WorldWideScience

Sample records for spaceborne lidar measurements

  1. Ocean subsurface particulate backscatter estimation from CALIPSO spaceborne lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Pan, Delu; Wang, Tianyu; Mao, Zhihua

    2017-10-01

    A method for ocean subsurface particulate backscatter estimation from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite was demonstrated. The effects of the CALIOP receiver's transient response on the attenuated backscatter profile were first removed. The two-way transmittance of the overlying atmosphere was then estimated as the ratio of the measured ocean surface attenuated backscatter to the theoretical value computed from wind driven wave slope variance. Finally, particulate backscatter was estimated from the depolarization ratio as the ratio of the column-integrated cross-polarized and co-polarized channels. Statistical results show that the derived particulate backscatter by the method based on CALIOP data agree reasonably well with chlorophyll-a concentration using MODIS data. It indicates a potential use of space-borne lidar to estimate global primary productivity and particulate carbon stock.

  2. Retrievals of Aerosol Microphysics from Simulations of Spaceborne Multiwavelength Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Perez-Ramírez, Daniel; Veselovskii, Igor; Colarco, Peter; Buchard, Virginie

    2017-01-01

    In support of the Aerosol, Clouds, Ecosystems mission, simulations of a spaceborne multiwavelength lidar are performed based on global model simulations of the atmosphere along a satellite orbit track. The yield for aerosol microphysical inversions is quantified and comparisons are made between the aerosol microphysics inherent in the global model and those inverted from both the model's optical data and the simulated three backscatter and two extinction lidar measurements, which are based on the model's optical data. We find that yield can be significantly increased if inversions based on a reduced optical dataset of three backscatter and one extinction are acceptable. In general, retrieval performance is better for cases where the aerosol fine mode dominates although a lack of sensitivity to particles with sizes less than 0.1 microns is found. Lack of sensitivity to coarse mode cases is also found, in agreement with earlier studies. Surface area is generally the most robustly retrieved quantity. The work here points toward the need for ancillary data to aid in the constraints of the lidar inversions and also for joint inversions involving lidar and polarimeter measurements.

  3. Space-borne clear air lidar measurements in the presence of broken cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Astin

    Full Text Available A number of proposed lidar systems, such as ESA’s AEOLUS (formerly ADM and DIAL missions (e.g. WALES are to make use of lidar returns in clear air. However, on average, two-thirds of the globe is covered in cloud. Hence, there is a strong likelihood that data from these instruments may be contaminated by cloud. Similarly, optically thick cloud may not be penetrated by a lidar pulse, resulting in unobservable regions that are overshadowed by the cloud. To address this, it is suggested, for example, in AEOLUS, that a number of consecutive short sections of lidar data (between 1 and 3.5 km in length be tested for cloud contamination or for overshadowing and only those that are unaffected by cloud be used to derive atmospheric profiles. The prob-ability of obtaining profiles to near ground level using this technique is investigated both analytically and using UV air-borne lidar data recorded during the CLARE’98 campaign. These data were measured in the presence of broken cloud on a number of flights over southern England over a four-day period and were chosen because the lidar used has the same wavelength, footprint and could match the along-track spacing of the proposed AEOLUS lidar.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (instruments and techniques; general circulation

  4. Spaceborne Lidar in the Study of Marine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Chris A; Behrenfeld, Michael J; Hu, Yongxiang; Hair, Johnathan W; Schulien, Jennifer A

    2018-01-03

    Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ∼20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar. The satellite lidar era in oceanography has arrived. Here, we present a review of the lidar technique, its applications in marine systems, a perspective on what can be accomplished in the near future with an ocean- and atmosphere-optimized satellite lidar, and a vision for a multiplatform virtual constellation of observational assets that would enable a three-dimensional reconstruction of global ocean ecosystems.

  5. Spaceborne Lidar in the Study of Marine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Chris A.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Hu, Yongxiang; Hair, Johnathan W.; Schulien, Jennifer A.

    2018-01-01

    Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ˜20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar. The satellite lidar era in oceanography has arrived. Here, we present a review of the lidar technique, its applications in marine systems, a perspective on what can be accomplished in the near future with an ocean- and atmosphere-optimized satellite lidar, and a vision for a multiplatform virtual constellation of observational assets that would enable a three-dimensional reconstruction of global ocean ecosystems.

  6. Pointing Verification Method for Spaceborne Lidars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Amediek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High precision acquisition of atmospheric parameters from the air or space by means of lidar requires accurate knowledge of laser pointing. Discrepancies between the assumed and actual pointing can introduce large errors due to the Doppler effect or a wrongly assumed air pressure at ground level. In this paper, a method for precisely quantifying these discrepancies for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems is presented. The method is based on the comparison of ground elevations derived from the lidar ranging data with high-resolution topography data obtained from a digital elevation model and allows for the derivation of the lateral and longitudinal deviation of the laser beam propagation direction. The applicability of the technique is demonstrated by using experimental data from an airborne lidar system, confirming that geo-referencing of the lidar ground spot trace with an uncertainty of less than 10 m with respect to the used digital elevation model (DEM can be obtained.

  7. Taking Stock of Circumboreal Forest Carbon With Ground Measurements, Airborne and Spaceborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neigh, Christopher S. R.; Nelson, Ross F.; Ranson, K. Jon; Margolis, Hank A.; Montesano, Paul M.; Sun, Guoqing; Kharuk, Viacheslav; Naesset, Erik; Wulder, Michael A.; Andersen, Hans-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The boreal forest accounts for one-third of global forests, but remains largely inaccessible to ground-based measurements and monitoring. It contains large quantities of carbon in its vegetation and soils, and research suggests that it will be subject to increasingly severe climate-driven disturbance. We employ a suite of ground-, airborne- and space-based measurement techniques to derive the first satellite LiDAR-based estimates of aboveground carbon for the entire circumboreal forest biome. Incorporating these inventory techniques with uncertainty analysis, we estimate total aboveground carbon of 38 +/- 3.1 Pg. This boreal forest carbon is mostly concentrated from 50 to 55degN in eastern Canada and from 55 to 60degN in eastern Eurasia. Both of these regions are expected to warm >3 C by 2100, and monitoring the effects of warming on these stocks is important to understanding its future carbon balance. Our maps establish a baseline for future quantification of circumboreal carbon and the described technique should provide a robust method for future monitoring of the spatial and temporal changes of the aboveground carbon content.

  8. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emission Rates from strong Point Sources by Space-borne IPDA Lidar Measurements: Results from a Sensitivity Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, G.; Kiemle, C.; Rapp, M.

    2017-12-01

    The practical implementation of the Paris Agreement (COP21) vastly profit from an independent, reliable and global measurement system of greenhouse gas emissions, in particular of CO2, in order to complement and cross-check national efforts. Most fossil-fuel CO2 emitters emanate from large sources such as cities and power plants. These emissions increase the local CO2 abundance in the atmosphere by 1-10 parts per million (ppm) which is a signal that is significantly larger than the variability from natural sources and sinks over the local source domain. Despite these large signals, they are only sparsely sampled by the ground-based network which calls for satellite measurements. However, none of the existing and forthcoming passive satellite instruments, operating in the NIR spectral domain, can measure CO2 emissions at night time or in low sunlight conditions and in high latitude regions in winter times. The resulting sparse coverage of passive spectrometers is a serious limitation, particularly for the Northern Hemisphere, since these regions exhibit substantial emissions during the winter as well as other times of the year. In contrast, CO2 measurements by an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Lidar are largely immune to these limitations and initial results from airborne application look promising. In this study, we discuss the implication for a space-borne IPDA Lidar system. A Gaussian plume model will be used to simulate the CO2-distribution of large power plants downstream to the source. The space-borne measurements are simulated by applying a simple forward model based on Gaussian error distribution. Besides the sampling frequency, the sampling geometry (e.g. measurement distance to the emitting source) and the error of the measurement itself vastly impact on the flux inversion performance. We will discuss the results by incorporating Gaussian plume and mass budget approaches to quantify the emission rates.

  9. Performance Simulations for a Spaceborne Methane Lidar Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiemle, C.; Kawa, Stephan Randolph; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Browell, Edward V.

    2014-01-01

    Future spaceborne lidar measurements of key anthropogenic greenhouse gases are expected to close current observational gaps particularly over remote, polar, and aerosol-contaminated regions, where actual in situ and passive remote sensing observation techniques have difficulties. For methane, a "Methane Remote Lidar Mission" was proposed by Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt and Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales in the frame of a German-French climate monitoring initiative. Simulations assess the performance of this mission with the help of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations of the earth's surface albedo and atmospheric optical depth. These are key environmental parameters for integrated path differential absorption lidar which uses the surface backscatter to measure the total atmospheric methane column. Results showthat a lidar with an average optical power of 0.45W at 1.6 µm wavelength and a telescope diameter of 0.55 m, installed on a low Earth orbit platform(506 km), will measure methane columns at precisions of 1.2%, 1.7%, and 2.1% over land, water, and snow or ice surfaces, respectively, for monthly aggregated measurement samples within areas of 50 × 50 km2. Globally, the mean precision for the simulated year 2007 is 1.6%, with a standard deviation of 0.7%. At high latitudes, a lower reflectance due to snow and ice is compensated by denser measurements, owing to the orbital pattern. Over key methane source regions such as densely populated areas, boreal and tropical wetlands, or permafrost, our simulations show that the measurement precision will be between 1 and 2%.

  10. Research on the space-borne coherent wind lidar technique and the prototype experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Long; Tao, Yuliang; An, Chao; Yang, Jukui; Du, Guojun; Zheng, Yongchao

    2016-10-01

    Space-borne coherent wind lidar technique is considered as one of the most promising and appropriate remote Sensing methods for successfully measuring the whole global vector wind profile between the lower atmosphere and the middle atmosphere. Compared with other traditional methods, the space-borne coherent wind lidar has some advantages, such as, the all-day operation; many lidar systems can be integrated into the same satellite because of the light-weight and the small size, eye-safe wavelength, and being insensitive to the background light. Therefore, this coherent lidar could be widely applied into the earth climate research, disaster monitoring, numerical weather forecast, environment protection. In this paper, the 2μm space-borne coherent wind lidar system for measuring the vector wind profile is proposed. And the technical parameters about the sub-system of the coherent wind lidar are simulated and the all sub-system schemes are proposed. For sake of validating the technical parameters of the space-borne coherent wind lidar system and the optical off-axis telescope, the weak laser signal detection technique, etc. The proto-type coherent wind lidar is produced and the experiments for checking the performance of this proto-type coherent wind lidar are finished with the hard-target and the soft target, and the horizontal wind and the vertical wind profile are measured and calibrated, respectively. For this proto-type coherent wind lidar, the wavelength is 1.54μm, the pulse energy 80μJ, the pulse width 300ns, the diameter of the off-axis telescope 120mm, the single wedge for cone scanning with the 40°angle, and the two dualbalanced InGaAs detector modules are used. The experiment results are well consisted with the simulation process, and these results show that the wind profile between the vertical altitude 4km can be measured, the accuracy of the wind velocity and the wind direction are better than 1m/s and +/-10°, respectively.

  11. Advancing Atmosphere-Ocean Remote Sensing with Spaceborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, C. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Chepfer, H.; Hu, Y.; Hair, J. W.; Trepte, C. R.; Winker, D. M.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Scarino, A. J.; Powell, K. A.; Michaud, J.

    2016-12-01

    More than 1600 publications employing observations from the CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO testify to the value of spaceborne lidar for aerosol and cloud remote sensing. Recent publications have shown the value of CALIOP data for retrievals of key ocean carbon cycle stocks. In this presentation we focus on the advantages of a more advanced technique, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL), for aerosol, cloud, and ocean remote sensing. An atmosphere-ocean optimized HSRL achieves greater accuracy over the standard backscatter lidar technique for retrievals of aerosol and cloud extinction and backscatter profiles, provides additional capability to retrieve aerosol and cloud microphysical parameters, and enables vertically-resolved characterization of scattering and absorption properties of suspended and dissolved materials in the ocean. Numerous publications highlight the synergy of coincident CALIOP and passive A-train observations for studies of aerosol-cloud radiative effects and cloud-climate feedback. Less appreciated is the complementarity that would exist between an optimized spaceborne lidar and passive ocean color. An optimized HSRL flown in formation with the Plankton, Aerosol, and ocean Ecosystem (PACE) mission would provide phytoplankton vertical distribution, which is needed for accurately estimating net primary productivity but absent in the PACE ocean color data. The HSRL would also provide data needed to improve atmospheric correction schemes in ocean color retrievals. Because lidar provides measurements both night and day, through tenuous clouds and aerosol layers, and in holes between clouds, the sampling achieved is highly complementary to passive radiometry, providing data in important high latitude regions where ocean color data are sparse or nonexistent. In this presentation we will discuss 1) relevant aerosol, cloud, and ocean retrievals from airborne HSRL field missions; 2) the advantages of an optimized spaceborne HSRL for aerosol, cloud, and ocean

  12. Simulating return signals of a spaceborne high-spectral resolution lidar channel at 532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yu; Binglong, Chen; Min, Min; Xingying, Zhang; Lilin, Yao; Yiming, Zhao; Lidong, Wang; Fu, Wang; Xiaobo, Deng

    2018-06-01

    High spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) system employs a narrow spectral filter to separate the particulate (cloud/aerosol) and molecular scattering components in lidar return signals, which improves the quality of the retrieved cloud/aerosol optical properties. To better develop a future spaceborne HSRL system, a novel simulation technique was developed to simulate spaceborne HSRL return signals at 532 nm using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) cloud/aerosol extinction coefficients product and numerical weather prediction data. For validating simulated data, a mathematical particulate extinction coefficient retrieval method for spaceborne HSRL return signals is described here. We compare particulate extinction coefficient profiles from the CALIPSO operational product with simulated spaceborne HSRL data. Further uncertainty analysis shows that relative uncertainties are acceptable for retrieving the optical properties of cloud and aerosol. The final results demonstrate that they agree well with each other. It indicates that the return signals of the spaceborne HSRL molecular channel at 532 nm will be suitable for developing operational algorithms supporting a future spaceborne HSRL system.

  13. Spaceborne profiling of atmospheric temperature and particle extinction with pure rotational Raman lidar and of relative humidity in combination with differential absorption lidar: performance simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a spaceborne temperature lidar based on the pure rotational Raman (RR) technique in the UV has been simulated. Results show that such a system deployed onboard a low-Earth-orbit satellite would provide global-scale clear-sky temperature measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere with precisions that satisfy World Meteorological Organization (WMO) threshold observational requirements for numerical weather prediction and climate research applications. Furthermore, nighttime temperature measurements would still be within the WMO threshold observational requirements in the presence of several cloud structures. The performance of aerosol extinction measurements from space, which can be carried out simultaneously with temperature measurements by RR lidar, is also assessed. Furthermore, we discuss simulations of relative humidity measurements from space obtained from RR temperature measurements and water-vapor data measured with the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique

  14. Achieving Accuracy Requirements for Forest Biomass Mapping: A Data Fusion Method for Estimating Forest Biomass and LiDAR Sampling Error with Spaceborne Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, P. M.; Cook, B. D.; Sun, G.; Simard, M.; Zhang, Z.; Nelson, R. F.; Ranson, K. J.; Lutchke, S.; Blair, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    The synergistic use of active and passive remote sensing (i.e., data fusion) demonstrates the ability of spaceborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multispectral imagery for achieving the accuracy requirements of a global forest biomass mapping mission. This data fusion approach also provides a means to extend 3D information from discrete spaceborne LiDAR measurements of forest structure across scales much larger than that of the LiDAR footprint. For estimating biomass, these measurements mix a number of errors including those associated with LiDAR footprint sampling over regional - global extents. A general framework for mapping above ground live forest biomass (AGB) with a data fusion approach is presented and verified using data from NASA field campaigns near Howland, ME, USA, to assess AGB and LiDAR sampling errors across a regionally representative landscape. We combined SAR and Landsat-derived optical (passive optical) image data to identify forest patches, and used image and simulated spaceborne LiDAR data to compute AGB and estimate LiDAR sampling error for forest patches and 100m, 250m, 500m, and 1km grid cells. Forest patches were delineated with Landsat-derived data and airborne SAR imagery, and simulated spaceborne LiDAR (SSL) data were derived from orbit and cloud cover simulations and airborne data from NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (L VIS). At both the patch and grid scales, we evaluated differences in AGB estimation and sampling error from the combined use of LiDAR with both SAR and passive optical and with either SAR or passive optical alone. This data fusion approach demonstrates that incorporating forest patches into the AGB mapping framework can provide sub-grid forest information for coarser grid-level AGB reporting, and that combining simulated spaceborne LiDAR with SAR and passive optical data are most useful for estimating AGB when measurements from LiDAR are limited because they minimized

  15. Retrieval of Methane Source Strengths in Europe Using a Simple Modeling Approach to Assess the Potential of Spaceborne Lidar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C.; Kiemle, C.; Kawa, S. R.; Aalto, T.; Necki, J.; Steinbacher, M.; Arduini, J.; Apadula, F.; Berkhout, H.; Hatakka, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of future spaceborne lidar measurements to changes in surface methane emissions. We use surface methane observations from nine European ground stations and a Lagrangian transport model to infer surface methane emissions for 2010. Our inversion shows the strongest emissions from the Netherlands, the coal mines in Upper Silesia, Poland, and wetlands in southern Finland. The simulated methane surface concentrations capture at least half of the daily variability in the observations, suggesting that the transport model is correctly simulating the regional transport pathways over Europe. With this tool we can test whether proposed methane lidar instruments will be sensitive to changes in surface emissions. We show that future lidar instruments should be able to detect a 50% reduction in methane emissions from the Netherlands and Germany, at least during summer.

  16. Highly-efficient, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser for spaceborne LIDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treichel, R.; Hoffmann, H.-D.; Luttmann, J.; Morasch, V.; Nicklaus, K.; Wührer, C.

    2017-11-01

    For a spaceborne lidar a highly reliable, long living and efficient laser source is absolutely essential. Within the frame of the development of a laser source for the backscatter lidar ATLID, which will be flown on EarthCare mission, we setup and tested a predevelopment model of an injection-seeded, diode pumped, frequency tripled, pulsed high power Nd:YAG MOPA laser operating nominally at 100 Hz pulse repetition frequency. We also tested the burst operation mode. The excellent measured performance parameter will be introduced. The oscillator rod is longitudinally pumped from both sides. The oscillator has been operated with three cavity control methods: "Cavity Dither", "Pound-Drever-Hall" and "Adaptive Ramp & Fire". Especially the latter method is very suitable to operate the laser in harsh vibrating environment such in airplanes. The amplifier bases on the InnoSlab design concept. The constant keeping of a moderate fluence in the InnoSlab crystal permits excellent possibilities to scale the pulse energy to several 100 mJ. An innovative pump unit and optics makes the laser performance insensitive to inhomogeneous diode degradation and allows switching of additional redundant diodes. Further key features have been implemented in a FM design concept. The operational lifetime is extended by the implementation of internal redundancies for the most critical parts. The reliability is increased due to the higher margin onto the laser induced damage threshold by a pressurized housing. Additionally air-to-vacuum effects becomes obsolete. A high efficient heat removal concept has been implemented.

  17. Photon counting altimeter and lidar for air and spaceborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacek, Michael; Michalek, Vojtech; Peca, Marek; Prochazka, Ivan; Blazej, Josef; Kodet, Jan

    2011-06-01

    We are presenting the concept and preliminary design of modular multipurpose device for space segment: single photon counting laser altimeter, atmospheric lidar, laser transponder and one way laser ranging receiver. For all the mentioned purposes, the same compact configuration of the device is appropriate. Overall estimated device weight should not exceed 5 kg with the power consumption below 10 W. The device will consists of three main parts, namely, receiver, transmitter and control and processing unit. As a transmitter a commercial solid state laser at 532 nm wavelength with 10 mW power will be used. The transmitter optics will have a diameter at most of 50 mm. The laser pulse width will be of hundreds of picoseconds order. For the laser altimeter and atmospheric lidar application, the repetition rate of 10 kHz is planned in order to obtain sufficient number of data for a distance value computing. The receiver device will be composed of active quenched Single Photon Avalanche Diode module, tiny optics, and narrow-band optical filter. The core part of the control and processing unit including high precision timing unit is implemented using single FPGA chip. The preliminary device concept includes considerations on energy balance, and statistical algorithms to meet all the mentioned purposes. Recently, the bread board version of the device is under construction in our labs. The concept, construction, and timing results will be presented.

  18. Space-borne remote sensing of CO2 by IPDA lidar with heterodyne detection: random error estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvienko, G. G.; Sukhanov, A. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Possibilities of measuring the CO2 column concentration by spaceborne integrated path differential lidar (IPDA) signals in the near IR absorption bands are investigated. It is shown that coherent detection principles applied in the nearinfrared spectral region promise a high sensitivity for the measurement of the integrated dry air column mixing ratio of the CO2. The simulations indicate that for CO2 the target observational requirements (0.2%) for the relative random error can be met with telescope aperture 0.5 m, detector bandwidth 10 MHz, laser energy per impulse 0.3 mJ and averaging 7500 impulses. It should also be noted that heterodyne technique allows to significantly reduce laser power and receiver overall dimensions compared to direct detection.

  19. Single-Mode, High Repetition Rate, Compact Ho:YLF Laser for Space-Borne Lidar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Wong, Teh-Hwa; Chen, Songsheng; Petros, Mulugeta; Singh, Upendra N.

    2014-01-01

    A single transverse/longitudinal mode, compact Q-switched Ho:YLF laser has been designed and demonstrated for space-borne lidar applications. The pulse energy is between 34-40 mJ for 100-200 Hz operation. The corresponding peak power is >1 MW.

  20. ESA’s spaceborne lidar mission ADM-Aeolus; project status and preparations for launch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straume Anne Grete

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ESA’s Doppler Wind lidar mission, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus, hereafter abbreviated to Aeolus, was chosen as an Earth Explorer Core mission within the Living Planet Programme in 1999. It shall demonstrate the potential of space-based Doppler Wind lidars for operational measurements of wind profiles and their use in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP and climate research. Spin-off products are profiles of cloud and aerosol optical properties. Aeolus carries the novel Doppler Wind lidar instrument ALADIN. The mission prime is Airbus Defence & Space UK (ADS-UK, and the instrument prime is Airbus Defence & Space France (ADS-F.

  1. ESA's spaceborne lidar mission ADM-Aeolus; project status and preparations for launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, Anne Grete; Elfving, Anders; Wernham, Denny; de Bruin, Frank; Kanitz, Thomas; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Bismarck, Jonas von; Buscaglione, Fabio; Lecrenier, O.; McGoldrick, Phil

    2018-04-01

    ESA's Doppler Wind lidar mission, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus, hereafter abbreviated to Aeolus), was chosen as an Earth Explorer Core mission within the Living Planet Programme in 1999. It shall demonstrate the potential of space-based Doppler Wind lidars for operational measurements of wind profiles and their use in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) and climate research. Spin-off products are profiles of cloud and aerosol optical properties. Aeolus carries the novel Doppler Wind lidar instrument ALADIN. The mission prime is Airbus Defence & Space UK (ADS-UK), and the instrument prime is Airbus Defence & Space France (ADS-F).

  2. Can Wind Lidars Measure Turbulence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Gottschall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the conical scanning technique to measure the velocity field. The model captures the effect of volume illumination and coni...

  3. Depolarization ratio of polar stratospheric clouds in coastal Antarctica: comparison analysis between ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar and space-borne CALIOP observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Córdoba-Jabonero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs play an important role in polar ozone depletion, since they are involved in diverse ozone destruction processes (chlorine activation, denitrification. The degree of that ozone reduction is depending on the type of PSCs, and hence on their occurrence. Therefore PSC characterization, mainly focused on PSC-type discrimination, is widely demanded. The backscattering (R and volume linear depolarization (δV ratios are the parameters usually used in lidar measurements for PSC detection and identification. In this work, an improved version of the standard NASA/Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL-4, which includes a built-in depolarization detection module, has been used for PSC observations above the coastal Antarctic Belgrano II station (Argentina, 77.9° S 34.6° W, 256 m a.s.l. since 2009. Examination of the MPL-4 δV feature as a suitable index for PSC-type discrimination is based on the analysis of the two-channel data, i.e., the parallel (p- and perpendicular (s- polarized MPL signals. This study focuses on the comparison of coincident δV-profiles as obtained from ground-based MPL-4 measurements during three Antarctic winters with those reported from the space-borne lidar CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization aboard the CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation satellite in the same period (83 simultaneous cases are analysed for 2009–2011 austral winter times. Three different approaches are considered for the comparison analysis between both lidar profile data sets in order to test the degree of agreement: the correlation coefficient (CC, as a measure of the relationship between both PSC vertical structures; the mean differences together with their root mean square (RMS values found between data sets; and the percentage differences (BIAS, parameter also used in profiling comparisons between CALIOP and other ground-based lidar systems. All of them are examined as a function

  4. Lidar extinction measurement in the mid infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Valentin; Babichenko, S.; Borelli, R.; Fiorani, L.; Grigorov, I.; Nuvoli, M.; Palucci, A.; Pistilli, M.; Puiu, Ad.; Rebane, Ott; Santoro, S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a lidar measurement of atmospheric extinction coefficient. The measurement is performed by inversion of the backscatter lidar signal at wavelengths 3'000nm and 3'500nm. The inversion of the backscatter lidar signal was performed with constant extinction-to-backscatter ration values of 104 and exponential factor 0.1.

  5. A new method to derive middle atmospheric temperature profiles using a combination of Rayleigh lidar and O2 airglow temperatures measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taori, A.; Jayaraman, A.; Raghunath, K.; Kamalakar, V.

    2012-01-01

    The vertical temperature profiles in a typical Rayleigh lidar system depends on the backscatter photon counts and the CIRA-86 model inputs. For the first time, we show that, by making simultaneous measurements of Rayleigh lidar and upper mesospheric O2 temperatures, the lidar capability can be enhanced to obtain mesospheric temperature profile up to about 95 km altitudes. The obtained results are compared with instantaneous space-borne SABER measurements for a validation.

  6. A new method to derive middle atmospheric temperature profiles using a combination of Rayleigh lidar and O{sub 2} airglow temperatures measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taori, A.; Jayaraman, A.; Raghunath, K. [National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki (India); Kamalakar, V. [S.V. Univ., Tirupati (India). Dept. of Physics

    2012-07-01

    The vertical temperature profiles in a typical Rayleigh lidar system depends on the backscatter photon counts and the CIRA-86 model inputs. For the first time, we show that, by making simultaneous measurements of Rayleigh lidar and upper mesospheric O{sub 2} temperatures, the lidar capability can be enhanced to obtain mesospheric temperature profile up to about 95 km altitudes. The obtained results are compared with instantaneous space-borne SABER measurements for a validation. (orig.)

  7. HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detectors for Airborne and Spaceborne Lidar at Infrared Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.; Beck, Jeffrey D.; Mitra, Pradip; Reiff, Kirk; Yang, Guangning

    2017-01-01

    We report results from characterizing the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD) sensorchip assemblies (SCA) developed for lidar at infrared wavelength using the high density vertically integrated photodiodes (HDVIP) technique. These devices demonstrated high quantum efficiency, typically greater than 90 between 0.8 micrometers and the cut-off wavelength, greater than 600 APD gain, near unity excess noise factor, 6-10 MHz electrical bandwidth and less than 0.5 fW/Hz(exp.1/2) noise equivalent power (NEP). The detectors provide linear analog output with a dynamic range of 2-3 orders of magnitude at a fixed APD gain without averaging, and over 5 orders of magnitude by adjusting the APD and preamplifier gain settings. They have been successfully used in airborne CO2 and CH4 integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar as a precursor for space lidar applications.

  8. Mapping Global Forest Aboveground Biomass with Spaceborne LiDAR, Optical Imagery, and Forest Inventory Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As a large carbon pool, global forest ecosystems are a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Accurate estimations of global forest aboveground biomass (AGB can improve the understanding of global carbon dynamics and help to quantify anthropogenic carbon emissions. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR techniques have been proven that can accurately capture both horizontal and vertical forest structures and increase the accuracy of forest AGB estimation. In this study, we mapped the global forest AGB density at a 1-km resolution through the integration of ground inventory data, optical imagery, Geoscience Laser Altimeter System/Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite data, climate surfaces, and topographic data. Over 4000 ground inventory records were collected from published literatures to train the forest AGB estimation model and validate the resulting global forest AGB product. Our wall-to-wall global forest AGB map showed that the global forest AGB density was 210.09 Mg/ha on average, with a standard deviation of 109.31 Mg/ha. At the continental level, Africa (333.34 ± 63.80 Mg/ha and South America (301.68 ± 67.43 Mg/ha had higher AGB density. The AGB density in Asia, North America and Europe were 172.28 ± 94.75, 166.48 ± 84.97, and 132.97 ± 50.70 Mg/ha, respectively. The wall-to-wall forest AGB map was evaluated at plot level using independent plot measurements. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2 and root-mean-square error (RMSE between our predicted results and the validation plots were 0.56 and 87.53 Mg/ha, respectively. At the ecological zone level, the R2 and RMSE between our map and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggested values were 0.56 and 101.21 Mg/ha, respectively. Moreover, a comprehensive comparison was also conducted between our forest AGB map and other published regional AGB products. Overall, our forest AGB map showed good agreements with these regional AGB products, but some of the regional

  9. Wind measurement via direct detection lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, I.; Sela, N.; Narkiss, N.; Shamai, G.; Tsadka, S.

    2013-10-01

    Wind sensing Lidar is considered a promising technology for high quality wind measurements required for various applications such as hub height wind resource assessment, power curve measurements and advanced, real time, forward looking turbine control. Until recently, the only available Lidar technology was based on coherent Doppler shift detection, whose market acceptance has been slow primarily due to its exuberant price. Direct detection Lidar technology provides an alternative to remote sensing of wind by incorporating high precision measurement, a robust design and an affordable price tag.

  10. Spaceborne Differential SAR Interferometry: Data Analysis Tools for Deformation Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Crosetto

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on spaceborne Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR for land deformation measurement and monitoring. In the last two decades several DInSAR data analysis procedures have been proposed. The objective of this paper is to describe the DInSAR data processing and analysis tools developed at the Institute of Geomatics in almost ten years of research activities. Four main DInSAR analysis procedures are described, which range from the standard DInSAR analysis based on a single interferogram to more advanced Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI approaches. These different procedures guarantee a sufficient flexibility in DInSAR data processing. In order to provide a technical insight into these analysis procedures, a whole section discusses their main data processing and analysis steps, especially those needed in PSI analyses. A specific section is devoted to the core of our PSI analysis tools: the so-called 2+1D phase unwrapping procedure, which couples a 2D phase unwrapping, performed interferogram-wise, with a kind of 1D phase unwrapping along time, performed pixel-wise. In the last part of the paper, some examples of DInSAR results are discussed, which were derived by standard DInSAR or PSI analyses. Most of these results were derived from X-band SAR data coming from the TerraSAR-X and CosmoSkyMed sensors.

  11. Effect of multiple scattering on lidar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, A.

    1977-01-01

    The lidar equation in its standard form involves the assumption that the scattered irradiance reaching the lidar receiver has been only singly scattered. However, in the cases of scattering from clouds and thick aerosol layers, it is shown that multiple scattering cannot be neglected. An experimental method for the detection of multiple scattering by depolarization measurement techniques is discussed. One method of theoretical calculations of double-scattering is presented and discussed

  12. Measuring Oscillating Walking Paths with a LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the analysis of different walking paths registered using a Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR laser range sensor in order to measure oscillating trajectories during unsupervised walking. The estimate of the gait and trajectory parameters were obtained with a terrestrial LIDAR placed 100 mm above the ground with the scanning plane parallel to the floor to measure the trajectory of the legs without attaching any markers or modifying the floor. Three different large walking experiments were performed to test the proposed measurement system with straight and oscillating trajectories. The main advantages of the proposed system are the possibility to measure several steps and obtain average gait parameters and the minimum infrastructure required. This measurement system enables the development of new ambulatory applications based on the analysis of the gait and the trajectory during a walk.

  13. Novel Methods for Measuring LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrey, E.; Hayes, D. J.; Fraver, S.; Weiskittel, A.; Cook, B.; Kershaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    The estimation of forest biometrics from airborne LiDAR data has become invaluable for quantifying forest carbon stocks, forest and wildlife ecology research, and sustainable forest management. The area-based approach is arguably the most common method for developing enhanced forest inventories from LiDAR. It involves taking a series of vertical height measurements of the point cloud, then using those measurements with field measured data to develop predictive models. Unfortunately, there is considerable variation in methodology for collecting point cloud data, which can vary in pulse density, seasonality, canopy penetrability, and instrument specifications. Today there exists a wealth of public LiDAR data, however the variation in acquisition parameters makes forest inventory prediction by traditional means unreliable across the different datasets. The goal of this project is to test a series of novel point cloud measurements developed along a conceptual spectrum of human interpretability, and then to use the best measurements to develop regional enhanced forest inventories on Northern New England's and Atlantic Canada's public LiDAR. Similarly to a field-based inventory, individual tree crowns are being segmented, and summary statistics are being used as covariates. Established competition and structural indices are being generated using each tree's relationship to one another, whilst existing allometric equations are being used to estimate diameter and biomass of each tree measured in the LiDAR. Novel metrics measuring light interception, clusteredness, and rugosity are also being measured as predictors. On the other end of the human interpretability spectrum, convolutional neural networks are being employed to directly measure both the canopy height model, and the point clouds by scanning each using two and three dimensional kernals trained to identify features useful for predicting biological attributes such as biomass. Predictive models will be trained and

  14. Lidar measurements of plume statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Mikkelsen, T.

    1993-01-01

    of measured crosswind concentration profiles, the following statistics were obtained: 1) Mean profile, 2) Root mean square profile, 3) Fluctuation intensities,and 4)Intermittency factors. Furthermore, some experimentally determined probability density functions (pdf's) of the fluctuations are presented. All...... the measured statistics are referred to a fixed and a 'moving' frame of reference, the latter being defined as a frame of reference from which the (low frequency) plume meander is removed. Finally, the measured statistics are compared with statistics on concentration fluctuations obtained with a simple puff...

  15. First Airborne IPDA Lidar Measurements of Methane and Carbon Dioxide Applying the DLR Greenhouse Gas Sounder CHARM-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amediek, A.; Ehret, G.; Fix, A.; Wirth, M.; Quatrevalet, M.; Büdenbender, C.; Kiemle, C.; Loehring, J.; Gerbig, C.

    2015-12-01

    First airborne measurement using CHARM-F, the four-wavelengths lidar for simultaneous soundings of atmospheric CO2 and CH4, were performed in Spring 2015 onboard the German research aircraft HALO. The lidar is designed in the IPDA (integrated path differential absorption) configuration using short double pulses, which gives column averaged gas mixing ratios between aircraft and ground. HALO's maximum flight altitude of 15 km and special features of the lidar, such as a relatively large laser ground spot, enable the CHARM-F system to be an airborne demonstrator for future spaceborne greenhouse gas lidars. Due to a high technological conformity this applies in particular to the French-German satellite mission MERLIN, the spaceborne methane IPDA lidar. The successfully completed flight measurements provide a valuable dataset, which supports the retrieval algorithm development for MERLIN notably. The flights covered different ground cover types, different orography types as well as the sea. Additionally, we captured different cloud conditions, at which the broken cloud case is a matter of particular interest. This dataset allows detailed analyses of measurement sensitivities, general studies on the IPDA principle and on technical details of the system. These activities are supported by another instrument onboard: a cavity ring down spectrometer, providing in-situ data of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor with high accuracy and precision, which is ideal for validation purposes of the lidar. Additionally the onboard instrumentation of HALO gives information about pressure and temperature for cross-checking the ECMWF data, which are intended to be used for calculating the weighting function, the key quantity for the retrieval of gas column mixing ratios from the measured gas optical depths. In combination with dedicated descents into the boundary layer and subsequent ascents, a self-contained dataset for characterizations of CHARM-F is available.

  16. Lidar to lidar calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  17. Earth Mesosphere Temperature Measurements via Sodium Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This CIF effort is part of a larger research program. It addresses the front-end, lower TRL development of what will become the first ever spaceborn, Na laser...

  18. Angular signatures, and a space-borne measurement concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-05-01

    The nature and value of angular signatures in remote sensing are reviewed with emphasis on the canopy hot-spot as a directionally localized angular signature and an important special case of a BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function). A new concept is presented that allows hot spot measurements from space by using active (laser) illumination and bistatic detection. The detectors are proposed as imaging array sensors that are circulating the illumination source (or vice versa) and are connected with it through tethers in space which also provide the directional controls needed so that the entire system becomes pointable like a search light. Near infrared or IR operation in an atmospheric transmission winodw is envisioned with night-time data acquistion. Detailed feasibility and systems analyses have yet to be performed.

  19. Constraining lidar stand-alone retrievals with lunar photometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Amezcua, Pablo; Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Juan; Antonio Benavent-Oltra, Jose; Román, Roberto; Böckmann, Christine; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2018-04-01

    This study combines atmospheric optical information measured with lidar and nocturnal photometers in order to find configurations that allow for the retrieval of particle microphysical properties without "3+2" lidar setups. It has been carried out using data measured at the EARLINET Granada station during the experimental campaign SLOPE in the framework of ACTRIS-2 project.

  20. Power curve measurement with a nacelle mounted lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Courtney, Michael

    2014-01-01

    is tested. A pulsed lidar prototype, measuring horizontally, was installed on the nacelle of a multi-megawatt wind turbine. A met mast with a top-mounted cup anemometer standing at two rotor diameters in front of the turbine was used as a reference. After a data-filtering step, the comparison of the 10 min......Nacelle-based lidars are an attractive alternative to conventional mast base reference wind instrumentation where the erection of a mast is expensive, for example offshore. In this paper, the use of this new technology for the specific application of wind turbine power performance measurement...... in wind speed measurements. A lower scatter in the power curve was observed for the lidar than for the mast. Since the lidar follows the turbine nacelle as it yaws, it always measures upwind. The wind measured by the lidar therefore shows a higher correlation with the turbine power fluctuations than...

  1. A mini backscatter lidar for airborne measurements in the framework of DACCIWA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Flamant, Cyrille; Shang, Xiaoxia; Denjean, Cyrielle; Meynadier, Rémi; Perrin, Thierry; Laurens, Marc

    2017-04-01

    During the international campaign of the European program Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA), investigating the relationship between weather, climate and air pollution in southern West Africa, a mini backscatter lidar was embedded on the French research aircraft (ATR42) of the Service des Avions Français Instrumentés pour la Recherche en Environnement (SAFIRE). This implementation was made possible thanks to the support of the Centre National d'Etude Spatial (CNES), with the aim of assessing the relative relevance of airborne or spaceborne (e.g. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations, CALIPSO) remote sensing instruments. The lidar complemented the various in-situ observations carried out on the plane, by identifying the aerosol layers in the atmospheric column below the aircraft, and bringing strong constraints for the validation of other measurements. The field campaign took place from 27 to 16 July 2016 from Lomé, Togo. The aircraft conducted flights between 1 km and 5 km above the mean sea level (amsl), allowing the coupling of in situ and remote sensing data to assess the properties of the aerosol layers. Aerosol plumes of different origins were identified using the coupling between the lidar cross-polarized channels, satellite observations and a set of back trajectories analyses. During several flights, depolarizing aerosol layers from the northeast were observed between 2.5 and 4 km amsl, which highlight the significant contribution of dust-like particles to the aerosol load in the coastal region. Conversely, air masses originating from the east-southeast were loaded with a mixing of biomass burning and pollution aerosols. The former originated from Central Africa and the latter from human activities in and around large cities (Lomé). The flight sampling strategy and related lidar investigations will be presented and discussed.

  2. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  3. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One...

  4. Coherent Lidar Turbulence Measurement for Gust Load Alleviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Ehernberger, L. J.; Soreide, David; Bagley, Hal

    1996-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence adversely affects operation of commercial and military aircraft and is a design constraint. The airplane structure must be designed to survive the loads imposed by turbulence. Reducing these loads allows the airplane structure to be lighter, a substantial advantage for a commercial airplane. Gust alleviation systems based on accelerometers mounted in the airplane can reduce the maximum gust loads by a small fraction. These systems still represent an economic advantage. The ability to reduce the gust load increases tremendously if the turbulent gust can be measured before the airplane encounters it. A lidar system can make measurements of turbulent gusts ahead of the airplane, and the NASA Airborne Coherent Lidar for Advanced In-Flight Measurements (ACLAIM) program is developing such a lidar. The ACLAIM program is intended to develop a prototype lidar system for use in feasibility testing of gust load alleviation systems and other airborne lidar applications, to define applications of lidar with the potential for improving airplane performance, and to determine the feasibility and benefits of these applications. This paper gives an overview of the ACLAIM program, describes the lidar architecture for a gust alleviation system, and describes the prototype ACLAIM lidar system.

  5. Turbulence measurement with a two-beam nacelle lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Sathe, Ameya; Mioullet, A.

    The analysis of the turbulence intensity measurement is performed for a lidar measuring horizontally with two beams. First the turbulence intensity measured by such a system was evaluated theoretically. The Mann model of turbulence was used to evaluate the true value of the turbulence intensity...... of the wind speed and the main effects of the lidar measurement principles on turbulence intensity measurement were modeled: - A lidar senses the wind speed over the probe volume acting as a low pass-filter and thus cannot resolve high frequency turbulence; - The horizontal wind speed is retrieved from...... the combination of the radial speeds measured along two line-of-sights with different orientations; this results in the contamination of the lidar turbulence intensity measurement from the transverse component of the wind field. Secondly, the theoretical results were compared to experimental measurements. A two...

  6. Wind Ressources in Complex Terrain investigated with Synchronized Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J.; Menke, R.; Vasiljevic, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Perdigao experiment was performed by a number of European and American universities in Portugal 2017, and it is probably the largest field campaign focussing on wind energy ressources in complex terrain ever conducted. 186 sonic anemometers on 50 masts, 20 scanning wind lidars and a host of other instruments were deployed. The experiment is a part of an effort to make a new European wind atlas. In this presentation we investigate whether scanning the wind speed over ridges in this complex terrain with multiple Doppler lidars can lead to an efficient mapping of the wind resources at relevant positions. We do that by having pairs of Doppler lidars scanning 80 m above the ridges in Perdigao. We compare wind resources obtained from the lidars and from the mast-mounted sonic anemometers at 80 m on two 100 m masts, one on each of the two ridges. In addition, the scanning lidar measurements are also compared to profiling lidars on the ridges. We take into account the fact that the profiling lidars may be biased due to the curvature of the streamlines over the instrument, see Bingol et al, Meteorolog. Z. vol. 18, pp. 189-195 (2009). We also investigate the impact of interruptions of the lidar measurements on the estimated wind resource. We calculate the relative differences of wind along the ridge from the lidar measurements and compare those to the same obtained from various micro-scale models. A particular subject investigated is how stability affects the wind resources. We often observe internal gravity waves with the scanning lidars during the night and we quantify how these affect the relative wind speed on the ridges.

  7. Optical Backscattering Measured by Airborne Lidar and Underwater Glider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Churnside

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The optical backscattering from particles in the ocean is an important quantity that has been measured by remote sensing techniques and in situ instruments. In this paper, we compare estimates of this quantity from airborne lidar with those from an in situ instrument on an underwater glider. Both of these technologies allow much denser sampling of backscatter profiles than traditional ship surveys. We found a moderate correlation (R = 0.28, p < 10−5, with differences that are partially explained by spatial and temporal sampling mismatches, variability in particle composition, and lidar retrieval errors. The data suggest that there are two different regimes with different scattering properties. For backscattering coefficients below about 0.001 m−1, the lidar values were generally greater than the glider values. For larger values, the lidar was generally lower than the glider. Overall, the results are promising and suggest that airborne lidar and gliders provide comparable and complementary information on optical particulate backscattering.

  8. Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57 μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Caron

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the lidar reflectance of the Earth's surface is an important issue for the IPDA lidar technique (integrated path differential absorption lidar which is the proposed method for the spaceborne measurement of atmospheric carbon dioxide within the framework of ESA's A-SCOPE project. Both, the absolute reflectance of the ground and its variations have an impact on the measurement sensitivity. The first aspect influences the instrument's signal to noise ratio, the second one can lead to retrieval errors, if the ground reflectance changes are strong on small scales. The investigation of the latter is the main purpose of this study. Airborne measurements of the lidar ground reflectance at 1.57 μm wavelength were performed in Central and Western Europe, including many typical land surface coverages as well as the open sea. The analyses of the data show, that the lidar ground reflectance is highly variable on a wide range of spatial scales. However, by means of the assumption of laser footprints in the order of several tens of meters, as planned for spaceborne systems, and by means of an averaging of the data it was shown, that this specific retrieval error is well below 1 ppm (CO2 column mixing ratio, and so compatible with the sensitivity requirements of spaceborne CO2 measurements. Several approaches for upscaling the data in terms of the consideration of larger laser footprints, compared to the one used here, are shown and discussed. Furthermore, the collected data are compared to MODIS ground reflectance data.

  9. Doppler Wind Lidar Measurements and Scalability to Space

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global measurements of wind speed and direction from Doppler wind lidars, if available, would significantly improve forecasting of severe weather events such as...

  10. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  11. Atmospheric aerosol measurements by employing a polarization scheimpflug lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Liang; Guan, Peng; Yang, Yang

    2018-04-01

    A polarization Scheimpflug lidar system based on the Scheimpflug principle has been developed by employing a compact 808-nm multimode highpower laser diode and two highly integrated CMOS sensors in Dalian University of Technology (DLUT), Dalian, China. The parallel and orthogonal polarized backscattering signal are recorded by two 45 degree tilted image sensors, respectively. Atmospheric particle measurements were carried out by employing the polarization Scheimpflug lidar system.

  12. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2016-04-08

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R² > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift.

  13. Tropospheric Ozone Source Attribution in Southern California during Summer 2014 Based on Lidar Measurements and Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Munoz, Maria Jose; Johnson, Matthew S.; Leblanc, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades, significant efforts have been made to increase tropospheric ozone long-term monitoring. A large number of ground-based, airborne and space-borne instruments are currently providing valuable data to contribute to better understand tropospheric ozone budget and variability. Nonetheless, most of these instruments provide in-situ surface and column-integrated data, whereas vertically resolved measurements are still scarce. Besides ozonesondes and aircraft, lidar measurements have proven to be valuable tropospheric ozone profilers. Using the measurements from the tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) located at the JPL Table Mountain Facility, California, and the GEOS-Chem and GEOS-5 model outputs, the impact of the North American monsoon on tropospheric ozone during summer 2014 is investigated. The influence of the Monsoon lightning-induced NOx will be evaluated against other sources (e.g. local anthropogenic emissions and the stratosphere) using also complementary data such as backward-trajectories analysis, coincident water vapor lidar measurements, and surface ozone in-situ measurements.

  14. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Uncertain LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    , we simplify state prediction for the MPC. Consequently, the control problem of the nonlinear system is simplified into a quadratic programming. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation time, which is the traveling time of wind from the LIDAR measurement point to the rotor. An algorithm based......The problem of Model predictive control (MPC) of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) measurements is considered. A nonlinear dynamical model of the wind turbine is obtained. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points, which are determined...... on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, the MPC without error compensation and an MPC with re-linearization at each sample point...

  15. Aircraft Wake Vortex Measurement with Coherent Doppler Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Songhua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft vortices are generated by the lift-producing surfaces of the aircraft. The variability of near-surface conditions can change the drop rate and cause the cell of the wake vortex to twist and contort unpredictably. The pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar Detection and Ranging is an indispensable access to real aircraft vortices behavior which transmitting a laser beam and detecting the radiation backscattered by atmospheric aerosol particles. Experiments for Coherent Doppler Lidar measurement of aircraft wake vortices has been successfully carried out at the Beijing Capital International Airport (BCIA. In this paper, the authors discuss the Lidar system, the observation modes carried out in the measurements at BCIA and the characteristics of vortices.

  16. Development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar for measuring middle atmosphere winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, K.; Patra, A. K.; Narayana Rao, D.

    Interpretation of most of the middle and upper atmospheric dynamical and chemical data relies on the climatological description of the wind field Rayleigh Doppler lidar is one instrument which monitors wind profiles continuously though continuity is limited to clear meteorological conditions in the middle atmosphere A Doppler wind lidar operating in incoherent mode gives excellent wind and temperature information at these altitudes with necessary spectral sensitivity It observes atmospheric winds by measuring the spectral shift of the scattered light due to the motions of atmospheric molecules with background winds and temperature by spectral broadening The presentation is about the design and development of Incoherent Doppler lidar to obtain wind information in the height regions of 30-65 km The paper analyses and describes various types of techniques that can be adopted viz Edge technique and Fringe Imaging technique The paper brings out the scientific objectives configuration simulations error sources and technical challenges involved in the development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar The presentation also gives a novel technique for calibrating the lidar

  17. Sensitivity analysis of nacelle lidar free stream wind speed measurements to wind-induction reconstruction model and lidar range configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Elin; Borraccino, Antoine; Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul

    The sensitivity of nacelle lidar wind speed measurements to wind-induction models and lidar range configurations is studied using experimental data from the Nørrekær Enge (NKE) measurement campaign and simulated lidar data from Reynold-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) aerodynamic computational fluid...... the ZDM was configured to measure at five distances. From the configured distances, a large number of range configurations were created and systematically tested to determine the sensitivity of the reconstructed wind speeds to the number of ranges, minimum range and maximum range in the range......) of the fitting residuals. The results demonstrate that it is not possible to use RANS CFD simulated lidar data to determine optimal range configurations for real-time nacelle lidars due to their perfect (unrealistic) representation of the simulated flow field. The recommended range configurations are therefore...

  18. Application of backpack Lidar to geological cross-section measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jingyu; Wang, Ran; Xiao, Zhouxuan; Li, Lu; Yao, Weihua; Han, Wei; Zhao, Baolin

    2017-11-01

    As the traditional geological cross section measurement, the artificial traverse method was recently substituted by using point coordinates data. However, it is still the crux of the matter that how to acquire the high-precision point coordinates data quickly and economically. Thereby, the backpack Lidar is presented on the premise of the principle of using point coordinates in this issue. Undoubtedly, Lidar technique, one of booming and international active remote sensing techniques, is a powerful tool in obtaining precise topographic information, high-precision 3-D coordinates and building a real 3-D model. With field practice and date processing indoors, it is essentially accomplished that geological sections maps could be generated simply, accurately and automatically in the support of relevant software such as ArcGIS and LiDAR360.

  19. Cloud Physics Lidar Measurements During the SAFARI-2000 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, Stan; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new remote sensing instrument, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the ER-2 aircraft. The first deployment for CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. The CPL is a three-wavelength lidar designed for studies of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and boundary layer aerosols. The CPL utilizes a high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser with photon counting detectors. A brief description of the CPL instrument will be given, followed by examples of CPL data products. In particular, examples of aerosol backscatter, including boundary layer smoke and cirrus clouds will be shown. Resulting optical depth estimates derived from the aerosol measurements will be shown. Comparisons of the CPL optical depth and optical depth derived from microPulse Lidar and the AATS-14 sunphotomer will be shown.

  20. Differential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar and Raman lidar have been applied to the range-resolved measurements of water vapor density for more than 20 years. Results have been obtained using both lidar techniques that have led to improved understanding of water vapor distributions in the atmosphere. This paper reviews the theory of the measurements, including the sources of systematic and random error; the progress in lidar technology and techniques during that period, including a brief look at some of the lidar systems in development or proposed; and the steps being taken to improve such lidar systems.

  1. Evaluation of three lidar scanning strategies for turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Jennifer F.; Klein, Petra M.; Wharton, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Several errors occur when a traditional Doppler beam swinging (DBS) or velocity-azimuth display (VAD) strategy is used to measure turbulence with a lidar. To mitigate some of these errors, a scanning strategy was recently developed which employs six beam positions to independently estimate the u,...

  2. Spaceborne Applications of P Band Imaging Radars for Measuring Forest Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rignot, Eric J.; Zimmermann, Reiner; vanZyl, Jakob J.

    1995-01-01

    In three sites of boreal and temperate forests, P band HH, HV, and VV polarization data combined estimate total aboveground dry woody biomass within 12 to 27% of the values derived from allometric equations, depending on forest complexity. Biomass estimates derived from HV-polarization data only are 2 to 14% less accurate. When the radar operates at circular polarization, the errors exceed 100% over flooded forests, wet or damaged trees and sparse open tall forests because double-bounce reflections of the radar signals yield radar signatures similar to that of tall and massive forests. Circular polarizations, which minimize the effect of Faraday rotation in spaceborne applications, are therefore of limited use for measuring forest biomass. In the tropical rain forest of Manu, in Peru, where forest biomass ranges from 4 kg/sq m in young forest succession up to 50 kg/sq m in old, undisturbed floodplain stands, the P band horizontal and vertical polarization data combined separate biomass classes in good agreement with forest inventory estimates. The worldwide need for large scale, updated, biomass estimates, achieved with a uniformly applied method, justifies a more in-depth exploration of multi-polarization long wavelength imaging radar applications for tropical forests inventories.

  3. Applying spaceborne reflectivity measurements for calculation of the solar ultraviolet radiation at ground level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. den Outer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term analysis of cloud effects on ultraviolet (UV radiation on the ground using spaceborne observations requires the use of instruments that have operated consecutively. The longest data record can be built from the reflectivity measurements produced by the instruments Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS flown on Nimbus 7 from 1979 to 1992, TOMS on Earth Probe from 1996 to 2005, and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI flown on EOS Aura since 2004. The reflectivity data produced by TOMS on Earth Probe is only included until 2002. A comparison is made with cloud effects inferred from ground-based pyranometer measurements at over 83 World Radiation Data Centre stations. Modelled UV irradiances utilizing the standard reflectivity are compared with measurements of UV irradiances at eight European low-elevation stations. The reflectivity data of the two TOMS instruments shows a consistent agreement, and the required corrections are of low percentage, i.e. 2–3%. In contrast, the reflectivity product of OMI requires correction of 7–10%, and a solar angle dependency therein is more pronounced. These corrections were inferred from a comparison with pyranometer data, and tested using the UV measurements. The average reduction of UV radiation due to clouds for all sites together indicates a small trend: a diminishing cloudiness, in line with ground-based UV observations. Uncorrected implementation of the reflectivity data would have indicated the opposite.

    An optimal area was established for reflectivity data for the calculation of daily sums of UV radiation. It measures approximately 1.25° in latitudinal direction for square-shaped areas overhead the ground-based UV stations. Such an area can be traversed within 5 to 7 h at the average wind speeds found for the West European continent.

  4. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of C02 Column Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William E.; Rodriquez, Michael; Browell, Edward V.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column density for an approach being developed as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. It uses a pulsed dual-wavelength lidar measurement based on the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) technique. We demonstrated the approach using the CO2 measurement from aircraft in July and August 2009 over four locations. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and the results show approx.1 ppm random errors for 8-10 km altitudes and approx.30 sec averaging times. Airborne measurements were also made in 2010 with stronger signals and initial analysis shows approx. 0.3 ppm random errors for 80 sec averaging times for measurements at altitudes> 6 km.

  5. On mean wind and turbulence profile measurements from ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Two types of wind lidar?s have become available for ground-based vertical mean wind and turbulence profiling. A continuous wave (CW) wind lidar, and a pulsed wind lidar. Although they both are build upon the same recent 1.55 μ telecom fibre technology, they possess fundamental differences between...... their temporal and spatial resolution capabilities. A literature review of the two lidar systems spatial and temporal resolution characteristics will be presented, and the implication for the two lidar types vertical profile measurements of mean wind and turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer...

  6. Validation of the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE version 2.2 temperature using ground-based and space-borne measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Sica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An ensemble of space-borne and ground-based instruments has been used to evaluate the quality of the version 2.2 temperature retrievals from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS. The agreement of ACE-FTS temperatures with other sensors is typically better than 2 K in the stratosphere and upper troposphere and 5 K in the lower mesosphere. There is evidence of a systematic high bias (roughly 3–6 K in the ACE-FTS temperatures in the mesosphere, and a possible systematic low bias (roughly 2 K in ACE-FTS temperatures near 23 km. Some ACE-FTS temperature profiles exhibit unphysical oscillations, a problem fixed in preliminary comparisons with temperatures derived using the next version of the ACE-FTS retrieval software. Though these relatively large oscillations in temperature can be on the order of 10 K in the mesosphere, retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles typically vary by less than a percent or so. Statistical comparisons suggest these oscillations occur in about 10% of the retrieved profiles. Analysis from a set of coincident lidar measurements suggests that the random error in ACE-FTS version 2.2 temperatures has a lower limit of about ±2 K.

  7. On reconciling ground-based with spaceborne normalized radar cross section measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgartner, Francois; Munk, Jens; Jezek, K C

    2002-01-01

    This study examines differences in the normalized radar cross section, derived from ground-based versus spaceborne radar data. A simple homogeneous half-space model, indicates that agreement between the two improves as 1) the distance from the scatterer is increased; and/or 2) the extinction...

  8. Comparison of 3D turbulence measurements using three staring wind lidars and a sonic anemometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, J; Courtney, M S; Mikkelsen, T; Wagner, R; Lindeloew, P; Sjoeholm, M; Enevoldsen, K; Cariou, J-P; Parmentier, R

    2008-01-01

    Three pulsed lidars were used in staring, non-scanning mode, placed so that their beams crossed close to a 3D sonic anemometer. The goal is to compare lidar volume averaged wind measurement with point measurement reference sensors and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D turbulence measurements with lidars. The results show a very good correlation between the lidar and the sonic times series. The variance of the velocity measured by the lidar is attenuated due to spatial filtering, and the amount of attenuation can be predicted theoretically

  9. Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous wave, conically scanning LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Mikkelsen, Torben; Courtney, Michael

    averaging is done in two steps: 1) the weighted averaging of the wind speed in the probe volume of the laser beam; 2) the averaging of the wind speeds occurring on the circular path described by the conically scanning lidar. Therefore the standard deviation measured by a lidar resolves only the turbulence...... of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar. First, the wind speed standard deviation measured by such a lidar gives on average 80% of the standard deviation measured by a cup anemometer. This difference is due to the spatial averaging inherently made by a cw conically scanning lidar. The spatial...

  10. Study on the influence of attitude angle on lidar wind measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaochen; Dou, Peilin; Xue, Yangyang

    2017-11-01

    When carrying on wind profile measurement of offshore wind farm by shipborne Doppler lidar technique, the ship platform often produces motion response under the action of ocean environment load. In order to measure the performance of shipborne lidar, this paper takes two lidar wind measurement results as the research object, simulating the attitude of the ship in the ocean through the three degree of freedom platform, carrying on the synchronous observation test of the wind profile, giving an example of comparing the wind measurement data of two lidars, and carrying out the linear regression statistical analysis for all the experimental correlation data. The results show that the attitude angle will affect the precision of the lidar, The influence of attitude angle on the accuracy of lidar is uncertain. It is of great significance to the application of shipborne Doppler lidar wind measurement technology in the application of wind resources assessment in offshore wind power projects.

  11. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Optical Properties During SAFARI-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, M. J.; Hlavka, D. L.; Hart, W. D.; Welton, E. J.; Campbell, J. R.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) operated onboard the NASA ER-2 high altitude aircraft during the SAFARI-2000 field campaign. The CPL provided high spatial resolution measurements of aerosol optical properties at both 1064 nm and 532 nm. We present here results of planetary boundary layer (PBL) aerosol optical depth analysis and profiles of aerosol extinction. Variation of optical depth and extinction are examined as a function of regional location. The wide-scale aerosol mapping obtained by the CPL is a unique data set that will aid in future studies of aerosol transport. Comparisons between the airborne CPL and ground-based MicroPulse Lidar Network (MPL-Net) sites are shown to have good agreement.

  12. Long Term Stratospheric Aerosol Lidar Measurements in Kyushu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Motowo

    1992-01-01

    Lidar soundings of the stratospheric aerosols have been made since 1972 at Fukuoka, Kyushu Island of Japan. Volcanic clouds from eruptions of La Soufriere, Sierra Negra, St. Helens, Uluwan, Alaid, unknown volcano, and El Chichon were detected one after another in only three years from 1979 to 1982. In july 1991 strong scattering layers which were originated from the serious eruptions of Pinatubo in June and were almost comparable to the El Chichon clouds were detected. Volcanic clouds from pinatubo and other volcanos mentioned are examined and carefully compared to each other and to the wind and temperature which was measured by Fukuoka Meteorological Observatory almost at the same time as the lidar observation was made.

  13. Evaluation of turbulence measurement techniques from a single Doppler lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Bonin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of turbulence are essential to understand and quantify the transport and dispersal of heat, moisture, momentum, and trace gases within the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Through the years, various techniques to measure turbulence using Doppler lidar observations have been proposed. However, the accuracy of these measurements has rarely been validated against trusted in situ instrumentation. Herein, data from the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA are used to verify Doppler lidar turbulence profiles through comparison with sonic anemometer measurements. For 17 days at the end of the experiment, a single scanning Doppler lidar continuously cycled through different turbulence measurement strategies: velocity–azimuth display (VAD, six-beam scans, and range–height indicators (RHIs with a vertical stare.Measurements of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE, turbulence intensity, and stress velocity from these techniques are compared with sonic anemometer measurements at six heights on a 300 m tower. The six-beam technique is found to generally measure turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity the most accurately at all heights (r2  ≈  0.78, showing little bias in its observations (slope of  ≈  0. 95. Turbulence measurements from the velocity–azimuth display method tended to be biased low near the surface, as large eddies were not captured by the scan. None of the methods evaluated were able to consistently accurately measure the shear velocity (r2 =  0.15–0.17. Each of the scanning strategies assessed had its own strengths and limitations that need to be considered when selecting the method used in future experiments.

  14. Assessment and Optimization of Lidar Measurement Availability for Wind Turbine Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoust, S.; Jehu, A.; Bouillet, M.; Bardon, M.; Vercherin, B.; Scholbrock, A.; Fleming, P.; Wright, A.

    2014-05-01

    Turbine-mounted lidars provide preview measurements of the incoming wind field. By reducing loads on critical components and increasing the potential power extracted from the wind, the performance of wind turbine controllers can be improved [2]. As a result, integrating a light detection and ranging (lidar) system has the potential to lower the cost of wind energy. This paper presents an evaluation of turbine-mounted lidar availability. Availability is a metric which measures the proportion of time the lidar is producing controller-usable data, and is essential when a wind turbine controller relies on a lidar. To accomplish this, researchers from Avent Lidar Technology and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory first assessed and modeled the effect of extreme atmospheric events. This shows how a multirange lidar delivers measurements for a wide variety of conditions. Second, by using a theoretical approach and conducting an analysis of field feedback, we investigated the effects of the lidar setup on the wind turbine. This helps determine the optimal lidar mounting position at the back of the nacelle, and establishes a relationship between availability, turbine rpm, and lidar sampling time. Lastly, we considered the role of the wind field reconstruction strategies and the turbine controller on the definition and performance of a lidar's measurement availability.

  15. Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m−1 to 1.6e-4 m−1 and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m−1sr−1 and 1.7e-06 m−1sr−1 in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr and summer (33 ± 10 sr. The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind.

  16. Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Pan, Zengxin; Liu, Boming

    2016-05-18

    We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio) at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m(-1) to 1.6e-4 m(-1)) and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m(-1)sr(-1) and 1.7e-06 m(-1)sr(-1)) in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr) and summer (33 ± 10 sr). The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind.

  17. Mapping of past stand-level forest disturbances and estimation of time since disturbance using simulated spaceborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Lopez, N.; Hudak, A. T.; Boschetti, L.

    2017-12-01

    Explicit information on the location, the size or the time since disturbance (TSD) at the forest stand level complements field inventories, improves the monitoring of forest attributes and the estimation of biomass and carbon stocks. Even-aged stands display homogenous structural parameters that have often been used as a proxy of stand age. Consequently, performing object-oriented analysis on Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data has potential to detect historical stand-replacing disturbances. Recent research has shown good results in the delineation of forest stands as well as in the prediction of disturbance occurrence and TSD using airborne LiDAR data. Nevertheless, the use of airborne LiDAR for systematic monitoring of forest stands is limited by the sporadic availability of data and its high cost compared to satellite instruments. NASA's forthcoming Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigations (GEDI) mission will provide systematically data on the vertical structure of the vegetation, but its use presents some challenges compared to the common discrete-return airborne LiDAR. GEDI will be a waveform instrument, hence the summary metrics will be different to those obtained with airborne LiDAR, and the sampling configuration could limit the utility of the data, especially on heterogeneous landscapes. The potential use of GEDI data for forest characterization at the stand level would therefore depend on the predictive power of the GEDI footprint metrics, and on the density of point samples relative to forest stand size (i.e. the number of observation/footprints per stand).In this study, we assess the performance of simulated GEDI-derived metrics for stand characterization and estimation of TSD, and the point density needed to adequately identify forest stands, which translates - due to the fixed sampling configuration - into the minimum temporal interval needed to collect a sufficient number of points. The study area was located in the Clear Creek, Selway River

  18. Evaluating Mesoscale Simulations of the Coastal Flow Using Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floors, R.; Hahmann, A. N.; Peña, A.

    2018-03-01

    The atmospheric flow in the coastal zone is investigated using lidar and mast measurements and model simulations. Novel dual-Doppler scanning lidars were used to investigate the flow over a 7 km transect across the coast, and vertically profiling lidars were used to study the vertical wind profile at offshore and onshore positions. The Weather, Research and Forecasting model is set up in 12 different configurations using 2 planetary boundary layer schemes, 3 horizontal grid spacings and varied sources of land use, and initial and lower boundary conditions. All model simulations describe the observed mean wind profile well at different onshore and offshore locations from the surface up to 500 m. The simulated mean horizontal wind speed gradient across the shoreline is close to that observed, although all simulations show wind speeds that are slightly higher than those observed. Inland at the lowest observed height, the model has the largest deviations compared to the observations. Taylor diagrams show that using ERA-Interim data as boundary conditions improves the model skill scores. Simulations with 0.5 and 1 km horizontal grid spacing show poorer model performance compared to those with a 2 km spacing, partially because smaller resolved wave lengths degrade standard error metrics. Modeled and observed velocity spectra were compared and showed that simulations with the finest horizontal grid spacing resolved more high-frequency atmospheric motion.

  19. Comparison of 3D turbulence measurements using three staring wind lidars and a sonic anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Cariou, J.-P.; Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Three pulsed lidars were used in staring, non-scanning mode, placed so that their beams crossed close to a 3D sonic anemometer. The goal is to compare lidar volume averaged wind measurement with point measurement reference sensors and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D turbulence mea...... measurements with lidars. The results show a very good correlation between the lidar and the sonic times series. The variance of the velocity measured by the Mar is attenuated due to spatial filtering, and the amount of attenuation can be predicted theoretically.......Three pulsed lidars were used in staring, non-scanning mode, placed so that their beams crossed close to a 3D sonic anemometer. The goal is to compare lidar volume averaged wind measurement with point measurement reference sensors and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D turbulence...

  20. Long-term Aerosol Lidar Measurements At CNR-IMAA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mona, L.; Amodeo, A.; D'Amico, G.; Pandolfi, M.; Pappalardo, G.

    2006-12-01

    Actual estimations of the aerosol effect on the radiation budget are affected by a large uncertainties mainly due to the high inhomogeneity and variability of atmospheric aerosol, in terms of concentration, shape, size distribution, refractive index and vertical distribution. Long-term measurements of vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties are needed to reduce these uncertainties. At CNR-IMAA (40° 36'N, 15° 44' E, 760 m above sea level), a lidar system for aerosol study is operative since May 2000 in the framework of EARLINET (European Aerosol Research Lidar Network). Until August 2005, it provided independent measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter at 355 nm and aerosol backscatter profiles at 532 nm. After an upgrade of the system, it provides independent measurements of aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles at 355 and 532 nm, and of aerosol backscatter profiles at 1064 nm and depolarization ratio at 532 nm. For these measurements, lidar ratio at 355 and 532 nm and Angstrom exponent profiles at 355/532 nm are also obtained. Starting on May 2000, systematic measurements are performed three times per week according to the EARLINET schedule and further measurements are performed in order to investigate particular events, like dust intrusions, volcanic eruptions and forest fires. A climatological study has been carried out in terms of the seasonal behavior of the PBL height and of the aerosol optical properties calculated inside the PBL itself. In the free troposphere, an high occurrences of Saharan dust intrusions (about 1 day of Saharan dust intrusion every 10 days) has been observed at CNR-IMAA because of the short distance from the Sahara region. During 6 years of observations, very peculiar cases of volcanic aerosol emitted by Etna volcano and aerosol released by large forest fires burning occurred in Alaska and Canada have been observed in the free troposphere at our site. Particular attention is devoted to lidar ratio both for the

  1. Time series analysis of continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben; Mann, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneou......The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 mu m continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra...

  2. Lidar to lidar calibration of Ground-based Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  3. Monte Carlo analysis of radiative transport in oceanographic lidar measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cupini, E.; Ferro, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy); Ferrari, N. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ingegneria Energetica, Nucleare e del Controllo Ambientale

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of oceanographic lidar systems measurements is often carried out with semi-empirical methods, since there is only a rough understanding of the effects of many environmental variables. The development of techniques for interpreting the accuracy of lidar measurements is needed to evaluate the effects of various environmental situations, as well as of different experimental geometric configurations and boundary conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation model represents a tool that is particularly well suited for answering these important questions. The PREMAR-2F Monte Carlo code has been developed taking into account the main molecular and non-molecular components of the marine environment. The laser radiation interaction processes of diffusion, re-emission, refraction and absorption are treated. In particular are considered: the Rayleigh elastic scattering, produced by atoms and molecules with small dimensions with respect to the laser emission wavelength (i.e. water molecules), the Mie elastic scattering, arising from atoms or molecules with dimensions comparable to the laser wavelength (hydrosols), the Raman inelastic scattering, typical of water, the absorption of water, inorganic (sediments) and organic (phytoplankton and CDOM) hydrosols, the fluorescence re-emission of chlorophyll and yellow substances. PREMAR-2F is an extension of a code for the simulation of the radiative transport in atmospheric environments (PREMAR-2). The approach followed in PREMAR-2 was to combine conventional Monte Carlo techniques with analytical estimates of the probability of the receiver to have a contribution from photons coming back after an interaction in the field of view of the lidar fluorosensor collecting apparatus. This offers an effective mean for modelling a lidar system with realistic geometric constraints. The retrieved semianalytic Monte Carlo radiative transfer model has been developed in the frame of the Italian Research Program for Antarctica (PNRA) and it is

  4. LIDAR Measurements of the Vertical Distribution of Aerosol Optical and Physical Properties over Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The vertical structure of aerosol optical and physical properties was measured by Lidar in Eastern Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia, from June 2008 to May 2009. Lidar measurements were supplemented with surface-based measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 mass and chemical ...

  5. Modelling lidar volume-averaging and its significance to wind turbine wake measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Forsting, A. R.; Troldborg, N.; Borraccino, A.

    2017-05-01

    Lidar velocity measurements need to be interpreted differently than conventional in-situ readings. A commonly ignored factor is “volume-averaging”, which refers to lidars not sampling in a single, distinct point but along its entire beam length. However, especially in regions with large velocity gradients, like the rotor wake, can it be detrimental. Hence, an efficient algorithm mimicking lidar flow sampling is presented, which considers both pulsed and continous-wave lidar weighting functions. The flow-field around a 2.3 MW turbine is simulated using Detached Eddy Simulation in combination with an actuator line to test the algorithm and investigate the potential impact of volume-averaging. Even with very few points discretising the lidar beam is volume-averaging captured accurately. The difference in a lidar compared to a point measurement is greatest at the wake edges and increases from 30% one rotor diameter (D) downstream of the rotor to 60% at 3D.

  6. Upgrading the Arecibo Potassium Lidar Receiver for Meridional Wind Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccone, A. N.; Lautenbach, J.

    2017-12-01

    Lidar can be used to measure a plethora of variables: temperature, density of metals, and wind. This REU project is focused on the set up of a semi steerable telescope that will allow the measurement of meridional wind in the mesosphere (80-105 km) with Arecibo Observatory's potassium resonance lidar. This includes the basic design concept of a steering system that is able to turn the telescope to a maximum of 40°, alignment of the mirror with the telescope frame to find the correct focusing, and the triggering and programming of a CCD camera. The CCD camera's purpose is twofold: looking though the telescope and matching the stars in the field of view with a star map to accurately calibrate the steering system and determining the laser beam properties and position. Using LabVIEW, the frames from the CCD camera can be analyzed to identify the most intense pixel in the image (and therefore the brightest point in the laser beam or stars) by plotting average pixel values per row and column and locating the peaks of these plots. The location of this pixel can then be plotted, determining the jitter in the laser and position within the field of view of the telescope.

  7. Identification of long-range transport of aerosols over Austria using EARLINET lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelia, Talianu

    2018-04-01

    The aims of the study is to identify the paths of the long-range transported aerosols over Austria and their potential origin, and to estimate their properties, using lidar measurements from EARLINET stations closest to Austria from Germany and Romania and aerosol transport models. As of now, there is no lidar station in Austria. The study is part of a project to estimate the usefulness of a lidar station located in Vienna, Austria.

  8. Canopy wake measurements using multiple scanning wind LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, C. D.; Carbajo Fuertes, F.; Iungo, V.; Stefan, H. G.; Porte-Agel, F.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy wakes have been shown, in controlled wind tunnel experiments, to significantly affect the fluxes of momentum, heat and other scalars at the land and water surface over distances of ˜O(1 km), see Markfort et al. (EFM, 2013). However, there are currently no measurements of the velocity field downwind of a full-scale forest canopy. Point-based anemometer measurements of wake turbulence provide limited insight into the extent and details of the wake structure, whereas scanning Doppler wind LiDARs can provide information on how the wake evolves in space and varies over time. For the first time, we present measurements of the velocity field in the wake of a tall patch of forest canopy. The patch consists of two uniform rows of 40-meter tall deciduous, plane trees, which border either side of the Allée de Dorigny, near the EPFL campus. The canopy is approximately 250 m long, and it is approximately 40 m wide, along the direction of the wind. A challenge faced while making field measurements is that the wind rarely intersects a canopy normal to the edge. The resulting wake flow may be deflected relative to the mean inflow. Using multiple LiDARs, we measure the evolution of the wake due to an oblique wind blowing over the canopy. One LiDAR is positioned directly downwind of the canopy to measure the flow along the mean wind direction and the other is positioned near the canopy to evaluate the transversal component of the wind and how it varies with downwind distance from the canopy. Preliminary results show that the open trunk space near the base of the canopy results in a surface jet that can be detected just downwind of the canopy and farther downwind dissipates as it mixes with the wake flow above. A time-varying recirculation zone can be detected by the periodic reversal of the velocity near the surface, downwind of the canopy. The implications of canopy wakes for measurement and modeling of surface fluxes will be discussed.

  9. Intercomparison of ozone measurements between Lidar and ECC-sondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabbe, G.C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Boesenberg, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Dier, H. [Meteorologisches Obs., Lindenberg (Germany); Goersdorf, U. [Meteorologisches Obs., Lindenberg (Germany); Matthias, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Peters, G. [Meteorologisches Obs., Lindenberg (Germany); Schaberl, T. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Senff, C. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    1996-02-01

    An intercomparison experiment for measurements of ozone vertical profiles in the lower troposphere was performed using a ground-based ozone DIAL (DIfferential Absorption Lidar) and ECC-sondes (Electrochemical Concentration Cell) attached to tethered as well as free flying balloons, which took place in June of 1994. The tethered balloon was used for ozone soundings in the planetary boundary layer up to an altitude of 500 m, while in the free troposphere free flying balloons were used. For the time series of up to 90 min obtained with the tethersondes both averages and standard deviations are compared. The mean difference for all measurements amounted to 3.5 {mu}g/m{sup 3} only, corresponding to 3.5%. For the instantaneous profiles compared to the free flying sondes the differences were only marginally larger, with a mean value of 3.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3} corresponding to 4.1%. With two exceptions all averages for a single profile stayed below 7 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Larger individual excursions were observed. In some cases, in particular in regions of steep aerosol gradients at layer boundaries, most probably the lidar values cause the deviation, while in other cases the ECC-sonde is suspected to yield erroneous results. For the measured standard deviation those retrieved from DIAL measurements are generally larger than measured by the ECC-sondes, especially in regions of inhomogeneous aerosol distribution. For the measurements reported here, this is attributed to residual errors in the aerosol correction of the DIAL measurements. The general agreement found in this intercomparison is regarded as excellent, DIAL is proven to be a very valuable tool for detailed studies of the ozone distribution in the lower troposphere. (orig.)

  10. Development of a pulsed 9.5 micron lidar for regional scale O3 measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    A pulsed infrared lidar system designed for application to the remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases from an airborne platform is described. The system is also capable of measuring the infrared backscatter characteristics of the ocean surface, terrain, cloud, and aerosol targets. The lidar employed is based on dual wavelength pulse energy measurements in the 9-11 micrometer wavelength region.

  11. Lidar Measurements of Tropospheric Ozone in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seabrook Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on differential absorption lidar (DIAL measurements of tropospheric ozone in the Canadian Arctic during springtime. Measurements at Eureka Weather Station revealed that mountains have a significant effect on the vertical structure of ozone above Ellesmere Island. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when the flow of air from over the sea ice was blocked by mountains. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the mid troposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies will be shown in the presentation, while one is described in this paper.

  12. Retrieving microphysics of cirrus clouds from data measured with raman lidar ramses and a tilted ceilometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovoi, Anatoli; Reichardt, Jens; Görsdorf, Ulrich; Wolf, Veronika; Konoshonkin, Alexander; Shishko, Victor; Kustova, Natalia

    2018-04-01

    To develop a microphysical model of cirrus clouds, data obtained by Raman lidar RAMSES and a tilted ceilometer are studied synergistically. The measurements are interpreted by use of a data archive containing the backscattering matrixes as well as the depolarization, color and lidar ratios of ice crystals of different shapes, sizes and spatial orientations calculated within the physical-optics approximation.

  13. Nacelle lidar for power curve measurement - Avedøre campaign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Davoust, Samuel

    measurement of the wind speed away from the instrument. In the first phase of the EUDP project: “Nacelle lidar for power performance measurement”, a measurement campaign with a na-celle lidar prototype placed on an onshore turbine demonstrated the poten-tial of the technology for power curve measurement....... The main deviations of this method to the requirement of the IEC 61400-12-1 were identified and a procedure was established for the use of a nacelle lidar specifically for power curve measurement. This report describes the results of a sec-ond measurement campaign aiming at testing and finalising...

  14. Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 microns with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains. I - Lidar intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdle, David A.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Vaughan, J. Michael; Brown, Derek W.; Post, Madison J.

    1991-01-01

    An airborne continuous-wave (CW) focused CO2 Doppler lidar and a ground-based pulsed CO2 Doppler lidar were to obtain seven pairs of comparative measurements of tropospheric aerosol backscatter profiles at 10.6-micron wavelength, near Denver, Colorado, during a 20-day period in July 1982. In regions of uniform backscatter, the two lidars show good agreement, with differences usually less than about 50 percent near 8-km altitude and less than a factor of 2 or 3 elsewhere but with the pulsed lidar often lower than the CW lidar. Near sharp backscatter gradients, the two lidars show poorer agreement, with the pulsed lidar usually higher than the CW lidar. Most discrepancies arise from a combination of atmospheric factors and instrument factors, particularly small-scale areal and temporal backscatter heterogeneity above the planetary boundary layer, unusual large-scale vertical backscatter structure in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, and differences in the spatial resolution, detection threshold, and noise estimation for the two lidars.

  15. Wind field reconstruction from nacelle-mounted lidar short-range measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borraccino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Profiling nacelle lidars probe the wind at several heights and several distances upstream of the rotor. The development of such lidar systems is relatively recent, and it is still unclear how to condense the lidar raw measurements into useful wind field characteristics such as speed, direction, vertical and longitudinal gradients (wind shear. In this paper, we demonstrate an innovative method to estimate wind field characteristics using nacelle lidar measurements taken within the induction zone. Model-fitting wind field reconstruction techniques are applied to nacelle lidar measurements taken at multiple distances close to the rotor, where a wind model is combined with a simple induction model. The method allows robust determination of free-stream wind characteristics. The method was applied to experimental data obtained with two different types of nacelle lidar (five-beam Demonstrator and ZephIR Dual Mode. The reconstructed wind speed was within 0.5 % of the wind speed measured with a mast-top-mounted cup anemometer at 2.5 rotor diameters upstream of the turbine. The technique described in this paper overcomes measurement range limitations of the currently available nacelle lidar technology.

  16. Uncertainty of power curve measurement with a two-beam nacelle-mounted lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Courtney, Michael Stephen; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    Nacelle lidars are attractive for offshore measurements since they can provide measurements of the free wind speed in front of the turbine rotor without erecting a met mast, which significantly reduces the cost of the measurements. Nacelle-mounted pulsed lidars with two lines of sight (LOS) have...... lies between 1 and 2% for the wind speed range between cut-in and rated wind speed. Finally, the lidar was mounted on the nacelle of a wind turbine in order to perform a power curve measurement. The wind speed was simultaneously measured with a mast-top mounted cup anemometer placed two rotor diameters...... lidar was less than 10% larger on average than that obtained with the mast mounted cup anemometer. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  17. Effects of Systematic and Random Errors on the Retrieval of Particle Microphysical Properties from Multiwavelength Lidar Measurements Using Inversion with Regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Whiteman, David N.; Veselovskii, Igor; Kolgotin, Alexei; Korenskiy, Michael; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the effects of systematic and random errors on the inversion of multiwavelength (MW) lidar data using the well-known regularization technique to obtain vertically resolved aerosol microphysical properties. The software implementation used here was developed at the Physics Instrumentation Center (PIC) in Troitsk (Russia) in conjunction with the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Its applicability to Raman lidar systems based on backscattering measurements at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) and extinction measurements at two wavelengths (355 and 532 nm) has been demonstrated widely. The systematic error sensitivity is quantified by first determining the retrieved parameters for a given set of optical input data consistent with three different sets of aerosol physical parameters. Then each optical input is perturbed by varying amounts and the inversion is repeated. Using bimodal aerosol size distributions, we find a generally linear dependence of the retrieved errors in the microphysical properties on the induced systematic errors in the optical data. For the retrievals of effective radius, number/surface/volume concentrations and fine-mode radius and volume, we find that these results are not significantly affected by the range of the constraints used in inversions. But significant sensitivity was found to the allowed range of the imaginary part of the particle refractive index. Our results also indicate that there exists an additive property for the deviations induced by the biases present in the individual optical data. This property permits the results here to be used to predict deviations in retrieved parameters when multiple input optical data are biased simultaneously as well as to study the influence of random errors on the retrievals. The above results are applied to questions regarding lidar design, in particular for the spaceborne multiwavelength lidar under consideration for the upcoming ACE mission.

  18. Lalinet status - station expansion and lidar ratio systematic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landulfo Eduardo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available LALINET is expanding regionally to guarantee spatial coverage over South and Central Americas. One of the network goals is to obtain a set of regional representative aerosol optical properties such as particle backscatter, extinction and lidar ratio. Given the North-South extension and influence of distinct airmass circulation patterns it is paramount to distinguish these optical parameters in order to gain better perfomance in radiation transfer models. A set of lidar ratio data is presented.

  19. Multifunction Lidar for Air Data and Kinetic Air Hazard Measurement, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ophir proposes to develop a multifunction, low-cost lidar capable of accurately measuring kinetic air hazards, and air data, simultaneously. The innovation is...

  20. Atmospheric aerosol load morphological classification and retrieved visibility based on lidar backscatter measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tesfaye, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the tropospheric aerosol load morphological classification and its impact on temporal variation of visibility are investigated using a continuous 23-hour single channel CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR backscatter measurement. The trajectory...

  1. ALADIN: an atmospheric laser Doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, R.; Ghibaudo, JB.; Labandibar, JY.; Willetts, D.; Vaughan, M.; Pearson, G.; Harris, M.; Flamant, P. H.; Salamitou, P.; Dabas, A.; Charasse, R.; Midavaine, T.; Royer, M.; Heimel, H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "ALADIN: an atmospheric laser Doppler wind lidar instrument for wind velocity measurements from space," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  2. Time series analysis of continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar wind measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeholm, M; Mikkelsen, T; Mann, J; Enevoldsen, K; Courtney, M

    2008-01-01

    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused 1.55 μm continuous-wave coherent Doppler Lidar on observed wind turbulence measured in the atmospheric surface layer over homogeneous terrain is described and analysed. Comparison of Lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneously obtained from a mast-mounted sonic anemometer at 78 meters height at the test station for large wind turbines at Hoevsoere in Western Jutland, Denmark is presented for the first time

  3. Studies on a double-interferometer and mesospheric temperature measurements with a sodium-LIDAR-instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serwazi, M.

    1989-07-01

    The first part of this report describes the integration and alignment of a second Fabry-Perot-Interferometer into the optical bench of the sodium LIDAR experiment in Northern Norway. The spectral efficiency of this double interferometer was instrumentally and theoretically examined. The second part of the report presents results of temperature measurements in March 1989, which were made jointly with a Rayleigh LIDAR from the Max Planck Institute for Aeronomy. Measured temperatures and Na densities of three nights are presented. (orig.)

  4. Estimating Turbulence Statistics and Parameters from Lidar Measurements. Remote Sensing Summer School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya

    This report is prepared as a written contribution to the Remote Sensing Summer School, that is organized by the Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark. It provides an overview of the state-of-the-art with regards to estimating turbulence statistics from lidar measurements...... configuration. The so-called velocity Azimuth Display (VAD) and the Doppler Beam Swinging (DBS) methods of post processing the lidar data are investigated in greater details, partly due to their wide use in commercial lidars. It is demonstrated that the VAD or DBS techniques result in introducing significant...

  5. All-Fiber Airborne Coherent Doppler Lidar to Measure Wind Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An all-fiber airborne pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (CDL prototype at 1.54μm is developed to measure wind profiles in the lower troposphere layer. The all-fiber single frequency pulsed laser is operated with pulse energy of 300μJ, pulse width of 400ns and pulse repetition rate of 10kHz. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest pulse energy of all-fiber eye-safe single frequency laser that is used in airborne coherent wind lidar. The telescope optical diameter of monostatic lidar is 100 mm. Velocity-Azimuth-Display (VAD scanning is implemented with 20 degrees elevation angle in 8 different azimuths. Real-time signal processing board is developed to acquire and process the heterodyne mixing signal with 10000 pulses spectra accumulated every second. Wind profiles are obtained every 20 seconds. Several experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of the lidar. We have carried out airborne wind lidar experiments successfully, and the wind profiles are compared with aerological theodolite and ground based wind lidar. Wind speed standard error of less than 0.4m/s is shown between airborne wind lidar and balloon aerological theodolite.

  6. LIDAR wind speed measurements from a rotating spinner (SpinnerEx 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelou, N.; Mikkelsen, Torben; Hansen, Kasper H.; Sjoeholm, M.; Harris, M.

    2010-08-15

    In the context of the increasing application of remote sensing techniques in wind energy, the feasibility of upwind observations via a spinner-mounted wind lidar was tested during the SpinnerEx 2009 experiment. The objective was to install a QinetiQ (Natural Power) ZephIR lidar in the rotating spinner of a MW-sized wind turbine, and investigate the approaching wind fields from this vantage point. Time series of wind speed measurements from the lidar with 50 Hz sampling rate were successfully obtained for approximately 60 days, during the measurement campaign lasting from April to August 2009. In this report, information is given regarding the experimental setup and the lidar's operation parameters. The geometrical model used for the reconstruction of the scanning pattern of the lidar is described. This model takes into account the lidar's pointing direction, the spinner axis's vertical tilt and the wind turbine's yaw relative to the mean wind speed direction. The data analysis processes are documented. A methodology for the calculation of the yaw misalignment of the wind turbine relative to the wind direction, as a function of various averaging times, is proposed, using the lidar's instantaneous line-of-sight radial wind speed measurements. Two different setups have been investigated in which the approaching wind field was measured at distances of 0.58 OE and 1.24 OE rotor diameters upwind, respectively. For both setups, the instantaneous yaw misalignment of the turbine has been estimated from the lidar measurements. Data from an adjacent meteorological mast as well as data logged within the wind turbine's control system were used to evaluate the results. (author)

  7. Measurement of phase function of aerosol at different altitudes by CCD Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peiyu; Yuan, Ke'e.; Yang, Jie; Hu, Shunxing

    2018-02-01

    The aerosols near the ground are closely related to human health and climate change, the study on which has important significance. As we all know, the aerosol is inhomogeneous at different altitudes, of which the phase function is also different. In order to simplify the retrieval algorithm, it is usually assumed that the aerosol is uniform at different altitudes, which will bring measurement error. In this work, an experimental approach is demonstrated to measure the scattering phase function of atmospheric aerosol particles at different heights by CCD lidar system, which could solve the problem of the traditional CCD lidar system in assumption of phase function. The phase functions obtained by the new experimental approach are used to retrieve the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles. By comparison of the aerosol extinction coefficient retrieved by Mie-scattering aerosol lidar and CCD lidar at night, the reliability of new experimental approach is verified.

  8. Remotely measuring the wind using turbine-mounted lidars: Application to power performance testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine

    the so-called whitebox approach. It consists mainly in calibrating the lidar primary measurementsof line-of-sight velocities. The line-of-sight velocity is the projection of the wind vector onto the laser beam propagation path. The calibration is performed in situ, by comparing the lidar velocity...... measurements to a reference quantity itself traceable to the international standards of units. The uncertainty of the line-ofsight velocity measurements was assessed using a normative methodology (GUM) which is based on the law of propagation of uncertainties. The generic calibration procedure was applied...... to two commercially developed nacelle lidars systems, the Avent 5-beam Demonstrator and the ZephIR Dual Mode lidars. Further, the lineof-sight positioning quantities such as inclination angles or beam trajectory werealso calibrated and their uncertainties assessed. Calibration results were of high...

  9. Pure Rotational Raman Lidar for Temperature Measurements from 5-40 Km Over Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yajuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a pure rotational Raman lidar (PRR was established for the atmospheric temperature measurements from 5 km to 40 km over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E. To extract the expected PRR signals and simultaneously suppress the elastically backscattered light, a high-spectral resolution polychromator for light splitting and filtering was designed. Observational results revealed that the temperature difference measured by PRR lidar and the local radiosonde below 30 km was less than 3.0 K. The good agreement validated the reliability of the PRR lidar. With the 1-h integration and 150-m spatial resolution, the statistical temperature error for PRR lidar increases from 0.4 K at 10 km up to 4 K at altitudes of about 30 km. In addition, the whole night temperature profiles were obtained for study of the long-term observation of atmospheric fluctuations.

  10. Windscanner: 3-D wind and turbulence measurements from three steerable doppler lidars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, T; Mann, J; Courtney, M; Sjoeholm, M

    2008-01-01

    At RISOe DTU we has started to build a new-designed laser-based lidar scanning facility for detailed remote measurements of the wind fields engulfing the huge wind turbines of today. Our aim is to measure in real-time 3D wind vector data at several hundred points every second: 1) upstream of the turbine, 2) near the turbine, and 3) in the wakes of the turbine rotors. Our first proto-type Windscanner is now being built from three commercially available Continuous Wave (CW) wind lidars modified with fast adjustable focus length and equipped with 2-D prism-based scan heads, in conjunction with a commercially available pulsed wind lidar for extended vertical profiling range. Design, construction and initial testing of the new 3-D wind lidar scanning facility are described and the functionality of the Windscanner and its potential as a new research facility within the wind energy community is discussed

  11. Lidar to lidar calibration phase 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the results from phase 2 of a lidar to lidar (L2L) calibration procedure. Phase two of the project included two measurement campaigns conducted at given sites. The purpose was to find out if the lidar-to-lidar calibration procedure can be conducted with similar results...

  12. Tracking atmospheric boundary layer in tehran using combined lidar remote sensing and ground base measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahifar, Hossein; Khalesifard, Hamid

    2018-04-01

    The vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) has been studied by use of a depolarized LiDAR over Tehran, Iran. The boundary layer height (BLH) remains under 1km, and its retrieval from LiDAR have been compared with sonding measurements and meteorological model outputs. It is also shown that the wind speed and direction as well as topography lead to the persistence of air pollution in Tehran. The situation aggravate in fall and winter due to temperature inversion.

  13. Quantifying Seasonal Skill In Coupled Sea Ice Models Using Freeboard Measurements From Spaceborne Laser Altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Data collection periods during the ICESat mission were influenced by the presence of atmospheric clouds and aerosols, and also LASER malfunctions. Upon...measurements after that satellite is launched next year. 14. subject terms Arctic, climate change, Regional Arctic System Model, altimetry...measurements, sea ice, sea ice thickness, freeboard, ICESat, ICESat-2, climate model, coupled model, Operation IceBridge 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 147 16

  14. Global carbon monoxide vertical distributions from spaceborne high-resolution FTIR nadir measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barret

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first global distributions of CO vertical profiles retrieved from a thermal infrared FTS working in the nadir geometry. It is based on the exploitation of the high resolution and high quality spectra measured by the Interferometric Monitor of Greenhouse gases (IMG which flew onboard the Japanese ADEOS platform in 1996-1997. The retrievals are performed with an algorithm based on the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM and are characterized in terms of vertical sensitivity and error budget. It is found that most of the IMG measurements contain between 1.5 and 2.2 independent pieces of information about the vertical distribution of CO from the lower troposphere to the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS. The retrievals are validated against coincident NOAA/CMDL in situ surface measurements and NDSC/FTIR total columns measurements. The retrieved global distributions of CO are also found to be in good agreement with the distributions modeled by the GEOS-CHEM 3D CTM, highlighting the ability of IMG to capture the horizontal as well as the vertical structure of the CO distributions.

  15. RIVM Tropospheric ozone LIDAR Measurements during TROLIX'91

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apituley A

    1991-01-01

    For the intercomparison of several LIDAR systems for the vertical profiling of tropospheric ozone developed in the EUREKA/EUROTRAC subproject TESLAS a field campaign was held at the RIVM site in Bilthoven, the Netherlands, during the period from June 10 to June 28, 1991. In this report an overview

  16. Wind gust measurements using pulsed Doppler wind-lidar: comparison of direct and indirect techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The measurements of wind gusts, defined as short duration wind speed maxima, have traditionally been limited by the height that can be reached by weather masts. Doppler lidars can potentially provide information from levels above this and thereby fill this gap in our knowledge. To measure the 3D...... is 3.9 s) which can provide high resolution turbulent measurements, both in the vertical direction, and potentially in the horizontal direction. In this study we explore different strategies of wind lidar measurements to measure the wind speed maxima. We use a novel stochastic turbulence reconstruction...... model, driven by the Doppler lidar measurements, which uses a non-linear particle filter to estimate the small-scale turbulent fluctuations. The first results show that the reconstruction method can reproduce the wind speed maxima measured by the sonic anemometer if a low-pass filter with a cut...

  17. Broadband light source for fiber-optic measurement system in spaceborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rößner, Max R.; Müller, Mathias S.; Buck, Thorbjörn C.; Koch, Alexander W.

    2012-01-01

    Measuring temperatures, mechanical loads and derived quantities precisely and reliably play an important role in spaceflight. With spacecraft becoming increasingly complex, upscaling of present telemetry techniques can become cumbersome. Additionally, there are entirely new sensory requirements, resulting from emerging technologies such as smart structures, active vibration damping and composite material health monitoring. It has been demonstrated in preceding studies that these measurements can be advantageously and efficiently carried out by means of fiber-optic systems. The most prominent fiber-optic strain and temperature sensor is the fiber Bragg grating. Typically, multiple fiber Bragg gratings are used to translate entire temperature and strain fields into an optical wavelength information. For the interrogation of these sensors, a broadband or scanning light source is required. Additional requirements with respect to the light source are high intensity and unpolarized illumination of the gratings. These constraints can be met by a light source that is based on amplified spontaneous emission in a rare-earth-doped fiber. In the presented work, a compact light source, adapted for measurement applications and targeted towards space applications, has been developed. The design of this light source is presented, as well as its implementation. The light source has been designed and tested for selected core aspects of space robustness and the results of these tests are summarized.

  18. Measurements of stratospheric Pinatubo aerosol extinction profiles by a Raman lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo, Makoto; Nagasawa, Chikao.

    1992-01-01

    The Raman lidar has been used for remote measurements of water vapor, ozone and atmospheric temperature in the lower troposphere because the Raman cross section is three orders smaller than the Rayleigh cross section. The authors estimated the extinction coefficients of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol in the stratosphere using a Raman lidar. If the precise aerosol extinction coefficients are derived, the backscatter coefficient of a Mie scattering lidar will be more accurately estimated. The Raman lidar has performed to measure density profiles of some species using Raman scattering. Here the authors used a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for transmitter and received nitrogen vibrational Q-branch Raman scattering signal. Ansmann et al. (1990) derived tropospherical aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar. The authors think that this method can apply to dense stratospheric aerosols such as Pinatubo volcanic aerosols. As dense aerosols are now accumulated in the stratosphere by Pinatubo volcanic eruption, the error of Ramen lidar signal regarding the fluctuation of air density can be ignored

  19. Spaceborne Radar for Mapping Forest and Land Use Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Neha Pankaj

    Degradation (REDD+). The implementation and effectiveness of such mechanisms relies partially on continuous observations of forests using satellite technology and partially on ground-based measurements of forest aboveground volume/biomass (AGV/AGB), carbon density and changes therein. Together, these means...... of forest monitoring enable the development of policies and measures to alter current trends in global forest and biodiversity loss. This thesis investigates the use of long wavelength (~23 cm, L-band) spaceborne radar, which has all-weather and canopy-penetration capabilities, acquired by the Advanced Land...... Observing Satellite (ALOS) for forest monitoring. Using a combination of local expert knowledge, plot inventories, and data from lidar and optical sensors, it aims to understand (1) whether forest disturbance dynamics may be detected with radar, and (2) what physical and macroecological properties influence...

  20. Wind field measurement in the nonprecipitous regions surrounding storms by an airborne pulsed Doppler lidar system, appendix A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    Coherent Doppler lidar appears to hold great promise in contributing to the basic store of knowledge concerning flow field characteristics in the nonprecipitous regions surrounding severe storms. The Doppler lidar, through its ability to measure clear air returns, augments the conventional Doppler radar system, which is most useful in the precipitous regions of the storm. A brief description of the Doppler lidar severe storm measurement system is provided along with the technique to be used in performing the flow field measurements. The application of the lidar is addressed, and the planned measurement program is outlined.

  1. Spaceborne measurement of Greenland ice sheet changes: the ESA Greenland CCI project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Meister, Rakia

    The ESA “Greenland_ice_sheet_cci” project is currently making past and present space measurements of Greenland ice sheet changes available for use by scientists, stakeholders and the general public. The data are part of a large set of ECV’s (Essential Climate Variables) made available by the ESA...... Climate Initiative, as a contribution to the global Climate Observing System. The ECV data produced for the Greenlandice sheet include detailed grids of elevation changes and ice flow velocities, as well as line data of grounding lines and calving front locations for major outlet glaciers. The “ice_sheets......_cci” goal is to generate a consistent, validated, long-term and timely set of ECV’s, a.o. to improve the impact of satellite data on climate research and coupled ice sheet/climate models. Special focus is on use of data from ESA missions such as ERS, Envisat and the new Sentinel missions, but in the 2nd...

  2. A Large Underestimate of Formic Acid from Tropical Fires: Constraints from Space-Borne Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaliyakunnel, S; Millet, D B; Wells, K C; Cady-Pereira, K E; Shephard, M W

    2016-06-07

    Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant carboxylic acids and a dominant source of atmospheric acidity. Recent work indicates a major gap in the HCOOH budget, with atmospheric concentrations much larger than expected from known sources. Here, we employ recent space-based observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer with the GEOS-Chem atmospheric model to better quantify the HCOOH source from biomass burning, and assess whether fire emissions can help close the large budget gap for this species. The space-based data reveal a severe model HCOOH underestimate most prominent over tropical burning regions, suggesting a major missing source of organic acids from fires. We develop an approach for inferring the fractional fire contribution to ambient HCOOH and find, based on measurements over Africa, that pyrogenic HCOOH:CO enhancement ratios are much higher than expected from direct emissions alone, revealing substantial secondary organic acid production in fire plumes. Current models strongly underestimate (by 10 ± 5 times) the total primary and secondary HCOOH source from African fires. If a 10-fold bias were to extend to fires in other regions, biomass burning could produce 14 Tg/a of HCOOH in the tropics or 16 Tg/a worldwide. However, even such an increase would only represent 15-20% of the total required HCOOH source, implying the existence of other larger missing sources.

  3. Development of LiDAR measurements for the German offshore test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettenmeier, A; Kuehn, M; Waechter, M; Rahm, S; Mellinghoff, H; Siegmeier, B; Reeder, L

    2008-01-01

    The paper introduces the content of the recently started joint research project 'Development of LiDAR measurements for the German Offshore Test Site' which has the objective to support other research projects at the German offshore test site 'alpha ventus'. The project has started before the erection of the offshore wind farm and one aim is to give recommendations concerning LiDAR technology useable for offshore measurement campaigns and data analysis. The work is organized in four work packages. The work package LiDAR technology deals with the specification, acquisition and calibration of a commercial LiDAR system for the measurement campaigns. Power curve measurements are dedicated to power curve assessment with ground-based LiDAR using standard statistical methods. Additionally, it deals with the development of new methods for the measurement of non-steady short-term power curves. Wind field research aims at the development of wake loading simulation methods of wind turbines and the exploration of loading control strategies and nacelle-based wind field measurement techniques. Finally, dissemination of results to the industry takes place in work package Technology transfer

  4. Triple-Pulse Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Carbon Dioxide Measurement - Novel Lidar Technologies and Techniques with Path to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Refaat, Tamer F.; Petros, Mulugeta

    2017-01-01

    The societal benefits of understanding climate change through identification of global carbon dioxide sources and sinks led to the desired NASA's active sensing of carbon dioxide emissions over nights, days, and seasons (ASCENDS) space-based missions of global carbon dioxide measurements. For more than 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have developed several carbon dioxide active remote sensors using the differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique operating at the two-micron wavelength. Currently, an airborne two-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is under development. This IPDA lidar measures carbon dioxide as well as water vapor, the dominant interfering molecule on carbon dioxide remote sensing. Advancement of this triple-pulse IPDA lidar development is presented.

  5. The continental source of glyoxal estimated by the synergistic use of spaceborne measurements and inverse modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Richter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric glyoxal and formaldehyde columns retrieved from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument in 2005 are used with the IMAGESv2 global chemistry-transport model and its adjoint in a two-compound inversion scheme designed to estimate the continental source of glyoxal. The formaldehyde observations provide an important constraint on the production of glyoxal from isoprene in the model, since the degradation of isoprene constitutes an important source of both glyoxal and formaldehyde. Current modelling studies underestimate largely the observed glyoxal satellite columns, pointing to the existence of an additional land glyoxal source of biogenic origin. We include an extra glyoxal source in the model and we explore its possible distribution and magnitude through two inversion experiments. In the first case, the additional source is represented as a direct glyoxal emission, and in the second, as a secondary formation through the oxidation of an unspecified glyoxal precursor. Besides this extra source, the inversion scheme optimizes the primary glyoxal and formaldehyde emissions, as well as their secondary production from other identified non-methane volatile organic precursors of anthropogenic, pyrogenic and biogenic origin.

    In the first inversion experiment, the additional direct source, estimated at 36 Tg/yr, represents 38% of the global continental source, whereas the contribution of isoprene is equally important (30%, the remainder being accounted for by anthropogenic (20% and pyrogenic fluxes. The inversion succeeds in reducing the underestimation of the glyoxal columns by the model, but it leads to a severe overestimation of glyoxal surface concentrations in comparison with in situ measurements. In the second scenario, the inferred total global continental glyoxal source is estimated at 108 Tg/yr, almost two times higher than the global a priori source. The extra secondary source is the largest contribution to the global glyoxal

  6. Validation of double-pulse 1572 nm integrated path differential absorption lidar measurement of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Liu, Jiqiao; Bi, Decang; Ma, Xiuhua; Hou, Xia; Zhu, Xiaolei; Chen, Weibiao

    2018-04-01

    A ground-based double-pulse 1572 nm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar was developed for carbon dioxide (CO2) column concentrations measurement. The lidar measured the CO2 concentrations continuously by receiving the scattered echo signal from a building about 1300 m away. The other two instruments of TDLAS and in-situ CO2 analyzer measured the CO2 concentrations on the same time. A CO2 concentration measurement of 430 ppm with 1.637 ppm standard error was achieved.

  7. Independent evaluation of the SNODAS snow depth product using regional-scale lidar-derived measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, A.; Marshall, H.-P.; Winstral, A.; Elder, K.; Yueh, S.; Cline, D.

    2015-01-01

    Repeated light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys are quickly becoming the de facto method for measuring spatial variability of montane snowpacks at high resolution. This study examines the potential of a 750 km2 lidar-derived data set of snow depths, collected during the 2007 northern Colorado Cold Lands Processes Experiment (CLPX-2), as a validation source for an operational hydrologic snow model. The SNOw Data Assimilation System (SNODAS) model framework, operated by the US National Weather Service, combines a physically based energy-and-mass-balance snow model with satellite, airborne and automated ground-based observations to provide daily estimates of snowpack properties at nominally 1 km resolution over the conterminous United States. Independent validation data are scarce due to the assimilating nature of SNODAS, compelling the need for an independent validation data set with substantial geographic coverage. Within 12 distinctive 500 × 500 m study areas located throughout the survey swath, ground crews performed approximately 600 manual snow depth measurements during each of the CLPX-2 lidar acquisitions. This supplied a data set for constraining the uncertainty of upscaled lidar estimates of snow depth at the 1 km SNODAS resolution, resulting in a root-mean-square difference of 13 cm. Upscaled lidar snow depths were then compared to the SNODAS estimates over the entire study area for the dates of the lidar flights. The remotely sensed snow depths provided a more spatially continuous comparison data set and agreed more closely to the model estimates than that of the in situ measurements alone. Finally, the results revealed three distinct areas where the differences between lidar observations and SNODAS estimates were most drastic, providing insight into the causal influences of natural processes on model uncertainty.

  8. A rigorous assessment of tree height measurements obtained using airborne LIDAR and conventional field methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans-Erik Andersen; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey

    2006-01-01

    Tree height is an important variable in forest inventory programs but is typically time-consuming and costly to measure in the field using conventional techniques. Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) provides individual tree height measurements that are highly correlated with field-derived measurements, but the imprecision of conventional field techniques does...

  9. Low-Cost Direct Detect Spaceborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Nd:YVO4 Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate NAS National Academy of Sciences NEAR/ELR Near Earth Asteroid ...it is on to the next challenge. For if there is anything that you all have taught me, it is to not stop learning, to not stop questioning, to not...enable the creation of more detailed 3-D maps of the world that can aid in planning and disaster response. This thesis will provide analysis of launch

  10. Column CO2 Measurement From an Airborne Solid-State Double-Pulsed 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U. N.; Yu, J.; Petros, M.; Refaat, T. F.; Remus, R.; Fay, J.; Reithmaier, K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micrometers IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  11. Water vapor spectroscopy in the 815-nm wavelength region for Differential Absorption Lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsardin, Patrick; Browell, Edward V.

    1995-01-01

    The differential absorption lidar (DIAL) technique was first applied to the remote measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles from airborne platforms in 1981. The successful interpretation of the lidar profiles relies strongly on an accurate knowledge of specific water vapor absorption line parameters: line strength, pressure broadening coefficient, pressure-induced shift coefficient and the respective temperature-dependence factors. NASA Langley Research Center has developed and is currently testing an autonomous airborne water vapor lidar system: LASE (Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment). This DIAL system uses a Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sapphire laser seeded by a diode laser as a lidar transmitter. The tunable diode has been selected to operate in the 813-818 nm wavelength region. This 5-nm spectral interval offers a large distribution of strengths for temperature-insensitive water vapor absorption lines. In support of the LASE project, a series of spectroscopic measurements were conducted for the 16 absorption lines that have been identified for use in the LASE measurements. Prior to this work, the experimental data for this water vapor absorption band were limited - to our knowledge - to the line strengths and to the line positions.

  12. An MPC approach to individual pitch control of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. A new approach is proposed to simplify the optimization problem of MPC. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points which are determined by the effective wind...... speed on the rotor disc and take the wind speed as a scheduling variable. The wind speed is measurable ahead of the turbine using LIDARs, therefore the scheduling variable is known for the entire prediction horizon. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation, which is the traveling time of wind...... from the LIDAR measurement point to the rotor. An algorithm based on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, without error...

  13. Simultaneous Rayleigh lidar and airglow measurements of middle atmospheric waves over low latitudes in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taori, A.; Kamalakar, V.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, S. V. B.; Russell, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    We utilize simultaneous Rayleigh lidar and mesospheric OH and O2 airglow measurements to identify the dominant and propagating waves within 40-95 km altitude regions over a low latitude station Gadanki (13.8° N, 79.2 °E). It is found that waves with 0.4-0.6 h periodicity are common throughout the altitude range of 40-95 km with significant amplitudes. The ground based temperature measurements with lidar and airglow monitoring are found to compare well with SABER data. With simultaneous Rayleigh lidar (temperature) and mesospheric airglow (emission intensity and temperature) measurements, we estimate the amplitude growth and Krassovsky parameters to characterize the propagation and dissipation of these upward propagating waves.

  14. Theory of lidar method for measurement of the modulation transfer function of water layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, Lev S

    2013-01-10

    We develop a method to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a water layer from the characteristics of lidar signal backscattered by water volume. We propose several designs of a lidar system for remote measurement of the MTF and the procedure to determine optical properties of water using the measured MTF. We discuss a laser system for sea-bottom imaging that accounts for the influence of water slab on the image structure and allows for correction of image distortions caused by light scattering in water. © 2013 Optical Society of America

  15. UV Raman lidar measurements of relative humidity for the characterization of cirrus cloud microphysical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Masiello

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Raman lidar measurements performed in Potenza by the Raman lidar system BASIL in the presence of cirrus clouds are discussed. Measurements were performed on 6 September 2004 in the frame of the Italian phase of the EAQUATE Experiment.

    The major feature of BASIL is represented by its capability to perform high-resolution and accurate measurements of atmospheric temperature and water vapour, and consequently relative humidity, both in daytime and night-time, based on the application of the rotational and vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL is also capable to provide measurements of the particle backscatter and extinction coefficient, and consequently lidar ratio (at the time of these measurements, only at one wavelength, which are fundamental to infer geometrical and microphysical properties of clouds.

    A case study is discussed in order to assess the capability of Raman lidars to measure humidity in presence of cirrus clouds, both below and inside the cloud. While air inside the cloud layers is observed to be always under-saturated with respect to water, both ice super-saturation and under-saturation conditions are found inside these clouds. Upper tropospheric moistening is observed below the lower cloud layer.

    The synergic use of the data derived from the ground based Raman Lidar and of spectral radiances measured by the NAST-I Airborne Spectrometer allows the determination of the temporal evolution of the atmospheric cooling/heating rates due to the presence of the cirrus cloud.

    Lidar measurements beneath the cirrus cloud layer have been interpreted using a 1-D cirrus cloud model with explicit microphysics. The 1-D simulations indicate that sedimentation-moistening has contributed significantly to the moist anomaly, but other mechanisms are also contributing. This result supports the hypothesis that the observed mid-tropospheric humidification is a real feature which is

  16. Airborne lidar measurements of the Soufriere eruption of 17 April 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, W. H., Jr.; Sokol, S.; Hunt, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    At the time of the Soufriere, St. Vincent, volcanic eruption of April 17, 1979, a NASA P-3 aircraft with an uplooking lidar (light detection and ranging) system onboard was airborne 130 kilometers east of the island. Lidar measurements of the fresh volcanic ash were made approximately 2 hours after the eruption, 120 kilometers to the northeast and east. On the evening of April 18, the airborne lidar, on a southerly flight track, detected significant amounts of stratospheric material in layers at 16, 17, 18, and 19.5 kilometers. These data, and measurements to the north on April 19, indicate that the volcanic plume penetrated the stratosphere to an altitude of about 20 kilometers and moved south during the first 48 hours after the eruption.

  17. Estimate of rain evaporation rates from dual-wavelength lidar measurements: comparison against a model analytical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Demoz, Belay; Li, Xiaowen; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2018-04-01

    Rain evaporation significantly contributes to moisture and heat cloud budgets. In this paper, we illustrate an approach to estimate the median volume raindrop diameter and the rain evaporation rate profiles from dual-wavelength lidar measurements. These observational results are compared with those provided by a model analytical solution. We made use of measurements from the multi-wavelength Raman lidar BASIL.

  18. Comments on: Accuracy of Raman Lidar Water Vapor Calibration and its Applicability to Long-Term Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    In a recent publication, LeBlanc and McDermid proposed a hybrid calibration technique for Raman water vapor lidar involving a tungsten lamp and radiosondes. Measurements made with the lidar telescope viewing the calibration lamp were used to stabilize the lidar calibration determined by comparison with radiosonde. The technique provided a significantly more stable calibration constant than radiosondes used alone. The technique involves the use of a calibration lamp in a fixed position in front of the lidar receiver aperture. We examine this configuration and find that such a configuration likely does not properly sample the full lidar system optical efficiency. While the technique is a useful addition to the use of radiosondes alone for lidar calibration, it is important to understand the scenarios under which it will not provide an accurate quantification of system optical efficiency changes. We offer examples of these scenarios.

  19. An Innovative Concept for Spacebased Lidar Measurement of Ocean Carbon Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yongxiang; Behrenfeld, Michael; Hostetler, Chris; Pelon, Jacques; Trepte, Charles; Hair, John; Slade, Wayne; Cetinic, Ivona; Vaughan, Mark; Lu, Xiaomei; hide

    2015-01-01

    Beam attenuation coefficient, c, provides an important optical index of plankton standing stocks, such as phytoplankton biomass and total particulate carbon concentration. Unfortunately, c has proven difficult to quantify through remote sensing. Here, we introduce an innovative approach for estimating c using lidar depolarization measurements and diffuse attenuation coefficients from ocean color products or lidar measurements of Brillouin scattering. The new approach is based on a theoretical formula established from Monte Carlo simulations that links the depolarization ratio of sea water to the ratio of diffuse attenuation Kd and beam attenuation C (i.e., a multiple scattering factor). On July 17, 2014, the CALIPSO satellite was tilted 30Âdeg off-nadir for one nighttime orbit in order to minimize ocean surface backscatter and demonstrate the lidar ocean subsurface measurement concept from space. Depolarization ratios of ocean subsurface backscatter are measured accurately. Beam attenuation coefficients computed from the depolarization ratio measurements compare well with empirical estimates from ocean color measurements. We further verify the beam attenuation coefficient retrievals using aircraft-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) data that are collocated with in-water optical measurements.

  20. Information content and sensitivity of the 3β + 2α lidar measurement system for aerosol microphysical retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Sharon P.; Chemyakin, Eduard; Liu, Xu; Knobelspiesse, Kirk; Stamnes, Snorre; Sawamura, Patricia; Moore, Richard H.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    There is considerable interest in retrieving profiles of aerosol effective radius, total number concentration, and complex refractive index from lidar measurements of extinction and backscatter at several wavelengths. The combination of three backscatter channels plus two extinction channels (3β + 2α) is particularly important since it is believed to be the minimum configuration necessary for the retrieval of aerosol microphysical properties and because the technological readiness of lidar systems permits this configuration on both an airborne and future spaceborne instrument. The second-generation NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2) has been making 3β + 2α measurements since 2012. The planned NASA Aerosol/Clouds/Ecosystems (ACE) satellite mission also recommends the 3β + 2α combination.Here we develop a deeper understanding of the information content and sensitivities of the 3β + 2α system in terms of aerosol microphysical parameters of interest. We use a retrieval-free methodology to determine the basic sensitivities of the measurements independent of retrieval assumptions and constraints. We calculate information content and uncertainty metrics using tools borrowed from the optimal estimation methodology based on Bayes' theorem, using a simplified forward model look-up table, with no explicit inversion. The forward model is simplified to represent spherical particles, monomodal log-normal size distributions, and wavelength-independent refractive indices. Since we only use the forward model with no retrieval, the given simplified aerosol scenario is applicable as a best case for all existing retrievals in the absence of additional constraints. Retrieval-dependent errors due to mismatch between retrieval assumptions and true atmospheric aerosols are not included in this sensitivity study, and neither are retrieval errors that may be introduced in the inversion process. The choice of a simplified model adds clarity to the

  1. Simulated and measured performance of a real-time processor for RFI detection and mitigation on-board spaceborne microwave radiometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl

    2017-01-01

    An RFI processor breadboard has been designed and developed for future spaceborne microwave radiometer systems. RFI detection is based on the anomalous amplitude, kurtosis, and cross-frequency algorithms. These are implemented in VHDL code in an FPGA. Thus algorithm performance can be assessed...... by proper code simulation. The breadboard has been integrated with a Ku band radiometer subjected to RFI-like signals from a laboratory generator. Simulations show that the algorithms as implemented work according to theory when subjected to pulsed sinusoidal and QPSK signals. The laboratory measurements...

  2. A comparison of Doppler lidar wind sensors for Earth-orbit global measurement applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert T.

    1985-01-01

    Now, there are four Doppler lidar configurations which are being promoted for the measurement of tropospheric winds: (1) the coherent CO2 Lidar, operating in the 9 micrometer region using a pulsed, atmospheric pressure CO2 gas discharge laser transmitter, and heterodyne detection; (2) the coherent Neodymium doped YAG or Glass Lidar, operating at 1.06 micrometers, using flashlamp or diode laser optical pumping of the solid state laser medium, and heterodyne detection; (3) the Neodymium doped YAG/Glass Lidar, operating at the doubled frequency (at 530 nm wavelength), again using flashlamp or diode laser pumping of the laser transmitter, and using a high resolution tandem Fabry-Perot filter and direct detection; and (4) the Raman shifted Xenon Chloride Lidar, operating at 350 nm wavelength, using a pulsed, atmospheric pressure XeCl gas discharge laser transmitter at 308 nm, Raman shifted in a high pressure hydrogen cell to 350 nm in order to avoid strong stratospheric ozone absorption, also using a high resolution tandem Fabry-Perot filter and direct detection. Comparisons of these four systems can include many factors and tradeoffs. The major portion of this comparison is devoted to efficiency. Efficiency comparisons are made by estimating the number of transmitted photons required for a single pulse wind velocity estimate of + or - 1 m/s accuracy in the middle troposphere, from an altitude of 800 km, which is assured to be reasonable for a polar orbiting platform.

  3. Column carbon dioxide and water vapor measurements by an airborne triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption lidar: novel lidar technologies and techniques with path to space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, U. N.; Petros, M.; Refaat, T. F.; Yu, J.; Ismail, S.

    2017-09-01

    The 2-micron wavelength region is suitable for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements due to the existence of distinct absorption features for the gas at this wavelength region [1]. For more than 20 years, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have developed several high-energy and high repetition rate 2-micron pulsed lasers [2]. Currently, LaRC team is engaged in designing, developing and demonstrating a triple-pulsed 2-micron direct detection Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar to measure the weighted-average column dry-air mixing ratios of carbon dioxide (XCO2) and water vapor (XH2O) from an airborne platform [1, 3-5]. This novel technique allows measurement of the two most dominant greenhouse gases, simultaneously and independently, using a single instrument. This paper will provide status and details of the development of this airborne 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar. The presented work will focus on the advancement of critical IPDA lidar components. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of seed laser locking, wavelength control, receiver and detector upgrades, laser packaging and lidar integration. Future plans for IPDA lidar ground integration, testing and flight validation will also be discussed. This work enables new Earth observation measurements, while reducing risk, cost, size, volume, mass and development time of required instruments.

  4. Assessing boreal forest photosynthetic dynamics through space-borne measurements of greenness, chlorophyll fluorescence and model GPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Sophia; Guanter, Luis; Voigt, Maximilian; Köhler, Philipp; Jung, Martin; Joiner, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    sophia.walther@gfz-potsdam.de The seasonality of photosynthesis of boreal forests is an essential driver of the terrestrial carbon, water and energy cycles. However, current carbon cycle model results only poorly represent interannual variability and predict very different magnitudes and timings of carbon fluxes between the atmosphere and the land surface (e.g. Jung et al. 2011, Richardson et al. 2012). Reflectance-based satellite measurements, which give an indication of the amount of green biomass on the Earth's surface, have so far been used as input to global carbon cycle simulations, but they have limitations as they are not directly linked to instantaneous photosynthesis. As an alternative, space-borne retrievals of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) boast the potential to provide a direct indication of the seasonality of boreal forest photosynthetic activity and thus to improve carbon model performances. SIF is a small electromagnetic signal that is re-emitted from the photosystems in the chloroplasts, which results in a direct relationship to photosynthetic efficiency. In this contribution we examine the seasonality of the boreal forests with three different vegetation parameters, namely greenness, SIF and model simulations of gross primary production (gross carbon flux into the plants by photosynthesis, GPP). We use the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) to represent green biomass. EVI is calculated from NBAR MODIS reflectance measurements (0.05deg, 16 days temporal resolution) for the time from January 2007-May 2013. SIF data originate from GOME-2 measurements on board the MetOp-A satellite in a spatial resolution of 0.5deg for the time from 2007-2011 (Joiner et al. (2013), Köhler et al. (2014)). As a third data source, data-driven GPP model results are used for the time from 2006-2012 with 0.5deg spatial resolution. The method to quantify phenology developed by Gonsamo et al. (2013) is applied to infer the main phenological phases (greenup/onset of

  5. Differential Absorption Lidar to Measure Subhourly Variation of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Newchurch, Michael J.; Johnson, Steve; Long, Stephania

    2011-01-01

    A tropospheric ozone Differential Absorption Lidar system, developed jointly by The University of Alabama in Huntsville and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is making regular observations of ozone vertical distributions between 1 and 8 km with two receivers under both daytime and nighttime conditions using lasers at 285 and 291 nm. This paper describes the lidar system and analysis technique with some measurement examples. An iterative aerosol correction procedure reduces the retrieval error arising from differential aerosol backscatter in the lower troposphere. Lidar observations with coincident ozonesonde flights demonstrate that the retrieval accuracy ranges from better than 10% below 4 km to better than 20% below 8 km with 750-m vertical resolution and 10-min 17 temporal integration.

  6. Wild fire aerosol optical properties measured by lidar at Haifa, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heese, Birgit; Hofer, Julian; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Althausen, Dietrich; Schechner, Yoav Y.

    2018-04-01

    Optical properties of fresh biomass burning aerosol were measured by lidar during the wild fires in Israel in November 2016. A single-wavelength lidar Polly was operated at the Technion Campus at Haifa. The detector with originally two channels at 532 and 607 nm was recently upgraded with a cross- and a co-polarised channel at 532 nm, and a rotational Raman channel at 530.2 nm. Preliminary results show high particle depolarisation ratios probably caused by soil dust and large fly-ash particles.

  7. Cloud fraction and cloud base measurements from scanning Doppler lidar during WFIP-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, T.; Long, C.; Lantz, K. O.; Choukulkar, A.; Pichugina, Y. L.; McCarty, B.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Marquis, M.

    2017-12-01

    The second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP-2) consisted of an 18-month field deployment of a variety of instrumentation with the principle objective of validating and improving NWP forecasts for wind energy applications in complex terrain. As a part of the set of instrumentation, several scanning Doppler lidars were installed across the study domain to primarily measure profiles of the mean wind and turbulence at high-resolution within the planetary boundary layer. In addition to these measurements, Doppler lidar observations can be used to directly quantify the cloud fraction and cloud base, since clouds appear as a high backscatter return. These supplementary measurements of clouds can then be used to validate cloud cover and other properties in NWP output. Herein, statistics of the cloud fraction and cloud base height from the duration of WFIP-2 are presented. Additionally, these cloud fraction estimates from Doppler lidar are compared with similar measurements from a Total Sky Imager and Radiative Flux Analysis (RadFlux) retrievals at the Wasco site. During mostly cloudy to overcast conditions, estimates of the cloud radiating temperature from the RadFlux methodology are also compared with Doppler lidar measured cloud base height.

  8. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Rush, Kurt; Rabenhorst, Scott; Welch, Wayne; Cadirola, Martin; McIntire, Gerry; Russo, Felicita; Adam, Mariana; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; hide

    2010-01-01

    A high-performance Raman lidar operating in the UV portion of the spectrum has been used to acquire, for the first time using a single lidar, simultaneous airborne profiles of the water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscatter, aerosol extinction, aerosol depolarization and research mode measurements of cloud liquid water, cloud droplet radius, and number density. The Raman Airborne Spectroscopic Lidar (RASL) system was installed in a Beechcraft King Air B200 aircraft and was flown over the mid-Atlantic United States during July August 2007 at altitudes ranging between 5 and 8 km. During these flights, despite suboptimal laser performance and subaperture use of the telescope, all RASL measurement expectations were met, except that of aerosol extinction. Following the Water Vapor Validation Experiment Satellite/Sondes (WAVES_2007) field campaign in the summer of 2007, RASL was installed in a mobile trailer for groundbased use during the Measurements of Humidity and Validation Experiment (MOHAVE-II) field campaign held during October 2007 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory s Table Mountain Facility in southern California. This ground-based configuration of the lidar hardware is called Atmospheric Lidar for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education (ALVICE). During theMOHAVE-II field campaign, during which only nighttime measurements were made, ALVICE demonstrated significant sensitivity to lower-stratospheric water vapor. Numerical simulation and comparisons with a cryogenic frost-point hygrometer are used to demonstrate that a system with the performance characteristics of RASL ALVICE should indeed be able to quantify water vapor well into the lower stratosphere with extended averaging from an elevated location like Table Mountain. The same design considerations that optimize Raman lidar for airborne use on a small research aircraft are, therefore, shown to yield significant dividends in the quantification of lower-stratospheric water vapor. The MOHAVE

  9. Influence of wind conditions on wind turbine loads and measurement of turbulence using lidars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Variations in wind conditions influence the loads on wind turbines significantly. In order to determine these loads it is important that the external conditions are well understood. Wind lidars are well developed nowadays to measure wind profiles upwards from the surface. But how turbulence can be

  10. Improvement of vertical velocity statistics measured by a Doppler lidar through comparison with sonic anemometer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Timothy A.; Newman, Jennifer F.; Klein, Petra M.; Chilson, Phillip B.; Wharton, Sonia

    2016-12-01

    Since turbulence measurements from Doppler lidars are being increasingly used within wind energy and boundary-layer meteorology, it is important to assess and improve the accuracy of these observations. While turbulent quantities are measured by Doppler lidars in several different ways, the simplest and most frequently used statistic is vertical velocity variance (w'2) from zenith stares. However, the competing effects of signal noise and resolution volume limitations, which respectively increase and decrease w'2, reduce the accuracy of these measurements. Herein, an established method that utilises the autocovariance of the signal to remove noise is evaluated and its skill in correcting for volume-averaging effects in the calculation of w'2 is also assessed. Additionally, this autocovariance technique is further refined by defining the amount of lag time to use for the most accurate estimates of w'2. Through comparison of observations from two Doppler lidars and sonic anemometers on a 300 m tower, the autocovariance technique is shown to generally improve estimates of w'2. After the autocovariance technique is applied, values of w'2 from the Doppler lidars are generally in close agreement (R2 ≈ 0.95 - 0.98) with those calculated from sonic anemometer measurements.

  11. Comparison of Large Eddy Simulations of a convective boundary layer with wind LIDAR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Grønnegaard; Kelly, Mark C.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Vertical profiles of the horizontal wind speed and of the standard deviation of vertical wind speed from Large Eddy Simulations of a convective atmospheric boundary layer are compared to wind LIDAR measurements up to 1400 m. Fair agreement regarding both types of profiles is observed only when...

  12. Measurements at FP3 in support of pecan scientific objectives using MPL-111 lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pozsonyi Kristen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper will report on the data collected by a Sigma Space Micropulse Lidar (MPL-111, and how these measurements, when integrated with other data, helps to inform our analysis of two cases of the Great Plains nocturnal Low-Level Jet (LLJ in the vicinity of FP3.

  13. Measurements at FP3 in support of pecan scientific objectives using MPL-111 lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozsonyi, Kristen; Midzak, Natalie; Prestine, Christina; Clark, Richard

    2018-04-01

    This paper will report on the data collected by a Sigma Space Micropulse Lidar (MPL-111), and how these measurements, when integrated with other data, helps to inform our analysis of two cases of the Great Plains nocturnal Low-Level Jet (LLJ) in the vicinity of FP3.

  14. Innovative High-Accuracy Lidar Bathymetric Technique for the Frequent Measurement of River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisler, A.; Crowley, G.; Thayer, J. P.; Thompson, G. S.; Barton-Grimley, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Lidar (light detection and ranging) provides absolute depth and topographic mapping capability compared to other remote sensing methods, which is useful for mapping rapidly changing environments such as riverine systems. Effectiveness of current lidar bathymetric systems is limited by the difficulty in unambiguously identifying backscattered lidar signals from the water surface versus the bottom, limiting their depth resolution to 0.3-0.5 m. Additionally these are large, bulky systems that are constrained to expensive aircraft-mounted platforms and use waveform-processing techniques requiring substantial computation time. These restrictions are prohibitive for many potential users. A novel lidar device has been developed that allows for non-contact measurements of water depth down to 1 cm with an accuracy and precision of shallow to deep water allowing for shoreline charting, measuring water volume, mapping bottom topology, and identifying submerged objects. The scalability of the technique opens up the ability for handheld or UAS-mounted lidar bathymetric systems, which provides for potential applications currently unavailable to the community. The high laser pulse repetition rate allows for very fine horizontal resolution while the photon-counting technique permits real-time depth measurement and object detection. The enhanced measurement capability, portability, scalability, and relatively low-cost creates the opportunity to perform frequent high-accuracy monitoring and measuring of aquatic environments which is crucial for understanding how rivers evolve over many timescales. Results from recent campaigns measuring water depth in flowing creeks and murky ponds will be presented which demonstrate that the method is not limited by rough water surfaces and can map underwater topology through moderately turbid water.

  15. Prediction of topographic and bathymetric measurement performance of airborne low-SNR lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio, Tristan

    Low signal-to-noise ratio (LSNR) lidar (light detection and ranging) is an alternative paradigm to traditional lidar based on the detection of return signals at the single photoelectron level. The objective of this work was to predict low altitude (600 m) LSNR lidar system performance with regards to elevation measurement and target detection capability in topographic (dry land) and bathymetric (shallow water) scenarios. A modular numerical sensor model has been developed to provide data for further analysis due to the dearth of operational low altitude LSNR lidar systems. This simulator tool is described in detail, with consideration given to atmospheric effects, surface conditions, and the effects of laser phenomenology. Measurement performance analysis of the simulated topographic data showed results comparable to commercially available lidar systems, with a standard deviation of less than 12 cm for calculated elevation values. Bathymetric results, although dependent largely on water turbidity, were indicative of meter-scale horizontal data spacing for sea depths less than 5 m. The high prevalence of noise in LSNR lidar data introduces significant difficulties in data analysis. Novel algorithms to reduce noise are described, with particular focus on their integration into an end-to-end target detection classifier for both dry and submerged targets (cube blocks, 0.5 m to 1.0 m on a side). The key characteristic exploited to discriminate signal and noise is the temporal coherence of signal events versus the random distribution of noise events. Target detection performance over dry earth was observed to be robust, reliably detecting over 90% of targets with a minimal false alarm rate. Comparable results were observed in waters of high clarity, where the investigated system was generally able to detect more than 70% of targets to a depth of 5 m. The results of the study show that CATS, the University of Florida's LSNR lidar prototype, is capable of high fidelity

  16. Multi-component wind measurements of wind turbine wakes performed with three LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iungo, G. V.; Wu, Y.-T.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2012-04-01

    Field measurements of the wake flow produced from the interaction between atmospheric boundary layer and a wind turbine are performed with three wind LiDARs. The tested wind turbine is a 2 MW Enercon E-70 located in Collonges, Switzerland. First, accuracy of mean values and frequency resolution of the wind measurements are surveyed as a function of the number of laser rays emitted for each measurement. Indeed, measurements performed with one single ray allow maximizing sampling frequency, thus characterizing wake turbulence. On the other hand, if the number of emitted rays is increased accuracy of mean wind is increased due to the longer sampling period. Subsequently, two-dimensional measurements with a single LiDAR are carried out over vertical sections of the wind turbine wake and mean wake flow is obtained by averaging 2D measurements consecutively performed. The high spatial resolution of the used LiDAR allows characterizing in details velocity defect present in the central part of the wake and its downstream recovery. Single LiDAR measurements are also performed by staring the laser beam at fixed directions for a sampling period of about ten minutes and maximizing the sampling frequency in order to characterize wake turbulence. From these tests wind fluctuation peaks are detected in the wind turbine wake at blade top-tip height for different downstream locations. The magnitude of these turbulence peaks is generally reduced by moving downstream. This increased turbulence level at blade top-tip height observed for a real wind turbine has been already detected from previous wind tunnel tests and Large Eddy simulations, thus confirming the presence of a source of dangerous fatigue loads for following wind turbines within a wind farm. Furthermore, the proper characterization of wind fluctuations through LiDAR measurements is proved by the detection of the inertial subrange from spectral analysis of these velocity signals. Finally, simultaneous measurements with two

  17. Demonstration of measuring sea fog with an SNSPD-based Lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Chen, Yajun; Zhang, Labao; Jia, Xiaoqing; Feng, Zhijun; Wu, Ganhua; Yan, Xiachao; Zhai, Jiquan; Wu, Yang; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Zhizhong; Zhang, Chi; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2017-11-08

    The monitor of sea fogs become more important with the rapid development of marine activities. Remote sensing through laser is an effective tool for monitoring sea fogs, but still challengeable for large distance. We demonstrated a Long-distance Lidar for sea fog with superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD), which extended the ranging area to a 180-km diameter area. The system, which was verified by using a benchmark distance measurement of a known island, is applied to the Mie scattering weather prediction Lidar system. The fog echo signal distribution in the range of 42.3∼63.5 km and 53.2∼74.2 km was obtained by the Lidar system. Then the fog concentration and the velocity of the fog were deduced from the distribution, which is consistent with the weather prediction. The height of the sea fog is about two hundred meter while the visibility at this height is about 90 km due to the Earth's radius of curvature. Therefore, the capability of this SNSPD-based Lidar was close to the theoretical limit for sea fog measurements for extremely high signal-to-noise ratio of SNSPD.

  18. Full two-dimensional rotor plane inflow measurements by a spinner-integrated wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Angelou, Nikolas

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Wind turbine load reduction and power performance optimization via advanced control strategies is an active area in the wind energy community. In particular, feed-forward control using upwind inflow measurements by lidar (light detection and ranging) remote sensing instruments has...... novel full two-dimensional radial inflow measurements. Approach In order to achieve full two-dimensional radial inflow measurements, a special laser beam scanner has been developed at the DTU Wind Energy Department. It is based on two rotating prisms that each deviate the beam by 15°, resulting......, a proof-of-concept trial with a blade mounted lidar was performed during the measurement campaign and is reported in a separate EWEA 2013 contribution. Conclusion The study presented here is the novel full two-dimensional continuation of the previous inflow measurements on a circle presented in the paper...

  19. Assessing the Temperature Dependence of Narrow-Band Raman Water Vapor Lidar Measurements: A Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Walker, Monique; Cardirola, Martin; Sakai, Tetsu; Veselovskii, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Narrow-band detection of the Raman water vapor spectrum using the lidar technique introduces a concern over the temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum. Various groups have addressed this issue either by trying to minimize the temperature dependence to the point where it can be ignored or by correcting for whatever degree of temperature dependence exists. The traditional technique for performing either of these entails accurately measuring both the laser output wavelength and the water vapor spectral passband with combined uncertainty of approximately 0.01 nm. However, uncertainty in interference filter center wavelengths and laser output wavelengths can be this large or larger. These combined uncertainties translate into uncertainties in the magnitude of the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement of 3% or more. We present here an alternate approach for accurately determining the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement. This alternate approach entails acquiring sequential atmospheric profiles using the lidar while scanning the channel passband across portions of the Raman water vapor Q-branch. This scanning is accomplished either by tilt-tuning an interference filter or by scanning the output of a spectrometer. Through this process a peak in the transmitted intensity can be discerned in a manner that defines the spectral location of the channel passband with respect to the laser output wavelength to much higher accuracy than that achieved with standard laboratory techniques. Given the peak of the water vapor signal intensity curve, determined using the techniques described here, and an approximate knowledge of atmospheric temperature, the temperature dependence of a given Raman lidar profile can be determined with accuracy of 0.5% or better. A Mathematica notebook that demonstrates the calculations used here is available from the lead author.

  20. Lidar measurements of mesospheric temperature inversion at a low latitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siva Kumar, V.; Bhavani Kumar, Y.; Raghunath, K.; Rao, P.B. [National MST Radar Facility, Tirupati (India); Krishnaiah, M. [Sri Venkateswara Univ., Tirupati (India). Dept. of Physics; Mizutani, K.; Aoki, T.; Yasui, M.; Itabe, T. [Communication Research Lab., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    The Rayleigh lidar data collected on 119 nights from March 1998 to February 2000 were used to study the statistical characteristics of the low latitude mesospheric temperature inversion observed over Gadanki (13.5 N, 79.2 E), India. The occurrence frequency of the inversion showed semiannual variation with maxima in the equinoxes and minima in the summer and winter, which was quite different from that reported for the mid-latitudes. The peak of the inversion layer was found to be confined to the height range of 73 to 79 km with the maximum occurrence centered around 76 km, with a weak seasonal dependence that fits well to an annual cycle with a maximum in June and a minimum in December. The magnitude of the temperature deviation associated with the inversion was found to be as high as 32 K, with the most probable value occurring at about 20 K. Its seasonal dependence seems to follow an annual cycle with a maximum in April and a minimum in October. The observed characteristics of the inversion layer are compared with that of the mid-latitudes and discussed in light of the current understanding of the source mechanisms. (orig.)

  1. Lidar measurements of mesospheric temperature inversion at a low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Siva Kumar

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rayleigh lidar data collected on 119 nights from March 1998 to February 2000 were used to study the statistical characteristics of the low latitude mesospheric temperature inversion observed over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, India. The occurrence frequency of the inversion showed semiannual variation with maxima in the equinoxes and minima in the summer and winter, which was quite different from that reported for the mid-latitudes. The peak of the inversion layer was found to be confined to the height range of 73 to 79 km with the maximum occurrence centered around 76 km, with a weak seasonal dependence that fits well to an annual cycle with a maximum in June and a minimum in December. The magnitude of the temperature deviation associated with the inversion was found to be as high as 32 K, with the most probable value occurring at about 20 K. Its seasonal dependence seems to follow an annual cycle with a maximum in April and a minimum in October. The observed characteristics of the inversion layer are compared with that of the mid-latitudes and discussed in light of the current understanding of the source mechanisms.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  2. Lidar measurements of mesospheric temperature inversion at a low latitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Siva Kumar

    Full Text Available The Rayleigh lidar data collected on 119 nights from March 1998 to February 2000 were used to study the statistical characteristics of the low latitude mesospheric temperature inversion observed over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, India. The occurrence frequency of the inversion showed semiannual variation with maxima in the equinoxes and minima in the summer and winter, which was quite different from that reported for the mid-latitudes. The peak of the inversion layer was found to be confined to the height range of 73 to 79 km with the maximum occurrence centered around 76 km, with a weak seasonal dependence that fits well to an annual cycle with a maximum in June and a minimum in December. The magnitude of the temperature deviation associated with the inversion was found to be as high as 32 K, with the most probable value occurring at about 20 K. Its seasonal dependence seems to follow an annual cycle with a maximum in April and a minimum in October. The observed characteristics of the inversion layer are compared with that of the mid-latitudes and discussed in light of the current understanding of the source mechanisms.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature. Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  3. Combined Lidar-Radar Remote Sensing: Initial Results from CRYSTAL-FACE and Implications for Future Spaceflight Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matthew J.; Li, Li-Hua; Hart, William D.; Heymsfield, Gerald M.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Vaughan, Mark A.; Winker, David M.

    2003-01-01

    In the near future NASA plans to fly satellites carrying a multi-wavelength backscatter lidar and a 94-GHz cloud profiling radar in formation to provide complete global profiling of cloud and aerosol properties. The CRYSTAL-FACE field campaign, conducted during July 2002, provided the first high-altitude colocated measurements from lidar and cloud profiling radar to simulate these spaceborne sensors. The lidar and radar provide complementary measurements with varying degrees of measurement overlap. This paper presents initial results of the combined airborne lidar-radar measurements during CRYSTAL-FACE. The overlap of instrument sensitivity is presented, within the context of particular CRYSTAL-FACE conditions. Results are presented to quantify the portion of atmospheric profiles sensed independently by each instrument and the portion sensed simultaneously by the two instruments.

  4. Effect of Tree Phenology on LiDAR Measurement of Mediterranean Forest Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Simonson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Retrieval of forest biophysical properties using airborne LiDAR is known to differ between leaf-on and leaf-off states of deciduous trees, but much less is understood about the within-season effects of leafing phenology. Here, we compare two LiDAR surveys separated by just six weeks in spring, in order to assess whether LiDAR variables were influenced by canopy changes in Mediterranean mixed-oak woodlands at this time of year. Maximum and, to a slightly lesser extent, mean heights were consistently measured, whether for the evergreen cork oak (Quercus suber or semi-deciduous Algerian oak (Q. canariensis woodlands. Estimates of the standard deviation and skewness of height differed more strongly, especially for Algerian oaks which experienced considerable leaf expansion in the time period covered. Our demonstration of which variables are more or less affected by spring-time leafing phenology has important implications for analyses of both canopy and sub-canopy vegetation layers from LiDAR surveys.

  5. Evaluation of the Wind Flow Variability Using Scanning Doppler Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, S. C.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Brewer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Better understanding of the wind flow variability at the heights of the modern turbines is essential to accurately assess of generated wind power and efficient turbine operations. Nowadays the wind energy industry often utilizes scanning Doppler lidar to measure wind-speed profiles at high spatial and temporal resolution.The study presents wind flow features captured by scanning Doppler lidars during the second Wind Forecast and Improvement Project (WFIP 2) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This 18-month long experiment in the Columbia River Basin aims to improve model wind forecasts complicated by mountain terrain, coastal effects, and numerous wind farms.To provide a comprehensive dataset to use for characterizing and predicting meteorological phenomena important to Wind Energy, NOAA deployed scanning, pulsed Doppler lidars to two sites in Oregon, one at Wasco, located upstream of all wind farms relative to the predominant westerly flow in the region, and one at Arlington, located in the middle of several wind farms.In this presentation we will describe lidar scanning patterns capable of providing data in conical, or vertical-slice modes. These individual scans were processed to obtain 15-min averaged profiles of wind speed and direction in real time. Visualization of these profiles as time-height cross sections allows us to analyze variability of these parameters with height, time and location, and reveal periods of rapid changes (ramp events). Examples of wind flow variability between two sites of lidar measurements along with examples of reduced wind velocity downwind of operating turbines (wakes) will be presented.

  6. The Lidar Cyclops Syndrome Bypassed: 3D Wind Field Measurements from a Turbine mounted Lidar in combination with a fast CFD solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Astrup, Poul; van Dooren, Marijn Floris

    as the “Lidar Cyclops syndrome” with reference to the one-eyed Cyclops in old Greek mythology. However, by feeding a single lidar’s line-of-sight (LOS) rotor plane scanned wind speeds to a fast CFD solver, it has been possible to determine the entire 3D velocity vectors at each measurement point consistent...

  7. Progress on Development of an Airborne Two-Micron IPDA Lidar for Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong; Antill, Charles W.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Bowen, Stephen C.; Welters, Angela M.; Remus, Ruben G.; Wong, Teh-Hwa; hide

    2014-01-01

    An airborne 2 micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is currently under development at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). This lidar targets both atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) column measurements, simultaneously. Advancements in the development of this IPDA lidar are presented in this paper. Updates on advanced two-micron triple-pulse high-energy laser transmitter will be given including packaging and lidar integration status. In addition, receiver development updates will also be presented. This includes a state-of-the-art detection system integrated at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This detection system is based on a newly developed HgCdTe (MCT) electron-initiated avalanche photodiode (e-APD) array. Future plan for IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will be discussed.

  8. Airborne 2-Micron Double-Pulsed Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar for Column CO2 Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Fay, James J.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Double-pulse 2-micron lasers have been demonstrated with energy as high as 600 millijouls and up to 10 Hz repetition rate. The two laser pulses are separated by 200 microseconds and can be tuned and locked separately. Applying double-pulse laser in DIAL system enhances the CO2 measurement capability by increasing the overlap of the sampled volume between the on-line and off-line. To avoid detection complicity, integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar provides higher signal-to-noise ratio measurement compared to conventional range-resolved DIAL. Rather than weak atmospheric scattering returns, IPDA rely on the much stronger hard target returns that is best suited for airborne platforms. In addition, the IPDA technique measures the total integrated column content from the instrument to the hard target but with weighting that can be tuned by the transmitter. Therefore, the transmitter could be tuned to weight the column measurement to the surface for optimum CO2 interaction studies or up to the free troposphere for optimum transport studies. Currently, NASA LaRC is developing and integrating a double-Pulsed 2-micron direct detection IPDA lidar for CO2 column measurement from an airborne platform. The presentation will describe the development of the 2-micron IPDA lidar system and present the airborne measurement of column CO2 and will compare to in-situ measurement for various ground target of different reflectivity.

  9. Impact of varying lidar measurement and data processing techniques in evaluating cirrus cloud and aerosol direct radiative effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Madonna, Fabio; Rosoldi, Marco; Campbell, James R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Gu, Yu; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2018-03-01

    In the past 2 decades, ground-based lidar networks have drastically increased in scope and relevance, thanks primarily to the advent of lidar observations from space and their need for validation. Lidar observations of aerosol and cloud geometrical, optical and microphysical atmospheric properties are subsequently used to evaluate their direct radiative effects on climate. However, the retrievals are strongly dependent on the lidar instrument measurement technique and subsequent data processing methodologies. In this paper, we evaluate the discrepancies between the use of Raman and elastic lidar measurement techniques and corresponding data processing methods for two aerosol layers in the free troposphere and for two cirrus clouds with different optical depths. Results show that the different lidar techniques are responsible for discrepancies in the model-derived direct radiative effects for biomass burning (0.05 W m-2 at surface and 0.007 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere) and dust aerosol layers (0.7 W m-2 at surface and 0.85 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere). Data processing is further responsible for discrepancies in both thin (0.55 W m-2 at surface and 2.7 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere) and opaque (7.7 W m-2 at surface and 11.8 W m-2 at top of the atmosphere) cirrus clouds. Direct radiative effect discrepancies can be attributed to the larger variability of the lidar ratio for aerosols (20-150 sr) than for clouds (20-35 sr). For this reason, the influence of the applied lidar technique plays a more fundamental role in aerosol monitoring because the lidar ratio must be retrieved with relatively high accuracy. In contrast, for cirrus clouds, with the lidar ratio being much less variable, the data processing is critical because smoothing it modifies the aerosol and cloud vertically resolved extinction profile that is used as input to compute direct radiative effect calculations.

  10. Atmospheric CO2 Concentration Measurements with Clouds from an Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Numata, K.; Chen, J. R.; Sun, X.; DiGangi, J. P.; Choi, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Globally distributed atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements with high precision, low bias and full seasonal sampling are crucial to advance carbon cycle sciences. However, two thirds of the Earth's surface is typically covered by clouds, and passive remote sensing approaches from space are limited to cloud-free scenes. NASA Goddard is developing a pulsed, integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approach to measure atmospheric column CO2 concentrations, XCO2, from space as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. Measurements of time-resolved laser backscatter profiles from the atmosphere also allow this technique to estimate XCO2 and range to cloud tops in addition to those to the ground with precise knowledge of the photon path-length. We demonstrate this measurement capability using airborne lidar measurements from summer 2017 ASCENDS airborne science campaign in Alaska. We show retrievals of XCO2 to ground and to a variety of cloud tops. We will also demonstrate how the partial column XCO2 to cloud tops and cloud slicing approach help resolving vertical and horizontal gradient of CO2 in cloudy conditions. The XCO2 retrievals from the lidar are validated against in situ measurements and compared to the Goddard Parameterized Chemistry Transport Model (PCTM) simulations. Adding this measurement capability to the future lidar mission for XCO2 will provide full global and seasonal data coverage and some information about vertical structure of CO2. This unique facility is expected to benefit atmospheric transport process studies, carbon data assimilation in models, and global and regional carbon flux estimation.

  11. 3D turbulence measurements in inhomogeneous boundary layers with three wind LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in atmospheric anemometry is obtaining reliable turbulence measurements of inhomogeneous boundary layers at heights or in locations where is not possible or convenient to install tower-based measurement systems, e.g. mountainous terrain, cities, wind farms, etc. Wind LiDARs are being extensively used for the measurement of averaged vertical wind profiles, but they can only successfully accomplish this task under the limiting conditions of flat terrain and horizontally homogeneous flow. Moreover, it has been shown that common scanning strategies introduce large systematic errors in turbulence measurements, regardless of the characteristics of the flow addressed. From the point of view of research, there exist a variety of techniques and scanning strategies to estimate different turbulence quantities but most of them rely in the combination of raw measurements with atmospheric models. Most of those models are only valid under the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. The limitations stated above can be overcome by a new triple LiDAR technique which uses simultaneous measurements from three intersecting Doppler wind LiDARs. It allows for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity vector in time as well as local velocity gradients without the need of any turbulence model and with minimal assumptions [EGU2013-9670]. The triple LiDAR technique has been applied to the study of the flow over the campus of EPFL in Lausanne (Switzerland). The results show the potential of the technique for the measurement of turbulence in highly complex boundary layer flows. The technique is particularly useful for micrometeorology and wind engineering studies.

  12. Summer sudden Na number density enhancements measured with the ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Heinrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present summer Na-densities and atmospheric temperatures measured 80 to 110 km above the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR. The Weber Na Lidar is part of ALOMAR, located at 69° N in Norway, 150 km north of the Arctic Circle. The sun does not set here during the summer months, and measurements require a narrowband Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Filter (FADOF.

    We discuss an observed sudden enhancement in the Na number density around 22:00 UT on 1 to 2 June 2006. We compare this observation with previous summer measurements and find a frequent appearance of Na number density enhancements near local midnight. We describe the time of appearance, the altitude distribution, the duration and the strength of these enhancements and compare them to winter observations. We investigate possible formation mechanisms and, as others before, we find a strong link between these Na number density enhancements and sporadic E layers.

  13. Summer sudden Na number density enhancements measured with the ALOMAR Weber Na Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Heinrich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We present summer Na-densities and atmospheric temperatures measured 80 to 110 km above the Arctic Lidar Observatory for Middle Atmosphere Research (ALOMAR. The Weber Na Lidar is part of ALOMAR, located at 69° N in Norway, 150 km north of the Arctic Circle. The sun does not set here during the summer months, and measurements require a narrowband Faraday Anomalous Dispersion Optical Filter (FADOF. We discuss an observed sudden enhancement in the Na number density around 22:00 UT on 1 to 2 June 2006. We compare this observation with previous summer measurements and find a frequent appearance of Na number density enhancements near local midnight. We describe the time of appearance, the altitude distribution, the duration and the strength of these enhancements and compare them to winter observations. We investigate possible formation mechanisms and, as others before, we find a strong link between these Na number density enhancements and sporadic E layers.

  14. High Spectral Resolution Lidar Based on a Potassium Faraday Dispersive Filter for Daytime Temperature Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abo Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new high-spectral-resolution lidar technique is proposed for measuring the profiles of atmospheric temperature in daytime. Based on the theory of high resolution Rayleigh scattering, the feasibility and advantages of using potassium (K Faraday dispersive optical filters as blocking filters for measuring atmospheric temperature are demonstrated with a numerical simulation. It was found that temperature profiles could be measured within 1K error for the height of 9 km with a 500 m range resolution in 60 min by using laser pulses with 1mJ/pulse and 1 kHz, and a 50 cm diameter telescope. Furthermore, we are developing compact pulsed laser system for temperature lidar transmitter.

  15. Extrapolation of contrail investigations by LIDAR to larger scale measurements. Analysis and calibration of CCD camera and satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.

  16. Spaceborne Photonics Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, D. D.; Farrukh, U. O.; Han, K. S.; Hwang, I. H.; Jalufka, N. W.; Lowe, C. W.; Tabibi, B. M.; Lee, C. J.; Lyons, D.; Maclin, A.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes in chronological detail the development of the Spaceborne Photonics Institute as a sustained research effort at Hampton University in the area of optical physics. This provided the research expertise to initiate a PhD program in Physics. Research was carried out in the areas of: (1) modelling of spaceborne solid state laser systems; (2) amplified spontaneous emission in solar pumped iodine lasers; (3) closely simulated AM0 CW solar pumped iodine laser and repeatedly short pulsed iodine laser oscillator; (4) a materials spectroscopy and growth program; and (5) laser induced fluorescence and atomic and molecular spectroscopy.

  17. 3D turbulence measurements using three intersecting Doppler LiDAR beams: validation against sonic anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays communities of researchers and industry in the wind engineering and meteorology sectors demand extensive and accurate measurements of atmospheric boundary layer turbulence for a better understanding of its role in a wide range of onshore and offshore applications: wind resource evaluation, wind turbine wakes, meteorology forecast, pollution and urban climate studies, etc. Atmospheric turbulence has been traditionally investigated through sonic anemometers installed on meteorological masts. However, the setup and maintenance of instrumented masts is generally very costly and the available location for the measurements is limited by the fixed position and height of the facility. In order to overcome the above-mentioned shortcomings, a measurement technique is proposed, based on the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity vector from simultaneous measurements of three intersecting Doppler wind LiDARs. This measuring technique presents the main advantage of being able to measure the wind velocity at any point in space inside a very large volume, which can be set and optimized for each test. Furthermore, it is very flexible regarding its transportation, installation and operation in any type of terrain. On the other hand, LiDAR measurements are strongly affected by the aerosol concentration in the air, precipitation, and the spatial and temporal resolution is poorer than that of a sonic anemometer. All this makes the comparison between these two kinds of measurements a complex task. The accuracy of the technique has been assessed by this study against sonic anemometer measurements carried out at different heights on the KNMI's meteorological mast at Cabauw's experimental site for atmospheric research (CESAR) in the Netherlands. An early uncertainty analysis shows that one of the most important parameters to be taken into account is the relative angles between the intersecting laser beams, i.e., the position of each LiDAR on the terrain and their

  18. LIDAR wind speed measurements from a rotating spinner (SpinnerEx 2009)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben; Hansen, Kasper Hjorth

    spinner of a MW-sized wind turbine, and investigate the approaching wind fields from this vantage point. Time series of wind speed measurements from the lidar with 50 Hz sampling rate were successfully obtained for approximately 60 days, during the measurement campaign lasting from April to August 2009....... In this report, information is given regarding the experimental setup and the lidar’s operation parameters. The geometrical model used for the reconstruction of the scanning pattern of the lidar is described. This model takes into account the lidar’s pointing direction, the spinner axis’s vertical tilt...... and the wind turbine’s yaw relative to the mean wind speed direction. The data analysis processes are documented. A methodology for the calculation of the yaw misalignment of the wind turbine relative to the wind direction, as a function of various averaging times, is proposed, using the lidar’s instantaneous...

  19. Cloud Liquid Water, Mean Droplet Radius and Number Density Measurements Using a Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey

    1999-01-01

    A new technique for measuring cloud liquid water, mean droplet radius and droplet number density is outlined. The technique is based on simultaneously measuring Raman and Mie scattering from cloud liquid droplets using a Raman lidar. Laboratory experiments on liquid micro-spheres have shown that the intensity of Raman scattering is proportional to the amount of liquid present in the spheres. This fact is used as a constraint on calculated Mie intensity assuming a gamma function particle size distribution. The resulting retrieval technique is shown to give stable solutions with no false minima. It is tested using Raman lidar data where the liquid water signal was seen as an enhancement to the water vapor signal. The general relationship of retrieved average radius and number density is consistent with traditional cloud physics models. Sensitivity to the assumed maximum cloud liquid water amount and the water vapor mixing ratio calibration are tested. Improvements to the technique are suggested.

  20. Remote measurement of atmospheric temperature profiles in clouds with rotational Raman lidar; Fernmessung atmosphaerischer Temperaturprofile in Wolken mit Rotations-Raman-Lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrendt, A. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    2000-07-01

    The development of a lidar receiver for remote measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles with the rotational Raman method is described. By a new receiver concept, this instrument allowed for the first time remote temperature measurements without any perturbation by the presence of clouds up to a backscatter ratio of 45. In addition, high efficiency of the spectral separation of atmospheric backscatter signals leads to improved measurement resolution: the minimum integration time needed for a statistical uncertainty < {+-}1 K at, e.g., 10 km height and 960 m height resolution is only 5 minutes. The measurement range extends to over 45 km altitude. Results of field campaigns obtained with the instrument are presented and discussed. In winter 1997/98, the instrument was transferred with the GKSS Raman lidar to Esrange (67.9 N, 21.1 E) in northern Sweden, where pioneering remote measurements of local temperatures in orographically induced polar stratospheric clouds could be carried out. (orig.)

  1. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Brian N; Mahaffee, Walter F

    2017-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high performance computing technology has allowed for the development of extremely detailed models of the urban and natural environment. Although models can now represent sub-meter-scale variability in environmental geometry, model users are often unable to specify the geometry of real domains at this scale given available measurements. An emerging technology in this field has been the use of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data to rapidly measure the three-dimensional geometry of trees, such as the distribution of leaf area. However, current LiDAR methods suffer from the limitation that they require detailed knowledge of leaf orientation in order to translate projected leaf area into actual leaf area. Common methods for measuring leaf orientation are often tedious or inaccurate, which places constraints on the LiDAR measurement technique. This work presents a new method to simultaneously measure leaf orientation and leaf area within an arbitrarily defined volume using terrestrial LiDAR data. The novelty of the method lies in the direct measurement of the fraction of projected leaf area G from the LiDAR data which is required to relate projected leaf area to total leaf area, and in the new way in which radiation transfer theory is used to calculate leaf area from the LiDAR data. The method was validated by comparing LiDAR-measured leaf area to (1) ‘synthetic’ or computer-generated LiDAR data where the exact area was known, and (2) direct measurements of leaf area in the field using destructive sampling. Overall, agreement between the LiDAR and reference measurements was very good, showing a normalized root-mean-squared-error of about 15% for the synthetic tests, and 13% in the field. (paper)

  2. Compact, High Energy 2-micron Coherent Doppler Wind Lidar Development for NASA's Future 3-D Winds Measurement from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Beyon, Jeffrey; Kavaya, Michael J.; Trieu, Bo; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, paul; hide

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of 2-micron laser transmitter development at NASA Langley Research Center for coherent-detection lidar profiling of winds. The novel high-energy, 2-micron, Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser technology developed at NASA Langley was employed to study laser technology currently envisioned by NASA for future global coherent Doppler lidar winds measurement. The 250 mJ, 10 Hz laser was designed as an integral part of a compact lidar transceiver developed for future aircraft flight. Ground-based wind profiles made with this transceiver will be presented. NASA Langley is currently funded to build complete Doppler lidar systems using this transceiver for the DC-8 aircraft in autonomous operation. Recently, LaRC 2-micron coherent Doppler wind lidar system was selected to contribute to the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Earth Science Division (ESD) hurricane field experiment in 2010 titled Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The Doppler lidar system will measure vertical profiles of horizontal vector winds from the DC-8 aircraft using NASA Langley s existing 2-micron, pulsed, coherent detection, Doppler wind lidar system that is ready for DC-8 integration. The measurements will typically extend from the DC-8 to the earth s surface. They will be highly accurate in both wind magnitude and direction. Displays of the data will be provided in real time on the DC-8. The pulsed Doppler wind lidar of NASA Langley Research Center is much more powerful than past Doppler lidars. The operating range, accuracy, range resolution, and time resolution will be unprecedented. We expect the data to play a key role, combined with the other sensors, in improving understanding and predictive algorithms for hurricane strength and track. 1

  3. Coherent lidar wind measurements from the Space Station base using 1.5 m all-reflective optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbro, J. W.; Beranek, R. G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the space-based measurement of atmospheric winds from the point of view of the requirements of the optical system of a coherent CO2 lidar. A brief description of the measurement technique is given and a discussion of previous study results provided. The telescope requirements for a Space Station based lidar are arrived at through discussions of the desired system sensitivity and the need for lag angle compensation.

  4. Differential Absorption Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor with a Coherent Lidar at 2050.532 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Grady J.; Dharamsi, Amin; Davis, Richard E.; Petros, Mulugeta; McCarthy, John C.

    1999-01-01

    Wind and water vapor are two major factors driving the Earth's atmospheric circulation, and direct measurement of these factors is needed for better understanding of basic atmospheric science, weather forecasting, and climate studies. Coherent lidar has proved to be a valuable tool for Doppler profiling of wind fields, and differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has shown its effectiveness in profiling water vapor. These two lidar techniques are generally considered distinctly different, but this paper explores an experimental combination of the Doppler and DIAL techniques for measuring both wind and water vapor with an eye-safe wavelength based on a solid-state laser material. Researchers have analyzed and demonstrated coherent DIAL water vapor measurements at 10 micrometers wavelength based on CO2 lasers. The hope of the research presented here is that the 2 gm wavelength in a holmium or thulium-based laser may offer smaller packaging and more rugged operation that the CO2-based approach. Researchers have extensively modeled 2 um coherent lasers for water vapor profiling, but no published demonstration is known. Studies have also been made, and results published on the Doppler portion, of a Nd:YAG-based coherent DIAL operating at 1.12 micrometers. Eye-safety of the 1.12 micrometer wavelength may be a concern, whereas the longer 2 micrometer and 10 micrometer systems allow a high level of eyesafety.

  5. Temperature lidar measurements from 1 to 105 km altitude using resonance, Rayleigh, and Rotational Raman scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alpers

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, three different temperature lidar methods are combined to obtain time-resolved complete temperature profiles with high altitude resolution over an altitude range from the planetary boundary layer up to the lower thermosphere (about 1–105 km. The Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP at Kühlungsborn, Germany (54° N, 12° E operates two lidar instruments, using three different temperature measurement methods, optimized for three altitude ranges: (1 Probing the spectral Doppler broadening of the potassium D1 resonance lines with a tunable narrow-band laser allows atmospheric temperature profiles to be determined at metal layer altitudes (80–105 km. (2 Between about 20 and 90 km, temperatures were calculated from Rayleigh backscattering by air molecules, where the upper start values for the calculation algorithm were taken from the potassium lidar results. Correction methods have been applied to account for, e.g. Rayleigh extinction or Mie scattering of aerosols below about 32 km. (3 At altitudes below about 25 km, backscattering in the Rotational Raman lines is strong enough to obtain temperatures by measuring the temperature dependent spectral shape of the Rotational Raman spectrum. This method works well down to about 1 km. The instrumental configurations of the IAP lidars were optimized for a 3–6 km overlap of the temperature profiles at the method transition altitudes. We present two night-long measurements with clear wave structures propagating from the lower stratosphere up to the lower thermosphere.

  6. Visibility and aerosol measurement by diode-laser random-modulation CW lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, N.; Baba, H.; Sakurai, K.; Ueno, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    1986-01-01

    Examples of diode laser (DL) random-modulation continuous wave (RM-CW) lidar measurements are reported. The ability of the measurement of the visibility, vertical aerosol profile, and the cloud ceiling height is demonstrated. Although the data shown here were all measured at night time, the daytime measurement is, of course, possible. For that purpose, accurate control of the laser frequency to the center frequency of a narrow band filter is required. Now a new system with a frequency control is under construction.

  7. Airborne Lidar for Simultaneous Measurement of Column CO2 and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Antill, Charles W.; Remus, Ruben; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    The 2-micron wavelength region is suitable for atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements due to the existence of distinct absorption feathers for the gas at this particular wavelength. For more than 20 years, researchers at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) have developed several high-energy and high repetition rate 2-micron pulsed lasers. This paper will provide status and details of an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. The development of this active optical remote sensing IPDA instrument is targeted for measuring both CO2 and water vapor (H2O) in the atmosphere from an airborne platform. This presentation will focus on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of seed laser locking, wavelength control, receiver telescope, detection system and data acquisition. Future plans for the IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will also be presented.

  8. Calibrating a ground-based backscatter lidar for continuous measurements of PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Markus; Oderbolz, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    One of the main issues of atmospheric research and air quality control is the reduction of harmful particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere. Small particles can enter the human airways and cause serious health problems such as COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), asthma or even lung cancer. Recently, interest has shifted from PM10 to finer fractions of particulate matter, e.g. PM2.5, because the health impact of finer particles is considered to be more severe. Up to now measurements of particulate matter were carried out mainly at ground level. However important atmospheric processes, i.e. particle formation, transport and vertical mixing processes, take place predominantly at higher altitudes in the planetary boundary layer. Lidar in principle provides the ability to observe these processes where they occur. The new method outlined in this paper demonstrates the use of a small sized and quite inexpensive lidar in stand-alone operation to investigate transport processes of particulate matter, and PM2.5 in particular. Continuous measurements of PM2.5 as a reference are gained with a conventional in-situ monitor, installed on a tower at an altitude of 325 m in the North of Berlin (Frohnauer Turm). These PM2.5 measurements will be compared with backscatter Lidar data (1064 nm) taken from approx. 60 m over ground up to an altitude of 15 km with a spatial resolution of 15 m. The vertical backscatter profiles at 325 m will be correlated to the concentrations obtained by the PM2,5 monitor on the tower. Both measurements have a time resolution of 180 s to observe also processes that take place at short time scales. The objective is to gain correlation functions for estimating PM2.5 concentrations from backscatter Lidar data. Such a calibrated Lidar system is a valuable instrument for environmental agencies and atmospheric research groups to observe and investigate causes of high level PM concentrations. First results show a reasonably good linear correlation

  9. Mobile LiDAR Measurement for Aerosol Investigation in South-Central Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    qin, kai; Wu, Lixin; Zheng, Yunhui; Wong Man, Sing; Wang, Runfeng; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Wang, Luyao; Bai, Yang; Rao, Lanlan

    2016-04-01

    With the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China during the last decades, the increasing anthropogenic pollutant emissions have significantly caused serious air pollution problems which are adversely influencing public health. Hebei is one of the most air polluted provinces in China. In January 2013, an extremely severe and persistent haze episode with record-breaking PM2.5 outbreak affecting hundreds of millions of people occurred over eastern and northern China. During that haze episode, 7 of the top 10 most polluted cities in China were located in the Hebei Province according to the report of China's Ministry of Environmental Protection. To investigate and the spatial difference and to characterize the vertical distribution of aerosol in different regions of south-central Hebei, mobile measurements were carried out using a mini micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MiniMPL) in March 2014. The mobile LiDAR kit consisting of a MiniMPL, a vibration reduction mount, a power inverter, a Windows surface tablet and a GPS receiver were mounted in a car watching though the sunroof opening. For comparison, a fixed measurement using a traditional micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MPL-4B) was conducted simultaneously in Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province. The equipped car was driven from downtown Shijiazhuang by way of suburban and rural area to downtown Cangzhou, Handan, and Baoding respectively at almost stable speed around 100Km per hour along different routes which counted in total more than 1000Km. The results can be summarized as: 1) the spatial distribution of total aerosol optical depth along the measurement routes in south-central Hebei was controlled by local terrain and population in general, with high values in downtown and suburban in the plain areas, and low values in rural areas along Taihang mountain to the west and Yan mountain to the north; 2) obviously high AODs were obtained at roads crossing points, inside densely populated area and nearby

  10. How to apply the optimal estimation method to your lidar measurements for improved retrievals of temperature and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, R. J.; Haefele, A.; Jalali, A.; Gamage, S.; Farhani, G.

    2018-04-01

    The optimal estimation method (OEM) has a long history of use in passive remote sensing, but has only recently been applied to active instruments like lidar. The OEM's advantage over traditional techniques includes obtaining a full systematic and random uncertainty budget plus the ability to work with the raw measurements without first applying instrument corrections. In our meeting presentation we will show you how to use the OEM for temperature and composition retrievals for Rayleigh-scatter, Ramanscatter and DIAL lidars.

  11. Consistency of the single calculus chain for climatological studies using long-term measurements from thessaloniki lidar station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Nikolaos; Voudouri, Kalliopi A.; Filioglou, Maria; Giannakaki, Eleni; Amiridis, Vasilis; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Balis, Dimitris S.

    2018-04-01

    The long term analysis of 15 years of lidar data derived from a Raman lidar at Thessaloniki is presented here. All measurements have been processed with the latest version 4 of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain algorithm and are compared with the results from the current operational retrieval algorithm. In this paper we investigate the consistency between the EARLINET database and SCC for the case of Thessaloniki and we identify the issues to be considered when switching from current operations to SCC.

  12. Airborne Two-Micron Double-Pulse IPDA Lidar Validation for Carbon Dioxide Measurements Over Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Remus, Ruben; Ismail, Syed

    2018-04-01

    An airborne double-pulse 2-μm Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar has been developed at NASA LaRC for measuring atmospheric CO2. IPDA was validated using NASA B-200 aircraft over land and ocean under different conditions. IPDA evaluation for land vegetation returns, during full day background conditions, are presented. IPDA CO2 measurements compare well with model results driven from on-board insitu sensor data. These results also indicate that CO2 measurement bias is consistent with that from ocean surface returns.

  13. Remote measurements of water pollution with a lidar polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheives, T. C.; Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Mayo, W. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines a dual polarization laser backscatter system as a method for remote measurements of certain water quality parameters. Analytical models for describing the backscatter from turbid water and oil on turbid water are presented and compared with experimental data. Laser backscatter field measurements from natural waterways are presented and compared with simultaneous ground observations of the water quality parameters: turbidity, suspended solids, and transmittance. The results of this study show that the analytical models appear valid and that the sensor investigated is applicable to remote measurements of these water quality parameters and oil spills on water.-

  14. A time-space synchronization of coherent Doppler scanning lidars for 3D measurements of wind fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola

    initiates the laser pulse emission and acquisition of the backscattered light, while the two servo motors conduct the scanner head rotation that provides means to direct the laser pulses into the atmosphere. By controlling the rotation of the three motors from the motion controller the strict......-dimensional flow field by emitting the laser beams from the three spatially separated lidars, directing them to intersect, and moving the beam intersection over an area of interest. Each individual lidar was engineered to be powered by two real servo motors, and one virtual stepper motor. The stepper motor...... synchronization and time control of the emission, steering and acquisition were achieved, resulting that the complete lidar measurement process is controlled from the single hardware component. The system was formed using a novel approach, in which the master computer simultaneously coordinates the remote lidars...

  15. Advanced intensity-modulation continuous-wave lidar techniques for ASCENDS CO2 column measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. W.; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-10-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  16. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for ASCENDS O2 Column Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Meadows, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity- Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating the need to correct for sidelobe bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. A comparison of BPSK and linear swept-frequency is also discussed in this paper. These results are extended to include Richardson-Lucy deconvolution techniques to extend the resolution of the lidar beyond that implied by limit of the bandwidth of the modulation, where it is shown useful for making tree canopy measurements.

  17. LIDAR technology for measuring trace gases on Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, H.; Abshire, J. B.; Graham, Allan; Hasselbrack, William; Rodriguez, Mike; Sun, Xiaoli; Weaver, Clark; Mao, Jianping; Kawa, Randy; Li, Steve; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart

    2017-11-01

    Trace gases and their isotopic ratios in planetary atmospheres offer important but subtle clues as to the origins of a planet's atmosphere, hydrology, geology, and potential for biology. An orbiting laser remote sensing instrument is capable of measuring trace gases on a global scale with unprecedented accuracy, and higher spatial resolution that can be obtained by passive instruments. For Earth we have developed laser technique for the remote measurement of the tropospheric CO2, O2, and CH4 concentrations from space. Our goal is to develop a space instrument and mission approach for active CO2 measurements. Our technique uses several on and off-line wavelengths tuned to the CO2 and O2 absorption lines. This exploits the atmospheric pressure broadening of the gas lines to weigh the measurement sensitivity to the atmospheric column below 5 km and maximizes sensitivity to CO2 changes in the boundary layer where variations caused by surface sources and sinks are largest. Simultaneous measurements of O2 column use a selected region in the Oxygen A-band. Laser altimetry and atmospheric backscatter can also be measured simultaneously, which permits determining the surface height and measurements made to thick cloud tops and through aerosol layers. We use the same technique but with a different transmitter at 1.65 um to measure methane concentrations. Methane is also a very important trace gas on earth, and a stronger greenhouse gas than CO2 on a per molecule basis. Accurate, global observations are needed in order to better understand climate change and reduce the uncertainty in the carbon budget. Although carbon dioxide is currently the primary greenhouse gas of interest, methane can have a much larger impact on climate change. Methane levels have remained relatively constant over the last decade but recent observations in the Arctic have indicated that levels may be on the rise due to permafrost thawing. NASA's Decadal Survey underscored the importance of Methane as a

  18. Importance of Raman Lidar Aerosol Extinction Measurements for Aerosol-Cloud Interaction Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a UV Raman Lidar for aerosol extinction, and combining Microwave Radiometer derived Liquid Water Path (LWP with Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer derived Cloud Optical depth, to get cloud effective radius (Reff, we observe under certain specialized conditions, clear signatures of the Twomey Aerosol Indirect effect on cloud droplet properties which are consistent with the theoretical bounds. We also show that the measurement is very sensitive to how far the aerosol layer is from the cloud base and demonstrate that surface PM25 is far less useful. Measurements from both the DOE ARM site and new results at CCNY are presented.

  19. Materials for spaceborne laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusarov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced laser systems are attracting a growing interest for space missions, in particular for LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) applications. An important issue for the LIDARs is the very strict requirements on the optical performance and more specifically the need for a high optical output power combined with a nearly perfect output beam quality. These features are traditionally in conflict with each other. Thermally induced phase distortions indeed corrupt the beam quality of high-power solid-state lasers and it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain a good beam quality while increasing the output power. A possible solution of the problem is to use the optical phase conjugation, which provides a method to dynamically correct for those aberrations. A process by which phase-conjugated waves can be generated is the SBS (stimulated Brillouin scattering). SBS mirrors commonly used in terrestrial application are based on liquids or gases, which are not 'space-friendly' and often toxic. The solid-state alternative seems the most appropriate for space. Such PCMs (Phase-Conjugating Mirrors) have been the subject of many research efforts in recent years and a significant progress in improving their characteristics has been achieved. However, the issue of space qualification remains open. To address it, the European Space Agency initiated in 2004 the research project named Solid-State Phase Conjugation, Radiation Testing and Evaluation for Core Laser Technologies with the TRT (Thales Research and Technology), France, as the prime contractor, and the CSL (Centre Spatial de Liege) and SCKCEN as the subcontractors. The project is to be completed in 2006. To qualify a PCM for a spaceborne laser system, one has to address a number of specific issues. Such a component must be mechanically rugged to sustain vibrations during the launch phase, provide a low out-gassing to prevent optical surfaces contamination in vacuum, be highly reliable to operate properly without

  20. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, M F; Kühn, M.; Petrovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short...... compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement...... for accurately measuring small scale flow structures in a wind tunnel....

  1. Ground-based lidar measurements from Ny-Ålesund during ASTAR 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herber

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During the Arctic Study of Tropospheric Aerosol, Clouds and Radiation (ASTAR in March and April 2007, measurements obtained at the AWIPEV Arctic Research Base in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen at 78.9° N, 11.9° E (operated by the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research – AWI and the Institut polaire français Paul-Emile Victor – IPEV, supported the airborne campaign. This included lidar data from the Koldewey Aerosol Raman Lidar (KARL and the Micro Pulse Lidar (MPL, located in the atmospheric observatory as well as photometer data and the daily launched radiosonde. The MPL features nearly continuous measurements; the KARL was switched on whenever weather conditions allowed observations (145 h in 61 days. From 1 March to 30 April, 71 meteorological balloon soundings were performed and compared with the concurrent MPL measurements; photometer measurements are available from 18 March. For the KARL data, a statistical overview of particle detection based on their optical properties backscatter ratio and volume depolarization can be given. The altitudes of the occurrence of the named features (subvisible and visible ice and water as well as mixed-phase clouds, aerosol layers as well as their dependence on different air mass origins are analyzed. Although the spring 2007 was characterized by rather clean conditions, diverse case studies of cloud and aerosol occurrence during March and April 2007 are presented in more detail, including temporal development and main optical properties as depolarization, backscatter and extinction coefficients. Links between air mass origins and optical properties can be presumed but need further evidence.

  2. High Frequency Field Measurements of an Undular Bore Using a 2D LiDAR Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kévin Martins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary wave field associated with undular tidal bores (known as whelps has been barely studied in field conditions: the wave field can be strongly non-hydrostatic, and the turbidity is generally high. In situ measurements based on pressure or acoustic signals can therefore be limited or inadequate. The intermittent nature of this process in the field and the complications encountered in the downscaling to laboratory conditions also render its study difficult. Here, we present a new methodology based on LiDAR technology to provide high spatial and temporal resolution measurements of the free surface of an undular tidal bore. A wave-by-wave analysis is performed on the whelps, and comparisons between LiDAR, acoustic and pressure-derived measurements are used to quantify the non-hydrostatic nature of this phenomenon. A correction based on linear wave theory applied on individual wave properties improves the results from the pressure transducer (Root mean square error, R M S E of 0 . 19 m against 0 . 38 m; however, more robust data is obtained from an upwards-looking acoustic sensor despite high turbidity during the passage of the whelps ( R M S E of 0 . 05 m. Finally, the LiDAR scanner provides the unique possibility to study the wave geometry: the distribution of measured wave height, period, celerity, steepness and wavelength are presented. It is found that the highest wave from the whelps can be steeper than the bore front, explaining why breaking events are sometimes observed in the secondary wave field of undular tidal bores.

  3. Stratospheric temperature measurement with scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for wind retrieval from mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyun; Dou, Xiankang; Shangguan, Mingjia; Zhao, Ruocan; Sun, Dongsong; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jiawei; Shu, Zhifeng; Xue, Xianghui; Han, Yuli; Han, Yan

    2014-09-08

    Temperature detection remains challenging in the low stratosphere, where the Rayleigh integration lidar is perturbed by aerosol contamination and ozone absorption while the rotational Raman lidar is suffered from its low scattering cross section. To correct the impacts of temperature on the Rayleigh Doppler lidar, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on cavity scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is developed. By considering the effect of the laser spectral width, Doppler broadening of the molecular backscatter, divergence of the light beam and mirror defects of the FPI, a well-behaved transmission function is proved to show the principle of HSRL in detail. Analysis of the statistical error of the HSRL is carried out in the data processing. A temperature lidar using both HSRL and Rayleigh integration techniques is incorporated into the Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. Simultaneous wind and temperature detection is carried out based on the combined system at Delhi (37.371°N, 97.374°E; 2850 m above the sea level) in Qinghai province, China. Lower Stratosphere temperature has been measured using HSRL between 18 and 50 km with temporal resolution of 2000 seconds. The statistical error of the derived temperatures is between 0.2 and 9.2 K. The temperature profile retrieved from the HSRL and wind profile from the Rayleigh Doppler lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde data. Specifically, the max temperature deviation between the HSRL and radiosonde is 4.7 K from 18 km to 36 km, and it is 2.7 K between the HSRL and Rayleigh integration lidar from 27 km to 34 km.

  4. Lidar calibration experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Mikkelsen, T.; Streicher, J.

    1997-01-01

    detection to test the reproducibility and uncertainty of lidars. Lidar data were obtained from both single-ended and double-ended Lidar configurations. A backstop was introduced in one of the experiments and a new method was developed where information obtained from the backstop can be used in the inversion...... algorithm. Independent in-situ aerosol plume concentrations were obtained from a simultaneous tracer gas experiment with SF6, and comparisons with the two lidars were made. The study shows that the reproducibility of the lidars is within 15%, including measurements from both sides of a plume...

  5. Mechanical design of a lidar system for space applications - LITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Sharon K.

    1990-01-01

    The Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is a Shuttle experiment that will demonstrate the first use of a lidar system in space. Its design process must take into account not only the system design but also the unique design requirements for spaceborne experiment.

  6. VALIDATION OF LIDAR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN THE STRATOSPHERE OVER TOMSK ON AEROLOGICAL AND SATELLITE DATA FOR 2015-16 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Marichev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The vertical temperature distribution in the lower stratosphere is compared with the data of lidar, radiosonde, and satellite measurements. In the lidar measurements, Raman and Rayleigh channels for receiving scattered light at wavelengths of 607 nm and 532 nm were used. Taking into account the spatio-temporal separation of the measurements, a qualitative and quantitative correspondence of the vertical temperature profiles was obtained. The prospects of using the Raman scattering method for measuring temperature in the lower stratosphere are shown.

  7. Temporal correlation measurements of pulsed dual CO2 lidar returns. [for atmospheric pollution detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyuk, N.; Killinger, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    A pulsed dual-laser direct-detection differential-absorption lidar DIAL system, operating near 10.6 microns, is used to measure the temporal correlation and statistical properties of backscattered returns from specular and diffuse topographic targets. Results show that atmospheric-turbulence fluctuations can effectively be frozen for pulse separation times on the order of 1-3 msec or less. The diffuse target returns, however, yielded a much lower correlation than that obtained with the specular targets; this being due to uncorrelated system noise effects and different statistics for the two types of target returns.

  8. Utilizing The Synergy of Airborne Backscatter Lidar and In-Situ Measurements for Evaluating CALIPSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsekeri Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Airborne campaigns dedicated to satellite validation are crucial for the effective global aerosol monitoring. CALIPSO is currently the only active remote sensing satellite mission, acquiring the vertical profiles of the aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients. Here we present a method for CALIPSO evaluation from combining lidar and in-situ airborne measurements. The limitations of the method have to do mainly with the in-situ instrumentation capabilities and the hydration modelling. We also discuss the future implementation of our method in the ICE-D campaign (Cape Verde, August 2015.

  9. Water vapour and wind measurements by a two micron space lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghibaudo, J.-B.; Labandibar, J.-Y.

    2018-04-01

    AEROSPATIALE presents the main results of the feasibility study under ESA contract on a coherent 2μm lidar instrument capable of measuring water vapour and wind velocity in the planetary boundary layer. The selected instrument configuration and the associated performance are provided, and the main critical subsystems identified (laser configuration, coherent receiver chain architecture, frequency locking and offsetting architecture. The second phase of this study is dedicated to breadboard the most critical elements of such an instrument in order to technologically consolidate its feasibility.

  10. Two years of wind-lidar measurements at an Italian Mediterranean Coastal Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullí, D.; Avolio, E.; Calidonna, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measurements of vertical profiles of wind speed and direction are needed for testing models and methodologies of use for wind energy assessment. In particular, modelling complex terrain such as coastal areas is challenging due to the coastal discontinuity that is not accurately resolved...... in mesoscale numerical model. Here, we present a unique database from a coastal site in South Italy (middle of the Mediterranean area) where vertical profiles of wind speed and direction have been collected during a two-year period from a wind-lidar ZEPHIR-300® at a coastal-suburban area. We show an overview...

  11. Innovative LIDAR 3D Dynamic Measurement System to estimate fruit-tree leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Cortiella, Ricardo; Llorens-Calveras, Jordi; Escolà, Alexandre; Arnó-Satorra, Jaume; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Masip-Vilalta, Joan; Camp, Ferran; Gràcia-Aguilá, Felip; Solanelles-Batlle, Francesc; Planas-DeMartí, Santiago; Pallejà-Cabré, Tomàs; Palacin-Roca, Jordi; Gregorio-Lopez, Eduard; Del-Moral-Martínez, Ignacio; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a LIDAR-based 3D Dynamic Measurement System is presented and evaluated for the geometric characterization of tree crops. Using this measurement system, trees were scanned from two opposing sides to obtain two three-dimensional point clouds. After registration of the point clouds, a simple and easily obtainable parameter is the number of impacts received by the scanned vegetation. The work in this study is based on the hypothesis of the existence of a linear relationship between the number of impacts of the LIDAR sensor laser beam on the vegetation and the tree leaf area. Tests performed under laboratory conditions using an ornamental tree and, subsequently, in a pear tree orchard demonstrate the correct operation of the measurement system presented in this paper. The results from both the laboratory and field tests confirm the initial hypothesis and the 3D Dynamic Measurement System is validated in field operation. This opens the door to new lines of research centred on the geometric characterization of tree crops in the field of agriculture and, more specifically, in precision fruit growing.

  12. Subtropical Cirrus Properties Derived from GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements during CAMEX 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Wang, Z.; Demoz, B.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island, Bahamas for the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 3) held in August - September, 1998 and acquired an extensive set of water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements (Whiteman et al., 2001). The cirrus data studied here have been segmented by generating mechanism. Distinct differences in the optical properties of the clouds are found when the cirrus are hurricane-induced versus thunderstom-induced. Relationships of cirrus cloud optical depth, mean cloud temperature, and layer mean extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S) are presented and compared with mid-latitude and tropical results. Hurricane-induced cirrus clouds are found to generally possess lower values of S than thunderstorm induced clouds. Comparison of these measurements of S are made with other studies revealing at times large differences in the measurements. Given that S is a required parameter for spacebased retrievals of cloud optical depth using backscatter lidar, these large diffaences in S measurements present difficulties for space-based retrievals of cirrus cloud extinction and optical depth.

  13. Polar winter cloud depolarization measurements with the CANDAC Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, E. M.; Nott, G. J.; Duck, T. J.; Sica, R. J.; Doyle, J. G.; Pike-thackray, C.; Drummond, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Clouds introduce a significant positive forcing to the Arctic radiation budget and this is strongest during the polar winter when shortwave radiation is absent (Intrieri et al., 2002). The amount of forcing depends on the occurrence probability and optical depth of the clouds as well as the cloud particle phase (Ebert and Curry 1992). Mixed-phase clouds are particularly complex as they involve interactions between three phases of water (vapour, liquid and ice) coexisting in the same cloud. Although significant progress has been made in characterizing wintertime Arctic clouds (de Boer et al., 2009 and 2011), there is considerable variability in the relative abundance of particles of each phase, in the morphology of solid particles, and in precipitation rates depending on the meteorology at the time. The Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC) Rayleigh-Mie-Raman Lidar (CRL) was installed in the Canadian High Arctic at Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W) in 2008-2009. The remotely-operated system began with measurement capabilities for multi-wavelength aerosol extinction, water vapour mixing ratio, and tropospheric temperature profiles, as well as backscatter cross section coefficient and colour ratio. In 2010, a new depolarization channel was added. The capability to measure the polarization state of the return signal allows the characterization of the cloud in terms of liquid and ice water content, enabling the lidar to probe all three phases of water in these clouds. Lidar depolarization results from 2010 and 2011 winter clouds at Eureka will be presented, with a focus on differences in downwelling radiation between mixed phase clouds and ice clouds. de Boer, G., E.W. Eloranta, and M.D. Shupe (2009), Arctic mixed-phase stratiform cloud properties from multiple years of surface-based measurements at two high-latitude locations, Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 66 (9), 2874-2887. de Boer, G., H. Morrison, M. D. Shupe, and R. Hildner (2011

  14. Impact of varying lidar measurement and data processing techniques in evaluating cirrus cloud and aerosol direct radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lolli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past 2 decades, ground-based lidar networks have drastically increased in scope and relevance, thanks primarily to the advent of lidar observations from space and their need for validation. Lidar observations of aerosol and cloud geometrical, optical and microphysical atmospheric properties are subsequently used to evaluate their direct radiative effects on climate. However, the retrievals are strongly dependent on the lidar instrument measurement technique and subsequent data processing methodologies. In this paper, we evaluate the discrepancies between the use of Raman and elastic lidar measurement techniques and corresponding data processing methods for two aerosol layers in the free troposphere and for two cirrus clouds with different optical depths. Results show that the different lidar techniques are responsible for discrepancies in the model-derived direct radiative effects for biomass burning (0.05 W m−2 at surface and 0.007 W m−2 at top of the atmosphere and dust aerosol layers (0.7 W m−2 at surface and 0.85 W m−2 at top of the atmosphere. Data processing is further responsible for discrepancies in both thin (0.55 W m−2 at surface and 2.7 W m−2 at top of the atmosphere and opaque (7.7 W m−2 at surface and 11.8 W m−2 at top of the atmosphere cirrus clouds. Direct radiative effect discrepancies can be attributed to the larger variability of the lidar ratio for aerosols (20–150 sr than for clouds (20–35 sr. For this reason, the influence of the applied lidar technique plays a more fundamental role in aerosol monitoring because the lidar ratio must be retrieved with relatively high accuracy. In contrast, for cirrus clouds, with the lidar ratio being much less variable, the data processing is critical because smoothing it modifies the aerosol and cloud vertically resolved extinction profile that is used as input to compute direct radiative effect calculations.

  15. A comparison of forest height prediction from FIA field measurement and LiDAR data via spatial models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzhen Li

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a high correspondence between tree height measurements acquired from airborne LiDAR and that those measured using conventional field techniques. Though these results are very promising, most of the studies were conducted over small experimental areas and tree height was measured carefully or using expensive instruments in the field, which is...

  16. Automated method for measuring the extent of selective logging damage with airborne LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendy, L.; Hagen, S. C.; Sullivan, F. B.; Pearson, T. R. H.; Walker, S. M.; Ellis, P.; Kustiyo; Sambodo, Ari Katmoko; Roswintiarti, O.; Hanson, M. A.; Klassen, A. W.; Palace, M. W.; Braswell, B. H.; Delgado, G. M.

    2018-05-01

    Selective logging has an impact on the global carbon cycle, as well as on the forest micro-climate, and longer-term changes in erosion, soil and nutrient cycling, and fire susceptibility. Our ability to quantify these impacts is dependent on methods and tools that accurately identify the extent and features of logging activity. LiDAR-based measurements of these features offers significant promise. Here, we present a set of algorithms for automated detection and mapping of critical features associated with logging - roads/decks, skid trails, and gaps - using commercial airborne LiDAR data as input. The automated algorithm was applied to commercial LiDAR data collected over two logging concessions in Kalimantan, Indonesia in 2014. The algorithm results were compared to measurements of the logging features collected in the field soon after logging was complete. The automated algorithm-mapped road/deck and skid trail features match closely with features measured in the field, with agreement levels ranging from 69% to 99% when adjusting for GPS location error. The algorithm performed most poorly with gaps, which, by their nature, are variable due to the unpredictable impact of tree fall versus the linear and regular features directly created by mechanical means. Overall, the automated algorithm performs well and offers significant promise as a generalizable tool useful to efficiently and accurately capture the effects of selective logging, including the potential to distinguish reduced impact logging from conventional logging.

  17. A Broad Bank Lidar for Precise Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption Measurement from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, E. M.; Heaps, W. S.; Huang, W.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate global measurement of carbon dioxide column with the aim of discovering and quantifying unknown sources and sinks has been a high priority for the last decade. In order to uncover the "missing sink" that is responsible for the large discrepancies in the budget the critical precision for a measurement from space needs to be on the order of 1 ppm. To better understand the CO2 budget and to evaluate its impact on global warming the National Research Council (NRC) in its recent decadal survey report (NACP) to NASA recommended a laser based total CO2 mapping mission in the near future. That's the goal of Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission - to significantly enhance the understanding of the role of CO2 in the global carbon cycle. Our current goal is to develop an ultra precise, inexpensive new lidar system for column measurements of CO2 changes in the lower atmosphere that uses a Fabry-Perot interferometer based system as the detector portion of the instrument and replaces the narrow band laser commonly used in lidars with a high power broadband source. This approach reduces the number of individual lasers used in the system and considerably reduces the risk of failure. It also tremendously reduces the requirement for wavelength stability in the source putting this responsibility instead on the Fabry- Perot subsystem.

  18. Intercomparison of aerosol measurements performed with multi-wavelength Raman lidars, automatic lidars and ceilometers in the framework of INTERACT-II campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, Fabio; Rosoldi, Marco; Lolli, Simone; Amato, Francesco; Vande Hey, Joshua; Dhillon, Ranvir; Zheng, Yunhui; Brettle, Mike; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2018-04-01

    Following the previous efforts of INTERACT (INTERcomparison of Aerosol and Cloud Tracking), the INTERACT-II campaign used multi-wavelength Raman lidar measurements to assess the performance of an automatic compact micro-pulse lidar (MiniMPL) and two ceilometers (CL51 and CS135) in providing reliable information about optical and geometric atmospheric aerosol properties. The campaign took place at the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (760 m a. s. l. ; 40.60° N, 15.72° E) in the framework of ACTRIS-2 (Aerosol Clouds Trace gases Research InfraStructure) H2020 project. Co-located simultaneous measurements involving a MiniMPL, two ceilometers and two EARLINET multi-wavelength Raman lidars were performed from July to December 2016. The intercomparison highlighted that the MiniMPL range-corrected signals (RCSs) show, on average, a fractional difference with respect to those of CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory (CIAO) lidars ranging from 5 to 15 % below 2.0 km a.s.l. (above sea level), largely due to the use of an inaccurate overlap correction, and smaller than 5 % in the free troposphere. For the CL51, the attenuated backscatter values have an average fractional difference with respect to CIAO lidars performance is similar to the CL51 below 2.0 km a. s. l. , while in the region above 3 km a. s. l. the differences are about ±40 %. The variability of the CS135 normalization constant is within ±47 %.Finally, additional tests performed during the campaign using the CHM15k ceilometer operated at CIAO showed the clear need to investigate the CHM15k historical dataset (2010-2016) to evaluate potential effects of ceilometer laser fluctuations on calibration stability. The number of laser pulses shows an average variability of 10 % with respect to the nominal power which conforms to the ceilometer specifications. Nevertheless, laser pulses variability follows seasonal behavior with an increase in the number of laser pulses in summer and a decrease in winter. This contributes to

  19. Investigation of tropical cirrus cloud properties using ground based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaman, Reji K.; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Krishnakumar, V.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Jayeshlal, G. S.; Raghunath, K.; Venkat Ratnam, M.

    2016-05-01

    Cirrus clouds play a significant role in the Earths radiation budget. Therefore, knowledge of geometrical and optical properties of cirrus cloud is essential for the climate modeling. In this paper, the cirrus clouds microphysical and optical properties are made by using a ground based lidar measurements over an inland tropical station Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), Andhra Pradesh, India. The variation of cirrus microphysical and optical properties with mid cloud temperature is also studied. The cirrus clouds mean height is generally observed in the range of 9-17km with a peak occurrence at 13- 14km. The cirrus mid cloud temperature ranges from -81°C to -46°C. The cirrus geometrical thickness ranges from 0.9- 4.5km. During the cirrus occurrence days sub-visual, thin and dense cirrus were at 37.5%, 50% and 12.5% respectively. The monthly cirrus optical depth ranges from 0.01-0.47, but most (<80%) of the cirrus have values less than 0.1. Optical depth shows a strong dependence with cirrus geometrical thickness and mid-cloud height. The monthly mean cirrus extinction ranges from 2.8E-06 to 8E-05 and depolarization ratio and lidar ratio varies from 0.13 to 0.77 and 2 to 52 sr respectively. A positive correlation exists for both optical depth and extinction with the mid-cloud temperature. The lidar ratio shows a scattered behavior with mid-cloud temperature.

  20. Airborne Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure made Using an IPDA Lidar Operating in the Oxygen A-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Abshire, James B.; Stephen, Mark; Rodriquez, Michael; Allan, Graham; Hasselbrack, William; Mao, Jianping

    2012-01-01

    We report airborne measurements of atmospheric pressure made using an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar that operates in the oxygen A-band near 765 nm. Remote measurements of atmospheric temperature and pressure are needed for NASA s Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions Over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission to measure atmospheric CO2. Accurate measurements of tropospheric CO2 on a global scale are very important in order to better understand its sources and sinks and to improve our predictions of climate change. The goal of ASCENDS is to determine the CO2 dry mixing ratio with lidar measurements from space at a level of 1 ppm. Analysis to date shows that with current weather models, measurements of both the CO2 column density and the column density of dry air are needed. Since O2 is a stable molecule that uniformly mixed in the atmosphere, measuring O2 absorption in the atmosphere can be used to infer the dry air density. We have developed an airborne (IPDA) lidar for Oxygen, with support from the NASA ESTO IIP program. Our lidar uses DFB-based seed laser diodes, a pulsed modulator, a fiber laser amplifier, and a non-linear crystal to generate wavelength tunable 765 nm laser pulses with a few uJ/pulse energy. The laser pulse rate is 10 KHz, and average transmitted laser power is 20 mW. Our lidar steps laser pulses across a selected line O2 doublet near 764.7 nm in the Oxygen A-band. The direct detection lidar receiver uses a 20 cm diameter telescope, a Si APD detector in Geiger mode, and a multi-channel scalar to detect and record the time resolved laser backscatter in 40 separate wavelength channels. Subsequent analysis is used to estimate the transmission line shape of the doublet for the laser pulses reflected from the ground. Ground based data analysis allows averaging from 1 to 60 seconds to increase SNR in the transmission line shape of the doublet. Our retrieval algorithm fits the expected O2 lineshapes against the measurements and

  1. Raman Lidar Measurements During the International H2O Project. 2; Instrument Comparisons and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Demoz, B.; DiGirolamo, P.; Corner, J.; Veselovskii, I.; Evans, K.; Wang, Z.; Sabatino, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the International H2O Project (IHOP) that occurred in May and June, 2002 in the midwestern part of the U. S. The SRL system configuration and methods of data analysis were described in part I of this paper. In this second part, comparisons of SRL water vapor measurements and those of chilled mirror radiosonde and LASE airborne water vapor lidar are performed. Two case studies are presented; one for daytime and one for nighttime. The daytime case study is of a convectively driven boundary layer event and is used to characterize the SRL water vapor random error characteristics. The nighttime case study is of a thunderstorm-generated cirrus cloud case that is studied in it s meteorological context. Upper tropospheric humidification due to precipitation from the cirrus cloud is quantified as is the cirrus cloud ice water content and particle depolarization ratio. These detailed cirrus cloud measurements are being used in a cirrus cloud modeling study.

  2. Performances of a HGCDTE APD based direct detection lidar at 2 μm. Application to dial measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Fabien; Dumas, Arnaud; Rothman, Johan; Edouart, Dimitri; Cénac, Claire; Pellegrino, Jessica

    2018-04-01

    A lidar receiver with a direct detection chain adapted to a HgCdTe APD based detector with electric cooling is associated to a 2.05 μm Ho :YLF pulsed dual wavelength single mode transmitter to provide the first atmospheric lidar measurements using this technology. Experiments confirm the outstanding sensitivity of the detector and hightligth its huge potential for DIAL measurements of trace gas (CO2 and H2O) in this spectral domain. Performances of coherent vs direct detection at 2.05 μm is assessed.

  3. Performances of a HGCDTE APD based direct detection lidar at 2 μm. Application to dial measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibert Fabien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A lidar receiver with a direct detection chain adapted to a HgCdTe APD based detector with electric cooling is associated to a 2.05 μm Ho :YLF pulsed dual wavelength single mode transmitter to provide the first atmospheric lidar measurements using this technology. Experiments confirm the outstanding sensitivity of the detector and hightligth its huge potential for DIAL measurements of trace gas (CO2 and H2O in this spectral domain. Performances of coherent vs direct detection at 2.05 μm is assessed.

  4. Airborne direct-detection and coherent wind lidar measurements over the North Atlantic in 2015 supporting ESA's aeolus mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marksteiner, Uwe; Reitebuch, Oliver; Lemmerz, Christian; Lux, Oliver; Rahm, Stephan; Witschas, Benjamin; Schäfler, Andreas; Emmitt, Dave; Greco, Steve; Kavaya, Michael J.; Gentry, Bruce; Neely, Ryan R.; Kendall, Emma; Schüttemeyer, Dirk

    2018-04-01

    The launch of the Aeolus mission by the European Space Agency (ESA) is planned for 2018. The satellite will carry the first wind lidar in space, ALADIN (Atmospheric Laser Doppler INstrument). Its prototype instrument, the ALADIN Airborne Demonstrator (A2D), was deployed during several airborne campaigns aiming at the validation of the measurement principle and optimization of algorithms. In 2015, flights of two aircraft from DLR & NASA provided the chance to compare parallel wind measurements from four airborne wind lidars for the first time.

  5. An innovative rotational Raman lidar to measure the temperature profile from the surface to 30 km altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauchecorne, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Mariscal, Jean-François; d'Almeida, Eric; Dahoo, Pierre-Richard; Porteneuve, Jacques

    2016-06-01

    A concept of innovative rotational Raman lidar with daylight measurement capability is proposed to measure the vertical profile of temperature from the ground to the middle stratosphere. The optical filtering is made using a Fabry-Pérot Interferometer with line spacing equal to the line spacing of the Raman spectrum. The detection is made using a linear PMT array operated in photon counting mode. We plan to build a prototype and to test it at the Haute-Provence Observatory lidar facility. to achieve a time resolution permitting the observation of small-scale atmospheric processes playing a role in the troposphere-stratosphere interaction as gravity waves. If successful, this project will open the possibility to consider a Raman space lidar for the global observation of atmospheric temperature profiles.

  6. An innovative rotational Raman lidar to measure the temperature profile from the surface to 30 km altitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauchecorne Alain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A concept of innovative rotational Raman lidar with daylight measurement capability is proposed to measure the vertical profile of temperature from the ground to the middle stratosphere. The optical filtering is made using a Fabry-Pérot Interferometer with line spacing equal to the line spacing of the Raman spectrum. The detection is made using a linear PMT array operated in photon counting mode. We plan to build a prototype and to test it at the Haute-Provence Observatory lidar facility. to achieve a time resolution permitting the observation of small-scale atmospheric processes playing a role in the troposphere-stratosphere interaction as gravity waves. If successful, this project will open the possibility to consider a Raman space lidar for the global observation of atmospheric temperature profiles.

  7. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor using a pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs laser. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Lidar measurements using pseudonoise code modulated AlGaAs lasers are reported. Horizontal path lidar measurements were made at night to terrestrial targets at ranges of 5 and 13 km with 35 mW of average power and integration times of one second. Cloud and aerosol lidar measurements were made to thin cirrus clouds at 13 km altitude with Rayleigh (molecular) backscatter evident up to 9 km. Average transmitter power was 35 mW and measurement integration time was 20 minutes. An AlGaAs laser was used to characterize spectral properties of water vapor absorption lines at 811.617, 816.024, and 815.769 nm in a multipass absorption cell using derivative spectroscopy techniques. Frequency locking of an AlGaAs laser to a water vapor absorption line was achieved with a laser center frequency stability measured to better than one-fifth of the water vapor Doppler linewidth over several minutes. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric water vapor were made in both integrated path and range-resolved modes using an externally modulated AlGaAs laser. Mean water vapor number density was estimated from both integrated path and range-resolved DIAL measurements and agreed with measured humidity values to within 6.5 percent and 20 percent, respectively. Error sources were identified and their effects on estimates of water vapor number density calculated.

  8. Wind field re-construction of 3D Wake measurements from a turbine-installed scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, Tommy; Astrup, Poul

    High-resolution wake flow measurements obtained from a turbine-mounted scanning lidar have been obtained from 1D to 5D behind a V27 test turbine. The measured line-of-sight projected wind speeds have, in connection with a fast CFD wind field reconstruction model, been used to generate 3D wind fie...

  9. Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Obland, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Nehrir, A. R.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.

    2016-12-01

    Advanced Intensity-Modulation Continuous-Wave Lidar Techniques for Column CO2 MeasurementsJoel F. Campbell1, Bing Lin1, Michael D. Obland1, Zhaoyan Liu1, Susan Kooi2, Tai-Fang Fan2, Amin R. Nehrir1, Byron Meadows1, Edward V. Browell31NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 2SSAI, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 3STARSS-II Affiliate, NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 AbstractGlobal and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America project are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the ASCENDS and ACT-America science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) modulation technique to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby minimizing bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new sub-meter hyperfine interpolation techniques that takes advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. The BPSK technique under investigation has excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth. These techniques are used in a new data processing

  10. Validation of CALIPSO space-borne-derived attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles using a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Mamouri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present initial aerosol validation results of the space-borne lidar CALIOP -onboard the CALIPSO satellite- Level 1 attenuated backscatter coefficient profiles, using coincident observations performed with a ground-based lidar in Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E. A multi-wavelength ground-based backscatter/Raman lidar system is operating since 2000 at the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA in the framework of the European Aerosol Research LIdar NETwork (EARLINET, the first lidar network for tropospheric aerosol studies on a continental scale. Since July 2006, a total of 40 coincidental aerosol ground-based lidar measurements were performed over Athens during CALIPSO overpasses. The ground-based measurements were performed each time CALIPSO overpasses the station location within a maximum distance of 100 km. The duration of the ground–based lidar measurements was approximately two hours, centred on the satellite overpass time. From the analysis of the ground-based/satellite correlative lidar measurements, a mean bias of the order of 22% for daytime measurements and of 8% for nighttime measurements with respect to the CALIPSO profiles was found for altitudes between 3 and 10 km. The mean bias becomes much larger for altitudes lower that 3 km (of the order of 60% which is attributed to the increase of aerosol horizontal inhomogeneity within the Planetary Boundary Layer, resulting to the observation of possibly different air masses by the two instruments. In cases of aerosol layers underlying Cirrus clouds, comparison results for aerosol tropospheric profiles become worse. This is attributed to the significant multiple scattering effects in Cirrus clouds experienced by CALIPSO which result in an attenuation which is less than that measured by the ground-based lidar.

  11. Characterizing Tropical Forest Structure using Field-based Measurements and a Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Sullivan, F.; Ducey, M. J.; Herrick, C.

    2015-12-01

    Forest structure comprises numerous quantifiable components of forest biometric characteristics, one of which is tree architecture. This structural component is important in the understanding of the past and future trajectories of these biomes. Tropical forests are often considered the most structurally complex and yet least understood of forested ecosystems. New technologies have provided novel avenues for quantifying properties of forested ecosystems, one of which is LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar). This sensor can be deployed on satellite, aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, and terrestrial platforms. In this study we examined the efficacy of a terrestrial lidar scanner (TLS) system in a tropical forest to estimate forest structure. Our study was conducted in January 2012 at La Selva, Costa Rica at twenty locations in predominantly undisturbed forest. At these locations we collected field measured biometric attributes using a variable plot design. We also collected TLS data from the center of each plot. Using this data we developed relative vegetation profiles (RVPs) and calculated a series of parameters including entropy, FFT, number of layers and plant area index to develop statistical relationships with field data. We developed statistical models using multiple linear regressions, all of which converged on statistically significant relationships with the strongest relationship being for mean crown depth (r2 = 0.87, p information on tropical forest structure.

  12. A lidar for water vapour measurements in daytime at Lampedusa, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marenco

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available ENEA is planning to develop a lidar system for measurement of the vertical profi le of water vapour mixing ratio in daytime at a remote site, the Station for Climate Observations located in Lampedusa, Italy. The Raman lidar technique has been retained because of its experimental simplicity with respect to DIAL, and the UV spectral range has been chosen because Raman cross-sections and detector effi ciencies are larger. For a wavelength larger than ~ 300 nm the signal is limited in daytime by sky background, but extinction is acceptable, and the aims of the system can be reached with a strong laser source. The 355 nm wavelength of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser has been retained as this laser source permits to reach a large pulse energy while keeping the system simple to operate. Geometrical form factor calculations need to be performed to evaluate the near-range overlap between the laser beam and the fi eld-of-view of the receiver. Among several options, a dual-receiver system has been retained to account for the several orders of magnitude expected in the backscattered signal intensity: a smaller receiver, with a primary mirror of 200 mm diameter for the 0.2-1 km range, and a larger 500 mm receiver for the 1-3 km range.

  13. Application of Spaceborne Scatterometer for Mapping Freeze-Thaw State in Northern Landscapes as a Measure of Ecological and Hydrological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kyle; Kimball, John; Zimmermann, Reiner; Way, JoBea; Frolking, Steve; Running, Steve

    1999-01-01

    Landscape freeze/thaw transitions coincide with marked shifts in albedo, surface energy and mass exchange, and associated snow dynamics. Monitoring landscape freeze/thaw dynamics would improve our ability to quantify the interannual variability of boreal hydrology and river runoff/flood dynamics. The annual duration of frost-free period also bounds the period of photosynthetic activity in boreal and arctic regions thus affecting the annual carbon budget and the interannual variability of regional carbon fluxes. In this study, we use the NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) to monitor the temporal change in the radar backscatter signature across selected ecoregions of the boreal zone. We have measured vegetation tissue temperatures, soil temperature profiles, and micrometeorological parameters in situ at selected sites along a north-south transect extending across Alaska from Prudhoe Bay to the Kenai Peninsula and in Siberia near the Yenisey River. Data from these stations have been used to quantify the scatterometer's sensitivity to freeze/thaw state under a variety of terrain and landcover conditions. Analysis of the NSCAT temporal response over the 1997 spring thaw cycle shows a 3 to 5 dB change in measured backscatter that is well correlated with the landscape springtime thaw process. Having verified the instrument's capability to monitor freeze/thaw transitions, regional scale mosaicked data are applied to derive temporal series of freeze/thaw transition maps for selected circumpolar high latitude regions. These maps are applied to derive areal extent of frozen and thawed landscape and demonstrate the utility of spaceborne radar for operational monitoring of seasonal freeze-thaw dynamics and associated biophysical processes for the circumpolar high latitudes.

  14. Estimating drizzle drop size and precipitation rate using two-colour lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Westbrook

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to estimate the size and liquid water content of drizzle drops using lidar measurements at two wavelengths is described. The method exploits the differential absorption of infrared light by liquid water at 905 nm and 1.5 μm, which leads to a different backscatter cross section for water drops larger than ≈50 μm. The ratio of backscatter measured from drizzle samples below cloud base at these two wavelengths (the colour ratio provides a measure of the median volume drop diameter D0. This is a strong effect: for D0=200 μm, a colour ratio of ≈6 dB is predicted. Once D0 is known, the measured backscatter at 905 nm can be used to calculate the liquid water content (LWC and other moments of the drizzle drop distribution.

    The method is applied to observations of drizzle falling from stratocumulus and stratus clouds. High resolution (32 s, 36 m profiles of D0, LWC and precipitation rate R are derived. The main sources of error in the technique are the need to assume a value for the dispersion parameter μ in the drop size spectrum (leading to at most a 35% error in R and the influence of aerosol returns on the retrieval (≈10% error in R for the cases considered here. Radar reflectivities are also computed from the lidar data, and compared to independent measurements from a colocated cloud radar, offering independent validation of the derived drop size distributions.

  15. Intensity Modulation Techniques for Continuous-Wave Lidar for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. F.; Lin, B.; Obland, M. D.; Kooi, S. A.; Fan, T. F.; Meadows, B.; Browell, E. V.; Erxleben, W. H.; McGregor, D.; Dobler, J. T.; Pal, S.; O'Dell, C.

    2017-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements for the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) space mission and the Atmospheric Carbon and Transport (ACT) - America project are critical for improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. Advanced Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space and airborne platforms to meet the ASCENDS and ACT-America science measurement requirements. In recent numerical, laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used the Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) and Linear Swept Frequency modulations to uniquely discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud returns. We demonstrate the utility of BPSK to eliminate sidelobes in the range profile as a means of making Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) column CO2 measurements in the presence of optically thin clouds, thereby eliminating bias errors caused by the clouds. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate cloud layers, which is a requirement for the inversion of column CO2 number density measurements to column CO2 mixing ratios, has been demonstrated using new hyperfine interpolation techniques that take advantage of the periodicity of the modulation waveforms. This approach works well for both BPSK and linear swept-frequency modulation techniques and provides very high (at sub-meter level) range resolution. We compare BPSK to linear swept frequency and introduce a new technique to eliminate sidelobes in situations from linear swept frequency where the SNR is high with results that rival BPSK. We also investigate the effects of non-linear modulators, which can in some circumstances degrade the orthogonality of the waveforms, and show how to avoid this. These techniques are used in a new data processing architecture written in

  16. Confined aquifer head measurements and storage properties in the San Luis Valley, Colorado, from spaceborne InSAR observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingyi; Knight, Rosemary; Zebker, Howard A.; Schreüder, Willem A.

    2016-05-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), a remote sensing technique for measuring centimeter-level surface deformation, is used to estimate hydraulic head in the confined aquifer of the San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado. Reconstructing head measurements from InSAR in agricultural regions can be difficult, as InSAR phase data are often decorrelated due to vegetation growth. Analysis of 17 L-band ALOS PALSAR scenes, acquired between January 2007 and March 2011, demonstrates that comprehensive InSAR deformation measurements can be recovered over the vegetated groundwater basin with an improved processing strategy. Local skeletal storage coefficients and time delays between the head change and deformation are estimated through a joint InSAR-well data analysis. InSAR subsidence estimates are transformed to head changes with finer temporal and spatial resolution than is possible using existing well records alone. Both InSAR and well data suggest that little long-term water-storage loss occurred in the SLV over the study period and that inelastic compaction was negligible. The seasonal head variations derived from InSAR are consistent with the existing well data at most locations where confined aquifer pumping activity dominates. Our results demonstrate the advantages of InSAR measurements for basin-wide characterization of aquifer storage properties and groundwater levels over agricultural regions.

  17. Design and realization of a space-borne reflectron time of flight mass spectrometer: electronics and measuring head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, P.

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is the design of the electronics of a time of flight mass spectrometer, the making and the vacuum tests of a prototype which can be put onboard a satellite. A particular effort was necessary to decrease to the maximum the mass and electric consumption of the spectrometer, which led to the development of new circuits. The work completed during this thesis initially concerns the electronics of the measuring equipment which was conceived in a concern for modularity. A complete 'reflectron' type mass spectrometer was then designed, simulated and developed. The built prototype, which uses the developed electronics, was exposed to ion flows of different masses and energies in the CESR vacuum chambers. Its measured performances validate the implemented principles and show that an identical mass spectrometer can be put onboard a satellite with profit, for planetary or solar missions. (author)

  18. Development of an advanced Two-Micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar for carbon dioxide and water vapor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Antill, Charles; Remus, Ruben; Taylor, Bryant D.; Wong, Teh-Hwa; Reithmaier, Karl; Lee, Jane; Ismail, Syed; Davis, Kenneth J.

    2018-04-01

    An advanced airborne triple-pulse 2-μm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is under development at NASA Langley Research Center that targets both carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor (H2O) measurements simultaneously and independently. This lidar is an upgrade to the successfully demonstrated CO2 2-μm double-pulse IPDA. Upgrades include high-energy, highrepetition rate 2-μm triple-pulse laser transmitter, innovative wavelength control and advanced HgCdTe (MCT) electron-initiated avalanche photodiode detection system. Ground testing and airborne validation plans are presented.

  19. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Concentration and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection IPDA Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand; Riris, Haris; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Weaver, Clark J.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated a pulsed direct detection IPDA lidar to measure range and the column concentration of atmospheric CO2. The lidar measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and samples the shape of the 1,572.33 nm CO2 absorption line. We participated in the ASCENDS science flights on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during August 2011 and report here lidar measurements made on four flights over a variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US. These included over a stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, to a dry lake bed surrounded by mountains in Nevada, to a desert area with a coal-fired power plant, and from the Rocky Mountains to Iowa, with segments with both cumulus and cirrus clouds. Most flights were to altitudes >12 km and had 5-6 altitude steps. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range, CO2 column absorption, and CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds, between cumulus clouds, and to stratus cloud tops. The retrievals shows the decrease in column CO2 due to growing vegetation when flying over Iowa cropland as well as a sudden increase in CO2 concentration near a coal-fired power plant. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption lineshape (averaged for 50 s) matched the predicted shapes to better than 1% RMS error. For 10 s averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by the received signal photon count. Retrievals were made using atmospheric parameters from both an atmospheric model and from in situ temperature and pressure from the aircraft. The retrievals had no free parameters and did not use empirical adjustments, and >70% of the measurements passed screening and were used in analysis. The differences between the lidar-measured retrievals and in situ measured average CO2 column concentrations were 6 km.

  20. Capability of simultaneous Rayleigh LiDAR and O2 airglow measurements in exploring the short period wave characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taori, Alok; Raghunath, Karnam; Jayaraman, Achuthan

    We use combination of simultaneous measurements made with Rayleigh lidar and O2 airglow monitoring to improve lidar investigation capability to cover a higher altitude range. We feed instantaneous O2 airglow temperatures instead the model values at the top altitude for subsequent integration method of temperature retrieval using Rayleigh lidar back scattered signals. Using this method, errors in the lidar temperature estimates converges at higher altitudes indicating better altitude coverage compared to regular methods where model temperatures are used instead of real-time measurements. This improvement enables the measurements of short period waves at upper mesospheric altitudes (~90 km). With two case studies, we show that above 60 km the few short period wave amplitude drastically increases while, some of the short period wave show either damping or saturation. We claim that by using such combined measurements, a significant and cost effective progress can be made in the understanding of short period wave processes which are important for the coupling across the different atmospheric regions.

  1. The Characterization of a DIRSIG Simulation Environment to Support the Inter-Calibration of Spaceborne Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambeau, Brittany L.; Gerace, Aaron D.; Montanaro, Matthew; McCorkel, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Climate change studies require long-term, continuous records that extend beyond the lifetime, and the temporal resolution, of a single remote sensing satellite sensor. The inter-calibration of spaceborne sensors is therefore desired to provide spatially, spectrally, and temporally homogeneous datasets. The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool is a first principle-based synthetic image generation model that has the potential to characterize the parameters that impact the accuracy of the inter-calibration of spaceborne sensors. To demonstrate the potential utility of the model, we compare the radiance observed in real image data to the radiance observed in simulated image from DIRSIG. In the present work, a synthetic landscape of the Algodones Sand Dunes System is created. The terrain is facetized using a 2-meter digital elevation model generated from NASA Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral, and Thermal (G-LiHT) imager. The material spectra are assigned using hyperspectral measurements of sand collected from the Algodones Sand Dunes System. Lastly, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) properties are assigned to the modeled terrain using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF product in conjunction with DIRSIG's Ross-Li capability. The results of this work indicate that DIRSIG is in good agreement with real image data. The potential sources of residual error are identified and the possibilities for future work are discussed..

  2. The characterization of a DIRSIG simulation environment to support the inter-calibration of spaceborne sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambeau, Brittany L.; Gerace, Aaron D.; Montanaro, Matthew; McCorkel, Joel

    2016-09-01

    Climate change studies require long-term, continuous records that extend beyond the lifetime, and the temporal resolution, of a single remote sensing satellite sensor. The inter-calibration of spaceborne sensors is therefore desired to provide spatially, spectrally, and temporally homogeneous datasets. The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) tool is a first principle-based synthetic image generation model that has the potential to characterize the parameters that impact the accuracy of the inter-calibration of spaceborne sensors. To demonstrate the potential utility of the model, we compare the radiance observed in real image data to the radiance observed in simulated image from DIRSIG. In the present work, a synthetic landscape of the Algodones Sand Dunes System is created. The terrain is facetized using a 2-meter digital elevation model generated from NASA Goddard's LiDAR, Hyperspectral, and Thermal (G-LiHT) imager. The material spectra are assigned using hyperspectral measurements of sand collected from the Algodones Sand Dunes System. Lastly, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) properties are assigned to the modeled terrain using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF product in conjunction with DIRSIG's Ross-Li capability. The results of this work indicate that DIRSIG is in good agreement with real image data. The potential sources of residual error are identified and the possibilities for future work are discussed.

  3. Effects of orbit and pointing geometry of a spaceborne formation for monostatic-bistatic radargrammetry on terrain elevation measurement accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade a methodology for the reconstruction of surface relief by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements - SAR interferometry - has become a standard. Different techniques developed before, such as stereo-radargrammetry, have been experienced from space only in very limiting geometries and time series, and, hence, branded as less accurate. However, novel formation flying configurations achievable by modern spacecraft allow fulfillment of SAR missions able to produce pairs of monostatic-bistatic images gathered simultaneously, with programmed looking angles. Hence it is possible to achieve large antenna separations, adequate for exploiting to the utmost the stereoscopic effect, and to make negligible time decorrelation, a strong liming factor for repeat-pass stereo-radargrammetric techniques. This paper reports on design of a monostatic-bistatic mission, in terms of orbit and pointing geometry, and taking into account present generation SAR and technology for accurate relative navigation. Performances of different methods for monostatic-bistatic stereo-radargrammetry are then evaluated, showing the possibility to determine the local surface relief with a metric accuracy over a wide range of Earth latitudes.

  4. Measurement of Precipitation in the Alps Using Dual-Polarization C-Band Ground-Based Radars, the GPM Spaceborne Ku-Band Radar, and Rain Gauges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gabella

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The complex problem of quantitative precipitation estimation in the Alpine region is tackled from four different points of view: (1 the modern MeteoSwiss network of automatic telemetered rain gauges (GAUGE; (2 the recently upgraded MeteoSwiss dual-polarization Doppler, ground-based weather radar network (RADAR; (3 a real-time merging of GAUGE and RADAR, implemented at MeteoSwiss, in which a technique based on co-kriging with external drift (CombiPrecip is used; (4 spaceborne observations, acquired by the dual-wavelength precipitation radar on board the Global Precipitation Measuring (GPM core satellite. There are obviously large differences in these sampling modes, which we have tried to minimize by integrating synchronous observations taken during the first 2 years of the GPM mission. The data comprises 327 “wet” overpasses of Switzerland, taken after the launch of GPM in February 2014. By comparing the GPM radar estimates with the MeteoSwiss products, a similar performance was found in terms of bias. On average (whole country, all days and seasons, both solid and liquid phases, underestimation is as large as −3.0 (−3.4 dB with respect to RADAR (GAUGE. GPM is not suitable for assessing what product is the best in terms of average precipitation over the Alps. GPM can nevertheless be used to evaluate the dispersion of the error around the mean, which is a measure of the geographical distribution of the error inside the country. Using 221 rain-gauge sites, the result is clear both in terms of correlation and in terms of scatter (a robust, weighted measure of the dispersion of the multiplicative error around the mean. The best agreement was observed between GPM and CombiPrecip, and, next, between GPM and RADAR, whereas a larger disagreement was found between GPM and GAUGE. Hence, GPM confirms that, for precipitation mapping in the Alpine region, the best results are obtained by combining ground-based radar with rain-gauge measurements using

  5. Spaceborne Sun-Induced Vegetation Fluorescence Time Series from 2007 to 2015 Evaluated with Australian Flux Tower Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Abram F. J.; Verstraeten, Willem W.; Kooreman, Maurits L.; van Leth, Thomas C.; Beringer, Jason; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    A global, monthly averaged time series of Sun-induced Fluorescence (SiF), spanning January 2007 to June 2015, was derived from Metop-A Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) spectral measurements. Far-red SiF was retrieved using the filling-in of deep solar Fraunhofer lines and atmospheric absorption bands based on the general methodology described by Joiner et al, AMT, 2013. A Principal Component (PC) analysis of spectra over non-vegetated areas was performed to describe the effects of atmospheric absorption. Our implementation (SiF KNMI) is an independent algorithm and differs from the latest implementation of Joiner et al, AMT, 2013 (SiF NASA, v26), because we used desert reference areas for determining PCs (as opposed to cloudy ocean and some desert) and a wider fit window that covers water vapour and oxygen absorption bands (as opposed to only Fraunhofer lines). As a consequence, more PCs were needed (35 as opposed to 12). The two time series (SiF KNMI and SiF NASA, v26) correlate well (overall R of 0.78) except for tropical rain forests. Sensitivity experiments suggest the strong impact of the water vapour absorption band on retrieved SiF values. Furthermore, we evaluated the SiF time series with Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) derived from twelve flux towers in Australia. Correlations for individual towers range from 0.37 to 0.84. They are particularly high for managed biome types. In the de-seasonalized Australian SiF time series, the break of the Millennium Drought during local summer of 2010/2011 is clearly observed.

  6. Optics and geometric characterization of cirrus from Lille lidar measurements over the period 2008-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohra, R.; Parol, F.; Dubuisson

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is the detection and characterization of cirrus clouds from ground-based lidar measurements acquired at 532 nm wave length. An inversion method has been developed during this work to realize a climatologyof cirrus clouds over Lille, France (50.65°N, 3.08ºE) from 2008 to 2013. The mid-cloud height is generally observed between 7 and 13 km, and a mean thickness is found to be 1.4 ±0.8 km. Visibleclouds, characterized by anoptical thickness between 0.03 and 0.3, present 68 % of the total observed cirrus clouds. The methodology used in this work andthe retrieved geometrical and optical parameters of cirrus clouds are presented in this article. (author)

  7. Modelling lidar volume-averaging and its significance to wind turbine wake measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Troldborg, Niels; Borraccino, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    gradients, like the rotor wake, can it be detrimental. Hence, an efficient algorithm mimicking lidar flow sampling is presented, which considers both pulsed and continous-wave lidar weighting functions. The flow-field around a 2.3 MW turbine is simulated using Detached Eddy Simulation in combination...

  8. Analysis of Vertical Weighting Functions for Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 and O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, S.; Mao, J.; Abshire, J. B.; Browell, E. V.; Weaver, C. J.; Kawa, S. R.

    2011-12-01

    Several NASA groups have developed integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar approaches to measure atmospheric CO2 concentrations from space as a candidates for NASA's ASCENDS space mission. For example, the Goddard CO2 Sounder approach uses two pulsed lasers to simultaneously measure both CO2 and O2 absorption in the vertical path to the surface at a number of wavelengths across a CO2 line near 1572 nm and an O2 line doublet near 764 nm. The measurements of CO2 and O2 absorption allow computing their vertically weighted number densities and then their ratios for estimating CO2 concentration relative to dry air. Since both the CO2 and O2 densities and their absorption line-width decrease with altitude, the absorption response (or weighting function) varies with both altitude and absorption wavelength. We have used some standard atmospheres and HITRAN 2008 spectroscopy to calculate the vertical weighting functions for two CO2 lines near 1571 nm and the O2 lines near 764.7 and 1260 nm for candidate online wavelength selections for ASCENDS. For CO2, the primary candidate on-line wavelengths are 10-12 pm away from line center with the weighting function peaking in the atmospheric boundary layer to measure CO2 sources and sinks at the surface. Using another on-line wavelength 3-5 pm away from line center allows the weighting function to peak in the mid- to upper troposphere, which is sensitive to CO2 transport in the free atmosphere. The Goddard CO2 sounder team developed an airborne precursor version of a space instrument. During the summers of 2009, 2010 and 2011 it has participated in airborne measurement campaigns over a variety of different sites in the US, flying with other NASA ASCENDS lidar candidates along with accurate in-situ atmospheric sensors. All flights used altitude patterns with measurements at steps in altitudes between 3 and 13 km, along with spirals from 13 km altitude to near the surface. Measurements from in-situ sensors allowed an

  9. The e-Beam Sustained Laser Technology for Space-based Doppler Wind Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M. J.; Holman, W.; Robinson, R. J.; Schwarzenberger, P. M.; Smith, I. M.; Wallace, S.; Harris, M. R.; Willetts, D. V.; Kurzius, S. C.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of GEC Avionics activities relating to the Spaceborne Doppler Wind Lidar. In particular, the results of design studies into the use of an e-beam sustained CO2 laser for spaceborne applications, and experimental work on a test bed system are discussed.

  10. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for measurements of atmospheric water vapor and aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Arlen F.; Allen, Robert J.; Mayo, M. Neale; Butler, Carolyn F.; Grossman, Benoist E.; Ismail, Syed; Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Higdon, Noah S.; Mayor, Shane D.; hide

    1994-01-01

    An airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system has been developed at the NASA Langley Research Center for remote measurements of atmospheric water vapor (H2O) and aerosols. A solid-state alexandrite laser with a 1-pm linewidth and greater than 99.85% spectral purity was used as the on-line transmitter. Solid-state avalanche photodiode detector technology has replaced photomultiplier tubes in the receiver system, providing an average increase by a factor of 1.5-2.5 in the signal-to-noise ratio of the H2O measurement. By incorporating advanced diagnostic and data-acquisition instrumentation into other subsystems, we achieved additional improvements in system operational reliability and measurement accuracy. Laboratory spectroscopic measurements of H2O absorption-line parameters were performed to reduce the uncertainties in our knowledge of the absorption cross sections. Line-center H2O absorption cross sections were determined, with errors of 3-6%, for more than 120 lines in the 720-nm region. Flight tests of the system were conducted during 1989-1991 on the NASA Wallops Flight Facility Electra aircraft, and extensive intercomparison measurements were performed with dew-point hygrometers and H2O radiosondes. The H2O distributions measured with the DIAL system differed by less than 10% from the profiles determined with the in situ probes in a variety of atmospheric conditions.

  11. Analysis of 3D Scan Measurement Distribution with Application to a Multi-Beam Lidar on a Rotating Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jesús; Plaza-Leiva, Victoria; Mandow, Anthony; Gomez-Ruiz, Jose Antonio; Serón, Javier; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2018-01-30

    Multi-beam lidar (MBL) rangefinders are becoming increasingly compact, light, and accessible 3D sensors, but they offer limited vertical resolution and field of view. The addition of a degree-of-freedom to build a rotating multi-beam lidar (RMBL) has the potential to become a common solution for affordable rapid full-3D high resolution scans. However, the overlapping of multiple-beams caused by rotation yields scanning patterns that are more complex than in rotating single beam lidar (RSBL). In this paper, we propose a simulation-based methodology to analyze 3D scanning patterns which is applied to investigate the scan measurement distribution produced by the RMBL configuration. With this purpose, novel contributions include: (i) the adaption of a recent spherical reformulation of Ripley's K function to assess 3D sensor data distribution on a hollow sphere simulation; (ii) a comparison, both qualitative and quantitative, between scan patterns produced by an ideal RMBL based on a Velodyne VLP-16 (Puck) and those of other 3D scan alternatives (i.e., rotating 2D lidar and MBL); and (iii) a new RMBL implementation consisting of a portable tilting platform for VLP-16 scanners, which is presented as a case study for measurement distribution analysis as well as for the discussion of actual scans from representative environments. Results indicate that despite the particular sampling patterns given by a RMBL, its homogeneity even improves that of an equivalent RSBL.

  12. Analysis of 3D Scan Measurement Distribution with Application to a Multi-Beam Lidar on a Rotating Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Leiva, Victoria; Serón, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Multi-beam lidar (MBL) rangefinders are becoming increasingly compact, light, and accessible 3D sensors, but they offer limited vertical resolution and field of view. The addition of a degree-of-freedom to build a rotating multi-beam lidar (RMBL) has the potential to become a common solution for affordable rapid full-3D high resolution scans. However, the overlapping of multiple-beams caused by rotation yields scanning patterns that are more complex than in rotating single beam lidar (RSBL). In this paper, we propose a simulation-based methodology to analyze 3D scanning patterns which is applied to investigate the scan measurement distribution produced by the RMBL configuration. With this purpose, novel contributions include: (i) the adaption of a recent spherical reformulation of Ripley’s K function to assess 3D sensor data distribution on a hollow sphere simulation; (ii) a comparison, both qualitative and quantitative, between scan patterns produced by an ideal RMBL based on a Velodyne VLP-16 (Puck) and those of other 3D scan alternatives (i.e., rotating 2D lidar and MBL); and (iii) a new RMBL implementation consisting of a portable tilting platform for VLP-16 scanners, which is presented as a case study for measurement distribution analysis as well as for the discussion of actual scans from representative environments. Results indicate that despite the particular sampling patterns given by a RMBL, its homogeneity even improves that of an equivalent RSBL. PMID:29385705

  13. Coherent dual-frequency lidar system design for distance and speed measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xingyuan; Zhao, Changming; Zhang, Haiyang; Zheng, Zheng; Yang, Hongzhi

    2018-01-01

    Lidars have a wide range of applications in military detection and civilian remote sensing. Coherent Dual-Frequency Lidar (CDFL) is a new concept of laser radar that is using electrical coherence instead of optical coherence. It uses laser with two coherent frequency components as transmitting wave. The method is based on the use of an optically-carried radio frequency (RF) signal, which is the frequency difference between the two components, which is specially designed for distance and speed measurements. It not only ensures the system has the characteristics of high spatial resolution, high ranging and velocity precision of laser radar, but also can use mature signal processing technology of microwave radar, and it is a research direction that attracts more concern in recent years. A CDFL detection system is constructed and field experiment is carried out. In the system, a narrow linewidth fiber laser with a wavelength of 1064nm is adopted. The dual-frequency laser with frequency difference of 200MHz and 200.6MHz is obtained by acousto-optic frequency shift and recombination. The maximum output power of dual frequency laser is 200mW. The receiver consists of all-fiber balanced InGaAs photo-detector and homemade analog signal processing board. The experimental results show that the distance resolution and velocity resolution of the system are 0.1m and 0.1m/s separately when the working distance is greater than 200m, and the spatial resolution is 0.5mrad.

  14. Advances in High Energy Solid-State Pulsed 2-Micron Lidar Development for Ground and Airborne Wind, Water Vapor and CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer; Kavaya, Michael J.; Remus, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron lasers. From fundamental spectroscopy research, theoretical prediction of new materials, laser demonstration and engineering of lidar systems, it has been a very successful program spanning around two decades. Successful development of 2-micron lasers has led to development of a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement with an unprecedented laser pulse energy of 250 millijoules in a rugged package. This high pulse energy is produced by a Ho:Tm:LuLiF laser with an optical amplifier. While the lidar is meant for use as an airborne instrument, ground-based tests were carried out to characterize performance of the lidar. Atmospheric measurements will be presented, showing the lidar's capability for wind measurement in the atmospheric boundary layer and free troposphere. Lidar wind measurements are compared to a balloon sonde, showing good agreement between the two sensors. Similar architecture has been used to develop a high energy, Ho:Tm:YLF double-pulsed 2-micron Integrated Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) instrument based on direct detection technique that provides atmospheric column CO2 measurements. This instrument has been successfully used to measure atmospheric CO2 column density initially from a ground mobile lidar trailer, and then it was integrated on B-200 plane and 20 hours of flight measurement were made from an altitude ranging 1500 meters to 8000 meters. These measurements were compared to in-situ measurements and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) airborne flask measurement to derive the dry mixing ratio of the column CO2 by reflecting the signal by various reflecting surfaces such as land, vegetation, ocean surface, snow and sand. The lidar measurements when compared showed a very agreement with in-situ and airborne flask measurement. NASA Langley Research Center is currently developing a

  15. Temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor in the 720-nm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Grossmann, Benoist E.

    1991-01-01

    Recently measured properties of water vapor (H2O) absorption lines have been used in calculations to evalute the temperature sensitivity of differential absorption lidar (Dial) H2O measurements. This paper estimates the temperature sensitivity of H2O lines in the 717-733-nm region for both H2O mixing ratio and number density measurements, and discusses the influence of the H2O line ground state energies E-double-prime, the H2O absorption linewidths, the linewidth temperature dependence parameter, and the atmospheric temperature and pressure variations with altitude and location on the temperature sensitivity calculations. Line parameters and temperature sensitivity calculations for 67 H2O lines in the 720-nm band are given which can be directly used in field experiments. Water vapor lines with E-double-prime values in the 100-300/cm range were found to be optimum for Dial measurements of H2O number densities, while E-double-prime values in the 250-500/cm range were found to be optimum for H2O mixing ratio measurements.

  16. Selection Algorithm for the CALIPSO Lidar Aerosol Extinction-to-Backscatter Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Ali H.; Winker, David M.; Vaughan, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S(sub a)) is an important parameter used in the determination of the aerosol extinction and subsequently the optical depth from lidar backscatter measurements. We outline the algorithm used to determine Sa for the Cloud and Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Spaceborne Observations (CALIPSO) lidar. S(sub a) for the CALIPSO lidar will either be selected from a look-up table or calculated using the lidar measurements depending on the characteristics of aerosol layer. Whenever suitable lofted layers are encountered, S(sub a) is computed directly from the integrated backscatter and transmittance. In all other cases, the CALIPSO observables: the depolarization ratio, delta, the layer integrated attenuated backscatter, beta, and the mean layer total attenuated color ratio, gamma, together with the surface type, are used to aid in aerosol typing. Once the type is identified, a look-up-table developed primarily from worldwide observations, is used to determine the S(sub a) value. The CALIPSO aerosol models include desert dust, biomass burning, background, polluted continental, polluted dust, and marine aerosols.

  17. Polar Applications of Spaceborne Scatterometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, David G.

    2017-01-01

    Wind scatterometers were originally developed for observation of near-surface winds over the ocean. They retrieve wind indirectly by measuring the normalized radar cross section (σo) of the surface, and estimating the wind via a geophysical model function relating σo to the vector wind. The σo measurements have proven to be remarkably capable in studies of the polar regions where they can map snow cover; detect the freeze/thaw state of forest, tundra, and ice; map and classify sea ice; and track icebergs. Further, a long time series of scatterometer σo observations is available to support climate studies. In addition to fundamental scientific research, scatterometer data are operationally used for sea-ice mapping to support navigation. Scatterometers are, thus, invaluable tools for monitoring the polar regions. In this paper, a brief review of some of the polar applications of spaceborne wind scatterometer data is provided. The paper considers both C-band and Ku-band scatterometers, and the relative merits of fan-beam and pencil-beam scatterometers in polar remote sensing are discussed. PMID:28919936

  18. 3D wake measurements from a scanning wind lidar in combination with a fast wind field reconstruction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, T. G.; Astrup, Poul

    2017-01-01

    University of Denmark. The purpose of the SpinnerLidar measurements at SWIFT is to measure the response of a V27 turbine wake to varying inflow conditions and turbine operating states. Although our fast scanning SpinnerLidar is able to measure the line-of-sight projected wind speed at up to 400 points per......-Stokes CFD code “Lincom Cyclop-buster model,”3 the corresponding 3D wind vector field (u, v, w) can be reconstructed under constraints for conservation of mass and momentum. The resulting model calculated line-of-sight projections of the 3D wind velocity vectors will become consistent with the line...

  19. Advances In Global Aerosol Modeling Applications Through Assimilation of Satellite-Based Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James; Hyer, Edward; Zhang, Jianglong; Reid, Jeffrey; Westphal, Douglas; Xian, Peng; Vaughan, Mark

    2010-05-01

    Modeling the instantaneous three-dimensional aerosol field and its downwind transport represents an endeavor with many practical benefits foreseeable to air quality, aviation, military and science agencies. The recent proliferation of multi-spectral active and passive satellite-based instruments measuring aerosol physical properties has served as an opportunity to develop and refine the techniques necessary to make such numerical modeling applications possible. Spurred by high-resolution global mapping of aerosol source regions, and combined with novel multivariate data assimilation techniques designed to consider these new data streams, operational forecasts of visibility and aerosol optical depths are now available in near real-time1. Active satellite-based aerosol profiling, accomplished using lidar instruments, represents a critical element for accurate analysis and transport modeling. Aerosol source functions, alone, can be limited in representing the macrophysical structure of injection scenarios within a model. Two-dimensional variational (2D-VAR; x, y) assimilation of aerosol optical depth from passive satellite observations significantly improves the analysis of the initial state. However, this procedure can not fully compensate for any potential vertical redistribution of mass required at the innovation step. The expense of an inaccurate vertical analysis of aerosol structure is corresponding errors downwind, since trajectory paths within successive forecast runs will likely diverge with height. In this paper, the application of a newly-designed system for 3D-VAR (x,y,z) assimilation of vertical aerosol extinction profiles derived from elastic-scattering lidar measurements is described [Campbell et al., 2009]. Performance is evaluated for use with the U. S. Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) by assimilating NASA/CNES satellite-borne Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) 0.532 μm measurements [Winker et al., 2009

  20. Vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties and the solar heating rate estimated by combining sky radiometer and lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Rei; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Aoyagi, Toshinori

    2016-07-01

    The SKYLIDAR algorithm was developed to estimate vertical profiles of aerosol optical properties from sky radiometer (SKYNET) and lidar (AD-Net) measurements. The solar heating rate was also estimated from the SKYLIDAR retrievals. The algorithm consists of two retrieval steps: (1) columnar properties are retrieved from the sky radiometer measurements and the vertically mean depolarization ratio obtained from the lidar measurements and (2) vertical profiles are retrieved from the lidar measurements and the results of the first step. The derived parameters are the vertical profiles of the size distribution, refractive index (real and imaginary parts), extinction coefficient, single-scattering albedo, and asymmetry factor. Sensitivity tests were conducted by applying the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the simulated sky radiometer and lidar data for vertical profiles of three different aerosols, continental average, transported dust, and pollution aerosols. The vertical profiles of the size distribution, extinction coefficient, and asymmetry factor were well estimated in all cases. The vertical profiles of the refractive index and single-scattering albedo of transported dust, but not those of transported pollution aerosol, were well estimated. To demonstrate the performance and validity of the SKYLIDAR algorithm, we applied the SKYLIDAR algorithm to the actual measurements at Tsukuba, Japan. The detailed vertical structures of the aerosol optical properties and solar heating rate of transported dust and smoke were investigated. Examination of the relationship between the solar heating rate and the aerosol optical properties showed that the vertical profile of the asymmetry factor played an important role in creating vertical variation in the solar heating rate. We then compared the columnar optical properties retrieved with the SKYLIDAR algorithm to those produced with the more established scheme SKYRAD.PACK, and the surface solar irradiance calculated from the SKYLIDAR

  1. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Pressure Made Using the Oxygen A-Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, Haris; Rodriquez, Michael D.; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Stephen, Mark A.; Abshire, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios on a global scale are currently needed to gain a better understanding of climate change and its possible impact on our planet. In order to remotely measure greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere with regard to dry air, the air number density in the atmosphere is also needed in deriving the greenhouse gas concentrations. Since oxygen is stable and uniformly mixed in the atmosphere at 20.95%, the measurement of an oxygen absorption in the atmosphere can be used to infer the dry air density and used to calculate the dry air mixing ratio of a greenhouse gas, such as carbon dioxide or methane. OUT technique of measuring Oxygen uses integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) with an Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDF A) laser system and single photon counting module (SPCM). It measures the absorbance of several on- and off-line wavelengths tuned to an O2 absorption line in the A-band at 764.7 nm. The choice of wavelengths allows us to maximize the pressure sensitivity using the trough between two absorptions in the Oxygen A-band. Our retrieval algorithm uses ancillary meteorological and aircraft altitude information to fit the experimentally obtained lidar O2 line shapes to a model atmosphere and derives the pressure from the profiles of the two lines. We have demonstrated O2 measurements from the ground and from an airborne platform. In this paper we will report on our airborne measurements during our 2011 campaign for the ASCENDS program.

  2. Fluorescence lidar measurements at the archaeological site House of Augustus at Palatino, Rome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Alisi, Chiara; Barup, Kerstin; Bracciale, Maria Paola; Broggi, Alessandra; Conti, Cinzia; Hällström, Jenny; Lognoli, David; Palombi, Lorenzo; Santarelli, Maria Laura; Sprocati, Anna Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Early diagnostics and documentation fulfill an essential role for an effective planning of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage assets. In particular, remote sensing techniques that do not require the use of scaffolds or lifts, such as fluoresence lidar, can provide useful information to obtain an overall assessment of the status of the investigated surfaces and can be exploited to address analytical studies in selected areas. Here we present the results of a joint Italian-Swedish project focused on documenting and recording the status of some sections of the part closed to the public by using fluorescence hyperspectral imaging lidar. The lidar used a tripled-frequency Nd:YAG laser emitting at 355 nm as excitation source and an intensified, gated 512x512-pixel CCD as detector. The lidar had imaging capabilities thanks to a computer-controlled scanning mirror. The fluorescence characteristics of fresco wall paintings were compared to those of fresco fragments found at the same archaeological site and separately examined in the lab using FT-IR and Raman techniques for the identification of pigments. The fluorescence lidar was also used to remotely detect the growth of phototrophic biodeteriogens on the walls. The fluorescence lidar data were compared with results from biological sampling, cultivation and laboratory analysis by molecular techniques.

  3. Transportable lidar for the measurement of ozone concentration and flux profiles in the lower troposphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yanzeng; Howell, J.N.; Hardesty, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    In many areas of the United States, as well as in other industrial areas (such as Europe), elevated and potentially harmful levels of ozone are being measured during summer. Most of this ozone is photochemically produced. The relatively long lifetime of ozone allows industrially produced ozone to be transported on a hemispheric scale. Since the trends of tropospheric ozone are very likely dependent on the source strengths and distributions of the pollutants and the chemical/ transport process involved, a predictive understanding of tropospheric ozone climatology requires a focus on the chemical and transport processes that link regional emissions to hemispheric ozone trends and distributions. Of critical importance to these studies is a satisfactory data base of tropospheric ozone distribution from which global and regional tropospheric ozone climatology can be derived, and the processes controlling tropospheric ozone can be better understood. A transportable lidar for measuring ozone concentration and flux profiles in the lower troposphere is needed. One such system is being developed at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth Resources Laboratory (NOAA/ERL) Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL)

  4. Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar Aerosol Measurements during MILAGRO and TEXAQS/GOMACCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, Richard; Hostetler, Chris; Hair, John; Cook Anthony; Harper, David; Burton, Sharon; Clayton, Marian; Clarke, Antony; Russell, Phil; Redemann, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Two1 field experiments conducted during 2006 provided opportunities to investigate the variability of aerosol properties near cities and the impacts of these aerosols on air quality and radiative transfer. The Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) /Megacity Aerosol Experiment in Mexico City (MAX-MEX)/Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-B (INTEX-B) joint experiment conducted during March 2006 investigated the evolution and transport of pollution from Mexico City. The Texas Air Quality Study (TEXAQS)/Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) (http://www.al.noaa.gov/2006/) conducted during August and September 2006 investigated climate and air quality in the Houston/Gulf of Mexico region. During both missions, the new NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA Langley B200 King Air aircraft and measured profiles of aerosol extinction, backscattering, and depolarization to: 1) characterize the spatial and vertical distributions of aerosols, 2) quantify aerosol extinction and optical thickness contributed by various aerosol types, 3) investigate aerosol variability near clouds, 4) evaluate model simulations of aerosol transport, and 5) assess aerosol optical properties derived from a combination of surface, airborne, and satellite measurements.

  5. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Range During the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a pulsed lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission and have demonstrated the CO2 and O2 measurements from aircraft. Our technique uses two pulsed lasers allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line near 1572 nm, O2 extinction in the Oxygen A-band, surface height and backscatter profile. The lasers are stepped in wavelength across the CO2 line and an O2 line doublet during the measurement. The column densities for the CO2 and O2 are estimated from the differential optical depths (DOD) of the scanned absorption lines via the IPDA technique. For the 2009 ASCENDS campaign we flew the CO2 lidar only on a Lear-25 aircraft, and measured the absorption line shapes of the CO2 line using 20 wavelength samples per scan. Measurements were made at stepped altitudes from 3 to 12.6 km over the Lamont OK, central Illinois, North Carolina, and over the Virginia Eastern Shore. Although the received signal energies were weaker than expected for ASCENDS, clear C02 line shapes were observed at all altitudes. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps with 200-300 seconds of recorded measurements per step. We averaged every 10 seconds of measurements and used a cross-correlation approach to estimate the range to the scattering surface and the echo pulse energy at each wavelength. We then solved for the best-fit CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the DOD of the fitted CO2 line, and computed its statistics at the various altitude steps. We compared them to CO2 optical depths calculated from spectroscopy based on HITRAN 2008 and the column number densities calculated from the airborne in-situ readings. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and they were similar on all flights. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. They showed the expected nearly the linear dependence of DOD vs

  6. Statistics of optical and geometrical properties of cirrus cloud over tibetan plateau measured by lidar and radiosonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Guangyao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds affect the energy budget and hydrological cycle of the earth’s atmosphere. The Tibetan Plateau (TP plays a significant role in the global and regional climate. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in the TP were measured in July-August 2014 by lidar and radiosonde. The statistics and temperature dependences of the corresponding properties are analyzed. The cirrus cloud formations are discussed with respect to temperature deviation and dynamic processes.

  7. Measuring the In-Process Figure, Final Prescription, and System Alignment of Large Optics and Segmented Mirrors Using Lidar Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Eegholm, Bente; Saif, Babak

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of large optics is traditionally a slow process, and fabrication capability is often limited by measurement capability. W hile techniques exist to measure mirror figure with nanometer precis ion, measurements of large-mirror prescription are typically limited to submillimeter accuracy. Using a lidar instrument enables one to measure the optical surface rough figure and prescription in virtuall y all phases of fabrication without moving the mirror from its polis hing setup. This technology improves the uncertainty of mirror presc ription measurement to the micron-regime.

  8. Development of Double and Triple-Pulsed 2-micron IPDA Lidars for Column CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Remus, Ruben G.; Reithmaier, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an important greenhouse gas that significantly contributes to the carbon cycle and globalradiation budget on Earth. CO2 role on Earth’s climate is complicated due to different interactions with various climatecomponents that include the atmosphere, the biosphere and the hydrosphere. Although extensive worldwide efforts formonitoring atmospheric CO2 through various techniques, including in-situ and passive sensors, are taking place highuncertainties exist in quantifying CO2 sources and sinks. These uncertainties are mainly due to insufficient spatial andtemporal mapping of the gas. Therefore it is required to have more rapid and accurate CO2 monitoring with higheruniform coverage and higher resolution. CO2 DIAL operating in the 2-µm band offer better near-surface CO2measurement sensitivity due to the intrinsically stronger absorption lines. For more than 15 years, NASA LangleyResearch Center (LaRC) contributed in developing several 2-?m CO2 DIAL systems and technologies. This paperfocuses on the current development of the airborne double-pulsed and triple-pulsed 2-?m CO2 integrated pathdifferential absorption (IPDA) lidar system at NASA LaRC. This includes the IPDA system development andintegration. Results from ground and airborne CO2 IPDA testing will be presented. The potential of scaling suchtechnology to a space mission will be addressed.

  9. Requirements and Technology Advances for Global Wind Measurement with a Coherent Lidar: A Shrinking Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Koch, Grady J.; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Singh, Upendra N.; Emmitt, G. David

    2007-01-01

    Early concepts to globally measure vertical profiles of vector horizontal wind from space planned on an orbit height of 525 km, a single pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system to cover the full troposphere, and a continuously rotating telescope/scanner that mandated a vertical line of sight wind profile from each laser shot. Under these conditions system studies found that laser pulse energies of approximately 20 J at 10 Hz pulse repetition rate with a rotating telescope diameter of approximately 1.5 m was required. Further requirements to use solid state laser technology and an eyesafe wavelength led to the relatively new 2-micron solid state laser. With demonstrated pulse energies near 20 mJ at 5 Hz, and no demonstration of a rotating telescope maintaining diffraction limited performance in space, the technology gap between requirements and demonstration was formidable. Fortunately the involved scientists and engineers set out to reduce the gap, and through a combination of clever ideas and technology advances over the last 15 years, they have succeeded. This paper will detail the gap reducing factors and will present the current status.

  10. Spatial-temporal analysis of coherent offshore wind field structures measured by scanning Doppler-lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valldecabres, L.; Friedrichs, W.; von Bremen, L.; Kühn, M.

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of the spatial and temporal power fluctuations of a simplified wind farm model is conducted on four offshore wind fields data sets, two from lidar measurements and two from LES under unstable and neutral atmospheric conditions. The integral length scales of the horizontal wind speed computed in the streamwise and the cross-stream direction revealed the elongation of the structures in the direction of the mean flow. To analyse the effect of the structures on the power output of a wind turbine, the aggregated equivalent power of two wind turbines with different turbine spacing in the streamwise and cross-stream direction is analysed at different time scales under 10 minutes. The fact of considering the summation of the power of two wind turbines smooths out the fluctuations of the power output of a single wind turbine. This effect, which is stronger with increasing spacing between turbines, can be seen in the aggregation of the power of two wind turbines in the streamwise direction. Due to the anti-correlation of the coherent structures in the cross-stream direction, this smoothing effect is stronger when the aggregated power is computed with two wind turbines aligned orthogonally to the mean flow direction.

  11. 2D fluorescence spectra measurement of six kinds of bioagents simulants by short range Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpedro, Man

    2018-02-01

    Pantoea agglomerans (Pan), Staphylococcus aureus (Sta), Bacillus globigii (BG) and Escherichia coli (EH), these four kinds of bioagents simulants of were cultured and then their growth curves were measured, the generation time was 0.99h, 0.835h, 1.07h and 1.909h, respectively. A small short range fluorescence lidar working at wavelengths of 266nm and 355nm was designed and used to measure the two-dimensional fluorescence spectra of bioagents simulants in the amino acid segment and NADH segment, respectively. In a controllable fluorescence measurement chamber, the two-dimensional fluorescence spectra of vegetative liquid bacterial aerosols as well as BSA and OVA, two protein toxinic simulants were measured with a resolution of 4nm. The two-dimensional fluorescence spectral shape of Pan, Sta, EH and BG, BSA and OVA were consistent with the standard fluorescent component tryptophan in the amino acid band with FWHM of 60nm, but the central wavelength of the fluorescence spectra of these simulants blue/purple shifted obviously as affected by the external biochemical environment, concentration and ratio of different bacterial internal fluorophores, so the energy level between the excited state and the ground state of the fluorescence molecule increased. Differently, weak NADH fluorescence spectra with 100nm FWHM inside the four vegetative bacteria aerosols were detected, but Rayleigh scattering, Raman scattering contribution of water, nitrogen in the fluorescence spectra could not be effectively extracted. The second - order derivative fluorescence spectra of four simulants showed that the high - order processing and recognition of the fluorescence spectra was feasible.

  12. Novel lidar algorithms for atmospheric slantrange visibility, planetary boundary layer height, meteorogical phenomena and atmospheric layering measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Alexandros; Papayannis, Alexandros; Georgoussis, Georgios

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we present a development of novel algorithms and techniques implemented within the Laser Remote Sensing Laboratory (LRSL) of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), in collaboration with Raymetrics S.A., in order to incorporate them into a 3-Dimensional (3D) lidar. The lidar is transmitting at 355 nm in the eye safe region and the measurements then are transposed to the visual range at 550 nm, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) rules of daytime visibility. These algorithms are able to provide horizontal, slant and vertical visibility for tower aircraft controllers, meteorologists, but also from pilot's point of view. Other algorithms are also provided for detection of atmospheric layering in any given direction and vertical angle, along with the detection of the Planetary Boundary Layer Height (PBLH).

  13. Lidar instruments for ESA Earth observation missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hélière, Arnaud; Armandillo, Errico; Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland

    2017-11-01

    The idea of deploying a lidar system on an Earthorbiting satellite stems from the need for continuously providing profiles of our atmospheric structure with high accuracy and resolution and global coverage. Interest in this information for climatology, meteorology and the atmospheric sciences in general is huge. Areas of application range from the determination of global warming and greenhouse effects, to monitoring the transport and accumulation of pollutants in the different atmospheric regions (such as the recent fires in Southeast Asia), to the assessment of the largely unknown microphysical properties and the structural dynamics of the atmosphere itself. Spaceborne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations by the European Space Agency since mid 1970's, resulting in mission and instrument concepts, such as ATLID, the cloud backscatter lidar payload of the EarthCARE mission, ALADIN, the Doppler wind lidar of the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM) and more recently a water vapour Differential Absorption Lidar considered for the WALES mission. These studies have shown the basic scientific and technical feasibility of spaceborne lidars, but they have also demonstrated their complexity from the instrument viewpoint. As a result, the Agency undertook technology development in order to strengthen the instrument maturity. This is the case for ATLID, which benefited from a decade of technology development and supporting studies and is now studied in the frame of the EarthCARE mission. ALADIN, a Direct Detection Doppler Wind Lidar operating in the Ultra -Violet, will be the 1st European lidar to fly in 2007 as payload of the Earth Explorer Core Mission ADM. WALES currently studied at the level of a phase A, is based upon a lidar operating at 4 wavelengths in near infrared and aims to profile the water vapour in the lower part of the atmosphere with high accuracy and low bias. Lastly, the European Space Agency is extending the lidar instrument field

  14. Investigation of the Impact of the Upstream Induction Zone on LIDAR Measurement Accuracy for Wind Turbine Control Applications using Large-Eddy Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simley, Eric; Pao, Lucy Y; Gebraad, Pieter; Churchfield, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Several sources of error exist in lidar measurements for feedforward control of wind turbines including the ability to detect only radial velocities, spatial averaging, and wind evolution. This paper investigates another potential source of error: the upstream induction zone. The induction zone can directly affect lidar measurements and presents an opportunity for further decorrelation between upstream wind and the wind that interacts with the rotor. The impact of the induction zone is investigated using the combined CFD and aeroelastic code SOWFA. Lidar measurements are simulated upstream of a 5 MW turbine rotor and the true wind disturbances are found using a wind speed estimator and turbine outputs. Lidar performance in the absence of an induction zone is determined by simulating lidar measurements and the turbine response using the aeroelastic code FAST with wind inputs taken far upstream of the original turbine location in the SOWFA wind field. Results indicate that while measurement quality strongly depends on the amount of wind evolution, the induction zone has little effect. However, the optimal lidar preview distance and circular scan radius change slightly due to the presence of the induction zone

  15. Volcanic eruptions and the increases in the stratospheric aerosol content: Lidar measurements from 1982 to 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, S.; Iikura, Y.; Shimizu, H.; Sasano, Y.; Nakane, H.; Sugimoto, N.; Matsui, I.; Takeuchi, N.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the observation for stratospheric aerosols which were carried out since the autumn of 1982 by using the NIES large lidar are described. Specifications of the lidar system are shown. The lidar has two wavelenghts of 1.06 and 0.53 micrometers. The 0.53 micrometer is mainly used for the stratospheric aerosols, because the PMT for 0.53 micrometers has higher sensitivity that that for 1.06 micrometers and the total efficiency is higher in the former. A switching circuit is used to control the PMT gain for avoiding signal induced noise in PMT. For the last four years, the stratospheric aerosol layer which was significantly perturbed by the El Chichon volcanic eruption was observed. The scattering ratio profiles observed from 1982 through 1983 are given.

  16. Three-dimensional structure of wind turbine wakes as measured by scanning lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Nicola; Zardi, Dino; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2017-08-01

    The lower wind speeds and increased turbulence that are characteristic of turbine wakes have considerable consequences on large wind farms: turbines located downwind generate less power and experience increased turbulent loads. The structures of wakes and their downwind impacts are sensitive to wind speed and atmospheric variability. Wake characterization can provide important insights for turbine layout optimization in view of decreasing the cost of wind energy. The CWEX-13 field campaign, which took place between June and September 2013 in a wind farm in Iowa, was designed to explore the interaction of multiple wakes in a range of atmospheric stability conditions. Based on lidar wind measurements, we extend, present, and apply a quantitative algorithm to assess wake parameters such as the velocity deficits, the size of the wake boundaries, and the location of the wake centerlines. We focus on wakes from a row of four turbines at the leading edge of the wind farm to explore variations between wakes from the edge of the row (outer wakes) and those from turbines in the center of the row (inner wakes). Using multiple horizontal scans at different elevations, a three-dimensional structure of wakes from the row of turbines can be created. Wakes erode very quickly during unstable conditions and can in fact be detected primarily in stable conditions in the conditions measured here. During stable conditions, important differences emerge between the wakes of inner turbines and the wakes of outer turbines. Further, the strong wind veer associated with stable conditions results in a stretching of the wake structures, and this stretching manifests differently for inner and outer wakes. These insights can be incorporated into low-order wake models for wind farm layout optimization or for wind power forecasting.

  17. Lidar Ice nuclei estimates and how they relate with airborne in-situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinou Eleni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of available ice nucleating particle (INP parameterization schemes we compute profiles of dust INP number concentration utilizing Polly-XT and CALIPSO lidar observations during the INUIT-BACCHUS-ACTRIS 2016 campaign. The polarization-lidar photometer networking (POLIPHON method is used to separate dust and non-dust aerosol backscatter, extinction, mass concentration, particle number concentration (for particles with radius > 250 nm and surface area concentration. The INP final products are compared with aerosol samples collected from unmanned aircraft systems (UAS and analyzed using the ice nucleus counter FRIDGE.

  18. Lidar Ice nuclei estimates and how they relate with airborne in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinou, Eleni; Amiridis, Vassilis; Ansmann, Albert; Nenes, Athanasios; Balis, Dimitris; Schrod, Jann; Binietoglou, Ioannis; Solomos, Stavros; Mamali, Dimitra; Engelmann, Ronny; Baars, Holger; Kottas, Michael; Tsekeri, Alexandra; Proestakis, Emmanouil; Kokkalis, Panagiotis; Goloub, Philippe; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Nichovic, Slobodan; Mamouri, Rodanthi; Pikridas, Michael; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Keleshis, Christos; Sciare, Jean

    2018-04-01

    By means of available ice nucleating particle (INP) parameterization schemes we compute profiles of dust INP number concentration utilizing Polly-XT and CALIPSO lidar observations during the INUIT-BACCHUS-ACTRIS 2016 campaign. The polarization-lidar photometer networking (POLIPHON) method is used to separate dust and non-dust aerosol backscatter, extinction, mass concentration, particle number concentration (for particles with radius > 250 nm) and surface area concentration. The INP final products are compared with aerosol samples collected from unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and analyzed using the ice nucleus counter FRIDGE.

  19. A Novel Triple-Pulsed 2-micrometer Lidar for Simultaneous and Independent CO2 and H2O Column Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Singh, Upendra; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    The study of global warming needs precisely and accurately measuring greenhouse gases concentrations in the atmosphere. CO2 and H2O are important greenhouse gases that significantly contribute to the carbon cycle and global radiation budget on Earth. NRC Decadal Survey recommends a mission for Active Sensing of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) over Nights, Days and Seasons (ASCENDS). 2 micron laser is a viable IPDA transmitter to measure CO2 and H2O column density from space. The objective is to demonstrate a first airborne direct detection 2 micron IPDA lidar for CO2 and H2O measurements.

  20. Retrieval of aerosol complex refractive index from a synergy between lidar, sun photometer and in situ measurements during LISAIR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, J.C.; Chazette, P.

    2007-01-01

    Particulate pollutant exchanges between the streets and the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL), and their daily evolution linked to human activity were studied in the framework of the Lidar pour la Surveillance de l'AIR (LISAIR) experiment. This program lasted from 10 to 30 May 2005. A synergetic approach combining dedicated active (lidar) and passive (sun photometer) remote sensors as well as ground based in situ instrumentation (nephelometer, aethalometer and particle sizers) was used to investigate urban aerosol optical properties within Paris. Aerosol complex refractive indices were assessed to be 1.56-0.034 i at 355 nm and 1.59-0.040 i at 532 nm, thus leading to single-scattering albedo values between 0.80 and 0.88. These retrievals are consistent with soot components in the aerosol arising from traffic exhausts indicating that these pollutants have a radiative impact on climate. We also discussed the influence of relative humidity on aerosol properties. A good agreement was found between vertical extinction profile derived from lidar backscattering signal and retrieved from the coupling between radio sounding and ground in situ measurements. (authors)

  1. Highly-reliable laser diodes and modules for spaceborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichsel, E.

    2017-11-01

    Laser applications become more and more interesting in contemporary missions such as earth observations or optical communication in space. One of these applications is light detection and ranging (LIDAR), which comprises huge scientific potential in future missions. The Nd:YAG solid-state laser of such a LIDAR system is optically pumped using 808nm emitting pump sources based on semiconductor laser-diodes in quasi-continuous wave (qcw) operation. Therefore reliable and efficient laser diodes with increased output powers are an important requirement for a spaceborne LIDAR-system. In the past, many tests were performed regarding the performance and life-time of such laser-diodes. There were also studies for spaceborne applications, but a test with long operation times at high powers and statistical relevance is pending. Other applications, such as science packages (e.g. Raman-spectroscopy) on planetary rovers require also reliable high-power light sources. Typically fiber-coupled laser diode modules are used for such applications. Besides high reliability and life-time, designs compatible to the harsh environmental conditions must be taken in account. Mechanical loads, such as shock or strong vibration are expected due to take-off or landing procedures. Many temperature cycles with high change rates and differences must be taken in account due to sun-shadow effects in planetary orbits. Cosmic radiation has strong impact on optical components and must also be taken in account. Last, a hermetic sealing must be considered, since vacuum can have disadvantageous effects on optoelectronics components.

  2. Measurement of atmospheric CO2 column concentrations to cloud tops with a pulsed multi-wavelength airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianping; Ramanathan, Anand; Abshire, James B.; Kawa, Stephan R.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Rodriguez, Michael; Hasselbrack, William E.; Sun, Xiaoli; Numata, Kenji; Chen, Jeff; Choi, Yonghoon; Yang, Mei Ying Melissa

    2018-01-01

    We have measured the column-averaged atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio to a variety of cloud tops by using an airborne pulsed multi-wavelength integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. Airborne measurements were made at altitudes up to 13 km during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) science campaigns flown in the United States West and Midwest and were compared to those from an in situ sensor. Analysis of the lidar backscatter profiles shows the average cloud top reflectance was ˜ 5 % for the CO2 measurement at 1572.335 nm except to cirrus clouds, which had lower reflectance. The energies for 1 µs wide laser pulses reflected from cloud tops were sufficient to allow clear identification of CO2 absorption line shape and then to allow retrievals of atmospheric column CO2 from the aircraft to cloud tops more than 90 % of the time. Retrievals from the CO2 measurements to cloud tops had minimal bias but larger standard deviations when compared to those made to the ground, depending on cloud top roughness and reflectance. The measurements show this new capability helps resolve CO2 horizontal and vertical gradients in the atmosphere. When used with nearby full-column measurements to ground, the CO2 measurements to cloud tops can be used to estimate the partial-column CO2 concentration below clouds, which should lead to better estimates of surface carbon sources and sinks. This additional capability of the range-resolved CO2 IPDA lidar technique provides a new benefit for studying the carbon cycle in future airborne and space-based CO2 missions.

  3. Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL as a Measurement Tool for Water Quality Parameters in Turbid Lake Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Balzter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite longstanding contributions to oceanography, similar use of fluorescence light detection and ranging (LiDAR in lake settings is not routine. The potential for ship-mounted, multispectral Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL to provide rapid, high-resolution data in variably turbid and productive lake conditions are investigated here through a series of laboratory tank and field measurements carried out on Lake Balaton, Hungary. UFL data, calibrated empirically to a set of coinciding conventionally-analyzed samples, provide simultaneous estimates of three important parameters-chlorophyll a(chla, total suspended matter (TSM and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM. Successful UFL retrievals from both laboratory and field measurements were achieved for chla (0.01–378 mg∙m−3; R = 0.83–0.92, TSM (0.1–130 g∙m−3; R = 0.90–0.96 and CDOM (0.003–0.125 aCDOM(440; R = 0.80–0.97. Fluorescence emission at 685 nm is shown through tank measurements to display robust but distinct relationships with chla concentration for the two cultured algae species investigated (cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and chlorophyta, Scenedesmus armatus. The ratio between fluorescence emissions measured at 650 nm, related to the phycocyanin fluorescence maximum, to that at 685 nm is demonstrated to effectively distinguish these two species. Validation through both laboratory measurements and field measurements confirmed that site specific calibration is necessary. This study presents the first known assessment and application of ship-mounted fluorescence LiDAR in freshwater lake conditions and demonstrates the use of UFL in measuring important water quality parameters despite the more complicated hydro-optic conditions of inland waters.

  4. Measurement of Atmospheric CO2 Column Concentrations to Cloud Tops With a Pulsed Multi-Wavelength Airborne Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianping; Ramanathan, Anand; Abshire, James B.; Kawa, Stephan R.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Rodriguez, Michael R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Sun, Xiaoli; Numata, Kenji; hide

    2018-01-01

    We have measured the column-averaged atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio to a variety of cloud tops by using an airborne pulsed multi-wavelength integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar. Airborne measurements were made at altitudes up to 13 km during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) science campaigns flown in the United States West and Midwest and were compared to those from an in situ sensor. Analysis of the lidar backscatter profiles shows the average cloud top reflectance was approx. 5% for the CO2 measurement at 1572.335 nm except to cirrus clouds, which had lower reflectance. The energies for 1 micro-s wide laser pulses reflected from cloud tops were sufficient to allow clear identification of CO2 absorption line shape and then to allow retrievals of atmospheric column CO2 from the aircraft to cloud tops more than 90% of the time. Retrievals from the CO2 measurements to cloud tops had minimal bias but larger standard deviations when compared to those made to the ground, depending on cloud top roughness and reflectance. The measurements show this new capability helps resolve CO2 horizontal and vertical gradients in the atmosphere. When used with nearby full-column measurements to ground, the CO2 measurements to cloud tops can be used to estimate the partial-column CO2 concentration below clouds, which should lead to better estimates of surface carbon sources and sinks. This additional capability of the range-resolved CO2 IPDA lidar technique provides a new benefit for studying the carbon cycle in future airborne and space-based CO2 missions.

  5. Measurement of atmospheric CO2 column concentrations to cloud tops with a pulsed multi-wavelength airborne lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the column-averaged atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio to a variety of cloud tops by using an airborne pulsed multi-wavelength integrated-path differential absorption (IPDA lidar. Airborne measurements were made at altitudes up to 13 km during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS science campaigns flown in the United States West and Midwest and were compared to those from an in situ sensor. Analysis of the lidar backscatter profiles shows the average cloud top reflectance was ∼ 5 % for the CO2 measurement at 1572.335 nm except to cirrus clouds, which had lower reflectance. The energies for 1 µs wide laser pulses reflected from cloud tops were sufficient to allow clear identification of CO2 absorption line shape and then to allow retrievals of atmospheric column CO2 from the aircraft to cloud tops more than 90 % of the time. Retrievals from the CO2 measurements to cloud tops had minimal bias but larger standard deviations when compared to those made to the ground, depending on cloud top roughness and reflectance. The measurements show this new capability helps resolve CO2 horizontal and vertical gradients in the atmosphere. When used with nearby full-column measurements to ground, the CO2 measurements to cloud tops can be used to estimate the partial-column CO2 concentration below clouds, which should lead to better estimates of surface carbon sources and sinks. This additional capability of the range-resolved CO2 IPDA lidar technique provides a new benefit for studying the carbon cycle in future airborne and space-based CO2 missions.

  6. Modified technique for processing multiangle lidar data measured in clear and moderately polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kovalev; Cyle Wold; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2011-01-01

    We present a modified technique for processing multiangle lidar data that is applicable for relatively clear atmospheres, where the utilization of the conventional Kano-Hamilton method meets significant issues. Our retrieval algorithm allows computing the two-way transmission and the corresponding extinction-coefficient profile in any slope direction searched during...

  7. Testing and comparison of lidars for profile and turbulence measurements in wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, M; Wagner, R; Lindeloew, P

    2008-01-01

    Lidar profilers are beginning to gain a foothold in wind energy. Both of the currently available commercially systems have been extensively tested at the Hovsore facility in Denmark and valuable insights have been gained. The extensively instrumented facility will be described and some examples of the results given, illustrating the strength and weaknesses of the two contrasting profilers

  8. Combined High Spectral Resolution Lidar and Millimeter Wavelength Radar Measurement of Ice Crystal Precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, Edwin [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-10-28

    The goal of this research has been to improve measurements of snowfall using a combination of millimeter-wavelength radar and High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Observations. Snowflakes are large compared to the 532nm HSRL wavelength and small compared to the 3.2 and 8.6 mm wavelength radars used in this study. This places the particles in the optical scattering regime of the HSRL, where extinction cross-section is proportional to the projected area of the particles, and in the Rayleigh regime for the radar, where the backscatter cross-section is proportional to the mass-squared of the particles. Forming a ratio of the radar measured cross-section to the HSRL measured cross section eliminates any dependence on the number of scattering particles, yielding a quantity proportional to the average mass-squared of the snowflakes over the average area of the flakes. Using simultaneous radar measurements of particle fall velocities, which are dependent particle mass and cross-sectional area it is possible to derive the average mass of the snow flakes, and with the radar measured fall velocities compute the snowfall rate. Since this retrieval requires the optical extinction cross-section we began by considering errors this quantity. The HSRL is particularly good at measuring the backscatter cross-section. In previous studies of snowfall in the high Arctic were able to estimate the extinction cross-section directly as a fixed ratio to the backscatter cross-section. Measurements acquired in the STORMVEX experiment in Colorado showed that this approach was not valid in mid-latitude snowfalls and that direct measurement of the extinction cross-section is required. Attempts to measure the extinction directly uncovered shortcomings in thermal regulation and mechanical stability of the newly deployed DOE HSRL systems. These problems were largely mitigated by modifications installed in both of the DOE systems. We also investigated other sources of error in the HSRL direct

  9. BELINDA: Broadband Emission Lidar with Narrowband Determination of Absorption. A new concept for measuring water vapor and temperature profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theopold, F. A.; Weitkamp, C.; Michaelis, W.

    1992-01-01

    We present a new concept for differential absorption lidar measurements of water vapor and temperature profiles. The idea is to use one broadband emission laser and a narrowband filter system for separation of the 'online' and 'offline' return signals. It is shown that BELINDA offers improvements as to laser emission shape and stability requirements, background suppression, and last and most important a significant reduction of the influence of Rayleigh scattering. A suitably designed system based on this concept is presented, capable of measuring water vapor or temperature profiles throughout the planetary boundary layer.

  10. C02(nu2)-0 Quenching Rate Coefficient Derived from Coincidental Fort Collins Lidar and SABER Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, A. G.; Kutepov, A. A.; She, C. Y.; Smith, A. K.; Pesnell, W. D.; Goldberg, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Among the processes governing the energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), the quenching of CO2(V2) vibrational levels in collisions with oxygen atoms plays an important role. However, neither the rate coefficient of this process (k(CO2O)) nor the atomic oxygen concentrations ([O]) in the MLT are well known. The discrepancy between k(CO2O) measured in the lab and retrieved from atmospheric measurements is of about factor of 2.5. At the same time, the discrepancy between [O] in the MLT measured by different instruments is of the same order of magnitude. In this work we used a synergy of a ground based lidar and satellite infrared radiometer to make a further step in understanding of the physics of the region. In this study we apply the night- and daytime temperatures between 80 and 110 km measured by the Colorado State University narrow-band sodium (Na) lidar located at Fort Collins, Colorado for retrieving the product of k(CO2-O) x [O] from the limb radiances in the 15 micron channel measured by the SABER/TIMED instrument for nearly simultaneous common volume measurements of both instruments within +/-1 degree in latitude, +/-2 degrees in longitude and +/-10 minutes in time. We derive k(CO2-O) and its possible variation range from the retrieved product by utilizing the [O] values measured by the SABER and other instruments.

  11. Demonstration and uncertainty analysis of synchronised scanning lidar measurements of 2-D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Marijn Floris; Campagnolo, Filippo; Sjöholm, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The duallidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling timescales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were compared to hot-wire probe...... as wake area scans were executed to illustrate the applicability of lidar scanning to the measurement of small-scale wind flow effects. An extensive uncertainty analysis was executed to assess the accuracy of the method. The downsides of lidar with respect to the hotwire probes are the larger measurement...... probe volume, which compromises the ability to measure turbulence, and the possible loss of a small part of the measurements due to hard target beam reflection. In contrast, the benefits are the high flexibility in conducting both point measurements and area scanning and the fact that remote sensing...

  12. Lidar Measurements of Ozone, Aerosols, and Clouds Observed in the Tropics Near Central America During TC4-Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, J. W.; Browell, E.; Butler, C.; Fenn, M.; Notari, A.; Simpson, S.; Ismail, S.; Avery, M.

    2007-12-01

    Large-scale measurements of ozone and aerosol distributions were made from the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the TC4 (Tropical Composition, Cloud, and Climate Coupling) field experiment conducted from June 28 - August 10, 2007 based in San Jose, Costa Rica. Remote measurements were made with an airborne lidar to provide ozone and multiple-wavelength aerosol and cloud backscatter profiles from near the surface to above the tropopause along the flight track. Aerosol depolarization measurements were also made for the detection of nonspherical aerosols, such as mineral dust, biomass burning, and recent emissions from South American volcanoes. Long-range transport of Saharan dust with depolarizing aerosols was frequently observed in the lower troposphere both over the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean and within the marine boundary layer. In addition, visible and sub-visible cirrus clouds were observed with the multi-wavelength backscatter and depolarization measurements. Initial distributions of ozone, aerosol, and cloud are presented which will be used to interpret large-scale atmospheric processes. In situ measurements of ozone and aerosols made onboard the DC-8 will be compared to the remote lidar measurements. This paper provides a first look at the characteristics of ozone, aerosol, and cloud distributions that were encountered during this field experiment and provide a unique dataset that will be further related through satellite data, backward trajectories, and chemical transport models (CTM) to sources and sinks of ozone, aerosols, and clouds and to dynamical, chemical, and radiative processes.

  13. Seasonal and nightly variations of gravity-wave energy density in the middle atmosphere measured by the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Sica

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Purple Crow Lidar (PCL is a large power-aperture product monostatic Rayleigh-Raman-Sodium-resonance-fluorescence lidar, which has been in operation at the Delaware Observatory (42.9° N, 81.4° W, 237 m elevation near the campus of The University of Western Ontario since 1992. Kinetic-energy density has been calculated from the Rayleigh-scatter system measurements of density fluctuations at temporal-spatial scales relevant for gravity waves, e.g. soundings at 288 m height resolution and 9 min temporal resolution in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. The seasonal averages from 10 years of measurements show in all seasons some loss of gravity-wave energy in the upper stratosphere. During the equinox periods and summer the measurements are consistent with gravity waves growing in height with little saturation, in agreement with the classic picture of the variations in the height at which gravity waves break given by Lindzen (1981. The mean values compare favourably to previous measurements when computed as nightly averages, but the high temporal-spatial resolution measurements show considerable day-to-day variability. The variability over a night is often extremely large, with typical RMS fluctuations of 50 to 100% at all heights and seasons common. These measurements imply that using a daily or nightly-averaged gravity-wave energy density in numerical models may be highly unrealistic.

  14. Balloonborne lidar payloads for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.; Reidy, W. P.; Rieder, R. J.; Bedo, D. E.; Swirbalus, R. A.

    1994-02-01

    A series of lidar experiments has been conducted using the Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment payload (ABLE). These experiments included the measurement of atmospheric Rayleigh and Mie backscatter from near space (approximately 30 km) and Raman backscatter measurements of atmospheric constituents as a function of altitude. The ABLE payload consisted of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser transmitter, a 50 cm receiver telescope, and filtered photodetectors in various focal plane configurations. The payload for lidar pointing, thermal control, data handling, and remote control of the lidar system. Comparison of ABLE performance with that of a space lidar shows significant performance advantages and cost effectiveness for balloonborne lidar systems.

  15. Tropospheric ozone climatology at two Southern Hemisphere tropical/subtropical sites, (Reunion Island and Irene, South Africa from ozonesondes, LIDAR, and in situ aircraft measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Clain

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a climatology and trends of tropospheric ozone in the Southwestern Indian Ocean (Reunion Island and South Africa (Irene and Johannesburg. This study is based on a multi-instrumental dataset: PTU-O3 ozonesondes, DIAL LIDAR and MOZAIC airborne instrumentation.

    The seasonal profiles of tropospheric ozone at Reunion Island have been calculated from two different data sets: ozonesondes and LIDAR. The two climatological profiles are similar, except in austral summer when the LIDAR profiles show greater values in the free troposphere, and in the upper troposphere when the LIDAR profiles show lower values during all seasons. These results show that the climatological value of LIDAR profiles must be discussed with care since LIDAR measurements can be performed only under clear sky conditions, and the upper limit of the profile depends on the signal strength.

    In addition, linear trends have been calculated from ozonesonde data at Reunion and Irene. Considering the whole tropospheric column, the trend is slightly positive for Reunion, and more clearly positive for Irene. Trend calculations have also been made separating the troposphere into three layers, and separating the dataset into seasons. Results show that the positive trend for Irene is governed by the lower layer that is affected by industrial pollution and biomass burning. On the contrary, for Reunion Island, the strongest trends are observed in the upper troposphere, and in winter when stratosphere-troposphere exchange is more frequently expected.

  16. Airborne Measurements of CO2 Column Absorption and Range Using a Pulsed Direct-Detection Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham R.; Hasselbrack, William E.; Browell, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    We report on airborne CO2 column absorption measurements made in 2009 with a pulsed direct-detection lidar operating at 1572.33 nm and utilizing the integrated path differential absorption technique. We demonstrated these at different altitudes from an aircraft in July and August in flights over four locations in the central and eastern United States. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The lidar measurement statistics were also calculated for each flight as a function of altitude. The optical depth varied nearly linearly with altitude, consistent with calculations based on atmospheric models. The scatter in the optical depth measurements varied with aircraft altitude as expected, and the median measurement precisions for the column varied from 0.9 to 1.2 ppm. The altitude range with the lowest scatter was 810 km, and the majority of measurements for the column within it had precisions between 0.2 and 0.9 ppm.

  17. The effect of signal to noise ratio on accuracy of temperature measurements for Brillouin lidar in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kun; Niu, Qunjie; Wu, Xiangkui; Xu, Jiaqi; Peng, Li; Zhou, Bo

    2017-09-01

    A lidar system with Fabry-Pérot etalon and an intensified charge coupled device can be used to obtain the scattering spectrum of the ocean and retrieve oceanic temperature profiles. However, the spectrum would be polluted by noise and result in a measurement error. To analyze the effect of signal to noise ratio (SNR) on the accuracy of measurements for Brillouin lidar in water, the theory model and characteristics of SNR are researched. The noise spectrums with different SNR are repetitiously measured based on simulation and experiment. The results show that accuracy is related to SNR, and considering the balance of time consumption and quality, the average of five measurements is adapted for real remote sensing under the pulse laser conditions of wavelength 532 nm, pulse energy 650 mJ, repetition rate 10 Hz, pulse width 8 ns and linewidth 0.003 cm-1 (90 MHz). Measuring with the Brillouin linewidth has a better accuracy at a lower temperature (15 °C), based on the classical retrieval model we adopt. The experimental results show that the temperature error is 0.71 °C and 0.06 °C based on shift and linewidth respectively when the image SNR is at the range of 3.2 dB-3.9 dB.

  18. Holographic Raman lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We have constructed a Raman lidar system that incorporates a holographic optical element. By resolving just 3 nitrogen lines in the Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) spectrum, temperature fits as good as 1% at altitudes of 20km can be made in 30 minutes. Due to the narrowband selectivity of the HOE, the lidar provides measurements over a continuous 24hr period. By adding a 4th channel to capture the Rayleigh backscattered light, temperature profiles can be extended to 80km

  19. Using Lidar and color infrared imagery to successfully measure stand characteristics on the William B. Bankhead National Forest, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Stephens; Luben Dimov; Callie Schweitzer; Wubishet Tadesse

    2008-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (Lidar) and color infrared imagery (CIR) were used to quantify forest structure and to distinguish deciduous from coniferous trees for selected stands on the William B. Bankhead National Forest in Alabama. Lidar bare ground and vegetation point clouds were used to determine tree heights and tree locations. Lidar accuracy was assessed by...

  20. Empirical modeling of single-wake advection and expansion using full-scale pulsed lidar-based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, single-wake dynamics have been studied both experimentally and numerically. The use of pulsed lidar measurements allows for validation of basic dynamic wake meandering modeling assumptions. Wake center tracking is used to estimate the wake advection velocity experimentally...... fairly well in the far wake but lacks accuracy in the outer region of the near wake. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction and wake advection velocity, is derived and linked to the characteristics of a spherical vortex structure. Furthermore, a new empirical model for single...

  1. Quantifying error of lidar and sodar Doppler beam swinging measurements of wind turbine wakes using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Clifton, A.

    2015-02-01

    Wind-profiling lidars are now regularly used in boundary-layer meteorology and in applications such as wind energy and air quality. Lidar wind profilers exploit the Doppler shift of laser light backscattered from particulates carried by the wind to measure a line-of-sight (LOS) velocity. The Doppler beam swinging (DBS) technique, used by many commercial systems, considers measurements of this LOS velocity in multiple radial directions in order to estimate horizontal and vertical winds. The method relies on the assumption of homogeneous flow across the region sampled by the beams. Using such a system in inhomogeneous flow, such as wind turbine wakes or complex terrain, will result in errors. To quantify the errors expected from such violation of the assumption of horizontal homogeneity, we simulate inhomogeneous flow in the atmospheric boundary layer, notably stably stratified flow past a wind turbine, with a mean wind speed of 6.5 m s-1 at the turbine hub-height of 80 m. This slightly stable case results in 15° of wind direction change across the turbine rotor disk. The resulting flow field is sampled in the same fashion that a lidar samples the atmosphere with the DBS approach, including the lidar range weighting function, enabling quantification of the error in the DBS observations. The observations from the instruments located upwind have small errors, which are ameliorated with time averaging. However, the downwind observations, particularly within the first two rotor diameters downwind from the wind turbine, suffer from errors due to the heterogeneity of the wind turbine wake. Errors in the stream-wise component of the flow approach 30% of the hub-height inflow wind speed close to the rotor disk. Errors in the cross-stream and vertical velocity components are also significant: cross-stream component errors are on the order of 15% of the hub-height inflow wind speed (1.0 m s-1) and errors in the vertical velocity measurement exceed the actual vertical velocity

  2. Compact Raman Lidar Measurement of Liquid and Vapor Phase Water Under the Influence of Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiina Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact Raman lidar has been developed for studying phase changes of water in the atmosphere under the influence of ionization radiation. The Raman lidar is operated at the wavelength of 349 nm and backscattered Raman signals of liquid and vapor phase water are detected at 396 and 400 nm, respectively. Alpha particles emitted from 241Am of 9 MBq ionize air molecules in a scattering chamber, and the resulting ions lead to the formation of liquid water droplets. From the analysis of Raman signal intensities, it has been found that the increase in the liquid water Raman channel is approximately 3 times as much as the decrease in the vapor phase water Raman channel, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction based on the Raman cross-sections. In addition, the radius of the water droplet is estimated to be 0.2 μm.

  3. Remote measurement of surface roughness, surface reflectance, and body reflectance with LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolu; Liang, Yu

    2015-10-20

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) intensity data are attracting increasing attention because of the great potential for use of such data in a variety of remote sensing applications. To fully investigate the data potential for target classification and identification, we carried out a series of experiments with typical urban building materials and employed our reconstructed built-in-lab LiDAR system. Received intensity data were analyzed on the basis of the derived bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model and the established integration method. With an improved fitting algorithm, parameters involved in the BRDF model can be obtained to depict the surface characteristics. One of these parameters related to surface roughness was converted to a most used roughness parameter, the arithmetical mean deviation of the roughness profile (Ra), which can be used to validate the feasibility of the BRDF model in surface characterizations and performance evaluations.

  4. Inspiration from drones, Lidar measurements and 3D models in undergraduate teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkinsop, Thomas; Ellis, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Three-dimensional models, photogrammetry and remote sensing are increasingly common techniques used in structural analysis. We have found that using drones and Lidar on undergraduate field trips has piqued interest in fieldwork, provided data for follow-up laboratory exercises, and inspired undergraduates to attempt 3D modelling in independent mapping projects. The scale of structures visible in cliff and sea shore exposures in South Wales is ideal for using drones to capture images for 3D models. Fault scarps in the South Wales coalfield were scanned by Lidar and drone. Our experience suggests that the drone data were much easier to acquire and process than the Lidar data, and adequate for most teaching purposes. In the lab, we used the models to show the structure in 3D, and as the basis for an introduction to geological modelling software. Now that tools for photogrammetry, drones, and processing software are widely available and affordable, they can be readily integrated into teaching. An additional benefit from the images and models is that they may be used for exercises that can be substituted for fieldwork to achieve some (but not all) of the learning outcomes in the case that field access is prevented.

  5. Retrieval of optical and physical properties of African dust from multiwavelength Raman lidar measurements during the SHADOW campaign in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Veselovskii

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available West Africa and the adjacent oceanic regions are very important locations for studying dust properties and their influence on weather and climate. The SHADOW (study of SaHAran Dust Over West Africa campaign is performing a multiscale and multilaboratory study of aerosol properties and dynamics using a set of in situ and remote sensing instruments at an observation site located at the IRD (Institute for Research and Development in Mbour, Senegal (14° N, 17° W. In this paper, we present the results of lidar measurements performed during the first phase of SHADOW (study of SaHAran Dust Over West Africa which occurred in March–April 2015. The multiwavelength Mie–Raman lidar acquired 3β + 2α + 1δ measurements during this period. This set of measurements has permitted particle-intensive properties, such as extinction and backscattering Ångström exponents (BAE for 355/532 nm wavelengths' corresponding lidar ratios and depolarization ratio at 532 nm, to be determined. The mean values of dust lidar ratios during the observation period were about 53 sr at both 532 and 355 nm, which agrees with the values observed during the SAMUM-1 and SAMUM-2 campaigns held in Morocco and Cabo Verde in 2006 and 2008. The mean value of the particle depolarization ratio at 532 nm was 30 ± 4.5 %; however, during strong dust episodes this ratio increased to 35 ± 5 %, which is also in agreement with the results of the SAMUM campaigns. The backscattering Ångström exponent during the dust episodes decreased to ∼ −0.7, while the extinction Ångström exponent, though negative, was greater than −0.2. Low values of BAE can likely be explained by an increase in the imaginary part of the dust refractive index at 355 nm compared to 532 nm. The dust extinction and backscattering coefficients at multiple wavelengths were inverted to the particle microphysics using the regularization algorithm and the model of randomly

  6. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  7. Raman Lidar Measurements of Aerosol Extinction and Backscattering. Report 2; Derivation of Aerosol Real Refractive Index, Single-Scattering Albedo, and Humidification Factor using Raman Lidar and Aircraft Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Melfi, S. H.; Whiteman, D. N.; Evans, K. D.; Poellot, M.; Kaufman, Y. J.

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol backscattering and extinction profiles measured by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) during the remote cloud sensing (RCS) intensive operations period (IOP) at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) southern Great Plains (SGP) site during two nights in April 1994 are discussed. These profiles are shown to be consistent with the simultaneous aerosol size distribution measurements made by a PCASP (Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer Probe) optical particle counter flown on the University of North Dakota Citation aircraft. We describe a technique which uses both lidar and PCASP measurements to derive the dependence of particle size on relative humidity, the aerosol real refractive index n, and estimate the effective single-scattering albedo Omega(sub 0). Values of n ranged between 1.4-1.5 (dry) and 1.37-1.47 (wet); Omega(sub 0) varied between 0.7 and 1.0. The single-scattering albedo derived from this technique is sensitive to the manner in which absorbing particles are represented in the aerosol mixture; representing the absorbing particles as an internal mixture rather than the external mixture assumed here results in generally higher values of Omega(sub 0). The lidar measurements indicate that the change in particle size with relative humidity as measured by the PCASP can be represented in the form discussed by Hattel with the exponent gamma = 0.3 + or - 0.05. The variations in aerosol optical and physical characteristics captured in the lidar and aircraft size distribution measurements are discussed in the context of the meteorological conditions observed during the experiment.

  8. Lidar-measurement of the atmospheric aerosols' extinction based on the field study SAMUM-1; Lidar-Messung der Extinktion des atmosphaerischen Aerosols am Beispiel der Feldstudie SAMUM-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esselborn, Michael

    2008-07-01

    In the frame of this thesis a high-resolution spectral LIDAR (HSRL) was used for the field study SAMUM during May/June 2006 and January/February 2008 on board of the research aircraft Falcon. The intensity of the LIDAR signals are mainly influences by backscattering and extinction of atmospheric particles (aerosols). Using a narrow-band optical filter the HSRL allows the measurement of the molecular backscattering besides the total atmospheric backscattering. During SAMUM-1 the optical properties of the Sahara dust aerosols were measured for the first time, esp. its extinction, the ratio extinction/backscattering and the depolarization close to the source region. The results of the optical density of the aerosols were compared with satellite-based data. South of the Atlas-mountains optical aerosol densities in the range of 0.50 to 0.60 were measured.

  9. Lidar-measurement of the atmospheric aerosols' extinction based on the field study SAMUM-1; Lidar-Messung der Extinktion des atmosphaerischen Aerosols am Beispiel der Feldstudie SAMUM-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esselborn, Michael

    2008-07-01

    In the frame of this thesis a high-resolution spectral LIDAR (HSRL) was used for the field study SAMUM during May/June 2006 and January/February 2008 on board of the research aircraft Falcon. The intensity of the LIDAR signals are mainly influences by backscattering and extinction of atmospheric particles (aerosols). Using a narrow-band optical filter the HSRL allows the measurement of the molecular backscattering besides the total atmospheric backscattering. During SAMUM-1 the optical properties of the Sahara dust aerosols were measured for the first time, esp. its extinction, the ratio extinction/backscattering and the depolarization close to the source region. The results of the optical density of the aerosols were compared with satellite-based data. South of the Atlas-mountains optical aerosol densities in the range of 0.50 to 0.60 were measured.

  10. A LIDAR-Based Tree Canopy Characterization under Simulated Uneven Road Condition: Advance in Tree Orchard Canopy Profile Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In real outdoor canopy profile detection, the accuracy of a LIDAR scanner to measure canopy structure is affected by a potentially uneven road condition. The level of error associated with attitude angles from undulations in the ground surface can be reduced by developing appropriate correction algorithm. This paper proposes an offline attitude angle offset correction algorithm based on a 3D affine coordinate transformation. The validity of the correction algorithm is verified by conducting an indoor experiment. The experiment was conducted on an especially designed canopy profile measurement platform. During the experiment, an artificial tree and a tree-shaped carved board were continuously scanned at constant laser scanner travel speed and detection distances under simulated bumpy road conditions. Acquired LIDAR laser scanner raw data was processed offline by exceptionally developed MATLAB program. The obtained results before and after correction method show that the single attitude angle offset correction method is able to correct the distorted data points in tree-shaped carved board profile measurement, with a relative error of 5%, while the compound attitude angle offset correction method is effective to reduce the error associated with compound attitude angle deviation from the ideal scanner pose, with relative error of 7%.

  11. Optical and geometrical properties of cirrus clouds in Amazonia derived from 1 year of ground-based lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Diego A.; Barja, Boris; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Seifert, Patric; Baars, Holger; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Cirrus clouds cover a large fraction of tropical latitudes and play an important role in Earth's radiation budget. Their optical properties, altitude, vertical and horizontal coverage control their radiative forcing, and hence detailed cirrus measurements at different geographical locations are of utmost importance. Studies reporting cirrus properties over tropical rain forests like the Amazon, however, are scarce. Studies with satellite profilers do not give information on the diurnal cycle, and the satellite imagers do not report on the cloud vertical structure. At the same time, ground-based lidar studies are restricted to a few case studies. In this paper, we derive the first comprehensive statistics of optical and geometrical properties of upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds in Amazonia. We used 1 year (July 2011 to June 2012) of ground-based lidar atmospheric observations north of Manaus, Brazil. This dataset was processed by an automatic cloud detection and optical properties retrieval algorithm. Upper-tropospheric cirrus clouds were observed more frequently than reported previously for tropical regions. The frequency of occurrence was found to be as high as 88 % during the wet season and not lower than 50 % during the dry season. The diurnal cycle shows a minimum around local noon and maximum during late afternoon, associated with the diurnal cycle of precipitation. The mean values of cirrus cloud top and base heights, cloud thickness, and cloud optical depth were 14.3 ± 1.9 (SD) km, 12.9 ± 2.2 km, 1.4 ± 1.1 km, and 0.25 ± 0.46, respectively. Cirrus clouds were found at temperatures down to -90 °C. Frequently cirrus were observed within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), which are likely associated to slow mesoscale uplifting or to the remnants of overshooting convection. The vertical distribution was not uniform, and thin and subvisible cirrus occurred more frequently closer to the tropopause. The mean lidar ratio was 23.3 ± 8.0 sr. However, for

  12. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols

  13. Technology of Measuring equipment for Air Pollution. Development of Mobile Air Pollution monitoring system (LIDAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Song, Ky Seok; Rhee, Young Joo; Kim, Duck Hyun; Yang, Ki Ho; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Kang Soo

    1999-01-01

    Most air pollution monitoring technologies accompany a time-consuming sample treatment process and provides pollution information only for a local area. Thus, they have a critical restriction in monitoring time-dependent pollution variation effectively over the wide range of area both in height and in width. LIDAR (Light detection and ranging) is a new technology to overcome such drawbacks of the existing pollution monitoring technologies and has long been investigated in the advanced countries. The goal of this project is to develop the mobile air pollution monitoring system and to apply the system to the detection of various pollutants, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and aerosols.

  14. Comparing Simultaneous Stratospheric Aerosol and Ozone Lidar Measurements with SAGE 2 Data after the Mount Pinatubo Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, G. K.; Poole, L. R.; McCormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Wang, P.-H.; Rizi, V.; Masci, F.; DAltorio, A.; Visconti, G.

    1995-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosol and ozone profiles obtained simultaneously from the lidar station at the University of L'Aquila (42.35 deg N, 13.33 deg E, 683 m above sea level) during the first 6 months following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo are compared with corresponding nearby Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) 2 profiles. The agreement between the two data sets is found to be reasonably good. The temporal change of aerosol profiles obtained by both techniques showed the intrusion and growth of Pinatubo aerosols. In addition, ozone concentration profiles derived from an empirical time-series model based on SAGE 2 ozone data obtained before the Pinatubo eruption are compared with measured profiles. Good agreement is shown in the 1991 profiles, but ozone concentrations measured in January 1992 were reduced relative to time-series model estimates. Possible reasons for the differences between measured and model-based ozone profiles are discussed.

  15. Seasonal variability of dust in the eastern Mediterranean (Athens, Greece), through lidar measurements in the frame of EARLINET (2002-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkalis, Panos; Papayannis, Alex; Tsaknakis, George; Mamouri, RodElise; Argyrouli, Athina

    2013-04-01

    Aerosols play an important role in earth's atmospheric radiation balance, which is enhanced in areas where dust is mostly present (e.g. the Mediterranean region), as in the case of the city of Athens. The focus of this paper is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the seasonal variability of optical and geometrical properties, as well as the mass concentration of Saharan dust over the city of Athens, Greece, for a 10-years time period: 2002-2012 based on the laser remote sensing (lidar) technique. More specifically, the aerosol optical properties concern the extinction and the backscatter coefficient, as well as the lidar ratio, while the geometrical properties concern the dust layer thickness and center of mass. The calculations of the aerosol extinction coefficient and of the so-called lidar ratio (defined as the ratio of the aerosol extinction coefficient over the aerosol backscatter coefficient) are made by using the Raman lidar technique, only under cloud-free conditions. The calculation of the dust mass concentration was retrieved by a applying a conversion factor (the so-called dust extinction cross section; mean value of the order of 0.64 m2g-1) and by combining sun photometric measurements and modeled dust loading values. Our data analysis was based on monthly-mean values, and only in time periods under cloud-free conditions and for lidar signals with signal to noise ratios (SNR) greater than 1.5 under dusty conditions. The mean value of the lidar ratio at 355 nm was found to be 62±20sr, while the mean dust mass concentration was of the order of 240 μgm-3. The data analyzed were obtained by systematic aerosol lidar measurements performed by the EOLE Raman lidar system of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), in the frame of the European Aerosol Research Lidar network (EARLINET). EOLE is able to provide the vertical profiles of the aerosol backscatter (at 355, 532, 1064 nm) and extinction coefficients (at 355 and 532 nm), as well as the

  16. Quantification of Greenhouse Gas Emission Rates from strong Point Sources by Airborne IPDA-Lidar Measurements: Methodology and Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, G.; Amediek, A.; Wirth, M.; Fix, A.; Kiemle, C.; Quatrevalet, M.

    2016-12-01

    We report on a new method and on the first demonstration to quantify emission rates from strong greenhouse gas (GHG) point sources using airborne Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Lidar measurements. In order to build trust in the self-reported emission rates by countries, verification against independent monitoring systems is a prerequisite to check the reported budget. A significant fraction of the total anthropogenic emission of CO2 and CH4 originates from localized strong point sources of large energy production sites or landfills. Both are not monitored with sufficiently accuracy by the current observation system. There is a debate whether airborne remote sensing could fill in the gap to infer those emission rates from budgeting or from Gaussian plume inversion approaches, whereby measurements of the GHG column abundance beneath the aircraft can be used to constrain inverse models. In contrast to passive sensors, the use of an active instrument like CHARM-F for such emission verification measurements is new. CHARM-F is a new airborne IPDA-Lidar devised for the German research aircraft HALO for the simultaneous measurement of the column-integrated dry-air mixing ratio of CO2 and CH4 commonly denoted as XCO2 und XCH4, respectively. It has successfully been tested in a serious of flights over Central Europe to assess its performance under various reflectivity conditions and in a strongly varying topography like the Alps. The analysis of a methane plume measured in crosswind direction of a coal mine ventilation shaft revealed an instantaneous emission rate of 9.9 ± 1.7 kt CH4 yr-1. We discuss the methodology of our point source estimation approach and give an outlook on the CoMet field experiment scheduled in 2017 for the measurement of anthropogenic and natural GHG emissions by a combination of active and passive remote sensing instruments on research aircraft.

  17. Generic methodology for calibrating profiling nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    Improving power performance assessment by measuring at different heights has been demonstrated using ground-based profiling LIDARs. More recently, nacelle-mounted lidars studies have shown promising capabilities to assess power performance. Using nacelle lidars avoids the erection of expensive me...

  18. Subtropical and Polar Cirrus Clouds Characterized by Ground-Based Lidars and CALIPSO/CALIOP Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Córdoba-Jabonero Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds are product of weather processes, and then their occurrence and macrophysical/optical properties can vary significantly over different regions of the world. Lidars can provide height-resolved measurements with a relatively good both vertical and temporal resolutions, making them the most suitable instrumentation for high-cloud observations. The aim of this work is to show the potential of lidar observations on Cirrus clouds detection in combination with a recently proposed methodology to retrieve the Cirrus clouds macrophysical and optical features. In this sense, a few case studies of cirrus clouds observed at both subtropical and polar latitudes are examined and compared to CALIPSO/CALIOP observations. Lidar measurements are carried out in two stations: the Metropolitan city of Sao Paulo (MSP, Brazil, 23.3°S 46.4°W, located at subtropical latitudes, and the Belgrano II base (BEL, Argentina, 78ºS 35ºW in the Antarctic continent. Optical (COD-cloud optical depth and LR-Lidar Ratio and macrophysical (top/base heights and thickness properties of both the subtropical and polar cirrus clouds are reported. In general, subtropical Cirrus clouds present lower LR values and are found at higher altitudes than those detected at polar latitudes. In general, Cirrus clouds are detected at similar altitudes by CALIOP. However, a poor agreement is achieved in the LR retrieved between ground-based lidars and space-borne CALIOP measurements, likely due to the use of a fixed (or low-variable LR value in CALIOP inversion procedures.

  19. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  20. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurement Analysis and Feed-Forward Blade Pitch Control for Load Mitigation in Wind Turbines: January 2010--January 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, F.; Simley, E.; Pao, L.Y.

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the accuracy of measurements that rely on Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to wind turbine feed-forward control systems and discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feed-forward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. The first half of this report examines the accuracy of different measurement scenarios that rely on coherent continuous-wave or pulsed Doppler LIDAR systems to determine their applicability to feed-forward control. In particular, the impacts of measurement range and angular offset from the wind direction are studied for various wind conditions. A realistic case involving a scanning LIDAR unit mounted in the spinner of a wind turbine is studied in depth with emphasis on choices for scan radius and preview distance. The effects of turbulence parameters on measurement accuracy are studied as well. Continuous-wave and pulsed LIDAR models based on typical commercially available units were used in the studies present in this report. The second half of this report discusses feed-forward control system designs that use preview wind measurements. Combined feedback/feed-forward blade pitch control is compared to industry standard feedback control when simulated in realistic turbulent above-rated winds. The feed-forward controllers are designed to reduce fatigue loads, increasing turbine lifetime and therefore reducing the cost of energy. Three feed-forward designs are studied: non-causal series expansion, Preview Control, and optimized FIR filter. The input to the feed-forward controller is a measurement of

  1. Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column in Cloudy Weather Conditions using An IM-CW Lidar at 1.57 Micron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Obland, Michael; Harrison, F. Wallace; Nehrir, Amin; Browell, Edward; Campbell, Joel; Dobler, Jeremy; Meadows, Bryon; Fan, Tai-Fang; Kooi, Susan; hide

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the capability of atmospheric CO2 column measurements under cloudy conditions using an airborne intensity-modulated continuous-wave integrated-path-differential-absorption lidar operating in the 1.57-m CO2 absorption band. The atmospheric CO2 column amounts from the aircraft to the tops of optically thick cumulus clouds and to the surface in the presence of optically thin clouds are retrieved from lidar data obtained during the summer 2011 and spring 2013 flight campaigns, respectively.

  2. A Comparison of Potential IM-CW Lidar Modulation Techniques for ASCENDS CO2 Column Measurements From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Obland, Michael D.; Ismail, Syed

    2014-01-01

    Global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements through the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) Decadal Survey recommended space mission are critical for improving our understanding of CO2 sources and sinks. IM-CW (Intensity Modulated Continuous Wave) lidar techniques are investigated as a means of facilitating CO2 measurements from space to meet the ASCENDS science requirements. In previous laboratory and flight experiments we have successfully used linear swept frequency modulation to discriminate surface lidar returns from intermediate aerosol and cloud contamination. Furthermore, high accuracy and precision ranging to the surface as well as to the top of intermediate clouds, which is a requirement for the inversion of the CO2 column-mixing ratio from the instrument optical depth measurements, has been demonstrated with the linear swept frequency modulation technique. We are concurrently investigating advanced techniques to help improve the auto-correlation properties of the transmitted waveform implemented through physical hardware to make cloud rejection more robust in special restricted scenarios. Several different carrier based modulation techniques are compared including orthogonal linear swept, orthogonal non-linear swept, and Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK). Techniques are investigated that reduce or eliminate sidelobes. These techniques have excellent auto-correlation properties while possessing a finite bandwidth (by way of a new cyclic digital filter), which will reduce bias error in the presence of multiple scatterers. Our analyses show that the studied modulation techniques can increase the accuracy of CO2 column measurements from space. A comparison of various properties such as signal to noise ratio (SNR) and time-bandwidth product are discussed.

  3. Combining Lidar and Synthetic Aperture Radar Data to Estimate Forest Biomass: Status and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Kaasalainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research activities combining lidar and radar remote sensing have increased in recent years. The main focus in combining lidar-radar forest remote sensing has been on the retrieval of the aboveground biomass (AGB, which is a primary variable related to carbon cycle in land ecosystems, and has therefore been identified as an essential climate variable. In this review, we summarize the studies combining lidar and radar in estimating forest AGB. We discuss the complementary use of lidar and radar according to the relevance of the added value. The most promising prospects for combining lidar and radar data are in the use of lidar-derived ground elevations for improving large-area biomass estimates from radar, and in upscaling of lidar-based AGB data across large areas covered by spaceborne radar missions.

  4. Lidar measurements of ozone and aerosol distributions during the 1992 airborne Arctic stratospheric expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, Edward V.; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.; Grant, William B.; Ismail, Syed; Carter, Arlen F.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Langley airborne differential absorption lidar system was operated from the NASA Ames DC-8 aircraft during the 1992 Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition to investigate the distribution of stratospheric aerosols and ozone (O3) across the Arctic vortex from January to March 1992. Aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption were found outside and inside the Arctic vortex with distinctly different scattering characteristics and spatial distributions in the two regions. The aerosol and O3 distributions clearly identified the edge of the vortex and provided additional information on vortex dynamics and transport processes. Few polar stratospheric clouds were observed during the AASE-2; however, those that were found had enhanced scattering and depolarization over the background Pinatubo aerosols. The distribution of aerosols inside the vortex exhibited relatively minor changes during the AASE-2. Ozone depletion inside the vortex as limited to less than or equal to 20 percent in the altitude region from 15-20 km.

  5. A Comparison of sector-scan and dual Doppler wind measurements at Høvsøre Test Station – one lidar or two?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Elliot; Courtney, Michael

    from the coast). Ground based remote sensing has numerous advantages over traditional in-situ (offshore met mast) and buoy based installations, mainly in terms or cost, complexity, and failure/delay risk. Since each lidar can only measure a portion of the wind vector, it is necessary to either deploy...

  6. Lidar configurations for wind turbine control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Mann, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Lidar sensors have proved to be very beneficial in the wind energy industry. They can be used for yaw correction, feed-forward pitch control and load verification. However, the current lidars are expensive. One way to reduce the price is to use lidars with few measurement points. Finding the best...... by the lidar is compared against the effective wind speed on a wind turbine rotor both theoretically and through simulations. The study provides some results to choose the best configuration of the lidar with few measurement points....

  7. Relative drifts and stability of satellite and ground-based stratospheric ozone profiles at NDACC lidar stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Nair

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term evolution of stratospheric ozone at different stations in the low and mid-latitudes is investigated. The analysis is performed by comparing the collocated profiles of ozone lidars, at the northern mid-latitudes (Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeißenberg, Haute-Provence Observatory, Tsukuba and Table Mountain Facility, tropics (Mauna Loa Observatory and southern mid-latitudes (Lauder, with ozonesondes and space-borne sensors (SBUV(/2, SAGE II, HALOE, UARS MLS and Aura MLS, extracted around the stations. Relative differences are calculated to find biases and temporal drifts in the measurements. All measurement techniques show their best agreement with respect to the lidar at 20–40 km, where the differences and drifts are generally within ±5% and ±0.5% yr−1, respectively, at most stations. In addition, the stability of the long-term ozone observations (lidar, SBUV(/2, SAGE II and HALOE is evaluated by the cross-comparison of each data set. In general, all lidars and SBUV(/2 exhibit near-zero drifts and the comparison between SAGE II and HALOE shows larger, but insignificant drifts. The RMS of the drifts of lidar and SBUV(/2 is 0.22 and 0.27% yr−1, respectively at 20–40 km. The average drifts of the long-term data sets, derived from various comparisons, are less than ±0.3% yr−1 in the 20–40 km altitude at all stations. A combined time series of the relative differences between SAGE II, HALOE and Aura MLS with respect to lidar data at six sites is constructed, to obtain long-term data sets lasting up to 27 years. The relative drifts derived from these combined data are very small, within ±0.2% yr−1.

  8. Estimating Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock of Major Tropical Forest Land Uses Using Airborne Lidar and Field Measurement Data in Central Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, R. B.; Watanabe, M.; Motohka, T.; Shiraishi, T.; shimada, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are providing environmental goods and services including carbon sequestration, energy regulation, water fluxes, wildlife habitats, fuel, and building materials. Despite the policy attention, the tropical forest reserve in Southeast Asian region is releasing vast amount of carbon to the atmosphere due to deforestation. Establishing quality forest statistics and documenting aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) are emerging in the region. Airborne and satellite based large area monitoring methods are developed to compliment conventional plot based field measurement methods as they are costly, time consuming, and difficult to implement for large regions. But these methods still require adequate ground measurements for calibrating accurate AFCS model. Furthermore, tropical region comprised of varieties of natural and plantation forests capping higher variability of forest structures and biomass volumes. To address this issue and the needs for ground data, we propose the systematic collection of ground data integrated with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne LiDAR enables accurate measures of vertical forest structure, including canopy height and volume demanding less ground measurement plots. Using an appropriate forest type based LiDAR sampling framework, structural properties of forest can be quantified and treated similar to ground measurement plots, producing locally relevant information to use independently with satellite data sources including synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, we examined LiDAR derived forest parameters with field measured data and developed general and specific AFCS models for tropical forests in central Sumatra. The general model is fitted for all types of natural and plantation forests while the specific model is fitted to the specific forest type. The study region consists of natural forests including peat swamp and dry moist forests, regrowth, and mangrove and plantation forests

  9. Raman lidar measurement of water vapor and ice clouds associated with Asian dust layer over Tsukuba, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tetsu; Nagai, Tomohiro; Nakazato, Masahisa; Matsumura, Takatsugu

    2004-03-01

    The vertical distributions of particle extinction, backscattering, depolarization, and water vapor mixing ratio were measured using a Raman lidar over Tsukuba (36.1°N, 140.1°E), Japan, on 23-24 April 2001. Ice clouds associated with the Asian dust layer were observed at an altitude of ~6-9 km. The relative humidities in the cloud layer were close to the ice saturation values and the temperature at the top of the cloud layer was ~-35°C, suggesting that the Asian dust acted as ice nuclei at the high temperatures. The meteorological analysis suggested that the ice-saturated region was formed near the top of the dust layer where the moist air ascended in slantwise fashion above the cold-frontal zone associated with extratropical cyclone.

  10. Proactive monitoring of a wind turbine array with lidar measurements, SCADA data and a data-driven RANS solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iungo, G.; Said, E. A.; Santhanagopalan, V.; Zhan, L.

    2016-12-01

    Power production of a wind farm and durability of wind turbines are strongly dependent on non-linear wake interactions occurring within a turbine array. Wake dynamics are highly affected by the specific site conditions, such as topography and local atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, contingencies through the life of a wind farm, such as turbine ageing and off-design operations, make prediction of wake interactions and power performance a great challenge in wind energy. In this work, operations of an onshore wind turbine array were monitored through lidar measurements, SCADA and met-tower data. The atmospheric wind field investing the wind farm was estimated by using synergistically the available data through five different methods, which are characterized by different confidence levels. By combining SCADA data and the lidar measurements, it was possible to estimate power losses connected with wake interactions. For this specific array, power losses were estimated to be 4% and 2% of the total power production for stable and convective atmospheric regimes, respectively. The entire dataset was then leveraged for the calibration of a data-driven RANS (DDRANS) solver for prediction of wind turbine wakes and power production. The DDRANS is based on a parabolic formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations with axisymmetry and boundary layer approximations, which allow achieving very low computational costs. Accuracy in prediction of wind turbine wakes and power production is achieved through an optimal tuning of the turbulence closure model. The latter is based on a mixing length model, which was developed based on previous wind turbine wake studies carried out through large eddy simulations and wind tunnel experiments. Several operative conditions of the wind farm under examination were reproduced through DDRANS for different stability regimes, wind directions and wind velocity. The results show that DDRANS is capable of achieving a good level of accuracy in prediction

  11. Near-surface and columnar measurements with a micro pulse lidar of atmospheric pollen in Barcelona, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sicard

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present for the first time continuous hourly measurements of pollen near-surface concentration and lidar-derived profiles of particle backscatter coefficients and of volume and particle depolarization ratios during a 5-day pollination event observed in Barcelona, Spain, between 27 and 31 March 2015. Daily average concentrations ranged from 1082 to 2830 pollen m−3. Platanus and Pinus pollen types represented together more than 80 % of the total pollen. Maximum hourly pollen concentrations of 4700 and 1200 m−3 were found for Platanus and Pinus, respectively. Every day a clear diurnal cycle caused by the vertical transport of the airborne pollen was visible on the lidar-derived profiles with maxima usually reached between 12:00 and 15:00 UT. A method based on the lidar polarization capabilities was used to retrieve the contribution of the pollen to the total aerosol optical depth (AOD. On average the diurnal (09:00–17:00 UT pollen AOD was 0.05, which represented 29 % of the total AOD. Maximum values of the pollen AOD and its contribution to the total AOD reached 0.12 and 78 %, respectively. The diurnal means of the volume and particle depolarization ratios in the pollen plume were 0.08 and 0.14, with hourly maxima of 0.18 and 0.33, respectively. The diurnal mean of the height of the pollen plume was found at 1.24 km with maxima varying in the range of 1.47–1.78 km. A correlation study is performed (1 between the depolarization ratios and the pollen near-surface concentration to evaluate the ability of the former parameter to monitor pollen release and (2 between the depolarization ratios as well as pollen AOD and surface downward solar fluxes, which cause the atmospheric turbulences responsible for the particle vertical motion, to examine the dependency of the depolarization ratios and the pollen AOD upon solar fluxes. For the volume depolarization ratio the first correlation study yields to correlation

  12. Airborne measurements of CO2 column concentrations made with a pulsed IPDA lidar using a multiple-wavelength-locked laser and HgCdTe APD detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Ramanathan, Anand K.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William E.; Mao, Jianping; Wu, Stewart; Chen, Jeffrey; Numata, Kenji; Kawa, Stephan R.; Yang, Mei Ying Melissa; DiGangi, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    Here we report on measurements made with an improved CO2 Sounder lidar during the ASCENDS 2014 and 2016 airborne campaigns. The changes made to the 2011 version of the lidar included incorporating a rapidly wavelength-tunable, step-locked seed laser in the transmitter, using a much more sensitive HgCdTe APD detector and using an analog digitizer with faster readout time in the receiver. We also improved the lidar's calibration approach and the XCO2 retrieval algorithm. The 2014 and 2016 flights were made over several types of topographic surfaces from 3 to 12 km aircraft altitudes in the continental US. The results are compared to the XCO2 values computed from an airborne in situ sensor during spiral-down maneuvers. The 2014 results show significantly better performance and include measurement of horizontal gradients in XCO2 made over the Midwestern US that agree with chemistry transport models. The results from the 2016 airborne lidar retrievals show precisions of ˜ 0.7 parts per million (ppm) with 1 s averaging over desert surfaces, which is an improvement of about 8 times compared to similar measurements made in 2011. Measurements in 2016 were also made over fresh snow surfaces that have lower surface reflectance at the laser wavelengths. The results from both campaigns showed that the mean values of XCO2 retrieved from the lidar consistently agreed with those based on the in situ sensor to within 1 ppm. The improved precision and accuracy demonstrated in the 2014 and 2016 flights should benefit future airborne science campaigns and advance the technique's readiness for a space-based instrument.

  13. On the factors governing water vapor turbulence mixing in the convective boundary layer over land: Concept and data analysis technique using ground-based lidar measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    The convective boundary layer (CBL) turbulence is the key process for exchanging heat, momentum, moisture and trace gases between the earth's surface and the lower part of the troposphere. The turbulence parameterization of the CBL is a challenging but important component in numerical models. In particular, correct estimation of CBL turbulence features, parameterization, and the determination of the contribution of eddy diffusivity are important for simulating convection initiation, and the dispersion of health hazardous air pollutants and Greenhouse gases. In general, measurements of higher-order moments of water vapor mixing ratio (q) variability yield unique estimates of turbulence in the CBL. Using the high-resolution lidar-derived profiles of q variance, third-order moment, and skewness and analyzing concurrent profiles of vertical velocity, potential temperature, horizontal wind and time series of near-surface measurements of surface flux and meteorological parameters, a conceptual framework based on bottom up approach is proposed here for the first time for a robust characterization of the turbulent structure of CBL over land so that our understanding on the processes governing CBL q turbulence could be improved. Finally, principal component analyses will be applied on the lidar-derived long-term data sets of q turbulence statistics to identify the meteorological factors and the dominant physical mechanisms governing the CBL turbulence features. - Highlights: • Lidar based study for CBL turbulence features • Water vapor and aerosol turbulence profiles • Processes governing boundary layer turbulence profiles using lidars

  14. On the factors governing water vapor turbulence mixing in the convective boundary layer over land: Concept and data analysis technique using ground-based lidar measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Sandip, E-mail: sup252@PSU.EDU

    2016-06-01

    The convective boundary layer (CBL) turbulence is the key process for exchanging heat, momentum, moisture and trace gases between the earth's surface and the lower part of the troposphere. The turbulence parameterization of the CBL is a challenging but important component in numerical models. In particular, correct estimation of CBL turbulence features, parameterization, and the determination of the contribution of eddy diffusivity are important for simulating convection initiation, and the dispersion of health hazardous air pollutants and Greenhouse gases. In general, measurements of higher-order moments of water vapor mixing ratio (q) variability yield unique estimates of turbulence in the CBL. Using the high-resolution lidar-derived profiles of q variance, third-order moment, and skewness and analyzing concurrent profiles of vertical velocity, potential temperature, horizontal wind and time series of near-surface measurements of surface flux and meteorological parameters, a conceptual framework based on bottom up approach is proposed here for the first time for a robust characterization of the turbulent structure of CBL over land so that our understanding on the processes governing CBL q turbulence could be improved. Finally, principal component analyses will be applied on the lidar-derived long-term data sets of q turbulence statistics to identify the meteorological factors and the dominant physical mechanisms governing the CBL turbulence features. - Highlights: • Lidar based study for CBL turbulence features • Water vapor and aerosol turbulence profiles • Processes governing boundary layer turbulence profiles using lidars.

  15. SPACE-BORNE LASER ALTIMETER GEOLOCATION ERROR ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of space-borne laser altimetry technology over the past 40 years. Taking the ICESAT satellite as an example, a rigorous space-borne laser altimeter geolocation model is studied, and an error propagation equation is derived. The influence of the main error sources, such as the platform positioning error, attitude measurement error, pointing angle measurement error and range measurement error, on the geolocation accuracy of the laser spot are analysed by simulated experiments. The reasons for the different influences on geolocation accuracy in different directions are discussed, and to satisfy the accuracy of the laser control point, a design index for each error source is put forward.

  16. Extrapolating active layer thickness measurements across Arctic polygonal terrain using LiDAR and NDVI data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangodagamage, Chandana; Rowland, Joel C; Hubbard, Susan S; Brumby, Steven P; Liljedahl, Anna K; Wainwright, Haruko; Wilson, Cathy J; Altmann, Garrett L; Dafflon, Baptiste; Peterson, John; Ulrich, Craig; Tweedie, Craig E; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2014-08-01

    Landscape attributes that vary with microtopography, such as active layer thickness ( ALT ), are labor intensive and difficult to document effectively through in situ methods at kilometer spatial extents, thus rendering remotely sensed methods desirable. Spatially explicit estimates of ALT can provide critically needed data for parameterization, initialization, and evaluation of Arctic terrestrial models. In this work, we demonstrate a new approach using high-resolution remotely sensed data for estimating centimeter-scale ALT in a 5 km 2 area of ice-wedge polygon terrain in Barrow, Alaska. We use a simple regression-based, machine learning data-fusion algorithm that uses topographic and spectral metrics derived from multisensor data (LiDAR and WorldView-2) to estimate ALT (2 m spatial resolution) across the study area. Comparison of the ALT estimates with ground-based measurements, indicates the accuracy (r 2  = 0.76, RMSE ±4.4 cm) of the approach. While it is generally accepted that broad climatic variability associated with increasing air temperature will govern the regional averages of ALT , consistent with prior studies, our findings using high-resolution LiDAR and WorldView-2 data, show that smaller-scale variability in ALT is controlled by local eco-hydro-geomorphic factors. This work demonstrates a path forward for mapping ALT at high spatial resolution and across sufficiently large regions for improved understanding and predictions of coupled dynamics among permafrost, hydrology, and land-surface processes from readily available remote sensing data.

  17. Characterization of the Temporal-Spatial Variability of Trans-Atlantic Dust Transport Based on CALIPSO Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Atlantic dust transport has important implications for human and ecosystem health, the terrestrial and oceanic biogeochemical cycle, weather systems, and climate. A reliable assessment of these influences requires the characterization of dust distributions in three dimensions and over long time periods. We provide an observation-based multiyear estimate of trans-Atlantic dust transport by using a 7-year (2007 - 2013) lidar record from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) in both cloud-free and above-cloud conditions. We estimate that on a basis of the 7-year average and integration over 10S - 30N, 182 Tg a-1 dust leaves the coast of North Africa at 15W, of which 132 Tg a-1 and 43 Tg a-1 reaches 35W and 75W, respectively. These flux estimates have an overall known uncertainty of (45 - 70). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 - 48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8 - 50) kg ha-1 a-1. This imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006 - 0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 - 39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest, which is comparable to the loss of phosphorus to rainfall. Significant seasonal variations are observed in both the magnitude of total dust transport and its meridional and vertical distributions. The observed large interannual variability of annual dust transport is highly anti-correlated with the prior-year Sahel Precipitation Index. Comparisons of CALIPSO measurements with surface-based observations and model simulations will also be discussed.

  18. Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Itabe, Toshikazu (Editor); Sugimoto, Nobuo (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Keynote paper: Overview of lidar technology for industrial and environmental monitoring in Japan. 2. lidar technology I: NASA's future active remote sensing mission for earth science. Geometrical detector consideration s in laser sensing application (invited paper). 3. Lidar technology II: High-power femtosecond light strings as novel atmospheric probes (invited paper). Design of a compact high-sensitivity aerosol profiling lidar. 4. Lasers for lidars: High-energy 2 microns laser for multiple lidar applications. New submount requirement of conductively cooled laser diodes for lidar applications. 5. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds I: Lidar monitoring of clouds and aerosols at the facility for atmospheric remote sensing (invited paper). Measurement of asian dust by using multiwavelength lidar. Global monitoring of clouds and aerosols using a network of micropulse lidar systems. 6. Troposphere aerosols and clouds II: Scanning lidar measurements of marine aerosol fields at a coastal site in Hawaii. 7. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds III: Formation of ice cloud from asian dust particles in the upper troposphere. Atmospheric boundary layer observation by ground-based lidar at KMITL, Thailand (13 deg N, 100 deg. E). 8. Boundary layer, urban pollution: Studies of the spatial correlation between urban aerosols and local traffic congestion using a slant angle scanning on the research vessel Mirai. 9. Middle atmosphere: Lidar-observed arctic PSC's over Svalbard (invited paper). Sodium temperature lidar measurements of the mesopause region over Syowa Station. 10. Differential absorption lidar (dIAL) and DOAS: Airborne UV DIAL measurements of ozone and aerosols (invited paper). Measurement of water vapor, surface ozone, and ethylene using differential absorption lidar. 12. Space lidar I: Lightweight lidar telescopes for space applications (invited paper). Coherent lidar development for Doppler wind measurement from the International Space

  19. Airborne lidar measurements to investigate the impact of long-range transported dust on shallow marine trade wind convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S.; Gutleben, M.; Wirth, M.; Ewald, F.

    2017-12-01

    Aerosols and clouds are still main contributors to uncertainties in estimates and interpretation of the Earth's changing energy budget. Their interaction with the Earth's radiation budged has a direct component by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation, and an indirect component, e.g. as aerosols modify the properties and thus the life-time of clouds or by changing the atmosphere's stability. Up to know now sufficient understanding in aerosol-cloud interaction and climate feedback is achieved. Thus studies with respect to clouds, aerosols, their interaction and influence on the radiation budged are highly demanded. In August 2016 the NARVAL-II (Next-generation airborne remote sensing for validation studies) mission took place. Measurements with a combined active (high spectral resolution and water vapor differential absorption lidar and cloud radar) and passive remote sensing (microwave radiometer, hyper spectral imager, radiation measurements) payload were performed with the German high altitude and long-range research aircraft HALO over the subtropical North-Atlantic Ocean to study shallow marine convection during the wet and dusty season. With this, NARVAL-II is follow-up of the NARVAL-I mission which took place during the dry and dust free season in December 2013. During NARVAL-II the measurement flights were designed the way to sample dust influenced areas as well as dust free areas in the trades. One main objective was to investigate the optical and macro physical properties of the dust layer, differences in cloud occurrence in dusty and non-dusty areas, and to study the influence of aerosols on the cloud properties and formation. This allows comparisons of cloud and aerosol distribution as well as their environment between the dry and the wet season, and of cloud properties and distribution with and without the influence of long-range transported dust across the Atlantic Ocean. In our presentation we will give an overview of the NARVAL

  20. Design and performance simulation of 532 nm Rayleigh-Mie Doppler lidar system for 5-50 km wind measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Fahua; Wang, Bangxin; Shi, Wenjuan; Zhuang, Peng; Zhu, Chengyun; Xie, Chenbo

    2018-04-01

    A novel design of the 532 nm Rayleigh-Mie Doppler lidar receiving system is carried out. The use of polarization isolation technology to effectively improve the receiving system optical reception efficiency, suppress the background noise, not only improves the system wind field detection accuracy, while achieving a high-accuracy temperature measurement. The wind speed and temperature measurement principle of the system are discussed in detail, and the triple Fabry-Perot etalon parameters are optimized. Utilizing the overall design parameters of the system, the system detection performance is simulated. The simulation results show that from 5 to 50 km altitude with vertical resolution of 0.1 km@5 ∼20 km, 0.5 km@20 ∼40 km, 1 km@40 ∼50 km, by using the laser with single pulse energy of 600 mJ, repetition frequency of 50 Hz and the receiving telescope with aperture of 0.8 m, with 2min integration time and in ±50 m/s radial wind speed range, the radial wind speed measurement accuracies of our designed lidar in the day and night are better than 2.6 m/s and 0.9 m/s respectively, and its performance is obviously superior to that of traditional system 5.6 m/s and 1.4 m/s wind speed accuracies; with 10min integration time and in 210 ∼280 K temperature range, the temperature measurement accuracies of the system in the day and night are better than 3.4 K and 1.2 K respectively; since the wind speed sensitivities of the Mie and Rayleigh scattering signals are not exactly the same, in ±50 m/s radial wind speed range, the wind speed bias induced by Mie signal is less than 1 m/s in the temperature range of 210-290 K and in the backscatter ratio range of 1-1.5 for pair measurement.

  1. First measurements of a carbon dioxide plume from an industrial source using a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R A; Gardiner, T D; Innocenti, F; Finlayson, A; Woods, P T; Few, J F M

    2014-08-01

    The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial sources is one of the main anthropogenic contributors to the greenhouse effect. Direct remote sensing of CO2 emissions using optical methods offers the potential for the identification and quantification of CO2 emissions. We report the development and demonstration of a ground based mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) able to measure the mass emission rate of CO2 in the plume from a power station. To our knowledge DIAL has not previously been successfully applied to the measurement of emission plumes of CO2 from industrial sources. A significant challenge in observing industrial CO2 emission plumes is the ability to discriminate and observe localised concentrations of CO2 above the locally observed background level. The objectives of the study were to modify our existing mobile infrared DIAL system to enable CO2 measurements and to demonstrate the system at a power plant to assess the feasibility of the technique for the identification and quantification of CO2 emissions. The results of this preliminary study showed very good agreement with the expected emissions calculated by the site. The detection limit obtained from the measurements, however, requires further improvement to provide quantification of smaller emitters of CO2, for example for the detection of fugitive emissions. This study has shown that in principle, remote optical sensing technology will have the potential to provide useful direct data on CO2 mass emission rates.

  2. Frequency Stepped Pulse Train Modulated Wind Sensing Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Sig; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    of frequency shifts corresponding to a specific distance. The spatial resolution depends on the repetition rate of the pulses in the pulse train. Directional wind measurements are shown and compared to a CW lidar measurement. The carrier to noise ratio of the FSPT lidar compared to a CW lidar is discussed......In this paper a wind sensing lidar utilizing a Frequency Stepped Pulse Train (FSPT) is demonstrated. One of the advantages in the FSTP lidar is that it enables direct measurement of wind speed as a function of distance from the lidar. Theoretically the FSPT lidar continuously produces measurements...... as is the case with a CW lidar, but at the same time with a spatial resolution, and without the range ambiguity originating from e.g. clouds. The FSPT lidar utilizes a frequency sweeping source for generation of the FSPT. The source generates a pulse train where each pulse has an optical carrier frequency...

  3. ASTER GDEM validation using LiDAR data over coastal regions of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Sørensen, Louise Sandberg; Forsberg, René

    2011-01-01

    Elevation data from airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) campaigns are used in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) global digital elevation model (GDEM) in Greenland. The LiDAR elevation data set is characterized...... of Greenland and the effect of the number of scenes used to generate the ASTER GDEM as well as relief are associated with the GDEM accuracy....

  4. Estimating the planetary boundary layer height from radiosonde and doppler lidar measurements in the city of São Paulo - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcia T. A.; Moreira, Gregori de A.; Pinero, Maciel; Oliveira, Amauri P.; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to compare the planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) values estimated by radiosonde data through the bulk Richardson number (BRN) method and by Doppler lidar measurements through the Carrier to Noise Ratio (CNR) method, which corresponds to the maximum of the variance of CNR profile. The measurement campaign was carried during the summer of 2015/2016 in the city of São Paulo. Despite the conceptual difference between these methods, the results show great agreement between them.

  5. CLOSE RANGE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING INTEGRATED WITH TERRESTRIAL LIDAR SCANNING APPLIED TO ROCK CHARACTERISATION AT CENTIMETRE SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Kurz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Compact and lightweight hyperspectral imagers allow the application of close range hyperspectral imaging with a ground based scanning setup for geological fieldwork. Using such a scanning setup, steep cliff sections and quarry walls can be scanned with a more appropriate viewing direction and a higher image resolution than from airborne and spaceborne platforms. Integration of the hyperspectral imagery with terrestrial lidar scanning provides the hyperspectral information in a georeferenced framework and enables measurement at centimetre scale. In this paper, three geological case studies are used to demonstrate the potential of this method for rock characterisation. Two case studies are applied to carbonate quarries where mapping of different limestone and dolomite types was required, as well as measurements of faults and layer thicknesses from inaccessible parts of the quarries. The third case study demonstrates the method using artificial lighting, applied in a subsurface scanning scenario where solar radiation cannot be utilised.

  6. Source analysis of spaceborne microwave radiometer interference over land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Li; Zhang, Sibo

    2016-03-01

    Satellite microwave thermal emissions mixed with signals from active sensors are referred to as radiofrequency interference (RFI). Based on Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) observations from June 1 to 16, 2011, RFI over Europe was identified and analyzed using the modified principal component analysis algorithm in this paper. The X band AMSR-E measurements in England and Italy are mostly affected by the stable, persistent, active microwave transmitters on the surface, while the RFI source of other European countries is the interference of the reflected geostationary TV satellite downlink signals to the measurements of spaceborne microwave radiometers. The locations and intensities of the RFI induced by the geostationary TV and communication satellites changed with time within the observed period. The observations of spaceborne microwave radiometers in ascending portions of orbits are usually interfered with over European land, while no RFI was detected in descending passes. The RFI locations and intensities from the reflection of downlink radiation are highly dependent upon the relative geometry between the geostationary satellite and the measuring passive sensor. Only these fields of view of a spaceborne instrument whose scan azimuths are close to the azimuth relative to the geostationary satellite are likely to be affected by RFI.

  7. Lidar to lidar calibration phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents a feasibility study of a lidar to lidar (L2L) calibration procedure. Phase one of the project was conducted at Høvsøre, Denmark. Two windcubes were placed next to the 116m met mast and different methods were applied to obtain the sensing height error of the lidars. The purpose...... is to find the most consistent method and use it in a potential lidar to lidar calibration procedure....

  8. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available using state of the art Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) instrumentation and other active and passive remote sensing tools. First “Lidar Field Campaign” • 2-day measurement campaign at University of Pretoria • First 23-hour continuous measurement... head2rightCirrus cloud morphology and dynamics. Atmospheric Research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean (ARSAIO) Slide 24 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Middle atmosphere dynamics and thermal structure: comparative studies from...

  9. Comparison of ambient aerosol extinction coefficients obtained from in-situ, MAX-DOAS and LIDAR measurements at Cabauw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zieger

    2011-03-01

    RH. The comparison showed a good correlation of R2 = 0.62–0.78, but the extinction coefficients from MAX-DOAS were a factor of 1.5–3.4 larger than the in-situ values. Best agreement is achieved for a few cases characterized by low aerosol optical depths and low planetary boundary layer heights. Differences were shown to be dependent on the applied MAX-DOAS retrieval algorithm. The comparison of the in-situ extinction data to a Raman LIDAR (light detection and ranging showed a good correlation and higher values measured by the LIDAR (R2 = 0.82−0.85, slope of 1.69–1.76 if the Raman retrieved profile was used to extrapolate the directly measured extinction coefficient to the ground. The comparison improved if only nighttime measurements were used in the comparison (R2 = 0.96, slope of 1.12.

  10. Experimental synergy combining lidar measurements so as to optically characterize aerosols: applications to air quality and radiative forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raut, J.Ch.

    2008-09-01

    The work carried out in this study is devoted to a better understanding of the evolution of aerosol physical, chemical and optical properties for urban pollution aerosols, dust and biomass burning particles. It mainly concerns the complex refractive index and the single-scattering albedo. Such a characterisation is indeed necessary so as to fulfil the requirements of scientific and societal air quality and global climate evolution questions. Our study is based on a synergy between different measurements platforms: ground-based or airborne measurements, together with active and passive remote sensing observations. Lidar in particular turns out to be an essential tool in order to assess horizontal and vertical variability of aerosol micro-physical and optical properties in the atmospheric boundary layer, but also in the residual layer, as well as in layers transported from the boundary layer to the free troposphere. The original methodology we developed highlights the importance of the geographical origin, the impact of aging and dynamical processes in the evolution of structural, optical and hygroscopic aerosol features. The related accurate determination of the properties in each aerosol layer is required for radiative fluxes and heating rates calculations in the atmospheric column. The radiative impact of both dust particles and biomass burning aerosols observed over the region of Niamey (Niger) was thus assessed during the dry season. These results reveal the need of a better characterisation of those significant aerosol properties for each layer in models. (author)

  11. Cloud Screening and Quality Control Algorithm for Star Photometer Data: Assessment with Lidar Measurements and with All-sky Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Lyamani, H.; Olmo, F. J.; Whiteman, D. N.; Navas-Guzman, F.; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the development and set up of a cloud screening and data quality control algorithm for a star photometer based on CCD camera as detector. These algorithms are necessary for passive remote sensing techniques to retrieve the columnar aerosol optical depth, delta Ae(lambda), and precipitable water vapor content, W, at nighttime. This cloud screening procedure consists of calculating moving averages of delta Ae() and W under different time-windows combined with a procedure for detecting outliers. Additionally, to avoid undesirable Ae(lambda) and W fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence, the data are averaged on 30 min. The algorithm is applied to the star photometer deployed in the city of Granada (37.16 N, 3.60 W, 680 ma.s.l.; South-East of Spain) for the measurements acquired between March 2007 and September 2009. The algorithm is evaluated with correlative measurements registered by a lidar system and also with all-sky images obtained at the sunset and sunrise of the previous and following days. Promising results are obtained detecting cloud-affected data. Additionally, the cloud screening algorithm has been evaluated under different aerosol conditions including Saharan dust intrusion, biomass burning and pollution events.

  12. CO measurements from the ACE-FTS satellite instrument: data analysis and validation using ground-based, airborne and spaceborne observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Clerbaux

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE mission was launched in August 2003 to sound the atmosphere by solar occultation. Carbon monoxide (CO, a good tracer of pollution plumes and atmospheric dynamics, is one of the key species provided by the primary instrument, the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS. This instrument performs measurements in both the CO 1-0 and 2-0 ro-vibrational bands, from which vertically resolved CO concentration profiles are retrieved, from the mid-troposphere to the thermosphere. This paper presents an updated description of the ACE-FTS version 2.2 CO data product, along with a comprehensive validation of these profiles using available observations (February 2004 to December 2006. We have compared the CO partial columns with ground-based measurements using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and millimeter wave radiometry, and the volume mixing ratio profiles with airborne (both high-altitude balloon flight and airplane observations. CO satellite observations provided by nadir-looking instruments (MOPITT and TES as well as limb-viewing remote sensors (MIPAS, SMR and MLS were also compared with the ACE-FTS CO products. We show that the ACE-FTS measurements provide CO profiles with small retrieval errors (better than 5% from the upper troposphere to 40 km, and better than 10% above. These observations agree well with the correlative measurements, considering the rather loose coincidence criteria in some cases. Based on the validation exercise we assess the following uncertainties to the ACE-FTS measurement data: better than 15% in the upper troposphere (8–12 km, than 30% in the lower stratosphere (12–30 km, and than 25% from 30 to 100 km.

  13. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Lidar for Aerosol and Cloud Profiling from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Ellsworth J.; McGill, Mathew J.; Yorks. John E.; Hlavka, Dennis L.; Hart, William D.; Palm, Stephen P.; Colarco, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    Spaceborne lidar profiling of aerosol and cloud layers has been successfully implemented during a number of prior missions, including LITE, ICESat, and CALIPSO. Each successive mission has added increased capability and further expanded the role of these unique measurements in wide variety of applications ranging from climate, to air quality, to special event monitoring (ie, volcanic plumes). Many researchers have come to rely on the availability of profile data from CALIPSO, especially data coincident with measurements from other A-Train sensors. The CALIOP lidar on CALIPSO continues to operate well as it enters its fifth year of operations. However, active instruments have more limited lifetimes than their passive counterparts, and we are faced with a potential gap in lidar profiling from space if the CALIOP lidar fails before a new mission is operational. The ATLID lidar on EarthCARE is not expected to launch until 2015 or later, and the lidar component of NASA's proposed Aerosols, Clouds, and Ecosystems (ACE) mission would not be until after 2020. Here we present a new aerosol and cloud lidar that was recently selected to provide profiling data from the International Space Station (ISS) starting in 2013. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a three wavelength (1064,532,355 nm) elastic backscatter lidar with HSRL capability at 532 nm. Depolarization measurements will be made at all wavelengths. The primary objective of CATS is to continue the CALIPSO aerosol and cloud profile data record, ideally with overlap between both missions and EarthCARE. In addition, the near real time (NRT) data capability ofthe ISS will enable CATS to support operational applications such as aerosol and air quality forecasting and special event monitoring. The HSRL channel will provide a demonstration of technology and a data testbed for direct extinction retrievals in support of ACE mission development. An overview of the instrument and mission will be provided, along with a

  14. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, M.

    2013-01-15

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report presents four concepts for performing such a nacelle lidar calibration. Of the four methods, two are found to be immediately relevant and are pursued in some detail. The first of these is a line of sight calibration method in which both lines of sight (for a two beam lidar) are individually calibrated by accurately aligning the beam to pass close to a reference wind speed sensor. A testing procedure is presented, reporting requirements outlined and the uncertainty of the method analysed. It is seen that the main limitation of the line of sight calibration method is the time required to obtain a representative distribution of radial wind speeds. An alternative method is to place the nacelle lidar on the ground and incline the beams upwards to bisect a mast equipped with reference instrumentation at a known height and range. This method will be easier and faster to implement and execute but the beam inclination introduces extra uncertainties. A procedure for conducting such a calibration is presented and initial indications of the uncertainties given. A discussion of the merits and weaknesses of the two methods is given together with some proposals for the next important steps to be taken in this work. (Author)

  15. Assessment of cirrus cloud and aerosol radiative effect in South-East Asia by ground-based NASA MPLNET lidar network data and CALIPSO satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Campbell, James R.; Lewis, Jasper R.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Fatkhuroyan, Fatkhuroyan; Gu, Yu; Marquis, Jared W.

    2017-10-01

    Aerosol, together with cirrus clouds, play a fundamental role in the earth-atmosphere system radiation budget, especially at tropical latitudes, where the Earth surface coverage by cirrus cloud can easily reach 70%. In this study we evaluate the combined aerosol and cirrus cloud net radiative effects in a wild and barren region like South East Asia. This part of the world is extremely vulnerable to climate change and it is source of important anthropogenic and natural aerosol emissions. The analysis has been carried out by computing cirrus cloud and aerosol net radiative effects through the Fu-Liou-Gu atmospheric radiative transfer model, adequately adapted to input lidar measurements, at surface and top-of-the atmosphere. The aerosol radiative effects were computed respectively using the retrieved lidar extinction from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization in 2011 and 2012 and the lidar on-board of Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations for the South East Asia Region (27N-12S, 77E-132E) with 5° x 5° spatial resolution. To assess the cirrus cloud radiative effect, we used the ground-based Micro Pulse Lidar Network measurements at Singapore permanent observational site. Results put in evidence that strong aerosol emission areas are related on average to a net surface cooling. On the contrary, cirrus cloud radiative effect shows a net daytime positive warming of the system earth-atmosphere. This effect is weak over the ocean where the albedo is lower and never counter-balances the net cooling produced by aerosols. The net cooling is stronger in 2011, with an associated reduction in precipitations by the four of the five rain-gauges stations deployed in three regions as Sumatra, Kalimantan and Java with respect to 2012. We can speculate that aerosol emissions may be associated with lower rainfall, however some very important phenomena as El Nino Southern Oscillation , Madden-Julian Oscillation, Monsoon and Indian Dipole are not

  16. High resolution LiDAR measurements reveal fine internal structure and variability of sediment-carrying coastal plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavialov, P. O.; Pelevin, V. V.; Belyaev, N. A.; Izhitskiy, A. S.; Konovalov, B. V.; Krementskiy, V. V.; Goncharenko, I. V.; Osadchiev, A. A.; Soloviev, D. M.; Garcia, C. A. E.; Pereira, E. S.; Sartorato, L.; Moller, O. O.

    2018-05-01

    We report results of a field survey conducted in the buoyant, sediment-carrying coastal plume generated by the discharge from the Patos Lagoon, the World's largest choked lagoon. The concentration of total suspended matter (TSM) and organic matter (as represented by total organic carbon, TOC) were mapped using an ultraviolet fluorescent LiDAR, which allowed for extensive data coverage (total of 79,387 simultaneous determinations of TSM and TOC) during 3 consecutive days. These observations were accompanied by hydrographic measurements from the ship and at a mooring station. We first describe synoptic variability of the plume, which responded energetically to wind forcing. We then analyze the TSM, TOC and hydrographic data jointly and develop a simple approach to estimate the rates of suspended matter removal from the upper layer due to gravitational settling and turbulent mixing based on relative changes in TSM and TOC concentrations. Four distinct regions within the plume exhibiting different dynamics of suspended and dissolved constituents were identified on this basis.

  17. The design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 3: Groundbased lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Robertie, N. F.

    1991-06-01

    This is Volume 3 of a three volume final report on the design, development and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 1 describes the design and fabrication of a balloonborne CO2 coherent payload to measure the 10.6 micrometers backscatter from atmospheric aerosols as a function of altitude. Volume 2 describes the August 1987 flight test of Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2. In this volume we describe groundbased lidar development and measurements. A design was developed for installation of the ABLE lidar in the GL rooftop dome. A transportable shed was designed to house the ABLE lidar at the various remote measurement sites. Refurbishment and modification of the ABLE lidar were completed to permit groundbased lidar measurements of clouds and aerosols. Lidar field measurements were made at Ascension Island during SABLE 89. Lidar field measurements were made at Terciera, Azores during GABLE 90. These tasks have been successfully completed, and recommendations for further lidar measurements and data analysis have been made.

  18. Self-Raman Nd:YVO4 Laser and Electro-Optic Technology for Space-Based Sodium Lidar Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Yu, Anthony W.; Janches, Diego; Jones, Sarah L.; Blagojevic, Branimir; Chen, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    We are developing a laser and electro-optic technology to remotely measure Sodium (Na) by adapting existing lidar technology with space flight heritage. The developed instrumentation will serve as the core for the planning of an Heliophysics mission targeted to study the composition and dynamics of Earth's mesosphere based on a spaceborne lidar that will measure the mesospheric Na layer. We present performance results from our diode-pumped tunable Q-switched self-Raman c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser with intra-cavity frequency doubling that produces multi-watt 589 nm wavelength output. The c-cut Nd:YVO4 laser has a fundamental wavelength that is tunable from 1063-1067 nanometers. A CW (Continuous Wave) External Cavity diode laser is used as a injection seeder to provide single-frequency grating tunable output around 1066 nanometers. The injection-seeded self-Raman shifted Nd:VO4 laser is tuned across the sodium vapor D2 line at 589 nanometers. We will review technologies that provide strong leverage for the sodium lidar laser system with strong heritage from the Ice Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS). These include a space-qualified frequency-doubled 9 watts-at-532-nanometer wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser, a tandem interference filter temperature-stabilized fused-silica-etalon receiver and high-bandwidth photon-counting detectors.

  19. Retrieval of average CO2 fluxes by combining in situ CO2 measurements and backscatter lidar information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, Fabien; Schmidt, Martina; Cuesta, Juan; Ciais, Philippe; Ramonet, Michel; Xueref, IrèNe; Larmanou, Eric; Flamant, Pierre Henri

    2007-05-01

    The present paper deals with a boundary layer budgeting method which makes use of observations from various in situ and remote sensing instruments to infer regional average net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. Measurements of CO2 within and above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) by in situ sensors, in conjunction with a precise knowledge of the change in ABL height by lidar and radiosoundings, enable to infer diurnal and seasonal NEE variations. Near-ground in situ CO measurements are used to discriminate natural and anthropogenic contributions of CO2 diurnal variations in the ABL. The method yields mean NEE that amounts to 5 μmol m-2 s-1 during the night and -20 μmol m-2 s-1 in the middle of the day between May and July. A good agreement is found with the expected NEE accounting for a mixed wheat field and forest area during winter season, representative of the mesoscale ecosystems in the Paris area according to the trajectory of an air column crossing the landscape. Daytime NEE is seen to follow the vegetation growth and the change in the ratio diffuse/direct radiation. The CO2 vertical mixing flux during the rise of the atmospheric boundary layer is also estimated and seems to be the main cause of the large decrease of CO2 mixing ratio in the morning. The outcomes on CO2 flux estimate are compared to eddy-covariance measurements on a barley field. The importance of various sources of error and uncertainty on the retrieval is discussed. These errors are estimated to be less than 15%; the main error resulted from anthropogenic emissions.

  20. Theory of CW lidar aerosol backscatter measurements and development of a 2.1 microns solid-state pulsed laser radar for aerosol backscatter profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Henderson, Sammy W.; Frehlich, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    The performance and calibration of a focused, continuous wave, coherent detection CO2 lidar operated for the measurement of atmospheric backscatter coefficient, B(m), was examined. This instrument functions by transmitting infrared (10 micron) light into the atmosphere and collecting the light which is scattered in the rearward direction. Two distinct modes of operation were considered. In volume mode, the scattered light energy from many aerosols is detected simultaneously, whereas in the single particle mode (SPM), the scattered light energy from a single aerosol is detected. The analysis considered possible sources of error for each of these two cases, and also considered the conditions where each technique would have superior performance. The analysis showed that, within reasonable assumptions, the value of B(m) could be accurately measured by either the VM or the SPM method. The understanding of the theory developed during the analysis was also applied to a pulsed CO2 lidar. Preliminary results of field testing of a solid state 2 micron lidar using a CW oscillator is included.

  1. Combined Use of Airborne Lidar and DBInSAR Data to Estimate LAI in Temperate Mixed Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross F. Nelson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine whether leaf area index (LAI in temperate mixed forests is best estimated using multiple-return airborne laser scanning (lidar data or dual-band, single-pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar data (from GeoSAR alone, or both in combination. In situ measurements of LAI were made using the LiCor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer on 61 plots (21 hardwood, 36 pine, 4 mixed pine hardwood; stand age ranging from 12-164 years; mean height ranging from 0.4 to 41.2 m in the Appomattox-Buckingham State Forest, Virginia, USA. Lidar distributional metrics were calculated for all returns and for ten one meter deep crown density slices (a new metric, five above and five below the mode of the vegetation returns for each plot. GeoSAR metrics were calculated from the X-band backscatter coefficients (four looks as well as both X- and P-band interferometric heights and magnitudes for each plot. Lidar metrics alone explained 69% of the variability in LAI, while GeoSAR metrics alone explained 52%. However, combining the lidar and GeoSAR metrics increased the R2 to 0.77 with a CV-RMSE of 0.42. This study indicates the clear potential for X-band backscatter and interferometric height (both now available from spaceborne sensors, when combined with small-footprint lidar data, to improve LAI estimation in temperate mixed forests.

  2. Characterization of tropospheric ozone based on lidar measurement in Hangzhou, East China during the G20 Leaders' Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenjing; Liu, Cheng; Fan, Guangqiang; Hu, Qihou; Huang, Xin; Dong, Yunsheng; Zhang, Tianshu; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-04-01

    Owing to the G20 (Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors) Leaders' Summit (Sep.5th-6th, 2016), a series of strict air quality control measures were implemented in Hangzhou and its surrounding regions from Aug.26th to Sep.6th. A differential absorption lidar was employed to monitor tropospheric ozone in urban Hangzhou during a campaign from Aug. 24th to Sep. 10th, and the satellite-based NO2 VCDs and HCHO VCDs in the troposphere were also retrieved using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). During our campaign, six O3 pollution events, which were determined according to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard of China (GB-3095-2012), and two stages with rapid reduction of O3 concentration on Aug. 26th and Sep.4-6th were observed. The temporal variation tendency of O3 concentrations was well reproduced by the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem). Typical cases with the abrupt rise and decline of O3 concentrations were analyzed using Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) back trajectory, satellite NO2 and HCHO product and the prediction by WRF-Chem model. The transport from northern cities have an important impact on pollutants observed in Hangzhou, and the chemical sensitivity of O3 production, which were approximately evaluated using the ratio of HCHO VCDs to NO2 VCDs in the troposphere, was turned from a mixed VOC-NOx-limited regime into a NOX-limited regime in Hangzhou due to the strict emission control measures.

  3. A demonstrator for an incoherent Doppler wind lidar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, F.; Marini, A.; Sidler, Thomas C.; Morancais, Didier; Fongy, G.; Vidal, Ph.

    2018-04-01

    The knowledge of wind fields for a global terrestrial coverage and accurate altitude sampling is one of the main keys for improvement of meteorological predictions and general understanding of atmosphere behaviour. The best way to recover this information is remote sensing from space using low Earth orbit satellites. The measurement principle is to analyse the Doppler shift of the flux emitted by the space instrument and backscattered by the atmosphere. One of the most promising principle for Doppler shift measurement is the direct detection which does not need local oscillators. what significantly simplifies the design of such a space-borne receiver. ESA-ESTEC initiated at early 95' a programme called "lncoherent Doppler Wind Lidar (IDWL) technologies" for the study and bread-boarding phase. MMS won this contract proposing an original concept based on the use of a Fizeau high resolution interferometer working in the UV band. coupled with an intensified CCD. This concept is patented by MMS, as well as the special CCD timing sequence that will be depicted below. The programme begun by a study of the space-borne instrument in order to identify main constraints and define the receiver as could be for a flight model. A detailed performance model was established and parametric analysis allowed to optimise the concept in order to reach required performances. This study phase finally provided the definition of a bread-board for expected performances demonstration. Moreover, the Laser Signal Simulator (LSS) which is used to simulate the Lidar echo in term of amplitude as well as frequency modulation was defined at this step. The performances of this test support equipment are of main importance for the validation of the demonstrator design and performances. The second part of the study aimed at defining the derailed design of the demonstrator and associated test support equipment as well as initiating preliminary validation experiments on most critical technologies, like

  4. Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) for a future Doppler Wind Lidar satellite in Japan:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Philippe; Ishii, Shoken; Okamoto, Kozo

    2017-04-01

    A feasibility study of tropospheric wind measurements by a coherent Doppler lidar aboard a super-low-altitude satellite is being conducted in Japan. We consider a coherent lidar with a laser light source at 2.05 μm whose characteristics correspond to an existing ground-based instrument (power=3.75 W, PRF=30 Hz and pulse width=200 ns). An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) has been implemented based on the Sensitivity Observing System experiment (SOSE) developed at the Japanese Meteorological-Research-Institute using the Japan Meteorological Agency global Numerical Weather Prediction model. The measurement simulator uses wind, aerosol and cloud 3-d global fields from the OSSE speudo-truth and the aerosol model MASINGAR. In this presentation, we will first discuss the measurement performances. Considering measurement horizontal resolutions of 100 km along the orbit track, we found that below 3 km, the median horizontal wind error is between 0.8-1 m/s for a vertical resolution of 0.5 km, and that near 50% of the data are valid measurements. Decreasing the vertical resolution to 1 km allows us to maintain similar performances up to 8 km almost over most latitudes. Above, the performances significantly fall down but a relatively good percentage of valid measurements (20-40%) are still found near the tropics where cirrus clouds frequently occur. The potential of the instrument to improve weather prediction models will be discussed using the OSSE results obtained for both polar and low inclination orbit satellites. The first results show positive improvements of short-term forecasts (Meteor. Soc. Japan, 2016 P. Baron et al., "Feasibility study for future space-borne coherent Doppler wind lidar, Part 2: Measurement simulation algorithms and retrieval error characterization", submitted to J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 2016.

  5. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  6. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...

  7. Retrieval of relative humidity from CSIR-NLC mobile LIDAR backscatter measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tesfaye, M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available data was collected over 23 hours. The above data sets were used to determine the retrieved relative humidity and compared with Irene (near to Pretoria) weather balloon humidity measurements. The results of the comparative study are presented...

  8. Precision Column CO2 Measurement from Space Using Broad Band LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, William S.

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand the budget of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere it is necessary to develop a global high precision understanding of the carbon dioxide column. To uncover the missing sink" that is responsible for the large discrepancies in the budget as we presently understand it, calculation has indicated that measurement accuracy of 1 ppm is necessary. Because typical column average CO2 has now reached 380 ppm this represents a precision on the order of 0.25% for these column measurements. No species has ever been measured from space at such a precision. In recognition of the importance of understanding the CO2 budget to evaluate its impact on global warming the National Research Council in its decadal survey report to NASA recommended planning for a laser based total CO2 mapping mission in the near future. The extreme measurement accuracy requirements on this mission places very strong constraints on the laser system used for the measurement. This work presents an overview of the characteristics necessary in a laser system used to make this measurement. Consideration is given to the temperature dependence, pressure broadening, and pressure shift of the CO2 lines themselves and how these impact the laser system characteristics. We are examining the possibility of making precise measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide using a broad band source of radiation. This means that many of the difficulties in wavelength control can be treated in the detector portion of the system rather than the laser source. It also greatly reduces the number of individual lasers required to make a measurement. Simplifications such as these are extremely desirable for systems designed to operate from space.

  9. Quantifying Local Ablation Rates for the Greenland Ice Sheet Using Terrestrial LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, C. M.; Pitcher, L. H.; LeWinter, A.; Finnegan, D. C.; Overstreet, B. T.; Miège, C.; Cooper, M. G.; Smith, L. C.; Rennermalm, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying accurate ice surface ablation or melt rates for the Greenland Ice Sheet is important for calibrating and validating surface mass balance models and constraining sea level rise estimates. Common practice is to monitor surface ablation at defined points by manually measuring ice surface lowering in relation to stakes inserted into the ice / snow. However, this method does not account for the effects of local topography, solar zenith angle, and local variations in ice surface albedo/impurities on ablation rates. To directly address these uncertainties, we use a commercially available terrestrial LIDAR scanner (TLS) to monitor daily melt rates in the ablation zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet for 7 consecutive days in July 2016. Each survey is registered to previous scans using retroreflective cylinders and is georeferenced using static GPS measurements. Bulk ablation will be calculated using multi-temporal differential LIDAR techniques, and difficulties in referencing scans and collecting high quality surveys in this dynamic environment will be discussed, as well as areas for future research. We conclude that this novel application of TLS technology provides a spatially accurate, higher fidelity measurements of ablation across a larger area with less interpolation and less time spent than using traditional manual point based methods alone. Furthermore, this sets the stage for direct calibration, validation and cross-comparison with existing airborne (e.g. NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper - ATM - onboard Operation IceBridge and NASA's Land, Vegetation & Ice Sensor - LVIS) and forthcoming spaceborne sensors (e.g. NASA's ICESat-2).

  10. The carbon debt from Amazon forest degradation: integrating airborne lidar, field measurements, and an ecosystem demography model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, M.; Keller, M. M.; dos-Santos, M. N.; Scaranello, M. A., Sr.; Pinagé, E. R.; Leitold, V.; Morton, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Amazon deforestation has declined over the last decade, yet forest degradation from logging, fire, and fragmentation continue to impact forest carbon stocks and fluxes. The magnitude of this impact remains uncertain, and observation-based studies are often limited by short time intervals or small study areas. To better understand the long-term impact of forest degradation and recovery, we have been developing a framework that integrates field plot measurements and airborne lidar surveys into an individual- and process-based model (Ecosystem Demography model, ED). We modeled forest dynamics for three forest landscapes in the Amazon with diverse degradation histories: conventional and reduced-impact logging, logging and burning, and multiple burns. Based on the initialization with contemporary forest structure and composition, model results suggest that degraded forests rapidly recover (30 years) water and energy fluxes compared with old-growth, even at sites that were affected by multiple fires. However, degraded forests maintained different carbon stocks and fluxes even after 100 years without further disturbances, because of persistent differences in forest structure and composition. Recurrent disturbances may hinder the recovery of degraded forests. Simulations using a simple fire model entirely dependent on environmental controls indicate that the most degraded forests would take much longer to reach biomass typical of old-growth forests, because drier conditions near the ground make subsequent fires more intense and more recurrent. Fires in tropical forests are also closely related to nearby human activities; while results suggest an important feedback between fires and the microenvironment, additional work is needed to improve how the model represents the human impact on current and future fire regimes. Our study highlights that recovery of degraded forests may act as an important carbon sink, but efficient recovery depends on controlling future disturbances.

  11. Active laser radar (lidar) for measurement of corresponding height and reflectance images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Christoph; Mettenleiter, M.; Haertl, F.

    1997-08-01

    For the survey and inspection of environmental objects, a non-tactile, robust and precise imaging of height and depth is the basis sensor technology. For visual inspection,surface classification, and documentation purposes, however, additional information concerning reflectance of measured objects is necessary. High-speed acquisition of both geometric and visual information is achieved by means of an active laser radar, supporting consistent 3D height and 2D reflectance images. The laser radar is an optical-wavelength system, and is comparable to devices built by ERIM, Odetics, and Perceptron, measuring the range between sensor and target surfaces as well as the reflectance of the target surface, which corresponds to the magnitude of the back scattered laser energy. In contrast to these range sensing devices, the laser radar under consideration is designed for high speed and precise operation in both indoor and outdoor environments, emitting a minimum of near-IR laser energy. It integrates a laser range measurement system and a mechanical deflection system for 3D environmental measurements. This paper reports on design details of the laser radar for surface inspection tasks. It outlines the performance requirements and introduces the measurement principle. The hardware design, including the main modules, such as the laser head, the high frequency unit, the laser beam deflection system, and the digital signal processing unit are discussed.the signal processing unit consists of dedicated signal processors for real-time sensor data preprocessing as well as a sensor computer for high-level image analysis and feature extraction. The paper focuses on performance data of the system, including noise, drift over time, precision, and accuracy with measurements. It discuses the influences of ambient light, surface material of the target, and ambient temperature for range accuracy and range precision. Furthermore, experimental results from inspection of buildings, monuments

  12. Development of an Airborne Triple-Pulse 2-Micron Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar (IPDA) for Simultaneous Airborne Column Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong; Antill, Charles W.; Remus, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    This presentation will provide status and details of an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar being developed at NASA Langley Research Center with support from NASA ESTO Instrument Incubator Program. The development of this active optical remote sensing IPDA instrument is targeted for measuring both atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapor in the atmosphere from an airborne platform. This presentation will focus on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of seed laser locking, wavelength control, receiver and detector upgrades, laser packaging and lidar integration. Future plan for IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will also be presented.

  13. Separation of Ground and Low Vegetation Signatures in LiDAR Measurements of Salt-Marsh Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Menenti, M.; Stoll, M.P.; Feola, A.; Belluco, E.; Marani, M.

    2009-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been shown to have a great potential in the accurate characterization of forest systems; however, its application to salt-marsh environments is challenging because the characteristic short vegetation does not give rise to detectable differences between first

  14. Estimation of forest aboveground biomass and uncertainties by integration of field measurements, airborne LiDAR, and SAR and optical satellite data in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbazaev, Mikhail; Thiel, Christian; Cremer, Felix; Dubayah, Ralph; Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Schmullius, Christiane

    2018-02-21

    Information on the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) over large areas is needed for understanding and managing processes involved in the carbon cycle and supporting international policies for climate change mitigation and adaption. Furthermore, these products provide important baseline data for the development of sustainable management strategies to local stakeholders. The use of remote sensing data can provide spatially explicit information of AGB from local to global scales. In this study, we mapped national Mexican forest AGB using satellite remote sensing data and a machine learning approach. We modelled AGB using two scenarios: (1) extensive national forest inventory (NFI), and (2) airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) as reference data. Finally, we propagated uncertainties from field measurements to LiDAR-derived AGB and to the national wall-to-wall forest AGB map. The estimated AGB maps (NFI- and LiDAR-calibrated) showed similar goodness-of-fit statistics (R 2 , Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)) at three different scales compared to the independent validation data set. We observed different spatial patterns of AGB in tropical dense forests, where no or limited number of NFI data were available, with higher AGB values in the LiDAR-calibrated map. We estimated much higher uncertainties in the AGB maps based on two-stage up-scaling method (i.e., from field measurements to LiDAR and from LiDAR-based estimates to satellite imagery) compared to the traditional field to satellite up-scaling. By removing LiDAR-based AGB pixels with high uncertainties, it was possible to estimate national forest AGB with similar uncertainties as calibrated with NFI data only. Since LiDAR data can be acquired much faster and for much larger areas compared to field inventory data, LiDAR is attractive for repetitive large scale AGB mapping. In this study, we showed that two-stage up-scaling methods for AGB estimation over large areas need to be analyzed and validated

  15. Investigation of wake interaction using full-scale lidar measurements and large eddy simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Troldborg, Niels

    2016-01-01

    dynamics flow solver, using large eddy simulation and fully turbulent inflow. The rotors are modelled using the actuator disc technique. A mutual validation of the computational fluid dynamics model with the measurements is conducted for a selected dataset, where wake interaction occurs. This validation...

  16. Development of lidar techniques for environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats

    1996-09-01

    The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system that was first described in 1987. The lidar system is based on a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. During the last few years the lidar group has focused on fluorescence imaging and mercury measurements in the troposphere. In 1994 we performed two campaigns: one fluorescence imaging measurement campaign outside Avignon, France and one unique lidar campaign at a mercury mine in Almaden, Spain. Both campaigns are described in this thesis. This thesis also describes how the mobile lidar system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW to obtain a user friendly lidar system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measured data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. All electronics and the major parts of the program are described. A new graphical technique to estimate wind speed from plumes is also discussed. First measurements have been performed with the new system. 31 refs, 19 figs, 1 tab

  17. Direct Measurement of Tree Height Provides Different Results on the Assessment of LiDAR Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Sibona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, airborne laser scanning-based and traditional field-based survey methods for tree heights estimation are assessed by using one hundred felled trees as a reference dataset. Comparisons between remote sensing and field-based methods were applied to four circular permanent plots located in the western Italian Alps and established within the Alpine Space project NewFor. Remote sensing (Airborne Laser Scanning, ALS, traditional field-based (indirect measurement, IND, and direct measurement of felled trees (DIR methods were compared by using summary statistics, linear regression models, and variation partitioning. Our results show that tree height estimates by Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS approximated to real heights (DIR of felled trees. Considering the species separately, Larix decidua was the species that showed the smaller mean absolute difference (0.95 m between remote sensing (ALS and direct field (DIR data, followed by Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris (1.13 m and 1.04 m, respectively. Our results cannot be generalized to ALS surveys with low pulses density (<5/m2 and with view angles far from zero (nadir. We observed that the tree heights estimation by laser scanner is closer to actual tree heights (DIR than traditional field-based survey, and this was particularly valid for tall trees with conical shape crowns.

  18. Measurement of the Flow Over Two Parallel Mountain Ridges in the Nighttime Stable Boundary Layer With Scanning Lidar Systems at the Perdigão 2017 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildmann, N.; Kigle, S.; Gerz, T.; Bell, T.; Klein, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    highly relevant for the efficiency and lifetime of the WEC on site, because strong shear, dynamically changing winds and significant vertical wind components can be found in the rotor plane depending on the height and intensity of the jet flow. This presentation will demonstrate how these effects can be quantified by the described lidar measurement setup.

  19. Development of ground-based lidars for measuring H2O and O3 profiles in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T.; Abo, M.; Pham, L. H. P.; Uchino, O.; Nagai, T.; Izumi, T.; Morino, I.; Ohyama, H.; Nagasawa, C.

    2015-12-01

    Water vapor is the strongest natural greenhouse gas and a highly variable atmospheric constituent. It plays an important role of the energy transfer and the meteorological phenomena such as evaporation, vapor transport, cloud formation, and rainfall in the troposphere. Ozone is an important air pollutant that at high concentrations impacts on human health and ecosystem including crops and also a greenhouse gas that plays an important role in climate change. Aerosol is an important climate parameter and also one of the largest error sources (causes) in retrieval from solar reflected short wavelength infrared radiances observed with greenhouse gases observing satellites such as the GOSAT and OCO-2. Therefore, we have been developing ground-based differential absorption lidars (DIALs) for measuring the tropospheric water vapor, ozone and aerosols.The water vapor DIAL employs two distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) lasers operating at 829.054 nm for the online wavelength and 829.124 nm for the offline wavelength with tapered semiconductor optical amplifier (TSOA) in a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration, and utilizes pseudorandom coded pulse modulation technique.It has started to measure the vertical distribution of lower tropospheric water vapor in order to improve accuracy and lead time of numerical weather prediction of local heavy rainfalls. Well-organized and regularly spaced convective cells of which vertical thickness were 200 m and the periods were 10 minutes were observed in the top of planetary boundary layer at 2.5 km altitude over Tokyo (35.66°N, 139.37°E) on 22 June 2015.The ozone DIAL employs a Nd:YAG laser and a 2 m long Raman cell filled with CO2 gas which generates four Stokes lines (276.2, 287.2, 299.1, and 312.0 nm) of stimulated Raman scattering, and two receiving telescopes with diameters of 49 and 10 cm.It has started to measure the vertical distributions of the tropospheric ozone as well as aerosols and thin cirrus cloud in

  20. Seasonal variation of spherical aerosols distribution in East Asia based on ground and space Lidar observation and a Chemical transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Y.; Yumimoto, K.; Uno, I.; Shimizu, A.; Sugimoto, N.; Ohara, T.

    2009-12-01

    The anthropogenic aerosols largely impact on not only human health but also global climate system, therefore air pollution in East Asia due to a rapid economic growth has been recognized as a significant environmental problem. Several international field campaigns had been conducted to elucidate pollutant gases, aerosols characteristics and radiative forcing in East Asia. (e.g., ACE-Asia, TRACE-P, ADEC, EAREX 2005). However, these experiments were mainly conducted in springtime, therefore seasonal variation of aerosols distribution has not been clarified well yet. National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) has been constructing a lidar networks by automated dual wavelength / polarization Mie-lidar systems to observe the atmospheric environment in Asian region since 2001. Furthermore, from June 2006, space-borne backscatter lidar, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), onboard NASA/CALIPSO satellite, measures continuous global aerosol and cloud vertical distribution with very high spatial resolution. In this paper, we will show the seasonal variation of aerosols distribution in East Asia based on the NIES lidar network observation, Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System (CMAQ) chemical transport model simulation and CALIOP observation over the period from July 2006 to December 2008. We found that CMAQ result explains the typical seasonal aerosol characteristics by lidar observations. For example, CMAQ and ground lidar showed a summertime peak of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at Beijing, an autumn AOT peak at Guangzhou and summertime AOT trough at Hedo, Okinawa. These characteristics are mainly controlled by seasonal variations of Asian summer/winter monsoon system. We also examined the CMAQ seasonal average aerosol extinction profiles with ground lidar and CALIOP extinction data. These comparisons clarified that the CMAQ reproduced the observed aerosol layer depth well in the downwind region. Ground lidar and CALIOP seasonal

  1. Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) Measurements of Atmospheric Water Vapor Utilizing Robotic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ngoc; DeYoung, Russell J.; Prasad, Coorg R.; Laufer, Gabriel

    1998-01-01

    A new unpiloted air vehicle (UAV) based water vapor DIAL system will be described. This system is expected to offer lower operating costs, longer test duration and severe weather capabilities. A new high-efficiency, compact, light weight, diode-pumped, tunable Cr:LiSAF laser will be developed to meet the UAV payload weight and size limitations and its constraints in cooling capacity, physical size and payload. Similarly, a new receiver system using a single mirror telescope and an avalanche photo diode (APD) will be developed. Projected UAV parameters are expected to allow operation at altitudes up to 20 km, endurance of 24 hrs and speed of 400 km/hr. At these conditions measurements of water vapor at an uncertainty of 2-10% with a vertical resolution of 200 m and horizontal resolution of 10 km will be possible.

  2. Applications of KHZ-CW Lidar in Ecological Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Elin; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2016-06-01

    The benefits of kHz lidar in ecological entomology are explained. Results from kHz-measurements on insects, carried out with a CW-lidar system, employing the Scheimpflug principle to obtain range resolution, are presented. A method to extract insect events and analyze the large amount of lidar data is also described.

  3. Fractal properties and denoising of lidar signals from cirrus clouds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, J.C. van den; Driesenaar, M.L.; Lerou, R.J.L.

    2000-01-01

    Airborne lidar signals of cirrus clouds are analyzed to determine the cloud structure. Climate modeling and numerical weather prediction benefit from accurate modeling of cirrus clouds. Airborne lidar measurements of the European Lidar in Space Technology Experiment (ELITE) campaign were analyzed by

  4. Optical, microphysical, mass and geometrical properties of aged volcanic particles observed over Athens, Greece, during the Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010 through synergy of Raman lidar and sunphotometer measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkalis, P.; Papayannis, A.; Amiridis, V.; Mamouri, R. E.; Veselovskii, I.; Kolgotin, A.; Tsaknakis, G.; Kristiansen, N. I.; Stohl, A.; Mona, L.

    2013-09-01

    Vertical profiles of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients, lidar ratio and Ångström exponent), microphysical (mean effective radius, mean refractive index, mean number concentration) and geometrical properties as well as the mass concentration of volcanic particles from the Eyjafjallajökull eruption were retrieved at selected heights over Athens, Greece, using multi-wavelength Raman lidar measurements performed during the period 21-24 April 2010. Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) particulate columnar measurements along with inversion schemes were initialized together with lidar observations to deliver the aforementioned products. The well-known FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model) model used for volcanic dispersion simulations is initiated as well in order to estimate the horizontal and vertical distribution of volcanic particles. Compared with the lidar measurements within the planetary boundary layer over Athens, FLEXPART proved to be a useful tool for determining the state of mixing of ash with other, locally emitted aerosol types. The major findings presented in our work concern the identification of volcanic particles layers in the form of filaments after 7-day transport from the volcanic source (approximately 4000 km away from our site) from the surface and up to 10 km according to the lidar measurements. Mean hourly averaged lidar signals indicated that the layer thickness of volcanic particles ranged between 1.5 and 2.2 km. The corresponding aerosol optical depth was found to vary from 0.01 to 0.18 at 355 nm and from 0.02 up to 0.17 at 532 nm. Furthermore, the corresponding lidar ratios (S) ranged between 60 and 80 sr at 355 nm and 44 and 88 sr at 532 nm. The mean effective radius of the volcanic particles estimated by applying inversion scheme to the lidar data found to vary within the range 0.13-0.38 μm and the refractive index ranged from 1.39+0.009i to 1.48+0.006i. This high variability is most probably attributed to the

  5. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li...

  6. Using Radar, Lidar, and Radiometer measurements to Classify Cloud Type and Study Middle-Level Cloud Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhien

    2010-06-29

    The project is mainly focused on the characterization of cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties, especially for mixed-phased clouds and middle level ice clouds by combining radar, lidar, and radiometer measurements available from the ACRF sites. First, an advanced mixed-phase cloud retrieval algorithm will be developed to cover all mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF NSA site. The algorithm will be applied to the ACRF NSA observations to generate a long-term arctic mixed-phase cloud product for model validations and arctic mixed-phase cloud processes studies. To improve the representation of arctic mixed-phase clouds in GCMs, an advanced understanding of mixed-phase cloud processes is needed. By combining retrieved mixed-phase cloud microphysical properties with in situ data and large-scale meteorological data, the project aim to better understand the generations of ice crystals in supercooled water clouds, the maintenance mechanisms of the arctic mixed-phase clouds, and their connections with large-scale dynamics. The project will try to develop a new retrieval algorithm to study more complex mixed-phase clouds observed at the ACRF SGP site. Compared with optically thin ice clouds, optically thick middle level ice clouds are less studied because of limited available tools. The project will develop a new two wavelength radar technique for optically thick ice cloud study at SGP site by combining the MMCR with the W-band radar measurements. With this new algorithm, the SGP site will have a better capability to study all ice clouds. Another area of the proposal is to generate long-term cloud type classification product for the multiple ACRF sites. The cloud type classification product will not only facilitates the generation of the integrated cloud product by applying different retrieval algorithms to different types of clouds operationally, but will also support other research to better understand cloud properties and to validate model simulations. The

  7. Using Airborne Lidar Data from IcePod to Measure Annual and Seasonal Ice Changes Over Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frearson, N.; Bertinato, C.; Das, I.

    2014-12-01

    The IcePod is a multi-sensor airborne science platform that supports a wide suite of instruments, including a Riegl VQ-580 infrared scanning laser, GPS-inertial positioning system, shallow and deep-ice radars, visible-wave and infrared cameras, and upward-looking pyrometer. These instruments allow us to image the ice from top to bottom, including the surface of melt-water plumes that originate at the ice-ocean boundary. In collaboration with the New York Air National Guard 109th Airlift Wing, the IcePod is flown on LC-130 aircraft, which presents the unique opportunity to routinely image the Greenland ice sheet several times within a season. This is particularly important for mass balance studies, as we can measure elevation changes during the melt season. During the 2014 summer, laser data was collected via IcePod over the Greenland ice sheet, including Russell Glacier, Jakobshavn Glacier, Eqip Glacier, and Summit Camp. The Icepod will also be routinely operated in Antarctica. We present the initial testing, calibration, and error estimates from the first set of laser data that were collected on IcePod. At a survey altitude of 1000 m, the laser swath covers ~ 1000 m. A Northrop-Grumman LN-200 tactical grade IMU is rigidly attached to the laser scanner to provide attitude data at a rate of 200 Hz. Several methods were used to determine the lever arm between the IMU center of navigation and GPS antenna phase center, terrestrial scanning laser, total station survey, and optimal estimation. Additionally, initial bore sight calibration flights yielded misalignment angles within an accuracy of ±4 cm. We also performed routine passes over the airport ramp in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, comparing the airborne GPS and Lidar data to a reference GPS-based ground survey across the ramp, spot GPS points on the ramp and a nearby GPS base station. Positioning errors can severely impact the accuracy of a laser altimeter when flying over remote regions such as across the ice sheets

  8. Tropospheric ozone seasonal and long-term variability as seen by lidar and surface measurements at the JPL-Table Mountain Facility, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Granados-Muñoz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A combined surface and tropospheric ozone climatology and interannual variability study was performed for the first time using co-located ozone photometer measurements (2013–2015 and tropospheric ozone differential absorption lidar measurements (2000–2015 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility (TMF; elev. 2285 m, in California. The surface time series were investigated both in terms of seasonal and diurnal variability. The observed surface ozone is typical of high-elevation remote sites, with small amplitude of the seasonal and diurnal cycles, and high ozone values, compared to neighboring lower altitude stations representative of urban boundary layer conditions. The ozone mixing ratio ranges from 45 ppbv in the winter morning hours to 65 ppbv in the spring and summer afternoon hours. At the time of the lidar measurements (early night, the seasonal cycle observed at the surface is similar to that observed by lidar between 3.5 and 9 km. Above 9 km, the local tropopause height variation with time and season impacts significantly the ozone lidar observations. The frequent tropopause folds found in the vicinity of TMF (27 % of the time, mostly in winter and spring produce a dual-peak vertical structure in ozone within the fold layer, characterized by higher-than-average values in the bottom half of the fold (12–14 km, and lower-than-averaged values in the top half of the fold (14–18 km. This structure is consistent with the expected origin of the air parcels within the fold, i.e., mid-latitude stratospheric air folding down below the upper tropospheric sub-tropical air. The influence of the tropopause folds extends down to 5 km, increasing the ozone content in the troposphere. No significant signature of interannual variability could be observed on the 2000–2015 de-seasonalized lidar time series, with only a statistically non-significant positive anomaly during the years 2003–2007. Our trend analysis

  9. MERLIN: A French-German Space Lidar Mission Dedicated to Atmospheric Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Ehret

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The MEthane Remote sensing Lidar missioN (MERLIN aims at demonstrating the spaceborne active measurement of atmospheric methane, a potent greenhouse gas, based on an Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA nadir-viewing LIght Detecting and Ranging (Lidar instrument. MERLIN is a joint French and German space mission, with a launch currently scheduled for the timeframe 2021/22. The German Space Agency (DLR is responsible for the payload, while the platform (MYRIADE Evolutions product line is developed by the French Space Agency (CNES. The main scientific objective of MERLIN is the delivery of weighted atmospheric columns of methane dry-air mole fractions for all latitudes throughout the year with systematic errors small enough (<3.7 ppb to significantly improve our knowledge of methane sources from global to regional scales, with emphasis on poorly accessible regions in the tropics and at high latitudes. This paper presents the MERLIN objectives, describes the methodology and the main characteristics of the payload and of the platform, and proposes a first assessment of the error budget and its translation into expected uncertainty reduction of methane surface emissions.

  10. Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) From Space - Laser Altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Light detection and ranging, or lidar, is like radar but atoptical wavelengths. The principle of operation and theirapplications in remote sensing are similar. Lidars havemany advantages over radars in instrument designs andapplications because of the much shorter laser wavelengthsand narrower beams. The lidar transmitters and receiveroptics are much smaller than radar antenna dishes. Thespatial resolution of lidar measurement is much finer thanthat of radar because of the much smaller footprint size onground. Lidar measurements usually give a better temporalresolution because the laser pulses can be much narrowerthan radio frequency (RF) signals. The major limitation oflidar is the ability to penetrate clouds and ground surfaces.

  11. Algorithms to retrieve optical properties of three component aerosols from two-wavelength backscatter and one-wavelength polarization lidar measurements considering nonsphericity of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Shimizu, Atsushi; Okamoto, Hajime

    2011-01-01

    We developed backward and forward types of algorithms for estimating the vertical profiles of extinction coefficients at 532 nm for three component aerosols (water-soluble, dust, and sea salt) using three-channel Mie-scattering lidar data of the backscatter (β) at 532 and 1064 nm and the depolarization ratio (δ) at 532 nm. While the water-soluble and sea-salt particles were reasonably assumed to be spherical, the dust particles were treated as randomly oriented spheroids to account for their nonsphericity. The introduction of spheroid models enabled us to more effectively use the three-channel data (i.e., 2β+1δ data) and to reduce the uncertainties caused by the assumption of spherical dust particles in our previously developed algorithms. We also performed an extensive sensitivity study to estimate retrieval errors, which showed that the errors in the extinction coefficient for each aerosol component were smaller than 30% (60%) for the backward (forward) algorithm when the measurement errors were ±5%. We demonstrated the ability of the algorithms to partition aerosol layers consisting of three aerosol components by applying them to shipborne lidar data. Comparisons with sky radiometer measurements revealed that the retrieved optical thickness and angstrom exponent of aerosols using the algorithms developed in this paper agreed well with the sky radiometer measurements (within 6%).

  12. Performance evaluation of a dual fringe-imaging Michelson interferometer for air parameter measurements with a 355 nm Rayleigh-Mie lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cézard, Nicolas; Dolfi-Bouteyre, Agnès; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Flamant, Pierre H

    2009-04-20

    A new concept of spectrum analyzer is proposed for short-range lidar measurements in airborne applications. It implements a combination of two fringe-imaging Michelson interferometers to analyze the Rayleigh-Mie spectrum backscattered by molecules and particles at 355 nm. The objective is to perform simultaneous measurements of four variables: the air speed, the air temperature and density, and the particle scattering ratio. The Cramer-Rao bounds are calculated to evaluate the best expectable measurement accuracies. The performance optimization shows that a Michelson interferometer with a path difference of 3 cm is optimal for air speed measurements in clear air. To optimize density, temperature, and scattering ratio measurements, the second interferometer should be set to a path difference of 10 cm at least; 20 cm would be better to be less sensitive to the actual Rayleigh-Brillouin line shape.

  13. Balloonborne lidar experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Brooke, R. W.; Hurd, A. G.

    1980-12-01

    The object of this contract was to design a balloonborne lidar experiment capable of performing nightime atmospheric density measurements in the 10 to 40 km altitude domain with a resolution of 100 meters. The payload includes a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser with outputs at 353 and 1064 nm, a telescoped receiver with PMT detectors, a command-controlled optical pointing system, and support systems, including thermal control, telemetry, command, and power. Density measurements would be made using the back-scattered 353 nm radiation data with aerosol corrections obtained from 1064 nm radiation scatterings.

  14. Infrastructure monitoring with spaceborne SAR sensors

    CERN Document Server

    ANGHEL, ANDREI; CACOVEANU, REMUS

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a novel non-intrusive infrastructure monitoring technique based on the detection and tracking of scattering centers in spaceborne SAR images. The methodology essentially consists of refocusing each available SAR image on an imposed 3D point cloud associated to the envisaged infrastructure element and identifying the reliable scatterers to be monitored by means of four dimensional (4D) tomography. The methodology described in this book provides a new perspective on infrastructure monitoring with spaceborne SAR images, is based on a standalone processing chain, and brings innovative technical aspects relative to conventional approaches. The book is intended primarily for professionals and researchers working in the area of critical infrastructure monitoring by radar remote sensing.

  15. IEA Wind Task 32: Wind lidar identifying and mitigating barriers to the adoption of wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, Andrew; Clive, Peter; Gottschall, Julia

    2018-01-01

    IEA Wind Task 32 exists to identify and mitigate barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. It leverages ongoing international research and development activities in academia and industry to investigate site assessment, power performance testing, controls and loads, and complex...... flows. Since its initiation in 2011, Task 32 has been responsible for several recommended practices and expert reports that have contributed to the adoption of ground-based, nacelle-based, and floating lidar by the wind industry. Future challenges include the development of lidar uncertainty models......, best practices for data management, and developing community-based tools for data analysis, planning of lidar measurements and lidar configuration. This paper describes the barriers that Task 32 identified to the deployment of wind lidar in each of these application areas, and the steps that have been...

  16. The spatial concentration of dust emissions measured by using 3D scanning lidar in the open storage yards of steel-making company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Chou, Huann-Ming; Sun, Shu-Huang; Lee, Jiann-Shen

    2017-06-01

    The wind-blown dust emissions frequently occur in the open storage yards of steel-making companies. Tracking the dust source and monitoring their dispersion are rather difficult. This type of open-air storage yards poses many environmental hazards. The 3-D scanning lidar system is effective in environmental monitoring (e.g., dust) with high temporal and spatial resolution, which is lacking in traditional ground-based measurement. The objective of this paper is to make an attempt for the flux estimation of dust concentration by using lidar system. Further, we investigate the dynamical process of dust and their relationship with local air quality monitoring data. The results show that the material storage erosion by wind ( 3.6 m/s) could cause dust to elevate up to 20m height above the material storage, and produces the flux of dust around 674 mg/s. The flux of dust is proportional to the dust mass concentration (PM10) measured by commercial ambient particular monitors.

  17. On the factors governing water vapor turbulence mixing in the convective boundary layer over land: Concept and data analysis technique using ground-based lidar measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sandip

    2016-06-01

    The convective boundary layer (CBL) turbulence is the key process for exchanging heat, momentum, moisture and trace gases between the earth's surface and the lower part of the troposphere. The turbulence parameterization of the CBL is a challenging but important component in numerical models. In particular, correct estimation of CBL turbulence features, parameterization, and the determination of the contribution of eddy diffusivity are important for simulating convection initiation, and the dispersion of health hazardous air pollutants and Greenhouse gases. In general, measurements of higher-order moments of water vapor mixing ratio (q) variability yield unique estimates of turbulence in the CBL. Using the high-resolution lidar-derived profiles of q variance, third-order moment, and skewness and analyzing concurrent profiles of vertical velocity, potential temperature, horizontal wind and time series of near-surface measurements of surface flux and meteorological parameters, a conceptual framework based on bottom up approach is proposed here for the first time for a robust characterization of the turbulent structure of CBL over land so that our understanding on the processes governing CBL q turbulence could be improved. Finally, principal component analyses will be applied on the lidar-derived long-term data sets of q turbulence statistics to identify the meteorological factors and the dominant physical mechanisms governing the CBL turbulence features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Charactering lidar optical subsystem using four quadrants method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaomin; Liu, Dong; Xu, Jiwei; Wang, Zhenzhu; Wang, Bangxin; Wu, Decheng; Zhong, Zhiqing; Xie, Chenbo; Wang, Yingjian

    2018-02-01

    Lidar is a kind of active optical remote sensing instruments , can be applied to sound atmosphere with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Many parameter of atmosphere can be get by using different inverse algorithm with lidar backscatter signal. The basic setup of a lidar consist of a transmitter and a receiver. To make sure the quality of lidar signal data, the lidar must be calibrated before being used to measure the atmospheric variables. It is really significant to character and analyze lidar optical subsystem because a well equiped lidar optical subsystem contributes to high quality lidar signal data. we pay close attention to telecover test to character and analyze lidar optical subsystem.The telecover test is called four quadrants method consisting in dividing the telescope aperture in four quarants. when a lidar is well configured with lidar optical subsystem, the normalized signal from four qudrants will agree with each other on some level. Testing our WARL-II lidar by four quadrants method ,we find the signals of the four basically consistent with each other both in near range and in far range. But in detail, the signals in near range have some slight distinctions resulting from overlap function, some signals distinctions are induced by atmospheric instability.

  19. 2015 OLC Lidar: Chelan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Chelan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  20. LIDAR Research & Development Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The LIDAR Research and Development labs are used to investigate and improve LIDAR components such as laser sources, optical signal detectors and optical filters. The...

  1. Lidar sounding of volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Angelini, Federico; Borelli, Rodolfo; Del Franco, Mario; Murra, Daniele; Pistilli, Marco; Puiu, Adriana; Santoro, Simone

    2013-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of gas composition in volcanic plumes has high scientific and societal value. On the one hand, it gives information on the geophysical processes taking place inside volcanos; on the other hand, it provides alert on possible eruptions. For this reasons, it has been suggested to monitor volcanic plumes by lidar. In particular, one of the aims of the FP7 ERC project BRIDGE is the measurement of CO2 concentration in volcanic gases by differential absorption lidar. This is a very challenging task due to the harsh environment, the narrowness and weakness of the CO2 absorption lines and the difficulty to procure a suitable laser source. This paper, after a review on remote sensing of volcanic plumes, reports on the current progress of the lidar system.

  2. Creation of a dynamic database and analysis of LIDAR measurements in web format at the Laboratory of Environmental Laser Applications at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozzetti, Lucila Maria Viola

    2006-01-01

    The LIDAR system (Light Detection and Ranging) laser remote sensing at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute - Laboratory of Environmental Laser Applications allows on line measurements of variations in the concentrations of atmospheric aerosols by sending a laser beam to the atmosphere and collecting the backscattered light. Such a system supplies a great number of physical parameters that must be managed in an agile form to the attainment of a real time analysis. Database implementation therefore becomes an important toll of communication and graphical visualization of measurements. A criterion for classification of this valuable information was adopted, establishing defined levels of storage from specific characteristics of the determined data types. The compilation and automation of these measurements will promote optimized integration between data, analysis and retrieval of the resulting properties and of the atmosphere, improving future research and data analysis. (author)

  3. Airborne Lidar Measurements of Below-canopy Surface Water Height , Slope and Optical Properties in the Florida Everglades Shark River Slough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, P.; Harding, D. J.; Valett, S. R.; Yu, A. W.; Feliciano, E. A.; Neuenschwander, A. L.; Pitts, K.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the presence, persistence, optical properties and variation in height and slope of surface water beneath the dense canopies of flooded forests and mangrove stands could contribute to studies of the acquisition of water and nutrients by plant roots. NASA's airborne Slope Imaging Multi-polarization Photon-counting Lidar (SIMPL) provides unique capabilities that can identify below-canopy surface water, measure its height with respect to vegetation constituents with sub-decimeter precision and quantify its slope. It also provides information on canopy structure and closure, the water column extinction profile as a proxy for turbidity and water depth, with the penetration depth constrained by turbidity. It achieves this by using four laser beams operating at two wavelengths with measurements of water surface elevation at 1064 nm (near infrared) and water column properties at 532 nm (green), analogous to a bathymetric lidar. Importantly the instrument adds a polarimetry function, like some atmospheric lidars, which measures the amount of depolarization determined by the degree to which the plane-parallel transmitted laser pulse energy is converted to the perpendicular state. The degree of depolarization is sensitive to the number of photon multiple-scattering events. For the water surface, which is specular consisting only of single-scattering events, the near-infrared received signal retains the parallel polarization state. Absence of the perpendicular signal uniquely identifies surface water. Penetration of green light and the depth profile of photons converted to the perpendicular state compared to those in the parallel state is a measure of water-column multiple scattering, providing a relative measure of turbidity. The amount of photons reflected from the canopy versus the water provides a wavelength-dependent measure of canopy closure. By rapidly firing laser pulses (11,400 pulses per second) with a narrow width (1 nsec) and detecting single photons

  4. Compressive full waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.

  5. Quantifying TOLNet Ozone Lidar Accuracy During the 2014 DISCOVER-AQ and FRAPPE Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Newchurch, Michael J.; Alvarez, Raul J., II; Berkoff, Timothy A.; Brown, Steven S.; Carrion, William; De Young, Russell J.; Johnson, Bryan J.; Ganoe, Rene; Gronoff, Guillaume; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNet) is a unique network of lidar systems that measure high-resolution atmospheric profiles of ozone. The accurate characterization of these lidars is necessary to determine the uniformity of the network calibration. From July to August 2014, three lidars, the TROPospheric OZone (TROPOZ) lidar, the Tunable Optical Profiler for Aerosol and oZone (TOPAZ) lidar, and the Langley Mobile Ozone Lidar (LMOL), of TOLNet participated in the Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission and the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPA) to measure ozone variations from the boundary layer to the top of the troposphere. This study presents the analysis of the intercomparison between the TROPOZ, TOPAZ, and LMOL lidars, along with comparisons between the lidars and other in situ ozone instruments including ozonesondes and a P-3B airborne chemiluminescence sensor. The TOLNet lidars measured vertical ozone structures with an accuracy generally better than +/-15 % within the troposphere. Larger differences occur at some individual altitudes in both the near-field and far-field range of the lidar systems, largely as expected. In terms of column average, the TOLNet lidars measured ozone with an accuracy better than +/-5 % for both the intercomparison between the lidars and between the lidars and other instruments. These results indicate that these three TOLNet lidars are suitable for use in air quality, satellite validation, and ozone modeling efforts.

  6. The Ability of MM5 to Simulate Ice Clouds: Systematic Comparison between Simulated and Measured Fluxes and Lidar/Radar Profiles at SIRTA Atmospheric Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriaco, M.; Vautard, R.; Chepfer, H.; Haeffelin, M.; Wanherdrick, Y.; Morille, Y.; Protat, A.; Dudhia, J.

    2005-03-18

    Ice clouds play a major role in the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system (Liou 1986). Their radiative effect is governed primarily by the equilibrium between their albedo and greenhouse effects. Both macrophysical and microphysical properties of ice clouds regulate this equilibrium. For quantifying the effect of these clouds onto climate and weather systems, they must be properly characterized in atmospheric models. In this paper we use remote-sensing measurements from the SIRTA ground based atmospheric observatory (Site Instrumental de Recherche par Teledetection Atmospherique, http://sirta.lmd.polytechnique.fr). Lidar and radar observations taken over 18 months are used, in order to gain statistical confidence in the model evaluation. Along this period of time, 62 days are selected for study because they contain parts of ice clouds. We use the ''model to observations'' approach by simulating lidar and radar signals from MM5 outputs. Other more classical variables such as shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes are also used. Four microphysical schemes, among which that proposed by Reisner et al. (1998) with original or modified parameterizations of particle terminal fall velocities (Zurovac-Jevtic and Zhang 2003, Heymsfield and Donner 1990), and the simplified Dudhia (1989) scheme are evaluated in this study.

  7. Clear-air lidar dark band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolamo, Paolo Di; Scoccione, Andrea; Cacciani, Marco; Summa, Donato; Schween, Jan H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper illustrates measurements carried out by the Raman lidar BASIL in the frame of HOPE, revealing the presence of a clear-air dark band phenomenon (i.e. the appearance of a minimum in lidar backscatter echoes) in the upper portion of the convective boundary layer. The phenomenon is clearly distinguishable in the lidar backscatter echoes at 1064 nm. This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of lignite aerosol particles advected from the surrounding open pit mines in the vicinity of the measuring site.

  8. Complex terrain and wind lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingoel, F.

    2009-08-15

    This thesis includes the results of a PhD study about complex terrain and wind lidars. The study mostly focuses on hilly and forested areas. Lidars have been used in combination with cups, sonics and vanes, to reach the desired vertical measurement heights. Several experiments are performed in complex terrain sites and the measurements are compared with two different flow models; a linearised flow model LINCOM and specialised forest model SCADIS. In respect to the lidar performance in complex terrain, the results showed that horizontal wind speed errors measured by a conically scanning lidar can be of the order of 3-4% in moderately-complex terrain and up to 10% in complex terrain. The findings were based on experiments involving collocated lidars and meteorological masts, together with flow calculations over the same terrains. The lidar performance was also simulated with the commercial software WAsP Engineering 2.0 and was well predicted except for some sectors where the terrain is particularly steep. Subsequently, two experiments were performed in forested areas; where the measurements are recorded at a location deep-in forest and at the forest edge. Both sites were modelled with flow models and the comparison of the measurement data with the flow model outputs showed that the mean wind speed calculated by LINCOM model was only reliable between 1 and 2 tree height (h) above canopy. The SCADIS model reported better correlation with the measurements in forest up to approx6h. At the forest edge, LINCOM model was used by allocating a slope half-in half out of the forest based on the suggestions of previous studies. The optimum slope angle was reported as 17 deg.. Thus, a suggestion was made to use WAsP Engineering 2.0 for forest edge modelling with known limitations and the applied method. The SCADIS model worked better than the LINCOM model at the forest edge but the model reported closer results to the measurements at upwind than the downwind and this should be

  9. Demonstration of a 100-mJ OPO/OPA for future lidar applications and laser-induced damage threshold testing of optical components for MERLIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsen, Florian; Livrozet, Marie; Strotkamp, Michael; Wüppen, Jochen; Jungbluth, Bernd; Kasemann, Raphael; Löhring, Jens; Meissner, Ansgar; Meyer, Rudolf; Hoffmann, Hans-Dieter; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2018-02-01

    In the field of atmospheric research, lidar is a powerful technology that can measure gas or aerosol concentrations, wind speed, or temperature profiles remotely. To conduct such measurements globally, spaceborne systems are advantageous. Pulse energies in the 100-mJ range are required to achieve highly accurate, longitudinal resolved measurements. Measuring concentrations of specific gases, such as CH4 or CO2, requires output wavelengths in the IR-B, which can be addressed by optical-parametric frequency conversion. An OPO/OPA frequency conversion setup was designed and built as a demonstration module to address the 1.6-μm range. The pump laser is an Nd:YAG-MOPA system, consisting of a stable oscillator and two subsequent Innoslab-based amplifier stages that deliver up to 500 mJ of output pulse energy at 100 Hz repetition frequency. The OPO is inherited from the OPO design for the CH4 lidar instrument on the French-German climate satellite methane remote-sensing lidar mission (MERLIN). To address the 100-mJ regime, the OPO output beam is amplified in a subsequent multistage OPA. With potassium titanyl phosphate as nonlinear medium, the OPO/OPA delivered more than 100 mJ of output energy at 1645 nm from 450 mJ of the pump energy and a pump pulse duration of 30 ns. This corresponds to a quantum conversion efficiency of about 25%. In addition to demonstrating optical performance for future lidar systems, this laser will be part of a laser-induced damage thresholds test facility, which will be used to qualify optical components especially for the MERLIN.

  10. Lidar Inter-Comparison Exercise Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Protat, A [Australian Bureau of Meterology; Young, S

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this field campaign was to evaluate the performance of the new Leosphere R-MAN 510 lidar, procured by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology, by testing it against the MicroPulse Lidar (MPL) and Raman lidars, at the Darwin Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site. This lidar is an eye-safe (355 nm), turn-key mini Raman lidar, which allows for the detection of aerosols and cloud properties, and the retrieval of particulate extinction profiles. To accomplish this evaluation, the R-MAN 510 lidar has been operated at the Darwin ARM site, next to the MPL, Raman lidar, and Vaisala ceilometer (VCEIL) for three months (from 20 January 2013 to 20 April 2013) in order to collect a sufficient sample size for statistical comparisons.

  11. Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during a European pollution outbreak of ACE-2[Special issue with manuscripts related to the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), 16 June-25 July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamant, Cyrille; Pelon, Jaques; Trouillet, Vincent; Bruneau, Didier [CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ, Paris (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Chazette, Patrick; Leon, J.F. [CEA-CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environment; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Johnson, James [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States). Pacific Marine Environmental Lab.; Frouin, Robert [Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Livingston, John [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Airborne lidar measurements of the aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties associated with an European pollution outbreak which occurred during the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) are presented. Size distribution spectra measured over the ocean near Sagres (Portugal), on-board the Research Vessel Vodyanitsky and on-board the Avion de Recherche Atmospherique et Teledetection (ARAT) have been used to parameterize the aerosol vertical distribution. This parameterization, which is essential to the analysis of airborne lidar measurements, has been validated via closure experiments on extinction coefficient profiles and aerosol optical depth (AOD). During the studied event, AOD's retrieved from lidar measurements at 0.73 {mu}m range between 0.055 and 0.10. The parameterized aerosol vertical distribution has been used to shift AOD retrievals from 0.73 to 0.55 {mu}m to enable comparison with other remote sensing instruments. At the latter wavelength, AOD's retrieved from lidar measurements range between 0.08 and 0.14. An agreement better than 20% is obtained between AOD's derived from lidar and sunphotometer measurements made at the same time and place over the ocean near the coast. However, large differences are observed with the AOD estimated from Meteosat imagery in the same area. These differences are thought to be caused by large uncertainties associated with the Meteosat sensitivity for small AOD's or by the presence of thin scattered clouds. Lidar-derived particulate extinction profiles and scattering coefficient profiles measured by a nephelometer mounted on the ARAT, in a different part of the plume, were found in good agreement, which could be an indication that absorption by pollution aerosols is small and/or that soot is present in small amounts in the European pollution plume. Lidar measurements have also been used to differentiate the contribution of different aerosol layers to the total AOD. It is shown that

  12. An Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Predictions of Down-Valley and Canyon Flows and Their Consequences Using Doppler Lidar Measurements During VTMX 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, Jerome D.; Darby, Lisa S.

    2004-01-01

    A mesoscale model, a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, and extensive Doppler lidar wind measurements during the VTMX 2000 field campaign were used to examine converging flows over the Salt Lake Valley and their effect on vertical mixing of tracers at night and during the morning transition period. The simulated wind components were transformed into radial velocities to make a direct comparison with about 1.3 million Doppler lidar data points and critically evaluate, using correlation coefficients, the spatial variations in the simulated wind fields aloft. The mesoscale model captured reasonably well the general features of the observed circulations including the daytime up-valley flow, the nighttime slope, canyon, and down-valley flows, and the convergence of the flows over the valley. When there were errors in the simulated wind fields, they were usually associated with the timing, structure, or strength of specific flows. Simulated outflows from canyons along the Wasatch Mountains propagated over the valley and converged with the down-valley flow, but the advance and retreat of these simulated flows was often out of phase with the lidar measurements. While the flow reversal during the evening transition period produced rising motions over much of the valley atmosphere in the absence of significant ambient winds, average vertical velocities became close to zero as the down-valley flow developed. Still, vertical velocities between 5 and 15 cm s-1 occurred where down-slope, canyon and down-valley flows converged and vertical velocities greater than 50 cm s-1 were produced by hydraulic jumps at the base of the canyons. The presence of strong ambient winds resulted in smaller average rising motions during the evening transition period and larger average vertical velocities after that. A fraction of the tracer released at the surface was transported up to the height of the surrounding mountains; however, higher concentrations were produced aloft for evening s

  13. Stream-channel and watershed delineations and basin-characteristic measurements using lidar elevation data for small drainage basins within the Des Moines Lobe landform region in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eash, David A.; Barnes, Kimberlee K.; O'Shea, Padraic S.; Gelder, Brian K.

    2018-02-14

    Basin-characteristic measurements related to stream length, stream slope, stream density, and stream order have been identified as significant variables for estimation of flood, flow-duration, and low-flow discharges in Iowa. The placement of channel initiation points, however, has always been a matter of individual interpretation, leading to differences in stream definitions between analysts.This study investigated five different methods to define stream initiation using 3-meter light detection and ranging (lidar) digital elevation models (DEMs) data for 17 streamgages with drainage areas less than 50 square miles within the Des Moines Lobe landform region in north-central Iowa. Each DEM was hydrologically enforced and the five stream initiation methods were used to define channel initiation points and the downstream flow paths. The five different methods to define stream initiation were tested side-by-side for three watershed delineations: (1) the total drainage-area delineation, (2) an effective drainage-area delineation of basins based on a 2-percent annual exceedance probability (AEP) 12-hour rainfall, and (3) an effective drainage-area delineation based on a 20-percent AEP 12-hour rainfall.Generalized least squares regression analysis was used to develop a set of equations for sites in the Des Moines Lobe landform region for estimating discharges for ungaged stream sites with 50-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent AEPs. A total of 17 streamgages were included in the development of the regression equations. In addition, geographic information system software was used to measure 58 selected basin-characteristics for each streamgage.Results of the regression analyses of the 15 lidar datasets indicate that the datasets that produce regional regression equations (RREs) with the best overall predictive accuracy are the National Hydrographic Dataset, Iowa Department of Natural Resources, and profile curvature of 0.5 stream initiation methods combined with

  14. What Good is Raman Water Vapor Lidar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, David

    2011-01-01

    Raman lidar has been used to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere for various scientific studies including mesoscale meteorology and satellite validation. Now the international networks of NDACC and GRUAN have interest in using Raman water vapor lidar for detecting trends in atmospheric water vapor concentrations. What are the data needs for addressing these very different measurement challenges. We will review briefly the scientific needs for water vapor accuracy for each of these three applications and attempt to translate that into performance specifications for Raman lidar in an effort to address the question in the title of "What good is Raman water vapor Iidar."

  15. Detectors for LIDAR type Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, K.

    1991-04-01

    A report on the capability of the microchannel plate photomultiplier type (ITT F4128) presently used at the JET LIDAR Thomson Scattering System is given. Detailed investigation on time response, low noise amplification, shutter ratio, gating behaviour, linear mode of operation and saturation pulse recovery carried out during the design phase for LIDAR are presented. New investigation with respect to dc- and gated operation showed no measurable changes in sensitivity of this MCP photomultiplier. Comparing this type of detector with other MCP photomultipliers and with streak cameras some detection schemes for future LIDAR type diagnostic are proposed. (orig.)

  16. Detecting wind turbine wakes with nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, D. P.; Larvol, A.; Mann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    variance is used as a detection parameter for wakes. A one month long measurement campaign, where a continuous-wave lidar on a turbine has been exposed to multiple wake situations, is used to test the detection capabilities. The results show that it is possible to identify situation where a downstream...... turbine is in wake by comparing the peak widths. The used lidar is inexpensive and brings instalments on every turbine within economical reach. Thus, the information gathered by the lidars can be used for improved control at wind farm level....

  17. Arrange and average algorithm for the retrieval of aerosol parameters from multiwavelength high-spectral-resolution lidar/Raman lidar data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemyakin, Eduard; Müller, Detlef; Burton, Sharon; Kolgotin, Alexei; Hostetler, Chris; Ferrare, Richard

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of a feasibility study in which a simple, automated, and unsupervised algorithm, which we call the arrange and average algorithm, is used to infer microphysical parameters (complex refractive index, effective radius, total number, surface area, and volume concentrations) of atmospheric aerosol particles. The algorithm uses backscatter coefficients at 355, 532, and 1064 nm and extinction coefficients at 355 and 532 nm as input information. Testing of the algorithm is based on synthetic optical data that are computed from prescribed monomodal particle size distributions and complex refractive indices that describe spherical, primarily fine mode pollution particles. We tested the performance of the algorithm for the "3 backscatter (β)+2 extinction (α)" configuration of a multiwavelength aerosol high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) or Raman lidar. We investigated the degree to which the microphysical results retrieved by this algorithm depends on the number of input backscatter and extinction coefficients. For example, we tested "3β+1α," "2β+1α," and "3β" lidar configurations. This arrange and average algorithm can be used in two ways. First, it can be applied for quick data processing of experimental data acquired with lidar. Fast automated retrievals of microphysical particle properties are needed in view of the enormous amount of data that can be acquired by the NASA Langley Research Center's airborne "3β+2α" High-Spectral-Resolution Lidar (HSRL-2). It would prove useful for the growing number of ground-based multiwavelength lidar networks, and it would provide an option for analyzing the vast amount of optical data acquired with a future spaceborne multiwavelength lidar. The second potential application is to improve the microphysical particle characterization with our existing inversion algorithm that uses Tikhonov's inversion with regularization. This advanced algorithm has recently undergone development to allow automated and

  18. An Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE to Assess the Impact of Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL Measurements on the Numerical Simulation of a Tropical Cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of wind observations has been recognized for many years. However, wind observations—especially three-dimensional global wind measurements—are very limited. A satellite-based Doppler Wind Lidar (DWL is proposed to measure three-dimensional wind profiles using remote sensing techniques. Assimilating these observations into a mesoscale model is expected to improve the performance of the numerical weather prediction (NWP models. In order to examine the potential impact of the DWL three-dimensional wind profile observations on the numerical simulation and prediction of tropical cyclones, a set of observing simulation system experiments (OSSEs is performed using the advanced research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model and its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR data assimilation system. Results indicate that assimilating the DWL wind observations into the mesoscale numerical model has significant potential for improving tropical cyclone track and intensity forecasts.

  19. Ionospheric correction for spaceborne single-frequency GPS based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified ionospheric correction method and the corresponding approximate algorithm for spaceborne single-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) users are proposed in this study. Single Layer Model (SLM) mapping function for spaceborne GPS was analyzed. SLM mapping functions at different altitudes were ...

  20. Spectral dependence of backscattering coefficient of mixed phase clouds over West Africa measured with two-wavelength Raman polarization lidar: Features attributed to ice-crystals corner reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskii, I.; Goloub, P.; Podvin, T.; Tanre, D.; Ansmann, A.; Korenskiy, M.; Borovoi, A.; Hu, Q.; Whiteman, D. N.

    2017-11-01

    The existing models predict that corner reflection (CR) of laser radiation by simple ice crystals of perfect shape, such as hexagonal columns or plates, can provide a significant contribution to the ice cloud backscattering. However in real clouds the CR effect may be suppressed due to crystal deformation and surface roughness. In contrast to the extinction coefficient, which is spectrally independent, consideration of diffraction associated with CR results in a spectral dependence of the backscattering coefficient. Thus measuring the spectral dependence of the cloud backscattering coefficient, the contribution of CR can be identified. The paper presents the results of profiling of backscattering coefficient (β) and particle depolarization ratio (δ) of ice and mixed-phase clouds over West Africa by means of a two-wavelength polarization Mie-Raman lidar operated at 355 nm and 532 nm during the SHADOW field campaign. The lidar observations were performed at a slant angle of 43 degree off zenith, thus CR from both randomly oriented crystals and oriented plates could be analyzed. For the most of the observations the cloud backscatter color ratio β355/β532 was close to 1.0, and no spectral features that might indicate the presence of CR of randomly oriented crystals were revealed. Still, in two measurement sessions we observed an increase of backscatter color ratio to a value of nearly 1.3 simultaneously with a decrease of the spectral depolarization ratio δ355/δ532 ratio from 1.0 to 0.8 inside the layers containing precipitating ice crystals. We attribute these changes in optical properties to corner reflections by horizontally oriented ice plates.

  1. Hub Height Ocean Winds over the North Sea Observed by the NORSEWInD Lidar Array: Measuring Techniques, Quality Control and Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Stein, Detlef; Courtney, Michael

    2013-01-01

    performed excellently, two slightly failed the first criterion and one failed both. The lidars were operated offshore from six months to more than two years and observed in total 107 months of 10-min mean wind profile observations. Four lidars were re-evaluated post deployment with excellent results...

  2. 2015 Lowndes County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Lidar for Lowndes County, GA with the option to Collect Lidar in Cook and Tift Counties, GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task...

  3. 2015 OLC Lidar: Wasco, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Wasco County, WA, study area. The Oregon LiDAR Consortium's Wasco County...

  4. Model of the Correlation between Lidar Systems and Wind Turbines for Lidar-Assisted Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlipf, David; Cheng, Po Wen; Mann, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    - or spinner-based lidar system. If on the one hand, the assumed correlation is overestimated, then the uncorrelated frequencies of the preview will cause unnecessary control action, inducing undesired loads. On the other hand, the benefits of the lidar-assisted controller will not be fully exhausted......, if correlated frequencies are filtered out. To avoid these miscalculations, this work presents a method to model the correlation between lidar systems and wind turbines using Kaimal wind spectra. The derived model accounts for different measurement configurations and spatial averaging of the lidar system......Investigations of lidar-assisted control to optimize the energy yield and to reduce loads of wind turbines have increased significantly in recent years. For this kind of control, it is crucial to know the correlation between the rotor effective wind speed and the wind preview provided by a nacelle...

  5. A New Framework for Quantifying Lidar Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer, F.; Clifton, Andrew; Bonin, Timothy A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2017-03-24

    As wind turbine sizes increase and wind energy expands to more complex and remote sites, remote sensing devices such as lidars are expected to play a key role in wind resource assessment and power performance testing. The switch to remote sensing devices represents a paradigm shift in the way the wind industry typically obtains and interprets measurement data for wind energy. For example, the measurement techniques and sources of uncertainty for a remote sensing device are vastly different from those associated with a cup anemometer on a meteorological tower. Current IEC standards discuss uncertainty due to mounting, calibration, and classification of the remote sensing device, among other parameters. Values of the uncertainty are typically given as a function of the mean wind speed measured by a reference device. However, real-world experience has shown that lidar performance is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions, such as wind shear, turbulence, and aerosol content. At present, these conditions are not directly incorporated into the estimated uncertainty of a lidar device. In this presentation, we propose the development of a new lidar uncertainty framework that adapts to current flow conditions and more accurately represents the actual uncertainty inherent in lidar measurements under different conditions. In this new framework, sources of uncertainty are identified for estimation of the line-of-sight wind speed and reconstruction of the three-dimensional wind field. These sources are then related to physical processes caused by the atmosphere and lidar operating conditions. The framework is applied to lidar data from an operational wind farm to assess the ability of the framework to predict errors in lidar-measured wind speed.

  6. The design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 1: Balloonborne coherent CO2 lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.

    1991-06-01

    This is Volume 1 of a three volume final report on the design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 2 describes the flight test of Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2, which successfully made atmospheric density backscatter measurements during a flight over White Sands Missile Range. Volume 3 describes groundbased lidar development and measurements, including the design of a telescope dome lidar installation, the design of a transportable lidar shed for remote field sites, and field measurements of atmospheric and cloud backscatter from Ascension Island during SABLE 89 and Terciera, Azores during GABLE 90. In this volume, Volume 1, the design and fabrication of a balloonborne CO2 coherent lidar payload are described. The purpose of this payload is to measure, from altitudes greater than 20 km, the 10.6 micrometers backscatter from atmospheric aerosols as a function of altitude. Minor modifications to the lidar would provide for aerosol velocity measurements to be made. The lidar and payload system design was completed, and major components were fabricated and assembled. These tasks have been successfully completed, and recommendations for further lidar measurements and data analysis have been made.

  7. Global Observations of Aerosols and Clouds from Combined Lidar and Passive Instruments to Improve Radiation Budget and Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Current uncertainties in the effects of clouds and aerosols on the Earth radiation budget limit our understanding of the climate system and the potential for global climate change. Pathfinder Instruments for Cloud and Aerosol Spaceborne Observations - Climatologie Etendue des Nuages et des Aerosols (PICASSO-CENA) is a recently approved satellite mission within NASA's Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program which will address these uncertainties with a unique suite of active and passive instruments. The Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) demonstrated the potential benefits of space lidar for studies of clouds and aerosols. PICASSO-CENA builds on this experience with a payload consisting of a two-wavelength polarization-sensitive lidar, an oxygen A-band spectrometer (ABS), an imaging infrared radiometer (IIR), and a wide field camera (WFC). Data from these instruments will be used to measure the vertical distributions of aerosols and clouds in the atmosphere, as well as optical and physical properties of aerosols and clouds which influence the Earth radiation budget. PICASSO-CENA will be flown in formation with the PM satellite of the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) to provide a comprehensive suite of coincident measurements of atmospheric state, aerosol and cloud optical properties, and radiative fluxes. The mission will address critical uncertainties iin the direct radiative forcing of aerosols and clouds as well as aerosol influences on cloud radiative properties and cloud-climate radiation feedbacks. PICASSO-CENA is planned for a three year mission, with a launch in early 2003. PICASSO-CENA is being developed within the framework of a collaboration between NASA and CNES.

  8. Underwater lidar system: design challenges and application in pollution detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pradip; Sankolli, Swati; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-05-01

    The present remote sensing techniques have imposed limitations in the applications of LIDAR Technology. The fundamental sampling inadequacy of the remote sensing data obtained from satellites is that they cannot resolve in the third spatial dimension, the vertical. This limits our possibilities of measuring any vertical variability in the water column. Also the interaction between the physical and biological process in the oceans and their effects at subsequent depths cannot be modeled with present techniques. The idea behind this paper is to introduce underwater LIDAR measurement system by using a LIDAR mounted on an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). The paper introduces working principles and design parameters for the LIDAR mounted AUV (AUV-LIDAR). Among several applications the papers discusses the possible use and advantages of AUV-LIDAR in water pollution detection through profiling of Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) in water bodies.

  9. New Generation Lidar Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Lidar has been a tool for atmospheric research for several decades. Until recently routine operational use of lidar was not known. Problems have involved a lack of appropriate technology rather than a lack of applications. Within the last few years, lidar based on a new generation of solid state lasers and detectors have changed the situation. Operational applications for cloud and aerosol research applications are now well established. In these research applications, the direct height profiling capability of lidar is typically an adjunct to other types of sensing, both passive and active. Compact eye safe lidar with the sensitivity for ground based monitoring of all significant cloud and aerosol structure and the reliability to operate full time for several years is now in routine use. The approach is known as micro pulse lidar (MPL). For MPL the laser pulse repetition rate is in the kilohertz range and the pulse energies are in the micro-Joule range. The low pulse energy permits the systems to be eye safe and reliable with solid state lasers. A number of MPL systems have been deployed since 1992 at atmospheric research sites at a variety of global locations. Accurate monitoring of cloud and aerosol vertical distribution is a critical measurement for atmospheric radiation. An airborne application of lidar cloud and aerosol profiling is retrievals of parameters from combined lidar and passive sensing involving visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. A lidar based on a large pulse, solid state diode pumped ND:YAG laser has been deployed on the NASA ER-2 high altitude research aircraft along with multi-spectral visible/IR and microwave imaging radiometers since 1993. The system has shown high reliability in an extensive series of experimental projects for cloud remote sensing. The retrieval of cirrus radiation parameters is an effective application for combined lidar and passive sensing. An approved NASA mission will soon begin long term lidar observation of

  10. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing [DST Space Science Initiatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy Source included in the measurement. Slide 2 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za The observer can control the source Eg. Radar, Lidar, Sodar, Sonar etc. (b) Passive remote sensors. Energy source is not included in the measurement... Instrument Passive Slide 3 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Active LiDAR Principle • LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) • LiDAR employs a laser as a source of pulsed energy • Lasers are advantageous because – checkbld Monochromatic...

  11. NASA ESTO Lidar Technologies Investment Strategy: 2016 Decadal Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinia, Azita; Komar, George J.; Tratt, David M.; Lotshaw, William T.; Gaab, Kevin M.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) recently updated its investment strategy in the area of lidar technologies as it pertains to NASA's Earth Science measurement goals in the next decade. The last ESTO lidar strategy was documented in 2006. The current (2016) report assesses the state-of-the-art in lidar technologies a decade later. Lidar technology maturation in the past decade has been evaluated, and the ESTO investment strategy is updated and laid out in this report according to current NASA Earth science measurement needs and new emerging technologies.

  12. Simultaneous Measurements of Chlorophyll Concentration by Lidar, Fluorometry, above-Water Radiometry, and Ocean Color MODIS Images in the Southwestern Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampel, Milton; Lorenzzetti, João A; Bentz, Cristina M; Nunes, Raul A; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rudorff, Frederico M; Politano, Alexandre T

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons between in situ measurements of surface chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL) and ocean color remote sensing estimates were conducted during an oceanographic cruise on the Brazilian Southeastern continental shelf and slope, Southwestern South Atlantic. In situ values were based on fluorometry, above-water radiometry and lidar fluorosensor. Three empirical algorithms were used to estimate CHL from radiometric measurements: Ocean Chlorophyll 3 bands (OC3M(RAD)), Ocean Chlorophyll 4 bands (OC4v4(RAD)), and Ocean Chlorophyll 2 bands (OC2v4(RAD)). The satellite estimates of CHL were derived from data collected by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) with a nominal 1.1 km resolution at nadir. Three algorithms were used to estimate chlorophyll concentrations from MODIS data: one empirical - OC3M(SAT), and two semi-analytical - Garver, Siegel, Maritorena version 01 (GSM01(SAT)), and Carder(SAT). In the present work, MODIS, lidar and in situ above-water radiometry and fluorometry are briefly described and the estimated values of chlorophyll retrieved by these techniques are compared. The chlorophyll concentration in the study area was in the range 0.01 to 0.2 mg/m(3). In general, the empirical algorithms applied to the in situ radiometric and satellite data showed a tendency to overestimate CHL with a mean difference between estimated and measured values of as much as 0.17 mg/m(3) (OC2v4(RAD)). The semi-analytical GSM01 algorithm applied to MODIS data performed better (rmse 0.28, rmse-L 0.08, mean diff. -0.01 mg/m(3)) than the Carder and the empirical OC3M algorithms (rmse 1.14 and 0.36, rmse-L 0.34 and 0.11, mean diff. 0.17 and 0.02 mg/m(3), respectively). We find that rmsd values between MODIS relative to the in situ radiometric measurements are MODIS for the stations considered in this work. Other authors have already reported over and under estimation of MODIS remotely sensed reflectance due to several errors in the bio-optical algorithm

  13. Simultaneous Measurements of Chlorophyll Concentration by Lidar, Fluorometry, above-Water Radiometry, and Ocean Color MODIS Images in the Southwestern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Bentz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons between in situ measurements of surface chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL and ocean color remote sensing estimates were conducted during an oceanographic cruise on the Brazilian Southeastern continental shelf and slope, Southwestern South Atlantic. In situ values were based on fluorometry, above-water radiometry and lidar fluorosensor. Three empirical algorithms were used to estimate CHL from radiometric measurements: Ocean Chlorophyll 3 bands (OC3MRAD, Ocean Chlorophyll 4 bands (OC4v4RAD, and Ocean Chlorophyll 2 bands (OC2v4RAD. The satellite estimates of CHL were derived from data collected by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS with a nominal 1.1 km resolution at nadir. Three algorithms were used to estimate chlorophyll concentrations from MODIS data: one empirical - OC3MSAT, and two semi-analytical - Garver, Siegel, Maritorena version 01 (GSM01SAT, and CarderSAT. In the present work, MODIS, lidar and in situ above-water radiometry and fluorometry are briefly described and the estimated values of chlorophyll retrieved by these techniques are compared. The chlorophyll concentration in the study area was in the range 0.01 to 0.2 mg·m-3. In general, the empirical algorithms applied to the in situ radiometric and satellite data showed a tendency to overestimate CHL with a mean difference between estimated and measured values of as much as 0.17 mg/m3 (OC2v4RAD. The semi-analytical GSM01 algorithm applied to MODIS data performed better (rmse 0.28, rmse-L 0.08, mean diff. -0.01 mg/m3 than the Carder and the empirical OC3M algorithms (rmse 1.14 and 0.36, rmse-L 0.34 and 0.11, mean diff. 0.17 and 0.02 mg/m3, respectively. We find that rmsd values between MODIS relative to the in situ radiometric measurements are < 26%, i.e., there is a trend towards overestimation of RRS by MODIS for the stations considered in this work. Other authors have already reported over and under estimation of MODIS remotely sensed

  14. 2-Micron Triple-Pulse Integrated Path Differential Absorption Lidar Development for Simultaneous Airborne Column Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Petros, Mulugeta; Refaat, Tamer F.; Yu, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    For more than 15 years, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has contributed in developing several 2-micron carbon dioxide active remote sensors using the DIAL technique. Currently, an airborne 2-micron triple-pulse integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar is under development at NASA LaRC. This paper focuses on the advancement of the 2-micron triple-pulse IPDA lidar development. Updates on the state-of-the-art triple-pulse laser transmitter will be presented including the status of wavelength control, packaging and lidar integration. In addition, receiver development updates will also be presented, including telescope integration, detection systems and data acquisition electronics. Future plan for IPDA lidar system for ground integration, testing and flight validation will be presented.

  15. Physical and optical properties of 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption aerosol: ground-based, Lidar and airborne measurements in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hervo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Eyjafjallajökull eruption (14 April to 24 May 2010, the volcanic aerosol cloud was observed across Europe by several airborne in situ and ground-based remote-sensing instruments. On 18 and 19 May, layers of depolarizing particles (i.e. non-spherical particles were detected in the free troposphere above the Puy de Dôme station, (PdD, France with a Rayleigh-Mie LIDAR emitting at a wavelength of 355 nm, with parallel and crossed polarization channels. These layers in the free troposphere (FT were also well captured by simulations with the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART, which furthermore showed that the ash was eventually entrained into the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Indeed, the ash cloud was then detected and characterized with a comprehensive set of in situ instruments at the Puy de Dôme station (PdD. In agreement with the FLEXPART simulation, up to 65 μg m−3 of particle mass and 2.2 ppb of SO2 were measured at PdD, corresponding to concentrations higher than the 95 percentile of 2 yr of measurements at PdD. Moreover, the number concentration of particles increased to 24 000 cm−3, mainly in the submicronic mode, but a supermicronic mode was also detected with a modal diameter of 2 μm. The resulting optical properties of the ash aerosol were characterized by a low scattering Ångström exponent (0.98, showing the presence of supermicronic particles. For the first time to our knowledge, the combination of in situ optical and physical characterization of the volcanic ash allowed the calculation of the mass-to-extinction ratio (η with no assumptions on the aerosol density. The mass-to-extinction ratio was found to be significantly different from the background boundary layer aerosol (max: 1.57 g m−2 as opposed to 0.33 ± 0.03 g m−2. Using this ratio, ash mass concentration in the volcanic plume derived from LIDAR measurements was found to be 655 ± 23

  16. A cloud masking algorithm for EARLINET lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binietoglou, Ioannis; Baars, Holger; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Nicolae, Doina

    2015-04-01

    Cloud masking is an important first step in any aerosol lidar processing chain as most data processing algorithms can only be applied on cloud free observations. Up to now, the selection of a cloud-free time interval for data processing is typically performed manually, and this is one of the outstanding problems for automatic processing of lidar data in networks such as EARLINET. In this contribution we present initial developments of a cloud masking algorithm that permits the selection of the appropriate time intervals for lidar data processing based on uncalibrated lidar signals. The algorithm is based on a signal normalization procedure using the range of observed values of lidar returns, designed to work with different lidar systems with minimal user input. This normalization procedure can be applied to measurement periods of only few hours, even if no suitable cloud-free interval exists, and thus can be used even when only a short period of lidar measurements is available. Clouds are detected based on a combination of criteria including the magnitude of the normalized lidar signal and time-space edge detection performed using the Sobel operator. In this way the algorithm avoids misclassification of strong aerosol layers as clouds. Cloud detection is performed using the highest available time and vertical resolution of the lidar signals, allowing the effective detection of low-level clouds (e.g. cumulus humilis). Special attention is given to suppress false cloud detection due to signal noise that can affect the algorithm's performance, especially during day-time. In this contribution we present the details of algorithm, the effect of lidar characteristics (space-time resolution, available wavelengths, signal-to-noise ratio) to detection performance, and highlight the current strengths and limitations of the algorithm using lidar scenes from different lidar systems in different locations across Europe.

  17. Linear LIDAR versus Geiger-mode LIDAR: impact on data properties and data quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, A.; Pfennigbauer, M.

    2016-05-01

    LIDAR has become the inevitable technology to provide accurate 3D data fast and reliably even in adverse measurement situations and harsh environments. It provides highly accurate point clouds with a significant number of additional valuable attributes per point. LIDAR systems based on Geiger-mode avalanche photo diode arrays, also called single photon avalanche photo diode arrays, earlier employed for military applications, now seek to enter the commercial market of 3D data acquisition, advertising higher point acquisition speeds from longer ranges compared to conventional techniques. Publications pointing out the advantages of these new systems refer to the other category of LIDAR as "linear LIDAR", as the prime receiver element for detecting the laser echo pulses - avalanche photo diodes - are used in a linear mode of operation. We analyze the differences between the two LIDAR technologies and the fundamental differences in the data they provide. The limitations imposed by physics on both approaches to LIDAR are also addressed and advantages of linear LIDAR over the photon counting approach are discussed.

  18. IEA Wind Task 32: Wind Lidar Identifying and Mitigating Barriers to the Adoption of Wind Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Clifton

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IEA Wind Task 32 exists to identify and mitigate barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. It leverages ongoing international research and development activities in academia and industry to investigate site assessment, power performance testing, controls and loads, and complex flows. Since its initiation in 2011, Task 32 has been responsible for several recommended practices and expert reports that have contributed to the adoption of ground-based, nacelle-based, and floating lidar by the wind industry. Future challenges include the development of lidar uncertainty models, best practices for data management, and developing community-based tools for data analysis, planning of lidar measurements and lidar configuration. This paper describes the barriers that Task 32 identified to the deployment of wind lidar in each of these application areas, and the steps that have been taken to confirm or mitigate the barriers. Task 32 will continue to be a meeting point for the international wind lidar community until at least 2020 and welcomes old and new participants.

  19. Atmospheric CO2 Column Measurements with an Airborne Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave 1.57-micron Fiber Laser Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobler, Jeremy T.; Harrison, F. Wallace; Browell, Edward V.; Lin, Bing; McGregor, Doug; Kooi, Susan; Choi, Yonghoon; Ismail, Syed

    2013-01-01

    The 2007 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space recommended Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as a mid-term, Tier II, NASA space mission. ITT Exelis, formerly ITT Corp., and NASA Langley Research Center have been working together since 2004 to develop and demonstrate a prototype Laser Absorption Spectrometer for making high-precision, column CO2 mixing ratio measurements needed for the ASCENDS mission. This instrument, called the Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL), operates in an intensity-modulated, continuous-wave mode in the 1.57- micron CO2 absorption band. Flight experiments have been conducted with the MFLL on a Lear-25, UC-12, and DC-8 aircraft over a variety of different surfaces and under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Very high-precision CO2 column measurements resulting from high signal-to-noise (great than 1300) column optical depth measurements for a 10-s (approximately 1 km) averaging interval have been achieved. In situ measurements of atmospheric CO2 profiles were used to derive the expected CO2 column values, and when compared to the MFLL measurements over desert and vegetated surfaces, the MFLL measurements were found to agree with the in situ-derived CO2 columns to within an average of 0.17% or approximately 0.65 ppmv with a standard deviation of 0.44% or approximately 1.7 ppmv. Initial results demonstrating ranging capability using a swept modulation technique are also presented.

  20. A design study for an advanced ocean color scanner system. [spaceborne equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. H.; Fraser, R. S.; Thompson, L. L.; Bahethi, O.

    1980-01-01

    Along with a colorimetric data analysis scheme, the instrumental parameters which need to be optimized in future spaceborne ocean color scanner systems are outlined. With regard to assessing atmospheric effects from ocean colorimetry, attention is given to computing size parameters of the aerosols in the atmosphere, total optical depth measurement, and the aerosol optical thickness. It is suggested that sensors based on the use of linear array technology will meet hardware objectives.

  1. Dall-Null tester for spaceborne applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingler, R. L.

    1984-12-01

    This is a study to design a self correcting primary mirror system for a space telescope. The design is centered around a Dall-Null tester (a Foucault knife-edge tester with compensating lens). An indepth study of the theory of the Foucault test from Foucault's original publications to current work is presented. Also short comings of the diffraction approach are shown. The findings of a simple experiment showed the way to the correct explanation as to the workings of the test. Based on this new explanation, a computer program to find the error in the surface of the mirror from the irradiance pattern provided by the Dall-Null tester was developed. The computer program with a sample run is included in the appendixes A and B. The basic design of an adaptive optic system for a spaceborne application is also presented in the paper. This design has the desired quality of being able to correct the mirror while the telescope is in use. The equations being independent of wavelength allows for the design to be applied to systems working outside of the visible spectrum as well as the systems working in the visible.

  2. Lidar signal-to-noise ratio improvements: Considerations and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebo, Yasser Y.

    The primary objective of this study is to improve lidar signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and hence extend attainable lidar ranges through reduction of the sky background noise (BGP), which dominates other sources of noise in daytime operations. This is particularly important for Raman lidar techniques where the Raman backscattered signal of interest is relatively weak compared with the elastic backscatter lidars. Two approaches for reduction of sky background noise are considered: (1) Improvements in lidar SNR by optimization of the design of the lidar receiver were examined by a series of simulations. This part of the research concentrated on biaxial lidar systems, where overlap between laser beam and receiver field of view (FOV) is an important aspect of noise considerations. The first optimized design evolved is a wedge shaped aperture. While this design has the virtue of greatly reducing background light, it is difficult to implement practically, requiring both changes in area and position with lidar range. A second more practical approach, which preserves some of the advantages of the wedge design, was also evolved. This uses a smaller area circular aperture optimally located in the image plane for desired ranges. Simulated numerical results for a biaxial lidar have shown that the best receiver parameters selection is one using a small circular aperture (field stop) with a small telescope focal length f, to ensure the minimum FOV that accepts all return signals over the entire lidar range while at the same time minimizing detected BGP and hence maximizing lidar SNR and attainable lidar ranges. The improvement in lidar SNR was up to 18%. (2) A polarization selection technique was implemented to reduce sky background signal for linearly polarized monostatic elastic backscatter lidar measurements. The technique takes advantage of naturally occurring polarization properties in scattered sky light, and then ensures that both the lidar transmitter and receiver track and

  3. Determining roof surfaces suitable for the installation of PV (photovoltaic) systems, based on LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data, pyranometer measurements, and distribution network configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srećković, Nevena; Lukač, Niko; Žalik, Borut; Štumberger, Gorazd

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation of distributed generation units, integrated within the distribution network requires increased attention to their proper placements. In urban areas, buildings' rooftops are expected to have greater involvement in the deployment of PV (photovoltaic) systems. This paper proposes a novel procedure for determining roof surfaces suitable for their installation. The PV potential of roof surfaces is assessed based on Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data and pyranometer measurements. Then, the time-dependent PV generation profiles, electricity distribution network configuration, and time-dependent loading profiles are used together over time-steps for selecting those roof surfaces with the highest PV potential, which would lead to the highest reduction of network losses per year. The presented procedure was implemented within a real urban area distribution network. The results obtained confirmed that PV potential assessment could be an insufficient criterion when selecting those roof surfaces suitable for the installation of PV systems. In order to obtain relevant results, network configuration and time-dependent loading and generation profiles must be considered as well. - Highlights: • Roof surfaces, suitable for installation of PV systems are evaluated and ranked. • Improved PV potential based procedure is proposed for their selection in urban areas. • Time-dependent network loading and PV generation profiles are considered. • Losses in a real electricity network are minimized in the optimization procedure. • Final selection of ranked roof surfaces is based on results of optimization.

  4. Aerosol backscatter measurements at 10.6 microns with airborne and ground-based CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains. II - Backscatter structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowdle, David A.; Rothermel, Jeffry; Vaughan, J. Michael; Post, Madison J.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of tropospheric aerosol volume backscatter coefficients at 10.6-microns wavelength were obtained with airborne continuous wave and ground-based pulsed CO2 Doppler lidars over the Colorado High Plains during a 20-day period in summer 1982. A persistent 'background' layer was found between 6- and 10-km altitude, with a generally uniform backscatter mixing ratio of about 10 to the -10th sq m/kg per sr. The upper boundary of this background layer varied with the tropopause height; the lower boundary varied with the strength and diurnal cycle of convective mixing in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). For quiescent meteorological conditions, the transition from the PBL to the background layer was usually very sharp, with backscatter decreases sometimes as large as 3 decades in about 70 m. Sharp gradients were also found at the boundaries of shallow (tens of meters) subvisible cirrus clouds. For less stable conditions, associated with vertical aerosol transport by deep cumuliform clouds, backscatter tended to decrease exponentially with altitude.

  5. Moving Beyond 2% Uncertainty: A New Framework for Quantifying Lidar Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer F.; Clifton, Andrew

    2017-03-08

    Remote sensing of wind using lidar is revolutionizing wind energy. However, current generations of wind lidar are ascribed a climatic value of uncertainty, which is based on a poor description of lidar sensitivity to external conditions. In this presentation, we show how it is important to consider the complete lidar measurement process to define the measurement uncertainty, which in turn offers the ability to define a much more granular and dynamic measurement uncertainty. This approach is a progression from the 'white box' lidar uncertainty method.

  6. Analysis of inflow parameters using LiDARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giyanani, A.H.; Bierbooms, W.A.A.M.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of LiDAR is a relatively new technique for wind resource assessment and oncoming wind prediction in wind energy. The validation of LiDAR measurements and comparisons with other sensing elements thus, is of high importance for further

  7. Lidar for Wind and Optical Turbulence Profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fastig Shlomo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A field campaign for the comparison investigation of systems to measure wind and optical turbulence profiles was conducted in northern Germany. The experimental effort was to compare the performance of the LIDAR, SODAR-RASS and ultrasonic anemometers for the measurement of the above mentioned atmospheric parameters. Soreq's LIDAR is a fiber laser based system demonstrator for the vertical profiling of the wind and turbulence, based on the correlation of aerosol density variations. It provides measurements up to 350m with 20m resolution.

  8. A user friendly Lidar system based on LabVIEW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats; Weibring, P.

    1996-09-01

    Mobile differential absorption lidar (DIAL) systems have been used for the last two decades. The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system which was first described in 1987. This report describes how that system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW in order to get a user friendly system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measurement data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. New electronics to support the new lidar program have also been installed. The report describes how all supporting electronics and the program work. A user manual for the new program is also given. 19 refs, 79 figs, 23 charts

  9. Adaptive Data Processing Technique for Lidar-Assisted Control to Bridge the Gap between Lidar Systems and Wind Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlipf, David; Raach, Steffen; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen; Fleming, Paul; Scholbrock, Andrew, Krishnamurthy, Raghu; Boquet, Mathieu

    2015-12-14

    This paper presents first steps toward an adaptive lidar data processing technique crucial for lidar-assisted control in wind turbines. The prediction time and the quality of the wind preview from lidar measurements depend on several factors and are not constant. If the data processing is not continually adjusted, the benefit of lidar-assisted control cannot be fully exploited, or can even result in harmful control action. An online analysis of the lidar and turbine data are necessary to continually reassess the prediction time and lidar data quality. In this work, a structured process to develop an analysis tool for the prediction time and a new hardware setup for lidar-assisted control are presented. The tool consists of an online estimation of the rotor effective wind speed from lidar and turbine data and the implementation of an online cross correlation to determine the time shift between both signals. Further, initial results from an ongoing campaign in which this system was employed for providing lidar preview for feed-forward pitch control are presented.

  10. Atmospheric Turbulence Estimates from a Pulsed Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruis, Matthew J.; Delisi, Donald P.; Ahmad, Nash'at N.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the eddy dissipation rate (EDR) were obtained from measurements made by a coherent pulsed lidar and compared with estimates from mesoscale model simulations and measurements from an in situ sonic anemometer at the Denver International Airport and with EDR estimates from the last observation time of the trailing vortex pair. The estimates of EDR from the lidar were obtained using two different methodologies. The two methodologies show consistent estimates of the vertical profiles. Comparison of EDR derived from the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model with the in situ lidar estimates show good agreement during the daytime convective boundary layer, but the WRF simulations tend to overestimate EDR during the nighttime. The EDR estimates from a sonic anemometer located at 7.3 meters above ground level are approximately one order of magnitude greater than both the WRF and lidar estimates - which are from greater heights - during the daytime convective boundary layer and substantially greater during the nighttime stable boundary layer. The consistency of the EDR estimates from different methods suggests a reasonable ability to predict the temporal evolution of a spatially averaged vertical profile of EDR in an airport terminal area using a mesoscale model during the daytime convective boundary layer. In the stable nighttime boundary layer, there may be added value to EDR estimates provided by in situ lidar measurements.

  11. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model Li......DAR measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  12. Excess noise in Lidar Thomson scattering methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R J; Drake, L A P; Lestz, J B

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental detection limits for the Lidar Thomson scattering technique and in particular pulsed polarimetry are presented for the first time for the long wavelength limit of incoherent Thomson scattering. Pulsed polarimetry generalizes Lidar Thomson scattering to include local magnetic field sensing. The implication for these techniques is explored for two experimental regimes where shot limited detection no longer applies: tokamaks of ITER size and cm-size wire Z pinch plasmas of High Energy Density (HED) science. The utility and importance of developing Lidar Thomson scattering at longer wavelengths for the magnetic fusion program is illustrated by a study of sightline (local) polarimetry measurements on a 15MA ITER scenario. Polarimetric measurements in the far infrared regime are shown to reach sensitivities that are instructive and useful but with a complex behaviour that make spatially resolved measurements all but mandatory.

  13. Vertical separation of the atmospheric aerosol components by using poliphon retrieval in polarized micro pulse lidar (P-MPL) measurements: case studies of specific climate-relevant aerosol types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Jabonero, Carmen; Sicard, Michaël; Ansmann, Albert; Águila, Ana del; Baars, Holger

    2018-04-01

    POLIPHON (POlarization-LIdar PHOtometer Networking) retrieval consists in the vertical separation of two/three particle components in aerosol mixtures, highlighting their relative contributions in terms of the optical properties and mass concentrations. This method is based on the specific particle linear depolarization ratio given for different types of aerosols, and is applied to the new polarized Micro-Pulse Lidar (P-MPL). Case studies of specific climate-relevant aerosols (dust particles, fire smoke, and pollen aerosols, including a clean case as reference) observed over Barcelona (Spain) are presented in order to evaluate firstly the potential of P-MPLs measurements in combination with POLIPHON for retrieving the vertical separation of those particle components forming aerosol mixtures and their properties.

  14. The design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 2: Flight test of Atmospheric Balloon Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Sheehan, W. H.

    1991-06-01

    This is Volume 3 of a three volume final report on the design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 1 describes the design and fabrication of a balloonborne CO2 coherent payload to measure the 10.6 micrometers backscatter from atmospheric aerosols as a function of altitude. Volume 2 describes the Aug. 1987 flight test of Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2. In this volume we describe groundbased lidar development and measurements. A design was developed for installation of the ABLE lidar in the GL rooftop dome. A transportable shed was designed to house the ABLE lidar at the various remote measurement sites. Refurbishment and modification of the ABLE lidar were completed to permit groundbased lidar measurements of clouds and aerosols. Lidar field measurements were made at Ascension Island during SABLE 89. Lidar field measurements were made at Terciera, Azores during GABLE 90. These tasks were successfully completed, and recommendations for further lidar measurements and data analysis were made.

  15. Airborne differential absorption lidar for water vapour measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the spectral region around 940 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poberaj, G.

    2000-07-01

    Two all-solid-state laser systems were developed and studied in detail to optimise their performance for an airborne water vapour differential absorption lidar (DIAL). Their special features are high average output powers and excellent spectral properties in the 940-nm spectral region relevant for monitoring very low water vapour contents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. One system is an injection-seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire ring laser with a spectral bandwidth of 105 MHz and an average power of 1.1 W. The other system is an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in a ring configuration. Using KTP as nonlinear crystal, a signal output with a spectral bandwidth of 140 MHz and an average power of 1.2 W was achieved. Both systems, the Ti:sapphire ring laser and the KTP OPO, possess spectral purity values higher than 99%. The pump source for these systems is a frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. The KTP OPO system has been used as a transmitter in a new airborne water vapour DIAL instrument. For the first time, measurements of two-dimensional water vapour distributions with a high vertical (500 m) and horizontal (20 km) resolution across several potential vorticity streamers were performed. Very low water vapour mixing ratios (10-50 ppmv) and strong gradients were observed in the tropopause region. The sensitivity of the DIAL instrument in the centre of a stratospheric intrusion ranges from 3% in the near field to 12% in the far field (4 km). The first comparison experiments with in situ measuring instruments show a good agreement. Considerable differences are found between DIAL measurements and data obtained from the ECMWF operational analyses and a mesoscale numerical model. (orig.)

  16. W-band spaceborne radar observations of atmospheric river events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, S. Y.

    2010-12-01

    While the main objective of the world first W-band radar aboard the CloudSat satellite is to provide vertically resolved information on clouds, it proved to be a valuable tool for observing precipitation. The CloudSat radar is generally able to resolve precipitating cloud systems in their vertical entirety. Although measurements from the liquid hydrometer layer containing rainfall are strongly attenuated, special retrieval approaches can be used to estimate rainfall parameters. These approaches are based on vertical gradients of observed radar reflectivity factor rather than on absolute estimates of reflectivity. Concurrent independent estimations of ice cloud parameters in the same vertical column allow characterization of precipitating systems and provide information on coupling between clouds and rainfall they produce. The potential of CloudSat for observations atmospheric river events affecting the West Coast of North America is evaluated. It is shown that spaceborne radar measurements can provide high resolution information on the height of the freezing level thus separating areas of rainfall and snowfall. CloudSat precipitation rate estimates complement information from the surface-based radars. Observations of atmospheric rivers at different locations above the ocean and during landfall help to understand evolutions of atmospheric rivers and their structures.

  17. Detection of Wind Evolution and Lidar Trajectory Optimization for Lidar-Assisted Wind Turbine Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schlipf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in remote sensing are offering a promising opportunity to rethink conventional control strategies of wind turbines. With technologies such as lidar, the information about the incoming wind field - the main disturbance to the system - can be made available ahead of time. Initial field testing of collective pitch feedforward control shows, that lidar measurements are only beneficial if they are filtered properly to avoid harmful control action. However, commercial lidar systems developed for site assessment are usually unable to provide a usable signal for real time control. Recent research shows, that the correlation between the measurement of rotor effective wind speed and the turbine reaction can be modeled and that the model can be used to optimize a scan pattern. This correlation depends on several criteria such as turbine size, position of the measurements, measurement volume, and how the wind evolves on its way towards the rotor. In this work the longitudinal wind evolution is identified with the line-of-sight measurements of a pulsed lidar system installed on a large commercial wind turbine. This is done by staring directly into the inflowing wind during operation of the turbine and fitting the coherence between the wind at different measurement distances to an exponential model taking into account the yaw misalignment, limitation to line-of-sight measurements and the pulse volume. The identified wind evolution is then used to optimize the scan trajectory of a scanning lidar for lidar-assisted feedforward control in order to get the best correlation possible within the constraints of the system. Further, an adaptive filer is fitted to the modeled correlation to avoid negative impact of feedforward control because of uncorrelated frequencies of the wind measurement. The main results of the presented work are a first estimate of the wind evolution in front of operating wind turbines and an approach which manufacturers of

  18. 2003 Oahu Coastline Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. Using a combination of laser rangefinding, GPS positioning...

  19. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  20. LIDAR Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection contains 21 papers on the application and development of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Thomson scattering techniques for the determination of spatially resolved electron temperature and density in magnetic confinement experiments, particularly tokamaks. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. Lidar 2009 - All Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing classified points of all returns. We have 3 classifications Unclassified, Ground, Low points. The average Ground Sample...

  2. Installation report - Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project.......The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project....

  3. Development of a Dynamic Lidar Uncertainty Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clifton, Andrew [WindForS; Bonin, Timothy [CIRES/NOAA ESRL; Choukulkar, Aditya [CIRES/NOAA ESRL; Brewer, W. Alan [NOAA ESRL; Delgado, Ruben [University of Maryland Baltimore County

    2017-08-07

    As wind turbine sizes increase and wind energy expands to more complex and remote sites, remote-sensing devices such as lidars are expected to play a key role in wind resource assessment and power performance testing. The switch to remote-sensing devices represents a paradigm shift in the way the wind industry typically obtains and interprets measurement data for wind energy. For example, the measurement techniques and sources of uncertainty for a remote-sensing device are vastly different from those associated with a cup anemometer on a meteorological tower. Current IEC standards for quantifying remote sensing device uncertainty for power performance testing consider uncertainty due to mounting, calibration, and classification of the remote sensing device, among other parameters. Values of the uncertainty are typically given as a function of the mean wind speed measured by a reference device and are generally fixed, leading to climatic uncertainty values that apply to the entire measurement campaign. However, real-world experience and a consideration of the fundamentals of the measurement process have shown that lidar performance is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions, such as wind shear, turbulence, and aerosol content. At present, these conditions are not directly incorporated into the estimated uncertainty of a lidar device. In this presentation, we describe the development of a new dynamic lidar uncertainty framework that adapts to current flow conditions and more accurately represents the actual uncertainty inherent in lidar measurements under different conditions. In this new framework, sources of uncertainty are identified for estimation of the line-of-sight wind speed and reconstruction of the three-dimensional wind field. These sources are then related to physical processes caused by the atmosphere and lidar operating conditions. The framework is applied to lidar data from a field measurement site to assess the ability of the framework to predict

  4. Lidar measurements of boundary layer depolarization and CCSEM-EDX compositional analysis of airborne particles on collocated passive samplers throughout the forest canopy during the 2016 airborne pollen season at UMBS, Pellston, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, M. C.; Steiner, A.; Ault, A. P.; Kort, E. A.; Lersch, T.; Casuccio, G.

    2017-12-01

    Observations of airborne pollen are typically made with volumetric samplers that obtain a time-averaged pollen concentration at a single point. While spatial variations in surface pollen concentrations may be known with these samplers given multiple sampling sites, real-time boundary layer transport of pollen grains cannot be determined except by particle dispersion or tracer transport models. Recently, light detection and ranging (lidar) techniques, such as depolarization, have been used to measure pollen transport and optical properties throughout the boundary layer over time. Here, we use a ground-based micro-pulse lidar (MPL) to observe boundary layer vertical profiles before, during and after the peak anemophilous (wind-driven) pollen season. The lidar depolarization ratio is measured in tandem with the normalized R-squared backscatter (NRB) intensity to determine the contribution of aspherical particles to the scatterers present throughout the boundary layer. Measurements are taken from April 15 - July 12, 2016 at the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) PROPHET outdoor research lab and tower within a largely forested region. UMBS is dominated by Acer rubrum, Betula papyrifera, Pinus resinosa, Quercus rubra and Pinus strobus, all of which began flowering on 4/19, 5/3, 5/25, 5/25 and 6/14, respectively. Temperature, relative humidity and wind speed measured on site determine daytime conditions conducive to pollen dispersion from flowers. Lidar depolarization ratios between 0.08-0.14 and higher are observed in the daytime boundary layer on days shortly after the flowering dates of the aforementioned species, elevated above the background level of 0.06 or less. Lidar observations are supplemented with aerosol compositional analysis determined by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX) on passive sampler data from below, within and above the forest canopy at PROPHET tower. Particles are

  5. High spectral resolution lidar based on quad mach zehnder interferometer for aerosols and wind measurements on board space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal, Jean-François; Bruneau, Didier; Pelon, Jacques; Van Haecke, Mathilde; Blouzon, Frédéric; Montmessin, Franck; Chepfer, Hélène

    2018-04-01

    We present the measurement principle and the optical design of a Quad Mach Zehnder (QMZ) interferometer as HSRL technique, allowing simultaneous measurements of particle backscattering and wind velocity. Key features of this concept is to operate with a multimodal laser and do not require any frequency stabilization. These features are relevant especially for space applications for which high technical readiness level is required.

  6. Conically scanning lidar error in complex terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Bingöl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Conically scanning lidars assume the flow to be homogeneous in order to deduce the horizontal wind speed. However, in mountainous or complex terrain this assumption is not valid implying a risk that the lidar will derive an erroneous wind speed. The magnitude of this error is measured by collocating a meteorological mast and a lidar at two Greek sites, one hilly and one mountainous. The maximum error for the sites investigated is of the order of 10 %. In order to predict the error for various wind directions the flows at both sites are simulated with the linearized flow model, WAsP Engineering 2.0. The measurement data are compared with the model predictions with good results for the hilly site, but with less success at the mountainous site. This is a deficiency of the flow model, but the methods presented in this paper can be used with any flow model.

  7. Field test of a lidar wind profiler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Wind speeds and wind directions are measured remotely using an incoherent backscatter lidar system operating at a wavelength of 1.06 mm with a maximum repetition rate of 13 Hz. The principle of the measurements is based on following detectable atmospheric structures, which are transported by the

  8. An Adaptive Ship Detection Scheme for Spaceborne SAR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangguang Leng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR and the increasing need of ship detection, research on adaptive ship detection in spaceborne SAR imagery is of great importance. Focusing on practical problems of ship detection, this paper presents a highly adaptive ship detection scheme for spaceborne SAR imagery. It is able to process a wide range of sensors, imaging modes and resolutions. Two main stages are identified in this paper, namely: ship candidate detection and ship discrimination. Firstly, this paper proposes an adaptive land masking method using ship size and pixel size. Secondly, taking into account the imaging mode, incidence angle, and polarization channel of SAR imagery, it implements adaptive ship candidate detection in spaceborne SAR imagery by applying different strategies to different resolution SAR images. Finally, aiming at different types of typical false alarms, this paper proposes a comprehensive ship discrimination method in spaceborne SAR imagery based on confidence level and complexity analysis. Experimental results based on RADARSAT-1, RADARSAT-2, TerraSAR-X, RS-1, and RS-3 images demonstrate that the adaptive scheme proposed in this paper is able to detect ship targets in a fast, efficient and robust way.

  9. Uncertainty Assessment of Space-Borne Passive Soil Moisture Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quets, Jan; De Lannoy, Gabrielle; Reichle, Rolf; Cosh, Michael; van der Schalie, Robin; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The uncertainty associated with passive soil moisture retrieval is hard to quantify, and known to be underlain by various, diverse, and complex causes. Factors affecting space-borne retrieved soil moisture estimation include: (i) the optimization or inversion method applied to the radiative transfer model (RTM), such as e.g. the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA), or the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), (ii) the selection of the observed brightness temperatures (Tbs), e.g. polarization and incidence angle, (iii) the definition of the cost function and the impact of prior information in it, and (iv) the RTM parameterization (e.g. parameterizations officially used by the SMOS L2 and SMAP L2 retrieval products, ECMWF-based SMOS assimilation product, SMAP L4 assimilation product, and perturbations from those configurations). This study aims at disentangling the relative importance of the above-mentioned sources of uncertainty, by carrying out soil moisture retrieval experiments, using SMOS Tb observations in different settings, of which some are mentioned above. The ensemble uncertainties are evaluated at 11 reference CalVal sites, over a time period of more than 5 years. These experimental retrievals were inter-compared, and further confronted with in situ soil moisture measurements and operational SMOS L2 retrievals, using commonly used skill metrics to quantify the temporal uncertainty in the retrievals.

  10. High spectral resolution lidar based on quad mach zehnder interferometer for aerosols and wind measurements on board space missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariscal Jean-François

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the measurement principle and the optical design of a Quad Mach Zehnder (QMZ interferometer as HSRL technique, allowing simultaneous measurements of particle backscattering and wind velocity. Key features of this concept is to operate with a multimodal laser and do not require any frequency stabilization. These features are relevant especially for space applications for which high technical readiness level is required.

  11. A Variational Method to Retrieve the Extinction Profile in Liquid Clouds Using Multiple Field-of-View Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pounder, Nicola L.; Hogan, Robin J.; Varnai, Tamas; Battaglia, Alessandro; Cahalan, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    While liquid clouds playa very important role in the global radiation budget, it's been very difficult to remotely determine their internal cloud structure. Ordinary lidar instruments (similar to radars but using visible light pulses) receive strong signals from such clouds, but the information is limited to a thin layer near the cloud boundary. Multiple field-of-view (FOV) lidars offer some new hope as they are able to isolate photons that were scattered many times by cloud droplets and penetrated deep into a cloud before returning to the instrument. Their data contains new information on cloud structure, although the lack of fast simulation methods made it challenging to interpret the observations. This paper describes a fast new technique that can simulate multiple-FOV lidar signals and can even estimate the way the signals would change in response to changes in cloud properties-an ability that allows quick refinements in our initial guesses of cloud structure. Results for a hypothetical airborne three-FOV lidar suggest that this approach can help determine cloud structure for a deeper layer in clouds, and can reliably determine the optical thickness of even fairly thick liquid clouds. The algorithm is also applied to stratocumulus observations by the 8-FOV airborne "THOR" lidar. These tests demonstrate that the new method can determine the depth to which a lidar provides useful information on vertical cloud structure. This work opens the way to exploit data from spaceborne lidar and radar more rigorously than has been possible up to now.

  12. Airborne Lidar Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global surface height mapping within a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission in 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  13. 3D WindScanner lidar measurements of wind and turbulence around wind turbines, buildings and bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas

    2017-01-01

    WindScanner is a distributed research infrastructure developed at DTU with the participation of a number of European countries. The research infrastructure consists of a mobile technically advanced facility for remote measurement of wind and turbulence in 3D. The WindScanners provide coordinated...... structures and of flow in urban environments. The mobile WindScanner facility enables 3D scanning of wind and turbulence fields in full scale within the atmospheric boundary layer at ranges from 10 meters to 5 (10) kilometers. Measurements of turbulent coherent structures are applied for investigation...

  14. Development, Field Testing, and Evaluation of LIDAR Assisted Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrmann, Robert [Asltom Power Inc.; Wang, Na [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guadayol, Marc [Alstom Power Inc.; Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Arora, Dhiraj [Alstom Power Inc.

    2015-05-18

    Typical wind turbines utilize feedback controllers which have a delayed response to winds peed disturbances. A nacelle mounted LIght Detection and Ranging(LIDAR) system measures a preview wind signal in front of the turbine. This can be included in a feed-forward control system, improving turbine pitch command for incoming variations in wind speed. The overall aim is reduced blade and tower fatigue, and potentially improved annual energy production. To be successful, the LIDAR must yield accurate wind speed measurements. Therefore, a LIDAR was characterized against a nearby met tower and turbine wind speed estimator. Results indicate good correlation between measurements.

  15. 2014 OLC Lidar: Colville, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI, a Quantum Spatial company, has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Colville study area. This study area is...

  16. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Chelan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Chelan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  17. 2015 OLC Lidar: Okanogan WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Okanogan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  18. 2012 USGS Lidar: Juneau (AK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This task order is for planning, acquisition, processing, and derivative products of LiDAR data to be collected for Juneau, Alaska. LiDAR data, and derivative...

  19. 3D WindScanner lidar measurements of wind and turbulence around wind turbines, buildings and bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mann, J.

    2017-12-01

    WindScanner is a distributed research infrastructure developed at DTU with the participation of a number of European countries. The research infrastructure consists of a mobile technically advanced facility for remote measurement of wind and turbulence in 3D. The WindScanners provide coordinated measurements of the entire wind and turbulence fields, of all three wind components scanned in 3D space. Although primarily developed for research related to on- and offshore wind turbines and wind farms, the facility is also well suited for scanning turbulent wind fields around buildings, bridges, aviation structures and of flow in urban environments. The mobile WindScanner facility enables 3D scanning of wind and turbulence fields in full scale within the atmospheric boundary layer at ranges from 10 meters to 5 (10) kilometers. Measurements of turbulent coherent structures are applied for investigation of flow pattern and dynamical loads from turbines, building structures and bridges and in relation to optimization of the location of, for example, wind farms and suspension bridges. This paper presents our achievements to date and reviews briefly the state-of-the-art of the WindScanner measurement technology with examples of uses for wind engineering applications.

  20. Coupled simulations and comparison with multi-lidar measurements of the wind flow over a double-ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veiga Rodrigues, C.; Palma, J.M.L.M.; Vasiljevic, Nikola

    2016-01-01

    measurements up to 500 m height and the mapping of the wind speed onto a two-dimensional transect crossing the valley. The site, known as Serra do Perdigão, is located in central Portugal and consists of two parallel ridges 1.4 km apart with height differences of 200 m in between, being characterized by rough...

  1. Comparison of ambient aerosol extinction coefficients obtained from in-situ, MAX-DOAS and LIDAR measurements at Cabauw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zieger, P.; Weingartner, E.; Henzing, J.; Moerman, M.; Leeuw, G. de; Mikkilä, J.; Ehn, M.; Petäjä, T.; Clémer, K.; Roozendael, M. van; Yilmaz, S.; Frieß, U.; Irie, H.; Wagner, T.; Shaiganfar, R.; Beirle, S.; Apituley, A.; Wilson, K.; Baltensperger, U.

    2011-01-01

    In the field, aerosol in-situ measurements are often performed under dry conditions (relative humidity RH<30-40%). Since ambient aerosol particles experience hygroscopic growth at enhanced RH, their microphysical and optical properties especially the aerosol light scattering are also strongly

  2. Turbulence estimation from a continuous-wave scanning lidar (SpinnerLidar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnhoorn, J.G.; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2017-01-01

    out, and 2) the mixing of velocity covariances from other components into the line-of-sight variance measurements. However, turbulence measurements based on upwind horizontal rotor plane scanning of the line-of-sight variance measurements combined with ensemble-averaged Doppler spectra width...... deviations averaged over 10-min sampling periods are compared. Lidar variances are inherently more prone to noise which always yields a positive bias. The 5.3 % higher turbulence level measured by the SpinnerLidar relative to the cup anemometer may equally well be attributed to truncation of turbulent...

  3. A GUI visualization system for airborne lidar image data to reconstruct 3D city model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Yoshiyuki; Koizumi, Kohei

    2015-10-01

    A visualization toolbox system with graphical user interfaces (GUIs) was developed for the analysis of LiDAR point cloud data, as a compound object oriented widget application in IDL (Interractive Data Language). The main features in our system include file input and output abilities, data conversion capability from ascii formatted LiDAR point cloud data to LiDAR image data whose pixel value corresponds the altitude measured by LiDAR, visualization of 2D/3D images in various processing steps and automatic reconstruction ability of 3D city model. The performance and advantages of our graphical user interface (GUI) visualization system for LiDAR data are demonstrated.

  4. Atmospheric lidar: Legal, scientific and technological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Fiorani, L.; Palucci, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Atmospheric Lidar is one of the systems of the Mobile Laboratory of Laser Remote Sensing under development at the ENEA Research Center of Frascati. This technical report addresses the legislative, scientific and technological aspects that are the basis for the identification of the requirements, the definition of the architecture and the fixation of the specifications of the Atmospheric Lidar. The problems of air pollution are introduced in section 2. A summary of the Italian laws on that topic is then given. Section 4 provides a survey of the atmospheric measurements that can be achieved with the lidar. The sensitivity in the monitoring of pollutants is discussed in section 5. The other systems of the Mobile Laboratory of Laser Remote Sensing are shortly described in section 6. The last section is devoted to conclusions and perspectives [it

  5. Comparison of Aerosol Classification Results from Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Measurements and the Calipso Vertical Feature Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, S. P.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Obland, M. D.; Butler, C. F.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Froyd, K. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the vertical profile, composition, concentration, and size of aerosols is required for assessing the direct impact of aerosols on radiation, the indirect effects of aerosols on clouds and precipitation, and attributing these effects to natural and anthropogenic aerosols. Because anthropogenic aerosols are predominantly submicrometer, fine mode fraction (FMF) retrievals from satellite have been used as a tool for deriving anthropogenic aerosols. Although column and profile satellite retrievals of FMF have been performed over the ocean, such retrievals have not yet been been done over land. Consequently, uncertainty in satellite estimates of the anthropogenic component of the aerosol direct radiative forcing is greatest over land, due in large part to uncertainties in the FMF. Satellite measurements have been used to detect and evaluate aerosol impacts on clouds; however, such efforts have been hampered by the difficulty in retrieving vertically-resolved cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, which is the most direct parameter linking aerosol and clouds. Recent studies have shown correlations between average satellite derived column aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and in situ measured CCN. However, these same studies, as well as others that use detailed airborne in situ measurements have noted that vertical variability of the aerosol distribution, impacts of relative humidity, and the presence of coarse mode aerosols such as dust introduce large uncertainties in such relations.

  6. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  7. Development of atmospheric polarization LIDAR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalumyan, A.S.; Ghazaryan, V.R.

    2016-01-01

    LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system sensitive to the polarization of the backscattered signal is being developed in Yerevan Physics Institute. The system is designed primarily for remote sensing of the atmospheric electric fields. At present, the system is being tuned for measuring vertical atmospheric backscatter profiles of aerosols and hydrometeors, analyze the depolarization ratio of elastic backscattered laser beams and investigate the influence of external factors on the beam polarization. In this paper, we describe the complete LIDAR system – the laser transmitter, receiving telescope and the polarization separator. The data acquisition and processing techniques are also described. (author)

  8. Optical registration of spaceborne low light remote sensing camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong-yang; Hao, Yan-hui; Xu, Peng-mei; Wang, Dong-jie; Ma, Li-na; Zhao, Ying-long

    2018-02-01

    For the high precision requirement of spaceborne low light remote sensing camera optical registration, optical registration of dual channel for CCD and EMCCD is achieved by the high magnification optical registration system. System integration optical registration and accuracy of optical registration scheme for spaceborne low light remote sensing camera with short focal depth and wide field of view is proposed in this paper. It also includes analysis of parallel misalignment of CCD and accuracy of optical registration. Actual registration results show that imaging clearly, MTF and accuracy of optical registration meet requirements, it provide important guarantee to get high quality image data in orbit.

  9. Deciphering the Precision of Stereo IKONOS Canopy Height Models for US Forests with G-LiHT Airborne LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S. R. Neigh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the precision of IKONOS stereo data for measuring forest canopy height. The high cost of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR data collection for large area studies and the present lack of a spaceborne instrument lead to the need to explore other low cost options. The US Government currently has access to a large archive of commercial high-resolution imagery, which could be quite valuable to forest structure studies. At 1 m resolution, we here compared canopy height models (CHMs and height data derived from Goddard’s airborne LiDAR Hyper-spectral and Thermal Imager (G-LiHT with three types of IKONOS stereo derived digital surface models (DSMs that estimate CHMs by subtracting National Elevation Data (NED digital terrain models (DTMs. We found the following in three different forested regions of the US after excluding heterogeneous and disturbed forest samples: (1 G-LiHT DTMs were highly correlated with NED DTMs with R2 > 0.98 and root mean square errors (RMSEs < 2.96 m; (2 when using one visually identifiable ground control point (GCP from NED, G-LiHT DSMs and IKONOS DSMs had R2 > 0.84 and RMSEs of 2.7 to 4.1 m; and (3 one GCP CHMs for two study sites had R2 > 0.7 and RMSEs of 2.6 to 3 m where data were collected less than four years apart. Our results suggest that IKONOS stereo data are a useful LiDAR alternative where high-quality DTMs are available.

  10. First airborne water vapor lidar measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and mid-latitudes lower stratosphere: accuracy evaluation and intercomparisons with other instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schiller

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In the tropics, deep convection is the major source of uncertainty in water vapor transport to the upper troposphere and into the stratosphere. Although accurate measurements in this region would be of first order importance to better understand the processes that govern stratospheric water vapor concentrations and trends in the context of a changing climate, they are sparse because of instrumental shortcomings and observational challenges. Therefore, the Falcon research aircraft of the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR flew a zenith-viewing water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL during the Tropical Convection, Cirrus and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment (TROCCINOX in 2004 and 2005 in Brazil. The measurements were performed alternatively on three water vapor absorption lines of different strength around 940 nm. These are the first aircraft DIAL measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and in the mid-latitudes lower stratosphere. Sensitivity analyses reveal an accuracy of 5% between altitudes of 8 and 16 km. This is confirmed by intercomparisons with the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer (FISH and the Fluorescent Advanced Stratospheric Hygrometer (FLASH onboard the Russian M-55 Geophysica research aircraft during five coordinated flights. The average relative differences between FISH and DIAL amount to −3%±8% and between FLASH and DIAL to −8%±14%, negative meaning DIAL is more humid. The average distance between the probed air masses was 129 km. The DIAL is found to have no altitude- or latitude-dependent bias. A comparison with the balloon ascent of a laser absorption spectrometer gives an average difference of 0%±19% at a distance of 75 km. Six tropical DIAL under-flights of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on board ENVISAT reveal a mean difference of −8%±49% at an average distance of 315 km. While the comparison with MIPAS is somewhat less significant due to poorer

  11. Remote sensing of high-latitude ionization profiles by ground-based and spaceborne instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondrak, R.R.

    1981-01-01

    Ionospheric specification and modeling are now largely based on data provided by active remote sensing with radiowave techniques (ionosondes, incoherent-scatter radars, and satellite beacons). More recently, passive remote sensing techniques have been developed that can be used to monitor quantitatively the spatial distribution of high-latitude E-region ionization. These passive methods depend on the measurement, or inference, of the energy distribution of precipitating kilovolt electrons, the principal source of the nighttime E-region at high latitudes. To validate these techniques, coordinated measurements of the auroral ionosphere have been made with the Chatanika incoherent-scatter radar and a variety of ground-based and spaceborne sensors

  12. Results of the Simulation and Assimilation of Doppler Wind Lidar Observations in Preparation for European Space Agency's Aeolus Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Will

    2011-01-01

    With the launch of the European Space Agency's Aeolus Mission in 2013, direct spaceborne measurements of vertical wind profiles are imminent via Doppler wind lidar technology. Part of the preparedness for such missions is the development of the proper data assimilation methodology for handling such observations. Since no heritage measurements exist in space, the Joint Observing System Simulation Experiment (Joint OSSE) framework has been utilized to generate a realistic proxy dataset as a precursor to flight. These data are being used for the development of the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) data assimilation system utilized at a number of centers through the United States including the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NOAA/NWS/NCEP) as an activity through the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation. An update of this ongoing effort will be presented, including the methodology of proxy data generation, the limitations of the proxy data, the handling of line-of-sight wind measurements within the GSI, and the impact on both analyses and forecasts with the addition of the new data type.

  13. The LIDAR Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salzmann, H.; Bundgaard, J.; Gadd, A.

    1988-01-01

    By combining the time‐of‐flight or LIDAR principle with a Thomson backscatter diagnostic, spatial profiles of the electron temperature and density are measured in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. This technique was realized for the first time on the JET tokamak. A ruby laser (3‐J pulse ener...

  14. Project ABLE: (Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Sheehan, W. H.

    1985-03-01

    Project ABLE (Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment) is part of the A.F. Geophysics Laboratory's continuing interest in developing techniques for making remote measurements of atmospheric quantities such as density, pressure, temperatures, and wind motions. The system consists of a balloonborne lidar payload designed to measure neutral molecular density as a function of altitude from ground level to 70 km. The lidar provides backscatter data at the doubled and tripled frequencies of a Nd:YAG laser, which will assist in the separation of the molecular and aerosol contributions and subsequent determination of molecular and aerosol contributions and subsequent determination of molecular density vs altitude. The object of this contract was to fabricate and operate in a field test a balloonborne lidar experiment capable of performing nighttime atmospheric density measurements up to 70 km altitude with a resolution of 150 meters. The payload included a frequency-doubled and -tripled Nd:YAG laser with outputs at 355 and 532 nm; a telescoped receiver with PMT detectors; a command-controlled optical pointing system; and support system, including thermal control, telmetry, command, and power. Successful backscatter measurements were made during field operations which included a balloon launch from Roswell, NM and a flight over the White Sands Missile Range.

  15. Lidar-Radiometer Inversion Code (LIRIC) for the Retrieval of Vertical Aerosol Properties from Combined Lidar Radiometer Data: Development and Distribution in EARLINET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikovsky, A.; Dubovik, O.; Holben, Brent N.; Bril, A.; Goloub, P.; Tanre, D.; Pappalardo, G.; Wandinger, U.; Chaikovskaya, L.; Denisov, S.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed description of LIRIC (LIdar-Radiometer Inversion Code)algorithm for simultaneous processing of coincident lidar and radiometric (sun photometric) observations for the retrieval of the aerosol concentration vertical profiles. As the lidar radiometric input data we use measurements from European Aerosol Re-search Lidar Network (EARLINET) lidars and collocated sun-photometers of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The LIRIC data processing provides sequential inversion of the combined lidar and radiometric data by the estimations of column-integrated aerosol parameters from radiometric measurements followed by the retrieval of height-dependent concentrations of fine and coarse aerosols from lidar signals using integrated column characteristics of aerosol layer as a priori constraints. The use of polarized lidar observations allows us to discriminate between spherical and non-spherical particles of the coarse aerosol mode. The LIRIC software package was implemented and tested at a number of EARLINET stations. Inter-comparison of the LIRIC-based aerosol retrievals was performed for the observations by seven EARLNET lidars in Leipzig, Germany on 25 May 2009. We found close agreement between the aerosol parameters derived from different lidars that supports high robustness of the LIRIC algorithm. The sensitivity of the retrieval results to the possible reduction of the available observation data is also discussed.

  16. Lightweight high-performance 1-4 meter class spaceborne mirrors: emerging technology for demanding spaceborne requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Tony; Hartmann, Peter; Clarkson, Andrew R.; Barentine, John M.; Jedamzik, Ralf; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Pending critical spaceborne requirements, including coronagraphic detection of exoplanets, require exceptionally smooth mirror surfaces, aggressive lightweighting, and low-risk cost-effective optical manufacturing methods. Simultaneous development at Schott for production of aggressively lightweighted (>90%) Zerodur® mirror blanks, and at L-3 Brashear for producing ultra-smooth surfaces on Zerodur®, will be described. New L-3 techniques for large-mirror optical fabrication include Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) pioneered at L-3 Tinsley, and the world's largest MRF machine in place at L-3 Brashear. We propose that exceptional mirrors for the most critical spaceborne applications can now be produced with the technologies described.

  17. MIPAS temperature from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere: Comparison of vM21 with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and lidar measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Comas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present vM21 MIPAS temperatures from the lower stratosphere to the lower thermosphere, which cover all optimized resolution measurements performed by MIPAS in the middle-atmosphere, upper-atmosphere and noctilucent-cloud modes during its lifetime, i.e., from January 2005 to April 2012. The main upgrades with respect to the previous version of MIPAS temperatures (vM11 are the update of the spectroscopic database, the use of a different climatology of atomic oxygen and carbon dioxide, and the improvement in important technical aspects of the retrieval setup (temperature gradient along the line of sight and offset regularizations, apodization accuracy. Additionally, an updated version of ESA-calibrated L1b spectra (5.02/5.06 is used. The vM21 temperatures correct the main systematic errors of the previous version because they provide on average a 1–2 K warmer stratopause and middle mesosphere, and a 6–10 K colder mesopause (except in high-latitude summers and lower thermosphere. These lead to a remarkable improvement in MIPAS comparisons with ACE-FTS, MLS, OSIRIS, SABER, SOFIE and the two Rayleigh lidars at Mauna Loa and Table Mountain, which, with a few specific exceptions, typically exhibit differences smaller than 1 K below 50 km and than 2 K at 50–80 km in spring, autumn and winter at all latitudes, and summer at low to midlatitudes. Differences in the high-latitude summers are typically smaller than 1 K below 50 km, smaller than 2 K at 50–65 km and 5 K at 65–80 km. Differences between MIPAS and the other instruments in the mid-mesosphere are generally negative. MIPAS mesopause is within 4 K of the other instruments measurements, except in the high-latitude summers, when it is within 5–10 K, being warmer there than SABER, MLS and OSIRIS and colder than ACE-FTS and SOFIE. The agreement in the lower thermosphere is typically better than 5 K, except for high latitudes during spring and summer, when MIPAS usually exhibits larger

  18. Using LiDAR data to measure the 3D green biomass of Beijing urban forest in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Cheng; Convertino, Matteo; Feng, Zhongke; Zhang, Siyu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to find a new approach to measure 3D green biomass of urban forest and to testify its precision. In this study, the 3D green biomass could be acquired on basis of a remote sensing inversion model in which each standing wood was first scanned by Terrestrial Laser Scanner to catch its point cloud data, then the point cloud picture was opened in a digital mapping data acquisition system to get the elevation in an independent coordinate, and at last the individual volume captured was associated with the remote sensing image in SPOT5(System Probatoired'Observation dela Tarre)by means of such tools as SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions), GIS (Geographic Information System), RS (Remote Sensing) and spatial analysis software (FARO SCENE and Geomagic studio11). The results showed that the 3D green biomass of Beijing urban forest was 399.1295 million m(3), of which coniferous was 28.7871 million m(3) and broad-leaf was 370.3424 million m(3). The accuracy of 3D green biomass was over 85%, comparison with the values from 235 field sample data in a typical sampling way. This suggested that the precision done by the 3D forest green biomass based on the image in SPOT5 could meet requirements. This represents an improvement over the conventional method because it not only provides a basis to evalue indices of Beijing urban greenings, but also introduces a new technique to assess 3D green biomass in other cities.

  19. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  20. Ground-truth aerosol lidar observations: can the Klett solutions obtained from ground and space be equal for the same aerosol case?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansmann, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Upcoming multiyear satellite lidar aerosol observations need strong support by a worldwide ground-truth lidar network. In this context the question arises as to whether the ground stations can deliver the same results as obtained from space when the Klett formalism is applied to elastic backscatter lidar data for the same aerosol case. This question is investigated based on simulations of observed cases of simple and complex aerosol layering. The results show that the differences between spaceborne and ground-based observations can be as large as20% for the backscatter and extinction coefficients and the optimum estimates of the column lidar ratios. In cases with complex aerosol layering, the application of the two-layer approach can lead to similar results (space, ground) and accurate products provided that horizontally homogeneous aerosol conditions are given