compared with a 1977 natural gas cost of $1.15. Capital cost for heat exchangers and the new dryers is estimated at $3.3 million. The Heber plant appeared to offer the only good opportunity for geothermal retrofitting of an existing alfalfa dehydration plant. Construction of new plants at geothermal resource sites cannot be justified due to the uncertain state of the ''dehy'' industry. Use of geothermal heat for drying other crops may be much more promising. The potato dehydration industry, which is concentrated in the geothermal-rich Snake River Valley of Idaho, appears to offer good potential for geothermal retrofitting; about 4.7 x 10{sup 12}Btu's are used annually by plants within 50 miles of resources. Drying together at the geothermal wellhead several crops that have interlocking processing seasons and drying-temperature requirements may be quite attractive. The best ''multicrop drying center'' site identified was at Power Ranch Wells, Arizona; 34 other sites were defined. Agricultural processing applications other than drying were investigated briefly.

  3. Applications of magnetic refrigeration and its assessment. A feasibility study - Final report

    Kitanovski, A.; Diebold, M.; Vuarnoz, D.; Gonin, C.; Egolf, P. W.


    Magnetic refrigeration has the potential to replace conventional refrigeration systems - with often problematic refrigerants - in several niche markets or even some main markets of the refrigeration domain. Based on this insight the Swiss Federal Office of Energy has asked a division of the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HEIG-VD) in Yverdon-les-Bains to list all possible refrigeration technologies and to evaluate the potential of magnetic refrigeration for these specific applications. The HEIG-VD researchers have developed a calculation tool to determine the coefficient of performance (COP) value and the exergy efficiency as a function of the magnetic field strength and the rotation frequency of a rotary type of magnetic refrigerator. The considered machine design is based on a patent, which was deposited by these scientists. Based on this work, it is found that especially two applications are very interesting for a closer investigation: the household refrigerator without a freezing compartment and the central chilling unit, which may be of large size. In the domains of refrigeration, where magnetic refrigeration could be successfully applied, the costs for magnetic refrigeration machines would be a little higher than those of the conventional ones. On the other hand the study shows possibilities how the magnetic refrigeration machines could reach higher COP values than those of the corresponding gas compression/expansion machines. Therefore, for magnetic refrigeration one may assume lower costs of operation. For large systems - as e.g. chiller units - it should be studied, if superconducting magnets could be economically applied. (author)

  4. A corrector for spacecraft calculated electron moments

    J. Geach


    Full Text Available We present the application of a numerical method to correct electron moments calculated on-board spacecraft from the effects of potential broadening and energy range truncation. Assuming a shape for the natural distribution of the ambient plasma and employing the scalar approximation, the on-board moments can be represented as non-linear integral functions of the underlying distribution. We have implemented an algorithm which inverts this system successfully over a wide range of parameters for an assumed underlying drifting Maxwellian distribution. The outputs of the solver are the corrected electron plasma temperature Te, density Ne and velocity vector Ve. We also make an estimation of the temperature anisotropy A of the distribution. We present corrected moment data from Cluster's PEACE experiment for a range of plasma environments and make comparisons with electron and ion data from other Cluster instruments, as well as the equivalent ground-based calculations using full 3-D distribution PEACE telemetry.

  5. Spacecraft Design Thermal Control Subsystem

    Miyake, Robert N.


    The Thermal Control Subsystem engineers task is to maintain the temperature of all spacecraft components, subsystems, and the total flight system within specified limits for all flight modes from launch to end-of-mission. In some cases, specific stability and gradient temperature limits will be imposed on flight system elements. The Thermal Control Subsystem of "normal" flight systems, the mass, power, control, and sensing systems mass and power requirements are below 10% of the total flight system resources. In general the thermal control subsystem engineer is involved in all other flight subsystem designs.

  6. Topology Optimization of Spacecraft Transfer Compartment

    A. A. Borovikov


    how to control dimensions of walls, rods, as well as how to achieve the correct type of the construction design. Strength calculation verification proved the construction performance. The table summarizes the results obtained.4.      ConclusionThe results show that there is a need to vary the parameters of the topology optimization algorithm. There are few variants of the rational construction design for more detailed (shape and size optimization and investigation in the CAD-system.The final construction mass was reduced by more than 30% against the prototype that seems to be very promising for space application

  7. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    Zhu, Charles [Delta Products, Triangle Park, NC (United States)


    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical

  8. Intermediate Photovoltaic System Application Experiment. Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts. Phase II. Final report


    This report presents the key results of the Phase II efforts for the Intermediate PV System Applications Experiment at the Oklahoma Center for Science and Arts (OCSA). This phase of the project involved fabrication, installation and integration of a nominal 140 kW flat panel PV system made up of large, square polycrystalline-silicon solar cell modules, each nominally 61 cm x 122 cm in size. The output of the PV modules, supplied by Solarex Corporation, was augmented, 1.35 to 1 at peak, by a row of glass reflectors, appropriately tilted northward. The PV system interfaces with the Oklahoma Gas and Electric Utility at the OCSA main switchgear. Any excess power generated by the system is fed into the utility under a one to one buyback arrangement. Except for a shortfall in the system output, presently suspected to be due to the poor performance of the modules, no serious problems were encountered. Certain value engineering changes implemented during construction and early operational failure events associated with the power conditioning system are also described. The system is currently undergoing extended testing and evaluation.

  9. DOE Center of Excellence in Medical Laser Applications. Final report, December 1, 1994--November 30, 1997

    Jacques, S.L.


    An engineering network of collaborating medical laser laboratories are developing laser and optical technologies for medical diagnosis and therapy and are translating the engineering into medical centers in Portland OR, Houston TX, and Galveston TX. The Center includes the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, the University of Texas-Austin, Texas A and M University, Rice University, the University Texas Medical Branch-Galveston, Oregon Medical Laser Center (Providence St. Vincent Medical Center, Oregon Health Sciences University, and Oregon Graduate Institute, Portland, OR), and the University of Oregon. Diagnostics include reflectance, fluorescence, Raman IR, laser photoacoustics, optical coherence tomography, and several new video techniques for spectroscopy and imaging. Therapies include photocoagulation therapy, laser welding, pulsed laser ablation, and light-activated chemotherapy of cancer (photodynamic therapy, or PDT). Medical applications reaching the clinic include optical monitoring of hyperbilirubinemia in newborns, fluorescence detection of cervical dysplasia, laser thrombolysis of blood clots in heart attack and brain stroke, photothermal coagulant of benign prostate hyperplasia, and PDT for both veterinary and human cancer. New technologies include laser optoacoustic imaging of breast tumors and hemorrhage in head trauma and brain stroke, quality control monitoring of dosimetry during PDT for esophageal and lung cancer, polarization video reflectometry of skin cancer, laser welding of artificial tissue replacements, and feedback control of laser welding.

  10. A 200 MHz 35 MW Multiple Beam Klystron for Accelerator Applications. Final Report

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Read, Michael; Ferguson, Patrick; Marsden, David


    Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. (CCR) performed initial development of a compact and reliable 35 MW, multiple beam klystron (MBK) at 200 MHz with a pulse length of 0.125 ms and a 30 Hz repetition rate. The device was targeted for acceleration and ionization cooling of a muon collider, but there are several other potential applications in this frequency range. The klystron uses multiple beams propagating in individual beam tunnels to reduce space charge and allow reduction in the accelerating voltage. This allows a significant reduction in length over a single beam source. More importantly this allows more efficient and less expensive power supplies. At 200 MHz, the interaction circuit for a single beam klystron would be more than six meters long to obtain 50% efficiency and 50 dB gain. This would require a beam voltage of approximately 400 kV and current of 251 A for a microperveance of 1.0. For an eight beam MBK with the same beam perveance, a three meter long interaction circuit achieves the same power and gain. Each beam operates at 142 kV and 70A. The Phase I demonstrated that this device could be fabricated with funding available in a Phase II program and could achieve the program specifications.

  11. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan



    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  12. Final Report for 'Verification and Validation of Radiation Hydrodynamics for Astrophysical Applications'

    Zingale, M.; Howell, L.H.


    The motivation for this work is to gain experience in the methodology of verification and validation (V and V) of astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics codes. In the first period of this work, we focused on building the infrastructure to test a single astrophysical application code, Castro, developed in collaboration between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). We delivered several hydrodynamic test problems, in the form of coded initial conditions and documentation for verification, routines to perform data analysis, and a generalized regression test suite to allow for continued automated testing. Astrophysical simulation codes aim to model phenomena that elude direct experimentation. Our only direct information about these systems comes from what we observe, and may be transient. Simulation can help further our understanding by allowing virtual experimentation of these systems. However, to have confidence in our simulations requires us to have confidence in the tools we use. Verification and Validation is a process by which we work to build confidence that a simulation code is accurately representing reality. V and V is a multistep process, and is never really complete. Once a single test problem is working as desired (i.e. that problem is verified), one wants to ensure that subsequent code changes do not break that test. At the same time, one must also search for new verification problems that test the code in a new way. It can be rather tedious to manually retest each of the problems, so before going too far with V and V, it is desirable to have an automated test suite. Our project aims to provide these basic tools for astrophysical radiation hydrodynamics codes.

  13. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    Elmore, B.B.


    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  14. Evaluation of a seafloor nuclear power supply and its potential applications. Final report


    The seafloor nuclear power supply (SNPS) concept has been proposed by Atomics International (AI) and Lockheed Petroleum Services, Ltd. (LPS) as a source of electrical energy for subsea pumping of petroleum products. It consists of a small nuclear reactor, moderated by zirconium hydride (ZrH) and cooled by liquid metal (NaK), which drives a 3-MW turbine/generator system using toluene as the working fluid. Arthur D. Little, Inc., was selected to assess the technical and economic feasibility of a SNPS, and to determine if potential applications for a SNPS might exist in offshore-oil-field development schemes where conventional power supplies could not be used. It was determined that the concept is technically feasible, with regard to the nuclear, marine, electrical, and petroleum engineering aspects. However, its initial cost of $14 million and operating expenses of $900,000 per year are considerably more in each case than the costs of conventional alternative power supplies. For the type of field development proposed as an example by LPS, a combination of gas turbines and dc cables would cost about $8 million. Fuel in the form of gas from the wells would be available at near-zero cost in almost all cases of field development, so that operating expenses would be minimal. Other power supply and cable systems were investigated, up to lengths of 200 miles. Alternating-current systems are preferred at distances less than 20 miles; direct current is more economical at greater distances. No set of circumstances was found in which oil field development is likely to occur and for which the SNPS offers uniquely attractive capabilities

  15. LDRD final report on adaptive-responsive nanostructures for sensing applications.

    Shelnutt, John Allen; van Swol, Frank B.; Wang, Zhongchun; Medforth, Craig J.


    Functional organic nanostructures such as well-formed tubes or fibers that can easily be fabricated into electronic and photonic devices are needed in many applications. Especially desirable from a national security standpoint are nanostructures that have enhanced sensitivity for the detection of chemicals and biological (CB) agents and other environmental stimuli. We recently discovered the first class of highly responsive and adaptive porphyrin-based nanostructures that may satisfy these requirements. These novel porphyrin nanostructures, which are formed by ionic self-assembly of two oppositely charged porphyrins, may function as conductors, semiconductors, or photoconductors, and they have additional properties that make them suitable for device fabrication (e.g., as ultrasensitive colorimetric CB microsensors). Preliminary studies with porphyrin nanotubes have shown that these nanostructures have novel optical and electronic properties, including strong resonant light scattering, quenched fluorescence, and electrical conductivity. In addition, they are photochemically active and capable of light-harvesting and photosynthesis; they may also have nonlinear optical properties. Remarkably, the nanotubes and potentially other porphyrin nanostructure are mechanically responsive and adaptive (e.g., the rigidity of the micrometers-long nanotubes is altered by light, ultrasound, or chemicals) and they self-heal upon removal the environmental stimulus. Given the tremendous degree of structural variation possible in the porphyrin subunits, additional types of nanostructures and greater control over their morphology can be anticipated. Molecular modification also provides a means of controlling their electronic, photonic, and other functional properties. In this work, we have greatly broadened the range of ionic porphyrin nanostructures that can be made, and determined the optical and responsivity properties of the nanotubes and other porphyrin nanostructures. We have

  16. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. Final technical report

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.


    Projectile fragmentation experiments have been conducted at the LBL Bevalac accelerator, utilizing both the B40 and the HISS facilities, to produce a dataset of 36 beam/energy combinations covering projectiles from 4 He to 58 Ni and various energies from 170--2100 MeV/nucleon. While some runs were subject to beam instabilities, magnet problems or low statistics, there remains a large dataset which is still being analyzed. The results will be used to investigate the physics of the intermediate energy fragmentation process and will find application in the astrophysics of cosmic ray propagation in the galaxy. An overview of the science goals and rationale is followed by presentation of the experimental techniques and apparatus that has been employed. Data analysis, including both detector subsystem and accelerator calibration, is discussed with emphasis on the unique features of the dataset and the analysis problems being addressed. Results from the experiments are presented throughout to illustrate the status of the analysis, e.g., momentum distribution widths. Total, Elemental and Isotopic cross sections from various beam/energy combinations are presented, including the first data on 32 S fragmentation and the complete isotopic fragmentation cross sections for 28 Si interacting in both Carbon and Hydrogen targets. The new results are compared to any existing data and to formulae used to predict unmeasured cross sections. The size and complexity of the dataset and the required detail of the analysis precluded finishing the full analysis under the subject grant. Plans for additional analysis are presented, and these will be carried out in coming years as time and resources permit

  17. Resource engineering and economic studies for direct application of geothermal energy. Draft final report


    The feasibility of utilizing geothermal energy at a selected plant in New York State was studied. Existing oil and gas records suggests that geothermal fluid is available in the target area and based on this potential. Friendship Dairies, Inc., Friendship, NY, was selected as a potential user of geothermal energy. Currently natural gas and electricity are used as its primary energy sources. Six geothermal system configurations were analyzed based on replacement of gas or oil-fired systems for producing process heat. Each system was evaluated in terms of Internal Rate of Return on Investment (IRR), and simple payback. Six system configurations and two replaced fuels, representative of a range of situations found in the state, are analyzed. Based on the potential geothermal reserves at Friendship, each of the six system configurations are shown to be economically viable, compared to continued gas or oil-firing. The Computed IRR's are all far in excess of projected average interest rates for long term borrowings: approximately 15% for guarantee backed loans or as high as 20% for conventional financing. IRR is computed based on the total investment (equity plus debt) and cash flows before financing costs, i.e., before interest expense, but after the tax benefit of the interest deduction. The base case application for the Friendship analysis is case B/20 yr-gas which produces an IRR of 28.5% and payback of 3.4 years. Even better returns could be realized in the cases of oil-avoidance and where greater use of geothermal energy can be made as shown in the other cases considered.

  18. DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol

    Teter, Sarah A


    Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0

  19. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.


    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  20. Hybrid spacecraft attitude control system

    Renuganth Varatharajoo


    Full Text Available The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.The hybrid subsystem design could be an attractive approach for futurespacecraft to cope with their demands. The idea of combining theconventional Attitude Control System and the Electrical Power System ispresented in this article. The Combined Energy and Attitude ControlSystem (CEACS consisting of a double counter rotating flywheel assemblyis investigated for small satellites in this article. Another hybrid systemincorporating the conventional Attitude Control System into the ThermalControl System forming the Combined Attitude and Thermal ControlSystem (CATCS consisting of a "fluid wheel" and permanent magnets isalso investigated for small satellites herein. The governing equationsdescribing both these novel hybrid subsystems are presented and theironboard architectures are numerically tested. Both the investigated novelhybrid spacecraft subsystems comply with the reference missionrequirements.

  1. Propulsion Trade Studies for Spacecraft Swarm Mission Design

    Dono, Andres; Plice, Laura; Mueting, Joel; Conn, Tracie; Ho, Michael


    Spacecraft swarms constitute a challenge from an orbital mechanics standpoint. Traditional mission design involves the application of methodical processes where predefined maneuvers for an individual spacecraft are planned in advance. This approach does not scale to spacecraft swarms consisting of many satellites orbiting in close proximity; non-deterministic maneuvers cannot be preplanned due to the large number of units and the uncertainties associated with their differential deployment and orbital motion. For autonomous small sat swarms in LEO, we investigate two approaches for controlling the relative motion of a swarm. The first method involves modified miniature phasing maneuvers, where maneuvers are prescribed that cancel the differential delta V of each CubeSat's deployment vector. The second method relies on artificial potential functions (APFs) to contain the spacecraft within a volumetric boundary and avoid collisions. Performance results and required delta V budgets are summarized, indicating that each method has advantages and drawbacks for particular applications. The mini phasing maneuvers are more predictable and sustainable. The APF approach provides a more responsive and distributed performance, but at considerable propellant cost. After considering current state of the art CubeSat propulsion systems, we conclude that the first approach is feasible, but the modified APF method of requires too much control authority to be enabled by current propulsion systems.

  2. Laboratory Spacecraft Data Processing and Instrument Autonomy: AOSAT as Testbed

    Lightholder, Jack; Asphaug, Erik; Thangavelautham, Jekan


    Recent advances in small spacecraft allow for their use as orbiting microgravity laboratories (e.g. Asphaug and Thangavelautham LPSC 2014) that will produce substantial amounts of data. Power, bandwidth and processing constraints impose limitations on the number of operations which can be performed on this data as well as the data volume the spacecraft can downlink. We show that instrument autonomy and machine learning techniques can intelligently conduct data reduction and downlink queueing to meet data storage and downlink limitations. As small spacecraft laboratory capabilities increase, we must find techniques to increase instrument autonomy and spacecraft scientific decision making. The Asteroid Origins Satellite (AOSAT) CubeSat centrifuge will act as a testbed for further proving these techniques. Lightweight algorithms, such as connected components analysis, centroid tracking, K-means clustering, edge detection, convex hull analysis and intelligent cropping routines can be coupled with the tradition packet compression routines to reduce data transfer per image as well as provide a first order filtering of what data is most relevant to downlink. This intelligent queueing provides timelier downlink of scientifically relevant data while reducing the amount of irrelevant downlinked data. Resulting algorithms allow for scientists to throttle the amount of data downlinked based on initial experimental results. The data downlink pipeline, prioritized for scientific relevance based on incorporated scientific objectives, can continue from the spacecraft until the data is no longer fruitful. Coupled with data compression and cropping strategies at the data packet level, bandwidth reductions exceeding 40% can be achieved while still downlinking data deemed to be most relevant in a double blind study between scientist and algorithm. Applications of this technology allow for the incorporation of instrumentation which produces significant data volumes on small spacecraft

  3. Using neuromorphic optical sensors for spacecraft absolute and relative navigation

    Shake, Christopher M.

    We develop a novel attitude determination system (ADS) for use on nano spacecraft using neuromorphic optical sensors. The ADS intends to support nano-satellite operations by providing low-cost, low-mass, low-volume, low-power, and redundant attitude determination capabilities with quick and straightforward onboard programmability for real time spacecraft operations. The ADS is experimentally validated with commercial-off-the-shelf optical devices that perform sensing and image processing on the same circuit board and are biologically inspired by insects' vision systems, which measure optical flow while navigating in the environment. The firmware on the devices is modified to both perform the additional biologically inspired task of tracking objects and communicate with a PC/104 form-factor embedded computer running Real Time Application Interface Linux used on a spacecraft simulator. Algorithms are developed for operations using optical flow, point tracking, and hybrid modes with the sensors, and the performance of the system in all three modes is assessed using a spacecraft simulator in the Advanced Autonomous Multiple Spacecraft (ADAMUS) laboratory at Rensselaer. An existing relative state determination method is identified to be combined with the novel ADS to create a self-contained navigation system for nano spacecraft. The performance of the method is assessed in simulation and found not to match the results from its authors using only conditions and equations already published. An improved target inertia tensor method is proposed as an update to the existing relative state method, but found not to perform as expected, but is presented for others to build upon.

  4. Interactive Spacecraft Trajectory Design Strategies Featuring Poincare Map Topology

    Schlei, Wayne R.

    Space exploration efforts are shifting towards inexpensive and more agile vehicles. Versatility regarding spacecraft trajectories refers to the agility to correct deviations from an intended path or even the ability to adapt the future path to a new destination--all with limited spaceflight resources (i.e., small DeltaV budgets). Trajectory design methods for such nimble vehicles incorporate equally versatile procedures that allow for rapid and interactive decision making while attempting to reduce Delta V budgets, leading to a versatile trajectory design platform. A versatile design paradigm requires the exploitation of Poincare map topology , or the interconnected web of dynamical structures, existing within the chaotic dynamics of multi-body gravitational models to outline low-Delta V transfer options residing nearby to a current path. This investigation details an autonomous procedure to extract the periodic orbits (topology nodes) and correlated asymptotic flow structures (or the invariant manifolds representing topology links). The autonomous process summarized in this investigation (termed PMATE) overcomes discontinuities on the Poincare section that arise in the applied multi-body model (the planar circular restricted three-body problem) and detects a wide variety of novel periodic orbits. New interactive capabilities deliver a visual analytics foundation for versatile spaceflight design, especially for initial guess generation and manipulation. Such interactive strategies include the selection of states and arcs from Poincare section visualizations and the capabilities to draw and drag trajectories to remove dependency on initial state input. Furthermore, immersive selection is expanded to cull invariant manifold structures, yielding low-DeltaV or even DeltaV-free transfers between periodic orbits. The application of interactive design strategies featuring a dense extraction of Poincare map topology is demonstrated for agile spaceflight with a simple

  5. Estimating Torque Imparted on Spacecraft Using Telemetry

    Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.; Macala, Glenn A.


    There have been a number of missions with spacecraft flying by planetary moons with atmospheres; there will be future missions with similar flybys. When a spacecraft such as Cassini flies by a moon with an atmosphere, the spacecraft will experience an atmospheric torque. This torque could be used to determine the density of the atmosphere. This is because the relation between the atmospheric torque vector and the atmosphere density could be established analytically using the mass properties of the spacecraft, known drag coefficient of objects in free-molecular flow, and the spacecraft velocity relative to the moon. The density estimated in this way could be used to check results measured by science instruments. Since the proposed methodology could estimate disturbance torque as small as 0.02 N-m, it could also be used to estimate disturbance torque imparted on the spacecraft during high-altitude flybys.

  6. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    Krupnikov, K.K.; Makletsov, A.A.; Mileev, V.N.; Novikov, L.S.; Sinolits, V.V.


    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language

  7. Computer simulation of spacecraft/environment interaction

    Krupnikov, K K; Mileev, V N; Novikov, L S; Sinolits, V V


    This report presents some examples of a computer simulation of spacecraft interaction with space environment. We analysed a set data on electron and ion fluxes measured in 1991-1994 on geostationary satellite GORIZONT-35. The influence of spacecraft eclipse and device eclipse by solar-cell panel on spacecraft charging was investigated. A simple method was developed for an estimation of spacecraft potentials in LEO. Effects of various particle flux impact and spacecraft orientation are discussed. A computer engineering model for a calculation of space radiation is presented. This model is used as a client/server model with WWW interface, including spacecraft model description and results representation based on the virtual reality markup language.

  8. An AFDX Network for Spacecraft Data Handling

    Deredempt, Marie-Helene; Kollias, Vangelis; Sun, Zhili; Canamares, Ernest; Ricco, Philippe


    In aeronautical domain, ARINC-664 Part 7 specification (AFDX) [4] provides the enabling technology for interfacing equipment in Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architectures. The complementary part of AFDX for a complete interoperability - Time and Space Partitioning (ARINC 653) concepts [1]- was already studied as part of space domain ESA roadmap (i.e. IMA4Space project)Standardized IMA based architecture is already considered in aeronautical domain as more flexible, reliable and secure. Integration and validation become simple, using a common set of tools and data base and could be done by part on different means with the same definition (hardware and software test benches, flight control or alarm test benches, simulator and flight test installation).In some area, requirements in terms of data processing are quite similar in space domain and the concept could be applicable to take benefit of the technology itself and of the panel of hardware and software solutions and tools available on the market. The Mission project (Methodology and assessment for the applicability of ARINC-664 (AFDX) in Satellite/Spacecraft on-board communicatION networks), as an FP7 initiative for bringing terrestrial SME research into the space domain started to evaluate the applicability of the standard in space domain.

  9. New highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and Zn/air battery applications (NORA). Final report

    Thiele, D.; Zuettel, A.


    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project concerning a new, highly active oxygen reduction electrode for PEM fuel cell and zinc/air battery applications. The goal of this project was, according to the authors, to increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction by lowering the activation polarisation through the right choice of catalyst and by lowering the concentration polarisation. In this work, carbon nanotubes are used as support material. The use of these nanotubes grown on perovskites is discussed. Theoretical considerations regarding activation polarisation are discussed and alternatives to the use of platinum are examined. The results of experiments carried out are presented in graphical and tabular form. The paper is completed with a comprehensive list of references.

  10. Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system

    Hamer, P. A.; Snowden, P. J.


    The baseline Ulysses spacecraft control and monitoring system (SCMS) concepts and the converted SCMS, residing on a DEC/VAX 8350 hardware, are considered. The main functions of the system include monitoring and displaying spacecraft telemetry, preparing spacecraft commands, producing hard copies of experimental data, and archiving spacecraft telemetry. The SCMS system comprises over 20 subsystems ranging from low-level utility routines to the major monitoring and control software. These in total consist of approximately 55,000 lines of FORTRAN source code and 100 VMS command files. The SCMS major software facilities are described, including database files, telemetry processing, telecommanding, archiving of data, and display of telemetry.

  11. Operationally Responsive Spacecraft Subsystem, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Saber Astronautics proposes spacecraft subsystem control software which can autonomously reconfigure avionics for best performance during various mission conditions....

  12. “天宫一号”目标飞行器力学试验新技术应用%Application of new techniques in dynamics testing of Tiangong-I target spacecraft

    岳志勇; 冯咬齐; 韩晓健


    A set of dynamics tests, including modal testing, vibration testing, and acoustics testing, were performed on Tiangong-Ⅰ target spacecraft. New techniques applied in the tests and the other key issues are reviewed in this paper, to provide some food of thought for dynamics tests of other spacecraft.%“天宫一号”目标飞行器在研制阶段进行的力学环境试验包括模态试验、振动试验、噪声试验.文章总结了各项力学试验的技术难点及新技术的应用情况,可供其他航天器力学试验参考.

  13. Guidance, navigation, and control subsystem for the EOS-AM spacecraft

    Linder, David M.; Tolek, Joseph T.; Lombardo, John


    This paper presents the preliminary design of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) subsystem for the EOS-AM spacecraft and specifically focuses on the GN&C Normal Mode design. First, a brief description of the EOS-AM science mission, instruments, and system-level spacecraft design is provided. Next, an overview of the GN&C subsystem functional and performance requirements, hardware, and operating modes is presented. Then, the GN&C Normal Mode attitude determination, attitude control, and navigation systems are detailed. Finally, descriptions of the spacecraft's overall jitter performance and Safe Mode are provided.

  14. ADRC for spacecraft attitude and position synchronization in libration point orbits

    Gao, Chen; Yuan, Jianping; Zhao, Yakun


    This paper addresses the problem of spacecraft attitude and position synchronization in libration point orbits between a leader and a follower. Using dual quaternion, the dimensionless relative coupled dynamical model is derived considering computation efficiency and accuracy. Then a model-independent dimensionless cascade pose-feedback active disturbance rejection controller is designed to spacecraft attitude and position tracking control problems considering parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. Numerical simulations for the final approach phase in spacecraft rendezvous and docking and formation flying are done, and the results show high-precision tracking errors and satisfactory convergent rates under bounded control torque and force which validate the proposed approach.

  15. Performance Testing of a Photocatalytic Oxidation Module for Spacecraft Cabin Atmosphere Revitalization

    Perry, Jay L.; Abney, Morgan B.; Frederick, Kenneth R.; Scott, Joseph P.; Kaiser, Mark; Seminara, Gary; Bershitsky, Alex


    Photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a candidate process technology for use in high volumetric flow rate trace contaminant control applications in sealed environments. The targeted application for PCO as applied to crewed spacecraft life support system architectures is summarized. Technical challenges characteristic of PCO are considered. Performance testing of a breadboard PCO reactor design for mineralizing polar organic compounds in a spacecraft cabin atmosphere is described. Test results are analyzed and compared to results reported in the literature for comparable PCO reactor designs.

  16. Optimal Electrical Energy Slewing for Reaction Wheel Spacecraft

    Marsh, Harleigh Christian

    method is adopted in this dissertation to transform the nonsmooth minimum electrical energy problem into an equivalent smooth formulation, which then allows standard techniques in optimal control to solve and analyze the problem. Through numerically solving families of optimal control problems, the relationship between electrical energy and transfer time is identified and explored for both off-and on-eigenaxis maneuvering, under minimum dissipative losses as well as under minimum electrical energy. A trade space between on-and off-eigenaxis maneuvering is identified, from which is shown that agile near time optimal maneuvers exist within the energy budget associated with conventional eigenaxis maneuvering. Moreover, even for conventional eigenaxis maneuvering, energy requirements can be dramatically reduced by maneuvering off-eigenaxis. These results address one of the fundamental assumptions in the field of optimal path design verses conventional maneuver design. Two practical flight situations are addressed in this dissertation in regards to reducing energy and power: The case when the attitude of the spacecraft is predetermined, and the case where reaction wheels can not be directly controlled. For the setting where the attitude of spacecraft is on a predefined trajectory, it is demonstrated that reduced energy maneuvers are only attainable though the application of null-motions, which requires control of the reaction wheels. A computationally light formulation is developed minimizing the dissipative losses through the application of null motions. In the situation where the reaction wheels can not be directly controlled, it is demonstrated that energy consumption, dissipative losses, and peak-power loads, of the reaction-wheel array can each be reduced substantially by controlling the input to the attitude control system through attitude steering. It is demonstrated that the open loop trajectories correctly predict the closed loop response when tracked by an attitude

  17. Imaging Flash Lidar for Safe Landing on Solar System Bodies and Spacecraft Rendezvous and Docking

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Roback, Vincent E.; Bulyshev, Alexander E.; Brewster, Paul F.; Carrion, William A; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Hines, Glenn D.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Noe, Anna M.


    NASA has been pursuing flash lidar technology for autonomous, safe landing on solar system bodies and for automated rendezvous and docking. During the final stages of the landing from about 1 kilometer to 500 meters above the ground, the flash lidar can generate 3-Dimensional images of the terrain to identify hazardous features such as craters, rocks, and steep slopes. The onboard flight computer can then use the 3-D map of terrain to guide the vehicle to a safe location. As an automated rendezvous and docking sensor, the flash lidar can provide relative range, velocity, and bearing from an approaching spacecraft to another spacecraft or a space station. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and demonstrated a flash lidar sensor system capable of generating 16,000 pixels range images with 7 centimeters precision, at 20 Hertz frame rate, from a maximum slant range of 1800 m from the target area. This paper describes the lidar instrument and presents the results of recent flight tests onboard a rocket-propelled free-flyer vehicle (Morpheus) built by NASA Johnson Space Center. The flights were conducted at a simulated lunar terrain site, consisting of realistic hazard features and designated landing areas, built at NASA Kennedy Space Center specifically for this demonstration test. This paper also provides an overview of the plan for continued advancement of the flash lidar technology aimed at enhancing its performance to meet both landing and automated rendezvous and docking applications.


    Hakim, Nabil Balnaves, Mike


    DELTA Diesel Engine Light Truck Application End of Contract Report DE-FC05-97-OR22606 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This report is the final technical report of the Diesel Engine Light Truck Application (DELTA) program under contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606. During the course of this contract, Detroit Diesel Corporation analyzed, designed, tooled, developed and applied the ''Proof of Concept'' (Generation 0) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine and designed the successor ''Production Technology Demonstration'' (Generation 1) 4.0L V-6 DELTA engine. The objectives of DELTA Program contract DE-FC05-97-OR22606 were to: Demonstrate production-viable diesel engine technologies, specifically intended for the North American LDT and SUV markets; Demonstrate emissions compliance with significant fuel economy advantages. With a clean sheet design, DDC produced the DELTA engine concept promising the following attributes: 30-50% improved fuel economy; Low cost; Good durability and reliability; Acceptable noise, vibration and harshness (NVH); State-of-the-art features; Even firing, 4 valves per cylinder; High pressure common rail fuel system; Electronically controlled; Turbocharged, intercooled, cooled EGR; Extremely low emissions via CLEAN Combustion{copyright} technology. To demonstrate the engine technology in the SUV market, DDC repowered a 1999 Dodge Durango with the DELTA Generation 0 engine. Fuel economy improvements were approximately 50% better than the gasoline engine replaced in the vehicle.

  19. Investigation of nickel hydrogen battery technology for the RADARSAT spacecraft

    Mccoy, D. A.; Lackner, J. L.


    The low Earth orbit (LEO) operations of the RADARSAT spacecraft require high performance batteries to provide energy to the payload and platform during eclipse period. Nickel Hydrogen cells are currently competing with the more traditional Nickel Cadmium cells for high performance spacecraft applications at geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and Leo. Nickel Hydrogen cells appear better suited for high power applications where high currents and high Depths of Discharge are required. Although a number of GEO missions have flown with Nickel Hydrogen batteries, it is not readily apparent that the LEO version of the Nickel Hydrogen cell is able to withstand the extended cycle lifetime (5 years) of the RADARSAT mission. The problems associated with Nickel Hydrogen cells are discussed in the contex of RADARSAT mission and a test program designed to characterize cell performance is presented.

  20. 3D Reconfigurable MPSoC for Unmanned Spacecraft Navigation

    Dekoulis, George


    This paper describes the design of a new lightweight spacecraft navigation system for unmanned space missions. The system addresses the demands for more efficient autonomous navigation in the near-Earth environment or deep space. The proposed instrumentation is directly suitable for unmanned systems operation and testing of new airborne prototypes for remote sensing applications. The system features a new sensor technology and significant improvements over existing solutions. Fluxgate type sensors have been traditionally used in unmanned defense systems such as target drones, guided missiles, rockets and satellites, however, the guidance sensors' configurations exhibit lower specifications than the presented solution. The current implementation is based on a recently developed material in a reengineered optimum sensor configuration for unprecedented low-power consumption. The new sensor's performance characteristics qualify it for spacecraft navigation applications. A major advantage of the system is the efficiency in redundancy reduction achieved in terms of both hardware and software requirements.

  1. Investigation of tenuous plasma environment using Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) on Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Nakamura, Rumi; Jeszenszky, Harald; Torkar, Klaus; Andriopoulou, Maria; Fremuth, Gerhard; Taijmar, Martin; Scharlemann, Carsten; Svenes, Knut; Escoubet, Philippe; Prattes, Gustav; Laky, Gunter; Giner, Franz; Hoelzl, Bernhard


    The NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission is planned to be launched on March 12, 2015. The scientific objectives of the MMS mission are to explore and understand the fundamental plasma physics processes of magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration and turbulence in the Earth's magnetosphere. The region of scientific interest of MMS is in a tenuous plasma environment where the positive spacecraft potential reaches an equilibrium at several tens of Volts. An Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) instrument neutralizes the spacecraft potential by releasing positive charge produced by indium ion emitters. ASPOC thereby reduces the potential in order to improve the electric field and low-energy particle measurement. The method has been successfully applied on other spacecraft such as Cluster and Double Star. Two ASPOC units are present on each of the MMS spacecraft. Each unit contains four ion emitters, whereby one emitter per instrument is operated at a time. ASPOC for MMS includes new developments in the design of the emitters and the electronics enabling lower spacecraft potentials, higher reliability, and a more uniform potential structure in the spacecraft's sheath compared to previous missions. Model calculations confirm the findings from previous applications that the plasma measurements will not be affected by the beam's space charge. A perfectly stable spacecraft potential precludes the utilization of the spacecraft as a plasma probe, which is a conventional technique used to estimate ambient plasma density from the spacecraft potential. The small residual variations of the potential controlled by ASPOC, however, still allow to determine ambient plasma density by comparing two closely separated spacecraft and thereby reconstructing the uncontrolled potential variation from the controlled potential. Regular intercalibration of controlled and uncontrolled potentials is expected to increase the reliability of this new method.

  2. Humidity Testing for Human Rated Spacecraft

    Johnson, Gary B.


    Determination that equipment can operate in and survive exposure to the humidity environments unique to human rated spacecraft presents widely varying challenges. Equipment may need to operate in habitable volumes where the atmosphere contains perspiration, exhalation, and residual moisture. Equipment located outside the pressurized volumes may be exposed to repetitive diurnal cycles that may result in moisture absorption and/or condensation. Equipment may be thermally affected by conduction to coldplate or structure, by forced or ambient air convection (hot/cold or wet/dry), or by radiation to space through windows or hatches. The equipment s on/off state also contributes to the equipment s susceptibility to humidity. Like-equipment is sometimes used in more than one location and under varying operational modes. Due to these challenges, developing a test scenario that bounds all physical, environmental and operational modes for both pressurized and unpressurized volumes requires an integrated assessment to determine the "worst-case combined conditions." Such an assessment was performed for the Constellation program, considering all of the aforementioned variables; and a test profile was developed based on approximately 300 variable combinations. The test profile has been vetted by several subject matter experts and partially validated by testing. Final testing to determine the efficacy of the test profile on actual space hardware is in the planning stages. When validation is completed, the test profile will be formally incorporated into NASA document CxP 30036, "Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Testing Requirements (CEQATR)."

  3. The first collection of spacecraft-associated microorganisms: a public source for extremotolerant microorganisms from spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Rettberg, Petra; Pukall, Rüdiger


    For several reasons, spacecraft are constructed in so-called clean rooms. Particles could affect the function of spacecraft instruments, and for missions under planetary protection limitations, the biological contamination has to be restricted as much as possible. The proper maintenance of clean rooms includes, for instance, constant control of humidity and temperature, air filtering, and cleaning (disinfection) of the surfaces. The combination of these conditions creates an artificial, extreme biotope for microbial survival specialists: spore formers, autotrophs, multi-resistant, facultative, or even strictly anaerobic microorganisms have been detected in clean room habitats. Based on a diversity study of European and South-American spacecraft assembly clean rooms, the European Space Agency (ESA) has initialized and funded the creation of a public library of microbial isolates. Isolates from three different European clean rooms, as well as from the final assembly and launch facility in Kourou (French Guiana), have been phylogenetically analyzed and were lyophilized for long-term storage at the German Culture Collection facilities in Brunswick, Germany (Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen). The isolates were obtained by either following the standard protocol for the determination of bioburden on, and around, spacecraft or the use of alternative cultivation strategies. Currently, the database contains 298 bacterial strains. Fifty-nine strains are Gram-negative microorganisms, belonging to the α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Representatives of the Gram-positive phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi, and Firmicutes were subjected to the collection. Ninety-four isolates (21 different species) of the genus Bacillus were included in the ESA collection. This public collection of extremotolerant microbes, which are adapted to a complicated artificial biotope, provides a wonderful source for industry and research focused on

  4. Spacecraft Line-of-Sight Stabilization Using LWIR Earth Signature

    Quadrelli, Marco B.; Piazzolla, Sabino


    The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of using the bright and near-uniform Earth infrared (or wavelength infrared, LWIR) signature as a stable reference for accurate (micro-rad or less) inertial pointing and tracking on-board an space vehicle, including the determination of the fundamental limits of applicability of the proposed method for space missions. We demonstrate sub-micro radian level pointing accuracy under a representative set of disturbances experienced by the spacecraft in orbit.

  5. A manufacturing database of advanced materials used in spacecraft structures

    Bao, Han P.


    Cost savings opportunities over the life cycle of a product are highest in the early exploratory phase when different design alternatives are evaluated not only for their performance characteristics but also their methods of fabrication which really control the ultimate manufacturing costs of the product. In the past, Design-To-Cost methodologies for spacecraft design concentrated on the sizing and weight issues more than anything else at the early so-called 'Vehicle Level' (Ref: DOD/NASA Advanced Composites Design Guide). Given the impact of manufacturing cost, the objective of this study is to identify the principal cost drivers for each materials technology and propose a quantitative approach to incorporating these cost drivers into the family of optimization tools used by the Vehicle Analysis Branch of NASA LaRC to assess various conceptual vehicle designs. The advanced materials being considered include aluminum-lithium alloys, thermoplastic graphite-polyether etherketone composites, graphite-bismaleimide composites, graphite- polyimide composites, and carbon-carbon composites. Two conventional materials are added to the study to serve as baseline materials against which the other materials are compared. These two conventional materials are aircraft aluminum alloys series 2000 and series 7000, and graphite-epoxy composites T-300/934. The following information is available in the database. For each material type, the mechanical, physical, thermal, and environmental properties are first listed. Next the principal manufacturing processes are described. Whenever possible, guidelines for optimum processing conditions for specific applications are provided. Finally, six categories of cost drivers are discussed. They include, design features affecting processing, tooling, materials, fabrication, joining/assembly, and quality assurance issues. It should be emphasized that this database is not an exhaustive database. Its primary use is to make the vehicle designer

  6. Spacecraft command and control using expert systems

    Norcross, Scott; Grieser, William H.


    This paper describes a product called the Intelligent Mission Toolkit (IMT), which was created to meet the changing demands of the spacecraft command and control market. IMT is a command and control system built upon an expert system. Its primary functions are to send commands to the spacecraft and process telemetry data received from the spacecraft. It also controls the ground equipment used to support the system, such as encryption gear, and telemetry front-end equipment. Add-on modules allow IMT to control antennas and antenna interface equipment. The design philosophy for IMT is to utilize available commercial products wherever possible. IMT utilizes Gensym's G2 Real-time Expert System as the core of the system. G2 is responsible for overall system control, spacecraft commanding control, and spacecraft telemetry analysis and display. Other commercial products incorporated into IMT include the SYBASE relational database management system and Loral Test and Integration Systems' System 500 for telemetry front-end processing.

  7. Passive radiative cooling of a HTS coil for attitude orbit control in micro-spacecraft

    Inamori, Takaya; Ozaki, Naoya; Saisutjarit, Phongsatorn; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki


    This paper proposes a novel radiative cooling system for a high temperature superconducting (HTS) coil for an attitude orbit control system in nano- and micro-spacecraft missions. These days, nano-spacecraft (1-10 kg) and micro-spacecraft (10-100 kg) provide space access to a broader range of spacecraft developers and attract interest as space development applications. In planetary and high earth orbits, most previous standard-size spacecraft used thrusters for their attitude and orbit control, which are not available for nano- and micro-spacecraft missions because of the strict power consumption, space, and weight constraints. This paper considers orbit and attitude control methods that use a superconducting coil, which interacts with on-orbit space plasmas and creates a propulsion force. Because these spacecraft cannot use an active cooling system for the superconducting coil because of their mass and power consumption constraints, this paper proposes the utilization of a passive radiative cooling system, in which the superconducting coil is thermally connected to the 3 K cosmic background radiation of deep space, insulated from the heat generation using magnetic holders, and shielded from the sun. With this proposed cooling system, the HTS coil is cooled to 60 K in interplanetary orbits. Because the system does not use refrigerators for its cooling system, the spacecraft can achieve an HTS coil with low power consumption, small mass, and low cost.

  8. NREL Topic 1 Final Report: Cohesive Application of Standards-Based Connected Devices to Enable Clean Energy Technologies

    Hudgins, Andrew P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sparn, Bethany F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seal, Brian [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States)


    This document is the final report of a two-year development, test, and demonstration project entitled 'Cohesive Application of Standards-Based Connected Devices to Enable Clean Energy Technologies.' The project was part of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Integrated Network Test-bed for Energy Grid Research and Technology (INTEGRATE) initiative. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and a team of partners were selected by NREL to carry out a project to develop and test how smart, connected consumer devices can act to enable the use of more clean energy technologies on the electric power grid. The project team includes a set of leading companies that produce key products in relation to achieving this vision: thermostats, water heaters, pool pumps, solar inverters, electric vehicle supply equipment, and battery storage systems. A key requirement of the project was open access at the device level - a feature seen as foundational to achieving a future of widespread distributed generation and storage. The internal intelligence, standard functionality and communication interfaces utilized in this project result in the ability to integrate devices at any level, to work collectively at the level of the home/business, microgrid, community, distribution circuit or other. Collectively, the set of products serve as a platform on which a wide range of control strategies may be developed and deployed.

  9. Applications of magnetic 'power production' and its assessment. A feasibility study - Final Report

    Kitanovski, A.; Diebold, M.; Vuarnoz, D.; Gonin, C.; Egolf, P. W


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how magnetic power conversion systems could present an alternative to conventional power conversion technologies. Magnetic 'power generators' based on permanent or superconducting magnets are proposed and analysed for numerous heat-source temperatures, magnetic field strengths and frequencies of rotating porous heat exchanger machines. Such machines have been proposed in a patent deposited by the University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HEIG-VD/IGT/SIT division). A special numerical analysis is looked at that takes advantage of a thermodynamic model which permits the determination of thermodynamic efficiency, exergy efficiency, total mass and total volume of such magnetic power conversion machines. Magneto-caloric materials are discussed and the advantages and disadvantages of such systems are discussed. The report is concluded with an overview of various systems working under different operating conditions. The systems are listed and evaluated as far as their potential for application in the area of magnetic power conversion is concerned.

  10. Coordinated research programme on the application of isotope techniques to investigate groundwater pollution final research coordination meeting and consultants' meeting. Final report

    Robinson, B.; Chilton, J.; Travi, Y.; Gerardo-Abaya, J.


    This document summarizes the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Application of Isotope Techniques to Investigate Groundwater Pollution. Summaries of 16 completed investigations are given. The completed investigations resulted to the application of 18 O, 2 H, 3 H, 13 C, 14 C, 34 S, 15 N and boron isotopes integrated to some extend with the classical hydrological tools. These studies have broadly confirmed the use of isotope techniques on two main ways: a) to assist in the interpretation of groundwater flow systems; b) to act as tracers of the origin and pathways of ta range of groundwater pollutants. Several important aspects have become clear in the CRP: it is advisable not to rely on single isotopes, but to combine where possible the use of more than one, particularly oxygen with nitrogen and sulfur; it is essential to integrate isotope techniques with conventional hydrochemistry; trace elements have an important role to play in an integrated approach to the interpretation of contamination sources and pathways. This CRP should be regarded as a stepping stone, considering that the magnitude of the problem of groundwater pollution is enormous in global terms. In order to have an impact on the understanding of groundwater pollution, the need is seen for follow-up by several CRPs targeted at specific areas or problems. Of priorities are: a) urban waste, both human and industrial; b) the origin of saline groundwater; and c) nitrate in groundwater in both agricultural and urban areas

  11. Space Weather Magnetometer Set with Automated AC Spacecraft Field Correction for GEO-KOMPSAT-2A

    Auster, U.; Magnes, W.; Delva, M.; Valavanoglou, A.; Leitner, S.; Hillenmaier, O.; Strauch, C.; Brown, P.; Whiteside, B.; Bendyk, M.; Hilgers, A.; Kraft, S.; Luntama, J. P.; Seon, J.


    Monitoring the solar wind conditions, in particular its magnetic field (interplanetary magnetic field) ahead of the Earth is essential in performing accurate and reliable space weather forecasting. The magnetic condition of the spacecraft itself is a key parameter for the successful performance of the magnetometer onboard. In practice a condition with negligible magnetic field of the spacecraft cannot always be fulfilled and magnetic sources on the spacecraft interfere with the natural magnetic field measured by the space magnetometer. The presented "ready-to-use" Service Oriented Spacecraft Magnetometer (SOSMAG) is developed for use on any satellite implemented without magnetic cleanliness programme. It enables detection of the spacecraft field AC variations on a proper time scale suitable to distinguish the magnetic field variations relevant to space weather phenomena, such as sudden increase in the interplanetary field or southward turning. This is achieved through the use of dual fluxgate magnetometers on a short boom (1m) and two additional AMR sensors on the spacecraft body, which monitor potential AC disturbers. The measurements of the latter sensors enable an automated correction of the AC signal contributions from the spacecraft in the final magnetic vector. After successful development and test of the EQM prototype, a flight model (FM) is being built for the Korean satellite Geo-Kompsat 2A, with launch foreseen in 2018.

  12. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin


    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  13. Programs To Optimize Spacecraft And Aircraft Trajectories

    Brauer, G. L.; Petersen, F. M.; Cornick, D.E.; Stevenson, R.; Olson, D. W.


    POST/6D POST is set of two computer programs providing ability to target and optimize trajectories of powered or unpowered spacecraft or aircraft operating at or near rotating planet. POST treats point-mass, three-degree-of-freedom case. 6D POST treats more-general rigid-body, six-degree-of-freedom (with point masses) case. Used to solve variety of performance, guidance, and flight-control problems for atmospheric and orbital vehicles. Applications include computation of performance or capability of vehicle in ascent, or orbit, and during entry into atmosphere, simulation and analysis of guidance and flight-control systems, dispersion-type analyses and analyses of loads, general-purpose six-degree-of-freedom simulation of controlled and uncontrolled vehicles, and validation of performance in six degrees of freedom. Written in FORTRAN 77 and C language. Two machine versions available: one for SUN-series computers running SunOS(TM) (LAR-14871) and one for Silicon Graphics IRIS computers running IRIX(TM) operating system (LAR-14869).

  14. Spacecraft with gradual acceleration of solar panels

    Merhav, Tamir R. (Inventor); Festa, Michael T. (Inventor); Stetson, Jr., John B. (Inventor)


    A spacecraft (8) includes a movable appendage such as solar panels (12) operated by a stepping motor (28) driven by pulses (311). In order to reduce vibration andor attitude error, the drive pulses are generated by a clock down-counter (312) with variable count ratio. Predetermined desired clock ratios are stored in selectable memories (314a-d), and the selected ratio (R) is coupled to a comparator (330) together with the current ratio (C). An up-down counter (340) establishes the current count-down ratio by counting toward the desired ratio under the control of the comparator; thus, a step change of solar panel speed never occurs. When a direction change is commanded, a flag signal generator (350) disables the selectable memories, and enables a further store (360), which generates a count ratio representing a very slow solar panel rotational rate, so that the rotational rate always slows to a low value before direction is changed. The principles of the invention are applicable to any movable appendage.

  15. Foot Pedals for Spacecraft Manual Control

    Love, Stanley G.; Morin, Lee M.; McCabe, Mary


    Fifty years ago, NASA decided that the cockpit controls in spacecraft should be like the ones in airplanes. But controls based on the stick and rudder may not be best way to manually control a vehicle in space. A different method is based on submersible vehicles controlled with foot pedals. A new pilot can learn the sub's control scheme in minutes and drive it hands-free. We are building a pair of foot pedals for spacecraft control, and will test them in a spacecraft flight simulator.

  16. Guidance and Navigation for Rendezvous and Proximity Operations with a Non-Cooperative Spacecraft at Geosynchronous Orbit

    Barbee, Brent William; Carpenter, J. Russell; Heatwole, Scott; Markley, F. Landis; Moreau, Michael; Naasz, Bo J.; VanEepoel, John


    The feasibility and benefits of various spacecraft servicing concepts are currently being assessed, and all require that the servicer spacecraft perform rendezvous, proximity, and capture operations with the target spacecraft to be serviced. Many high-value spacecraft, which would be logical targets for servicing from an economic point of view, are located in geosynchronous orbit, a regime in which autonomous rendezvous and capture operations are not commonplace. Furthermore, existing GEO spacecraft were not designed to be serviced. Most do not have cooperative relative navigation sensors or docking features, and some servicing applications, such as de-orbiting of a non-functional spacecraft, entail rendezvous and capture with a spacecraft that may be non-functional or un-controlled. Several of these challenges have been explored via the design of a notional mission in which a nonfunctional satellite in geosynchronous orbit is captured by a servicer spacecraft and boosted into super-synchronous orbit for safe disposal. A strategy for autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations, and capture is developed, and the Orbit Determination Toolbox (ODTBX) is used to perform a relative navigation simulation to assess the feasibility of performing the rendezvous using a combination of angles-only and range measurements. Additionally, a method for designing efficient orbital rendezvous sequences for multiple target spacecraft is utilized to examine the capabilities of a servicer spacecraft to service multiple targets during the course of a single mission.

  17. On TTEthernet for Integrated Fault-Tolerant Spacecraft Networks

    Loveless, Andrew


    There has recently been a push for adopting integrated modular avionics (IMA) principles in designing spacecraft architectures. This consolidation of multiple vehicle functions to shared computing platforms can significantly reduce spacecraft cost, weight, and de- sign complexity. Ethernet technology is attractive for inclusion in more integrated avionic systems due to its high speed, flexibility, and the availability of inexpensive commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. Furthermore, Ethernet can be augmented with a variety of quality of service (QoS) enhancements that enable its use for transmitting critical data. TTEthernet introduces a decentralized clock synchronization paradigm enabling the use of time-triggered Ethernet messaging appropriate for hard real-time applications. TTEthernet can also provide two forms of event-driven communication, therefore accommodating the full spectrum of traffic criticality levels required in IMA architectures. This paper explores the application of TTEthernet technology to future IMA spacecraft architectures as part of the Avionics and Software (A&S) project chartered by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program.

  18. Artificial Neural Network Based Mission Planning Mechanism for Spacecraft

    Li, Zhaoyu; Xu, Rui; Cui, Pingyuan; Zhu, Shengying


    The ability to plan and react fast in dynamic space environments is central to intelligent behavior of spacecraft. For space and robotic applications, many planners have been used. But it is difficult to encode the domain knowledge and directly use existing techniques such as heuristic to improve the performance of the application systems. Therefore, regarding planning as an advanced control problem, this paper first proposes an autonomous mission planning and action selection mechanism through a multiple layer perceptron neural network approach to select actions in planning process and improve efficiency. To prove the availability and effectiveness, we use autonomous mission planning problems of the spacecraft, which is a sophisticated system with complex subsystems and constraints as an example. Simulation results have shown that artificial neural networks (ANNs) are usable for planning problems. Compared with the existing planning method in EUROPA, the mechanism using ANNs is more efficient and can guarantee stable performance. Therefore, the mechanism proposed in this paper is more suitable for planning problems of spacecraft that require real time and stability.

  19. Miniaturized star tracker for micro spacecraft with high angular rate

    Li, Jianhua; Li, Zhifeng; Niu, Zhenhong; Liu, Jiaqi


    There is a clear need for miniaturized, lightweight, accurate and inexpensive star tracker for spacecraft with large anglar rate. To face these new constraints, the Beijing Institute of Space Long March Vehicle has designed, built and flown a low cost miniaturized star tracker that provides autonomous ("Lost in Space") inertial attitude determination, 2 Hz 3-axis star tracking, and digital imaging with embedded compression. Detector with high sensitivity is adopted to meet the dynamic and miniature requirement. A Sun and Moon avoiding method based on the calculation of Sun and Moon's vector by astronomical theory is proposed. The produced prototype weight 0.84kg, and can be used for a spacecraft with 6°/s anglar rate. The average angle measure error is less than 43 arc second. The ground verification and application of the star tracker during the pick-up flight test showed that the capability of the product meet the requirement.

  20. Quaternion normalization in additive EKF for spacecraft attitude determination

    Bar-Itzhack, I. Y.; Deutschmann, J.; Markley, F. L.


    This work introduces, examines, and compares several quaternion normalization algorithms, which are shown to be an effective stage in the application of the additive extended Kalman filter (EKF) to spacecraft attitude determination, which is based on vector measurements. Two new normalization schemes are introduced. They are compared with one another and with the known brute force normalization scheme, and their efficiency is examined. Simulated satellite data are used to demonstrate the performance of all three schemes. A fourth scheme is suggested for future research. Although the schemes were tested for spacecraft attitude determination, the conclusions are general and hold for attitude determination of any three dimensional body when based on vector measurements, and use an additive EKF for estimation, and the quaternion for specifying the attitude.

  1. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul


    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  2. Robust H∞ Control for Spacecraft Rendezvous with a Noncooperative Target

    Shu-Nan Wu


    Full Text Available The robust H∞ control for spacecraft rendezvous with a noncooperative target is addressed in this paper. The relative motion of chaser and noncooperative target is firstly modeled as the uncertain system, which contains uncertain orbit parameter and mass. Then the H∞ performance and finite time performance are proposed, and a robust H∞ controller is developed to drive the chaser to rendezvous with the non-cooperative target in the presence of control input saturation, measurement error, and thrust error. The linear matrix inequality technology is used to derive the sufficient condition of the proposed controller. An illustrative example is finally provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controller.

  3. Navigating the MESSENGER Spacecraft through End of Mission

    Bryan, C. G.; Williams, B. G.; Williams, K. E.; Taylor, A. H.; Carranza, E.; Page, B. R.; Stanbridge, D. R.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; O'Shaughnessy, D. J.; McAdams, J. V.; Calloway, A. B.


    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft orbited the planet Mercury from March 2011 until the end of April 2015, when it impacted the planetary surface after propellant reserves used to maintain the orbit were depleted. This highly successful mission was led by the principal investigator, Sean C. Solomon, of Columbia University. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) designed and assembled the spacecraft and served as the home for spacecraft operations. Spacecraft navigation for the entirety of the mission was provided by the Space Navigation and Flight Dynamics Practice (SNAFD) of KinetX Aerospace. Orbit determination (OD) solutions were generated through processing of radiometric tracking data provided by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) using the MIRAGE suite of orbital analysis tools. The MESSENGER orbit was highly eccentric, with periapsis at a high northern latitude and periapsis altitude in the range 200-500 km for most of the orbital mission phase. In a low-altitude "hover campaign" during the final two months of the mission, periapsis altitudes were maintained within a narrow range between about 35 km and 5 km. Navigating a spacecraft so near a planetary surface presented special challenges. Tasks required to meet those challenges included the modeling and estimation of Mercury's gravity field and of solar and planetary radiation pressure, and the design of frequent orbit-correction maneuvers. Superior solar conjunction also presented observational modeling issues. One key to the overall success of the low-altitude hover campaign was a strategy to utilize data from an onboard laser altimeter as a cross-check on the navigation team's reconstructed and predicted estimates of periapsis altitude. Data obtained from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on a daily basis provided near-real-time feedback that proved invaluable in evaluating alternative orbit estimation strategies, and

  4. Distributed Autonomous Control of Multiple Spacecraft During Close Proximity Operations

    McCamish, Shawn B


    This research contributes to multiple spacecraft control by developing an autonomous distributed control algorithm for close proximity operations of multiple spacecraft systems, including rendezvous...

  5. Spacecraft Swarm Coordination and Planning Tool, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fractionated spacecraft architectures to distribute mission performance from a single, monolithic satellite across large number of smaller spacecraft, for missions...

  6. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have built and tested an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This sensor sensitive to particle sizes ranging from a few...

  7. SSTI- Lewis Spacecraft Nickel-Hydrogen Battery

    Tobias, R. F.


    Topics considered include: NASA-Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative (SSTI) objectives, SSTI-Lewis overview, battery requirement, two cells Common Pressure Vessel (CPV) design summary, CPV electric performance, battery design summary, battery functional description, battery performance.

  8. Spacecraft Cabin Particulate Monitor, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test an optical extinction monitor for the detection of spacecraft cabin particulates. This monitor will be sensitive to particle...

  9. Automated constraint checking of spacecraft command sequences

    Horvath, Joan C.; Alkalaj, Leon J.; Schneider, Karl M.; Spitale, Joseph M.; Le, Dang


    Robotic spacecraft are controlled by onboard sets of commands called "sequences." Determining that sequences will have the desired effect on the spacecraft can be expensive in terms of both labor and computer coding time, with different particular costs for different types of spacecraft. Specification languages and appropriate user interface to the languages can be used to make the most effective use of engineering validation time. This paper describes one specification and verification environment ("SAVE") designed for validating that command sequences have not violated any flight rules. This SAVE system was subsequently adapted for flight use on the TOPEX/Poseidon spacecraft. The relationship of this work to rule-based artificial intelligence and to other specification techniques is discussed, as well as the issues that arise in the transfer of technology from a research prototype to a full flight system.

  10. Computational Model for Spacecraft/Habitat Volume

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Please note that funding to Dr. Simon Hsiang, a critical co-investigator for the development of the Spacecraft Optimization Layout and Volume (SOLV) model, was...

  11. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.


    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  12. Formation of disintegration particles in spacecraft recorders

    Kurnosova, L.V.; Fradkin, M.I.; Razorenov, L.A.


    Experiments performed on the spacecraft Salyut 1, Kosmos 410, and Kosmos 443 enable us to record the disintegration products of particles which are formed in the material of the detectors on board the spacecraft. The observations were made by means of a delayed coincidence method. We have detected a meson component and also a component which is apparently associated with the generation of radioactive isotopes in the detectors

  13. Power requirements for commercial communications spacecraft

    Billerbeck, W. J.


    Historical data on commercial spacecraft power systems are presented and their power requirements to the growth of satellite communications channel usage are related. Some approaches for estimating future power requirements of this class of spacecraft through the year 2000 are proposed. The key technology drivers in satellite power systems are addressed. Several technological trends in such systems are described, focusing on the most useful areas for research and development of major subsystems, including solar arrays, energy storage, and power electronics equipment.

  14. A Reconfigurable Testbed Environment for Spacecraft Autonomy

    Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Jain, Abhinandan


    A key goal of NASA's New Millennium Program is the development of technology for increased spacecraft on-board autonomy. Achievement of this objective requires the development of a new class of ground-based automony testbeds that can enable the low-cost and rapid design, test, and integration of the spacecraft autonomy software. This paper describes the development of an Autonomy Testbed Environment (ATBE) for the NMP Deep Space I comet/asteroid rendezvous mission.

  15. Application of gyrotheodolite for alignment in large spacecraft installation process%陀螺经纬仪在大型航天产品精测中的应用

    任春珍; 季宇; 孙刚


    The gyrotheodolite is a kind of orientation instrument commonly used for determining the azimuth angle relative to the local North. In the AIT process of Tiangong-Ⅰ target spacecraft, it is required to determine the attitude of two devices at operation platforms of different heights. On that condition, two theodolites may be blocked due to alignment between each other, thus it is unable to set up the relationship between the datum cube mirrors. To solve that problem, the geodetic coordinates are used as a transfer coordinate system to obtain the angle relationships. This new method for gyrotheodolite measurement is shown to be feasible with a satisfactory error analysis result, which can be used for similar precision measurements of large spacecraft.%陀螺经纬仪通常是做某一方向与当地大地北向的方位角关系测量用.文章针对“天宫一号”目标飞行器精测中遇到的问题,即高空不同平台间两台设备需要姿态关系测量的需求,通过对陀螺经纬仪测量原理的研究,借助大地坐标系作为中间传递坐标系,解决了经纬仪测量因互瞄被遮挡无法建立基准镜坐标系间关系的问题.测量误差分析结果验证了这种新方法的可行性,该方法可用于大型航天产品设备安装精度的测量.

  16. Radiation Effects on Spacecraft Structural Materials

    Wang, Jy-An J.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Hunter, Hamilton T.; Singleterry, Robert C. Jr.


    Research is being conducted to develop an integrated technology for the prediction of aging behavior for space structural materials during service. This research will utilize state-of-the-art radiation experimental apparatus and analysis, updated codes and databases, and integrated mechanical and radiation testing techniques to investigate the suitability of numerous current and potential spacecraft structural materials. Also included are the effects on structural materials in surface modules and planetary landing craft, with or without fission power supplies. Spacecraft structural materials would also be in hostile radiation environments on the surface of the moon and planets without appreciable atmospheres and moons around planets with large intense magnetic and radiation fields (such as the Jovian moons). The effects of extreme temperature cycles in such locations compounds the effects of radiation on structural materials. This paper describes the integrated methodology in detail and shows that it will provide a significant technological advance for designing advanced spacecraft. This methodology will also allow for the development of advanced spacecraft materials through the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of material degradation in the space radiation environment. Thus, this technology holds a promise for revolutionary advances in material damage prediction and protection of space structural components as, for example, in the development of guidelines for managing surveillance programs regarding the integrity of spacecraft components, and the safety of the aging spacecraft. (authors)

  17. Standardizing the information architecture for spacecraft operations

    Easton, C. R.


    This paper presents an information architecture developed for the Space Station Freedom as a model from which to derive an information architecture standard for advanced spacecraft. The information architecture provides a way of making information available across a program, and among programs, assuming that the information will be in a variety of local formats, structures and representations. It provides a format that can be expanded to define all of the physical and logical elements that make up a program, add definitions as required, and import definitions from prior programs to a new program. It allows a spacecraft and its control center to work in different representations and formats, with the potential for supporting existing spacecraft from new control centers. It supports a common view of data and control of all spacecraft, regardless of their own internal view of their data and control characteristics, and of their communications standards, protocols and formats. This information architecture is central to standardizing spacecraft operations, in that it provides a basis for information transfer and translation, such that diverse spacecraft can be monitored and controlled in a common way.

  18. Attitude Estimation in Fractionated Spacecraft Cluster Systems

    Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Blackmore, James C.


    An attitude estimation was examined in fractioned free-flying spacecraft. Instead of a single, monolithic spacecraft, a fractionated free-flying spacecraft uses multiple spacecraft modules. These modules are connected only through wireless communication links and, potentially, wireless power links. The key advantage of this concept is the ability to respond to uncertainty. For example, if a single spacecraft module in the cluster fails, a new one can be launched at a lower cost and risk than would be incurred with onorbit servicing or replacement of the monolithic spacecraft. In order to create such a system, however, it is essential to know what the navigation capabilities of the fractionated system are as a function of the capabilities of the individual modules, and to have an algorithm that can perform estimation of the attitudes and relative positions of the modules with fractionated sensing capabilities. Looking specifically at fractionated attitude estimation with startrackers and optical relative attitude sensors, a set of mathematical tools has been developed that specify the set of sensors necessary to ensure that the attitude of the entire cluster ( cluster attitude ) can be observed. Also developed was a navigation filter that can estimate the cluster attitude if these conditions are satisfied. Each module in the cluster may have either a startracker, a relative attitude sensor, or both. An extended Kalman filter can be used to estimate the attitude of all modules. A range of estimation performances can be achieved depending on the sensors used and the topology of the sensing network.

  19. Thrusting maneuver control of a small spacecraft via only gimbaled-thruster scheme

    Kabganian, Mansour; Kouhi, Hamed; Shahravi, Morteza; Fani Saberi, Farhad


    The thrust vector control (TVC) scheme is a powerful method in spacecraft attitude control. Since the control of a small spacecraft is being studied here, a solid rocket motor (SRM) should be used instead of a liquid propellant motor. Among the TVC methods, gimbaled-TVC as an efficient method is employed in this paper. The spacecraft structure is composed of a body and a gimbaled-SRM where common attitude control systems such as reaction control system (RCS) and spin-stabilization are not presented. A nonlinear two-body model is considered for the characterization of the gimbaled-thruster spacecraft where, the only control input is provided by a gimbal actuator. The attitude of the spacecraft is affected by a large exogenous disturbance torque which is generated by a thrust vector misalignment from the center of mass (C.M). A linear control law is designed to stabilize the spacecraft attitude while rejecting the mentioned disturbance torque. A semi-analytical formulation of the region of attraction (RoA) is developed to ensure the local stability and fast convergence of the nonlinear closed-loop system. Simulation results of the 3D maneuvers are included to show the applicability of this method for use in a small spacecraft.

  20. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; hide


    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  1. Adaptive Management of Computing and Network Resources for Spacecraft Systems

    Pfarr, Barbara; Welch, Lonnie R.; Detter, Ryan; Tjaden, Brett; Huh, Eui-Nam; Szczur, Martha R. (Technical Monitor)


    It is likely that NASA's future spacecraft systems will consist of distributed processes which will handle dynamically varying workloads in response to perceived scientific events, the spacecraft environment, spacecraft anomalies and user commands. Since all situations and possible uses of sensors cannot be anticipated during pre-deployment phases, an approach for dynamically adapting the allocation of distributed computational and communication resources is needed. To address this, we are evolving the DeSiDeRaTa adaptive resource management approach to enable reconfigurable ground and space information systems. The DeSiDeRaTa approach embodies a set of middleware mechanisms for adapting resource allocations, and a framework for reasoning about the real-time performance of distributed application systems. The framework and middleware will be extended to accommodate (1) the dynamic aspects of intra-constellation network topologies, and (2) the complete real-time path from the instrument to the user. We are developing a ground-based testbed that will enable NASA to perform early evaluation of adaptive resource management techniques without the expense of first deploying them in space. The benefits of the proposed effort are numerous, including the ability to use sensors in new ways not anticipated at design time; the production of information technology that ties the sensor web together; the accommodation of greater numbers of missions with fewer resources; and the opportunity to leverage the DeSiDeRaTa project's expertise, infrastructure and models for adaptive resource management for distributed real-time systems.


    A. I. Altukhov


    Full Text Available The paper deals with the method for formation of quality requirements to the images of emergency spacecrafts. The images are obtained by means of remote sensing of near-earth space orbital deployment in the visible range. of electromagnetic radiation. The method is based on a joint taking into account conditions of space survey, characteristics of surveillance equipment, main design features of the observed spacecrafts and orbital inspection tasks. Method. Quality score is the predicted linear resolution image that gives the possibility to create a complete view of pictorial properties of the space image obtained by electro-optical system from the observing satellite. Formulation of requirements to the numerical value of this indicator is proposed to perform based on the properties of remote sensing system, forming images in the conditions of outer space, and the properties of the observed emergency spacecraft: dimensions, platform construction of the satellite, on-board equipment placement. For method implementation the authors have developed a predictive model of requirements to a linear resolution for images of emergency spacecrafts, making it possible to select the intervals of space shooting and get the satellite images required for quality interpretation. Main results. To verify the proposed model functionality we have carried out calculations of the numerical values for the linear resolution of the image, ensuring the successful task of determining the gross structural damage of the spacecrafts and identifying changes in their spatial orientation. As input data were used with dimensions and geometric primitives corresponding to the shape of deemed inspected spacecrafts: Resurs-P", "Canopus-B", "Electro-L". Numerical values of the linear resolution images have been obtained, ensuring the successful task solution for determining the gross structural damage of spacecrafts.

  3. Chaos and its control in the pitch motion of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in polar elliptic orbit

    Inarrea, Manuel [Universidad de La Rioja, Area de Fisica Aplicada, 26006 Logrono (Spain)], E-mail:


    We study the pitch attitude dynamics of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in a polar almost circular orbit under the influence of a gravity gradient torque. The spacecraft is perturbed by the small eccentricity of the elliptic orbit and by a small magnetic torque generated by the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the magnetic moment of the spacecraft. Under both perturbations, we show that the pitch motion exhibits heteroclinic chaotic behavior by means of the Melnikov method. Numerical methods applied to simulations of the pitch motion also confirm the chaotic character of the spacecraft attitude dynamics. Finally, a linear time-delay feedback method for controlling chaos is applied to the governing equations of the spacecraft pitch motion in order to remove the chaotic character of initially irregular attitude motions and transform them into periodic ones.

  4. Chaos and its control in the pitch motion of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in polar elliptic orbit

    Inarrea, Manuel


    We study the pitch attitude dynamics of an asymmetric magnetic spacecraft in a polar almost circular orbit under the influence of a gravity gradient torque. The spacecraft is perturbed by the small eccentricity of the elliptic orbit and by a small magnetic torque generated by the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the magnetic moment of the spacecraft. Under both perturbations, we show that the pitch motion exhibits heteroclinic chaotic behavior by means of the Melnikov method. Numerical methods applied to simulations of the pitch motion also confirm the chaotic character of the spacecraft attitude dynamics. Finally, a linear time-delay feedback method for controlling chaos is applied to the governing equations of the spacecraft pitch motion in order to remove the chaotic character of initially irregular attitude motions and transform them into periodic ones.

  5. 77 FR 68775 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...


    ... monitoring equipment. Information on Decision: Information on the final decision for this transaction will be... information which would jeopardize jobs in the United States by supplying information that competitors could...

  6. Development of an advanced spacecraft tandem mass spectrometer

    Drew, Russell C.


    The purpose of this research was to apply current advanced technology in electronics and materials to the development of a miniaturized Tandem Mass Spectrometer that would have the potential for future development into a package suitable for spacecraft use. The mass spectrometer to be used as a basis for the tandem instrument would be a magnetic sector instrument, of Nier-Johnson configuration, as used on the Viking Mars Lander mission. This instrument configuration would then be matched with a suitable second stage MS to provide the benefits of tandem MS operation for rapid identification of unknown organic compounds. This tandem instrument is configured with a newly designed GC system to aid in separation of complex mixtures prior to MS analysis. A number of important results were achieved in the course of this project. Among them were the development of a miniaturized GC subsystem, with a unique desorber-injector, fully temperature feedback controlled oven with powered cooling for rapid reset to ambient conditions, a unique combination inlet system to the MS that provides for both membrane sampling and direct capillary column sample transfer, a compact and ruggedized alignment configuration for the MS, an improved ion source design for increased sensitivity, and a simple, rugged tandem MS configuration that is particularly adaptable to spacecraft use because of its low power and low vacuum pumping requirements. The potential applications of this research include use in manned spacecraft like the space station as a real-time detection and warning device for the presence of potentially harmful trace contaminants of the spacecraft atmosphere, use as an analytical device for evaluating samples collected on the Moon or a planetary surface, or even use in connection with monitoring potentially hazardous conditions that may exist in terrestrial locations such as launch pads, environmental test chambers or other sensitive areas. Commercial development of the technology

  7. Development and evaluation of the process for final placement application: a review of the new student led allocation system

    Mason, Rachael; Brackenbury, Debra; Broady, Sophie


    Background A process to facilitate nursing students to have more ownership of their final placement was introduced for this academic year by inviting them to apply for a specific placement they felt most appropriate. Whilst there has been significant research into preparing students for practice (Woods et al, 2015) and to explore the transition from student to graduate nurse (Kumaran and Carney, 2014), there is little to explore the effect of gaining preference for their final placement or...

  8. Study of the mode of angular velocity damping for a spacecraft at non-standard situation

    Davydov, A. A.; Sazonov, V. V.


    Non-standard situation on a spacecraft (Earth's satellite) is considered, when there are no measurements of the spacecraft's angular velocity component relative to one of its body axes. Angular velocity measurements are used in controlling spacecraft's attitude motion by means of flywheels. The arising problem is to study the operation of standard control algorithms in the absence of some necessary measurements. In this work this problem is solved for the algorithm ensuring the damping of spacecraft's angular velocity. Such a damping is shown to be possible not for all initial conditions of motion. In the general case one of two possible final modes is realized, each described by stable steady-state solutions of the equations of motion. In one of them, the spacecraft's angular velocity component relative to the axis, for which the measurements are absent, is nonzero. The estimates of the regions of attraction are obtained for these steady-state solutions by numerical calculations. A simple technique is suggested that allows one to eliminate the initial conditions of the angular velocity damping mode from the attraction region of an undesirable solution. Several realizations of this mode that have taken place are reconstructed. This reconstruction was carried out using approximations of telemetry values of the angular velocity components and the total angular momentum of flywheels, obtained at the non-standard situation, by solutions of the equations of spacecraft's rotational motion.

  9. Modeling the fundamental characteristics and processes of the spacecraft functioning

    Bazhenov, V. I.; Osin, M. I.; Zakharov, Y. V.


    The fundamental aspects of modeling of spacecraft characteristics by using computing means are considered. Particular attention is devoted to the design studies, the description of physical appearance of the spacecraft, and simulated modeling of spacecraft systems. The fundamental questions of organizing the on-the-ground spacecraft testing and the methods of mathematical modeling were presented.

  10. Application and further development of models for the final repository safety analyses on the clearance of radioactive materials for disposal. Final report; Anwendung und Weiterentwicklung von Modellen fuer Endlagersicherheitsanalysen auf die Freigabe radioaktiver Stoffe zur Deponierung. Abschlussbericht

    Artmann, Andreas; Larue, Juergen; Seher, Holger; Weiss, Dietmar


    The project of application and further development of models for the final repository safety analyses on the clearance of radioactive materials for disposal is aimed to study the long-term safety using repository-specific simulation programs with respect to radiation exposure for different scenarios. It was supposed to investigate whether the 10 micro Sv criterion can be guaranteed under consideration of human intrusion scenarios. The report covers the following issues: selection and identification of models and codes and the definition of boundary conditions; applicability of conventional repository models for long-term safety analyses; modeling results for the pollutant release and transport and calculation of radiation exposure; determination of the radiation exposure.

  11. Guidance and control of swarms of spacecraft

    Morgan, Daniel James

    There has been considerable interest in formation flying spacecraft due to their potential to perform certain tasks at a cheaper cost than monolithic spacecraft. Formation flying enables the use of smaller, cheaper spacecraft that distribute the risk of the mission. Recently, the ideas of formation flying have been extended to spacecraft swarms made up of hundreds to thousands of 100-gram-class spacecraft known as femtosatellites. The large number of spacecraft and limited capabilities of each individual spacecraft present a significant challenge in guidance, navigation, and control. This dissertation deals with the guidance and control algorithms required to enable the flight of spacecraft swarms. The algorithms developed in this dissertation are focused on achieving two main goals: swarm keeping and swarm reconfiguration. The objectives of swarm keeping are to maintain bounded relative distances between spacecraft, prevent collisions between spacecraft, and minimize the propellant used by each spacecraft. Swarm reconfiguration requires the transfer of the swarm to a specific shape. Like with swarm keeping, minimizing the propellant used and preventing collisions are the main objectives. Additionally, the algorithms required for swarm keeping and swarm reconfiguration should be decentralized with respect to communication and computation so that they can be implemented on femtosats, which have limited hardware capabilities. The algorithms developed in this dissertation are concerned with swarms located in low Earth orbit. In these orbits, Earth oblateness and atmospheric drag have a significant effect on the relative motion of the swarm. The complicated dynamic environment of low Earth orbits further complicates the swarm-keeping and swarm-reconfiguration problems. To better develop and test these algorithms, a nonlinear, relative dynamic model with J2 and drag perturbations is developed. This model is used throughout this dissertation to validate the algorithms

  12. Investigation of fast initialization of spacecraft bubble memory systems

    Looney, K. T.; Nichols, C. D.; Hayes, P. J.


    Bubble domain technology offers significant improvement in reliability and functionality for spacecraft onboard memory applications. In considering potential memory systems organizations, minimization of power in high capacity bubble memory systems necessitates the activation of only the desired portions of the memory. In power strobing arbitrary memory segments, a capability of fast turn on is required. Bubble device architectures, which provide redundant loop coding in the bubble devices, limit the initialization speed. Alternate initialization techniques are investigated to overcome this design limitation. An initialization technique using a small amount of external storage is demonstrated.

  13. Theoretical analysis of infrared radiation shields of spacecraft

    Shealy, D. L.


    For a system of N diffuse, gray body radiation shields which view only adjacent surfaces and space, the net radiation method for enclosures has been used to formulate a system of linear, nonhomogeneous equations in terms of the temperatures to the fourth power of each surface in the coupled system of enclosures. The coefficients of the unknown temperatures in the system of equations are expressed in terms of configuration factors between adjacent surfaces and the emissivities. As an application, a system of four conical radiation shields for a spin stabilized STARPROBE spacecraft has been designed and analyzed with respect to variations of the cone half angles, the intershield spacings, and emissivities.

  14. Low power arcjet system spacecraft impacts

    Pencil, Eric J.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Lichtin, D. A.; Palchefsky, J. W.; Bogorad, A. L.


    Potential plume contamination of spacecraft surfaces was investigated by positioning spacecraft material samples relative to an arcjet thruster. Samples in the simulated solar array region were exposed to the cold gas arcjet plume for 40 hrs to address concerns about contamination by backstreaming diffusion pump oil. Except for one sample, no significant changes were measured in absorptance and emittance within experimental error. Concerns about surface property degradation due to electrostatic discharges led to the investigation of the discharge phenomenon of charged samples during arcjet ignition. Short duration exposure of charged samples demonstrated that potential differences are consistently and completely eliminated within the first second of exposure to a weakly ionized plume. The spark discharge mechanism was not the discharge phenomenon. The results suggest that the arcjet could act as a charge control device on spacecraft.

  15. Relativistic Spacecraft Propelled by Directed Energy

    Kulkarni, Neeraj; Lubin, Philip; Zhang, Qicheng


    Achieving relativistic flight to enable extrasolar exploration is one of the dreams of humanity and the long-term goal of our NASA Starlight program. We derive a relativistic solution for the motion of a spacecraft propelled by radiation pressure from a directed energy (DE) system. Depending on the system parameters, low-mass spacecraft can achieve relativistic speeds, thus enabling interstellar exploration. The diffraction of the DE system plays an important role and limits the maximum speed of the spacecraft. We consider “photon recycling” as a possible method to achieving higher speeds. We also discuss recent claims that our previous work on this topic is incorrect and show that these claims arise from an improper treatment of causality.

  16. Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Sail Spacecraft

    Sasaki, Daisuke; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Usui, Hideyuki; Funaki, Ikkoh; Kojima, Hirotsugu


    To capture the kinetic energy of the solar wind by creating a large magnetosphere around the spacecraft, magneto-plasma sail injects a plasma jet into a strong magnetic field produced by an electromagnet onboard the spacecraft. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of the IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) on the magnetosphere of magneto-plasma sail. First, using an axi-symmetric two-dimensional MHD code, we numerically confirm the magnetic field inflation, and the formation of a magnetosphere by the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic field. The expansion of an artificial magnetosphere by the plasma injection is then simulated, and we show that the magnetosphere is formed by the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic field expanded by the plasma jet from the spacecraft. This simulation indicates the size of the artificial magnetosphere becomes smaller when applying the IMF.

  17. Generic requirements specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants. Final report

    Ostenso, A.; May, R.


    This is a specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for application to safety systems in nuclear power plants. The specifications are suitable for evaluating a particular PLC product line as a platform for safety-related applications, establishing a suitable qualification test program, and confirming that the manufacturer has a quality assurance program that is adequate for safety-related applications or is sufficiently complete that, with a reasonable set of compensatory actions, it can be brought into conformance. The specification includes requirements for: (1) quality assurance measures applied to the qualification activities, (2) documentation to support the qualification, and (3) documentation to provide the information needed for applying the qualified PLC platform to a specific application. The specifications are designed to encompass a broad range of safety applications; however, qualifying a particular platform for a different range of applications can be accomplished by appropriate adjustments to the requirements

  18. Autonomous Spacecraft Communication Interface for Load Planning

    Dever, Timothy P.; May, Ryan D.; Morris, Paul H.


    Ground-based controllers can remain in continuous communication with spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) with near-instantaneous communication speeds. This permits near real-time control of all of the core spacecraft systems by ground personnel. However, as NASA missions move beyond LEO, light-time communication delay issues, such as time lag and low bandwidth, will prohibit this type of operation. As missions become more distant, autonomous control of manned spacecraft will be required. The focus of this paper is the power subsystem. For present missions, controllers on the ground develop a complete schedule of power usage for all spacecraft components. This paper presents work currently underway at NASA to develop an architecture for an autonomous spacecraft, and focuses on the development of communication between the Mission Manager and the Autonomous Power Controller. These two systems must work together in order to plan future load use and respond to unanticipated plan deviations. Using a nominal spacecraft architecture and prototype versions of these two key components, a number of simulations are run under a variety of operational conditions, enabling development of content and format of the messages necessary to achieve the desired goals. The goals include negotiation of a load schedule that meets the global requirements (contained in the Mission Manager) and local power system requirements (contained in the Autonomous Power Controller), and communication of off-plan disturbances that arise while executing a negotiated plan. The message content is developed in two steps: first, a set of rapid-prototyping "paper" simulations are preformed; then the resultant optimized messages are codified for computer communication for use in automated testing.

  19. Final report

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)


    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TI-based electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  20. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks

    DeSimpelaere, Edward


    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  1. Testing programs for the Multimission Modular Spacecraft

    Greenwell, T. J.


    The Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) provides a standard spacecraft bus to a user for a variety of space missions ranging from near-earth to synchronous orbits. The present paper describes the philosophy behind the MMS module test program and discusses the implementation of the test program. It is concluded that the MMS module test program provides an effective and comprehensive customer buy-off at the subsystem contractor's plant, is an optimum approach for checkout of the subsystems prior to use for on-orbit servicing in the Shuttle Cargo Bay, and is a cost-effective technique for environmental testing.

  2. Robust Parametric Control of Spacecraft Rendezvous

    Dake Gu


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method to design the robust parametric control for autonomous rendezvous of spacecrafts with the inertial information with uncertainty. We consider model uncertainty of traditional C-W equation to formulate the dynamic model of the relative motion. Based on eigenstructure assignment and model reference theory, a concise control law for spacecraft rendezvous is proposed which could be fixed through solving an optimization problem. The cost function considers the stabilization of the system and other performances. Simulation results illustrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed control.

  3. Spacecraft charging: incoming and outgoing electrons

    Lai, Shu T.


    This paper presents an overview of the roles played by incoming and outgoing electrons in spacecraft surface and stresses the importance of surface conditions for spacecraft charging. The balance between the incoming electron current from the ambient plasma and the outgoing currents of secondary electrons, backscattered electrons, and photoelectrons from the surfaces determines the surface potential. Since surface conditions significantly affect the outgoing currents, the critical temperature and the surface potential are also significantly affected. As a corollary, high level differential charging of adjacent surfaces with very different surface conditions is a space hazard.

  4. Event-triggered attitude control of spacecraft

    Wu, Baolin; Shen, Qiang; Cao, Xibin


    The problem of spacecraft attitude stabilization control system with limited communication and external disturbances is investigated based on an event-triggered control scheme. In the proposed scheme, information of attitude and control torque only need to be transmitted at some discrete triggered times when a defined measurement error exceeds a state-dependent threshold. The proposed control scheme not only guarantees that spacecraft attitude control errors converge toward a small invariant set containing the origin, but also ensures that there is no accumulation of triggering instants. The performance of the proposed control scheme is demonstrated through numerical simulation.

  5. The spacecraft encounters of Comet Halley

    Asoka Mendis, D.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.


    The characteristics of the Comet Halley spacecraft 'fleet' (VEGA 1 and VEGA 2, Giotto, Suisei, and Sakigake) are presented. The major aims of these missions were (1) to discover and characterize the nucleus, (2) to characterize the atmosphere and ionosphere, (3) to characterize the dust, and (4) to characterize the nature of the large-scale comet-solar wind interaction. While the VEGA and Giotto missions were designed to study all four areas, Suisei addressed the second and fourth. Sakigake was designed to study the solar wind conditions upstream of the comet. It is noted that NASA's Deep Space Network played an important role in spacecraft tracking.

  6. Motor models and transient analysis for high-temperature, superconductor switch-based adjustable speed drive applications. Final report

    Bailey, J.M.


    New high-temperature superconductor (HTSC) technology may allow development of an energy-efficient power electronics switch for adjustable speed drive (ASD) applications involving variable-speed motors, superconducting magnetic energy storage systems, and other power conversion equipment. This project developed a motor simulation module for determining optimal applications of HTSC-based power switches in ASD systems

  7. The Application of Structured Job Analysis Information Based on the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ). Final Report No. 9.

    McCormick, Ernest J.

    The Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) is a job analysis instrument consisting of 187 job elements organized into six divisions. The PAQ was used in the eight studies summarized in this final report. The studies were: (1) ratings of the attribute requirements of PAQ job elements, (2) a series of principal components analyses of these attribute…

  8. Towards a standardized grasping and refuelling on-orbit servicing for geo spacecraft

    Medina, Alberto; Tomassini, Angelo; Suatoni, Matteo; Avilés, Marcos; Solway, Nick; Coxhill, Ian; Paraskevas, Iosif S.; Rekleitis, Georgios; Papadopoulos, Evangelos; Krenn, Rainer; Brito, André; Sabbatinelli, Beatrice; Wollenhaupt, Birk; Vidal, Christian; Aziz, Sarmad; Visentin, Gianfranco


    Exploitation of space must benefit from the latest advances in robotics. On-orbit servicing is a clear candidate for the application of autonomous rendezvous and docking mechanisms. However, during the last three decades most of the trials took place combining extravehicular activities (EVAs) with telemanipulated robotic arms. The European Space Agency (ESA) considers that grasping and refuelling are promising near-mid-term capabilities that could be performed by servicing spacecraft. Minimal add-ons on spacecraft to enhance their serviceability may protect them for a changing future in which satellite servicing may become mainstream. ESA aims to conceive and promote standard refuelling provisions that can be installed in present and future European commercial geostationary orbit (GEO) satellite platforms and scientific spacecraft. For this purpose ESA has started the ASSIST activity addressing the analysis, design and validation of internal provisions (such as modifications to fuel, gas, electrical and data architecture to allow servicing) and external provisions (such as integrated berthing fixtures with peripheral electrical, gas, liquid connectors, leak check systems and corresponding optical and radio markers for cooperative rendezvous and docking). This refuelling approach is being agreed with European industry (OHB, Thales Alenia Space) and expected to be consolidated with European commercial operators as a first step to become an international standard; this approach is also being considered for on-orbit servicing spacecraft, such as the SpaceTug, by Airbus DS. This paper describes in detail the operational means, structure, geometry and accommodation of the system. Internal and external provisions will be designed with the minimum possible impact on the current architecture of GEO satellites without introducing additional risks in the development and commissioning of the satellite. End-effector and berthing fixtures are being designed in the range of few

  9. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Decision Making During Spacecraft Operations

    Meshkat, Leila


    Decisions made during the operational phase of a space mission often have significant and immediate consequences. Without the explicit consideration of the risks involved and their representation in a solid model, it is very likely that these risks are not considered systematically in trade studies. Wrong decisions during the operational phase of a space mission can lead to immediate system failure whereas correct decisions can help recover the system even from faulty conditions. A problem of special interest is the determination of the system fault protection strategies upon the occurrence of faults within the system. Decisions regarding the fault protection strategy also heavily rely on a correct understanding of the state of the system and an integrated risk model that represents the various possible scenarios and their respective likelihoods. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) modeling is applicable to the full lifecycle of a space mission project, from concept development to preliminary design, detailed design, development and operations. The benefits and utilities of the model, however, depend on the phase of the mission for which it is used. This is because of the difference in the key strategic decisions that support each mission phase. The focus of this paper is on describing the particular methods used for PRA modeling during the operational phase of a spacecraft by gleaning insight from recently conducted case studies on two operational Mars orbiters. During operations, the key decisions relate to the commands sent to the spacecraft for any kind of diagnostics, anomaly resolution, trajectory changes, or planning. Often, faults and failures occur in the parts of the spacecraft but are contained or mitigated before they can cause serious damage. The failure behavior of the system during operations provides valuable data for updating and adjusting the related PRA models that are built primarily based on historical failure data. The PRA models, in turn

  10. Proposed Modifications to Engineering Design Guidelines Related to Resistivity Measurements and Spacecraft Charging

    Dennison, J. R.; Swaminathan, Prasanna; Jost, Randy; Brunson, Jerilyn; Green, Nelson; Frederickson, A. Robb


    A key parameter in modeling differential spacecraft charging is the resistivity of insulating materials. This determines how charge will accumulate and redistribute across the spacecraft, as well as the time scale for charge transport and dissipation. Existing spacecraft charging guidelines recommend use of tests and imported resistivity data from handbooks that are based principally upon ASTM methods that are more applicable to classical ground conditions and designed for problems associated with power loss through the dielectric, than for how long charge can be stored on an insulator. These data have been found to underestimate charging effects by one to four orders of magnitude for spacecraft charging applications. A review is presented of methods to measure the resistive of highly insulating materials, including the electrometer-resistance method, the electrometer-constant voltage method, the voltage rate-of-change method and the charge storage method. This is based on joint experimental studies conducted at NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Utah State University to investigate the charge storage method and its relation to spacecraft charging. The different methods are found to be appropriate for different resistivity ranges and for different charging circumstances. A simple physics-based model of these methods allows separation of the polarization current and dark current components from long duration measurements of resistivity over day- to month-long time scales. Model parameters are directly related to the magnitude of charge transfer and storage and the rate of charge transport. The model largely explains the observed differences in resistivity found using the different methods and provides a framework for recommendations for the appropriate test method for spacecraft materials with different resistivities and applications. The proposed changes to the existing engineering guidelines are intended to provide design engineers more appropriate methods for

  11. Characterization of spacecraft humidity condensate

    Muckle, Susan; Schultz, John R.; Sauer, Richard L.


    When construction of Space Station Freedom reaches the Permanent Manned Capability (PMC) stage, the Water Recovery and Management Subsystem will be fully operational such that (distilled) urine, spent hygiene water, and humidity condensate will be reclaimed to provide water of potable quality. The reclamation technologies currently baselined to process these waste waters include adsorption, ion exchange, catalytic oxidation, and disinfection. To ensure that the baseline technologies will be able to effectively remove those compounds presenting a health risk to the crew, the National Research Council has recommended that additional information be gathered on specific contaminants in waste waters representative of those to be encountered on the Space Station. With the application of new analytical methods and the analysis of waste water samples more representative of the Space Station environment, advances in the identification of the specific contaminants continue to be made. Efforts by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory at JSC were successful in enlarging the database of contaminants in humidity condensate. These efforts have not only included the chemical characterization of condensate generated during ground-based studies, but most significantly the characterization of cabin and Spacelab condensate generated during Shuttle missions. The analytical results presented in this paper will be used to show how the composition of condensate varies amongst enclosed environments and thus the importance of collecting condensate from an environment close to that of the proposed Space Station. Although advances were made in the characterization of space condensate, complete characterization, particularly of the organics, requires further development of analytical methods.

  12. Electrical design for origami solar panels and a small spacecraft test mission

    Drewelow, James; Straub, Jeremy


    Efficient power generation is crucial to the design of spacecraft. Mass, volume, and other limitations prevent the use of traditional spacecraft support structures from being suitable for the size of solar array required for some missions. Folding solar panel / panel array systems, however, present a number of design challenges. This paper considers the electrical design of an origami system. Specifically, it considers how to provide low impedance, durable channels for the generated power and the electrical aspects of the deployment system and procedure. The ability to dynamically reconfigure the electrical configuration of the solar cells is also discussed. Finally, a small satellite test mission to demonstrate the technology is proposed, before concluding.

  13. Combined spacecraft orbit and attitude control through extended Kalman filtering of magnetometer, gyro, and GPS measurements

    Tamer Mekky Ahmed Habib


    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to establish spacecraft orbit and attitude control algorithms based on extended Kalman filter which provides estimates of spacecraft orbital and attitude states. The control and estimation algorithms must be capable of dealing with the spacecraft conditions during the detumbling and attitude acquisition modes of operation. These conditions are characterized by nonlinearities represented by large initial attitude angles, large initial angular velocities, large initial attitude estimation error, and large initial position estimation error. All of the developed estimation and control algorithms are suitable for application to the next Egyptian scientific satellite, EGYPTSAT-2. The parameters of the case-study spacecraft are similar but not identical to the former Egyptian satellite EGYPTSAT-1. This is done because the parameters of EGYPTSAT-2 satellite have not been consolidated yet. The sensors utilized are gyro, magnetometer, and GPS. Gyro and magnetometer are utilized to provide measurements for the estimates of spacecraft attitude state vector where as magnetometer and GPS are utilized to provide measurements for the estimates of spacecraft orbital state vector.

  14. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 1, Executive summary

    Mills, G.A.


    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over a period of 5--20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 major, closely linked research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This volume provides a comprehensive executive summary, including research recommendations.

  15. Software for Engineering Simulations of a Spacecraft

    Shireman, Kirk; McSwain, Gene; McCormick, Bernell; Fardelos, Panayiotis


    Spacecraft Engineering Simulation II (SES II) is a C-language computer program for simulating diverse aspects of operation of a spacecraft characterized by either three or six degrees of freedom. A functional model in SES can include a trajectory flight plan; a submodel of a flight computer running navigational and flight-control software; and submodels of the environment, the dynamics of the spacecraft, and sensor inputs and outputs. SES II features a modular, object-oriented programming style. SES II supports event-based simulations, which, in turn, create an easily adaptable simulation environment in which many different types of trajectories can be simulated by use of the same software. The simulation output consists largely of flight data. SES II can be used to perform optimization and Monte Carlo dispersion simulations. It can also be used to perform simulations for multiple spacecraft. In addition to its generic simulation capabilities, SES offers special capabilities for space-shuttle simulations: for this purpose, it incorporates submodels of the space-shuttle dynamics and a C-language version of the guidance, navigation, and control components of the space-shuttle flight software.

  16. How Spacecraft Fly Spaceflight Without Formulae

    Swinerd, Graham


    About half a century ago a small satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched. The satellite did very little other than to transmit a radio signal to announce its presence in orbit. However, this humble beginning heralded the dawn of the Space Age. Today literally thousands of robotic spacecraft have been launched, many of which have flown to far-flung regions of the Solar System carrying with them the human spirit of scientific discovery and exploration. Numerous other satellites have been launched in orbit around the Earth providing services that support our technological society on the ground. How Spacecraft Fly: Spaceflight Without Formulae by Graham Swinerd focuses on how these spacecraft work. The book opens with a historical perspective of how we have come to understand our Solar System and the Universe. It then progresses through orbital flight, rocket science, the hostile environment within which spacecraft operate, and how they are designed. The concluding chapters give a glimpse of what the 21st century may ...

  17. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs


    As fire behaviour in manned spacecraft still remains poorly understood, an international topical team has been created to design a validation experiment that has an unprecedented large scale for a microgravity flammability experiment. While the validation experiment is being designed for a re-sup...

  18. Parameter Estimation of Spacecraft Fuel Slosh Model

    Gangadharan, Sathya; Sudermann, James; Marlowe, Andrea; Njengam Charles


    Fuel slosh in the upper stages of a spinning spacecraft during launch has been a long standing concern for the success of a space mission. Energy loss through the movement of the liquid fuel in the fuel tank affects the gyroscopic stability of the spacecraft and leads to nutation (wobble) which can cause devastating control issues. The rate at which nutation develops (defined by Nutation Time Constant (NTC can be tedious to calculate and largely inaccurate if done during the early stages of spacecraft design. Pure analytical means of predicting the influence of onboard liquids have generally failed. A strong need exists to identify and model the conditions of resonance between nutation motion and liquid modes and to understand the general characteristics of the liquid motion that causes the problem in spinning spacecraft. A 3-D computerized model of the fuel slosh that accounts for any resonant modes found in the experimental testing will allow for increased accuracy in the overall modeling process. Development of a more accurate model of the fuel slosh currently lies in a more generalized 3-D computerized model incorporating masses, springs and dampers. Parameters describing the model include the inertia tensor of the fuel, spring constants, and damper coefficients. Refinement and understanding the effects of these parameters allow for a more accurate simulation of fuel slosh. The current research will focus on developing models of different complexity and estimating the model parameters that will ultimately provide a more realistic prediction of Nutation Time Constant obtained through simulation.

  19. Special Semaphore Scheme for UHF Spacecraft Communications

    Butman, Stanley; Satorius, Edgar; Ilott, Peter


    A semaphore scheme has been devised to satisfy a requirement to enable ultrahigh- frequency (UHF) radio communication between a spacecraft descending from orbit to a landing on Mars and a spacecraft, in orbit about Mars, that relays communications between Earth and the lander spacecraft. There are also two subsidiary requirements: (1) to use UHF transceivers, built and qualified for operation aboard the spacecraft that operate with residual-carrier binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) modulation at a selectable data rate of 8, 32, 128, or 256 kb/s; and (2) to enable low-rate signaling even when received signals become so weak as to prevent communication at the minimum BPSK rate of 8 kHz. The scheme involves exploitation of Manchester encoding, which is used in conjunction with residual-carrier modulation to aid the carrier-tracking loop. By choosing various sequences of 1s, 0s, or 1s alternating with 0s to be fed to the residual-carrier modulator, one would cause the modulator to generate sidebands at a fundamental frequency of 4 or 8 kHz and harmonics thereof. These sidebands would constitute the desired semaphores. In reception, the semaphores would be detected by a software demodulator.

  20. Accelerated life testing of spacecraft subsystems

    Wiksten, D.; Swanson, J.


    The rationale and requirements for conducting accelerated life tests on electronic subsystems of spacecraft are presented. A method for applying data on the reliability and temperature sensitivity of the parts contained in a sybsystem to the selection of accelerated life test parameters is described. Additional considerations affecting the formulation of test requirements are identified, and practical limitations of accelerated aging are described.

  1. Rotational Motion Control of a Spacecraft

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.


    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...... algorithm is validated for three-axis spacecraft attitude control...

  2. Rotational motion control of a spacecraft

    Wisniewski, Rafal; Kulczycki, P.


    The paper adopts the energy shaping method to control of rotational motion. A global representation of the rigid body motion is given in the canonical form by a quaternion and its conjugate momenta. A general method for motion control on a cotangent bundle to the 3-sphere is suggested. The design...... algorithm is validated for three-axis spacecraft attitude control. Udgivelsesdato: APR...

  3. Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Education Program


    A NASA engineer with the Commercial Remote Sensing Program (CRSP) at Stennis Space Center works with students from W.P. Daniels High School in New Albany, Miss., through NASA's Small Spacecraft Technology Initiative Program. CRSP is teaching students to use remote sensing to locate a potential site for a water reservoir to offset a predicted water shortage in the community's future.

  4. Spacecraft Attitude Control in Hamiltonian Framework

    Wisniewski, Rafal


    The objective of this paper is to give a design scheme for attitude control algorithms of a generic spacecraft. Along with the system model formulated in the Hamilton's canonical form the algorithm uses information about a required potential energy and a dissipative term. The control action...

  5. Environmental impacts of oil and gas brine applications for dust and ice control in New York : final report.


    Transportation agencies are required to treat roads for dust and ice control to ensure adequate safety for travelers. This is commonly achieved through application of solid and liquid chemicals. These materials can be conventional rock salt, brine fr...

  6. Integrated Incident Management System (IIMS) web client application development, deployment and evaluation Staten Island (SI) demonstration project : final report.


    This evaluation report provides background on the development and findings. The aim of the UTRC project was to develop and : deploy Portable IIMS based on Smartphone web applications. Previously, traditional IIMS was deployed in the field vehicles : ...

  7. Streamlined Modeling for Characterizing Spacecraft Anomalous Behavior

    Klem, B.; Swann, D.


    Anomalous behavior of on-orbit spacecraft can often be detected using passive, remote sensors which measure electro-optical signatures that vary in time and spectral content. Analysts responsible for assessing spacecraft operational status and detecting detrimental anomalies using non-resolved imaging sensors are often presented with various sensing and identification issues. Modeling and measuring spacecraft self emission and reflected radiant intensity when the radiation patterns exhibit a time varying reflective glint superimposed on an underlying diffuse signal contribute to assessment of spacecraft behavior in two ways: (1) providing information on body component orientation and attitude; and, (2) detecting changes in surface material properties due to the space environment. Simple convex and cube-shaped spacecraft, designed to operate without protruding solar panel appendages, may require an enhanced level of preflight characterization to support interpretation of the various physical effects observed during on-orbit monitoring. This paper describes selected portions of the signature database generated using streamlined signature modeling and simulations of basic geometry shapes apparent to non-imaging sensors. With this database, summarization of key observable features for such shapes as spheres, cylinders, flat plates, cones, and cubes in specific spectral bands that include the visible, mid wave, and long wave infrared provide the analyst with input to the decision process algorithms contained in the overall sensing and identification architectures. The models typically utilize baseline materials such as Kapton, paints, aluminum surface end plates, and radiators, along with solar cell representations covering the cylindrical and side portions of the spacecraft. Multiple space and ground-based sensors are assumed to be located at key locations to describe the comprehensive multi-viewing aspect scenarios that can result in significant specular reflection

  8. On the spacecraft attitude stabilization in the orbital frame

    Antipov Kirill A.


    Full Text Available The paper deals with spacecraft in the circular near-Earth orbit. The spacecraft interacts with geomagnetic field by the moments of Lorentz and magnetic forces. The octupole approximation of the Earth’s magnetic field is accepted. The spacecraft electromagnetic parameters, namely the electrostatic charge moment of the first order and the eigen magnetic moment are the controlled quasiperiodic functions. The control algorithms for the spacecraft electromagnetic parameters, which allows to stabilize the spacecraft attitude position in the orbital frame are obtained. The stability of the spacecraft stabilized orientation is proved both analytically and by PC computations.

  9. Study on the effect of shape-stabilized phase change materials on spacecraft thermal control in extreme thermal environment

    Wu, Wan-fan; Liu, Na; Cheng, Wen-long; Liu, Yi


    Highlights: ► A shape-stabilized PCM is used to protect the spacecraft attacked by high energy. ► Taking a satellite as example, it proves the solution given in the work is feasible. ► Low thermal conductivity makes the material above its thermal stability limit. ► It provides guidance on how to choose the shape-stabilized PCM for similar problems. - Abstract: In space, the emergencies such as short-term high heat flux is prone to cause spacecraft thermal control system faults, resulting in temperature anomalies of electronic equipment of the spacecraft and even failures in them. In order to protect the spacecraft attacked by the high energy, a new guard method is proposed. A shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM), which has high thermal conductivity and does not require being tightly packaged, is proposed to be used on the spacecraft. To prove the feasibility of using the material on spacecraft attacked by high energy, the thermal responses for spacecraft with shape-stabilized PCM are investigated in situations of normal and short-term high heat flux, in contrast to that with conventional thermal control system. The results indicate that the shape-stabilized PCM can effectively absorb the heat to prevent the thermal control system faults when the spacecraft’s outer heat flux changes dramatically and has no negative effect on spacecraft in normal heat flux. Additionally the effect of thermal conductivity of PCM on its application effectiveness is discussed

  10. Low temperature geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. Final report, July 1, 1978-August 18, 1979

    Kauffman, D.; Houghton, A.V.


    A study was made of the engineering and economic feasibility of hot water geothermal energy applications in the Albuquerque area. A generalized system design was developed and used as the basis for a series of economic case studies. Reservoir and user siting considerations were studied in light of the economic findings. Several specific potential applications were identified, including university campuses, industrial and commercial facilities, and residential buildings. Specific key technical problems relating to Albuquerque area applications were studied. These included environmental impacts, corrosion, scaling, heat losses in wells and transmission lines, heat exchangers, control systems, and system utilization and reliability. It is concluded that geothermal energy could be competitive with other energy sources for space heating and limited industrial use for moderate to large (10 million Btu/hr or more) energy using systems.

  11. Applicability of federal and state environmental requirements to selected DOE field installations and recommendations for development of generic compliance guidance. Final report


    This final report identifies and describes federal and state environmental requirements applicable to selected Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear field installations, establishes priorities for the requirements, determines the need for development of additional compliance guidance, and recommends development of compliance guidance for specific priority requirements. Compliance guidance developed as part of the study is summarized. The applicability of environmental requirements to 12 DOE field installations was reviewed. Five installations were examined under Task 4. They are: Nevada Test Site; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory; Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Seven other installations were reviewed under Task 2 and included: Idaho National Engineering Laboratory; Hanford; Savannah River Plant; Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Pantex Plant; Rocky Flats Plant; and Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. This report combines results of the two tasks. The objective of the study was to identify the set of environmental requirements which are applicable to DOE field installations, track changes in the requirements, and prepare compliance guidance for important requirements and important regulatory developments as necessary. A cumulative calendar update for July 1982 represents the current status of applicable requirements. Environmental profiles of each facility, along with ambient monitoring results, are presented. Applicable federal requirements are identified. The specific applicability of federal and state requirements is detailed for each installation. Compliance guidance available from various agencies is described. Each requirement described is ranked by priority, and recommendations are made for development of additional guidance

  12. Enhancing the lifetime of SOFC stacks for combined heat and power applications SOF-CH - Final report 2007

    Sfeir, J.; Hocker, T.; Herle, J. Van; Nakajo, A.; Tanasini, P.; Galinski, H.; Kuebler, J.


    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work done in 2007 by the Swiss SOF Consortium SOF-CH on research concerned with various aspects of fuel cell technology. Members of the consortium include several Swiss Institutes of Technology and Materials Research, Universities of Applied Sciences as well is important commercial players in the fuel cell area. The work done on various aspects of fuel cell technology and the co-operation between the various institutions and companies are reviewed. The five work packages defined in the project are reported on. Follow-up projects are noted.

  13. Protecting Spacecraft Fragments from Exposure to Small Debris

    V. V. Zelentsov


    Full Text Available Since the launch of the first artificial Earth satellite a large amount of space debris has been accumulated in near-earth space. This debris comprises the exhausted spacecrafts, final stages of rocket-carriers and boosters, technological space junk, consisting of the structure elements, which are separated when deploying the solar arrays, antennas etc., as well as when undocking a booster and a spacecraft. All the debris is divided into observable one of over 100 mm in size and unobservable debris. In case of possible collision with the observed debris an avoidance manoeuvre is provided. The situation with unobservable debris is worse, its dimensions ranging from 100 mm to several microns. This debris is formed as a result of explosions of dead space objects and at collisions of destroyed spacecraft fragments against each other. This debris moves along arbitrary trajectories at different speeds.At collision of a spacecraft with fragments of small-size space debris, various consequences are possible: the device can immediately fail, suffer damages, which will have effect later and damages, which break no bones to the aircraft. Anyway, the spacecraft collision with small-size debris particles is undesirable. The protective shields are used to protect the aircraft from damage. Development of shield construction is complicated because the high cost of launch makes it impossible to conduct field tests of shields in space. All the work is carried out in the laboratory, with particles having co-impact speeds up to 10 km/s (possible speeds are up to 20 km/s and spherically shaped particles of 0.8 ... 3 mm in diameter.Various materials are used to manufacture shields. These are aluminum sheet, sandwich panels, metal mesh, metal foam, and woven materials (ballistic fabric. The paper considers single-layer (from sheet metal sandwich materials and multilayer shield designs. As experimental studies show, a single-layer shield protects colliding at speeds

  14. Assessment of research needs for advanced heterogeneous catalysts for energy applications. Final report: Volume 2, Topic reports

    Mills, G.A.


    This report assesses the direction, technical content, and priority of research needs judged to provide the best chance of yielding new and improved heterogeneous catalysts for energy-related applications over the period of 5-20 years. It addresses issues of energy conservation, alternate fuels and feedstocks, and the economics and applications that could alleviate pollution from energy processes. Recommended goals are defined in 3 research thrusts: catalytic science, environmental protection by catalysis, and industrial catalytic applications. This study was conducted by an 11-member panel of experts from industry and academia, including one each from Japan and Europe. This volume first presents an in-depth overview of the role of catalysis in future energy technology in chapter 1; then current catalytic research is critically reviewed and research recommended in 8 topic chapters: catalyst preparation (design and synthesis), catalyst characterization (structure/function), catalyst performance testing, reaction kinetics/reactor design, catalysis for industrial chemicals, catalysis for electrical applications (clean fuels, pollution remediation), catalysis for control of exhaust emissions, and catalysts for liquid transportation fuels from petroleum, coal, residual oil, and biomass.

  15. The application of land-based computerized spectrometers for effluent monitoring aboard nuclear powered ships. Final technical report

    Kamykowski, E.A.


    This report assesses the applicability of computer-based, Ge(Li) detector spectroscopy systems as effluent monitors aboard nuclear powered ships. A survey of the principal commercial spectrometers, in light of the expected shipboard use, indicates these systems may be employed for automatic radioisotope analysis in a seagoing environment if adequate protective measures are adopted

  16. Distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities; Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; delay of applicability date. Final rule; delay of applicability date.


    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2008, the applicability date of a certain requirement of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720) (the final rule). The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The provisions of the final rule became effective on December 4, 2000, except for certain provisions whose effective or applicability dates were delayed in five subsequent Federal Register notices, until December 1, 2006. The provision with the delayed applicability date would prohibit wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that meet the definition of a "health care entity." In the Federal Register of February 1, 2006 (71 FR 5200), FDA published a proposed rule specific to the distribution of blood derivatives by registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities (the proposed rule). The proposed rule would amend certain limited provisions of the final rule to allow certain registered blood establishments that qualify as health care entities to distribute blood derivatives. In response to the proposed rule, FDA received substantive comments. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document, further delaying the applicability of Sec. 203.3(q) (21 CFR 203.3(q)) to the wholesale distribution of blood derivatives by health care entities is necessary to give the agency additional time to address comments on the proposed rule, consider whether regulatory changes are appropriate, and, if so, to initiate such changes.

  17. Mechanical Slosh Models for Rocket-Propelled Spacecraft

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abram; Yang, Lee; Powers. Joseph; Hall, Charles


    Several analytical mechanical slosh models for a cylindrical tank with flat bottom are reviewed. Even though spacecrafts use cylinder shaped tanks, most of those tanks usually have elliptical domes. To extend the application of the analytical models for a cylindrical tank with elliptical domes, the modified slosh parameter models are proposed in this report by mapping an elliptical dome cylindrical tank to a flat top/bottom cylindrical tank while maintaining the equivalent liquid volume. For the low Bond number case, the low-g slosh models were also studied. Those low-g models can be used for Bond number > 10. The current low-g slosh models were also modified to extend their applications for the case that liquid height is smaller than the tank radius. All modified slosh models are implemented in MATLAB m-functions and are collected in the developed MST (Mechanical Slosh Toolbox).

  18. Flexible spacecraft dynamics, control and guidance technologies by giovanni campolo

    Mazzini, Leonardo


    This book is an up-to-date compendium on spacecraft attitude and orbit control (AOC) that offers a systematic and complete treatment of the subject with the aim of imparting the theoretical and practical knowledge that is required by designers, engineers, and researchers. After an introduction on the kinematics of the flexible and agile space vehicles, the modern architecture and functions of an AOC system are described and the main AOC modes reviewed with possible design solutions and examples. The dynamics of the flexible body in space are then considered using an original Lagrangian approach suitable for the control applications of large space flexible structures. Subsequent chapters address optimal control theory, attitude control methods, and orbit control applications, including the optimal orbital transfer with finite and infinite thrust. The theory is integrated with a description of current propulsion systems, with the focus especially on the new electric propulsion systems and state of the art senso...

  19. Micro-Inspector Spacecraft for Space Exploration Missions

    Mueller, Juergen; Alkalai, Leon; Lewis, Carol


    NASA is seeking to embark on a new set of human and robotic exploration missions back to the Moon, to Mars, and destinations beyond. Key strategic technical challenges will need to be addressed to realize this new vision for space exploration, including improvements in safety and reliability to improve robustness of space operations. Under sponsorship by NASA's Exploration Systems Mission, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), together with its partners in government (NASA Johnson Space Center) and industry (Boeing, Vacco Industries, Ashwin-Ushas Inc.) is developing an ultra-low mass (missions. The micro-inspector will provide remote vehicle inspections to ensure safety and reliability, or to provide monitoring of in-space assembly. The micro-inspector spacecraft represents an inherently modular system addition that can improve safety and support multiple host vehicles in multiple applications. On human missions, it may help extend the reach of human explorers, decreasing human EVA time to reduce mission cost and risk. The micro-inspector development is the continuation of an effort begun under NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology Enabling Concepts and Technology (ECT) program. The micro-inspector uses miniaturized celestial sensors; relies on a combination of solar power and batteries (allowing for unlimited operation in the sun and up to 4 hours in the shade); utilizes a low-pressure, low-leakage liquid butane propellant system for added safety; and includes multi-functional structure for high system-level integration and miniaturization. Versions of this system to be designed and developed under the H&RT program will include additional capabilities for on-board, vision-based navigation, spacecraft inspection, and collision avoidance, and will be demonstrated in a ground-based, space-related environment. These features make the micro-inspector design unique in its ability to serve crewed as well as robotic spacecraft, well beyond Earth-orbit and into arenas such

  20. On spacecraft maneuvers control subject to propellant engine modes.

    Mazinan, A H


    The paper attempts to address a new control approach to spacecraft maneuvers based upon the modes of propellant engine. A realization of control strategy is now presented in engine on mode (high thrusts as well as further low thrusts), which is related to small angle maneuvers and engine off mode (specified low thrusts), which is also related to large angle maneuvers. There is currently a coarse-fine tuning in engine on mode. It is shown that the process of handling the angular velocities are finalized via rate feedback system in engine modes, where the angular rotations are controlled through quaternion based control (QBCL)strategy in engine off mode and these ones are also controlled through an optimum PID (OPIDH) strategy in engine on mode. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spacecraft observations of solar wind turbulence: an overview

    Horbury, T S; Forman, M A; Oughton, S


    Spacecraft measurements in the solar wind offer the opportunity to study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in a collisionless plasma in great detail. We review some of the key results of the study of this medium: the presence of large amplitude Alfven waves propagating predominantly away from the Sun; the existence of an active turbulent cascade; and the presence of intermittency similar to that in neutral fluids. We also discuss the presence of anisotropy in wavevector space relative to the local magnetic field direction. Some models suggest that MHD turbulence can evolve to a state with power predominantly in wavevectors either parallel to the magnetic field ('slab' fluctuations) or approximately perpendicular to it ('2D'). We review the existing evidence for such anisotropy, which has important consequences for the transport of energetic particles. Finally, we present the first results of a new analysis which provides the most accurate measurements to date of the wave-vector anisotropy of wavevector power in solar wind MHD turbulence

  2. DOD Recovery personnel and NASA technicians inspect Friendship 7 spacecraft


    Department of Defense Recovery personnel and spacecraft technicians from NASA adn McDonnell Aircraft Corp., inspect Astronaut John Glenn's Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, following its return to Cape Canaveral after recovery in the Atlantic Ocean.

  3. High-Performance Fire Detector for Spacecraft, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The danger from fire aboard spacecraft is immediate with only moments for detection and suppression. Spacecraft are unique high-value systems where the cost of...

  4. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report


    Discussion is presented under the following section headings: background and some technical characteristics of geothermal resources; geology and geohydrology, geophysics, and, conclusions regarding availability of geothermal energy for nonelectric uses; agricultural assessment of Lake County, site assessment for potential agricultural development, analysis of potential agricultural applications, special application of low cost geothermal energy to algae harvesting, development of an integrated agribusiness, geothermal complex in Lake County, analysis of individual enterprises, and, recommendations for subsequent work; demographic characteristics, economic condition and perspective of Lake County, economic impact of geothermal in Lake County, social and economic factors related to geothermal resource development, socioeconomic impact of nonelectric uses of geothermal energy, and, identification of direct heat applications of geothermal energy for Lake County based on selected interviews; cost estimate procedure, example, justification of procedure, and, typical costs and conclusions; and, recommended prefeasibility and feasibility studies related to construction of facilities for nonelectric applications of geothermal resource utilization. (JGB)

  5. Application of a Barrier Filter at a High Purity Synthetic Graphite Plant, CRADA 99-F035, Final Report

    National Energy Technology Laboratory


    Superior Graphite Company and the US Department of Energy have entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) to study the application of ceramic barrier filters at its Hopkinsville, Kentucky graphite plant. Superior Graphite Company is a worldwide leader in the application of advanced thermal processing technology to produce high purity graphite and carbons. The objective of the CRADA is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of incorporating the use of high-temperature filters to improve the performance of the offgas treatment system. A conceptual design was developed incorporating the ceramic filters into the offgas treatment system to be used for the development of a capital cost estimate and economic feasibility assessment of this technology for improving particulate removal. This CRADA is a joint effort of Superior Graphite Company, Parsons Infrastructure and Technology Group, and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  6. Policy Options for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Application in Healthcare; a Prospective View: Final Report (D5).

    van Oranje-Nassau, Constantijn; Schindler, Helen Rebecca; Vilamovska, Anna-Marie; Botterman, Maarten


    This article reviews the state of play of European markets and applications of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology in healthcare in Europe. Based on the current situation the study presents three scenarios for 2020, to describe futures in which the technology and health care sectors develop in different ways. The scenarios were discussed in expert workshops to derive issues that need to be addressed by future policies of the European Union and other stakeholders. The market assessment is based on a review of literature and an analysis of proprietary market data. The information on the state of RFID applications in Health in Europe summarises the results of a literature review, an online Delphi survey, expert interviews and seven cases studies in Europe and the US. The policy analysis is based on the outcomes of a scenario gaming workshop with experts from academia, industry, healthcare providers, policymakers and representatives of patient organisations.

  7. Survey of US Department of Defense Manufacturing Technology Program activities applicable to civilian manufacturing industries. Final report

    Azimi, S.A.; Conrad, J.L.; Reed, J.E.


    Intent of the survey was to identify and characterize activities potentially applicable to improving energy efficiency and overall productivity in the civilian manufacturing industries. The civilian industries emphasized were the general manufacturing industries (including fabricated metals, glass, machinery, paper, plastic, textile, and transportation equipment manufacturing) and the primary metals industries (including primary aluminum, copper, steel, and zinc production). The principal steps in the survey were to: develop overview taxonomies of the general manufacturing and primary metals industries as well as specific industry taxonomies; identify needs and opportunities for improving process energy efficiency and productivity in the industries included; identify federal programs, capabilities, and special technical expertise that might be relevant to industry's needs and opportunities; contact federal laboratories/facilities, through visits and other forms of inquiry; prepare formatted profiles (descriptions) potentially applicable work efforts; review findings with industry; and compile and evaluate industry responses.

  8. Novel Power Electronics Systems for Wind Energy Applications: Final Report; Period of Performance: August 24, 1999 -- November 30, 2002

    Erickson, R.; Angkititrakul, S.; Al-Naseem, O.; Lujan, G.


    The objective of this work was to develop new approaches to the power electronics of variable-speed wind power systems, with the goal of improving the associated cost of energy. Of particular importance is the converter efficiency at low-wind operating points. Developing converter approaches that maintain high efficiency at partial power, without sacrificing performance at maximum power, is desirable, as is demonstrating an approach that can use emerging power component technologies to attain these performance goals with low projected capital costs. In this report, we show that multilevel conversion is an approach that can meet these performance requirements. In the wind power application, multilevel conversion proves superior to conventional converter technologies because it is callable to high power and higher voltage levels, it extends the range of high converter efficiency to lower wind speeds, and it allows superior low-voltage fast-switching semiconductor devices to be used in high-voltage high-power applications.

  9. Technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage. Thermal energy storage application to the brick/ceramic industry. Final report

    Glenn, D.R.


    An initial project to study the technical and economic feasibility of thermal energy storage (TES) in the three major consumer markets, namely, the residential, commercial and industrial sectors is described. A major objective of the study was to identify viable TES applications from which a more concise study could be launched, leading to a conceptual design and in-depth validation of the TES energy impacts. This report documents one such program. The brick/ceramic industries commonly use periodic kilns which by their operating cycle require time-variant energy supply and consequently variable heat rejection. This application was one of the numerous TES opportunities that emerged from the first study, now available from the ERDA Technical Information Center, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identified as Report No. COO-2558-1.

  10. Investigation of applications for high-power, self-critical fissioning uranium plasma reactors. Final technical report

    Rodgers, R.J.; Latham, T.S.; Krascella, N.L.


    Analytical studies were conducted to investigate potentially attractive applications for gaseous nuclear cavity reactors fueled by uranium hexafluoride and its decomposition products at temperatures of 2000 to 6000 K and total pressures of a few hundred atmospheres. Approximate operating conditions and performance levels for a class of nuclear reactors in which fission energy removal is accomplished principally by radiant heat transfer from the high temperature gaseous nuclear fuel to surrounding absorbing media were determined. The results show the radiant energy deposited in the absorbing media may be efficiently utilized in energy conversion system applications which include (1) a primary energy source for high thrust, high specific impulse space propulsion, (2) an energy source for highly efficient generation of electricity, and (3) a source of high intensity photon flux for heating working fluid gases for hydrogen production or MHD power extraction. (Author)

  11. Space tribology: its role in spacecraft mechanisms

    Roberts, E W


    The subject of tribology encompasses the friction, wear and lubrication of mechanical components such as bearings and gears. Tribological practices are aimed at ensuring that such components operate with high efficiency (low friction) and achieve long lives. On spacecraft mechanisms the route to achieving these goals brings its own unique challenges. This review describes the problems posed by the space environment, the types of tribological component used on spacecraft and the approaches taken to their lubrication. It is shown that in many instances lubrication needs can be met by synthetic oils having exceedingly low volatilities, but that at temperature extremes the only means of reducing friction and wear is by solid lubrication. As the demands placed on space engineering increase, innovatory approaches will be needed to solve future tribological problems. The direction that future developments might take is anticipated and discussed.

  12. Improved techniques for predicting spacecraft power

    Chmielewski, A.B.


    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are going to supply power for the NASA Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft now scheduled to be launched in 1989 and 1990. The duration of the Galileo mission is expected to be over 8 years. This brings the total RTG lifetime to 13 years. In 13 years, the RTG power drops more than 20 percent leaving a very small power margin over what is consumed by the spacecraft. Thus it is very important to accurately predict the RTG performance and be able to assess the magnitude of errors involved. The paper lists all the error sources involved in the RTG power predictions and describes a statistical method for calculating the tolerance

  13. Data combinations accounting for LISA spacecraft motion

    Shaddock, Daniel A.; Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, Frank B.; Armstrong, J.W.


    The laser interferometer space antenna is an array of three spacecraft in an approximately equilateral triangle configuration which will be used as a low-frequency gravitational wave detector. We present here new generalizations of the Michelson- and Sagnac-type time-delay interferometry data combinations. These combinations cancel laser phase noise in the presence of different up and down propagation delays in each arm of the array, and slowly varying systematic motion of the spacecraft. The gravitational wave sensitivities of these generalized combinations are the same as previously computed for the stationary cases, although the combinations are now more complicated. We introduce a diagrammatic representation to illustrate that these combinations are actually synthesized equal-arm interferometers

  14. The Stardust spacecraft arrives at KSC


    After arrival at the Shuttle Landing Facility in the early morning hours, the crated Stardust spacecraft waits to be unloaded from the aircraft. Built by Lockheed Martin Astronautics near Denver, Colo., for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) NASA, the spacecraft Stardust will use a unique medium called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of comet Wild 2 in January 2004, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. Stardust will be launched aboard a Boeing Delta 7426 rocket from Complex 17, Cape Canaveral Air Station, targeted for Feb. 6, 1999. The collected samples will return to Earth in a re- entry capsule to be jettisoned from Stardust as it swings by in January 2006.

  15. Close-Range Photogrammetry & Next Generation Spacecraft

    Pappa, Richard S.


    NASA is focusing renewed attention on the topic of large, ultra-lightweight space structures, also known as 'gossamer' spacecraft. Nearly all of the details of the giant spacecraft are still to be worked out. But it's already clear that one of the most challenging aspects will be developing techniques to align and control these systems after they are deployed in space. A critical part of this process is creating new ground test methods to measure gossamer structures under stationary, deploying and vibrating conditions for validation of corresponding analytical predictions. In addressing this problem, I considered, first of all, the possibility of simply using conventional displacement or vibration sensor that could provide spatial measurements. Next, I turned my attention to photogrammetry, a method of determining the spatial coordinates of objects using photographs. The success of this research and development has convinced me that photogrammetry is the most suitable method to solve the gossamer measurement problem.

  16. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier


    -based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal-gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame......Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due...... to the complexity, cost and risk associ-ated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground...

  17. Evaluation of Ultrafiltration for Spacecraft Water Reuse

    Pickering, Karen D.; Wiesner, Mark R.


    Ultrafiltration is examined for use as the first stage of a primary treatment process for spacecraft wastewater. It is hypothesized that ultrafiltration can effectively serve as pretreatment for a reverse osmosis system, removing the majority of organic material in a spacecraft wastewater. However, it is believed that the interaction between the membrane material and the surfactant found in the wastewater will have a significant impact on the fouling of the ultrafiltration membrane. In this study, five different ultrafiltration membrane materials are examined for the filtration of wastewater typical of that expected to be produced onboard the International Space Station. Membranes are used in an unstirred batch cell. Flux, organic carbon rejection, and recovery from fouling are measured. The results of this evaluation will be used to select the most promising membranes for further study.

  18. A new method for recognizing quadric surfaces from range data and its application to telerobotics and automation, final phase

    Mielke, Roland; Dcunha, Ivan; Alvertos, Nicolas


    In the final phase of the proposed research a complete top to down three dimensional object recognition scheme has been proposed. The various three dimensional objects included spheres, cones, cylinders, ellipsoids, paraboloids, and hyperboloids. Utilizing a newly developed blob determination technique, a given range scene with several non-cluttered quadric surfaces is segmented. Next, using the earlier (phase 1) developed alignment scheme, each of the segmented objects are then aligned in a desired coordinate system. For each of the quadric surfaces based upon their intersections with certain pre-determined planes, a set of distinct features (curves) are obtained. A database with entities such as the equations of the planes and angular bounds of these planes has been created for each of the quadric surfaces. Real range data of spheres, cones, cylinders, and parallelpipeds have been utilized for the recognition process. The developed algorithm gave excellent results for the real data as well as for several sets of simulated range data.

  19. Schema for Spacecraft-Command Dictionary

    Laubach, Sharon; Garcia, Celina; Maxwell, Scott; Wright, Jesse


    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema was developed as a means of defining and describing a structure for capturing spacecraft command- definition and tracking information in a single location in a form readable by both engineers and software used to generate software for flight and ground systems. A structure defined within this schema is then used as the basis for creating an XML file that contains command definitions.

  20. Wheel speed management control system for spacecraft

    Goodzeit, Neil E. (Inventor); Linder, David M. (Inventor)


    A spacecraft attitude control system uses at least four reaction wheels. In order to minimize reaction wheel speed and therefore power, a wheel speed management system is provided. The management system monitors the wheel speeds and generates a wheel speed error vector. The error vector is integrated, and the error vector and its integral are combined to form a correction vector. The correction vector is summed with the attitude control torque command signals for driving the reaction wheels.

  1. The Manned Spacecraft Center and medical technology

    Johnston, R. S.; Pool, S. L.


    A number of medically oriented research and hardware development programs in support of manned space flights have been sponsored by NASA. Blood pressure measuring systems for use in spacecraft are considered. In some cases, complete new bioinstrumentation systems were necessary to accomplish a specific physiological study. Plans for medical research during the Skylab program are discussed along with general questions regarding space-borne health service systems and details concerning the Health Services Support Control Center.

  2. Artificial Intelligence and Spacecraft Power Systems

    Dugel-Whitehead, Norma R.


    This talk will present the work which has been done at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center involving the use of Artificial Intelligence to control the power system in a spacecraft. The presentation will include a brief history of power system automation, and some basic definitions of the types of artificial intelligence which have been investigated at MSFC for power system automation. A video tape of one of our autonomous power systems using co-operating expert systems, and advanced hardware will be presented.


    Jansen, Frank


    This paper summarizes the advantages of space nuclear power and propulsion systems. It describes the actual status of international power level dependent spacecraft nuclear propulsion missions, especially the high power EU-Russian MEGAHIT study including the Russian Megawatt-Class Nuclear Power Propulsion System, the NASA GRC project and the low and medium power EU DiPoP study. Space nuclear propulsion based mission scenarios of these studies are sketched as well.

  4. Joint application of AI techniques, PRA and disturbance analysis methodology to problems in the maintenance and design of nuclear power plants. Final report

    Okrent, D.


    This final report summarizes the accomplishments of a two year research project entitled ``Joint Application of Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Probabilistic Risk Analysis, and Disturbance Analysis Methodology to Problems in the Maintenance and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. The objective of this project is to develop and apply appropriate combinations of techniques from artificial intelligence, (AI), reliability and risk analysis and disturbance analysis to well-defined programmatic problems of nuclear power plants. Reactor operations issues were added to those of design and maintenance as the project progressed.

  5. Spacecraft early design validation using formal methods

    Bozzano, Marco; Cimatti, Alessandro; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Katsaros, Panagiotis; Mokos, Konstantinos; Nguyen, Viet Yen; Noll, Thomas; Postma, Bart; Roveri, Marco


    The size and complexity of software in spacecraft is increasing exponentially, and this trend complicates its validation within the context of the overall spacecraft system. Current validation methods are labor-intensive as they rely on manual analysis, review and inspection. For future space missions, we developed – with challenging requirements from the European space industry – a novel modeling language and toolset for a (semi-)automated validation approach. Our modeling language is a dialect of AADL and enables engineers to express the system, the software, and their reliability aspects. The COMPASS toolset utilizes state-of-the-art model checking techniques, both qualitative and probabilistic, for the analysis of requirements related to functional correctness, safety, dependability and performance. Several pilot projects have been performed by industry, with two of them having focused on the system-level of a satellite platform in development. Our efforts resulted in a significant advancement of validating spacecraft designs from several perspectives, using a single integrated system model. The associated technology readiness level increased from level 1 (basic concepts and ideas) to early level 4 (laboratory-tested)

  6. Determination of Realistic Fire Scenarios in Spacecraft

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David


    This paper expands on previous work that examined how large a fire a crew member could successfully survive and extinguish in the confines of a spacecraft. The hazards to the crew and equipment during an accidental fire include excessive pressure rise resulting in a catastrophic rupture of the vehicle skin, excessive temperatures that burn or incapacitate the crew (due to hyperthermia), carbon dioxide build-up or accumulation of other combustion products (e.g. carbon monoxide). The previous work introduced a simplified model that treated the fire primarily as a source of heat and combustion products and sink for oxygen prescribed (input to the model) based on terrestrial standards. The model further treated the spacecraft as a closed system with no capability to vent to the vacuum of space. The model in the present work extends this analysis to more realistically treat the pressure relief system(s) of the spacecraft, include more combustion products (e.g. HF) in the analysis and attempt to predict the fire spread and limiting fire size (based on knowledge of terrestrial fires and the known characteristics of microgravity fires) rather than prescribe them in the analysis. Including the characteristics of vehicle pressure relief systems has a dramatic mitigating effect by eliminating vehicle overpressure for all but very large fires and reducing average gas-phase temperatures.

  7. Probing interferometric parallax with interplanetary spacecraft

    Rodeghiero, G.; Gini, F.; Marchili, N.; Jain, P.; Ralston, J. P.; Dallacasa, D.; Naletto, G.; Possenti, A.; Barbieri, C.; Franceschini, A.; Zampieri, L.


    We describe an experimental scenario for testing a novel method to measure distance and proper motion of astronomical sources. The method is based on multi-epoch observations of amplitude or intensity correlations between separate receiving systems. This technique is called Interferometric Parallax, and efficiently exploits phase information that has traditionally been overlooked. The test case we discuss combines amplitude correlations of signals from deep space interplanetary spacecraft with those from distant galactic and extragalactic radio sources with the goal of estimating the interplanetary spacecraft distance. Interferometric parallax relies on the detection of wavefront curvature effects in signals collected by pairs of separate receiving systems. The method shows promising potentialities over current techniques when the target is unresolved from the background reference sources. Developments in this field might lead to the construction of an independent, geometrical cosmic distance ladder using a dedicated project and future generation instruments. We present a conceptual overview supported by numerical estimates of its performances applied to a spacecraft orbiting the Solar System. Simulations support the feasibility of measurements with a simple and time-saving observational scheme using current facilities.

  8. On-orbit supervisor for controlling spacecraft

    Vandervoort, Richard J.


    Spacecraft systems of the 1990's and beyond will be substantially more complex than their predecessors. They will have demanding performance requirements and will be expected to operate more autonomously. This underscores the need for innovative approaches to Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR). A hierarchical expert system is presented that provides on-orbit supervision using intelligent FDIR techniques. Each expert system in the hierarchy supervises the operation of a local set of spacecraft functions. Spacecraft operational goals flow top down while responses flow bottom up. The expert system supervisors have a fairly high degree of autonomy. Bureaucratic responsibilities are minimized to conserve bandwidth and maximize response time. Data for FDIR can be acquired local to an expert and from other experts. By using a blackboard architecture for each supervisor, the system provides a great degree of flexibility in implementing the problem solvers for each problem domain. In addition, it provides for a clear separation between facts and knowledge, leading to an efficient system capable of real time response.

  9. Delamination Assessment Tool for Spacecraft Composite Structures

    Portela, Pedro; Preller, Fabian; Wittke, Henrik; Sinnema, Gerben; Camanho, Pedro; Turon, Albert


    Fortunately only few cases are known where failure of spacecraft structures due to undetected damage has resulted in a loss of spacecraft and launcher mission. However, several problems related to damage tolerance and in particular delamination of composite materials have been encountered during structure development of various ESA projects and qualification testing. To avoid such costly failures during development, launch or service of spacecraft, launcher and reusable launch vehicles structures a comprehensive damage tolerance verification approach is needed. In 2009, the European Space Agency (ESA) initiated an activity called “Delamination Assessment Tool” which is led by the Portuguese company HPS Lda and includes academic and industrial partners. The goal of this study is the development of a comprehensive damage tolerance verification approach for launcher and reusable launch vehicles (RLV) structures, addressing analytical and numerical methodologies, material-, subcomponent- and component testing, as well as non-destructive inspection. The study includes a comprehensive review of current industrial damage tolerance practice resulting from ECSS and NASA standards, the development of new Best Practice Guidelines for analysis, test and inspection methods and the validation of these with a real industrial case study. The paper describes the main findings of this activity so far and presents a first iteration of a Damage Tolerance Verification Approach, which includes the introduction of novel analytical and numerical tools at an industrial level. This new approach is being put to the test using real industrial case studies provided by the industrial partners, MT Aerospace, RUAG Space and INVENT GmbH

  10. Rapid Calculation of Spacecraft Trajectories Using Efficient Taylor Series Integration

    Scott, James R.; Martini, Michael C.


    A variable-order, variable-step Taylor series integration algorithm was implemented in NASA Glenn's SNAP (Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program) code. SNAP is a high-fidelity trajectory propagation program that can propagate the trajectory of a spacecraft about virtually any body in the solar system. The Taylor series algorithm's very high order accuracy and excellent stability properties lead to large reductions in computer time relative to the code's existing 8th order Runge-Kutta scheme. Head-to-head comparison on near-Earth, lunar, Mars, and Europa missions showed that Taylor series integration is 15.8 times faster than Runge- Kutta on average, and is more accurate. These speedups were obtained for calculations involving central body, other body, thrust, and drag forces. Similar speedups have been obtained for calculations that include J2 spherical harmonic for central body gravitation. The algorithm includes a step size selection method that directly calculates the step size and never requires a repeat step. High-order Taylor series integration algorithms have been shown to provide major reductions in computer time over conventional integration methods in numerous scientific applications. The objective here was to directly implement Taylor series integration in an existing trajectory analysis code and demonstrate that large reductions in computer time (order of magnitude) could be achieved while simultaneously maintaining high accuracy. This software greatly accelerates the calculation of spacecraft trajectories. At each time level, the spacecraft position, velocity, and mass are expanded in a high-order Taylor series whose coefficients are obtained through efficient differentiation arithmetic. This makes it possible to take very large time steps at minimal cost, resulting in large savings in computer time. The Taylor series algorithm is implemented primarily through three subroutines: (1) a driver routine that automatically introduces auxiliary variables and

  11. Application of titanates, niobates, and tantalates to neutralized defense waste decontamination: materials properties, physical forms, and regeneration techniques. Final report

    Dosch, R.G.


    A study of the application of sodium titanate (ST) to the decontamination of neutralized defense waste has been completed. The work was directed at Sr removal from dissolved salt cake, simulated in this work with a 6.0 N NaNO 3 - 0.6 N NaOH solution. Three physical forms of the titanates were developed including powder, pellets, and titanate-loaded resin beads and all were found to be superior to conventional organic ion exchange in this application. When spent, the titanate materials can be calcined to an oxide from which is a stable waste form in itself or can be added directly to a glass melter to become part of a vitrified waste form. Radiation stability of titanate powder and resin forms was assessed in tests in which these materials were exposed to 60 Co radiation. The strontium exchange capacity of the powder remained constant through a dose of 3 x 10 7 rads and retained 50% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The primary mechanism involved in loss of capacity was believed to be heating associated with the irradiation. The resin forms were unchanged through a dose of 5 x 10 8 rads and retained 30% capacity after a dose of 2 x 10 9 rads. The latter dose resulted in visible degradation of the resin matrix. Anion exchange resins loaded with sodium niobate and sodium tantalate were also prepared by similar methods and evaluated for this application. These materials had Sr sorption properties comparable to the titanate material; however, they would have to provide a significant improvement to justify their higher cost

  12. Performance of silvered Teflon (trademark) thermal control blankets on spacecraft

    Pippin, Gary; Stuckey, Wayne; Hemminger, Carol


    Silverized Teflon (Ag/FEP) is a widely used passive thermal control material for space applications. The material has a very low alpha/e ratio (less than 0.1) for low operating temperatures and is fabricated with various FEP thicknesses (as the Teflon thickness increases, the emittance increases). It is low outgassing and, because of its flexibility, can be applied around complex, curved shapes. Ag/FEP has achieved multiyear lifetimes under a variety of exposure conditions. This has been demonstrated by the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Solar Max, Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes (SCATHA), and other flight experiments. Ag/FEP material has been held in place on spacecraft by a variety of methods: mechanical clamping, direct adhesive bonding of tapes and sheets, and by Velcro(TM) tape adhesively bonded to back surfaces. On LDEF, for example, 5-mil blankets held by Velcro(TM) and clamping were used for thermal control over 3- by 4-ft areas on each of 17 trays. Adhesively bonded 2- and 5-mil sheets were used on other LDEF experiments, both for thermal control and as tape to hold other thermal control blankets in place. Performance data over extended time periods are available from a number of flights. The observed effects on optical properties, mechanical properties, and surface chemistry will be summarized in this paper. This leads to a discussion of performance life estimates and other design lessons for Ag/FEP thermal control material.

  13. A computer graphics system for visualizing spacecraft in orbit

    Eyles, Don E.


    To carry out unanticipated operations with resources already in space is part of the rationale for a permanently manned space station in Earth orbit. The astronauts aboard a space station will require an on-board, spatial display tool to assist the planning and rehearsal of upcoming operations. Such a tool can also help astronauts to monitor and control such operations as they occur, especially in cases where first-hand visibility is not possible. A computer graphics visualization system designed for such an application and currently implemented as part of a ground-based simulation is described. The visualization system presents to the user the spatial information available in the spacecraft's computers by drawing a dynamic picture containing the planet Earth, the Sun, a star field, and up to two spacecraft. The point of view within the picture can be controlled by the user to obtain a number of specific visualization functions. The elements of the display, the methods used to control the display's point of view, and some of the ways in which the system can be used are described.

  14. Spacecraft angular velocity estimation algorithm for star tracker based on optical flow techniques

    Tang, Yujie; Li, Jian; Wang, Gangyi


    An integrated navigation system often uses the traditional gyro and star tracker for high precision navigation with the shortcomings of large volume, heavy weight and high-cost. With the development of autonomous navigation for deep space and small spacecraft, star tracker has been gradually used for attitude calculation and angular velocity measurement directly. At the same time, with the dynamic imaging requirements of remote sensing satellites and other imaging satellites, how to measure the angular velocity in the dynamic situation to improve the accuracy of the star tracker is the hotspot of future research. We propose the approach to measure angular rate with a nongyro and improve the dynamic performance of the star tracker. First, the star extraction algorithm based on morphology is used to extract the star region, and the stars in the two images are matched according to the method of angular distance voting. The calculation of the displacement of the star image is measured by the improved optical flow method. Finally, the triaxial angular velocity of the star tracker is calculated by the star vector using the least squares method. The method has the advantages of fast matching speed, strong antinoise ability, and good dynamic performance. The triaxial angular velocity of star tracker can be obtained accurately with these methods. So, the star tracker can achieve better tracking performance and dynamic attitude positioning accuracy to lay a good foundation for the wide application of various satellites and complex space missions.

  15. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; hide


    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  16. SeGRAm - A practical and versatile tool for spacecraft trajectory optimization

    Rishikof, Brian H.; Mccormick, Bernell R.; Pritchard, Robert E.; Sponaugle, Steven J.


    An implementation of the Sequential Gradient/Restoration Algorithm, SeGRAm, is presented along with selected examples. This spacecraft trajectory optimization and simulation program uses variational calculus to solve problems of spacecraft flying under the influence of one or more gravitational bodies. It produces a series of feasible solutions to problems involving a wide range of vehicles, environments and optimization functions, until an optimal solution is found. The examples included highlight the various capabilities of the program and emphasize in particular its versatility over a wide spectrum of applications from ascent to interplanetary trajectories.

  17. Direct heat applications of geothermal energy in The Geysers/Clear Lake region. Volume I. Geotechnical assessment, agribusiness applications, socioeconomic assessment, engineering assessment. Final report


    The different uses to which geothermal heat and fluids could be applied as a direct utilization of resource or as heat utilization are explored. The following aspects are covered: geotechnical assessment, agricultural and industrial applications, socioeconomic assessment, and engineering assessment. (MHR)

  18. Contemporary state of spacecraft/environment interaction research

    Novikov, L S


    Various space environment effects on spacecraft materials and equipment, and the reverse effects of spacecrafts and rockets on space environment are considered. The necessity of permanent updating and perfection of our knowledge on spacecraft/environment interaction processes is noted. Requirements imposed on models of space environment in theoretical and experimental researches of various aspects of the spacecraft/environment interaction problem are formulated. In this field, main problems which need to be solved today and in the nearest future are specified. The conclusion is made that the joint analysis of both aspects of spacecraft/environment interaction problem promotes the most effective solution of the problem.

  19. Spacecraft Charging: Hazard Causes, Hazard Effects, Hazard Controls

    Koontz, Steve.


    Spacecraft flight environments are characterized both by a wide range of space plasma conditions and by ionizing radiation (IR), solar ultraviolet and X-rays, magnetic fields, micrometeoroids, orbital debris, and other environmental factors, all of which can affect spacecraft performance. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of spacecraft charging and charging effects that can be applied to solving practical spacecraft and spacesuit engineering design, verification, and operations problems, with an emphasis on spacecraft operations in low-Earth orbit, Earth's magnetosphere, and cis-Lunar space.


    William J. Gutowski; Joseph M. Prusa, Piotr K. Smolarkiewicz


    This project had goals of advancing the performance capabilities of the numerical general circulation model EULAG and using it to produce a fully operational atmospheric global climate model (AGCM) that can employ either static or dynamic grid stretching for targeted phenomena. The resulting AGCM combined EULAG's advanced dynamics core with the 'physics' of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM). Effort discussed below shows how we improved model performance and tested both EULAG and the coupled CAM-EULAG in several ways to demonstrate the grid stretching and ability to simulate very well a wide range of scales, that is, multi-scale capability. We leveraged our effort through interaction with an international EULAG community that has collectively developed new features and applications of EULAG, which we exploited for our own work summarized here. Overall, the work contributed to over 40 peer-reviewed publications and over 70 conference/workshop/seminar presentations, many of them invited.

  1. Graetzel solar cell modules for outdoor applications, phase 2. Final report; Graetzel-solcellsmoduler foer utomhusapplikationer, fas 2. Slutrapport

    Pettersson, Henrik [IVF Industriforskning och utveckling AB, Moelndal (Sweden)


    The project 'Monolithic Dye PV Modules for Outdoor Applications' has been performed at IVF Industrial Research and Development Corporation in Moelndal over the period June 2003 to December 2004. The possibility of the dye-sensitised solar cell technology compared to other PV technologies is to realise PV products with low cost/W{sub peak} in combination with a low investment cost for setting up a production unit. The latter is important since it opens for production by smaller companies and reduces the risk related to commercialisation. The technical efforts of the project have resulted in monolithic dye PV cells with efficiencies up to 7 %. The module preparation has been scaled up to module sizes of 200 cm{sup 2} using industrial manufacturing methods. These devices will be further developed in 2005 in the project 'Flexible Solar Cells'.

  2. Precursor Derived Nanostructured Si-C-X Materials for Nuclear Applications. Final Report, October 2010 - September 2014

    Bordia, Rajendra [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Henager, Chuck [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Polymer derived ceramic route is an attractive approach to make structural materials with unique nanostructures that have very desirable high temperature properties. Processing techniques to make a variety of needed shapes and forms (e.g. coatings, matrices for fiber reinforced composites, porous ceramics) have been developed. With appropriate high temperature processing, the precursors can be converted to nano-crystalline materials. In this collaborative project, we investigated the processing, stability and properties of nanostructured Si-C materials, derived from polymeric precursors, and their performance under conditions appropriate for nuclear energy applications. All the milestones of the project were accomplished. Some of the results are being currently analyzed and additional papers being prepared in which support from NEUP will be acknowledged. So far, eight peer-reviewed papers have been published and one invention disclosure made. In this report, we summarize the major findings of this project.

  3. Precursor Derived Nanostructured Si-C-X Materials for Nuclear Applications. Final Report, October 2010 - September 2014

    Bordia, Rajendra; Tomar, Vikas; Henager, Chuck


    Polymer derived ceramic route is an attractive approach to make structural materials with unique nanostructures that have very desirable high temperature properties. Processing techniques to make a variety of needed shapes and forms (e.g. coatings, matrices for fiber reinforced composites, porous ceramics) have been developed. With appropriate high temperature processing, the precursors can be converted to nano-crystalline materials. In this collaborative project, we investigated the processing, stability and properties of nanostructured Si-C materials, derived from polymeric precursors, and their performance under conditions appropriate for nuclear energy applications. All the milestones of the project were accomplished. Some of the results are being currently analyzed and additional papers being prepared in which support from NEUP will be acknowledged. So far, eight peer-reviewed papers have been published and one invention disclosure made. In this report, we summarize the major findings of this project.

  4. Decentralized control of large transient in power systems: theory and application. Final report, January 1981-August 1983

    DeCarlo, R.; Hawley, P.; Sebok, D.


    Chapter 1 describes a continuation algorithm to construct decentralized state feedback gains which place the natural frequencies (natural modes of vibration or eigenvalues) of a linearized power system at desired locations. Chapter 2 and 3 address the problem of designing a decentralized dither control for linearly interconnected synchronous machines, each of which is nonlinear. In Chapter 2, the theory finds application to the nonlinear third order model of a single machine infinite bus system where the primary control is via an ac-dc converter. Similarly Chapter 3 considers a two machine system with individual machine converters acting as the primary control. Computer simulations of the control action given various system perturbations are found in both Chapters 2 and 3.

  5. Application of space and aviation technology to improve the safety and reliability of nuclear power plant operations. Final report


    This report investigates various technologies that have been developed and utilized by the aerospace community, particularly the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the aviation industry, that would appear to have some potential for contributing to improved operational safety and reliability at commercial nuclear power plants of the type being built and operated in the United States today. The main initiator for this study, as well as many others, was the accident at the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant in March 1979. Transfer and application of technology developed by NASA, as well as other public and private institutions, may well help to decrease the likelihood of similar incidents in the future

  6. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.


    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  7. Feasibility of biochar application on a landfill final cover-a review on balancing ecology and shallow slope stability.

    Chen, Xun-Wen; Wong, James Tsz-Fung; Ng, Charles Wang-Wai; Wong, Ming-Hung


    Due to the increasing concerns on global warming, scarce land for agriculture, and contamination impacts on human health, biochar application is being considered as one of the possible measures for carbon sequestration, promoting higher crop yield and contamination remediation. Significant amount of researches focusing on these three aspects have been conducted during recent years. Biochar as a soil amendment is effective in promoting plant performance and sustainability, by enhancing nutrient bioavailability, contaminants immobilization, and microbial activities. The features of biochar in changing soil physical and biochemical properties are essential in affecting the sustainability of an ecosystem. Most studies showed positive results and considered biochar application as an effective and promising measure for above-mentioned interests. Bio-engineered man-made filled slope and landfill slope increasingly draw the attention of geologists and geotechnical engineers. With increasing number of filled slopes, sustainability, low maintenance, and stability are the major concerns. Biochar as a soil amendment changes the key factors and parameters in ecology (plant development, soil microbial community, nutrient/contaminant cycling, etc.) and slope engineering (soil weight, internal friction angle and cohesion, etc.). This paper reviews the studies on the production, physical and biochemical properties of biochar and suggests the potential areas requiring study in balancing ecology and man-made filled slope and landfill cover engineering. Biochar-amended soil should be considered as a new type of soil in terms of soil mechanics. Biochar performance depends on soil and biochar type which imposes challenges to generalize the research outcomes. Aging process and ecotoxicity studies of biochar are strongly required.

  8. Analysis on coverage ability of BeiDou navigation satellite system for manned spacecraft

    Zhao, Sihao; Yao, Zheng; Zhuang, Xuebin; Lu, Mingquan


    To investigate the service ability of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) for manned spacecraft, both the current regional and the future-planned global constellations of BDS are introduced and simulated. The orbital parameters of the International Space Station and China's Tiangong-1 spacelab are used to create the simulation scenario and evaluate the performance of the BDS constellations. The number of visible satellites and the position dilution (PDOP) of precision at the spacecraft-based receiver are evaluated. Simulation and analysis show quantitative results on the coverage ability and time percentages of both the current BDS regional and future global constellations for manned-space orbits which can be a guideline to the applications and mission design of BDS receivers on manned spacecraft.

  9. Convex optimisation approach to constrained fuel optimal control of spacecraft in close relative motion

    Massioni, Paolo; Massari, Mauro


    This paper describes an interesting and powerful approach to the constrained fuel-optimal control of spacecraft in close relative motion. The proposed approach is well suited for problems under linear dynamic equations, therefore perfectly fitting to the case of spacecraft flying in close relative motion. If the solution of the optimisation is approximated as a polynomial with respect to the time variable, then the problem can be approached with a technique developed in the control engineering community, known as "Sum Of Squares" (SOS), and the constraints can be reduced to bounds on the polynomials. Such a technique allows rewriting polynomial bounding problems in the form of convex optimisation problems, at the cost of a certain amount of conservatism. The principles of the techniques are explained and some application related to spacecraft flying in close relative motion are shown.

  10. In-Flight spacecraft magnetic field monitoring using scalar/vector gradiometry

    Primdahl, Fritz; Risbo, Torben; Merayo, José M.G.


    Earth magnetic field mapping from planetary orbiting satellites requires a spacecraft magnetic field environment control program combined with the deployment of the magnetic sensors on a boom in order to reduce the measurement error caused by the local spacecraft field. Magnetic mapping missions...... (Magsat, Oersted, CHAMP, SAC-C MMP and the planned ESA Swarm project) carry a vector magnetometer and an absolute scalar magnetometer for in-flight calibration of the vector magnetometer scale values and for monitoring of the inter-axes angles and offsets over time intervals from months to years...... sensors onboard the Oersted satellite. For Oersted, a large difference between the pre-flight determined spacecraft magnetic field and the in-flight estimate exists causing some concern about the general applicability of the dual sensors technique....

  11. Direct application of geothermal energy at the L'eggs Product Plant, Las Cruces, New Mexico. Final report


    The study program to determine the feasibility of interfacing a potential geothermal resource of Dona Ana County, New Mexico L'eggs Product industrial process is discussed in this final report. Five separate sites were evaluated initially as to geothermal potential and technical feasibility. Preliminary analysis revealed that three sites were considered normal, but that two sites (about three miles from the L'eggs Plant) had very high shallow subsurface temperature gradients (up to 14.85/sup 0/F/100 ft). An initial engineering analysis showed that to meet the L'eggs plant temperature and energy requirements a geothermal fluid temperature of about 250/sup 0/F and 200 gpm flow rate would be necessary. A brief economic comparison indicated that the L'eggs plant site and a geothermal site approximately four miles from the plant did merit further investigation. Detailed engineering and economic design and analysis of these two sites (including the drilling of an 1873 feet deep temperature gradient test hole at the L'eggs Plant) showed that development of the four mile distant site was technically feasible and was the more economic option. It was determined that a single-stage flash system interface design would be most appropriate for the L'eggs Plant. Approximately 39 billion Btu/yr of fossil fuel could be replaced with geothermal energy at the L'eggs facility for a total installed system cost of slightly over $2 million. The projected economic payback period was calculated to be 9.2 years before taxes. This payback was not considered acceptable by L'eggs Products, Inc., to merit additional design or construction work at this time.

  12. Qualification of final closure for disposal container II - applicability of TOFD and phased array technique for overpack welding

    Asano, H.; Kawahara, K.; Arakawa, T.; Kurokawa, M.


    With a focus on carbon steel, which is one of the candidate materials for the disposal container used in the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in Japan, the defect detection capabilities were examined regarding engineering defects of the TOFD technique, an ultrasonic testing method, and the phased array TOFD technique as non-destructive test techniques for the inspection of the weld of a carbon steel overpack. Regarding the TOFD technique, a measurement was conducted concerning the influence of the crossing angle of the ultrasonic beams on the capability of detect flaws, for examining the detection characteristics of the technique in relation to the lid structure of an overpack, and it was pointed out that it is appropriate to consider the lower tip of slit as the reference flaw. Based on the measurements and calculations regarding sound pressure distribution, projections about the scope covered by one test session were made and the optimum testing conditions were examined. Regarding the phased array TOFP technique, the detectability and quantification characteristics were investigated, and comparisons with those of the TOFD technique and the phased array UT technique were made. From the viewpoint of securing long-term corrosion resistance for an overpack, the ways of thinking for ensuring the quality and long-term integrity of the final sealing area of a disposal container were examined. This study stresses that identifying and defining the defects that are harmful to corrosion allowance is important as well as achieving improvements in the welding and testing techniques, and that the question to solve in particular from now on is how to establish effective means to detect defects on the weld surface and the near surface and how to approach the level of tolerance concerning the defects on and near the surface. (orig.)

  13. Osiris-REx Spacecraft Current Status and Forward Plans

    Messenger, Scott; Lauretta, Dante S.; Connolly, Harold C., Jr.


    with which the navigation team can deliver the spacecraft to and from specific sites on the asteroid surface. The Sampleability map quantifies the regolith properties, providing an estimation of how much material would be sampled at different points on the surface. The final Science Value map synthesizes the chemical, mineralogical, and geological, observations to identify the areas of the asteroid surface with the highest science value. Here, priority is given to organic, water-rich regions that have been minimally altered by surface processes. Asteroid surface samples will be acquired with a touch-and-go sample acquisition system (TAGSAM) that uses high purity pressurized N2 gas to mobilize regolith into a stainless steel canister. Although the mission requirement is to collect at least 60 g of material, tests of the TAGSAM routinely exceeded 300 g of simulant in micro-gravity tests. After acquiring the sample, the spacecraft will depart Bennu in 2021 to begin its return journey, with the sample return capsule landing at the Utah Test and Training Range on September 23, 2023. The OSIRIS-REx science team will carry out a series of detailed chemical, mineralogical, isotopic, and spectral studies that will be used to determine the origin and history of Bennu and to relate high spatial resolution sample studies to the global geological context from remote sensing. The outline of the sample analysis plan is described in a companion abstract.

  14. SHARP - Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. G.


    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  15. SHARP: Automated monitoring of spacecraft health and status

    Atkinson, David J.; James, Mark L.; Martin, R. Gaius


    Briefly discussed here are the spacecraft and ground systems monitoring process at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Some of the difficulties associated with the existing technology used in mission operations are highlighted. A new automated system based on artificial intelligence technology is described which seeks to overcome many of these limitations. The system, called the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP), is designed to automate health and status analysis for multi-mission spacecraft and ground data systems operations. The system has proved to be effective for detecting and analyzing potential spacecraft and ground systems problems by performing real-time analysis of spacecraft and ground data systems engineering telemetry. Telecommunications link analysis of the Voyager 2 spacecraft was the initial focus for evaluation of the system in real-time operations during the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Neptune in August 1989.

  16. Research-Based Monitoring, Prediction, and Analysis Tools of the Spacecraft Charging Environment for Spacecraft Users

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti A.; Maddox, Marlo M.; Mays, Mona Leila


    The Space Weather Research Center (http://swrc. at NASA Goddard, part of the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (, is committed to providing research-based forecasts and notifications to address NASA's space weather needs, in addition to its critical role in space weather education. It provides a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, tailored space weather alerts and products, and weekly summaries and reports. In this paper, we focus on how (near) real-time data (both in space and on ground), in combination with modeling capabilities and an innovative dissemination system called the integrated Space Weather Analysis system (, enable monitoring, analyzing, and predicting the spacecraft charging environment for spacecraft users. Relevant tools and resources are discussed.

  17. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications Final Report

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen


    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (≤ 0.1 % by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m2s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  18. 8. Innovative Technologies: Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Water-Based Nanofluids for Nuclear Applications. Final Report

    Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen


    Nanofluids are colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in water. Many studies have reported very significant enhancement (up to 200%) of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) in pool boiling of nanofluids (You et al. 2003, Vassallo et al. 2004, Bang and Chang 2005, Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2007). These observations have generated considerable interest in nanofluids as potential coolants for more compact and efficient thermal management systems. Potential Light Water Reactor applications include the primary coolant, safety systems and severe accident management strategies, as reported in other papers (Buongiorno et al. 2008 and 2009). However, the situation of interest in reactor applications is often flow boiling, for which no nanofluid data have been reported so far. In this project we investigated the potential of nanofluids to enhance CHF in flow boiling. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer and CHF experiments were performed with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water ((le) 0.1% by volume) at atmospheric pressure. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient (HTC) are similar (within ±20%). The HTC increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. The CHF tests were conducted at 0.1 MPa and at three different mass fluxes (1500, 2000, 2500 kg/m 2 s) under subcooled conditions. The maximum CHF enhancement was 53%, 53% and 38% for alumina, zinc oxide and diamond, respectively, always obtained at the highest mass flux. A post-mortem analysis of the boiling surface reveals that its morphology is altered by deposition of the particles during nanofluids boiling. A confocal-microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticles deposition not only changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site

  19. Hybrid adsorption compression for industrial applications. HYACINT. Public final report; Hybride Adsorptie Compressie voor Industriele Toepassingen. HYACINT. Openbare eindrapportage

    Van der Pal, M. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)


    Heat driven heat transformers can upgrade heat from about 100-120 degrees Celsius to 180-200C. However, most of the waste heat is below 100C. The hybrid adsorption compression technology offers the possibility to upgrade by at least 50C. The hybrid concept combines a heat-driven heat transformer with a power-driven compression heat pump. As part of the HYACINT project it has been examined which components of the two heat pump technologies are the most suitable for application in a hybrid heat transformer. This is done through a literature survey, sociological research, model calculations and measurements of components [Dutch] Warmtegedreven warmtetransformatoren kunnen warmte vanaf ongeveer 100 a 120C opwaarderen tot warmte van 180 tot 200C. Het merendeel van de restwarmte bevindt zich echter onder 100C. De hybride adsorptie compressie technologie biedt de mogelijkheid om ook deze warmte met tenminste 50C te kunnen verhogen. Het hybride concept combineert een warmtegedreven warmtetransformator met een arbeid aangedreven compressie warmtepomp. Binnen het HYACINT project is onderzocht welke componenten van beide warmtepomp technologieen het meest geschikt zijn voor toepassing in een hybride warmtetransformator. Dit is gedaan door middel van literatuurstudie, sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek, toepassingspotentieelonderzoek, modelberekeningen en metingen aan componenten.

  20. Microwave to millimeter-wave electrodynamic response and applications of semiconductor nanostructures: LDRD project 67025 final report.

    Shaner, Eric Arthur; Lee, Mark; Averitt, R. D. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Highstrete, Clark; Taylor, A. J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Padilla, W. J. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Reno, John Louis; Wanke, Michael Clement; Allen, S. James (University of California Santa Barbara)


    Solid-state lighting (SSL) technologies, based on semiconductor light emitting devices, have the potential to reduce worldwide electricity consumption by more than 10%, which could significantly reduce U.S. dependence on imported energy and improve energy security. The III-nitride (AlGaInN) materials system forms the foundation for white SSL and could cover a wide spectral range from the deep UV to the infrared. For this LDRD program, we have investigated the synthesis of single-crystalline III-nitride nanowires and heterostructure nanowires, which may possess unique optoelectronic properties. These novel structures could ultimately lead to the development of novel and highly efficient SSL nanodevice applications. GaN and III-nitride core-shell heterostructure nanowires were successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on two-inch wafer substrates. The effect of process conditions on nanowire growth was investigated, and characterization of the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the nanowires was also performed.

  1. Evaluation of crushed aggregate and sand-bentonite mixtures for application to sealing of the final repository for reactor waste

    Vaajasaari, M.; Saari, K.; Wang Zhen


    The Industrial Power Company Ltd (TVO) is planning to dispose the low- and intermediate level waste from the reactors of the Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Station into the bedrock of Olkiluoto at a depth of approximately 50-100 meters. In the TVO concept the reactor waste is disposed in silo shaped rock caverns. The bituminized waste is packed into steel drums, which are laid into a concrete silo inside the rock cavern. In this study the properties of sands, crushed aggregate and their mixtures with bentonite are reviewed. The applicability of these materials for use as a buffer on the top of the concrete silo is evaluated. This study is based on earlier experimental studies of the materials mentioned before and available literature. Gas production in the silo after disposal is estimated. General concepts of gas conductivity and gas migration in saturated soil are reviewed. The results of this study suggest that crushed aggregate and sand-bentonite mixtures are possible sealing materials for the silo in concern. But the need for further experimental study of their physical and mechanical properties and the gas migration processes through the saturated barrier is emphasized. A program for testing of these properties is presented

  2. Development of Advanced Materials for Electro-Ceramic Application Final Report CRADA No. TC-1331-96

    Caplan, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olstad, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); McMillan, L. [Symetrix International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Tulupov, A. [Soliton-NTT, Moscow (Russia)


    The goal of this project was to further develop and characterize the electrochemical methods originating in Russia for producing ultra high purity organometallic compounds utilized as precursors in the production of high quality electro-ceramic materials. Symetrix planned to use electro-ceramic materials with high dielectric constant for microelectronic memory circuit applications. General Atomics planned to use the barium titanate type ceramics with low loss tangent for producing a high power ferroelectric tuner used to match radio frequency power into their Dill-D fusion machine. Phase I of the project was scheduled to have a large number of organometallic (alkoxides) chemical samples produced using various methods. These would be analyzed by LLNL, Soliton and Symetrix independently to determine the level of chemical impurities thus verifying each other's analysis. The goal was to demonstrate a cost-effective production method, which could be implemented in a large commercial facility to produce high purity organometallic compounds. In addition, various compositions of barium-strontium-titanate ceramics were to be produced and analyzed in order to develop an electroceramic capacitor material having the desired characteristics with respect to dielectric constant, loss tangent, temperature characteristics and non-linear behavior under applied voltage. Upon optimizing the barium titanate material, 50 capacitor preforms would be produced from this material demonstrating the ability to produce, in quantity, the pills ultimately required for the ferroelectric tuner (approx 2000-3000 ceramic pills).

  3. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O.; Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P.


    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs

  4. Cluster PEACE observations of electrons of spacecraft origin

    S. Szita


    Full Text Available The two PEACE (Plasma Electron And Current Experiment sensors on board each Cluster spacecraft sample the electron velocity distribution across the full 4 solid angle and the energy range 0.7 eV to 26 keV with a time resolution of 4 s. We present high energy and angular resolution 3D observations of electrons of spacecraft origin in the various environments encountered by the Cluster constellation, including a lunar eclipse interval where the spacecraft potential was reduced but remained positive, and periods of ASPOC (Active Spacecraft POtential Control operation which reduced the spacecraft potential. We demonstrate how the spacecraft potential may be found from a gradient change in the PEACE low energy spectrum, and show how the observed spacecraft electrons are confined by the spacecraft potential. We identify an intense component of the spacecraft electrons with energies equivalent to the spacecraft potential, the arrival direction of which is seen to change when ASPOC is switched on. Another spacecraft electron component, observed in the sunward direction, is reduced in the eclipse but unaffected by ASPOC, and we believe this component is produced in the analyser by solar UV. We find that PEACE anodes with a look direction along the spacecraft surfaces are more susceptible to spacecraft electron contamination than those which look perpendicular to the surface, which justifies the decision to mount PEACE with its field-of-view radially outward rather than tangentially.Key words. Magnetosheric physics (general or miscellaneous Space plasma physics (spacecraft sheaths, wakes, charging

  5. Electromagnetic Dissociation and Spacecraft Electronics Damage

    Norbury, John W.


    When protons or heavy ions from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) or solar particle events (SPE) interact with target nuclei in spacecraft, there can be two different types of interactions. The more familiar strong nuclear interaction often dominates and is responsible for nuclear fragmentation in either the GCR or SPE projectile nucleus or the spacecraft target nucleus. (Of course, the proton does not break up, except possibly to produce pions or other hadrons.) The less familiar, second type of interaction is due to the very strong electromagnetic fields that exist when two charged nuclei pass very close to each other. This process is called electromagnetic dissociation (EMD) and primarily results in the emission of neutrons, protons and light ions (isotopes of hydrogen and helium). The cross section for particle production is approximately defined as the number of particles produced in nucleus-nucleus collisions or other types of reactions. (There are various kinematic and other factors which multiply the particle number to arrive at the cross section.) Strong, nuclear interactions usually dominate the nuclear reactions of most interest that occur between GCR and target nuclei. However, for heavy nuclei (near Fe and beyond) at high energy the EMD cross section can be much larger than the strong nuclear interaction cross section. This paper poses a question: Are there projectile or target nuclei combinations in the interaction of GCR or SPE where the EMD reaction cross section plays a dominant role? If the answer is affirmative, then EMD mechanisms should be an integral part of codes that are used to predict damage to spacecraft electronics. The question can become more fine-tuned and one can ask about total reaction cross sections as compared to double differential cross sections. These issues will be addressed in the present paper.

  6. Intelligent data management for real-time spacecraft monitoring

    Schwuttke, Ursula M.; Gasser, Les; Abramson, Bruce


    Real-time AI systems have begun to address the challenge of restructuring problem solving to meet real-time constraints by making key trade-offs that pursue less than optimal strategies with minimal impact on system goals. Several approaches for adapting to dynamic changes in system operating conditions are known. However, simultaneously adapting system decision criteria in a principled way has been difficult. Towards this end, a general technique for dynamically making such trade-offs using a combination of decision theory and domain knowledge has been developed. Multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT), a decision theoretic approach for making one-time decisions is discussed and dynamic trade-off evaluation is described as a knowledge-based extension of MAUT that is suitable for highly dynamic real-time environments, and provides an example of dynamic trade-off evaluation applied to a specific data management trade-off in a real-world spacecraft monitoring application.

  7. Measured Energy Savings from the Application of Reflective Roofs in 3 AT and T Regeneration Buildings; FINAL

    Akbari, Hashen; Rainer, Leo


    Energy use and environmental parameters were monitored in three AT and T regeneration buildings during the summer of 2000. These buildings are constructed with concrete and are about 14.9 m2 (160 f2; 10x16 ft)in size. The buildings were initially monitored for about 1 1/2 months to establish a base condition. Then, the roofs of the buildings were painted with a white coating and the monitoring was continued. The original roof reflectances were about 26 percent; after the application of roof coatings the reflectivities increased to about 72 percent. In two of these buildings, we monitored savings of about 0.5kWh per day (8.6 kWh/m2[0.8 kWh/ft2]). The third building showed a reduction in air-conditioning energy use of about 13kWh per day. These savings probably resulted from the differences in the performance (EER) of the two dissimilar AC units in this building. The estimated annual savings for two of the buildings are about 125kWh per year; at a cost of dollar 0.1/kWh, savings are about dollar 12.5 per year. Obviously, it costs significantly more than this amount to coat the roofs with reflective coating, particularly because of the remote location of the buildings. However, since the prefabricated roofs are already painted green at the factory, painting them with white (reflective) color would bring no additional cost. Hence the payback time for having reflective roofs is nil, and the reflective roofs save an accumulated 370kWh over 30 years of the life of the roof

  8. Design and Development of Aerogel-Based Antennas for Aerospace Applications: A Final Report to the NARI Seedling

    Meador, Mary Ann B.; Miranda, Felix A.


    As highly porous solids possessing low density and low dielectric permittivity combined with good mechanical properties, polyimide (PI) aerogels offer great promise as an enabling technology for lightweight aircraft antenna systems. While they have been aggressively explored for thermal insulation, barely any effort has been made to leverage these materials for antennas or other applications that take advantage of their aforementioned attributes. In Phase I of the NARI Seedling Project, we fabricated PI aerogels with properties tailored to enable new antenna concepts with performance characteristics (wide bandwidth and high gain) and material properties (low density, environmental stability, and robustness) superior to the state of practice (SOP). We characterized electromagnetic properties, including permittivity, reflectivity, and propagation losses for the aerogels. Simple, prototype planar printed circuit patch antennas from down-selected aerogel formulations were fabricated by molding the aerogels to net shapes and by gold-metalizing the pattern onto the templates via electron beam evaporation in a clean room environment. These aerogel based antennas were benchmarked against current antenna SOP, and exhibited both broader bandwidth and comparable or higher gain performance at appreciably lower mass. Phase II focused on the success of the Phase I results pushing the PI aerogel based antenna technology further by exploring alternative antenna design (i.e., slot coupled antennas) and by examining other techniques for fabricating the antennas including ink jet printing with the goal of optimizing antenna performance and simplifying production. We also examined new aerogel formulations with better moisture and solvent resistance to survive processing conditions. In addition, we investigated more complex antenna designs including passive phased arrays such as 2x4 and 4x8 element arrays to assess the scalability of the aerogel antenna concept. Furthermore, we

  9. Assessing low carbon and resilient growth in Indonesia: an application of the ThreeME model. Final report

    Reynes, Frederic; Malliet, Paul; Marizi, Nizhar


    This report offers an empirical application of the notion of energy transition to the Indonesian economy by simulating the medium- and long-term impacts of proposed investment plan in power generation capacities on the Indonesian economy. The starting point of the analysis comes from ThreeME framework, a Multi-sectoral Macroeconomic Model based on Keynesian theory. It is designed to address dynamics of global economic activity, energy system development and carbon emissions causing climate change. The ThreeME model is well suited for policy assessment purposes in the context of developing economies as it informs the transitional effects of policy intervention. In particular, disequilibrium can arise in the form of involuntary unemployment, inertia of technical systems and rigidity of labor and energy markets, as a result of delayed market-clearing in the goods markets and slow adjustment between prices and quantities over the simulation time path. Calibrated using sectorial and aggregated national accounts data, an Indonesian version of the ThreeME has been developed and accounts for 37 commodities -including 4 energy sources- and 44 sectors, with an explicit distinction between 11 energy sectors and 4 transport sectors. Electricity production is dis-aggregated into 8 technologies: hydro, geothermal, wind, solar, nuclear, coal-based, oil-based and gas-based. A disaggregation between 5 regions is also made. The ThreeME-Indonesia model is used to gauge the economic and environmental effects of energy and fiscal policy measures in Indonesia at the national and regional levels. Different policy scenarios are assessed, each reflecting the impact of investments in electricity production capacities. This document is the result of an 18 months' research collaboration involving the Ministry of National Development Planning (BAPPENAS), the French Agency for Development (AFD), the French Economic Observatory (OFCE), the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research

  10. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 3 - Analysis of potentially applicable distributed energy opportunities. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada



    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The third task built upon the findings of the previous two and undertook an analysis of potentially applicable distributed energy opportunities. These opportunities were analysed given a number of different parameters, which were decided upon in consultation with the CVRD. The primary output of this task was a series of cost figures for the various technologies, thus allowing comparison on a cents/kWh basis. All of the cost figures from this task have been entered into a tailor made Excel model. This 'technology cost' model is linked to the Excel scenario model utilised in task 4. As a result, as technology costs change, they can be updated accordingly and be reflected in the scenarios. Please note, that the technologies considered at present in the technology cost model are well-proven technologies, available in the market today, even though the output is being used for an analysis of development until 2050. Task 3 results are detailed in this report and both presents an initial screening for various local renewable energies, and provides the CVRD with the means of evaluating the costs and benefits of local energy productions versus

  11. Soyuz Spacecraft Transported to Launch Pad


    The Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft and its booster rocket (rear view) is shown on a rail car for transport to the launch pad where it was raised to a vertical launch position at the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 16, 2003. Liftoff occurred on October 18th, transporting a three man crew to the International Space Station (ISS). Aboard were Michael Foale, Expedition-8 Commander and NASA science officer; Alexander Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer, both members of the Expedition-8 crew; and European Space agency (ESA) Astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain. Photo Credit: 'NASA/Bill Ingalls'

  12. Effects of Spacecraft Landings on the Moon

    Metzger, Philip T.; Lane, John E.


    The rocket exhaust of spacecraft landing on the Moon causes a number of observable effects that need to be quantified, including: disturbance of the regolith and volatiles at the landing site; damage to surrounding hardware such as the historic Apollo sites through the impingement of high-velocity ejecta; and levitation of dust after engine cutoff through as-yet unconfirmed mechanisms. While often harmful, these effects also beneficially provide insight into lunar geology and physics. Some of the research results from the past 10 years is summarized and reviewed here.

  13. Fault Detection and Isolation for Spacecraft

    Jensen, Hans-Christian Becker; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This article realizes nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation for actuators, given there is no measurement of the states in the actuators. The Fault Detection and Isolation of the actuators is instead based on angular velocity measurement of the spacecraft and knowledge about the dynamics...... of the satellite. The algorithms presented in this paper are based on a geometric approach to achieve nonlinear Fault Detection and Isolation. The proposed algorithms are tested in a simulation study and the pros and cons of the algorithms are discussed....

  14. Aircraft, ships, spacecraft, nuclear plants and quality

    Patrick, M.G.


    A few quality assurance programs outside the purview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were studied to identify features or practices which the NRC could use to enhance its program for assuring quality in the design and construction of nuclear power plants. The programs selected were: the manufacture of large commercial transport aircraft, regulated by the Federal Aviation Administration; US Navy shipbuilding; commercial shipbuilding regulated by the Maritime Administration and the US Coast Guard; Government-owned nuclear plants under the Department of Energy; spacecraft under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration; and the construction of nuclear power plants in Canada, West Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, and the United Kingdom

  15. SSS-A spacecraft and experiment description.

    Longanecker, G. W.; Hoffman, R. A.


    The scientific objectives of the Explorer-45 mission are discussed. The primary objective is the study of the ring current responsible for the main phase of magnetic storms. Closely associated with this objective is the determination of the relationship between magnetic storms, substorms, and the acceleration of charged particles in the magnetosphere. Further objectives are the measurement of a wide range of proton, electron and alpha-particle energies, and studies of wave-particle interactions responsible for particle transport and loss in the inner magnetosphere. The orbital parameters, the spacecraft itself, and some of its unique features, such as the data handling system, which is programmable from the ground, are described.

  16. Spacecraft formation control using analytical finite-duration approaches

    Ben Larbi, Mohamed Khalil; Stoll, Enrico


    This paper derives a control concept for formation flight (FF) applications assuming circular reference orbits. The paper focuses on a general impulsive control concept for FF which is then extended to the more realistic case of non-impulsive thrust maneuvers. The control concept uses a description of the FF in relative orbital elements (ROE) instead of the classical Cartesian description since the ROE provide a direct insight into key aspects of the relative motion and are particularly suitable for relative orbit control purposes and collision avoidance analysis. Although Gauss' variational equations have been first derived to offer a mathematical tool for processing orbit perturbations, they are suitable for several different applications. If the perturbation acceleration is due to a control thrust, Gauss' variational equations show the effect of such a control thrust on the Keplerian orbital elements. Integrating the Gauss' variational equations offers a direct relation between velocity increments in the local vertical local horizontal frame and the subsequent change of Keplerian orbital elements. For proximity operations, these equations can be generalized from describing the motion of single spacecraft to the description of the relative motion of two spacecraft. This will be shown for impulsive and finite-duration maneuvers. Based on that, an analytical tool to estimate the error induced through impulsive maneuver planning is presented. The resulting control schemes are simple and effective and thus also suitable for on-board implementation. Simulations show that the proposed concept improves the timing of the thrust maneuver executions and thus reduces the residual error of the formation control.

  17. Application of personal computers to enhance operation and management of research reactors. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting


    The on-line of personal computers (PCs) can be valuable to guide the research reactor operator in analysing both normal and abnormal situations. PCs can effectively be used for data acquisition and data processing, and providing information to the operator. Typical areas of on-line applications of PCs in nuclear research reactors include: Acquisition and display of data on process parameters; performance evaluation of major equipment and safety related components; fuel management; computation of reactor physics parameters; failed fuel detection and location; inventory of system fluids; training using computer aided simulation; operator advice. All these applications require the development of computer programmes and interface hardware. In recognizing this need, the IAEA initiated in 1990 a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Application of Personal Computers to Enhance Operation and Management of Research Reactors''. The final meeting of the CRP was held from 30 October to 3 November 1995 in Dalata Viet Nam. This report was written by contributors from Bangladesh, Germany, India, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam. The IAEA staff members responsible for the publication were K. Akhtar and V. Dimic of the Physics Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences

  18. Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology (SMART) Platform

    Esper, Jaime; Flatley, Thomas P.; Bull, James B.; Buckley, Steven J.


    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Department of Defense Operationally Responsive Space (ORS) Office are exercising a multi-year collaborative agreement focused on a redefinition of the way space missions are designed and implemented. A much faster, leaner and effective approach to space flight requires the concerted effort of a multi-agency team tasked with developing the building blocks, both programmatically and technologically, to ultimately achieve flights within 7-days from mission call-up. For NASA, rapid mission implementations represent an opportunity to find creative ways for reducing mission life-cycle times with the resulting savings in cost. This in tum enables a class of missions catering to a broader audience of science participants, from universities to private and national laboratory researchers. To that end, the SMART (Small Rocket/Spacecraft Technology) micro-spacecraft prototype demonstrates an advanced avionics system with integrated GPS capability, high-speed plug-and-playable interfaces, legacy interfaces, inertial navigation, a modular reconfigurable structure, tunable thermal technology, and a number of instruments for environmental and optical sensing. Although SMART was first launched inside a sounding rocket, it is designed as a free-flyer.

  19. Time delay interferometry with moving spacecraft arrays

    Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.


    Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel-times will necessarily be unequal, time varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up and down links. The reduction of data from moving interferometric laser arrays in solar orbit will in fact encounter nonsymmetric up- and down-link light time differences that are about 100 times larger than has previously been recognized. The time-delay interferometry (TDI) technique uses knowledge of these delays to cancel the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and yields a variety of data combinations sensitive to gravitational waves. Under the assumption that the (different) up- and down-link time delays are constant, we derive the TDI expressions for those combinations that rely only on four interspacecraft phase measurements. We then turn to the general problem that encompasses time dependence of the light-travel times along the laser links. By introducing a set of noncommuting time-delay operators, we show that there exists a quite general procedure for deriving generalized TDI combinations that account for the effects of time dependence of the arms. By applying our approach we are able to re-derive the 'flex-free' expression for the unequal-arm Michelson combinations X 1 , and obtain the generalized expressions for the TDI combinations called relay, beacon, monitor, and symmetric Sagnac

  20. Relativistic effects of spacecraft with circumnavigating observer

    Shanklin, Nathaniel; West, Joseph

    A variation of the recently introduced Trolley Paradox, itself is a variation of the Ehrenfest Paradox is presented. In the Trolley Paradox, a ``stationary'' set of observers tracking a wheel rolling with a constant velocity find that the wheel travels further than its rest length circumference during one revolution of the wheel, despite the fact that the Lorentz contracted circumference is less than its rest value. In the variation presented, a rectangular spacecraft with onboard observers moves with constant velocity and is circumnavigated by several small ``sloops'' forming teams of inertial observers. This whole precession moves relative to a set of ``stationary'' Earth observers. Two cases are presented, one in which the sloops are evenly spaced according to the spacecraft observers, and one in which the sloops are evenly spaced according to the Earth observes. These two cases, combined with the rectangular geometry and an emphasis on what is seen by, and what is measured by, each set of observers is very helpful in sorting out the apparent contradictions. To aid in the visualizations stationary representations in excel along with animation in Visual Python and Unity are presented. The analysis presented is suitable for undergraduate physics majors.