WorldWideScience

Sample records for space-enclosing systems materials

  1. Material Systems

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  2. Materials management information systems.

    1996-01-01

    The hospital materials management function--ensuring that goods and services get from a source to an end user--encompasses many areas of the hospital and can significantly affect hospital costs. Performing this function in a manner that will keep costs down and ensure adequate cash flow requires effective management of a large amount of information from a variety of sources. To effectively coordinate such information, most hospitals have implemented some form of materials management information system (MMIS). These systems can be used to automate or facilitate functions such as purchasing, accounting, inventory management, and patient supply charges. In this study, we evaluated seven MMISs from seven vendors, focusing on the functional capabilities of each system and the quality of the service and support provided by the vendor. This Evaluation is intended to (1) assist hospitals purchasing an MMIS by educating materials managers about the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs and (2) educate clinical engineers and information system managers about the scope of materials management within a healthcare facility. Because software products cannot be evaluated in the same manner as most devices typically included in Health Devices Evaluations, our standard Evaluation protocol was not applicable for this technology. Instead, we based our ratings on our observations (e.g., during site visits), interviews we conducted with current users of each system, and information provided by the vendor (e.g., in response to a request for information [RFI]). We divided the Evaluation into the following sections: Section 1. Responsibilities and Information Requirements of Materials Management: Provides an overview of typical materials management functions and describes the capabilities, benefits, and limitations of MMISs. Also includes the supplementary article, "Inventory Cost and Reimbursement Issues" and the glossary, "Materials Management Terminology." Section 2. The

  3. Integrated material accountancy system

    Calabozo, M.; Buiza, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we present the system that we are actually using for Nuclear Material Accounting and Manufacturing Management in our UO 2 Fuel Fabrication Plant located at Juzbado, Salamanca, Spain. The system is based mainly on a real time data base which gather data for all the operations performed in our factory from UO 2 powder reception to fuel assemblies shipment to the customers. The accountancy is just an important part of the whole integrated system covering all the aspects related to manufacturing: planning, traceability, Q.C. analysis, production control and accounting data

  4. Natural Materials, Systems & Extremophiles

    2012-03-06

    system. Linked: FY11 AFRL/RX pgm • Structural Coloration – new area, several PIs moving in and out; MURI (Harvard) • Biopolymers – Mainly silk but...looking at other biopolymers . The silk work is well integrated with AFRL; many exchanges of personnel & material. Some PIs moving out with...it pertains to marking items. • Silk – DARPA has contributed to my existing program. ARO has a single grantee. ONR funds a single investigator. NSF

  5. Information system revives materials management

    Hansen, T.

    1995-01-01

    Through a change in philosophy and the development of a new, more efficient information management system, Arizona Public Service Co. (APSW) has, in less than two years, reduced material and service costs by 10 percent. The utility plans to cut these costs form 1993 figures by 25 percent before 2000. The utility is breaking new ground with ongoing implementation of new business processes and the new Materials Logistics Information System (MLIS), which has been co-developed with Texas Instruments Software Division (TISD)

  6. Nuclear material statistical accountancy system

    Argentest, F.; Casilli, T.; Franklin, M.

    1979-01-01

    The statistical accountancy system developed at JRC Ispra is refered as 'NUMSAS', ie Nuclear Material Statistical Accountancy System. The principal feature of NUMSAS is that in addition to an ordinary material balance calcultation, NUMSAS can calculate an estimate of the standard deviation of the measurement error accumulated in the material balance calculation. The purpose of the report is to describe in detail, the statistical model on wich the standard deviation calculation is based; the computational formula which is used by NUMSAS in calculating the standard deviation and the information about nuclear material measurements and the plant measurement system which are required as data for NUMSAS. The material balance records require processing and interpretation before the material balance calculation is begun. The material balance calculation is the last of four phases of data processing undertaken by NUMSAS. Each of these phases is implemented by a different computer program. The activities which are carried out in each phase can be summarised as follows; the pre-processing phase; the selection and up-date phase; the transformation phase, and the computation phase

  7. Mechatronic systems and materials III

    Gosiewski, Zdzislaw

    2009-01-01

    This very interesting volume is divided into 24 sections; each of which covers, in detail, one aspect of the subject-matter: I. Industrial robots; II. Microrobotics; III. Mobile robots; IV. Teleoperation, telerobotics, teleoperated semi-autonomous systems; V. Sensors and actuators in mechatronics; VI. Control of mechatronic systems; VII. Analysis of vibration and deformation; VIII. Optimization, optimal design; IX. Integrated diagnostics; X. Failure analysis; XI. Tribology in mechatronic systems; XII. Analysis of signals; XIII. Measurement techniques; XIV. Multifunctional and smart materials;

  8. Imaging systems and materials characterization

    Murr, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad background for the historical development and modern applications of light optical metallography, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, field-ion microscopy and several forms of scanning probe microscopes. Numerous case examples illustrating especially synergistic applications of these imaging systems are provided to demonstrate materials characterization especially in the context of structure-property-performance issues which define materials science and engineering

  9. Supercapacitors materials, systems and applications

    Lu, Max; Frackowiak, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Written by an international group of leading experts from both academia and industry, this is the first comprehensive book on the topic for 10 years. Taking into account the commercial interest in these systems and the scientific and technological developments over the past decade, all important materials and systems are covered, with several chapters devoted to topics of direct industrial relevance.The book starts by providing an introduction to the general principles of electrochemistry, the properties of electrochemical capacitors, and electrochemical characterization techniques. There

  10. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  11. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences

  12. Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System

    Radle, James E.; Archer, Daniel E.; Carter, Robert J.; Mullens, James Allen; Mihalczo, John T.; Britton, Charles L. Jr.; Lind, Randall F.; Wright, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The Fieldable Nuclear Material Identification System (FNMIS), funded by the NA-241 Office of Dismantlement and Transparency, provides information to determine the material attributes and identity of heavily shielded nuclear objects. This information will provide future treaty participants with verifiable information required by the treaty regime. The neutron interrogation technology uses a combination of information from induced fission neutron radiation and transmitted neutron imaging information to provide high confidence that the shielded item is consistent with the host's declaration. The combination of material identification information and the shape and configuration of the item are very difficult to spoof. When used at various points in the warhead dismantlement sequence, the information complimented by tags and seals can be used to track subassembly and piece part information as the disassembly occurs. The neutron transmission imaging has been developed during the last seven years and the signature analysis over the last several decades. The FNMIS is the culmination of the effort to put the technology in a usable configuration for potential treaty verification purposes.

  13. Intelligent material systems - The dawn of a new materials age

    Rogers, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    The intelligent material system solution to such engineering problems as the design of a robotic arm borrows directly from biological analogs; materials that behave much as muscles do during contraction can be employed as induced strain actuators which work against the intrinsic structural impedance of the component. Unlike actual human arms, which are jointed, the intelligent structure may be a continuum. The adaptation of structural impedance may be regarded as the most fundamental and consequential concept in the field of intelligent material systems

  14. Material control system simulator user's manual

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the use of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts

  15. Materials for spaceborne laser systems

    Gusarov, A.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced laser systems are attracting a growing interest for space missions, in particular for LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) applications. An important issue for the LIDARs is the very strict requirements on the optical performance and more specifically the need for a high optical output power combined with a nearly perfect output beam quality. These features are traditionally in conflict with each other. Thermally induced phase distortions indeed corrupt the beam quality of high-power solid-state lasers and it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain a good beam quality while increasing the output power. A possible solution of the problem is to use the optical phase conjugation, which provides a method to dynamically correct for those aberrations. A process by which phase-conjugated waves can be generated is the SBS (stimulated Brillouin scattering). SBS mirrors commonly used in terrestrial application are based on liquids or gases, which are not 'space-friendly' and often toxic. The solid-state alternative seems the most appropriate for space. Such PCMs (Phase-Conjugating Mirrors) have been the subject of many research efforts in recent years and a significant progress in improving their characteristics has been achieved. However, the issue of space qualification remains open. To address it, the European Space Agency initiated in 2004 the research project named Solid-State Phase Conjugation, Radiation Testing and Evaluation for Core Laser Technologies with the TRT (Thales Research and Technology), France, as the prime contractor, and the CSL (Centre Spatial de Liege) and SCKCEN as the subcontractors. The project is to be completed in 2006. To qualify a PCM for a spaceborne laser system, one has to address a number of specific issues. Such a component must be mechanically rugged to sustain vibrations during the launch phase, provide a low out-gassing to prevent optical surfaces contamination in vacuum, be highly reliable to operate properly without

  16. Designing Biomimetic, Dissipative Material Systems

    Balazs, Anna C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Whitesides, George M. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology; Brinker, C. Jeffrey [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology. Center for Micro-Engineered Materials; Aranson, Igor S. [UChicago, LLC., Argonne, IL (United States); Chaikin, Paul [New York Univ. (NYU), NY (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dogic, Zvonimir [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Glotzer, Sharon [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering. Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Macromolecular Science and Engineering Physics; Hammer, Daniel [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science; Irvine, Darrell [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering and Biological Engineering; Little, Steven R. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Parikh, Atul N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering. Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Stupp, Samuel [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering. Dept. of Chemistry. Dept. of Medicine. Dept. of Biomedical Engineering; Szostak, Jack [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Biology

    2016-01-21

    Throughout human history, new materials have been the foundation of transformative technologies: from bronze, paper, and ceramics to steel, silicon, and polymers, each material has enabled far-reaching advances. Today, another new class of materials is emerging—one with both the potential to provide radically new functions and to challenge our notion of what constitutes a “material”. These materials would harvest, transduce, or dissipate energy to perform autonomous, dynamic functions that mimic the behaviors of living organisms. Herein, we discuss the challenges and benefits of creating “dissipative” materials that can potentially blur the boundaries between living and non-living matter.

  17. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  18. Reference material systems: a sourcebook for material assessment

    Bhagat, N. (ed.)

    1976-12-01

    A reference set of data related to material systems and a framework for carrying out the material technologies assessment are presented. While the bulk of renewables have been considered in this report, the nonrenewable materials dealt with here include structural materials only, such as steel, aluminum, cement and concrete, and bricks. The complete data set is supposed to include material flows, energy requirements, capital and labor inputs, and environmental effects for each process that a resource must go through to become a useful material for an end use. Although effort has been made to obtain as much information as possible, considerable gaps in data, apparent throughout this report, could not be avoided. A new material technology can be evaluated by substituting that technology for appropriate elements of the reference materials system and calculating the net change in material resource, energy, capital and labor requirements, and environmental impacts. This combination of information thus serves as a means of evaluating the potential benefits to be gained by research in various material technologies.

  19. Minicomputer based, controlled materials information system

    Roberts, N.; Jessen, T.; Meadors, O.; Seibel, D.

    1976-01-01

    The LLL, Materials Management Group and Data Processing Services have developed a transaction-oriented, minicomputer system for the management of the Laboratory's controlled materials. The system consists of a multi-vendor hardware system designed for ease of operation, maximum reliability, and quick response and the requirements imposed on the hardware and software systems are discussed

  20. Systems and methods for treating material

    Scheele, Randall D; McNamara, Bruce K

    2014-10-21

    Systems for treating material are provided that can include a vessel defining a volume, at least one conduit coupled to the vessel and in fluid communication with the vessel, material within the vessel, and NF.sub.3 material within the conduit. Methods for fluorinating material are provided that can include exposing the material to NF.sub.3 to fluorinate at least a portion of the material. Methods for separating components of material are also provided that can include exposing the material to NF.sub.3 to at least partially fluorinate a portion of the material, and separating at least one fluorinated component of the fluorinated portion from the material. The materials exposed to the NF.sub.3 material can include but are not limited to one or more of U, Ru, Rh, Mo, Tc, Np, Pu, Sb, Ag, Am, Sn, Zr, Cs, Th, and/or Rb.

  1. Automated accounting systems for nuclear materials

    Erkkila, B.

    1994-01-01

    History of the development of nuclear materials accounting systems in USA and their purposes are considered. Many present accounting systems are based on mainframe computers with multiple terminal access. Problems of future improvement accounting systems are discussed

  2. Optimisation of integrated energy and materials systems

    Gielen, D.J.; Okken, P.A.

    1994-06-01

    To define cost-effective long term CO2 reduction strategies an integrated energy and materials system model for the Netherlands for the period 2000-2040 is developed. The model is based upon the energy system model MARKAL, which configures an optimal mix of technologies to satisfy the specified energy and product/materials service demands. This study concentrates on CO 2 emission reduction in the materials system. For this purpose, the energy system model is enlarged with a materials system model including all steps 'from cradle to grave'. The materials system model includes 29 materials, 20 product groups and 30 waste materials. The system is divided into seven types of technologies; 250 technologies are modeled. The results show that the integrated optimisation of the energy system and the materials system can significantly reduce the emission reduction costs, especially at higher reduction percentages. The reduction is achieved through shifts in materials production and waste handling and through materials substitution in products. Shifts in materials production and waste management seem cost-effective, while the cost-effectiveness of shifts in product composition is sensitive due to the cost structure of products. For the building sector, transportation applications and packaging, CO 2 policies show a significant impact on prices, and shifts in product composition could occur. For other products, the reduction through materials substitution seems less promising. The impact on materials consumption seems most significant for cement (reduced), timber and aluminium (both increased). For steel and plastics, the net effect is balanced, but shifts between applications do occur. The MARKAL-approach is feasible to study integrated energy and materials systems. The progress compared to other environmental system analysis instruments is much more insight in the interaction of technologies on a national scale and in time

  3. Armor systems including coated core materials

    Chu, Henry S [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas M [Idaho Falls, ID; McHugh, Kevin M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-31

    An armor system and method involves providing a core material and a stream of atomized coating material that comprises a liquid fraction and a solid fraction. An initial layer is deposited on the core material by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is less than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis. An outer layer is then deposited on the initial layer by positioning the core material in the stream of atomized coating material wherein the solid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material is greater than the liquid fraction of the stream of atomized coating material on a weight basis.

  4. PAMTRAK: A personnel and material tracking system

    Anspach, D.A.; Anspach, J.P.; Crain, B. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    There is a need for an automated system for protecting and monitoring sensitive or classified parts and material. Sandia has developed a real-time personnel and material tracking system (PAMTRAK) that has been installed at selected DOE facilities. It safeguards sensitive parts and material by tracking tags worn by personnel and by monitoring sensors attached to the parts or material. It includes remote control and alarm display capabilities and a complementary program in Keyhole to display measured material attributes remotely. This paper describes the design goals, the system components, current installations, and the benefits a site can expect when using PAMTRAK

  5. Computerized reactor pressure vessel materials information system

    Strosnider, J.; Monserrate, C.; Kenworthy, L.D.; Tether, C.D.

    1980-10-01

    A computerized information system for storage and retrieval of reactor pressure vessel materials data was established, as part of Task Action Plan A-11, Reactor Vessel Materials Toughness. Data stored in the system are necessary for evaluating the resistance of reactor pressure vessels to flaw-induced fracture. This report includes (1) a description of the information system; (2) guidance on accessing the system; and (3) a user's manual for the system

  6. New materials options for nuclear systems

    Jones, R.H.; Garner, F.A.; Bruemmer, S.M.; Gelles, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    Development of new materials for nuclear reactor systems is continuing to produce options for improved reactor designs. Materials with reduced environment-induced crack growth is a key materials issue for the light water reactor (LWR) industry while the development of low activation ferritic, austenitic and vanadium alloys has been an active area for materials development for fusion reactor structural applications. Development of advanced materials such as metal matrix and ceramic matrix composites for reactor systems have received a limited amount of attention. (author)

  7. Structural materials for fusion reactor blanket systems

    Bloom, E.E.; Smith, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Consideration of the required functions of the blanket and the general chemical, mechanical, and physical properties of candidate tritium breeding materials, coolants, structural materials, etc., leads to acceptable or compatible combinations of materials. The presently favored candidate structural materials are the austenitic stainless steels, martensitic steels, and vanadium alloys. The characteristics of these alloy systems which limit their application and potential performance as well as approaches to alloy development aimed at improving performance (temperature capability and lifetime) will be described. Progress towards understanding and improving the performance of structural materials has been substantial. It is possible to develop materials with acceptable properties for fusion applications

  8. Climate control systems using pozzolan materials

    Almadhoun, Mahmoud Nassar Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    A system and method for conditioning air is provided that optimizes the use of sustainable and locally sourced materials with agrarian, residential, and industrial applications. The system can be formed with a porous siliceous, or siliceous

  9. Development of nuclear material accountancy control system

    Hirosawa, Naonori; Kashima, Sadamitsu; Akiba, Mitsunori

    1992-01-01

    PNC is developing a wide area of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, much nuclear material with a various form exists at each facility in the Works, and the controls of the inventory changes and the physical inventories of nuclear material are important. Nuclear material accountancy is a basic measure in safeguards system based on Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In the light of such importance of material accountancy, the data base of nuclear material control and the material accountancy report system for all facilities has been developed by using the computer. By this system, accountancy report to STA is being presented certainly and timely. Property management and rapid corresponding to various inquiries can be carried out by the data base system which has free item searching procedure. (author)

  10. CMB-8 material balance system

    Langner, D.; Canada, T.; Ensslin, N.; Atwell, T.; Baxman, H.; Cowder, L.; Speir, L.; Lyssel, T.V.; Sampson, T.

    1980-08-01

    We describe the automated nondestructive assay (NDA) system installed at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Group CMB-8 uranium recovery facility. A random driver (RD) is used to measure the 235 U content of various solids while a uranium solution assay system (USAS) measures the 235 U or total uranium content of solutions over a concentration range of a few ppM to 400 g/l. Both instruments are interfaced to and controlled by a single minicomputer. The measurement principles, mechanical specifications, system software description, and operational instructions are described

  11. Operational advanced materials control and accountability system

    Malanify, J.J.; Bearse, R.C.; Christensen, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    An accountancy system based on the Dynamic Materials Accountability (DYMAC) System has been in operation at the Plutonium Processing Facility at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) since January 1978. This system, now designated the Plutonium Facility/Los Alamos Safeguards System (PF/LASS), has enhanced nuclear material accountability and process control at the LASL facility. The nondestructive assay instruments and the central computer system are operating accurately and reliably. As anticipated, several uses of the system have developed in addition to safeguards, notably scrap control and quality control. The successes of this experiment strongly suggest that implementation of DYMAC-based systems should be attempted at other facilities. 20 refs

  12. Modernizing computerized nuclear material accounting systems

    Erkkila, B.H.; Claborn, J.

    1995-01-01

    DOE Orders and draft orders for nuclear material control and accountability address a complete material control and accountability (MC and A) program for all DOE contractors processing, using, or storing nuclear materials. A critical element of an MC and A program is the accounting system used to track and record all inventories of nuclear material and movements of materials in those inventories. Most DOE facilities use computerized accounting systems to facilitate the task of accounting for all their inventory of nuclear materials. Many facilities still use a mixture of a manual paper system with a computerized system. Also, facilities may use multiple systems to support information needed for MC and A. For real-time accounting it is desirable to implement a single integrated data base management system for a variety of users. In addition to accountability needs, waste management, material management, and production operations must be supported. Information in these systems can also support criticality safety and other safety issues. Modern networked microcomputers provide extensive processing and reporting capabilities that single mainframe computer systems struggle with. This paper describes an approach being developed at Los Alamos to address these problems

  13. Elastocaloric cooling materials and systems

    Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    We are actively pursuing applications of thermoelastic (elastocaloric) cooling using shape memory alloys. Latent heat associated with martensitic transformation of shape memory alloys can be used to run cooling cycles with stress-inducing mechanical drives. The coefficient of performance of thermoelastic cooling materials can be as high as 11 with the directly measured DT of around 17 °C. Depending on the stress application mode, the number of cycles to fatigue can be as large as of the order of 105. Efforts to design and develop thermoelastic alloys with long fatigue life will be discussed. The current project at the University of Maryland is focused on development of building air-conditioners, and at Maryland Energy and Sensor Technologies, smaller scale commercial applications are being pursued. This work is carried out in collaboration with Jun Cui, Yiming Wu, Suxin Qian, Yunho Hwang, Jan Muehlbauer, and Reinhard Radermacher, and it is funded by the ARPA-E BEETIT program and the State of Maryland.

  14. Y-12 Integrated Materials Management System

    Alspaugh, D. H.; Hickerson, T. W.

    2002-06-03

    The Integrated Materials Management System, when fully implemented, will provide the Y-12 National Security Complex with advanced inventory information and analysis capabilities and enable effective assessment, forecasting and management of nuclear materials, critical non-nuclear materials, and certified supplies. These capabilities will facilitate future Y-12 stockpile management work, enhance interfaces to existing National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) corporate-level information systems, and enable interfaces to planned NNSA systems. In the current national nuclear defense environment where, for example, weapons testing is not permitted, material managers need better, faster, more complete information about material properties and characteristics. They now must manage non-special nuclear material at the same high-level they have managed SNM, and information capabilities about both must be improved. The full automation and integration of business activities related to nuclear and non-nuclear materials that will be put into effect by the Integrated Materials Management System (IMMS) will significantly improve and streamline the process of providing vital information to Y-12 and NNSA managers. This overview looks at the kinds of information improvements targeted by the IMMS project, related issues, the proposed information architecture, and the progress to date in implementing the system.

  15. Y-12 Integrated Materials Management System

    Alspaugh, D. H.; Hickerson, T. W.

    2002-01-01

    The Integrated Materials Management System, when fully implemented, will provide the Y-12 National Security Complex with advanced inventory information and analysis capabilities and enable effective assessment, forecasting and management of nuclear materials, critical non-nuclear materials, and certified supplies. These capabilities will facilitate future Y-12 stockpile management work, enhance interfaces to existing National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) corporate-level information systems, and enable interfaces to planned NNSA systems. In the current national nuclear defense environment where, for example, weapons testing is not permitted, material managers need better, faster, more complete information about material properties and characteristics. They now must manage non-special nuclear material at the same high-level they have managed SNM, and information capabilities about both must be improved. The full automation and integration of business activities related to nuclear and non-nuclear materials that will be put into effect by the Integrated Materials Management System (IMMS) will significantly improve and streamline the process of providing vital information to Y-12 and NNSA managers. This overview looks at the kinds of information improvements targeted by the IMMS project, related issues, the proposed information architecture, and the progress to date in implementing the system

  16. On Using Materiality in Information Systems Development

    Carugati, Andrea

    This research brief presents a discussion on the use of the concept of materiality and material knowing in information systems development (ISD). The discussion addresses some of the practical problems still plaguing ISD, augmenting existing ISD methodologies with contributions from systems theory...... as scaffold of knowledge. Through the example taken from a case study of a complex and innovative systems development we outline two design principles to be embedded in modular fashion in ISD processes: (1) whenever possible start ISD efforts by developing a graphical simulator of the material environment...

  17. Efficiency analysis system of material management

    Bogusław Śliwczyński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Significant scope of enterprise's efficiency management is improving of material management process both the strategic and operational level. The complexity of material flow processes can lead to a threat such as distraction and disintegration of analysis focusing on many different factors influenced on effective sourcing and procurement management, transport and warehousing processes, inventory management, working capital and cash flow management. Material and methods: The presented article focuses on multidimensional and multi-criteria analysis of material management efficiency that is considered as decision support system. Authors have presented results of the research regarding ineffective material management confirm insufficient analytical supporting in various decisions of procurement operations. Results and conclusions: Based on research results authors presented in the article model of efficiency analysis system of material management.

  18. MHSS: a material handling system simulator

    Pomernacki, L.; Hollstien, R.B.

    1976-04-07

    A Material Handling System Simulator (MHSS) program is described that provides specialized functional blocks for modeling and simulation of nuclear material handling systems. Models of nuclear fuel fabrication plants may be built using functional blocks that simulate material receiving, storage, transport, inventory, processing, and shipping operations as well as the control and reporting tasks of operators or on-line computers. Blocks are also provided that allow the user to observe and gather statistical information on the dynamic behavior of simulated plants over single or replicated runs. Although it is currently being developed for the nuclear materials handling application, MHSS can be adapted to other industries in which material accountability is important. In this paper, emphasis is on the simulation methodology of the MHSS program with application to the nuclear material safeguards problem. (auth)

  19. Information systems for materials performance

    Roberge, P.

    1999-01-01

    The rapid development of accessible computing power in the 1980s has led to the use of machine intelligence in every sphere of engineering. The incredible progress in computing power and availability has also created a tremendous wealth of information available at the touch of few buttons. However, such wealth can easily provoke what is commonly described as 'information overload'. The massive number of connections produced by a single search of the web, for example, can greatly overwhelm users of this new technology. The rapidity of Web searches is due to the synergy between progress made in network connectivity protocols, intelligent search strategies and supporting hardware. This paper will attempt to define the basic elements of machine intelligence in the context of corrosion engineering and examine what has been done or could be done to introduce artificial thinking into daily operations. This paper will also review some modem software systems commonly used for information processing and internet searches. (author)

  20. Structural Materials for Efficient Energy Production Systems

    Gomez Briceno, D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of electric power production systems implies increasing the operating temperature above those of systems currently in operation. The viability of new systems depends completely on the availability of structural materials that withstand the operating conditions specified in the design: adequate features under mechanical stress at high temperatures and compatibility with the medium. In the case of nuclear systems (fission, fusion), an important requirement is their response to irradiation induced damage. In spite of the significant differences that exist in the design of nuclear power plants, fusion reactors, innovative fission systems, supercritical fossil plants, biomass plants, solar concentration thermal plants, etc., all of them have as a common characteristic the use of resistant materials at high temperatures. The qualification of existing materials for the new and more demanding operating conditions and the development of new materials is one of the challenges faced by the electric power production industry. The science of materials and the understanding of the basic processes that take place in structural materials on exposure to the operating conditions of energy production systems are the tools that are available to obtain safe and economically viable solutions. (Authors) 4 refs.

  1. Performance analysis of nuclear materials accounting systems

    Cobb, D.D.; Shipley, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Techniques for analyzing the level of performance of nuclear materials accounting systems in terms of the four performance measures, total amount of loss, loss-detection time, loss-detection probability, and false-alarm probability, are presented. These techniques are especially useful for analyzing the expected performance of near-real-time (dynamic) accounting systems. A conservative estimate of system performance is provided by the CUSUM (cumulative summation of materials balances) test. Graphical displays, called performance surfaces, are developed as convenient tools for representing systems performance, and examples from a recent safeguards study of a nuclear fuels reprocessing plant are given. 6 refs

  2. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers

  3. Structural materials for innovative nuclear systems (SMINS)

    2008-01-01

    Structural materials research is a field of growing relevance in the nuclear sector, especially for the different innovative reactor systems being developed within the Generation IV International Forum (GIF), for critical and subcritical transmutation systems, and of interest to the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP). Under the auspices of the NEA Nuclear Science Committee (NSC) the Workshop on Structural Materials for Innovative Nuclear Systems (SMINS) was organised in collaboration with the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in Germany. The objectives of the workshop were to exchange information on structural materials research issues and to discuss ongoing programmes, both experimental and in the field of advanced modelling. These proceedings include the papers and the poster session materials presented at the workshop, representing the international state of the art in this domain. (author)

  4. Corrosion evaluation of service water system materials

    Stein, A.A.; Felder, C.M.; Martin, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The availability and reliability of the service water system is critical for safe operation of a nuclear power plant. Degradation of the system piping and components has forced utilities to re-evaluate the corrosion behavior of current and alternative system materials, to support assessments of the remaining service life of the service water system, selection of replacement materials, implementation of corrosion protection methods and corrosion monitoring programs, and identification of maintenance and operational constraints consistent with the materials used. TU Electric and Stone and Webster developed a service water materials evaluation program for the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station. Because of the length of exposure and the generic interest in this program by the nuclear power industry, EPRI joined TU to co-sponsor the test program. The program was designed to evaluate the corrosion behavior of current system materials and candidate replacement materials and to determine the operational and design changes which could improve the corrosion performance of the system. Although the test program was designed to be representative of service water system materials and environments targeted to conditions at Comanche Peak, these conditions are typical of and relevant to other fresh water cooled nuclear service water systems. Testing was performed in raw water and water treated with biocide under typical service water operating conditions including continuous flow, intermittent flow, and stagnant conditions. The test program evaluated the 300 Series and 6% molybdenum stainless steels, copper-nickel, titanium, carbon steel, and a formed-in-place nonmetallic pipe lining to determine susceptibility to general, crevice, and microbiologically influenced corrosion and pitting attack. This report presents the results of the test program after 4 years of exposure

  5. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented

  6. Materials handbook for fusion energy systems

    Davis, J. W.; Marchbanks, M. F.

    A materials data book for use in the design and analysis of components and systems in near term experimental and commercial reactor concepts has been created by the Office of Fusion Energy. The handbook is known as the Materials Handbook for Fusion Energy Systems (MHFES) and is available to all organizations actively involved in fusion related research or system designs. Distribution of the MHFES and its data pages is handled by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), while its direction and content is handled by McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company — St. Louis (MDAC-STL). The MHFES differs from other handbooks in that its format is geared more to the designer and structural analyst than to the materials scientist or materials engineer. The format that is used organizes the handbook by subsystems or components rather than material. Within each subsystem is information pertaining to material selection, specific material properties, and comments or recommendations on treatment of data. Since its inception a little more than a year ago, over 80 copies have been distributed to over 28 organizations consisting of national laboratories, universities, and private industries.

  7. Climate control systems using pozzolan materials

    Almadhoun, Mahmoud Nassar Mahmoud

    2016-02-18

    A system and method for conditioning air is provided that optimizes the use of sustainable and locally sourced materials with agrarian, residential, and industrial applications. The system can be formed with a porous siliceous, or siliceous and aluminous material that is sufficiently porous, to allow conditioning fluid to flow there through. The material can also be formed into a structure that includes one or more passageways configured to allow air to be conditioned to also pass there through. The structure can be configured to cause the conditioning fluid passing through the porous portions of the structure to intersect and mix with air passing there through. The structure may include a plurality of passageways and intersections and may include a plurality of air inlets and outlets for air passage. The system may additionally include a means for storing, collecting, and driving conditioning fluid through the system and a means for collecting solar radiation to drive airflow and regenerate conditioning fluid.

  8. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited

  9. Development of radioactive materials inspection system

    Yang Lu; Wang Guobao; Chen Yuhua; Li Latu; Zhang Sujing

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive materials inspection system which is applied to inspect the horror activities of radioactive materials and its illegal transfer. The detector sections are made of highly stable and credible material. It has high sensitivity to radioactive materials. The inspect lowest limit of inspection is the 2-3 times to the background, the energy range is 30 keV-2.5 MeV and the response time is 0.5 s. Inspection message can be transmitted through wired or wireless web to implement remote control. The structure of the system is small, light and convenient. It is ideal for protecting society and public from the harm of the radiation. (authors)

  10. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    Titran, R.H.; Grobstein, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Research on monolithic refractory metal alloys and on metal matrix composites is being conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, in support of advanced space power systems. The overall philosophy of the research is to develop and characterize new high-temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites (Gr/Cu) for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites (W/NB) for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications

  11. Structural materials challenges for fusion power systems

    Kurtz, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Structural materials in a fusion power system must function in an extraordinarily demanding environment that includes various combinations of high temperatures, reactive chemicals, time-dependent thermal and mechanical stresses, and intense damaging radiation. The fusion neutron environment produces displacement damage equivalent to displacing every atom in the material about 150 times during its expected service life, and changes in chemical composition by transmutation reactions, which includes creation of reactive and insoluble gases. Fundamental materials challenges that must be resolved to effectively harness fusion power include (1) understanding the relationships between material strength, ductility and resistance to cracking, (2) development of materials with extraordinary phase stability, high-temperature strength and resistance to radiation damage, (3) establishment of the means to control corrosion of materials exposed to aggressive environments, (4) development of technologies for large-scale fabrication and joining, and (5) design of structural materials that provide for an economically attractive fusion power system while simultaneously achieving safety and environmental acceptability goals. The most effective approach to solve these challenges is a science-based effort that couples development of physics-based, predictive models of materials behavior with key experiments to validate the models. The U.S. Fusion Materials Sciences program is engaged in an integrated effort of theory, modeling and experiments to develop structural materials that will enable fusion to reach its safety, environmental and economic competitiveness goals. In this presentation, an overview of recent progress on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, nanocomposited ferritic alloys, and silicon carbide fiber reinforced composites for fusion applications will be given

  12. US national material control and accounting system

    Smith, C.N.

    1984-01-01

    The State System of Accounting and Control (SSAC) for fuel cycle facilities in the licensed, commercial sector of the US nuclear community, and details of the material control and accounting measures dealing with the national safeguards program are discussed. The concept and role of the Fundamental Nuclear Material Control (FNMC) Plan is discussed. Also, the relationship between the national safeguards program and the international safeguards program of the US SSAC are described

  13. Sensor-based material tagging system

    Vercellotti, L.C.; Cox, R.W.; Ravas, R.J.; Schlotterer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic identification tags are being developed for tracking material and personnel. In applying electronic identification tags to radioactive materials safeguards, it is important to measure attributes of the material to ensure that the tag remains with the material. The addition of a microcontroller with an on-board analog-to-digital converter to an electronic identification tag application-specific integrated-circuit has been demonstrated as means to provide the tag with sensor data. Each tag is assembled into a housing, which serves as a scale for measuring the weight of a paint-can-sized container and its contents. Temperature rise of the can above ambient is also measured, and a piezoelectric detector detects disturbances and immediately puts the tag into its alarm and beacon mode. Radiation measurement was also considered, but the background from nearby containers was found to be excessive. The sensor-based tagging system allows tracking of the material in cans as it is stored in vaults or is moved through the manufacturing process. The paper presents details of the sensor-based material tagging system and describes a demonstration system

  14. [A medical consumable material management information system].

    Tang, Guoping; Hu, Liang

    2014-05-01

    Medical consumables material is essential supplies to carry out medical work, which has a wide range of varieties and a large amount of usage. How to manage it feasibly and efficiently that has been a topic of concern to everyone. This article discussed about how to design a medical consumable material management information system that has a set of standardized processes, bring together medical supplies administrator, suppliers and clinical departments. Advanced management mode, enterprise resource planning (ERP) applied to the whole system design process.

  15. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion: Materials, Devices, and Systems

    Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present a discussion of challenges, progresses, and opportunities in thermoelectric energy conversion technology. We will start with an introduction to thermoelectric technology, followed by discussing advances in thermoelectric materials, devices, and systems. Thermoelectric energy conversion exploits the Seebeck effect to convert thermal energy into electricity, or the Peltier effect for heat pumping applications. Thermoelectric devices are scalable, capable of generating power from nano Watts to mega Watts. One key issue is to improve materials thermoelectric figure- of-merit that is linearly proportional to the Seebeck coefficient, the square of the electrical conductivity, and inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. Improving the figure-of-merit requires good understanding of electron and phonon transport as their properties are often contradictory in trends. Over the past decade, excellent progresses have been made in the understanding of electron and phonon transport in thermoelectric materials, and in improving existing and identify new materials, especially by exploring nanoscale size effects. Taking materials to real world applications, however, faces more challenges in terms of materials stability, device fabrication, thermal management and system design. Progresses and lessons learnt from our effort in fabricating thermoelectric devices will be discussed. We have demonstrated device thermal-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency ∼10% and solar-thermoelectric generator efficiency at 4.6% without optical concentration of sunlight (Figure 1) and ∼8-9% efficiency with optical concentration. Great opportunities exist in advancing materials as well as in using existing materials for energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy utilization, as well as mobile applications. (paper)

  16. Semi Automated Ferrous Material Scouring System (SAFMSS)

    2016-03-14

    Mapping System GPR Ground Penetrating Radar IP Intellectual Property MEC Munitions and Explosives of Concern MPPEH Material Potentially Presenting...the development phase and well aware of the complexity, components and parameters of the system, developed an estimate of $800,000 for the price of...compared the weekly rental fee and the purchase price of excavators. Table 5 below lists the purchase price and weekly rental fee for three different

  17. SYSTEM ORGANIZATION OF MATERIAL PROVIDING OF BUILDING

    A. V. Rаdkеvich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of scientific-methodical bases to the design of rational management of material streams in the field of building providing taking into account intersystem connections with the enterprises of building industry. Methodology. The analysis of last few years of functioning of building industry in Ukraine allows distinguishing a number of problems that negatively influence the steady development of building, as the component of the state economics system. Therefore the research of existent organization methods of the system of building objects providing with material resources is extremely necessary. In connection with this the article justifies the use of method of hierarchies analysis (Saati method for finding the optimal task solution of fixing the enterprises of building industry after building objects. Findings. Results give an opportunity to guidance of building organization to estimate and choose advantageous suppliers - enterprises of building industry, to conduct their rating, estimation taking into account basic descriptions, such as: quality, price, reliability of deliveries, specialization, financial status etc. Originality. On the basis of Saati method the methodologies of organization are improved, planning and managements of the reliable system of providing of building necessary material resources that meet the technological requirements of implementation of building and installation works. Practical value. Contribution to the decisions of many intricate organizational problems that are accompanied by the problems of development of building, provided due to organization of the reliable system of purchase of material resources.

  18. Design of POLCA material control systems

    Riezebos, J.

    2010-01-01

    POLCA is a material control system designed for make-to-order or engineer-to-order companies. These firms have to cope with a high variety of customised products, and strong pressure to provide short throughput times. POLCA constrains the amount of work in progress on the shop floor in order to

  19. Advanced physical protection systems for nuclear materials

    Jones, O.E.

    1975-10-01

    Because of the increasing incidence of terrorism, there is growing concern that nuclear materials and facilities need improved physical protection against theft, diversion, or sabotage. Physical protection systems for facilities or transportation which have balanced effectiveness include information systems, access denial systems, adequate and timely response, recovery capability, and use denial methods for despoiling special nuclear materials (SNM). The role of these elements in reducing societal risk is described; however, it is noted that, similar to nuclear war, the absolute risks of nuclear theft and sabotage are basically unquantifiable. Sandia Laboratories has a major Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) role in developing advanced physical protection systems for improving the security of both SNM and facilities. These activities are surveyed. A computer simulation model is being developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative physical protection systems under various levels of threat. Improved physical protection equipment such as perimeter and interior alarms, secure portals, and fixed and remotely-activated barriers is being developed and tested. In addition, complete prototype protection systems are being developed for representative nuclear facilities. An example is shown for a plutonium storage vault. The ERDA safe-secure transportation system for highway shipments of all significant quantities of government-owned SNM is described. Adversary simulation as a tool for testing and evaluating physical protection systems is discussed. A list of measures is given for assessing overall physical protection system performance. (auth)

  20. Advanced physical protection systems for nuclear materials

    Jones, O.E.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the increasing incidence of terrorism, there is growing concern that nuclear materials and facilities need improved physical protection against theft, diversion, or sabotage. Physical protection systems for facilities or transportation which have balanced effectiveness include information systems, access denial systems, adequate and timely response, recovery capability, and use denial methods for despoiling special nuclear materials (SNM). The role of these elements in reducing societal risk is described; however, it is noted that, similar to nuclear war, the absolute risks of nuclear theft and sabotage are basically unquantifiable. Sandia Laboratories has a major US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) role in developing advanced physical protection systems for improving the security of both SNM and facilities. These activities are surveyed in this paper. A computer simulation model is being developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative physical protection systems under various levels of threat. Improved physical protection equipment such as perimeter and interior alarms, secure portals, and fixed and remotely activated barriers is being developed and tested. In addition, complete prototype protection systems are being developed for representative nuclear facilities. An example is shown for a plutonium storage vault. The ERDA safe-secure transportation system for highway shipments of all significant quantities of government-owned SNM is described. Adversary simulation as a tool for testing and evaluating physical protection systems is discussed. Finally, a list of measures is given for assessing overall physical protection system performance. (author)

  1. Passive sensor systems for nuclear material monitoring

    Simpson, M.L.; Boatner, L.A.; Holcomb, D.E.; McElhaney, S.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Muhs, J.D.; Roberts, M.R.; Hill, N.W.

    1993-01-01

    Passive fiber optic sensor systems capable of confirming the presence of special nuclear materials in storage or process facilities are being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These sensors provide completely passive, remote measurement capability. No power supplies, amplifiers, or other active components that could degrade system reliability are required at the sensor location. ORNL, through its research programs in scintillator materials, has developed a variety of materials for use in alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and neutron-sensitive scintillator detectors. In addition to sensors for measuring radiation flux, new sensor materials have been developed which are capable of measuring weight, temperature, and source location. An example of a passive sensor for temperature measurement is the combination of a thermophosphor (e.g., rare-earth activated Y 2 O 3 ) with 6 LiF (95% 6 Li). This combination results in a new class of scintillators for thermal neutrons that absorb energy from the radiation particles and remit the energy as a light pulse, the decay rate of which, over a specified temperature range, is temperature dependent. Other passive sensors being developed include pressure-sensitive triboluminescent materials, weight-sensitive silicone rubber fibers, scintillating fibers, and other materials for gamma and neutron detection. The light from the scintillator materials of each sensor would be sent through optical fibers to a monitoring station, where the attribute quantity could be measured and compared with previously recorded emission levels. Confirmatory measurement applications of these technologies are being evaluated to reduce the effort, costs, and employee exposures associated with inventorying stockpiles of highly enriched uranium at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

  2. Materials used in refrigerated storage system

    Abakians, H

    1970-09-01

    Applications of cryogenic technology have increased at a phenomenal rate during the past decade. With the installation of a number of refrigerated storage tanks in Iran, e.g., LPG storage at Bandar Mah Shahr and Kharg Is., and ammonia storage at Bandar Shahpour, it is appropriate to review the materials used in constructing low temperature storage systems. In order to have an economical fully refrigerated storage installation without assuming the risk of brittle fracture, appropriate notch-tough material should be selected for the important and highly stressed components. In general, the lower the operating temperature, the more expensive is the material to be used. Hence, care should be taken to select the required material in such a manner that it will be suitable for the operating temperature and not lower. The most economical materials for low temperatures are steels. Ordinary carbon steel can be used down to -20$F and the Killed carbon steel down to -50$F. Nickel steels (2 1/4%) can be used down to -75$ to 100$F, Nickel steels (3 1/2%) down to -150$F, and 9% nickel steels down to 1,320$F. Stainless and aluminum alloys can be used down to -423$F. Tabular data give some commonly used materials in low temperature and cryogenic services with their lowest allowable temperature, tensile strength, and relative cost.

  3. Test System for Thermoelectric Modules and Materials

    Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a design for a complex measuring device that enables its user to assess the parameters of power-generating thermoelectric modules (TEMs) (or bulk thermoelectric materials) under a wide range of temperatures ( T cold = 25°C to 90°C, T hot TEM, the actual heat flow through the module, and its mechanical load, which can be varied during the measurement. Key components of our testing setup are (i) a measuring chamber where the TEM/material is compressed between thermally shielded heating blocks equipped with a mechanical loading system and water-cooled copper-based cooler, (ii) an electrical load system, (iii) a type K thermocouple array connected to a data acquisition computer, and (iv) a thermostatic water-based cooling system with electronically controlled flow rate and temperature of cooling water. Our testing setup represents a useful tool able to assess, e.g., the thermoelectric parameters of newly developed TEMs and materials or to evaluate the thermoelectric parameters of commercially available modules and materials for comparison with values declared by the manufacturer.

  4. Materials handbook for fusion energy systems

    Davis, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a consistent and authoritative source of material property data for use by the fusion community in concept evaluation, design, and performance/verification studies of the various fusion energy systems. A second objective is the early identification of areas in the materials data base where insufficient information or voids exist. The effort during this reporting period has focused on two areas: (1) publication of data pages, and (2) automation of the data pages. The data pages contained new engineering information on lithium and stainless steel along with additional Supporting Documentation pages on annealed and cold worked stainless steel. These pages were distributed in May. In the area of automation, work is proceeding on schedule toward the formation of an electronic materials data base for the MFE computer network

  5. Automatized system of radioactive material analysis

    Pchelkin, V.A.; Sviderskij, M.F.; Litvinov, V.A.; Lavrikov, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    An automatized system has been developed for the identification of substance, element and isotope content of radioactive materials on the basis of data obtained for studying physical-chemical properties of substances (with the help of atomic-absorption spectrometers, infrared spectrometer, mass-spectrometer, derivatograph etc.). The system is based on the following principles: independent operation of each device; a possibility of increasing the number of physical instruments and devices; modular properties of engineering and computer means; modular properties and standardization of mathematical equipment, high reliability of the system; continuity of programming languages; a possibility of controlling the devices with the help of high-level language, typification of the system; simple and easy service; low cost. Block-diagram of the system is given

  6. Materials and fabrication requirements for APWR systems

    Boothby, R.M.; Hippsley, C.A.; Gorton, O.K.; Garwood, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Materials specifications for advanced pressurized water-cooled reactor (APWR) systems are generally based on existing designs, with improved materials and fabrication procedures being developed to counter known degradation effects. In this paper, materials ageing and degradation mechanisms in PWR primary circuit pressure boundary components (i.e. the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), control rod drive mechanisms (CRDMs), coolant piping, coolant pump casing, pressurizer, and steam generators) are reviewed. Important degradation mechanisms include irradiation embrittlement of the RPV, thermal ageing embrittlement of ferritic (e.g. the pressurizer) and cast austenitic (e.g. coolant pump casing and pipe elbows) steel components and environmentally assisted cracking of steam generator tubing and CRDM penetrations. Improved materials specifications and component design and fabrication issues affecting the integrity of the pressure boundary are discussed in the light of these materials problems. Improved fabrication procedures adopted for Sizewell B, such as the utilization of ring forgings to eliminate axial welds in the RPV and steam generator shells and the use of one-piece castings for coolant pump casings, provide a benchmark against which other APWR designs may be judged. (author)

  7. FACADE SYSTEM MADE OF POROUS MATERIALS

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposed multi-component façade system is made of porous concretes employed both as bearing structures and for heat insulation and fireproofing purposes. The authors also provide their recommendations in respect of the mounting of the proposed façade system. The façade system considered in the article is composed of wall foam concrete blocks reinforced by basalt fibers (bearing elements of the structure, cellular concrete polystyrene (thermal insulation, and porous concrete (fireproofing and thermal insulation. Retained shuttering (in the fireproofing sections represents chrysolite cement sheets attached to the structures composed of glass-fiber plastic elements. The application of insulating porous concrete as a fireproofing material is based on the principle of adjustable stress-strained states of materials in the environment of variable pressure. This technology was developed at Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, and it was initially designated for the manufacturing of tailor-made products. The above concrete is also designated for retained shuttering and modified cavity masonry walls. Porous concrete that expands inside the fireproofing cavity ensures a tight contact both with the basic material and thermal insulation plates. The use of materials of the same origin (Portland cement means the formation of strong transition zones connecting the system components in the course of its hardening and further operation. The results of the thermotechnical calculation demonstrate that the thermal resistance registered on the surface of the wall that is 3 meters high (that has a 0.4 m fireproofing cavity is equal to 3.98 sq. m. C/Wt. The value of the coefficient of thermotechnical heterogeneity (r is equal to 0.86 with account for the thickness and thermal conductivity of point and linear elements. If the thermotechnical heterogeneity is taken into consideration, the thermal resistance of the proposed wall is equal to 3.42 m2 С/Wt.

  8. Nuclear data information system for nuclear materials

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Noda, Tetsuji; Utsumi, Misako

    1996-01-01

    The conceptual system for nuclear material design is considered and some trials on WWW server with functions of the easily accessible simulation of nuclear reactions are introduced. Moreover, as an example of the simulation on the system using nuclear data, transmutation calculation was made for candidate first wall materials such as 9Cr-2W steel, V-5Cr-5Ti and SiC in SUS316/Li 2 O/H 2 O(SUS), 9Cr-2W/Li 2 O/H 2 O(RAF), V alloy/Li/Be(V), and SiC/Li 2 ZrO 3 /He(SiC) blanket/shield systems based on ITER design model. Neutron spectrum varies with different blanket/shield compositions. The flux of low energy neutrons decreases in order of V< SiC< RAF< SUS blanket/shield systems. Fair amounts of W depletion in 9Cr-2W steel and the increase of Cr content in V-5Cr-5Ti were predicted in SUS or RAF systems. Concentration change in W and Cr is estimated to be suppressed if Li coolant is used in place of water. Helium and hydrogen production are not strongly affected by the different blanket/shield compositions. (author)

  9. Developing Higher-Order Materials Knowledge Systems

    Fast, Anthony Nathan

    2011-12-01

    Advances in computational materials science and novel characterization techniques have allowed scientists to probe deeply into a diverse range of materials phenomena. These activities are producing enormous amounts of information regarding the roles of various hierarchical material features in the overall performance characteristics displayed by the material. Connecting the hierarchical information over disparate domains is at the crux of multiscale modeling. The inherent challenge of performing multiscale simulations is developing scale bridging relationships to couple material information between well separated length scales. Much progress has been made in the development of homogenization relationships which replace heterogeneous material features with effective homogenous descriptions. These relationships facilitate the flow of information from lower length scales to higher length scales. Meanwhile, most localization relationships that link the information from a from a higher length scale to a lower length scale are plagued by computationally intensive techniques which are not readily integrated into multiscale simulations. The challenge of executing fully coupled multiscale simulations is augmented by the need to incorporate the evolution of the material structure that may occur under conditions such as material processing. To address these challenges with multiscale simulation, a novel framework called the Materials Knowledge System (MKS) has been developed. This methodology efficiently extracts, stores, and recalls microstructure-property-processing localization relationships. This approach is built on the statistical continuum theories developed by Kroner that express the localization of the response field at the microscale using a series of highly complex convolution integrals, which have historically been evaluated analytically. The MKS approach dramatically improves the accuracy of these expressions by calibrating the convolution kernels in these

  10. Target system materials and engineering problems

    Fischer, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the common problems of target design. As a model for the discussion, the author considers a spallation source which is fed by a high power proton beam of the order of one megawatt. The materials used for the target station and particularly for the spallation target itself depend on whether the source is built for pulsed, modulated or continuous operation. The difference of materials used is mainly determined by the neutronics considerations. Depending on the choice of materials for the target systems, the characters of material problems met, are of somewhat different nature. It is recognized that for each target version quite specific difficulties have to be overcome. On the other hand, there is a whole set of problems which is common to all target versions. These are: heat load in region of proton beam interactions; thermal stress and cycling; and radiation damage. It is shown that solutions to the whole package of problems up to a beam power of 0 (1MW) have been found. The whole effort concentrates onto the region of the first few centimeters of beam penetration. Two solutions have been proposed: (1) Keep the power of proton beam limited and produce neutrons elsewhere in the target. and (2) Dilute the power by moving mechanically the target and the window. 8 refs., 11 figs

  11. Optoelectronic inventory system for special nuclear material

    Sieradzki, F.H.

    1994-01-01

    In support of the Department of Energy's Dismantlement Program, the Optoelectronics Characterization and Sensor Development Department 2231 at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico has developed an in situ nonintrusive Optoelectronic Inventory System (OIS) that has the potential for application wherever periodic inventory of selected material is desired. Using a network of fiber-optic links, the OIS retrieves and stores inventory signatures from data storage devices (which are permanently attached to material storage containers) while inherently providing electromagnetic pulse immunity and electrical noise isolation. Photovoltaic cells (located within the storage facility) convert laser diode optic power from a laser driver to electrical energy. When powered and triggered, the data storage devices sequentially output their digital inventory signatures through light-emitting diode/photo diode data links for retrieval and storage in a mobile data acquisition system. An item's exact location is determined through fiber-optic network and software design. The OIS provides an on-demand method for obtaining acceptable inventory reports while eliminating the need for human presence inside the material storage facility. By using modularization and prefabricated construction with mature technologies and components, an OIS installation with virtually unlimited capacity can be tailored to the customer's requirements

  12. Materials accounting system for an IBM PC

    Bearse, R.C.; Thomas, R.J.; Henslee, S.P.; Jackson, B.G.; Tracy, D.B.; Pace, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    We have adapted the Los Alamos MASS accounting system for use on an IBM PC/AT at the Fuels Manufacturing Facility (FMF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-WEST) in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Cost of hardware and proprietary software was less than $10,000 per station. The system consists of three stations between which accounting information is transferred using floppy disks accompanying special nuclear material shipments. The programs were implemented in dBASEIII and were compiled using the proprietary software CLIPPER. Modifications to the inventory can be posted in just a few minutes, and operator/computer interaction is nearly instantaneous. After the records are built by the user, it takes 4 to 5 seconds to post the results to the database files. A version of this system was specially adapted and is currently in use at the FMF facility at Argonne National Laboratory in Idaho Falls. Initial satisfaction is adequate and software and hardware problems are minimal

  13. Electrochemical and materials aspects of tribocorrosion systems

    Landolt, D

    2006-01-01

    Tribocorrosion involves mechanical and chemical/electrochemical interactions between surfaces in relative motion in the presence of a corrosive environment. Tribocorrosion phenomena are encountered in many technological areas where they cause damage to installations, machines and devices. Often tribocorrosion damage is a problem for safety or for human health. In other applications tribocorrosion phenomena are put to good use in manufacturing. The chemo-mechanical mechanisms of tribocorrosion are still incompletely understood, they involve the properties of contacting material surfaces, the mechanics of the contact and the corrosion conditions. Electrochemical methods are widely used for the study of tribocorrosion reactions. To yield information about synergistic and antagonistic mechanisms they must be applied in situ under strictly controlled mechanical conditions, using materials with well-characterized surface properties. Recent progress in modelling and understanding of tribocorrosion systems is discussed and some challenges and opportunities for future research are identified

  14. Nanostructural Materials for Energy Storage Systems

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess of carbonaceous monoliths used for adsorption cooling systems. The carbonaceous monoliths prepared from coal precursors are obtained. The porous structure of monoliths was evaluated on the basis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption data. The investigated monoliths have significantly developed microporous structure. The large specific area of carbonaceous monoliths (about 2000 m2/g and volume of micropores are observed. Methanol adsorption isotherms and heat of wetting using methanol was determined. Results show that monoliths materials are high adsorption capacity of methanol and heat of wetting, which can improve of heat exchange and efficiency in processes of refrigeration and air conditioning.

  15. Integration mockup and process material management system

    Verble, Adas James, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Work to define and develop a full scale Space Station Freedom (SSF) mockup with the flexibility to evolve into future designs, to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify human task allocations and support trade studies is described. This work began in early 1985 and ended in August, 1991. The mockups are presently being used at MSFC in Building 4755 as a technology and design testbed, as well as for public display. Micro Craft also began work on the Process Material Management System (PMMS) under this contract. The PMMS simulator was a sealed enclosure for testing to identify liquids, gaseous, particulate samples, and specimen including, urine, waste water, condensate, hazardous gases, surrogate gasses, liquids, and solids. The SSF would require many trade studies to validate techniques for maintenance and logistics and verify system task allocations; it was necessary to develop a full scale mockup which would be representative of current SSF design with the ease of changing those designs as the SSF design evolved and changed. The tasks defined for Micro Craft were to provide the personnel, services, tools, and materials for the SSF mockup which would consist of four modules, nodes, interior components, and part task mockups of MSFC responsible engineering systems. This included the Engineering Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) testbed. For the initial study, the mockups were low fidelity, soft mockups of graphics art bottle, and other low cost materials, which evolved into higher fidelity mockups as the R&D design evolved, by modifying or rebuilding, an important cost saving factor in the design process. We designed, fabricated, and maintained the full size mockup shells and support stands. The shells consisted of cylinders, end cones, rings, longerons, docking ports, crew airlocks, and windows. The ECLSS required a heavier cylinder to support the ECLSS systems test program. Details of this activity will be covered. Support stands were

  16. Croatian National System of Nuclear Materials Control

    Biscan, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the process of economic and technological development of Croatia by using or introducing nuclear power or in the case of international co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear activities, including international exchange of nuclear material, Croatia should establish and implement National System of Nuclear Materials Control. Croatian National System of accounting for and control of all nuclear material will be subjected to safeguards under requirements of Agreement and Additional Protocol between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The decision by NPT parties at the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference to endorse the Fullscope IAEA Safeguards Standard (FSS) as a necessary precondition of nuclear supply means that states are obliged to ensure that the recipient country has a FSS agreement in place before any nuclear transfer can take place (Ref. 1). The FSS standard of nuclear supply is a central element of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Guidelines which the NSG adopted in 1992 and should be applied to members and non-members of the NSG. The FSS standard of nuclear supply in general allows for NPT parties or countries which have undertaken the same obligations through other treaty arrangements, to receive favourable treatment in nuclear supply arrangements. However, the Iraqi experience demonstrate that trade in nuclear and dual-use items, if not properly monitored, can contribute to a nuclear weapons program in countries acting contrary to their non-proliferation obligation. Multilateral nuclear export control mechanisms, including the FSS supply standard, provide the basis for co-ordination and standardisation of export control measures. (author)

  17. Materials issues in accelerator driven-systems

    Al Mazouzi, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Nuclear energy has to cope with critical topics to resolve the economical question of increasing energy demand and, in particular, the public acceptability demands: - increasing the absolute safety of the installations; - managing more efficiently the nuclear waste; In that respect, the development of a new type of nuclear installation coping with above constraints of technological as well as socio-economical nature may be of high importance for the future of sustainable energy provision. An accelerator-driven system (ADS) - a subcritical core, operated as a waste burner for minor actinides (MAs) and long-lived fission products (LLFPs) or as nuclear amplifier for energy production, fed with primary neutrons by a spallation source - has the potential to cope with above constraints and to pave the way to a more environmentally safe and acceptable nuclear energy production. Within the framework of EUROTRANS, the European community has launched a broad R and D programme in collaboration with partners from Europe and abroad (USA, Japan), to address the technical, technological and fundamental issues related to the realisation of an experimental machine that is intended to allow: - continuation, and extension of the present knowledge towards ADS, in the field of reactor materials, fuel and reactor physics research; - enhancement and triggering of new R and D activities such as nuclear waste transmutation, ADS technology, liquid metal embrittlement, The present lecture will cover the main aspects of the design of an experimental XT-ADS taking as example the work that has been performed at SCK.CEN within MYRRHA project. The safety aspect of such machine will be addressed on terms of structural material performance, with emphasis on issues related to the interaction between structural materials (austenitic and ferritic martensitic steels) and the liquid metal coolant (lead-alloys). Finally, a discussion will be given on the open issues and

  18. Advanced materials for thermal protection system

    Heng, Sangvavann; Sherman, Andrew J.

    1996-03-01

    Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical, thermal, and erosion/ablation performance. In the TPS, the ceramic foams were used as a structural core providing thermal insulation and mechanical load distribution, while the ceramic composites were used as facesheets providing resistance to aerodynamic, shear, and erosive forces. Tensile, compressive, and shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, fracture toughness, Poisson's ratio, and thermal conductivity were measured for the ceramic foams, while arcjet testing was conducted on the ceramic composites at heat flux levels up to 5.90 MW/m2 (520 Btu/ft2ṡsec). Two prototype test articles were fabricated and subjected to arcjet testing at heat flux levels of 1.70-3.40 MW/m2 (150-300 Btu/ft2ṡsec) under simulated reentry trajectories.

  19. Radioactive materials system of the ININ (SMATRAD)

    Rivero G, E.; Ledezma F, L.E.; Valdivia R, D.

    2007-01-01

    The radioactive iodine (I-131) it is an isotope created starting from the iodine with the purpose of emitting radiation for medicinal use. When a small dose of I-131 is ingested, this is absorbed in the sanguine torrent in the gastrointestinal tract (Gl) and it is concentrated by the blood on the thyroid gland, where it begins to destroy the cells. This treatment makes that the activity of the thyroid decreases in great measure and in some cases it can transform an hyperactive thyroid in a hypoactive thyroid which requires additional treatments. The sodium iodide I-131 is one of the products elaborated and marketed by the ININ in the Radiopharmaceuticals and Radioisotopes production plant, dependent of the Radioactive Material Department of the Nuclear Applications in the Health Management. The Plant is the only one in its type that exists in the country, it has Sanitary License and Good Practice of Production Certificate, emitted by the Secretary of Health, and licenses for the handling and the transportation of radioactive material, sent by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards. Also, the quality system of the plant is certified under the ISO 9001:2000 standard. (Author)

  20. Material control system simulator user's manual

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    This report describes the use of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts.

  1. Application of BIM technology in green building material management system

    Zhineng, Tong

    2018-06-01

    The current green building materials management system in China's construction industry is not perfect, and there are still many shortcomings. Active construction of green building materials management system based on BIM technology, combined with the characteristics of green building materials and its relationship with BIM technology application, is urgently needed to better realize the scientific management of green building materials.

  2. Geothermal systems materials: a workshop/symposium

    1978-01-01

    Sixteen papers are included. A separate abstract was prepared for each. Summaries of workshops on the following topics are also included in the report: non-metallic materials, corrosion, materials selection, fluid chemistry, and failure analysis. (MHR)

  3. Nonterrestrial material processing and manufacturing of large space systems

    Von Tiesenhausen, G.

    1979-01-01

    Nonterrestrial processing of materials and manufacturing of large space system components from preprocessed lunar materials at a manufacturing site in space is described. Lunar materials mined and preprocessed at the lunar resource complex will be flown to the space manufacturing facility (SMF), where together with supplementary terrestrial materials, they will be final processed and fabricated into space communication systems, solar cell blankets, radio frequency generators, and electrical equipment. Satellite Power System (SPS) material requirements and lunar material availability and utilization are detailed, and the SMF processing, refining, fabricating facilities, material flow and manpower requirements are described.

  4. Augmented Automated Material Accounting Statistics System (AMASS)

    Lumb, R.F.; Messinger, M.; Tingey, F.H.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes an extension of the AMASS methodology which was previously presented at the 1981 INMM annual meeting. The main thrust of the current effort is to develop procedures and a computer program for estimating the variance of an Inventory Difference when many sources of variability, other than measurement error, are admitted in the model. Procedures also are included for the estimation of the variances associated with measurement error estimates and their effect on the estimated limit of error of the inventory difference (LEID). The algorithm for the LEID measurement component uncertainty involves the propagated component measurement variance estimates as well as their associated degrees of freedom. The methodology and supporting computer software is referred to as the augmented Automated Material Accounting Statistics System (AMASS). Specifically, AMASS accommodates five source effects. These are: (1) measurement errors (2) known but unmeasured effects (3) measurement adjustment effects (4) unmeasured process hold-up effects (5) residual process variation A major result of this effort is a procedure for determining the effect of bias correction on LEID, properly taking into account all the covariances that exist. This paper briefly describes the basic models that are assumed; some of the estimation procedures consistent with the model; data requirements, emphasizing availability and other practical considerations; discusses implications for bias corrections; and concludes by briefly describing the supporting computer program

  5. ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS BASED GEARS MATERIAL SELECTION HYBRID INTELLIGENT SYSTEM

    X.C. Li; W.X. Zhu; G. Chen; D.S. Mei; J. Zhang; K.M. Chen

    2003-01-01

    An artificial neural networks(ANNs) based gear material selection hybrid intelligent system is established by analyzing the individual advantages and weakness of expert system (ES) and ANNs and the applications in material select of them. The system mainly consists of tow parts: ES and ANNs. By being trained with much data samples,the back propagation (BP) ANN gets the knowledge of gear materials selection, and is able to inference according to user input. The system realizes the complementing of ANNs and ES. Using this system, engineers without materials selection experience can conveniently deal with gear materials selection.

  6. Materials science for solar energy conversion systems

    Granqvist, CG

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in materials technology are creating many novel forms of coatings for energy efficient applications in solar energy. Insulating heat mirrors, selective absorbers, transparent insulation and fluorescent concentrators are already available commercially. Radiative cooling, electrochromic windows and polymeric light pipes hold promise for future development, while chemical and photochemical processes are being considered for energy storage. This book investigates new material advances as well as applications, costs, reliability and industrial production of existing materials. Each c

  7. Design of online testing system of material radiation resistance

    Wan Junsheng; He Shengping; Gao Xinjun

    2014-01-01

    The capability of radiation resistance is important for some material used in some specifically engineering fields. It is the same principal applied in all existing test system that compares the performance parameter after radiation to evaluate material radiation resistance. A kind of new technique on test system of material radiation resistance is put forward in this paper. Experimentation shows that the online test system for material radiation resistance works well and has an extending application outlook. (authors)

  8. Chapter 8: Materials for Exploration Systems

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2017-01-01

    Materials science and processing research in space can be thought of as a field of study that began with the sounding rocket experiments in the 1950s. Material science studies of the lunar surface materials returned during the Apollo missions enabled the study of lunar resource utilization. The study of materials science and processing in space continued with over 30 years of microgravity materials processing research which continues today in the International Space Station. These studies are the technical foundation that could enable lower cost human exploration through the use of in-situ propellant production, the production of energy from space resources, and the eventual establishment of a substantial portion of humanity living self sufficiently off Earth.

  9. Optimal interface between principal deterrent systems and material accounting

    Deiermann, P.J.; Opelka, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find an optimal blend between three safeguards systems for special nuclear material (SNM), the material accounting system and the physical security and material control systems. The latter two are denoted as principal deterrent systems. The optimization methodology employed is a two-stage decision algorithm, first an explicit maximization of expected diverter benefits and subsequently a minimization of expected defender costs for changes in material accounting procedures and incremental improvements in the principal deterrent systems. The probability of diverter success function dependent upon the principal deterrents and material accounting system variables is developed. Within the range of certainty of the model, existing material accounting, material control and physical security practices are justified

  10. A simulation model for material accounting systems

    Coulter, C.A.; Thomas, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    A general-purpose model that was developed to simulate the operation of a chemical processing facility for nuclear materials has been extended to describe material measurement and accounting procedures as well. The model now provides descriptors for material balance areas, a large class of measurement instrument types and their associated measurement errors for various classes of materials, the measurement instruments themselves with their individual calibration schedules, and material balance closures. Delayed receipt of measurement results (as for off-line analytical chemistry assay), with interim use of a provisional measurement value, can be accurately represented. The simulation model can be used to estimate inventory difference variances for processing areas that do not operate at steady state, to evaluate the timeliness of measurement information, to determine process impacts of measurement requirements, and to evaluate the effectiveness of diversion-detection algorithms. Such information is usually difficult to obtain by other means. Use of the measurement simulation model is illustrated by applying it to estimate inventory difference variances for two material balance area structures of a fictitious nuclear material processing line

  11. Storage and processing system for fissile materials

    Bubowskij, B.G.; Bogatyrew, W.K.; Wladykow, G.M.; Swiridenko, W.J.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns the construction of a radiation protection wall by which the reflection of neutrons in a container arranged in the vicinity of the wall is reduced. The radiation protection wall has a coating of neutron-retarding material on top of which there is a layer of neutron absorbing material, the former having a surface structured with regular projections and recesses spaced at 1/8 to 3 neutron ranges. The recesses may be filled with porous material or take up neutron radiation detectors. Other construction features are described. (UWI) [de

  12. Nuclear material measurement system in Brazil

    Almeida, S.G. de.

    1988-01-01

    The description of the activities developed at the Safeguards Laboratory of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission is done. The methods and techniques used for measuring and evaluating nuclear materials and facilities are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL; Belharouak, Ilias [Westmont, IL; Liu, Jun [Naperville, IL

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  14. Material control test and evaluation system at the ICPP

    Johnson, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    The US DOE is evaluating process monitoring as part of a total nuclear material safeguards system. A monitoring system is being installed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant to test and evaluate material control and surveillance concepts in an operating nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Process monitoring for nuclear material control complements conventional safeguards accountability and physical protection to assure adherence to approved safeguards procedures and verify containment of nuclear materials within the processing plant

  15. Technology assessment of solar-energy systems. Materials resource and hazardous materials impacts of solar deployment

    Schiffman, Y. M.; Tahami, J. E.

    1982-04-01

    The materials-resource and hazardous-materials impacts were determined by examining the type and quantity of materials used in the manufacture, construction, installation, operation and maintenance of solar systems. The materials requirements were compared with US materials supply and demand data to determine if potential problems exist in terms of future availability of domestic supply and increased dependence on foreign sources of supply. Hazardous materials were evaluated in terms of public and occupational health hazards and explosive and fire hazards. It is concluded that: although large amounts of materials would be required, the US had sufficient industrial capacity to produce those materials; (2) postulated growth in solar technology deployment during the period 1995-2000 could cause some production shortfalls in the steel and copper industry; the U.S. could increase its import reliance for certain materials such as silver, iron ore, and copper; however, shifts to other materials such as aluminum and polyvinylchloride could alleviate some of these problems.

  16. Development of total medical material distribution management system.

    Uto, Y; Kumamoto, I

    1994-07-01

    Since September 1992, attempts have been made at Kagoshima University Hospital to develop the Medical Material Distribution Management System which helps to realize optimal hospital management as a subsystem of the Total Hospital Information System of Kagoshima University (THINK). As this system has been established, it has become possible for us to have an accurate grasp of the flow and stock of medical materials at our hospital. Furthermore, since September 1993, the Medical Material Distribution Management System has been improved and the Total Medical Material Distribution Management System has been smoothly introduced into the site of clinical practice. This system enables automatic demands for fees for treatment with specific instruments and materials covered by health insurance. It was difficult to predict the effect of this system, because no similar system had been developed in Japan. However, more satisfactory results than expected have been obtained since its introduction.

  17. Materials And Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) LDEF materials data base

    Funk, Joan G.; Strickland, John W.; Davis, John M.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Materials Data Base was developed by the LDEF Materials Special Investigation Group (MSIG). The LDEF Materials Data Base is envisioned to eventually contain the wide variety and vast quantity of materials data generated from LDEF. The data is searchable by optical, thermal, and mechanical properties, exposure parameters (such as atomic oxygen flux) and author(s) or principal investigator(s). Tne LDEF Materials Data Base was incorporated into the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS). MAPTIS is a collection of materials data which has been computerized and is available to engineers, designers, and researchers in the aerospace community involved in the design and development of spacecraft and related hardware. The LDEF Materials Data Base is described and step-by-step example searches using the data base are included. Information on how to become an authorized user of the system is included.

  18. Bioinspired Infrared Sensing Materials and Systems.

    Shen, Qingchen; Luo, Zhen; Ma, Shuai; Tao, Peng; Song, Chengyi; Wu, Jianbo; Shang, Wen; Deng, Tao

    2018-05-11

    Bioinspired engineering offers a promising alternative approach in accelerating the development of many man-made systems. Next-generation infrared (IR) sensing systems can also benefit from such nature-inspired approach. The inherent compact and uncooled operation of biological IR sensing systems provides ample inspiration for the engineering of portable and high-performance artificial IR sensing systems. This review overviews the current understanding of the biological IR sensing systems, most of which are thermal-based IR sensors that rely on either bolometer-like or photomechanic sensing mechanism. The existing efforts inspired by the biological IR sensing systems and possible future bioinspired approaches in the development of new IR sensing systems are also discussed in the review. Besides these biological IR sensing systems, other biological systems that do not have IR sensing capabilities but can help advance the development of engineered IR sensing systems are also discussed, and the related engineering efforts are overviewed as well. Further efforts in understanding the biological IR sensing systems, the learning from the integration of multifunction in biological systems, and the reduction of barriers to maximize the multidiscipline collaborations are needed to move this research field forward. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Computerized real-time materials accountability system for safeguards material control

    Spencer, W.F.; Affel, R.G.; Austin, H.C.; Nichols, J.P.; Stoutt, B.H.; Wachter, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A real-time, computer-based system is described which provides safeguards material control at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Originally installed in 1972 to provide computerized real-time fissile materials accountability for criticality control purposes, the system has been expanded to provide accountability of all source and nuclear materials (SNM) and to utilize the on-line inventory files in support of the Laboratory physical protection and surveillance procedures. (auth)

  20. Status Report on Structural Materials for Advanced Nuclear Systems

    Allen, T.R.; Balbaud-Celerier, F.; Asayama, T.; Pouchon, M.; Busby, J.T.; Maloy, S.; Park, J.Y.; Fazio, C.; Dai, Y.; Agostini, P.; Chevalier, J.P.; Marrow, J.

    2013-01-01

    Materials performance is critical to the safe and economic operation of any nuclear system. As the international community pursues the development of Generation IV reactor concepts and accelerator-driven transmutation systems, it will be increasingly necessary to develop advanced materials capable of tolerating the more challenging environments of these new systems. The international community supports numerous materials research programmes, with each country determining its individual focus on a case-by-case basis. In many instances, similar alloys of materials systems are being studied in several countries, providing the opportunity for collaborative and cross-cutting research that benefits different systems. This report is a snapshot of the current materials programmes supporting the development of advanced concepts. The descriptions of the research are grouped by concept, and national programmes are described within each concept. The report provides an overall sense of the importance of materials research worldwide and the opportunities for synergy among the countries represented in this overview. (authors)

  1. Intelligent Materials Tracking System for Construction Projects Management

    Narimah Kasim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An essential factor adversely affecting the performance of construction projects is the improper handling of materials during site activities. In addition, paper-based reports are mostly used to record and exchange information related to the material components within the supply chain, which is problematic and inefficient. Generally, technologies (such as wireless systems and RFID are not being adequately used to overcome human errors and are not well integrated with project management systems to make tracking and management of materials easier and faster. Findings from a literature review and surveys showed that there is a lack of positive examples of such tools having been used effectively. Therefore, this research focused on the development of a materials tracking system that integrates RFID-based materials management with resources modelling to improve on-site materials tracking. Rapid prototyping was used to develop the system and testing of the system was carried out to examine the functionality and working appropriately. The proposed system is intended to promote the employment of RFID for automatic materials tracking with integration of resource modelling (Microsoft (R Office Project in the project management system in order to establish which of the tagged components are required resources for certain project tasks. In conclusion, the system provides an automatic and easy tracking method for managing materials during materials delivery and inventory management processes in construction projects.

  2. Automated material accounting statistics system (AMASS)

    Messinger, M.; Lumb, R.F.; Tingey, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper the modeling and statistical analysis of measurement and process data for nuclear material accountability is readdressed under a more general framework than that provided in the literature. The result of this effort is a computer program (AMASS) which uses the algorithms and equations of this paper to accomplish the analyses indicated. The actual application of the method to process data is emphasized

  3. Workshop on materials control and accounting system design

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The chapter describes the workshop aimed at reinforcing, through participation in the design exercise, the concepts of nuclear materials control and accountability. Topics include: workshop format; key elements of a materials management and accounting (MC and A) system; and MC and A system design including safeguards organization and management, material access areas, key measurement points, nuclear materials measurements, physical inventory, material balance closings, and internal controls. Appended to this chapter is a detailed description of a facility that produces metallic plutonium and the safeguards requirements for this facility

  4. Accounting systems for special nuclear material control. Technical report

    Korstad, P.A.

    1980-05-01

    Nuclear material accounting systems were examined and compared to financial double-entry accounting systems. Effective nuclear material accounting systems have been designed using the principles of double-entry financial accounting. The modified double-entry systems presently employed are acceptable if they provide adequate control over the recording and summarizing of transactions. Strong internal controls, based on principles of financial accounting, can help protect nuclear materials and produce accurate, reliable accounting data. An electronic data processing system can more accurately maintain large volumes of data and provide management with more current, reliable information

  5. Management review of nuclear material control and accounting systems

    1975-06-01

    Section 70.58, ''Fundamental Nuclear Material Controls,'' of 10 CFR Part 70, ''Special Nuclear Materials,'' requires, in paragraph 70.58(c), that certain licensees authorized to possess more than one effective kilogram of special nuclear material establish a management system to provide for the development, revision, implementation, and enforcement of nuclear material control and accounting procedures. Such a system must provide for a review of the nuclear material control system at least every 12 months. This guide describes the purpose and scope, personnel qualifications, depth of detail, and procedures that are acceptable to the NRC staff for the management review of nuclear material control systems required under paragraph 70.58(c) of 10 CFR Part 70. (U.S.)

  6. Hungarian national nuclear material control and accounting system

    Lendvai, O.

    1985-01-01

    The Hungarian system for nuclear materials control and accounting is briefly described. Sections include a historical overview, a description of nuclear activities and an outline of the organizational structure of the materials management system. Subsequent sections discuss accounting, verification and international relations

  7. Smart Materials Systems Through Mesoscale Patterning

    Aksay, Ilhan

    2001-01-01

    ...) self-assembled monolayers, and (3) 3-dimensional co-assembly. The two novel systems developed for use in sensor and actuator technologies were piezoelectric shell transducers and 1-3 piezocomposite hydrophones...

  8. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-09-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/ to 270/sup 0/C and static lithium at temperatures from 200/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system.

  9. Corrosion behaviour of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Bazinet, G.D.; Brehm, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of selected materials in a liquid lithium environment was studied in support of system and component designs for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility. Testing conditions ranged from about 3700 to about6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230 0 to 270 0 C and static lithium at temperatures from 200 0 to 500 0 C. Principal areas of investigation included lithium corrosion/erosion effects on FMIT lithium system baseline and candidate materials. Material coupons and full-size prototypic components were evaluated to determine corrosion rates, fatigue crack growth rates, structural compatibility, and component acceptability for the lithium system. Based on the results of these studies, concerns regarding system materials and component designs were satisfactorily resolved to support a 20-year design life requirement for the FMIT lithium system

  10. System to detect nuclear materials by active neutron method

    Koroev, M.; Korolev, Yu.; Lopatin, Yu.; Filonov, V.

    1999-01-01

    The report presents the results of the development of the system to detect nuclear materials by active neutron method measuring delayed neutrons. As the neutron source the neutron generator was used. The neutron generator was controlled by the system. The detectors were developed on the base of the helium-3 counters. Each detector consist of 6 counters. Using a number of such detectors it is possible to verify materials stored in different geometry. There is an spectrometric scintillator detector in the system which gives an additional functional ability to the system. The system could be used to estimate the nuclear materials in waste, to detect the unauthorized transfer of the nuclear materials, to estimate the material in tubes [ru

  11. The system of nuclear material control of Kazakhstan

    Yeligbayeva, G.Zh.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The State system for nuclear material control consists of three integral components. The efficiency of each is to guarantee the non-proliferation regime in Kazakhstan. The components are the following: accounting, export and import control and physical protection of nuclear materials. First, the implementation of the goals of accounting and control bring into force, by the organization of the system for accounting and measurement of nuclear materials to determine present quantity. Organizing the accounting for nuclear material at facilities will ensure the efficiency of accountancy and reporting information. This defines the effectiveness of the state system for the accounting for the Kazakhstan's nuclear materials. Currently, Kazakhstan's nuclear material is fully safeguarded in designated secure locations. Kazakhstan has a nuclear power plant, 4 research reactors and a fuel fabrication plant. The governmental information system for nuclear materials control consist of two level: Governmental level - KAEA collects reports from facilities and prepares the reports for International Atomic Energy Agency, keeping of supporting documents and other necessary information, a data base of export and import, a data base of nuclear material inventory. Facility level - registration and processing information from key measurement points, formation the facility's nuclear materials accounting database. All facilities have computerized systems. Currently, all facilities are safeguarded under IAEA safeguarding standards, through IAEA inspections. Annually, IAEA verifies all nuclear materials at all Kazakhstan nuclear facilities. The government reporting system discloses the existence of all nuclear material and its transfer intended for interaction through the export control system and the nuclear control accounting system. Nuclear material export is regulated by the regulations of the Nuclear Export Control Law. The standard operating procedure is the primary means for

  12. Materials Knowledge Systems in Python - A Data Science Framework for Accelerated Development of Hierarchical Materials.

    Brough, David B; Wheeler, Daniel; Kalidindi, Surya R

    2017-03-01

    There is a critical need for customized analytics that take into account the stochastic nature of the internal structure of materials at multiple length scales in order to extract relevant and transferable knowledge. Data driven Process-Structure-Property (PSP) linkages provide systemic, modular and hierarchical framework for community driven curation of materials knowledge, and its transference to design and manufacturing experts. The Materials Knowledge Systems in Python project (PyMKS) is the first open source materials data science framework that can be used to create high value PSP linkages for hierarchical materials that can be leveraged by experts in materials science and engineering, manufacturing, machine learning and data science communities. This paper describes the main functions available from this repository, along with illustrations of how these can be accessed, utilized, and potentially further refined by the broader community of researchers.

  13. Lightning protecting materials used on radar system

    Blaj, M.A.; Damstra, Geert C.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Because of the extensive use in modern systems of very sensitive electronic components, lightning strikes does not represent only a threat, but something that cannot be neglected anymore and safety hazards caused by direct and indirect lightning to the aircraft or naval industry. Everyday new

  14. U.S. national nuclear material control and accounting system

    Taylor, S; Terentiev, V G

    1998-01-01

    Issues related to nuclear material control and accounting and illegal dealing in these materials were discussed at the April 19--20, 1996 Moscow summit meeting (G7 + Russia). The declaration from this meeting reaffirmed that governments are responsible for the safety of all nuclear materials in their possession and for the effectiveness of the national control and accounting system for these materials. The Russian delegation at this meeting stated that ''the creation of a nuclear materials accounting, control, and physical protection system has become a government priority''. Therefore, in order to create a government nuclear material control and accounting system for the Russian Federation, it is critical to study the structure, operating principles, and regulations supporting the control and accounting of nuclear materials in the national systems of nuclear powers. In particular, Russian specialists have a definite interest in learning about the National Nuclear Material Control and Accounting System of the US, which has been operating successfully as an automated system since 1968

  15. [Establishment of traceability system of Chinese medicinal materials' quality].

    Qi, Yao-dong; Gao, Shi-man; Liu, Hai-tao; Li, Xi-wen; Wei, Jian-he; Zhang, Ben-gang; Sun, Xiao-bo; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2015-12-01

    The quality of Chinese medicinal materials relates greatly to the clinical curative effect and security. In order to ensure the quality and safety of Chinese medicinal materials, a systematic and operable traceability system needs to be established. It can realize the whole process of quality and safety management of Chinese medicinal materials "from production to consumption" through recording and inquiring information and recalling defective products, which is an important direction for the future development of traditional Chinese medicine. But it is still at the exploration and trial stage. In this paper, a framework of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and safety traceability system was established on the basis of the domestic and international experience about the construction of food and agricultural products traceability systems. The relationship between traceability system of Chinese medicinal materials' quality and GAP, GMP, GSP was analyzed, and the possible problems and the corresponding solutions were discussed.

  16. Method of treatment in a system passing radioactive material

    Kamiya, K; Kinoshita, M; Asakura, Y

    1976-05-14

    A method to ensure the safety of the reactor and reduce radiation exposure dose by preventing oxygen hydrogen reaction of the reactor off-gas and accumulation of the radioactive material is described. Substances which are accumulated in an off-gas duct and are likely to capture radioactive material (for instance Pd catalyst falling from a recombiner) is changed into a stable material (for instance, PdI/sub 2/) which is hot likely to capture radioactive material through reaction with a stabilizer (for instance, I/sub 2/, Cl/sub 2/, HCl, etc.). This stabilized material is washed off the atomic power plant system.

  17. Materials to Engineer the Immune System

    2011-04-01

    alone (Lysate), or with GM-CSF and lysate (GM+Lys), and 14 days later 200,000 NT1 cells were injected into the mammary pad. Mice survival was...followed over time. Fig. 2. Therapeutic vaccination against NT1 transplantable tumors. NT1 cells (200,000) were injected into the mammary...Engineer the Immune System David Mooney Harvard College Cambridge, MA 02136 Dendritic cells , GM-CSF, CpG, poly(lactide-co-glycolide) The

  18. On strength of porous material - simple systems and densified systems

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1997-01-01

    The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus Of Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...

  19. Security features of a nuclear material accounting system

    Erkkila, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Los Alamos Nuclear Material Accounting and Safeguards System (MASS) is a near-real-time accountability system for bulk materials, discrete items, and materials undergoing dynamic processing. MASS has evolved from a 80-column, card-based process control system to a very sophisticated computer system. Recently, the computer hardware was upgraded to a modern transaction oriented central computer system designed to accommodate extensive growth in the foreseeable future. The security of the MASS computer system is provided through various access controls. There are two kinds of access controls to be addressed. They are physical access control to the hardware which make up the system and access control to the software. There are many features which provide a measure of security to the hardware that are discussed. Access to the software is controlled by a security password. Access to various transaction activities in the system is controlled through the level of MASS under privilege. Details of MASS user privilege are discussed

  20. Outline of material accountancy system for Rokkasho reprocessing plant

    Kitamura, Touko; Yamazaki Yoshihiro; Ai, Hironobu

    2004-01-01

    In January 2004, Facility Attachment (FA) for Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) was entered into force and the safeguards has been implemented in accordance with the FA. So operator must carry out the effectual material accountancy on the basis of facility operation. RRP is large and complex facility and operated based on automatic and remote system. For efficient material accounting viewpoint, the system especially automatic data collection is established using RRP computer network. The paper describes the outline of material accountancy system, the structure of RRP computer network including how to collect the source data, to convert the batch data and the reporting. (author)

  1. Demonstration personnel and material tracking system at ANL-W

    Roybal, J.A.; Ortiz, S.; Henslee, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    A Personnel and Material Tracking System (PMTS) was demonstrated in the Fuel Manufacturing Facility (FMF) at Argonne National Laboratories-West (ANL-W) in July, 1987. The PMTS is intended to aid in the transfer of inventory materials from area to area within a facility such as FMF. It is also intended to assure that only those personnel who are authorized to do so may conduct these transfer operations. The PMTS Personnel Movement (PM) subsystem uses portals installed between areas to alert the system to the movement of personnel between areas. The portals are composed to two sensors, one on either side of a proximity badge reader, to detect the presence of personnel entering the portal area. However, a restricted area can be assigned to any badge holder which will cause the system to issue an alert if the badge holder passes into his/her restricted area. The PM subsystem is intended to be transparent when in use. The PMTS Inventory Material Access (IMA) subsystem provides two functions: material control and material access. The material control is provided by the Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling (WATCH) system which is a sensor rf transmitter system that detects item movements. Material access is provided by the Mobile Accountability Verification Inventory Station (MAVIS) system which is a self-powered smart barcode reader

  2. Development of an expert system for radioactive material transportation

    Tamanoi, K.; Ishitobi, M.; Shinohara, Y.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system to deal with radioactive material transportation was developed. This expert system is based on 'Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material' by IAEA issued 1985. IAEA published the regulations under such environments that safety transportation has become increasingly being focused as uses of radioactive materials are more pervasive, not only in nuclear field but also in non-nuclear purposes. Attentions are payed for operators and environment to establish safety in handling radioactive materials. In the 1985 regulations, detailed categorization of radioactive materials and, correspondingly, new classification of packages are introduced. This categorization is more complicated than old regulations, leading us to develop an expert system to evaluate easily the packages categorization. (author)

  3. Mathematical Methods of System Analysis in Construction Materials

    Garkina, Irina; Danilov, Alexander

    2017-10-01

    System attributes of construction materials are defined: complexity of an object, integrity of set of elements, existence of essential, stable relations between elements defining integrative properties of system, existence of structure, etc. On the basis of cognitive modelling (intensive and extensive properties; the operating parameters) materials (as difficult systems) and creation of the cognitive map the hierarchical modular structure of criteria of quality is under construction. It actually is a basis for preparation of the specification on development of material (the required organization and properties). Proceeding from a modern paradigm (model of statement of problems and their decisions) of development of materials, levels and modules are specified in structure of material. It when using the principles of the system analysis allows to considered technological process as the difficult system consisting of elements of the distinguished specification level: from atomic before separate process. Each element of system depending on an effective objective is considered as separate system with more detailed levels of decomposition. Among them, semantic and qualitative analyses of an object (are considered a research objective, decomposition levels, separate elements and communications between them come to light). Further formalization of the available knowledge in the form of mathematical models (structural identification) is carried out; communications between input and output parameters (parametrical identification) are defined. Hierarchical structures of criteria of quality are under construction for each allocated level. On her the relevant hierarchical structures of system (material) are under construction. Regularities of structurization and formation of properties, generally are considered at the levels from micro to a macrostructure. The mathematical model of material is represented as set of the models corresponding to private criteria by which separate

  4. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  5. From precision polymers to complex materials and systems

    Lutz, J.F.; Lehn, J.M.; Meijer, E.W.; Matyjaszewski, K.

    2016-01-01

    Complex chemical systems, such as living biological matter, are highly organized structures based on discrete molecules in constant dynamic interactions. These natural materials can evolve and adapt to their environment. By contrast, man-made materials exhibit simpler properties. In this Review, we

  6. Corrosion of structural materials for Generation IV systems

    Balbaud-Celerier, F.; Cabet, C.; Courouau, J.L.; Martinelli, L.; Arnoux, P.

    2009-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum aims at developing future generation nuclear energy systems. Six systems have been selected for further consideration: sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR), lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR), molten salt reactor (MSR), supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) and very high temperature reactor (VHTR). CEA, in the frame of a national program, of EC projects and of the GIF, contributes to the structural materials developments and research programs. Particularly, corrosion studies are being performed in the complex environments of the GEN IV systems. As a matter of fact, structural materials encounter very severe conditions regarding corrosion concerns: high temperatures and possibly aggressive chemical environments. Therefore, the multiple environments considered require also a large diversity of materials. On the other hand, the similar levels of working temperatures as well as neutron spectrum imply also similar families of materials for the various systems. In this paper, status of the research performed in CEA on the corrosion behavior of the structural material in the different environments is presented. The materials studied are either metallic materials as austenitic (or Y, La, Ce doped) and ferrito-martensitic steels, Ni base alloys, ODS steels, or ceramics and composites. In all the environments studied, the scientific approach is identical, the objective being in all cases the understanding of the corrosion processes to establish recommendations on the chemistry control of the coolant and to predict the long term behavior of the materials by the development of corrosion models. (author)

  7. Development of hotcell transportation system technology for high radioactive material

    Seo, K. S.; Seo, C. S.; Lee, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    In the first stage of the research, the transportation and storage characteristics analysis of the pyroprocess materials, the development of horizontal type hot cell transportation system, and the design of interim storage system for the pyroprocess material are conducted. The optimized capacity, transportation frequency and operation period of pyroprocess facility are found using the logistics analysis program developed in this project. A new hot cell transportation system was designed. Through the safety analysis and test for the hot cell transportation system, the design license has been approved. A new type hot cell docking system with superior performance has been developed with a patented rotating lid system. We have reached to a unique concept of interim storage of pyroprocess materials and selected a system through a comparative evaluation of existing ones. In the second stage of the research, transportation/storage/sealing devices for PRIDE recovered material/wastes were developed. And test model for the devices in engineering scale facility were also developed. The design requirements for a vertical docking system were evaluated and the performance assessment using a scaled mock-up was conducted. Integrated storage management technology was evaluated for an efficient management of process materials. A heat transfer simulation and characteristics analysis for the storage system were conducted. The derivation of design requirements, design and fabrication of a canister test model, and preliminary safety assessment were conducted

  8. Advanced materials and coatings for energy conversion systems

    St Pierre, George R. [Ohio State Univ., Materials Science and Engineering Dept., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Following an historical review of the development of high-temperature alloys for energy conversion systems including turbine engines, some of the current advances in single crystal materials, intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, and ceramic-matrix composites are discussed. Particular attention is directed at creep phenomena, fatigue properties and oxidation resistance. Included within the discussions is the current status of carbon/carbon composites as potential high-temperature engineering materials and the development of coating systems for thermal barrier and oxidation protection. The specific influences of combustion gas compositions, i.e., oxidation potential, sulfur, halides, etc. are discussed. A current list of eligible advanced materials and coatings systems is presented and assessed. Finally, the critical failure mechanism and life-prediction parameters for some of the new classes of advanced structural materials are elaborated with the view to achieving affordability and extended life with a high degree of reliability. Examples are drawn from a variety of energy conversion systems. (Author)

  9. Basic components of a national control system for nuclear materials

    Rabot, G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper presents the different aspects related to the organization and the functioning of a national control and accounting system for nuclear materials. The legal aspects and the relations with the IAEA are included

  10. Development of a comprehensive nuclear materials accountancy system at JAEA

    Takeda, Hideyuki; Usami, Masayuki; Hirosawa, Naonori; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Kodani, Yoshiki; Komata, Kazuhiro

    2007-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is submitting various types of accounting reports of international controlled materials to the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT) based on domestic laws and regulations. JAEA developed a comprehensive Nuclear Material Accountancy System to achieve uniform management of the data of each facility by using a company-wide database. Personal computers in each facility are connected throughout the company using an in-house network to create the comprehensive Nuclear Material Accountancy System. This System uses personal computers to facilitate timely communication and for easy maintenance and operation. Efficient data processing and quality control functions for accountancy reporting are also realized by this System. In addition, the System has the ability to extract and summarize data about Plutonium Management in the company for public announcement. This report introduces and describes the details and functions of this System. (author)

  11. Test plan for buried waste containment system materials

    Weidner, J.; Shaw, P.

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of the FY 1997 barrier material work at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory are to (1) select a waste barrier material and verify that it is compatible with the Buried Waste Containment System Process, and (2) determine if, and how, the Buried Waste Containment System emplacement process affects the material properties and performance (on proof of principle scale). This test plan describes a set of measurements and procedures used to validate a waste barrier material for the Buried Waste Containment System. A latex modified proprietary cement manufactured by CTS Cement Manufacturing Company will be tested. Emplacement properties required for the Buried Waste Containment System process are: slump between 8 and 10 in., set time between 15 and 30 minutes, compressive strength at set of 20 psi minimum, and set temperature less than 100 degrees C. Durability properties include resistance to degradation from carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates. A set of baseline barrier material properties will be determined to provide a data base for comparison with the barrier materials when tested in the field. The measurements include permeability, petrographic analysis to determine separation and/or segregation of mix components, and a set of mechanical properties. The measurements will be repeated on specimens from the field test material. The data will be used to determine if the Buried Waste Containment System equipment changes the material. The emplacement properties will be determined using standard laboratory procedures and instruments. Durability of the barrier material will be evaluated by determining the effect of carbonate, sulfate, and waste-site soil leachates on the compressive strength of the barrier material. The baseline properties will be determined using standard ASTM procedures. 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  12. Incorporation of an item/material attribute system into PAMTRAK

    Anspach, D.A.; Waddoups, I.G.; Fox, E.T.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) mission is changing due to the number of nuclear weapon reductions by the United States and the former Soviet Union with long-term storage requirements for DOE sites increasing. New technology to ensure the integrity of special nuclear material (SNM) in storage is available to sites to supplement manual physical inventories. This allows them to decrease operating costs while keeping radiation exposure at minimal levels. We have developed a generic, real time, personnel tracking and material monitoring system named PAMTRAK. Such a system can significantly reduce the number of required, manual physical inventories at DOE sites while increasing assurance that an insider has not diverted or stolen material. Until recently Pamtrak used only material monitoring devices that provided location/containment attributes. However, Westinghouse Electric Corp. and Metrox, Inc. have recently developed hard-wired item/material attribute systems that monitor both temperature and weight. We have incorporated both of these systems into PAMTRAK. If a site employed one of these item/material attribute systems, it could decrease its manual inventory frequency to three years. This paper describes how a site might implement such a system to meet the DOE's requirements

  13. The development of nuclear material accountability system - software user's manual

    Byeon, Kee Hoh; Kim, Ho Dong; Song, Dae Yong; Ko, Won Il; Hong, Jong Sook; Lee, Byung Doo

    1999-07-01

    We have developed the near-real time nuclear material accountability system, named by DMAS, for DUPIC Test Facility in the basis of the survey of DUPIC process and activities for the accountability of the system, and the review of the rules and regulations related to the nuclear material accounting. Our system adopts the structure and technologies used in COREMAS which was developed by LANL. This technical report illustrates the system structure and program usage as a user manual for DMAS. (author). 56 tabs., 1 fig

  14. Heat storage system utilizing phase change materials government rights

    Salyer, Ival O.

    2000-09-12

    A thermal energy transport and storage system is provided which includes an evaporator containing a mixture of a first phase change material and a silica powder, and a condenser containing a second phase change material. The silica powder/PCM mixture absorbs heat energy from a source such as a solar collector such that the phase change material forms a vapor which is transported from the evaporator to the condenser, where the second phase change material melts and stores the heat energy, then releases the energy to an environmental space via a heat exchanger. The vapor is condensed to a liquid which is transported back to the evaporator. The system allows the repeated transfer of thermal energy using the heat of vaporization and condensation of the phase change material.

  15. Nuclear material control systems for nuclear power plants

    1975-06-01

    Paragraph 70.51(c) of 10 CFR Part 70 requires each licensee who is authorized to possess at any one time special nuclear material in a quantity exceeding one effective kilogram to establish, maintain, and follow written material control and accounting procedures that are sufficient to enable the licensee to account for the special nuclear material in his possession under license. While other paragraphs and sections of Part 70 provide specific requirements for nuclear material control systems for fuel cycle plants, such detailed requirements are not included for nuclear power reactors. This guide identifies elements acceptable to the NRC staff for a nuclear material control system for nuclear power reactors. (U.S.)

  16. The establishment of computer system for nuclear material accounting

    Hong, Jong Sook; Lee, Byung Doo; Park, Ho Joon

    1988-01-01

    Computer based nuclear material accountancy system will not only increase the credibility of KOREA-IAEA safeguards agreement and bilateral agreements but also decrease the man-power needed to carry out the inspection activity at state level and at facility level. Computer software for nuclear material accounting for and control has been materialized the application to both item and bulk facilities and software for database at state level has been also established to maintain up -to-date status of nation-wide nuclear material inventory. Computer recordings and reporting have been realized to fulfill the national and international commitments to nuclear material accounting for and control. The exchange of information related to nuclear material accounting for has become possible by PC diskettes. (Author)

  17. Dynamic material accountancy in an integrated safeguards system

    Murrell, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The nuclear material safeguards system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is currently being improved. A new material control system will provide computerized monitoring and accountability, and a new physical protection system will provide upgraded perimeter and portal entry monitoring. The control system incorporates remote computer terminals at all processing, transfer and storage areas throughout the plant. Terminal equipment is interfaced to a computer through teletype equipment. A typical terminal transaction would require verification that the particular activity (material movement or process operation) is authorized, identifying the container involved, weighing the container, and then verifying the enrichment with non-destructive assay instrumentation. The system, when fully operational, will provide near real-time accountability for each eight-hour work shift for all items in process. (author)

  18. Dynamic material accountancy in an integrated safeguards system

    Murrell, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The nuclear material safeguards system at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant is currently being improved. A new material control system will provide computerized monitoring and accountability, and a new physical protection system will provide upgraded perimeter and portal entry monitoring. The control system incorporates remote computer terminals at all processing, transfer, and storage areas throughout the plant. Terminal equipment is interfaced to a computer through teletype equipment. A typical terminal transaction would require verification that the particular activity (material movement or process operation) is authorized, identifying the container involved, weighing the container, and then verifying the enrichment with non-destructive assay instrumentation. The system, when fully operational, will provide near real-time accountability for each eight-hour work shift for all items in process

  19. Development and operation of nuclear material accounting system of JAERI

    Obata, Takashi; Numata, Kazuyoshi; Namiki, Shinji; Yamauchi, Takahiro

    2003-01-01

    For the nuclear material accounting system, the mainframe computer had been used in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). For the purpose of more flexible use and easy operation, the PC base accounting system has been developed since 1999, and operation started from October, 2002. This system consists of the server with the database software and the client PC with original application software. The functions of this system are the input and edit of data, the creation of inspection correspondence data, and creation of a report to the states. Furthermore, it is also possible to create the Web application which used accounting data on a user level by using the programming language. Now, this system is being specialized in JAERI, but it is during a plan to develop as a system which can be also used at other institutions and organization. In the paper, the outline and operating situation of the nuclear material accounting system of JAERI are presented. (author)

  20. Glass material oxidation and dissolution system: Converting miscellaneous fissile materials to glass

    Forsberg, C.W.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The cold war and the development of nuclear energy have resulted in significant inventories of miscellaneous fissile materials (MFMs). MFMs include (1) plutonium scrap and residue, (2) miscellaneous spent nuclear fuel (SNF), (3) certain hot cell wastes, and (4) many one-of-a-kind materials. Major concerns associated with the long-term management of these materials include: safeguards and nonproliferation issues; health, environment, and safety concerns. waste management requirements; and high storage costs. These issues can be addressed by converting the MFMs to glass for secure, long-term storage or repository disposal; however, conventional glass-making processes require oxide-like feed materials. Converting MFMs to oxide-like materials with subsequent vitrification is a complex and expensive process. A new vitrification process has been invented, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS), which directly converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; and converts chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride (NaCl) stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium, Zircaloy, stainless steel, multiple oxides, and other materials to glass. However, significant work is required to develop GMODS further for applications at an industrial scale. If implemented, GMODS will provide a new approach to manage these materials

  1. The users manual and concepts of nuclear materials accounting system

    Lee, Byung Du; Jeon, In

    1996-03-01

    This report is to describe the concepts, operation status and user's manuals of nuclear materials accounting system which was developed to not only make out, report and manage the IAEA accounting reports but also maintain the accounting information. Therefore, facility operator could effectively make use of the accounting system without a special training by using this report. 3 tabs., 15 figs., (Author) .new

  2. Theoretical Studies of Small-System Thermodynamics in Energetic Materials

    2016-01-06

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: This is a comprehensive theoretical research program to investigate the fundamental principles of small-system thermodynamics ...a.k.a. nanothermodynamics). The proposed work is motivated by our desire to better understand the fundamental dynamics and thermodynamics of...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Theoretical Studies of Small-System Thermodynamics in Energetic Materials The views, opinions

  3. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    Kirkwood, C.W.; Pollock, S.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems

  4. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    Kirkwood, C.W.; Pollock, S.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems.

  5. Development of experimental systems for material sciences under microgravity

    Tanii, Jun; Obi, Shinzo; Kamimiyata, Yotsuo; Ajimine, Akio

    1988-01-01

    As part of the Space Experiment Program of the Society of Japanese Aerospace Companies, three experimental systems (G452, G453, G454) have been developed for materials science studies under microgravity by the NEC Corporation. These systems are to be flown as Get Away Special payloads for studying the feasibility of producing new materials. Together with the experimental modules carrying the hardware specific to the experiment, the three systems all comprise standard subsystems consisting of a power supply, sequence controller, temperature controller, data recorder, and video recorder.

  6. Development of knowledge base system linked to material database

    Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Shinichi; Miyakawa, Shunichi; Fujita, Mitsutane; Kinugawa, Junichi; Iwata, Shuichi

    2002-01-01

    The distributed material database system named 'Data-Free-Way' has been developed by four organizations (the National Institute for Materials Science, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, and the Japan Science and Technology Corporation) under a cooperative agreement in order to share fresh and stimulating information as well as accumulated information for the development of advanced nuclear materials, for the design of structural components, etc. In order to create additional values of the system, knowledge base system, in which knowledge extracted from the material database is expressed, is planned to be developed for more effective utilization of Data-Free-Way. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has been adopted as the description method of the retrieved results and the meaning of them. One knowledge note described with XML is stored as one knowledge which composes the knowledge base. Since this knowledge note is described with XML, the user can easily convert the display form of the table and the graph into the data format which the user usually uses. This paper describes the current status of Data-Free-Way, the description method of knowledge extracted from the material database with XML and the distributed material knowledge base system. (author)

  7. Material challenges for the next generation of fission reactor systems

    Buckthorpe, Derek

    2010-01-01

    The new generation of fission reactor systems wil require the deployment and construction of a series of advanced water cooled reactors as part of a package of measures to meet UK and European energy needs and to provide a near term non-fossil fuel power solution that addresses CO 2 emission limits. In addition new longer term Generation IV reactor tye systems are being developed and evaluated to enhance safety, reliability, sustainability economics and proliferation resistance requirements and to meet alternative energy applications (outside of electricity generation) such as process heat and large scale hydrogen generation. New fission systems will impose significant challenges on materials supply and development. In the near term, because of the need to 'gear up' to large scale construction after decades of industrial hibernation/contraction and, in the longer term, because of the need for materials to operate under more challenging environments requiring the deployment and development of new alternative materials not yet established to an industrial stage. This paper investigates the materials challenges imposed by the new Generation III+ and Generation IV systems. These include supply and fabrication issues, development of new high temperature alloys and non-metallic materials, the use of new methods of manufacture and the best use of currently available resources and minerals. Recommendations are made as to how these materials challenges might be met and how governments, industry, manufacturers and researchers can all play their part. (orig.)

  8. Material challenges for the next generation of fission reactor systems

    Buckthorpe, Derek [AMEC, Knutsford, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The new generation of fission reactor systems wil require the deployment and construction of a series of advanced water cooled reactors as part of a package of measures to meet UK and European energy needs and to provide a near term non-fossil fuel power solution that addresses CO{sub 2} emission limits. In addition new longer term Generation IV reactor tye systems are being developed and evaluated to enhance safety, reliability, sustainability economics and proliferation resistance requirements and to meet alternative energy applications (outside of electricity generation) such as process heat and large scale hydrogen generation. New fission systems will impose significant challenges on materials supply and development. In the near term, because of the need to 'gear up' to large scale construction after decades of industrial hibernation/contraction and, in the longer term, because of the need for materials to operate under more challenging environments requiring the deployment and development of new alternative materials not yet established to an industrial stage. This paper investigates the materials challenges imposed by the new Generation III+ and Generation IV systems. These include supply and fabrication issues, development of new high temperature alloys and non-metallic materials, the use of new methods of manufacture and the best use of currently available resources and minerals. Recommendations are made as to how these materials challenges might be met and how governments, industry, manufacturers and researchers can all play their part. (orig.)

  9. Precision microwave applicators and systems for plasma and materials processing

    Asmussen, J.; Garard, R.

    1988-01-01

    Modern applications of microwave energy have imposed new requirements upon microwave processing systems. Interest in energy efficiency, processing uniformity and control of process cycles has placed new design conditions upon microwave power oscillators, microwave systems and microwave applicator design. One approach of meeting new application requirements is the use of single-mode or controlled multimode applicators. The use of a single-mode applicator for plasma generation and materials processing will be presented. Descriptions of actual applicator designs for heating, curing, and processing of solid materials and the generations of high and low pressure discharges will be given. The impact of these applicators on the total microwave system including the microwave power source will be described. Specific examples of applicator and associated microwave systems will be detailed for the applications of (1) plasma thin film deposition and (2) the precision processing and diagnosis of materials. Methods of process control and diagnosis, control of process uniformity and process scale up are discussed

  10. System design for safe robotic handling of nuclear materials

    Drotning, W.; Wapman, W.; Fahrenholtz, J.; Kimberly, H.; Kuhlmann, J.

    1996-01-01

    Robotic systems are being developed by the Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center at Sandia National Laboratories to perform automated handling tasks with radioactive nuclear materials. These systems will reduce the occupational radiation exposure to workers by automating operations which are currently performed manually. Because the robotic systems will handle material that is both hazardous and valuable, the safety of the operations is of utmost importance; assurance must be given that personnel will not be harmed and that the materials and environment will be protected. These safety requirements are met by designing safety features into the system using a layered approach. Several levels of mechanical, electrical and software safety prevent unsafe conditions from generating a hazard, and bring the system to a safe state should an unexpected situation arise. The system safety features include the use of industrial robot standards, commercial robot systems, commercial and custom tooling, mechanical safety interlocks, advanced sensor systems, control and configuration checks, and redundant control schemes. The effectiveness of the safety features in satisfying the safety requirements is verified using a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis. This technique can point out areas of weakness in the safety design as well as areas where unnecessary redundancy may reduce the system reliability

  11. Cellular Manufacturing System with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling

    Khannan, M. S. A.; Maruf, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Sutrisno, S.; Wibawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    Material Handling take as important role in Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) design. In several study at CMS design material handling was assumed per pieces or with constant lot size. In real industrial practice, lot size may change during rolling period to cope with demand changes. This study develops CMS Model with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling. Integer Linear Programming is used to solve the problem. Objective function of this model is minimizing total expected cost consisting machinery depreciation cost, operating costs, inter-cell material handling cost, intra-cell material handling cost, machine relocation costs, setup costs, and production planning cost. This model determines optimum cell formation and optimum lot size. Numerical examples are elaborated in the paper to ilustrate the characterictic of the model.

  12. Nuclear material accountability system in DUPIC facility (I)

    Ko, W. I.; Kim, H. D.; Byeon, K. H.; Song, D. Y.; Lee, B. D.; Hong, J. S.; Yang, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    KAERI(Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed a nuclear material accountability system for DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU) fuel cycle process. The software development for the material accountability started with a general model software, so-called CoreMAS(Core Material Accountability System), at the beginning of 1998. The development efforts have been focused on the DUPIC safeguards system, and in addition, improved to meet Korean safeguards requirements under domestic laws and regulations. The software being developed as a local area network-based accountability system with multi-user environment is able to track and control nuclear material flow within a facility and inter-facility. In addition, it could be operated in a near-real time manner and also able to generate records and reports as necessary for facility operator and domestic and international inspector. This paper addresses DMAS(DUPIC Material Accountability System) being developed by KAERI and simulation in a small-scale DUPIC process for the verification of the software performance and for seeking further works

  13. Innovative IT system for material management in warehouses

    Papoutsidakis, Michael; Sigala, Maria; Simeonaki, Eleni; Tseles, Dimitrios

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays through the rapid development of technology in all areas there is a constant effort to introduce technological solutions in everyday life with emphasis on materials management information systems (Enterprise Resource Planning). During the last few years the variety of these systems has been increased for small business or for SMEs as well as for larger companies and industries. In the field of material management and main management operations with automated processes, ERP applications have only recently begun to make their appearance. In this paper will be presented the development of a system for automated material storage process in a system built through specific roles that will manage materials using an integrated barcode scanner. In addition we will analyse and describe the operation and modules of other systems that have been created for the same usage. The aim of this project is to create a prototype application that will be innovative with a flexible nature that will give solutions, with low cost and it will be user friendly. This application will allow quick and proper materials management for storage. The expected result is that the application can be used by smart devices in android environment and computers without an external barcode scanner, making the application accessible to the buyer at low cost.

  14. Materials selection guidelines for geothermal energy utilization systems

    Ellis, P.F. II; Conover, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    This manual includes geothermal fluid chemistry, corrosion test data, and materials operating experience. Systems using geothermal energy in El Salvador, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Mexico, New Zealand, and the United States are described. The manual provides materials selection guidelines for surface equipment of future geothermal energy systems. The key chemical species that are significant in determining corrosiveness of geothermal fluids are identified. The utilization modes of geothermal energy are defined as well as the various physical fluid parameters that affect corrosiveness. Both detailed and summarized results of materials performance tests and applicable operating experiences from forty sites throughout the world are presented. The application of various non-metal materials in geothermal environments are discussed. Included in appendices are: corrosion behavior of specific alloy classes in geothermal fluids, corrosion in seawater desalination plants, worldwide geothermal power production, DOE-sponsored utilization projects, plant availability, relative costs of alloys, and composition of alloys. (MHR)

  15. Development and implementation of automated radioactive materials handling systems

    Jacoboski, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    Material handling of radioactive and hazardous materials has forced the need to pursue remotely operated and robotic systems in light of operational safety concerns. Manual maneuvering, repackaging, overpacking and inspecting of containers which store radioactive and hazardous materials is the present mode of operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in Fernald Ohio. The manual methods are unacceptable in the eyes of concerned site workers and influential community oversight committees. As an example to respond to the FEMP material handling needs, design efforts have been initiated to provide a remotely operated system to repackage thousands of degradated drums containing radioactive Thorium: Later, the repackaged Thorium will be shipped offsite to a predesignated repository again requiring remote operation

  16. Mockup of an automated material transport system for remote handling

    Porter, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    An Automated Material Transport System (AMTS) was identified for transport of samples within a Material and Process Control Laboratory (MPCL). The MPCL was designed with a dry sample handling laboratory and a wet chemistry analysis laboratory. Each laboratory contained several processing gloveboxes. The function of the AMTS was to automate the handling of materials, multiple process samples, and bulky items between process stations with a minimum of operator intervention and with minimum o[ waiting periods and nonproductive activities. This paper discusses the system design features, capabilities and results of initial testing. The overall performance of the AMTS is very good. No major problems or concerns were identified. System commands are simple and logical making the system user friendly. Operating principle and design of individual components is simple. With the addition of various track modules, the system can be configured in most any configuration. The AMTS lends itself very well for integration with other automated systems or products. The AMTS is suited for applications involving light payloads which require multiple sample and material handling, lot tracking, and system integration with other products

  17. A sensor-based automation system for handling nuclear materials

    Drotning, W.; Kimberly, H.; Wapman, W.; Darras, D.

    1997-01-01

    An automated system is being developed for handling large payloads of radioactive nuclear materials in an analytical laboratory. The automation system performs unpacking and repacking of payloads from shipping and storage containers, and delivery of the payloads to the stations in the laboratory. The system uses machine vision and force/torque sensing to provide sensor-based control of the automation system in order to enhance system safety, flexibility, and robustness, and achieve easy remote operation. The automation system also controls the operation of the laboratory measurement systems and the coordination of them with the robotic system. Particular attention has been given to system design features and analytical methods that provide an enhanced level of operational safety. Independent mechanical gripper interlock and tool release mechanisms were designed to prevent payload mishandling. An extensive Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the automation system was developed as a safety design analysis tool

  18. Information systems for material flow management in construction processes

    Mesároš, P.; Mandičák, T.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes the options for the management of material flows in the construction process. Management and resource planning is one of the key factors influencing the effectiveness of construction project. It is very difficult to set these flows correctly. The current period offers several options and tools to do this. Information systems and their modules can be used just for the management of materials in the construction process.

  19. Management system for regulating transport of radioactive material

    Lopez Vietri, Jorge; Capadona, Nancy; Barenghi, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics and fundamentals of the Nuclear regulatory Authority's (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, ARN) management system applied to the regulation of transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TRM process from now on. ARN's quality management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TRM process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of quality system. Such sub processes were defined taking account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials and are listed below: 1) Development and updating of standards and regulatory guides; 2) Licensing of packages, special radioactive materials and consignments of radioactive materials; 3) Compliance assurance during the transport of radioactive materials, and 4) Training, advising and communications. For each of these sub processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, the clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. It was decided to develop a quality plan to organize and manage activities to meet quality requirements, to optimize the use of limited resources of the organization and to be used as a basis for monitoring and assessing compliance with the requirements, both internal and external. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to implement continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measure the sub processes as a way to show

  20. System and Method for Monitoring Piezoelectric Material Performance

    Moses, Robert W. (Inventor); Fox, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, Melanie L. (Inventor); Chattin, Richard L. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for monitoring performance capacity of a piezoelectric material that may form part of an actuator or sensor device. A switch is used to selectively electrically couple an inductor to the piezoelectric material to form an inductor-capacitor circuit. Resonance is induced in the inductor-capacitor circuit when the switch is operated to create the circuit. The resonance of the inductor-capacitor circuit is monitored with the frequency of the resonance being indicative of performance capacity of the device's piezoelectric material.

  1. Interregional technology transfer on advanced materials and renewable energy systems

    Agrianidis, P.; David, C.; Anthymidis, K.; Ekhrawat, M.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced materials are used in most industrial sectors and human activities and all developing and developed countries as well as international organizations eg. United Nations have established work groups, which survey the national and global state and developments in the area of advanced materials trying to establish strategies on that crucial technology sector. These strategies are focused on research and technology activities including education and vocation training, as well as stimulus for the starting up of new industrial applications. To introduce such a concept in Greece and especially in Northern Greece, the Technological Education Institute of Serres has initiated an Interregional technology transfer project in this scientific field. This project includes mod topics of advanced materials technology with emphasison specific industrial applications (renewable energy systems). The project demonstrates the development of a prototype photovoltaic thermal system in terms of a new industrial product. The product development procedure consists of steps such as initial product design, materials selection and processing, prototype design and manufacturing, quality control, performance optimization, but also control of materials ecocompatibility according to the national trends of life cycle design and recycling techniques. Keywords: Interregional technology transfer, materials, renewable energy systems

  2. Interregional technology transfer on advanced materials and renewable energy systems

    Agrianidis, P.; David, C.; Anthymidis, K.; Ekhrawat, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Serres, Serres (Greece)

    2008-07-01

    Advanced materials are used in most industrial sectors and human activities and all developing and developed countries as well as international organizations eg. United Nations have established work groups, which survey the national and global state and developments in the area of advanced materials trying to establish strategies on that crucial technology sector. These strategies are focused on research and technology activities including education and vocation training, as well as stimulus for the starting up of new industrial applications. To introduce such a concept in Greece and especially in Northern Greece, the Technological Education Institute of Serres has initiated an Interregional technology transfer project in this scientific field. This project includes mod topics of advanced materials technology with emphasison specific industrial applications (renewable energy systems). The project demonstrates the development of a prototype photovoltaic thermal system in terms of a new industrial product. The product development procedure consists of steps such as initial product design, materials selection and processing, prototype design and manufacturing, quality control, performance optimization, but also control of materials ecocompatibility according to the national trends of life cycle design and recycling techniques. Keywords: Interregional technology transfer, materials, renewable energy systems.

  3. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

  4. Transportation of radioactive materials: the legislative and regulatory information system

    Fore, C.S.

    1982-03-01

    The US Department of Energy is carrying out a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. As part of this overall effort, the Hazardous Materials Information Center of Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed the comprehensive Legislative and Regulatory Information System, which contains information on federal-, state-, and local-level legislative and regulatory actions pertaining primarily to the shipment of radioactive materials. Specific subject areas chosen to highlight particular transportation restrictions include: (1) identification of state agency responsible for regulating transportation, (2) type of escorts required, (3) areas requiring prior notification, (4) areas requiring permits or licenses, and (5) areas totally banning transportation of all radioactive materials. Other legislative information being categorized and of immediate relevance to the transportation issues is covered under the areas of disposal, storage, and management of radioactive materials; establishment of additional regulations; emergency response regulations; moratoriums on power plant construction and siting; radiation safety and control studies; and remedial action studies. The collected information is abstracted, indexed, and input into one of the two data bases developed under this information system - Current Legislation Data Base and Historical Legislation Data Base. An appendix is included which provides a summary of the state and local laws affecting the transportation of radioactive materials throughout the United States. The Legislative and Regulatory Information System is supported by the Transportation Technology Center located at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  5. Identification of approximately duplicate material records in ERP systems

    Zong, Wei; Wu, Feng; Chu, Lap-Keung; Sculli, Domenic

    2017-03-01

    The quality of master data is crucial for the accurate functioning of the various modules of an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. This study addresses specific data problems arising from the generation of approximately duplicate material records in ERP databases. Such problems are mainly due to the firm's lack of unique and global identifiers for the material records, and to the arbitrary assignment of alternative names for the same material by various users. Traditional duplicate detection methods are ineffective in identifying such approximately duplicate material records because these methods typically rely on string comparisons of each field. To address this problem, a machine learning-based framework is developed to recognise semantic similarity between strings and to further identify and reunify approximately duplicate material records - a process referred to as de-duplication in this article. First, the keywords of the material records are extracted to form vectors of discriminating words. Second, a machine learning method using a probabilistic neural network is applied to determine the semantic similarity between these material records. The approach was evaluated using data from a real case study. The test results indicate that the proposed method outperforms traditional algorithms in identifying approximately duplicate material records.

  6. System analysis for material control and accountancy technology

    Persiani, P.J.; Daly, T.A.; Bucher, R.G.; Rothman, A.B.; Cha, B.C.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Seefeldt, W.B.

    1987-01-01

    The systems analysis for material control and accountancy technology (SAMCAT) program involves a working group structured to ensure that direct operating measurements, accountancy experience, and knowledge of the processes and flows of nuclear material in the total US Department of Energy (DOE) complex of production fuel cycles would be the major bases for developing and implementing a plan of action. This working group consists of facility operators, DOE Office of Safeguards Security headquarters and field offices, and government laboratories. The program focus is to develop a system for decision support in validating the material control and accountancy (MC ampersand A) aspects of the masters safeguards and security agreements effectiveness and in evaluating proposed MC ampersand A upgrades. This paper is a status report on the current capabilities of the system

  7. Piezoelectric materials involved in road traffic applications test system

    Vazquez Rodriguez, M.; Jimenez Martinez, F.; Frutos, J. de

    2011-01-01

    The test bench system described in this paper performs experiments on piezoelectric materials used in road traffic applications, covering a range between 14 and 170 km/h, which is considered enough for testing under standard traffic conditions. A software has been developed to control the three phase induction motor driver and to acquire all the measurement data of the piezoelectric materials. The mass over each systems axis can be selected, with a limit of 60 kg over each wheel. The test bench is used to simulate the real behaviour of buried piezoelectric cables in road traffic applications for both light and heavy vehicles. This new test bed system is a powerful research tool and can be applied to determine the optimal installation and configuration of the piezoelectric cable sensors and opens a new field of research: the study of energy harvesting techniques based on piezoelectric materials. (Author) 10 refs.

  8. Structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials.

    Measures, R M; Glossop, N D; Lymer, J; Leblanc, M; West, J; Dubois, S; Tsaw, W; Tennyson, R C

    1989-07-01

    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise from either impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of embedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials.

  9. Safeguards research: assessing material control and accounting systems

    Maimoni, A.

    1977-01-01

    The Laboratory is working for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to improve the safeguarding of special nuclear material at nuclear fuel processing facilities, to provide a basis for improved regulations for material control and accounting systems, and to develop an assessment procedure for verifying compliance with these regulations. Early work included setting up a hierarchy of safeguard objectives and a set of measurable parameters with which systems performance to meet those objectives can be measured. Present work has focused on developing a computerized assessment procedure. We have also completed a test bed (based on a plutonium nitrate storage area) to identify and correct problems in the procedure and to show how this procedure can be used to evaluate the performance of an applicant's material control and accounting system

  10. JAERI Material Performance Database (JMPD); outline of the system

    Yokoyama, Norio; Tsukada, Takashi; Nakajima, Hajime.

    1991-01-01

    JAERI Material Performance Database (JMPD) has been developed since 1986 in JAERI with a view to utilizing the various kinds of characteristic data of nuclear materials efficiently. Management system of relational database, PLANNER was employed and supporting systems for data retrieval and output were expanded. JMPD is currently serving the following data; (1) Data yielded from the research activities of JAERI including fatigue crack growth data of LWR pressure vessel materials as well as creep and fatigue data of the alloy developed for the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR), Hastelloy XR. (2) Data of environmentally assisted cracking of LWR materials arranged by Electric power Research Institute (EPRI) including fatigue crack growth data (3000 tests), stress corrosion data (500 tests) and Slow Strain Rate Technique (SSRT) data (1000 tests). In order to improve user-friendliness of retrieval system, the menu selection type procedures have been developed where knowledge of system and data structures are not required for end-users. In addition a retrieval via database commands, Structured Query Language (SQL), is supported by the relational database management system. In JMPD the retrieved data can be processed readily through supporting systems for graphical and statistical analyses. The present report outlines JMPD and describes procedures for data retrieval and analyses by utilizing JMPD. (author)

  11. Expert systems for the transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    Luce, C.E.; Clover, J.C.; Ferrada, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Under the supervision of the Transportation Technologies Group which is in the Chemical Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, an expert system prototype for the transportation and packaging of hazardous and radioactive materials has been designed and developed. The development of the expert system prototype focused on using the combination of hypermedia elements and the Visual Basic trademark programming language. Hypermedia technology uses software that allows the user to interact with the computing environment through many formats: text, graphics, audio, and full-motion video. With the use of hypermedia, a user-friendly prototype has been developed to sort through numerous transportation regulations, thereby leading to the proper packaging for the materials. The expert system performs the analysis of regulations that an expert in shipping information would do; only the expert system performs the work more quickly. Currently, enhancements in a variety of categories are being made to the prototype. These include further expansion of non-radioactive materials, which includes any material that is hazardous but not radioactive; and the addition of full-motion video, which will depict regulations in terms that are easy to understand and which will show examples of how to handle the materials when packaging them

  12. A future vision of nuclear material information systems

    Suski, N.; Wimple, C.

    1999-01-01

    To address the current and future needs for nuclear materials management and safeguards information, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory envisions an integrated nuclear information system that will support several functions. The vision is to link distributed information systems via a common communications infrastructure designed to address the information interdependencies between two major elements: Domestic, with information about specific nuclear materials and their properties, and International, with information pertaining to foreign nuclear materials, facility design and operations. The communication infrastructure will enable data consistency, validation and reconciliation, as well as provide a common access point and user interface for a broad range of nuclear materials information. Information may be transmitted to, from, and within the system by a variety of linkage mechanisms, including the Internet. Strict access control will be employed as well as data encryption and user authentication to provide the necessary information assurance. The system can provide a mechanism not only for data storage and retrieval, but will eventually provide the analytical tools necessary to support the U.S. government's nuclear materials management needs and non-proliferation policy goals

  13. An accountancy system for nuclear materials control in research centres

    Buttler, R.; Bueker, H.; Vallee, J.

    1979-01-01

    The Nuclear Accountancy and Control System (NACS) was developed at KFA Juelich in accordance with the requirements of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. The main features are (1) recording of nuclear material in inventory items. These are combined to form batches wherever suitable; (2) extrapolation of accounting data as a replacement for detailed measurement of inventory items data. Recording and control of nuclear material are carried out on two levels with access to a common data bank. The lower level deals with nuclear materials handling plus internal management while on the upper level there is a central control point which is responsible for nuclear safeguarding within the entire research centre. By keeping the organizational and technical infrastructure it was possible to develop a system which is both economical and operator-oriented. In this system the emphasis of nuclear safeguarding is placed on the acquisition of the nuclear material inventory. As much consideration has been given to the interests of the various operational levels and organizational units as to internal and national regulations. Since it is part of the safeguarding and control system, access to the NACS must be restricted to a limited number of users only. Furthermore, it must include facilities for manual control in the form of records. Authorization for access must correspond with the various tasks of different user groups. All necessary data are acquired decentrally in the organizational units and entered via a terminal. It is available to the user groups on both levels through a central data bank. To meet all requirements, the NACS has been designed as an integrated, computer-assisted information system for the automated processing of extensive and multi-level nuclear materials data. As part of the preventive measures entailed with nuclear safeguarding, the accountancy system enables the operator of a nuclear plant to furnish proof of non-diversion of nuclear material. (author)

  14. Information systems for the materials management department: stand-alone and enterprise resource planning systems.

    2005-03-01

    Materials management information systems (MMISs) incorporate information tools that hospitals can use to automate certain business processes, increase staff compliance with these processes, and identify opportunities for cost savings. Recently, there has been a push by hospital administration to purchase enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, information systems that promise to integrate many more facets of healthcare business. We offer this article to help materials managers, administrators, and others involved with information system selection understand the changes that have taken place in materials management information systems, decide whether they need a new system and, if so, whether a stand-alone MMIS or an ERP system will be the best choice.

  15. A design methodology for materials control and accounting information systems

    Helman, P.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Modern approaches to nuclear materials safeguards have significantly increased the data processing needs of safeguards information systems. Implementing these approaches will require developing efficient, cost-effective designs. Guided by database design research, we are developing a design methodology for distributed materials control and accounting (MCandA) information systems. The methodology considers four design parameters: network topology, allocation of data to nodes, high-level global processing strategy, and local file structures to optimize system performance. Characteristics of system performance that are optimized are response time for an operation, timeliness of data, validity of data, and reliability. The ultimate goal of the research is to develop a comprehensive computerized design tool specifically tailored to the design of MCandA systems

  16. Permissible state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation

    Friel, L.

    1987-01-01

    Many state permit/fee systems for radioactive materials transportation have been ruled inconsistent with federal law invalidated by the courts. As the date for repository operation, and its associated transportation, draws near, more states can be expected to adopt permit/fee systems. Examination of the U.S. Department of Transportation's advisory rulings and federal court cases on previous permit/fee systems gives general guidance on the type of permit/fee systems most likely to withstand challenges. Such a system would: have a simplified permit application with minimal information requirements; address a federally-defined class of hazardous or radioactive materials; allow access to all shipments conducted in compliance with federal law; charge a fee reasonably related to the costs imposed on the state by the transportation; and minimize the potential for re-directing shipments to other jurisdictions

  17. Materials for innovative lead alloy cooled nuclear systems: Overview

    Mueller, Georg; Weisenburger, Alfons; Fetzer, Renate; Heinzel, Annette; Jianu, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging issues for all future innovative nuclear systems including Gen IV reactors are materials. The selection of the structural materials determines the design which has to consider the properties and the availability of the materials. Beside general requirements for material properties that are common for all fast reactor types specific issues arise from coolant compatibility. The high solubility of steel alloying elements in liquid Pb-alloys at reactor relevant temperatures is clearly detrimental. Therefore, all steels that are considered as structural materials have to be protected by dissolution barriers. The most common barriers for steels under consideration are oxide scales that form in situ during operation. However, increasing the temperature above 500 deg. C will result either in dissolution attack or in enhanced oxidation. For higher temperatures additional barriers like alumina forming surface alloys are discussed and investigated. Mechanical loads like creep stress and fretting will act on the steels. These mechanical loads will interact with the coolant and can increase the negative effects. For a LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) Demonstrator and MYHRRA (ADS) austenitic steels (316L) are selected for most in core components. The 15-15Ti is the choice for the fuel cladding of MYHRRA and a Pb cooled demonstrator. For an industrial LFR (Lead Fast Reactor) the ferritic martensitic steel T91 was selected as fuel clad material due to its improved irradiation resistance. T91 is in both designs the material to be used for the heat exchanger. Surface alloying with alumina forming alloys is considered to assure material functionality at higher temperatures and is therefore selected for fuel cladding of the ELFR and the heat exchanger tubes. This presentation will give an overview on the selected materials for innovative Pb alloy cooled nuclear systems considering, beside pure compatibility, the influence of mechanical interaction like creep and

  18. The nuclear materials control system: Safeguards - circa 1957

    Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In the late 1950s, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation undertook a nuclear materials control study for the Division of International Affairs of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The objective of the study was to develop a Nuclear Materials Control System (NMCS) that could be used under the US bilateral agreements or by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Phase I was a system study to determine the requirements for an NMCS for an assumed nuclear fuel complex. This paper summarizes aspects of Phase I studies addressing facility types, measurement points, and instrumentation needs and Phase II studies covering chemistry/chemical engineering, nuclear, special devices, and security devices and techniques. 1 fig

  19. Materials research for passive solar systems: Solid-state phase-change materials

    Benson, D. K.; Webb, J. D.; Burrows, R. W.; McFadden, J. D. O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C5H12O4), pentaglycerinve (C5H12O3), and neopentyl glycol (C5H12O2). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature between 25 C and 188 C, and have latent heats of transformation etween 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier.

  20. Challenges of structural materials for innovative nuclear systems in Europe

    Serrano, M.; Gomez-Briceno, D.

    2009-01-01

    New fusion and fission reactors for generation IV are envisaged to operate at conditions well above the actual ones for commercial fission reactors. This type of reactor combined a high operation temperature with a high neutron dose and an aggressive coolant, which imply new challenges for structural materials. One of the key issues to assure the safety and feasibility of these new nuclear systems is the selection of the structural materials, especially for in core components. Beside the differences between them, especially the amount of transmutation He in fusion reactors, similar structural materials have been selected. Some of the selected materials are well characterized at least at medium temperatures, as conventional ferritic/martensitic steels, but the qualification for higher temperatures is needed. For other materials, as ODS steels, there is a need for a complete characterization and qualification. In this paper a review of the operating conditions and selected structural materials for generation IV and fusion reactors within Europe is made. The needs for a complete characterization of these candidate materials are identified in terms of high temperature behaviour, radiation damage and coolant compatibility. (author)

  1. Systems analysis for materials control and accountancy technology

    Daly, T.A.; Bucher, R.G.; Rothman, A.B.; Charak, I.; Persiani, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The objective is to upgrade Materials Control and Accountancy (MCandA) technology over the flows of special nuclear materials throughout the DOE complex of fuel cycles. The program focus is to develop a ''Management Tool'' for decision support in evaluating MCandA upgrades, and invalidating the MCandA aspects of the Master Safeguards and Security Agreements (MSSA) effectiveness. The approach is the computerization of the nuclear materials flow charts, identification of key measurement locations in the production and product fuel cycle, and construct data information processing at each measurement location. The program is to provide the Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) with a timely management decision support system in planning MCandA safeguards technology upgrades over the nuclear materials production and product cycles

  2. From precision polymers to complex materials and systems

    Lutz, Jean-François; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Meijer, E. W.; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2016-05-01

    Complex chemical systems, such as living biological matter, are highly organized structures based on discrete molecules in constant dynamic interactions. These natural materials can evolve and adapt to their environment. By contrast, man-made materials exhibit simpler properties. In this Review, we highlight that most of the necessary elements for the development of more complex synthetic matter are available today. Using modern strategies, such as controlled radical polymerizations, supramolecular polymerizations or stepwise synthesis, polymers with precisely controlled molecular structures can be synthesized. Moreover, such tailored polymers can be folded or self-assembled into defined nanoscale morphologies. These self-organized macromolecular objects can be at thermal equilibrium or can be driven out of equilibrium. Recently, in the latter case, interesting dynamic materials have been developed. However, this is just a start, and more complex adaptive materials are anticipated.

  3. Safety assessment of a robotic system handling nuclear material

    Atcitty, C.B.; Robinson, D.G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper outlines the use of a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis for the safety assessment of a robotic system being developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The robotic system, The Weigh and Leak Check System, is to replace a manual process at the Department of Energy facility at Pantex by which nuclear material is inspected for weight and leakage. Failure Modes and Effects Analyses were completed for the robotics process to ensure that safety goals for the system had been meet. These analyses showed that the risks to people and the internal and external environment were acceptable

  4. Economic benefits of advanced materials in nuclear power systems

    Busby, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    A key obstacle to the commercial deployment of advanced fast reactors is the capital cost. There is a perception of higher capital cost for fast reactor systems than advanced light water reactors. However, cost estimates come with a large uncertainty since far fewer fast reactors have been built than light water reactor facilities. Furthermore, the large variability of industrial cost estimates complicates accurate comparisons. Reductions in capital cost can result from design simplifications, new technologies that allow reduced capital costs, and simulation techniques that help optimize system design. It is plausible that improved materials will provide opportunities for both simplified design and reduced capital cost. Advanced materials may also allow improved safety and longer component lifetimes. This work examines the potential impact of advanced materials on the capital investment cost of fast nuclear reactors.

  5. Mockup of an automated material transport system for remote handling

    Porter, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The automated material transport system (AMTS) was conceived for the transport of samples within the material and process control laboratory (MPCL), located in the plutonium processing building of the special isotope separation (SIS) facility. The MPCL was designed with a dry sample handling laboratory and a wet chemistry analysis laboratory. Each laboratory contained several processing glove boxes. The function of the AMTS was to automate the handling of materials, multiple process samples, and bulky items between process stations with a minimum of operator intervention and with a minimum of waiting periods and nonproductive activities. The AMTS design requirements, design verification mockup plan, and AMTS mockup procurement specification were established prior to cancellation of the SIS project. Due to the AMTS's flexibility, the need for technology development, and applicability to other US Department of Energy facilities, mockup of the AMTS continued. This paper discusses the system design features, capabilities, and results of initial testing

  6. MISSE in the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS )

    Burns, DeWitt; Finckenor, Miria; Henrie, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) data is now being collected and distributed through the Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. MISSE data has been instrumental in many programs and continues to be an important source of data for the space community. To facilitate great access to the MISSE data the International Space Station (ISS) program office and MAPTIS are working to gather this data into a central location. The MISSE database contains information about materials, samples, and flights along with pictures, pdfs, excel files, word documents, and other files types. Major capabilities of the system are: access control, browsing, searching, reports, and record comparison. The search capabilities will search within any searchable files so even if the desired meta-data has not been associated data can still be retrieved. Other functionality will continue to be added to the MISSE database as the Athena Platform is expanded

  7. Contamination confinement system of irradiated materials handling laboratories

    Lobao, A. dos S.T.; Araujo, J.A. de; Camilo, R.L.

    1988-06-01

    A study to prevent radioctivity release in lab scale is presented. As a basis for the design all the limits established by the IAEA for ventilation systems were observed. An evaluation of the different parameters involved in the design have been made, resulting in the especification of the working areas, ducts and filtering systems in order to get the best conditions for the safe handling of irradiated materials. (author) [pt

  8. Modelling adversary actions against a nuclear material accounting system

    Lim, J.J.; Huebel, J.G.

    1979-01-01

    A typical nuclear material accounting system employing double-entry bookkeeping is described. A logic diagram is used to model the interactions of the accounting system and the adversary when he attempts to thwart it. Boolean equations are derived from the logic diagram; solution of these equations yields the accounts and records through which the adversary may disguise a SSNM theft and the collusion requirements needed to accomplish this feat. Some technical highlights of the logic diagram are also discussed

  9. Robotic control architecture development for automated nuclear material handling systems

    Merrill, R.D.; Hurd, R.; Couture, S.; Wilhelmsen, K.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is engaged in developing automated systems for handling materials for mixed waste treatment, nuclear pyrochemical processing, and weapon components disassembly. In support of these application areas there is an extensive robotic development program. This paper will describe the portion of this effort at LLNL devoted to control system architecture development, and review two applications currently being implemented which incorporate these technologies

  10. Impact Testing of Orbiter Thermal Protection System Materials

    Kerr, Justin

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the impact testing of the materials used in designing the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS). Pursuant to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations a testing program of the TPS system was instituted. This involved using various types of impactors in different sizes shot from various sizes and strengths guns to impact the TPS tiles and the Leading Edge Structural Subsystem (LESS). The observed damage is shown, and the resultant lessons learned are reviewed.

  11. Containment system of contamination in irradiated materials handling laboratories

    Lobao, A.S.T.; Araujo, J.A. de; Camilo, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    A study to prevent radiactivity release in lab scale is presented. As a basis for the design all the limits established by the IAEA for ventilation systems were observed. An evaluation of the different parameters involved in the design have been made, resulting in the specification of the working areas, ducts and filtering systems in order to get the best conditions for the safe handling of irradiated materials. (author) [pt

  12. Modelling dust liberation in bulk material handling systems

    Derakhshani, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Dust has negative effects on the environmental conditions, human health as well as industrial equipment and processes. In this thesis, the transfer point of a belt conveyor as a bulk material handling system with a very high potential place for dust liberation is studied. This study is conducted

  13. Basics of control system material in iron foundry

    J. Sitko

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is taking into account problems of preparing the production of cast-iron casts with reference to correctnesses functioning of processes supplementing, containing elements the system of supply necessary materials and the tool used in order processing production. Methods and chosen models realization elements of production process and their influence on the efficiency process were characterized.

  14. Solar System Connections to the Organic Material In the ISM

    Pendleton, Yvonne J.

    2003-01-01

    The organic component of the interstellar medium (ISM) has relevance to the formation of the early solar nebula, since our solar system formed out of ISM material. Comparisons of near infrared spectra of the diffuse ISM dust with those of primitive solar system bodies (such as comets and meteorites) show a remarkable similarity, suggesting that perhaps some of the interstellar organic material made its way, unaltered, into our solar system. Tracing the interstellar organic material is necessary to understand how these materials may be important links in the development of prebiotic phenomena. Studies of the ISM reveal that the organic refractory component of the diffuse ISM is largely hydrocarbon in nature, possessing little N or O, with carbon distributed between the aromatic and aliphatic forms. There is a strong similarity in the near IR spectra of the diffuse ISM (the 3.4 micron hydrocarbon bands) and those seen in the Murchison and Orgueil meteorites, however, detailed comparisons at longer wavelengths reveal critical dissimilarities. Here we will present comparisons and discussion of relevant spectra. As we continue to explore, we will gain insight into the connection between planetesimals in the solar system and chemistry in the dusty space between the stars.

  15. Research Perspectives for Material Requirements Planning Systems. Paper No. 434.

    Berry, W. L.; Whybark, D. Clay

    Material requirements planning (MRP) systems are described as management tools for planning and controlling production operations. A wide variety of industries and production organizations are credited as reporting significant operating improvements in such areas as inventory control, production scheduling, delivery performance, and production…

  16. Management System for Regulating Transport of Radioactive Material

    Lopez Vietri, J.R.; Capadona, N.M.; Barenghi, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear - ARN) management system applied to the transport of radioactive material, in Argentina. In the frame of ARN's quality policy, 'Protection against ionizing radiation on transport of radioactive materials' was selected as one of the regulatory processes, named TMR from now on. ARN's management system is integrally based on ISO 9000 system addressed to help organizations in designing and implementing their quality management systems. TMR process was split into five sub processes in order to facilitate the implementation of the system. Such sub processes were defined taking into account of the main functions developed by ARN in the branch of safe transport of radioactive materials. For each of this processes were specified their objectives, inputs, activities and outputs, clients and stakeholders, responsibilities, supporting documents, control of documents and records, control of non-conformances, monitoring and measurements, audits, feedback and improvement. Supporting documents for sub processes were issued, validated, reviewed and improved as an essential point to achieve continuous improving. Simultaneously, some indexes were defined to monitor and measures sub processes as a way to show objective evidence of conformity with objectives. Finally, as conclusions of this paper, they will be showed the main obstacles and troubleshooting found in the design and implementation of management system as well as their solutions and state of advance. (authors)

  17. Nuclear Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness Tool (MSET)

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.; Roche, Charles T.; Campbell, Billy J.; Hammond, Glenn A.; Meppen, Bruce W.; Brown, Richard F.

    2011-01-01

    A nuclear material control and accountability (MC and A) system effectiveness tool (MSET) has been developed in the United States for use in evaluating material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) systems in nuclear facilities. The project was commissioned by the National Nuclear Security Administration's Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation. MSET was developed by personnel with experience spanning more than six decades in both the U.S. and international nuclear programs and with experience in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the nuclear power industry. MSET offers significant potential benefits for improving nuclear safeguards and security in any nation with a nuclear program. MSET provides a design basis for developing an MC and A system at a nuclear facility that functions to protect against insider theft or diversion of nuclear materials. MSET analyzes the system and identifies several risk importance factors that show where sustainability is essential for optimal performance and where performance degradation has the greatest impact on total system risk. MSET contains five major components: (1) A functional model that shows how to design, build, implement, and operate a robust nuclear MC and A system (2) A fault tree of the operating MC and A system that adapts PRA methodology to analyze system effectiveness and give a relative risk of failure assessment of the system (3) A questionnaire used to document the facility's current MPC and A system (provides data to evaluate the quality of the system and the level of performance of each basic task performed throughout the material balance area (MBA)) (4) A formal process of applying expert judgment to convert the facility questionnaire data into numeric values representing the performance level of each basic event for use in the fault tree risk assessment calculations (5) PRA software that performs the fault tree risk assessment calculations and produces risk importance

  18. Active materials for automotive adaptive forward lighting Part 1: system requirements vs. material properties

    Keefe, Andrew C.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2011-04-01

    Adaptive Frontlighting Systems (AFS in GM usage) improve visibility by automatically optimizing the beam pattern to accommodate road, driving and environmental conditions. By moving, modifying, and/or adding light during nighttime, inclement weather, or in sharp turns, the driver is presented with dynamic illumination not possible with static lighting systems The objective of this GM-HRL collaborative research project was to assess the potential of active materials to decrease the cost, mass, and packaging volume of current electric stepper-motor AFS designs. Solid-state active material actuators, if proved suitable for this application, could be less expensive than electric motors and have lower part count, reduced size and weight, and lower acoustic and EMF noise1. This paper documents Part 1 of the collaborative study, assessing technically mature, commercially available active materials for use as actuators. Candidate materials should reduce cost and improve AFS capabilities, such as increased angular velocity on swivel. Additional benefits to AFS resulting from active materials actuators were to be identified as well such as lower part count. In addition, several notional approaches to AFS were documented to illustrate the potential function, which is developed more fully in Part 2. Part 1 was successful in verifying the feasibility of using two active materials for AFS: shape memory alloys, and piezoelectrics. In particular, this demonstration showed that all application requirements including those on actuation speed, force, and cyclic stability to effect manipulation of the filament assembly and/or the reflector could be met by piezoelectrics (as ultrasonic motors) and SMA wire actuators.

  19. Neuromorphic Computing – From Materials Research to Systems Architecture Roundtable

    Schuller, Ivan K. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Stevens, Rick [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Pino, Robinson [Dept. of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States); Pechan, Michael [Dept. of Energy (DOE) Office of Science, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-10-29

    Computation in its many forms is the engine that fuels our modern civilization. Modern computation—based on the von Neumann architecture—has allowed, until now, the development of continuous improvements, as predicted by Moore’s law. However, computation using current architectures and materials will inevitably—within the next 10 years—reach a limit because of fundamental scientific reasons. DOE convened a roundtable of experts in neuromorphic computing systems, materials science, and computer science in Washington on October 29-30, 2015 to address the following basic questions: Can brain-like (“neuromorphic”) computing devices based on new material concepts and systems be developed to dramatically outperform conventional CMOS based technology? If so, what are the basic research challenges for materials sicence and computing? The overarching answer that emerged was: The development of novel functional materials and devices incorporated into unique architectures will allow a revolutionary technological leap toward the implementation of a fully “neuromorphic” computer. To address this challenge, the following issues were considered: The main differences between neuromorphic and conventional computing as related to: signaling models, timing/clock, non-volatile memory, architecture, fault tolerance, integrated memory and compute, noise tolerance, analog vs. digital, and in situ learning New neuromorphic architectures needed to: produce lower energy consumption, potential novel nanostructured materials, and enhanced computation Device and materials properties needed to implement functions such as: hysteresis, stability, and fault tolerance Comparisons of different implementations: spin torque, memristors, resistive switching, phase change, and optical schemes for enhanced breakthroughs in performance, cost, fault tolerance, and/or manufacturability.

  20. System for indicating the level of material in a container

    Erb, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    In a radiation detecting system for controlling the level of material in a container, the first counter accumulates pulses generated by a geiger tube at a rate related to the level of material and a second counter accumulates clock pulses. A race condition is established between a NAND circuit indicating that the first counter has reached a predetermined total, and a NAND circuit indicating that the second counter has reached a second predetermined total representing a fixed counting interval. The first NAND circuit to respond to its predetermined total actuates a circuit to reset both counters and, if indicative of the material level being below a predetermined minimum, actuates an alarm or operates a control circuit to add material to the container. In the example shown, an additional NAND circuit responds to a different count in the first counter which count in the same time interval corresponds to a higher level, and when material is being added to the container, the race condition is between two NAND circuits. The effect of this is to provide a hysteresis effect preventing the circuit from 'hunting' around one level of material. (author)

  1. Evaluation of Neutron Poison Materials for DOE SNF Disposal Systems

    Vinson, D.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1998-09-01

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors is being consolidated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for ultimate disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Most of the aluminum-based fuel material contains highly enriched uranium (HEU) (more than 20 percent 235U), which challenges the preclusion of criticality events for disposal periods exceeding 10,000 years. Recent criticality analyses have shown that the addition of neutron absorbing materials (poisons) is needed in waste packages containing DOE SNF canisters fully loaded with Al-SNF under flooded and degraded configurations to demonstrate compliance with the requirement that Keff less than 0.95. Compatibility of poison matrix materials and the Al-SNF, including their relative degradation rate and solubility, are important to maintain criticality control. An assessment of the viability of poison and matrix materials has been conducted, and an experimental corrosion program has been initiated to provide data on degradation rates of poison and matrix materials and Al-SNF materials under repository relevant vapor and aqueous environments. Initial testing includes Al6061, Type 316L stainless steel, and A516Gr55 in synthesized J-13 water vapor at 50 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 200 degrees C and in condensate water vapor at 100 degrees C. Preliminary results are presented herein

  2. Impact analysis of automotive structures with distributed smart material systems

    Peelamedu, Saravanan M.; Naganathan, Ganapathy; Buckley, Stephen J.

    1999-06-01

    New class of automobiles has structural skins that are quite different from their current designs. Particularly, new families of composite skins are developed with new injection molding processes. These skins while support the concept of lighter vehicles of the future, are also susceptible to damage upon impact. It is important that their design should be based on a better understanding on the type of impact loads and the resulting strains and damage. It is possible that these skins can be integrally designed with active materials to counter damages. This paper presents a preliminary analysis of a new class of automotive skins, using piezoceramic as a smart material. The main objective is to consider the complex system with, the skin to be modeled as a layered plate structure involving a lightweight material with foam and active materials imbedded on them. To begin with a cantilever beam structure is subjected to a load through piezoceramic and the resulting strain at the active material site is predicted accounting for the material properties, piezoceramic thickness, adhesive thickness including the effect of adhesives. A finite element analysis is carried out to compare experimental work. Further work in this direction would provide an analytical tool that will provide the basis for algorithms to predict and counter impacts on the future class of automobiles.

  3. System requirement specifications for the Z-plant materials information tracking system (ZMITS)

    NEGIN, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    This is a system requirement specification for a database which will be developed to track classified information related to nuclear materials stored at PFP. The system will supplement existing databases to support both processing and disposition information needs

  4. Organic materials in planetary and protoplanetary systems: nature or nurture?

    Dalle Ore, C. M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Brunetto, R.; Campins, H.; de Bergh, C.; Debes, J. H.; Dotto, E.; Emery, J. P.; Grundy, W. M.; Jones, A. P.; Mennella, V.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Owen, T.; Pascucci, I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Quirico, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: The objective of this work is to summarize the discussion of a workshop aimed at investigating the properties, origins, and evolution of the materials that are responsible for the red coloration of the small objects in the outer parts of the solar system. Because of limitations or inconsistencies in the observations and, until recently, the limited availability of laboratory data, there are still many questions on the subject. Our goal is to approach two of the main questions in a systematic way: - Is coloring an original signature of materials that are presolar in origin ("nature") or stems from post-formational chemical alteration, or weathering ("nurture")? - What is the chemical signature of the material that causes spectra to be sloped towards the red in the visible? We examine evidence available both from the laboratory and from observations sampling different parts of the solar system and circumstellar regions (disks). Methods: We present a compilation of brief summaries gathered during the workshop and describe the evidence towards a primordial vs. evolutionary origin for the material that reddens the small objects in the outer parts of our, as well as in other, planetary systems. We proceed by first summarizing laboratory results followed by observational data collected at various distances from the Sun. Results: While laboratory experiments show clear evidence of irradiation effects, particularly from ion bombardment, the first obstacle often resides in the ability to unequivocally identify the organic material in the observations. The lack of extended spectral data of good quality and resolution is at the base of this problem. Furthermore, that both mechanisms, weathering and presolar, act on the icy materials in a spectroscopically indistinguishable way makes our goal of defining the impact of each mechanism challenging. Conclusions: Through a review of some of the workshop presentations and discussions, encompassing laboratory experiments as well

  5. Straight-Line: A nuclear material storage information management system

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to: (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user immediately. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia's Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project

  6. Straight-Line -- A nuclear material storage information management system

    Nilsen, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Mangan, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user in a timely manner. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  7. Straight-Line: A nuclear material storage information management system

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to: (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user immediately. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia`s Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project.

  8. Straight-Line -- A nuclear material storage information management system

    Nilsen, C.; Mangan, D.

    1995-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing Straight-Line -- a pilot system to demonstrate comprehensive monitoring of nuclear material in storage. Straight-Line is an integrated system of sensors providing information that will enhance the safety, security, and international accountability of stored nuclear material. The goals of this effort are to (1) Provide the right sensor information to the right user in a timely manner. (2) Reduce the expenses, risks, and frequency of human inspection of the material. (3) Provide trustworthy data to international inspectors to minimize their need to make on site inspections. In pursuit of these goals, Straight-Line unites technology from Sandia's Authenticated Item Monitoring System (AIMS) and other programs to communicate the authenticated status of the monitored item back to central magazine receivers. Straight-Line, however, incorporates several important features not found in previous systems: (1) Information Security -- the ability to collect and safely disseminate both classified and unclassified sensor data to users on a need-to-know basis. (2) Integrate into a single system the monitoring needs of safety, security, and international accountability. (3) Incorporate the use of sensors providing analog or digital output. This paper will present the overall architecture and status of the Straight-Line project

  9. Beyond assemblies: system convergence and multi-materiality.

    Wiscombe, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The architectural construction industry has become increasingly more specialized over the past 50 years, creating a culture of layer thinking over part-to-whole thinking. Building systems and technologies are often cobbled together in conflicting and uncorrelated ways, even when referred to as 'integrated', such as by way of building information modeling. True integration of building systems requires rethinking how systems and architectural morphologies can push and pull on one another, creating not only innovation in technology but in aesthetics. The revolution in composite materials, with unprecedented plasticity and performance features, opens up a huge range of possibilities for achieving this kind of convergence. Composites by nature fuse envelope and structure, but through various types of inflections, they can also be made to conduct air and fluids through cavities and de-laminations, as well as integrate lighting and energy systems. Assembly as we know it moves away from mineral materials and hardware and toward polymers and 'healing'. Further, when projected into the near-future realm of multi-materiality and 3D manufacturing, possibilities for embedding systems and creating gradients of rigidity and opacity open up, pointing to an entirely new realm of architectural thinking.

  10. Beyond assemblies: system convergence and multi-materiality

    Wiscombe, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The architectural construction industry has become increasingly more specialized over the past 50 years, creating a culture of layer thinking over part-to-whole thinking. Building systems and technologies are often cobbled together in conflicting and uncorrelated ways, even when referred to as 'integrated', such as by way of building information modeling. True integration of building systems requires rethinking how systems and architectural morphologies can push and pull on one another, creating not only innovation in technology but in aesthetics. The revolution in composite materials, with unprecedented plasticity and performance features, opens up a huge range of possibilities for achieving this kind of convergence. Composites by nature fuse envelope and structure, but through various types of inflections, they can also be made to conduct air and fluids through cavities and de-laminations, as well as integrate lighting and energy systems. Assembly as we know it moves away from mineral materials and hardware and toward polymers and 'healing'. Further, when projected into the near-future realm of multi-materiality and 3D manufacturing, possibilities for embedding systems and creating gradients of rigidity and opacity open up, pointing to an entirely new realm of architectural thinking.

  11. Material control system design: Test Bed Nitrate Storage Area (TBNSA)

    Clark, G.A.; Da Roza, R.A.; Dunn, D.R.; Sacks, I.J.; Harrison, W.; Huebel, J.G.; Ross, W.N.; Salisbury, J.D.; Sanborn, R.H.; Weissenberger, S.

    1978-05-01

    This report provides an example of a hypothetical Special Nuclear Material (SNM) Safeguard Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) System which will be used as a subject for the demonstration of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory MC and A System Evaluation Methodology in January 1978. This methodology is to become a tool in the NRC evaluation of license applicant submittals for Nuclear Fuel Cycle facilities. The starting point for this test bed design was the Allied-General Nuclear Services--Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant Reprocessing plant as described in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR), of August 1975. The test bed design effort was limited to providing an SNM safeguard system for the plutonium nitrate storage area of this facility

  12. Terahertz Computed Tomography of NASA Thermal Protection System Materials

    Roth, D. J.; Reyes-Rodriguez, S.; Zimdars, D. A.; Rauser, R. W.; Ussery, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    A terahertz axial computed tomography system has been developed that uses time domain measurements in order to form cross-sectional image slices and three-dimensional volume renderings of terahertz-transparent materials. The system can inspect samples as large as 0.0283 cubic meters (1 cubic foot) with no safety concerns as for x-ray computed tomography. In this study, the system is evaluated for its ability to detect and characterize flat bottom holes, drilled holes, and embedded voids in foam materials utilized as thermal protection on the external fuel tanks for the Space Shuttle. X-ray micro-computed tomography was also performed on the samples to compare against the terahertz computed tomography results and better define embedded voids. Limits of detectability based on depth and size for the samples used in this study are loosely defined. Image sharpness and morphology characterization ability for terahertz computed tomography are qualitatively described.

  13. Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials

    Ianniciello, Lucia; Biwolé, Pascal Henry; Achard, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Battery thermal management is necessary for electric vehicles (EVs), especially for Li-ion batteries, due to the heat dissipation effects on those batteries. Usually, air or coolant circuits are employed as thermal management systems in Li-ion batteries. However, those systems are expensive in terms of investment and operating costs. Phase change materials (PCMs) may represent an alternative which could be cheaper and easier to operate. In fact, PCMs can be used as passive or semi-passive systems, enabling the global system to sustain near-autonomous operations. This article presents the previous developments introducing PCMs for EVs battery cooling. Different systems are reviewed and solutions are proposed to enhance PCMs efficiency in those systems.

  14. A system of nuclear material accountancy in the JAERI

    Kase, Toshio; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshindo

    1983-05-01

    Pursuant to the domestic law and regulations revised in 1978 as to be conformed to the requirements specified in the Safeguards Agreement under the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the JAERI's system of nuclear material accountancy has been effectively developed. The system of accountancy in the JAERI is based on the information treatment by the computer. The data of nuclear material are retained batchwisely together with their complicate history reflected the inventory changes and other transactions. The reports represented these data are prepared and submitted to the IAEA through the Government every month. The inspections are frequently conducted to the JAERI to verify the material appeared in the reports. Item counting, item identification and non-destructive assay technique are brought to the verification. In some cases, seals of the Government and the IAEA are applied to the nuclear material at the inspections, as their containment measures. The surveillance camera is also installed in the facility to look whole view of reactor room and spent fuel pond. In this paper, the general safeguards application and its corresponding accountancy system on JAERI's nuclear facility are described. (author)

  15. EMERIS: an advanced information system for a materials testing reactor

    Adorjan, F.; Buerger, L.; Lux, I.; Mesko, L.; Szabo, K.; Vegh, J.; Ivanov, V.V.; Mozhaev, A.A.; Yakovlev, V.V.

    1990-06-01

    The basic features of the Materials Testing Reactor of IAE, Moscow (MR) Information System (EMERIS) are outlined. The purpose of the system is to support reactor and experimental test loop operators by a flexible, fully computerized and user-friendly tool for the aquisition, analysis, archivation and presentation of data obtained during operation of the experimental facility. High availability of EMERIS services is ensured by redundant hardware and software components, and by automatic configuration procedure. A novel software feature of the system is the automatic Disturbance Analysis package, which is aimed to discover primary causes of irregularities occurred in the technology. (author) 2 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Human as a component of a nuclear material safeguard system

    Morgan, D.E.; Schechter, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    Many human vigilance experiments are summarized and principles are extracted which should be useful in designing and evaluating a nuclear material safeguard system. A human is a poor observer and is not a dependable part of any man-machine system when required to function as an observer. There are a few techniques which improve his performance by providing feedback. A conceptual model is presented which is helpful in design and evaluation of systems. There is some slight experimental support for the model. Finally, some techniques of time study and statistical control charting will be useful as a means of detecting nuclear diversion attempts

  17. Life Enhancement of Naval Systems through Advanced Materials.

    1982-05-12

    87% A1203 - 13%TiO 2 , Inconel 625 , WC in Co matrix, and aluminum bronze. Wire flame sprayed Al was used as a standard for comparison. Coatings of 5...with no apparent corrosion. The Al coating performed moderately well in these two environments but the other three materials ( Inconel 625 , WC in Co...and improved uses of materials to reduce corrosion, wear and fatigue of systems components. DD "NIr, 1473 EDITION DOF NOV6 S 9OGSOLETE S/N 0102-014

  18. Automated Material Accounting Statistics System at Rockwell Hanford Operations

    Eggers, R.F.; Giese, E.W.; Kodman, G.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Automated Material Accounting Statistics System (AMASS) was developed under the sponsorship of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The AMASS was developed when it was realized that classical methods of error propagation, based only on measured quantities, did not properly control false alarm rate and that errors other than measurement errors affect inventory differences. The classical assumptions that (1) the mean value of the inventory difference (ID) for a particular nuclear material processing facility is zero, and (2) the variance of the inventory difference is due only to errors in measured quantities are overly simplistic. The AMASS provides a valuable statistical tool for estimating the true mean value and variance of the ID data produced by a particular material balance area. In addition it provides statistical methods of testing both individual and cumulative sums of IDs, taking into account the estimated mean value and total observed variance of the ID

  19. Flexible Multibody Systems Models Using Composite Materials Components

    Neto, Maria Augusta; Ambr'osio, Jorge A. C.; Leal, Rog'erio Pereira

    2004-01-01

    The use of a multibody methodology to describe the large motion of complex systems that experience structural deformations enables to represent the complete system motion, the relative kinematics between the components involved, the deformation of the structural members and the inertia coupling between the large rigid body motion and the system elastodynamics. In this work, the flexible multibody dynamics formulations of complex models are extended to include elastic components made of composite materials, which may be laminated and anisotropic. The deformation of any structural member must be elastic and linear, when described in a coordinate frame fixed to one or more material points of its domain, regardless of the complexity of its geometry. To achieve the proposed flexible multibody formulation, a finite element model for each flexible body is used. For the beam composite material elements, the sections properties are found using an asymptotic procedure that involves a two-dimensional finite element analysis of their cross-section. The equations of motion of the flexible multibody system are solved using an augmented Lagrangian formulation and the accelerations and velocities are integrated in time using a multi-step multi-order integration algorithm based on the Gear method

  20. Development of Seismic Isolation Systems Using Periodic Materials

    Yan, Yiqun [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Mo, Yi-Lung [Univ. of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Menq, Farn-Yuh [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Stokoe, II, Kenneth H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Perkins, Judy [Prairie View A & M University, Prairie View, TX (United States); Tang, Yu [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Advanced fast nuclear power plants and small modular fast reactors are composed of thin-walled structures such as pipes; as a result, they do not have sufficient inherent strength to resist seismic loads. Seismic isolation, therefore, is an effective solution for mitigating earthquake hazards for these types of structures. Base isolation, on which numerous studies have been conducted, is a well-defined structure protection system against earthquakes. In conventional isolators, such as high-damping rubber bearings, lead-rubber bearings, and friction pendulum bearings, large relative displacements occur between upper structures and foundations. Only isolation in a horizontal direction is provided; these features are not desirable for the piping systems. The concept of periodic materials, based on the theory of solid-state physics, can be applied to earthquake engineering. The periodic material is a material that possesses distinct characteristics that prevent waves with certain frequencies from being transmitted through it; therefore, this material can be used in structural foundations to block unwanted seismic waves with certain frequencies. The frequency band of periodic material that can filter out waves is called the band gap, and the structural foundation made of periodic material is referred to as the periodic foundation. The design of a nuclear power plant, therefore, can be unified around the desirable feature of a periodic foundation, while the continuous maintenance of the structure is not needed. In this research project, three different types of periodic foundations were studied: one-dimensional, two-dimensional, and three-dimensional. The basic theories of periodic foundations are introduced first to find the band gaps; then the finite element methods are used, to perform parametric analysis, and obtain attenuation zones; finally, experimental programs are conducted, and the test data are analyzed to verify the theory. This procedure shows that the

  1. Self-compacting paste system using secondary raw materials

    Rizwan, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    A study has been carried out on self-compacting paste (SCP) systems using various cements and secondary raw materials (SRM's) including rice husk ash (RHA) and Silica Fume (SF). These systems were characterized by: SRM particle size, powder water demand (WD) and setting times, flow, strength, microstructure and early volume stability. The result show that WD increased by adding SRM's due to their smaller particle size, higher surface area and internal porosity. Inclusion of SRM's in SCP systems as cement replacements also increase strength of SCP systems due to filler, hydration and pozzolanic actions which translate into pore refinement. It is demonstrated that the resultant properties of self-compacting cementitious. System (SCCS) depend upon the nature of SRM used. (author)

  2. Advanced algorithms for radiographic material discrimination and inspection system design

    Gilbert, Andrew J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); McDonald, Benjamin S., E-mail: benjamin.mcdonald@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Deinert, Mark R., E-mail: mdeinert@mines.edu [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    X-ray and neutron radiography are powerful tools for non-invasively inspecting the interior of objects. However, current methods are limited in their ability to differentiate materials when multiple materials are present, especially within large and complex objects. Past work has demonstrated that the spectral shift that X-ray beams undergo in traversing an object can be used to detect and quantify nuclear materials. The technique uses a spectrally sensitive detector and an inverse algorithm that varies the composition of the object until the X-ray spectrum predicted by X-ray transport matches the one measured. Here we show that this approach can be adapted to multi-mode radiography, with energy integrating detectors, and that the Cramér–Rao lower bound can be used to choose an optimal set of inspection modes a priori. We consider multi-endpoint X-ray radiography alone, or in combination with neutron radiography using deuterium–deuterium (DD) or deuterium–tritium (DT) sources. We show that for an optimal mode choice, the algorithm can improve discrimination between high-Z materials, specifically between tungsten and plutonium, and estimate plutonium mass within a simulated nuclear material storage system to within 1%.

  3. Emergy analysis of biogas systems based on different raw materials.

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  4. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Yang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants’ materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system, and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system. As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials.

  5. Emergy Analysis of Biogas Systems Based on Different Raw Materials

    Wang, Yang; Lin, Cong; Li, Jing; Duan, Na; Li, Xue; Fu, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Environmental pollution and energy crisis restrict the development of China, and the utilization of renewable technology is an effective strategy to alleviate the damage. Biogas engineering has rapidly developed attributes to solve environmental problems and create a renewable energy product biogas. In this paper, two different biogas plants' materials were analyzed by emergy method. One of them is a biogas project whose degraded material is feces (BPF system), and the other is the one whose degraded material is corn straw (BPC system). As a result, the ecological-economic values of BPF and BPC are $28,300/yr and $8,100/yr, respectively. Considering currency, environment, and human inputs, both of the biogas projects have the ability of disposing waste and potential for development. The proportion of biogas output is much more than fertilizer output; so, fertilizer utilization should be emphasized in the future. In comparison, BPF is better than BPC in the aspects of ecological-economic benefits, environmental benefits, and sustainability. The reason is the difficulty of corn straw seasonal collection and degradation. Thus it is proposed that BPC should be combined with the other raw materials. PMID:23476134

  6. Study of Material Compatibility for a Thermal Energy Storage System with Phase Change Material

    Songgang Qiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of stainless steel 316L and Inconel 625 for use in a latent heat thermal energy storage (TES system was investigated. A NaCl–NaF eutectic mixture with a melting temperature of 680 °C was used as the phase change material (PCM. Containers were filled with the PCM prior to heating to 750 °C, then examined after 100 and 2500 h of high-temperature exposure by analyzing the material surface and cross-section areas. A small amount of corrosion was present in both samples after 100 h. Neither sample suffered significant damage after 2500 h. The undesirable inter-granular grain boundary attack found in SS316L samples was in the order of 1–2 µm in depth. On Inconel 625 sample surface, an oxide complex formed, resisting material dissolution into the PCM. The surface morphology of tested samples remained largely unchanged after 2500 h, but the corrosion pattern changed from an initially localized corrosion penetration to a more uniform type. After 2500 h, the corrosion depth of Inconel 625 remained at roughly 1–2 µm, indicating that the corrosion rate decelerated. Both materials demonstrated good compatibility with the chosen NaF–NaCl eutectic salt, but the low corrosion activity in Inconel 625 samples shows a performance advantage for long term operation.

  7. Calculations to support design of a nuclear material tracking system

    Carter, L.L.; Eggers, R.F.; Williams, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Hanford Company is developing a nuclear material tracking system called NTRAK for the US Department of Energy at the Savannah River site. The NTRAK system is designed to determine the position and approximate magnitude of packages of special nuclear material (SNM) moving through a nuclear plant. The NTRAK accomplishes this by using special assemblies of detectors called modules to measure the gamma radiation emitted by the SNM. After measurement, raw data are processed to determine the direction to and position of the gamma-ray source. In order for the NTRAK method of SNM tracking to work, the gamma-ray signal at the detector modules must be at least four standard deviations above background. This paper addresses the use of the Monte Carlo computer code for neutron and photon transport (MCNP) to (a) predict the radiation emitted by plutonium oxide sources and (b) predict the counting rate of NaI detectors measuring those sources

  8. System level permeability modeling of porous hydrogen storage materials.

    Kanouff, Michael P.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Voskuilen, Tyler (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-01-01

    A permeability model for hydrogen transport in a porous material is successfully applied to both laboratory-scale and vehicle-scale sodium alanate hydrogen storage systems. The use of a Knudsen number dependent relationship for permeability of the material in conjunction with a constant area fraction channeling model is shown to accurately predict hydrogen flow through the reactors. Generally applicable model parameters were obtained by numerically fitting experimental measurements from reactors of different sizes and aspect ratios. The degree of channeling was experimentally determined from the measurements and found to be 2.08% of total cross-sectional area. Use of this constant area channeling model and the Knudsen dependent Young & Todd permeability model allows for accurate prediction of the hydrogen uptake performance of full-scale sodium alanate and similar metal hydride systems.

  9. Development of the RFID System for nuclear materials management

    Chen, K.; Tsai, H.; Liu, Y.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is one of today's most rapidly growing technologies in the automatic data collection industry. Although commercial applications are already widespread, the use of this technology for managing nuclear materials is only in its infancy. Employing an RFID system has the potential to offer an immense payback: enhanced safety and security, reduced need for manned surveillance, real-time access to status and event history data, and overall cost-effectiveness. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM), Office of Packaging and Transportation (EM-63), is developing an RFID system for nuclear materials management. The system consists of battery-powered RFID tags with onboard sensors and memories, a reader network, application software, a database server and web pages. The tags monitor and record critical parameters, including the status of seals, movement of objects, and environmental conditions of the nuclear material packages in real time. They also provide instant warnings or alarms when preset thresholds for the sensors are exceeded. The information collected by the readers is transmitted to a dedicated central database server that can be accessed by authorized users across the DOE complex via a secured network. The onboard memory of the tags allows the materials manifest and event history data to reside with the packages throughout their life cycles in storage, transportation, and disposal. Data security is currently based on Advanced Encryption Standard-256. The software provides easy-to-use graphical interfaces that allow access to all vital information once the security and privilege requirements are met. An innovative scheme has been developed for managing batteries in service for more than 10 years without needing to be changed. A miniature onboard dosimeter is being developed for applications that require radiation surveillance. A field

  10. Indoor Chemistry: Materials, Ventilation Systems, and Occupant Activities

    Morrison, G.C.; Corsi, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Wells, J.R.

    2006-05-01

    Chemical processes taking place in indoor environments can significantly alter the nature and concentrations of pollutants. Exposure to secondary contaminants generated in these reactions needs to be evaluated in association with many aspects of buildings to minimize their impact on occupant health and well-being. Focusing on indoor ozone chemistry, we describe alternatives for improving indoor air quality by controlling chemical changes related to building materials, ventilation systems, and occupant activities.

  11. Procedure for the assessment of material control and accounting systems

    Parziale, A.A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1979-01-01

    For the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a procedure was developed and tested for the evaluation of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems at nuclear fuel facilities. This procedure, called the Structured Assessment Approach, SAA, subjects the MC and A system at a facility to a series of increasingly sophisticated adversaries and strategies. A fully integrated version of the computer codes which assist the analyst in this assessment will become available in October 1979. The concepts of the SAA and the results of the assessment of a hypothetical but typical facility are presented

  12. Inner solar system material discovered in the Oort cloud.

    Meech, Karen J; Yang, Bin; Kleyna, Jan; Hainaut, Olivier R; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Keane, Jacqueline V; Micheli, Marco; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Wainscoat, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    We have observed C/2014 S3 (PANSTARRS), a recently discovered object on a cometary orbit coming from the Oort cloud that is physically similar to an inner main belt rocky S-type asteroid. Recent dynamical models successfully reproduce the key characteristics of our current solar system; some of these models require significant migration of the giant planets, whereas others do not. These models provide different predictions on the presence of rocky material expelled from the inner solar system in the Oort cloud. C/2014 S3 could be the key to verifying these predictions of the migration-based dynamical models. Furthermore, this object displays a very faint, weak level of comet-like activity, five to six orders of magnitude less than that of typical ice-rich comets on similar Orbits coming from the Oort cloud. For the nearly tailless appearance, we are calling C/2014 S3 a Manx object. Various arguments convince us that this activity is produced by sublimation of volatile ice, that is, normal cometary activity. The activity implies that C/2014 S3 has retained a tiny fraction of the water that is expected to be present at its formation distance in the inner solar system. We may be looking at fresh inner solar system Earth-forming material that was ejected from the inner solar system and preserved for billions of years in the Oort cloud.

  13. The upgrade of nuclear material accounting system at KAERI

    Kim, Hyun Jo; Kim, Hyun Sook; Park, Ho Jun; Ko, Han Suk; Lee, Byung Doo

    2010-01-01

    The agreement between the government of Republic Of Korea (ROK) and the IAEA for the application of safeguards was signed and entered into force in 1975. The Additional Protocol (AP) to the Safeguards Agreement between the ROK and the IAEA was signed in 1999 and entered into force on 19 February 2004. Also, Implementation of Integrated Safeguards (IS) was started on 1 July, 2008 after a draw of the broader conclusion. The IAEA provides 2 hours notification for Random Interim Inspection (RII) under IS. For RII, the facility has to prepare the inspection documents in a short time. Therefore, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) developed a new computerized nuclear material accounting system named KASIS (KAERI Safeguards Information treatment System) to treat the data by on-line for RII. For the efficient IS implementation, KAERI has a plan to upgrade the system to reflect the accounting approaches or reporting procedure according to facility characteristic. This paper describes the upgrade of the nuclear material accounting system and the efforts to reduce the burden of the facility operators

  14. Experience gained with Euratom's nuclear materials accounting and reporting system

    Schmitt, M.; Kschwendt, H.; Maxwell, A.G.; Littlejohn, M.

    1979-01-01

    The entry into force of the Verification Agreement in early 1977, linked to the wish to update the old Euratom System created in 1959, required that a new Euratom system (Community Regulation) be established. The main aspects of this new system, together with the practical experience gained in one and a half years operation, are presented. Certain basic accounting principles incorporated in the Euratom system, which are somewhat different from IAEA principles, are discussed in detail. This includes the notion of accounting date, some correction procedure aspects as well as the continuous updating of the book inventory to the physical reality in form of inventory changes. The effect of these differences when comparing IAEA and Euratom data is also mentioned. Furthermore, certain of the verifications carried out routinely on the operator's reports as well as on the reports submitted by Euratom to IAEA, are described and quantifications are given. Some mention is also made of areas where Euratom's role goes beyond that of the IAEA, i.e. the reporting implications of accounting for material by origin and control of particular use of the materials as well as verification of ore production and processing activities. Finally, improvements and simplifications concerning reports to the IAEA are proposed. (author)

  15. Selected topics in special nuclear materials safeguard system design

    King, L.L.; Thatcher, C.D.; Clarke, J.D.; Rodriguez, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    During the past two decades the improvements in circuit integration have given rise to many new applications in digital processing technology by continuously reducing the unit cost of processing power. Along with this increase in processing power a corresponding decrease in circuit volume has been achieved. Progress has been so swift that new classes of applications become feasible every 2 or 3 years. This is especially true in the application of proven new technology to special nuclear materials (SNM) safeguard systems. Several areas of application were investigated in establishing the performance requirements for the SNM safeguard system. These included the improvements in material control and accountability and surveillance by using multiple sensors to continuously monitor SNM inventory within the selected value(s); establishing a system architecture to provide capabilities needed for present and future performance requirements; and limiting operating manpower exposure to radiation. This paper describes two selected topics in the application of state-of-the-art, well-proven technology to SNM safeguard system design

  16. Corrosion behavior of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Bazinet, G.D.; Down, M.G.; Matlock, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion program consisted of a multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the liquid lithium test resources and capabilities of several laboratories. Specific concerns associated with the overall objective of materials corrosion behavior were evaluated at each laboratory. Testing conditions included: approx. 3700 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230 0 C to 270 0 C and approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at an isothermal temperature of 270 0 C. Principal areas of investigation, to be discussed here briefly, included lithium corrosion effects on the following: (1) types 304 and 304L austenitic stainless steels, which are specified as reference materials for the FMIT lithium system; (2) type 304 stainless steel weldments (w/type 308 stainless steel filler) typical of specified tube and butt welds in the lithium system design; (3) titanium, zirconium and yttrium, which represent potential hot trap getter materials; (4) BNi4 braze alloy, used as a potential attachement method in the plug/seat fabrication of liquid lithium valves; and (5) type 321 stainless steel bellows, typical of bellows used in potential liquid lithium valve designs

  17. Corrosion behavior of materials selected for FMIT lithium system

    Bazinet, G.D.; Down, M.G.; Matlock, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The corrosion program consisted of a multi-disciplinary approach utilizing the liquid lithium test resources and capabilities of several laboratories. Specific concerns associated with the overall objective of materials corrosion behavior were evaluated at each laboratory. Testing conditions included: approx. 3700 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at temperatures from 230/sup 0/C to 270/sup 0/C and approx. 6500 hours of exposure to flowing lithium at an isothermal temperature of 270/sup 0/C. Principal areas of investigation, to be discussed here briefly, included lithium corrosion effects on the following: (1) types 304 and 304L austenitic stainless steels, which are specified as reference materials for the FMIT lithium system; (2) type 304 stainless steel weldments (w/type 308 stainless steel filler) typical of specified tube and butt welds in the lithium system design; (3) titanium, zirconium and yttrium, which represent potential hot trap getter materials; (4) BNi4 braze alloy, used as a potential attachement method in the plug/seat fabrication of liquid lithium valves; and (5) type 321 stainless steel bellows, typical of bellows used in potential liquid lithium valve designs.

  18. Establishment of ultra trace nuclear material analysis system

    Song, Kyuseok; Jee, Kwangyong; Lee, Changheon

    2012-05-01

    Highly accurate and precise analysis of ultra trace nuclear materials contained in swipe samples and environmental samples is required to improve the national nuclear transparency and the international nuclear security. The objectives of the first stage of this project are to develop the techniques for bulk analysis of environmental samples and the elemental techniques for particle analysis using FT-TIMS. To accomplish the objectives, state-of-the-art analytical instruments were set up followed by the development of the techniques for screening of nuclear materials, chemical treatement, particle handling, isotopic measurements using TIMS and ICP-MS, and fabrication of uranium microparticles. The verifications of the developed techniques were carried out by measurement of reference materials, and by participation to interlaboratory comparison programs. In additon, the establishement of a quality management system and the performance of the analysis of QC samples for IAEA-NWAL qualification were carried out to obtain the international accreditation for the related analytical system. In this report, the results of research and developments, and the achievements to obtain the international accreditation were summarized

  19. New Monitoring System to Detect a Radioactive Material in Motion

    Boudergui, Karim; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Coulon, Romain; Corre, Gwenole; Normand, Stephane

    2013-06-01

    Illegal radioactive material transportation detection, by terrorist for example, is problematic in urban public transportation. Academics and industrials systems include Radiation Portal Monitor (RPM) to detect radioactive matters transported in vehicles or carried by pedestrians. However, today's RPMs are not able to efficiently detect a radioactive material in movement. Due to count statistic and gamma background, false alarms may be triggered or at the contrary a radioactive material not detected. The statistical false alarm rate has to be as low as possible in order to limit useless intervention especially in urban mass transportation. The real-time approach depicted in this paper consists in using a time correlated detection technique in association with a sensor network. It is based on several low-cost and large area plastic scintillators and a digital signal processing designed for signal reconstruction from the sensor network. The number of sensors used in the network can be adapted to fit with applications requirements or cost. The reconstructed signal is improved by comparing other approaches. This allows us to increase the device speed that has to be scanned while decreasing the risk of false alarm. In the framework of a project called SECUR-ED Secured Urban Transportation - European Demonstration, this prototype system will be used during an experiment in the Milan urban mass transportation. (authors)

  20. Disposal containers for radioactive waste materials and separation systems for radioactive waste materials

    Rubin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    A separation system for dewatering radioactive waste materials includes a disposal container, drive structure for receiving the container, and means for releasably attaching the container to the drive structure. The separation structure disposed in the container adjacent the inner surface of the side wall structure retains solids while allowing passage of liquids. The inlet port structure in the container top wall is normally closed by first valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the inlet port and the discharge port structure at the container periphery receives liquid that passes through the separation structure and is normally closed by a second valve structure that is centrifugally actuated to open the discharge ports. The container also includes a coupling structure for releasable engagement with the centrifugal drive structure. The centrifugal force produced when the container is driven in rotation by the drive structure opens the valve structures, and radioactive waste material introduced into the container through the open inlet port is dewatered, and the waste is compacted. The ports are automatically closed by the valves when the container drum is not subjected to centrifugal force such that containment effectiveness is enhanced and exposure of personnel to radioactive materials is minimized. (author)

  1. Vacuum System and Modeling for the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment

    Lumsdaine, Arnold; Meitner, Steve; Graves, Van; Bradley, Craig; Stone, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the science of plasma-material interactions (PMI) is essential for the future development of fusion facilities. The design of divertors and first walls for the next generation of long-pulse fusion facilities, such as a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) or a DEMO, requires significant PMI research and development. In order to meet this need, a new linear plasma facility, the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment (MPEX) is proposed, which will produce divertor relevant plasma conditions for these next generation facilities. The device will be capable of handling low activation irradiated samples and be able to remove and replace samples without breaking vacuum. A Target Exchange Chamber (TEC) which can be disconnected from the high field environment in order to perform in-situ diagnostics is planned for the facility as well. The vacuum system for MPEX must be carefully designed in order to meet the requirements of the different heating systems, and to provide conditions at the target similar to those expected in a divertor. An automated coupling-decoupling (“autocoupler”) system is designed to create a high vacuum seal, and will allow the TEC to be disconnected without breaking vacuum in either the TEC or the primary plasma materials interaction chamber. This autocoupler, which can be actuated remotely in the presence of the high magnetic fields, has been designed and prototyped, and shows robustness in a variety of conditions. The vacuum system has been modeled using a simplified finite element analysis, and indicates that the design goals for the pressures in key regions of the facility are achievable.

  2. Structural properties of the material control and accounting system

    1978-12-01

    A unified digraph approach is proposed for the assessment of the structure of the MC and A System. The approach emphasizes the two structural aspects of the system: vulnerability and reliability. Vulnerability is defined as a possibility of loosing connectedness in a given structure due to line and/or node removals. It is purely deterministic notion which leads to a qualitative analysis of redundancy of connections in the corresponding system. Reliability of the MC and A System structure provides a more quantitative way of assessing how safe the system is to random failures of the links representing lines of communication, material paths, monitors, and the components of the power supply network. By assigning probabilities to the lines and nodes of the corresponding digraph, the least reliable path can be used as a measure of the goodness of the system, which can be computed by efficient shortest path algorithms. Both vulnerability and reliability considerations are important in determining the effect of tampering of an adversary with the elements of the MC and M System

  3. Towards a new system of accounting of nuclear material

    Maceiras, Elena; Fernandez Moreno, Sonia; Castro, Laura B.; Saavedra, Analia D.; Mairal, M.L.; Valentino, Lucia I.; Vicens, Hugo E.; Llacer, Carlos D.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of Argentina has, among other functions, to ensure the fulfilment of national nuclear regulatory standards and all international safeguards commitments assumed by Argentina, particularly those related to the accounting and control of nuclear materials. To fulfil this responsibility, national inspections and audits of the operator's accounting and measurement systems are carried out, generating a great deal of data to be processed and evaluated. To manage this information in an efficient way, the RNA has implemented a control system composed by three database: SCMN, SIS and SOP, which interact amongst them. The objectives and functions of this integrated system and the achieved results to date are described in the present paper. (author)

  4. Recent progress in supercapacitors: from materials design to system construction.

    Wang, Yonggang; Xia, Yongyao

    2013-10-04

    Supercapacitors are currently attracting intensive attention because they can provide energy density by orders of magnitude higher than dielectric capacitors, greater power density, and longer cycling ability than batteries. The main challenge for supercapacitors is to develop them with high energy density that is close to that of a current rechargeable battery, while maintaining their inherent characteristics of high power and long cycling life. Consequently, much research has been devoted to enhance the performance of supercapacitors by either maximizing the specific capacitance and/or increasing the cell voltage. The latest advances in the exploration and development of new supercapacitor systems and related electrode materials are highlighted. Also, the prospects and challenges in practical application are analyzed, aiming to give deep insights into the material science and electrochemical fields. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Smart Materials for Ranging Systems

    Franse, Jaap; Sirenko, Valentyna

    2006-01-01

    The problem of determining the location of an object (usually called ranging) attracts at present much attention in different areas of applications, among them in ecological and safety devices. Electromagnetic waves along with sound waves are widely used for these purposes. Different aspects of materials with specific magnetic, electric and elastic properties are considered in view of potential application in the design and manufacturing of smart materials. Progress is reported in the fabrication and understanding of in-situ formation and characterization of solid state structures with specified properties. Attention is paid to the observation and study of the mobility of magnetic structures and of the kinetics of magnetic ordering transitions. Looking from a different perspective, one of the outcomes of the ARW is the emphasis on the important role that collective phenomena (like spin waves in systems with a magnetically ordered ground state, or critical currents in superconductors) could play at the design ...

  6. Requirements and new materials for fusion laser systems

    Stokowski, S.E.; Weber, M.J.; Saroyan, R.A.; Hagen, W.F.

    1977-10-01

    Higher focusable power in neodymium glass fusion lasers can be obtained through the use of new materials with lower nonlinear index (n 2 ) and better energy storage capabilities than the presently employed silicate glass. Silicate, phosphate, fluorophosphate, and beryllium fluoride glasses are discussed in terms of fusion laser requirements, particularly those for the proposed Nova laser. Examples of the variation in spectroscopic and optical properties obtainable with compositional changes are given. Results of a system evaluation of potential laser materials show that fluorophosphate glasses have many of the desired properties for use in Nova. These glasses are now being cast in large sizes (30-cm diameter) and will be tested in prototype amplifiers in 1978

  7. Requirements and new materials for fusion laser systems

    Stokowski, S.E.; Weber, M.J.; Saroyan, R.A.; Hagen, W.F.

    1977-10-01

    Higher focusable power in neodymium glass fusion lasers can be obtained through the use of new materials with lower nonlinear index (n/sub 2/) and better energy storage capabilities than the presently employed silicate glass. Silicate, phosphate, fluorophosphate, and beryllium fluoride glasses are discussed in terms of fusion laser requirements, particularly those for the proposed Nova laser. Examples of the variation in spectroscopic and optical properties obtainable with compositional changes are given. Results of a system evaluation of potential laser materials show that fluorophosphate glasses have many of the desired properties for use in Nova. These glasses are now being cast in large sizes (30-cm diameter) and will be tested in prototype amplifiers in 1978.

  8. A cost-benefit analysis for materials management information systems.

    Slapak-Iacobelli, L; Wilde, A H

    1993-02-01

    The cost-benefit analysis provided the system planners with valuable information that served many purposes. It answered the following questions: Why was the CCF undertaking this project? What were the alternatives? How much was it going to cost? And what was the expected outcome? The process of developing cost-benefit the document kept the project team focused. It also motivated them to involve additional individuals from materials management and accounts payable in its development. A byproduct of this involvement was buy-in and commitment to the project by everyone in these areas. Consequently, the project became a team effort championed by many and not just one. We were also able to introduce two new information system processes: 1) a management review process with goals and anticipated results, and 2) a quality assurance process that ensured the CCF had a better product in the end. The cost-benefit analysis provided a planning tool that assisted in successful implementation of an integrated materials management information system.

  9. Acquisition System Verification for Energy Efficiency Analysis of Building Materials

    Natalia Cid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and fossil fuel depletion foster interest in improving energy efficiency in buildings. There are different methods to achieve improved efficiency; one of them is the use of additives, such as phase change materials (PCMs. To prove this method’s effectiveness, a building’s behaviour should be monitored and analysed. This paper describes an acquisition system developed for monitoring buildings based on Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA and with a 1-wire bus network as the communication system. The system is empirically tested to prove that it works properly. With this purpose, two experimental cubicles are made of self-compacting concrete panels, one of which has a PCM as an additive to improve its energy storage properties. Both cubicles have the same dimensions and orientation, and they are separated by six feet to avoid shadows. The behaviour of the PCM was observed with the acquisition system, achieving results that illustrate the differences between the cubicles directly related to the PCM’s characteristics. Data collection devices included in the system were temperature sensors, some of which were embedded in the walls, as well as humidity sensors, heat flux density sensors, a weather station and energy counters. The analysis of the results shows agreement with previous studies of PCM addition; therefore, the acquisition system is suitable for this application.

  10. Self-repair of cracks in brittle material systems

    Dry, Carolyn M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most effective uses for self repair is in material systems that crack because the cracks can allow the repair chemical to flow into the crack damage sites in all three dimensions. In order for the repair chemical to stay in the damage site and flow along to all the crack and repair there must be enough chemical to fill the entire crack. The repair chemical must be designed appropriately for the particular crack size and total volume of cracks. In each of the three examples of self repair in crackable brittle systems, the viscosity and chemical makeup and volume of the repair chemicals used is different for each system. Further the chemical delivery system has to be designed for each application also. Test results from self repair of three brittle systems are discussed. In "Self Repair of Concrete Bridges and Infrastructure" two chemicals were used due to different placements in bridges to repair different types of cracks- surface shrinkage and shear cracks, In "Airplane Wings and Fuselage, in Graphite" the composite has very different properties than the concrete bridges. In the graphite for airplane components the chemical also had to survive the high processing temperatures. In this composite the cracks were so definite and deep and thin that the repair chemical could flow easily and repair in all layers of the composite. In "Ceramic/Composite Demonstrating Self Repair" the self repair system not only repaired the broken ceramic but also rebounded the composite to the ceramic layer

  11. Real-time inventory system for special nuclear material

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Ethridge, C.D.; Nicholson, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a special purpose peripheral device for a minicomputer that can monitor SNM in vault storage in real time and give timely indication of any tampering with the material. This device, called a shelf monitor, is designed around a single-chip microcomputer, and can be manufactured in quantity for about $100. A typical system of shelf monitors controlled by a minicomputer is described. The minicomputer is used to acquire data associated with the weight and gamma activity of the sample of SNM under observation. Significant deviations in the weight and gamma activity are cause for a tampering alarm.

  12. Real-time inventory system for special nuclear material

    Kuckertz, T.H.; Ethridge, C.D.; Nicholson, N.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a special purpose peripheral device for a minicomputer that can monitor SNM in vault storage in real time and give timely indication of any tampering with the material. This device, called a shelf monitor, is designed around a single-chip microcomputer, and can be manufactured in quantity for about $100. A typical system of shelf monitors controlled by a minicomputer is described. The minicomputer is used to acquire data associated with the weight and gamma activity of the sample of SNM under observation. Significant deviations in the weight and gamma activity are cause for a tampering alarm

  13. Shearographic System for Dynamic Analysis of Materials under Heat Stress

    Nelson A. Correa-Rojas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Shearography is a tool for monitoring and inspecting of structural flaws and imperfections in different types of industrial, automotive and aeronautics applications. It is based on digital correlation of two speckle patterns in two states of interest: with and without load. The technique has the special quality of being very robust against environmental disturbances. We present a shearographic system to analyze the dynamic behavior of the strain that suffers a material in response to changes in temperature throughout the thermal load process.

  14. Development of Tailorable Electrically Conductive Thermal Control Material Systems

    Deshpande, M. S.; Harada, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The optical characteristics of surfaces on spacecraft are fundamental parameters in controlling its temperature. Passive thermal control coatings with designed solar absorptance and infrared emittance properties have been developed and have been in use for some time. In this total space environment, the coating must be stable and maintain its desired optical properties as well as mechanical properties for the course of the mission lifetime. The mission lifetimes are increasing and in our quest to save weight, newer substrates are being integrated which limit electrical grounding schemes. All of this has added to already existing concerns about spacecraft charging and related spacecraft failures or operational failures. The concern is even greater for thermal control surfaces that are very large. One way of alleviating such concerns is to design new thermal control material systems (TCMS) that can help to mitigate charging via providing charge leakage paths. The objective of this program was to develop two types of passive electrically conductive TCMS. The first was a highly absorbing/emitting black surface and the second was a low (alpha(sub s)/epsilon(sub N)) type white surface. The surface resistance goals for the black absorber was 10(exp 4) to 10(exp 9) Omega/square, and for the white surfaces it was 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 10) Omega/square. Several material system concepts were suggested and evaluated for space environment stability and electrical performance characterization. Our efforts in designing and evaluating these material systems have resulted in several developments. New concepts, pigments and binders have been developed to provide new engineering quality TCMS. Some of these have already found application on space hardware, some are waiting to be recognized by thermal designers, and some require further detailed studies to become state-of-the-art for future space hardware and space structures. Our studies on baseline state-of-the-art materials and

  15. Antimicrobial Materials for Advanced Microbial Control in Spacecraft Water Systems

    Birmele, Michele; Caro, Janicce; Newsham, Gerard; Roberts, Michael; Morford, Megan; Wheeler, Ray

    2012-01-01

    Microbial detection, identification, and control are essential for the maintenance and preservation of spacecraft water systems. Requirements set by NASA put limitations on the energy, mass, materials, noise, cost, and crew time that can be devoted to microbial control. Efforts are being made to attain real-time detection and identification of microbial contamination in microgravity environments. Research for evaluating technologies for capability enhancement on-orbit is currently focused on the use of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis for detection purposes and polymerase chain reaction (peR) for microbial identification. Additional research is being conducted on how to control for microbial contamination on a continual basis. Existing microbial control methods in spacecraft utilize iodine or ionic silver biocides, physical disinfection, and point-of-use sterilization filters. Although these methods are effective, they require re-dosing due to loss of efficacy, have low human toxicity thresholds, produce poor taste, and consume valuable mass and crew time. Thus, alternative methods for microbial control are needed. This project also explores ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs), surface passivation methods for maintaining residual biocide levels, and several antimicrobial materials aimed at improving current microbial control techniques, as well as addressing other materials presently under analysis and future directions to be pursued.

  16. Radial Internal Material Handling System (RIMS) for Circular Habitat Volumes

    Howe, Alan S.; Haselschwardt, Sally; Bogatko, Alex; Humphrey, Brian; Patel, Amit

    2013-01-01

    On planetary surfaces, pressurized human habitable volumes will require a means to carry equipment around within the volume of the habitat, regardless of the partial gravity (Earth, Moon, Mars, etc.). On the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU), a vertical cylindrical volume, it was determined that a variety of heavy items would need to be carried back and forth from deployed locations to the General Maintenance Work Station (GMWS) when in need of repair, and other equipment may need to be carried inside for repairs, such as rover parts and other external equipment. The vertical cylindrical volume of the HDU lent itself to a circular overhead track and hoist system that allows lifting of heavy objects from anywhere in the habitat to any other point in the habitat interior. In addition, the system is able to hand-off lifted items to other material handling systems through the side hatches, such as through an airlock. The overhead system consists of two concentric circle tracks that have a movable beam between them. The beam has a hoist carriage that can move back and forth on the beam. Therefore, the entire system acts like a bridge crane curved around to meet itself in a circle. The novelty of the system is in its configuration, and how it interfaces with the volume of the HDU habitat. Similar to how a bridge crane allows coverage for an entire rectangular volume, the RIMS system covers a circular volume. The RIMS system is the first generation of what may be applied to future planetary surface vertical cylinder habitats on the Moon or on Mars.

  17. Prescriptive concepts for advanced nuclear materials control and accountability systems

    Whitty, W.J.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Ford, W.; Tisinger, R.M.; Meyer, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    Networking- and distributed-processing hardware and software have the potential of greatly enhancing nuclear materials control and accountability (MC and A) systems, from both safeguards and process operations perspectives, while allowing timely integrated safeguards activities and enhanced computer security at reasonable cost. A hierarchical distributed system is proposed consisting of groups of terminal and instruments in plant production and support areas connected to microprocessors that are connected to either larger microprocessors or minicomputers. These micros and/or minis are connected to a main machine, which might be either a mainframe or a super minicomputer. Data acquisition, preliminary input data validation, and transaction processing occur at the lowest level. Transaction buffering, resource sharing, and selected data processing occur at the intermediate level. The host computer maintains overall control of the data base and provides routine safeguards and security reporting and special safeguards analyses. The research described outlines the distribution of MC and A system requirements in the hierarchical system and distributed processing applied to MC and A. Implications of integrated safeguards and computer security concepts for the distributed system design are discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs

  18. Coded aperture material motion detection system for the ACPR

    McArthur, D.A.; Kelly, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    Single LMFBR fuel pins are being irradiated in Sandia's Annular Core Pulsed Reactor (ACPR). In these experiments single fuel pins have been driven well into the melt and vaporization regions in transients with pulse widths of about 5 ms. The ACPR is being upgraded so that it can be used to irradiate bundles of seven LMFBR fuel pins. The coded aperture material motion detection system described is being developed for this upgraded ACPR, and has for its design goals 1 mm transverse resolution (i.e., in the axial and radial directions), depth resolution of a few cm, and time resolution of 0.1 ms. The target date for development of this system is fall 1977. The paper briefly reviews the properties of coded aperture imaging, describes one possible system for the ACPR upgrade, discusses experiments which have been performed to investigate the feasibility of such a system, and describes briefly the further work required to develop such a system. The type of coded aperture to be used has not yet been fixed, but a one-dimensional section of a Fresnel zone plate appears at this time to have significant advantages

  19. Recommender System for Sales at Material Store Using Fuzzy Tsukamoto

    July Kurniawan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The retail business has developed very rapidly, especially in Indonesia. One of them is material stores that have not applied the technology and still manual. In this modern era of buying and selling consumers need systems to assist in overcoming problems in terms of recommend items based on customer needs. The aim of this study is to determine the needs of consumers to recommend the necessary consumer goods. This system will simplify these processes, by utilizing information technology using Tsukamoto fuzzy logic. So that consumer demand for faster and more accurate in recommending goods could be accommodated. This research outlines what is needed to overcome the problems that had been experienced by consumers with a lack of information. The recommendations of this study is the form that refers to the percentage of goods from the predictions that have been studied previously.

  20. Scalar material reference systems and loop quantum gravity

    Giesel, K; Thiemann, T

    2015-01-01

    In the past, the possibility to employ (scalar) material reference systems in order to describe classical and quantum gravity directly in terms of gauge invariant (Dirac) observables has been emphasized frequently. This idea has been picked up more recently in loop quantum gravity with the aim to perform a reduced phase space quantization of the theory, thus possibly avoiding problems with the (Dirac) operator constraint quantization method for a constrained system. In this work, we review the models that have been studied on the classical and/or the quantum level and parametrize the space of theories considered so far. We then describe the quantum theory of a model that, to the best of our knowledge, has only been considered classically so far. This model could arguably be called the optimal one in this class of models considered as it displays the simplest possible true Hamiltonian, while at the same time reducing all constraints of general relativity. (paper)

  1. Study on tracking system for radioactive material transport

    Watanabe, F.; Igarashi, M.; Nomura, T. [Nuclear Emergency Assistance and Training Center, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Nakagome, Y. [Research Reactor Inst., Kyoto Univ., Osaka (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    When a transportation accident occurs, all entities including the shipper, the transportation organization, local governments, and emergency response organizations must have organized and planned for civil safety, property, and environmental protection. When a transportation accident occurs, many related organizations will be involved, and their cooperation determines the success or failure of the response. The point where the accident happens cannot be pinpointed in advance. Nuclear fuel transportation also requires a quick response from a viewpoint of security. A tracking system for radioactive material transport is being developed for use in Japan. The objective of this system is, in the rare event of an accident, for communication capabilities to share specific information among relevant organizations, the transporter, and so on.

  2. Proposed rf system for the fusion materials irradiation test facility

    Fazio, M.V.; Johnson, H.P.; Hoffert, W.J.; Boyd, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary rf system design for the accelerator portion of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility is in progress. The 35-MeV, 100-mA, cw deuteron beam will require 6.3 MW rf power at 80 MHz. Initial testing indicates the EIMAC 8973 tetrode is the most suitable final amplifier tube for each of a series of 15 amplifier chains operating at 0.5-MW output. To satisfy the beam dynamics requirements for particle acceleration and to minimize beam spill, each amplifier output must be controlled to +-1 0 in phase and the field amplitude in the tanks must be held within a 1% tolerance. These tolerances put stringent demands on the rf phase and amplitude control system

  3. Study on tracking system for radioactive material transport

    Watanabe, F.; Igarashi, M.; Nomura, T.; Nakagome, Y.

    2004-01-01

    When a transportation accident occurs, all entities including the shipper, the transportation organization, local governments, and emergency response organizations must have organized and planned for civil safety, property, and environmental protection. When a transportation accident occurs, many related organizations will be involved, and their cooperation determines the success or failure of the response. The point where the accident happens cannot be pinpointed in advance. Nuclear fuel transportation also requires a quick response from a viewpoint of security. A tracking system for radioactive material transport is being developed for use in Japan. The objective of this system is, in the rare event of an accident, for communication capabilities to share specific information among relevant organizations, the transporter, and so on

  4. Systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material

    1975-01-01

    The implementation of safeguards agreements has always involved governmental organizations to a greater or lesser extent, according to the practices of the State concerned. When the Safeguards Committee 1970 defined the structure and content of agreements required in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, particular attention was paid to the contacts between States and the Agency during the implementation of such agreements. The basic idea was that in each State a national organization would, as far as possible, lay the foundations for international safeguards. Accordingly, NPT safeguards agreements contain the obligation of the State to establish and maintain a 'State's system of accountancy for and control of nuclear material'. The Agency document describing the structure and content of NPT safeguards agreements, INFCIRC/153, also known as the 'Blue Book', lays down the basic requirements for a State's system of accounting for and control of nuclear material - SSAC for short. The same document stipulates that the Agency in its safeguards work should take due account of the technical effectiveness of the SSAC. In practice, the effectiveness of SSACs may differ widely. To take due account of their effectiveness, the Agency has to analyse them, note the elements included in them and the requirements they meet, and consider the particular situations they are designed to cope with

  5. Application of Composite Materials in the Fire Explosion Suppression System

    REN Shah

    2012-01-01

    In order to lighten the weight of the special vehicles and improve their mobility and flexibility, the weight of all subsystems of the whole vehicle must be reduced in the general planning. A fire explosion suppression system is an important subsystem for the self-protection of vehicle, protection of crews and safety of a vehicle. The performances of the special vehicles determine their survival ability and combat capability. The composite bottle is made of aluminum alloy with externally wrapped carbon fiber ; it has been proven by a large number of tests that the new type explosion suppression fire distinguisher made of such composite materials applied in the special vehicle has reliable performance, each of its technical indexes is higher or equal to that of a steel distinguisher, and the composites can also optimize the assembly structure of the bottle, and improve the reliability and corrosion resistance. Most important is that the composite materials can effectively lighten the weight of the fire explosion suppression system to reach the target of weight reduction of the subsystem in general planning.

  6. Federal Automated Information System of Nuclear Material Control and Accounting: Uniform System of Reporting Documents

    Pitel, M V; Kasumova, L; Babcock, R A; Heinberg, C

    2003-01-01

    One of the fundamental regulations of the Russian State System for Nuclear Material Accounting and Control (SSAC), ''Basic Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Rules,'' directed that a uniform report system be developed to support the operation of the SSAC. According to the ''Regulation on State Nuclear Material Control and Accounting,'' adopted by the Russian Federation Government, Minatom of Russia is response for the development and adoption of report forms, as well as the reporting procedure and schedule. The report forms are being developed in tandem with the creation of an automated national nuclear material control and accounting system, the Federal Information System (FIS). The forms are in different stages of development and implementation. The first report forms (the Summarized Inventory Listing (SIL), Summarized Inventory Change Report (SICR) and federal and agency registers of nuclear material) have already been created and implemented. The second set of reports (nuclear material movement reports and the special anomaly report) is currently in development. A third set of reports (reports on import/export operations, and foreign nuclear material temporarily located in the Russian Federation) is still in the conceptual stage. To facilitate the development of a unified document system, the FIS must establish a uniform philosophy for the reporting system and determine the requirements for each reporting level, adhering to the following principles: completeness--the unified report system provides the entire range of information that the FIS requires to perform SSAC tasks; requisite level of detail; hierarchical structure--each report is based on the information provided in a lower-level report and is the source of information for reports at the next highest level; consistency checking--reports can be checked against other reports. A similar philosophy should eliminate redundancy in the different reports, support a uniform approach to the contents of

  7. Drug delivery systems and materials for wound healing applications.

    Saghazadeh, Saghi; Rinoldi, Chiara; Schot, Maik; Kashaf, Sara Saheb; Sharifi, Fatemeh; Jalilian, Elmira; Nuutila, Kristo; Giatsidis, Giorgio; Mostafalu, Pooria; Derakhshandeh, Hossein; Yue, Kan; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Memic, Adnan; Tamayol, Ali; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2018-04-05

    Chronic, non-healing wounds place a significant burden on patients and healthcare systems, resulting in impaired mobility, limb amputation, or even death. Chronic wounds result from a disruption in the highly orchestrated cascade of events involved in wound closure. Significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic wounds have resulted in the development of drugs designed to target different aspects of the impaired processes. However, the hostility of the wound environment rich in degradative enzymes and its elevated pH, combined with differences in the time scales of different physiological processes involved in tissue regeneration require the use of effective drug delivery systems. In this review, we will first discuss the pathophysiology of chronic wounds and then the materials used for engineering drug delivery systems. Different passive and active drug delivery systems used in wound care will be reviewed. In addition, the architecture of the delivery platform and its ability to modulate drug delivery are discussed. Emerging technologies and the opportunities for engineering more effective wound care devices are also highlighted. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Safeguards systems concepts for nuclear material transportation. Final report

    Baldonado, O.C.; Kevany, M.; Rodney, D.; Pitts, D.; Mazur, M.

    1977-09-01

    The report describes the development of system concepts for the safeguarding of special strategic nuclear materials (SNM) against malevolent adversary action during the interfacility transport of the SNM. The methodology used includes techniques for defining, classifying, and analyzing adversary action sequences; defining safeguards system components; assessing the vulnerability of various safeguards systems and their component parts to the potential adversary action sequences, and conceptualizing system design requirements. The method of analysis is based primarily on a comparison of adversary actions with safeguards measures, to estimate vulnerability. Because of the paucity of the data available for assessing vulnerability, the Delphi approach was used to generate data: values were estimated in a structured exercise by a panel of experts in the safeguards and terrorist fields. It is concluded that the probability of successful attack against a truck/escort convoy manned by well-trained, well-armed personnel is low enough to discourage all but the strongest adversaries. Secrecy of operations and careful screening of personnel are very important. No reliance should be placed on current capabilities of local law enforcement agencies. The recommendation of the study is the use of road transport in the near future and air transport at a later time when the number of shipments reaches a level to justify it, and when present safety problems are resolved

  9. A 252Cf based nondestructive assay system for fissile material

    Menlove, H.O.; Crane, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    A modulated 252 Cf source assay system 'Shuffler' based on fast-or-thermal-neutron interrogation combined with delayed-neutron counting has been developed for the assay of fissile material. The 252 Cf neutron source is repetitively transferred from the interrogation position to a shielded position while the delayed neutrons are counted in a high efficiency 3 He neutron well-counter. For samples containing plutonium, this well-counter is also used in the passive coincidence mode to assay the effective 240 Pu content. The design of an optimized neutron tailoring assembly for fast-neutron interrogation using a Monte Carlo Neutron Computer Code is described. The Shuffler system has been applied to the assay of fuel pellets, inventory samples, irradiated fuel and plutonium mixed-oxide fuel. The system can assay samples with fissile contents from a few milligrams up to several kilograms using thermal-neutron interrogation for the low mass samples and fast-neutron interrogation for the high mass samples. Samples containing 235 U- 238 U, or 233 U-Th, or UO 2 -PuO 2 fuel mixtures have been assayed with the Shuffler system. (Auth.)

  10. Quantifying and Addressing the DOE Material Reactivity Requirements with Analysis and Testing of Hydrogen Storage Materials & Systems

    Khalil, Y. F. [United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), East Hartford, CT (United States)

    2012-04-30

    The objective of this project is to examine safety aspects of candidate hydrogen storage materials and systems being developed in the DOE Hydrogen Program. As a result of this effort, the general DOE safety target will be given useful meaning by establishing a link between the characteristics of new storage materials and the satisfaction of safety criteria. This will be accomplished through the development and application of formal risk analysis methods, standardized materials testing, chemical reactivity characterization, novel risk mitigation approaches and subscale system demonstration. The project also will collaborate with other DOE and international activities in materials based hydrogen storage safety to provide a larger, highly coordinated effort.

  11. Lightweight Ablative and Ceramic Thermal Protection System Materials for NASA Exploration Systems Vehicles

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

    2006-01-01

    As a collaborative effort among NASA Centers, the "Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology" Project was set up to assist mission/vehicle design trade studies, to support risk reduction in thermal protection system (TPS) material selections, to facilitate vehicle mass optimization, and to aid development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on advanced heatshields that allow reductions in spacecraft mass by minimizing propellant requirements. Information will be presented on candidate materials for such reentry approaches and on screening tests conducted (material property and space environmental effects tests) to evaluate viable candidates. Seventeen materials, in three classes (ablatives, tiles, and ceramic matrix composites), were studied. In additional to physical, mechanical, and thermal property tests, high heat flux laser tests and simulated-reentry oxidation tests were performed. Space environmental effects testing, which included exposures to electrons, atomic oxygen, and hypervelocity impacts, was also conducted.

  12. Improved thermal storage material for portable life support systems

    Kellner, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    The availability of thermal storage materials that have heat absorption capabilities substantially greater than water-ice in the same temperature range would permit significant improvements in performance of projected portable thermal storage cooling systems. A method for providing increased heat absorption by the combined use of the heat of solution of certain salts and the heat of fusion of water-ice was investigated. This work has indicated that a 30 percent solution of potassium bifluoride (KHF2) in water can absorb approximately 52 percent more heat than an equal weight of water-ice, and approximately 79 percent more heat than an equal volume of water-ice. The thermal storage material can be regenerated easily by freezing, however, a lower temperature must be used, 261 K as compared to 273 K for water-ice. This work was conducted by the United Aircraft Research Laboratories as part of a program at Hamilton Standard Division of United Aircraft Corporation under contract to NASA Ames Research Center.

  13. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high-temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  14. Investigation of Insulation Materials for Future Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS)

    Cornell, Peggy A.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Ellis, David L.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power System (RPS) Technology Advancement Project is developing next generation high temperature insulation materials that directly benefit thermal management and improve performance of RPS for future science missions. Preliminary studies on the use of multilayer insulation (MLI) for Stirling convertors used on the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) have shown the potential benefits of MLI for space vacuum applications in reducing generator size and increasing specific power (W/kg) as compared to the baseline Microtherm HT (Microtherm, Inc.) insulation. Further studies are currently being conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) on candidate MLI foils and aerogel composite spacers. This paper presents the method of testing of foils and spacers and experimental results to date.

  15. VACOSS - variable coding seal system for nuclear material control

    Kennepohl, K.; Stein, G.

    1977-12-01

    VACOSS - Variable Coding Seal System - is intended to seal: rooms and containers with nuclear material, nuclear instrumentation and equipment of the operator, instrumentation and equipment at the supervisory authority. It is easy to handle, reusable, transportable and consists of three components: 1. Seal. The light guide in fibre optics with infrared light emitter and receiver serves as lead. The statistical treatment of coded data given in the seal via adapter box guarantees an extremely high degree of access reliability. It is possible to store the data of two undue seal openings together with data concerning time and duration of the opening. 2. The adapter box can be used for input or input and output of data indicating the seal integrity. 3. The simulation programme is located in the computing center of the supervisory authority and permits to determine date and time of opening by decoding the seal memory data. (orig./WB) [de

  16. Electrofracturing test system and method of determining material characteristics of electrofractured material samples

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Glover, Steven F.; Pfeifle, Tom; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Broome, Scott Thomas; Gardner, William Payton

    2017-08-01

    A device for electrofracturing a material sample and analyzing the material sample is disclosed. The device simulates an in situ electrofracturing environment so as to obtain electrofractured material characteristics representative of field applications while allowing permeability testing of the fractured sample under in situ conditions.

  17. System tradeoffs in siting a solar photovoltaic material recovery infrastructure.

    Goe, Michele; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Tomaszewski, Brian

    2015-09-01

    The consumption and disposal of rare and hazardous metals contained in electronics and emerging technologies such as photovoltaics increases the material complexity of the municipal waste stream. Developing effective waste policies and material recovery systems is required to inhibit landfilling of valuable and finite resources. This work developed a siting and waste infrastructure configuration model to inform the management and recovery of end-of-life photovoltaics. This model solves the siting and waste location-allocation problem for a New York State case study by combining multi-criteria decision methods with spatial tools, however this methodology is generalizable to any geographic area. For the case study, the results indicate that PV installations are spatially statistically significant (i.e., clustered). At least 9 sites, which are co-located with landfills and current MRFs, were 'highly' suitable for siting according to our criteria. After combining criteria in an average weighted sum, 86% of the study area was deemed unsuitable for siting while less than 5% is characterized as highly suitable. This method implicitly prioritized social and environmental concerns and therefore, these concerns accounted for the majority of siting decisions. As we increased the priority of economic criteria, the likelihood of siting near ecologically sensitive areas such as coastline or socially vulnerable areas such as urban centers increased. The sensitivity of infrastructure configurations to land use and waste policy are analyzed. The location allocation model results suggest current tip fees are insufficient to avoid landfilling of photovoltaics. Scenarios where tip fees were increased showed model results where facilities decide to adopt limited recycling technologies that bypass compositionally complex materials; a result with strong implications for global PV installations as well as other waste streams. We suggest a multi-pronged approach that lowers technology cost

  18. System Studies for the ADTF: Target and Materials Test Station

    Cappiello, M.; Pitcher, E.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.

    2002-01-01

    To meet the objectives of the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) program, the Accelerator-Driven Test Facility (ADTF) provides a world-class accelerator-driven test facility to: - Provide the capability to assess technology options for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and waste through a proof-of-performance. - Provide a user facility that allows testing of advanced nuclear technologies and applications, material science and research, experimental physics, and conventional nuclear engineering science applications. - Provide the capability, through upgrades or additions to the ADTF accelerator, to produce tritium for defense purposes, if required. - Provide the capability, through upgrades or additions, to produce radioisotopes for medical and commercial purposes. These missions are diverse and demand a facility with significant flexibility. In order to meet them, it is envisioned that we construct two target stations: the Target and Materials Test (TMT) station and the Subcritical Multiplier (SCM) test station. The two test stations share common hot-cell facilities for post-irradiation examination. It is expected the TMT will come online first, closely followed by the SCM. The TMT will provide the capability to: - Irradiate small samples of proposed ATW (accelerator-driven transmutation of waste) fuels and materials at prototypic flux, temperature, and coolant conditions (requires intense source of neutrons). - Perform transient testing. - Test liquid (lead-bismuth) and solid spallation targets with water, sodium, or helium coolant. - Test generation-IV fuels for advance nuclear systems (requires high-intensity thermal flux). - Irradiate fission product transmutation targets. - Test advanced fuel and coolant combinations, including helium, water, sodium, and lead-bismuth. - Produce isotopes for commercial and medical applications. - Perform neutron physics experiments. The SCM will provide the capability to: - Irradiate large samples of proposed ATW

  19. Materialism.

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Criteria for Determination of Material Control and Accountability System Effectiveness

    John Wright

    2008-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a test bed for implementation of the Safeguards First Principles Initiative (SFPI), a risk-based approach to Material Control and Accountability (MC and A) requirements. The Comprehensive Assessment of Safeguards Strategies (COMPASS) model is used to determine the effectiveness of MC and A systems under SFPI. Under this model, MC and A is divided into nine primary elements. Each element is divided into sub-elements. Then each sub-element is assigned two values, effectiveness and contribution, that are used to calculate the rating. Effectiveness is a measure of subelement implementation and how well it meets requirements. Contribution is a relative measure of the importance, and functions as a weighting factor. The COMPASS model provides the methodology for calculation of sub-element and element ratings, but not the actual criteria. Each site must develop its own criteria. For the rating to be meaningful, the effectiveness criteria must be objective and based on explicit, measurable criteria. Contribution (weights) must reflect the importance within the MC and A program. This paper details the NTS approach to system effectiveness and contribution values, and will cover the following: the basis for the ratings, an explanation of the contribution 'weights', and the objective, performance based effectiveness criteria. Finally, the evaluation process will be described

  1. A proposal for an international tagging system for radioactive materials

    Bahran, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In an earlier paper based on our experience with lost or abundant radiation sources, we have discussed the need of an international tagging system for radioactive materials for the purpose of insuring trackability, accountability and safety. In this paper we take our discussion further by presenting a proposal of establishing such an international tagging system for radioactive materials which we call ITS-RM. The elements of ITS-RM: IAEA is to be the international authority in charge of ITS-RM; Each 'significant' radiation source is to be labeled with a unique number at the point of production. This number is identified as ITS-RM number; The term 'significant' can be defined in light of current international standards; As each source is naturally possessed by some legal notion or international entity, each time this entity is changed (e.g. the source is sold, resold, transported, decommissioned etc.) the process of changing hand is registered at IAEA via the ITS-RM number; No source is to change hands without triggering ITS-RM; Even if a source finds its way to a waste facility it will remain tagged indefinitely. The requirement for ITS-RM: Legal requirement: this issue needs to be studied to find out weather anew international treaty needs to be established or ITS-RM can be applied under existing treaties; Organizational requirements: This can be easily done with the framework if IAEA and national counterparts; Consultation requirements: ITS-RM can only work if it is done through complete consultation and cooperation with manufactures. Old and current sources: An effort is to be made to survey and tag current sources; Priorities will be given as follows: first to new sources second to current sources the comes last old sources, particularly those in storage facilities; ITS-RM is not to compete with any existing safety system, national or internationally, to the contrary is to support safety. ITS-RM advantages are many but in particular we have

  2. Experienced materials in wet limestone-gypsum FGD system

    Hasegawa, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, Hiroshima (Japan). Hiroshima Research and Development Center; Iwashita, K.; Ochi, E.; Higuchi, T. [Mitsubishi heavy Industry, Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-12-31

    This study was made on the corrosion resistivity evaluation method used for material selection in the Wet Limestone-Gypsum FGD system with examples of various process configuration, their corrosion environment, and the materials used in them. The wet limestone-gypsum process FGD plant is broadly divided into two types-ash-separated (dual-loop) process, and ash-mixed (single-loop) process-depending on whether the flue gas is separated from ash before being led into the absorber or led as it is into the absorber mixed with ash. Presently, the single-loop process has become the mainstream process however. The dual -loop process comprises a dedusting tower (quencher) and an absorption tower (absorber). In the quencher ash is removed with sprayed water where most of the HCl, HF etc., and a part of SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} contained in the flue gas are also removed with absorption. On the contrary, in the single-loop process which is configured of only the absorber, the flue gas is introduced into it as it is contained with ash, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, HCl, HF etc. The corrosion environment in these plants largely differs depending on the process type and condition. The absorber recirculated liquid has various ion inclusions among which Cl{sup {minus}} promotes pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion while SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} inhibits these corrosions. Both Cl{sup {minus}} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} cover an extremely large range between 25 to 100,000 ppm and 564 to 73,600 ppm respectively, and their influence on the corrosion is related to their activity which is decided by Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, H{sup +} and liquid temperature. The balance of these ions is decided by the gas composition, limestone composition, make-up water and wastewater mass balance etc., of individual plants. Accordingly, materials of FGD plant are selected on the basis of evaluated results of corrosion resistivity test made under such simulated process conditions of

  3. Materials, Turbomachinery and Heat Exchangers for Supercritical CO2 Systems

    Anderson, Mark; Nellis, Greg; Corradini, Michael

    2012-10-19

    The objective of this project is to produce the necessary data to evaluate the performance of the supercritical carbon dioxide cycle. The activities include a study of materials compatibility of various alloys at high temperatures, the heat transfer and pressure drop in compact heat exchanger units, and turbomachinery issues, primarily leakage rates through dynamic seals. This experimental work will serve as a test bed for model development and design calculations, and will help define further tests necessary to develop high-efficiency power conversion cycles for use on a variety of reactor designs, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR) and very high-temperature gas reactor (VHTR). The research will be broken into three separate tasks. The first task deals with the analysis of materials related to the high-temperature S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. The most taxing materials issues with regard to the cycle are associated with the high temperatures in the reactor side heat exchanger and in the high-temperature turbine. The system could experience pressures as high as 20MPa and temperatures as high as 650°C. The second task deals with optimization of the heat exchangers required by the S-CO{sub 2} cycle; the S-CO{sub 2} flow passages in these heat exchangers are required whether the cycle is coupled with a VHTR or an SFR. At least three heat exchangers will be required: the pre-cooler before compression, the recuperator, and the heat exchanger that interfaces with the reactor coolant. Each of these heat exchangers is unique and must be optimized separately. The most challenging heat exchanger is likely the pre-cooler, as there is only about a 40°C temperature change but it operates close to the CO{sub 2} critical point, therefore inducing substantial changes in properties. The proposed research will focus on this most challenging component. The third task examines seal leakage through various dynamic seal designs under the conditions expected in the S-CO{sub 2} cycle

  4. 14 CFR 21.125 - Production inspection system: Materials Review Board.

    2010-01-01

    ... § 21.125 Production inspection system: Materials Review Board. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR... Materials Review Board action for at least two years. (b) The production inspection system required in § 21... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production inspection system: Materials...

  5. 48 CFR 252.242-7004 - Material management and accounting system.

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.242-7004 Material management and accounting system. As prescribed in 242.7204, use the following caluse: Material Management and Accounting System (JUL 2009) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause— (1) Material management and accounting system (MMAS) means the Contractor...

  6. Robotic Materials Handling in Space: Mechanical Design of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System HitchHiker Experiment

    Voellmer, George

    1997-01-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS) that flew aboard STS-64 in September, 1994. The ROMPS robot transported pallets containing wafers of different materials from their storage racks to a furnace for thermal processing. A system of tapered guides and compliant springs was designed to deal with the potential misalignments. The robot and all the sample pallets were locked down for launch and landing. The design of the passive lockdown system, and the interplay between it and the alignment system are presented.

  7. Considerations for Disposition of Dry Cask Storage System Materials at End of Storage System Life

    Howard, Rob; Van den Akker, Bret

    2014-01-01

    Dry cask storage systems are deployed at nuclear power plants for used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage when spent fuel pools reach their storage capacity and/or the plants are decommissioned. An important waste and materials disposition consideration arising from the increasing use of these systems is the management of the dry cask storage systems' materials after the UNF proceeds to disposition. Thermal analyses of repository design concepts currently under consideration internationally indicate that waste package sizes for the geologic media under consideration may be significantly smaller than the canisters being used for on-site dry storage by the nuclear utilities. Therefore, at some point along the UNF disposition pathway, there could be a need to repackage fuel assemblies already loaded into the dry storage canisters currently in use. In the United States, there are already over 1650 of these dry storage canisters deployed and approximately 200 canisters per year are being loaded at the current fleet of commercial nuclear power plants. There is about 10 cubic meters of material from each dry storage canister system that will need to be dispositioned. The concrete horizontal storage modules or vertical storage overpacks will need to be reused, re-purposed, recycled, or disposed of in some manner. The empty metal storage canister/cask would also have to be cleaned, and decontaminated for possible reuse or recycling or disposed of, likely as low-level radioactive waste. These material disposition options can have impacts of the overall used fuel management system costs. This paper will identify and explore some of the technical and interface considerations associated with managing the dry cask storage system materials. (authors)

  8. Informed Design to Robotic Production Systems; Developing Robotic 3D Printing System for Informed Material Deposition

    Mostafavi, S.; Bier, H.; Bodea, S.; Anton, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of an informed Design-to-Robotic-Production (D2RP) system for additive manufacturing to achieve performative porosity in architecture at various scales. An extended series of experiments on materiality, fabrication and robotics were designed and carried out

  9. An information system for sustainable materials management with material flow accounting and waste input–output analysis

    Pi-Cheng Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable materials management focuses on the dynamics of materials in economic and environmental activities to optimize material use efficiency and reduce environmental impact. A preliminary web-based information system is thus developed to analyze the issues of resource consumption and waste generation, enabling countries to manage resources and wastes from a life cycle perspective. This pioneering system features a four-layer framework that integrates information on physical flows and economic activities with material flow accounting and waste input–output table analysis. Within this framework, several applications were developed for different waste and resource management stakeholders. The hierarchical and interactive dashboards allow convenient overview of economy-wide material accounts, waste streams, and secondary resource circulation. Furthermore, the system can trace material flows through associated production supply chain and consumption activities. Integrated with economic models; this system can predict the possible overloading on the current waste management facility capacities and provide decision support for designing strategies to approach resource sustainability. The limitations of current system are specified for directing further enhancement of functionalities.

  10. First-principles study of complex material systems

    He, Lixin

    This thesis covers several topics concerning the study of complex materials systems by first-principles methods. It contains four chapters. A brief, introductory motivation of this work will be given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, I will give a short overview of the first-principles methods, including density-functional theory (DFT), planewave pseudopotential methods, and the Berry-phase theory of polarization in crystallines insulators. I then discuss in detail the locality and exponential decay properties of Wannier functions and of related quantities such as the density matrix, and their application in linear-scaling algorithms. In Chapter 3, I investigate the interaction of oxygen vacancies and 180° domain walls in tetragonal PbTiO3 using first-principles methods. Our calculations indicate that the oxygen vacancies have a lower formation energy in the domain wall than in the bulk, thereby confirming the tendency of these defects to migrate to, and pin, the domain walls. The pinning energies are reported for each of the three possible orientations of the original Ti--O--Ti bonds, and attempts to model the results with simple continuum models are discussed. CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) has attracted a lot of attention recently because it was found to have an enormous dielectric response over a very wide temperature range. In Chapter 4, I study the electronic and lattice structure, and the lattice dynamical properties, of this system. Our first-principles calculations together with experimental results point towards an extrinsic mechanism as the origin of the unusual dielectric response.

  11. Biochar as enhancement material in natural attenuation systems

    Kirmizakis, P.; Doherty, R.; Mendonça, C. A.; Costeira, R.; Allen, C.; Kulakov, L.

    2017-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have gained increasingly popularity over the last years especially in monitoring and clean-up of contaminants. BES are systems that combine wastewater treatment with energy production and resource recovery by harness the electro-activity of microorganisms. BESs consist of two electrodes, an anode and a cathode, separated with a proton-exchange membrane and an external electrical circuit which permits the passage of electrons generated at the anode to the cathode. Here we present a speed up of this natural breakdown process by providing a place to capture the anaerobic contaminants onto Biochar which captures the contaminants and also acts like a high surface area electrode passing electrons to the aerobic environments. For the purpose of this project, identical graphite and Teflon cells were constructed to compare and determine whether a Biochar BES was more efficient than a standard BES and more efficient than Biochar as sorption agent. Current production monitoring used as a real-time view of the process. The Biochar BES out performed both the BES and the Biochar BES in reduction of contaminants across the board. Our results suggest that the maximum growth and electro-activity of the microbial community occurred in the Biochar BES. This is in agreement with microbial findings which suggests that Biochar BES has a less diverse population which is more focused towards degradation and electroactive activity. For further understanding of the results, further geochemical analysis performed to provide additional insight on the process. This works shows clearly the applicability and efficiency of biochar among other electrode and sorption materials and electrical monitoring is versatile experimental tool to the remediation process and can be used as a non-destructive way to indirectly reveal process leading in understanding basic fundamental physical behaviours under specific experimental conditions.

  12. Phase Change Energy Storage Material Suitable for Solar Heating System

    Li, Xiaohui; Li, Haihua; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Zhenfa

    2018-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the thermal properties of palmitic acid, myristic acid, laurel acid and the binary composite of palmitic/laurel acid and palmitic/myristic acid. The results showed that the phase transition temperatures of the three monomers were between 46.9-65.9°C, and the latent heats were above 190 J/g, which could be used as solar energy storage material. When the mass ratio of Palmitic acid and myristic was 1:1, the eutectic mixture could be formed. The latent heat of the eutectic mixture was 186.6 J/g, the melting temperature and the solidification temperature was 50.6°C and 43.8°C respectively. The latent heat of phase change and the melting temperature had not obvious variations after 400 thermal cycles, which proved that the binary composite had good thermal stability and was suitable for solar floor radiant heating system.

  13. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  14. Fuel salt and container material studies for MOSART transforming system

    Ignatiev, V.; Feynberg, O.; Merzlyakov, A.; Surenkov, A.; Zagnitko, A. [National Research Center, Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Afonichkin, V.; Bovet, A.; Khokhlov, V. [Institute of High Temperature Electrochemisty, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Subbotin, V.; Gordeev, M.; Panov, A.; Toropov, A. [Institute of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    A study is under progress to examine the feasibility of single stream Molten Salt Actinide Recycling and Transmuting system without and with Th support (MOSART) fuelled with different compositions of actinide tri-fluorides (AnF{sub 3}) from used LWR fuel. New fast-spectrum design options with homogeneous core and fuel salts with high enough solubility for AnF{sub 3} are being examined because of new goals. The flexibility of single fluid MOSART concept with Th support is underlined, particularly, possibility of its operation in self-sustainable mode (Conversion Ratio: CR=1) using different loadings and make up. The paper summarizes the most current status of fuel salt and container material data for the MOSART concept received within ISTC-3749 and ROSATOM-MARS projects. Key physical and chemical properties of various fluoride fuel salts are reported. The issues like salt purification, the electroreduction of U(IV) to U(III) in LiF-ThF{sub 4} and the electroreduction of Yb(III) to Yb(II) in LiF-NaF are detailed.

  15. Carbon material based microelectromechanical system (MEMS): Fabrication and devices

    Xu, Wenjun

    This PhD dissertation presents the exploration and development of two carbon materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon fiber (CF), as either key functional components or unconventional substrates for a variety of MEMS applications. Their performance in three different types of MEMS devices, namely, strain/stress sensors, vibration-powered generators and fiber solar cells, were evaluated and the working mechanisms of these two non-traditional materials in these systems were discussed. The work may potentially enable the development of new types of carbon-MEMS devices. Carbon nanotubes were selected from the carbon family due to several advantageous characteristics that this nanomaterial offers. They carry extremely high mechanical strength (Ey=1TPa), superior electrical properties (current density of 4x109 A/cm2), exceptional piezoresistivity (G=2900), and unique spatial format (high aspect ratio hollow nanocylinder), among other properties. If properly utilized, all these merits can give rise to a variety of new types of carbon nanotube based micro- and nanoelectronics that can greatly fulfill the need for the next generation of faster, smaller and better devices. However, before these functions can be fully realized, one substantial issue to cope with is how to implement CNTs into these systems in an effective and controllable fashion. Challenges associated with CNTs integration include very poor dispersibility in solvents, lack of melting/sublimation point, and unfavorable rheology with regard to mixing and processing highly viscous, CNT-loaded polymer solutions. These issues hinder the practical progress of CNTs both in a lab scale and in the industrial level. To this end, a MEMS-assisted electrophoretic deposition technique was developed, aiming to achieve controlled integration of CNT into both conventional and flexible microsystems at room temperature with a relatively high throughput. MEMS technology has demonstrated strong capability in developing

  16. Development of active and sensitive material systems based on composites

    Asanuma, Hiroshi

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes new concepts proposed by the author to realize active and sensitive structural material systems. Two examples of multifunctional composites were fabricated and evaluated in this study as follows: (1) An active laminate of aluminum plate (works as muscle), epoxy film (as insulator), unidirectional CFRP prepreg (as bone and blood vessel) and copper foil electrode (to apply voltage on CFRP) was made with an embedded optical fiber multiply fractured in the CFRP layer (works as nerve), of which curvature change could be effectively monitored with the fractured optical fiber. (2) A stainless steel fiber/aluminum active composite with embedded Ti oxide/Ti composite fiber was fabricated. The Ti oxide/Ti fiber could work as a sensor for temperature by removing a part of the oxide before embedment to make a metallic contact between the embedded titanium fiber and aluminum matrix to be able to generate thermal electromotive force, and also could work as a sensor for strain and as a heater for actuation. In the both cases, the outputs from their embedded sensors can be used to control their actuations.

  17. 'Surveyor': An Underwater System for Threat Material Detection

    Valkovic, Vladivoj; Sudac, Davorin; Nad, Karlo; Obhodas, Jasmina; Matika, Dario; Kollar, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The bottoms of the coastal seas, and oceans as well, are contaminated by many man-made objects including a variety of ammunition. This contamination is world wide spread with some areas being highly polluted presenting a serious threat to local population and to visitors as well. All littoral nations are investing lots of effort into the remediation of their coastal areas. Once the presence of the anomaly on the bottom of the shallow coastal sea water is confirmed (by visual identification and by using one or several sensors, namely magnetometer, sonar and optical cameras) it is necessary to establish if it contains explosive/chemical warfare charge. In our work we propose this to be performed by using neutron sensor installed within an underwater vessel - 'Surveyor'. When positioned above the object, or to its side, the system inspects the object for the presence of the threat material by using alpha particle tagged neutrons from the sealed tube d+t neutron generator. (author)

  18. The research on the material management system in nuclear power plant construction process

    Liu Xuegeng; Huang Zhongping

    2010-01-01

    According to the module construction speciality of nuclear power plant, this article analyzes the relationship between the actual amount of the material transported to the construction site and the planed needs of the material, and points out the zero inventory management target in the nuclear power plant construction site. Based on this, the article put forward a nuclear power plant material management system which is based on the 'pull' information driver. This system is composed by material coding sub-system, procurement and site material integrated management sub-system and project control sub-system, and is driven by the material demand from construction site to realize the JIT purchasing. This structure of the system can reduce the gap between the actual amount of the material transported to the site and the planed needs of the material and achieve the target of reducing storage at construction site. (authors)

  19. Development of materials for the fusion nuclear energy system

    Park, J. Y.; Kim, S. H.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, W. J.; Jung, C. H.; Jun, B. H.; Maeng, W. Y.; Kwon, J. H.; Kim, H. P.; Hong, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    A state of the art on the nuclear material development has been reviewed based on the each component of the Tokamak typed fusion reactor. The current status of the development of structural materials such as FM steels, ODS steels, vanadium alloys and SiCf/SiC composites are introduced. The application of Li-based ceramics as a ceramic breeder and W-based alloys and C/C composites as plasma facing components for the divertor were also investigated, respectively. Some evaluation methods and results of the computational material simulation for irradiation damages and the compatibility between materials and coolant are described. Additionally, the material related research activities of ITER and ITER TBM and the collaboration activities on fusion materials between Japan and USA are briefly summarized

  20. Outline of a computerized nuclear material accounting system applicable to nuclear power reactors

    Handshuh, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized nuclear material accounting system is described which enables a utility to account for its material throughout the entire fuel cycle. From input of transactions, the system records and reports inventories and transactions by accounts which the user may establish for discrete locations, item control areas, further subdivisions, and material types. Account numbers are designed so that accounts and records are automatically sorted in the order desired. The system also generates the Material Status Reports for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  1. Material System Engineering for Advanced Electrocaloric Cooling Technology

    Qian, Xiaoshi

    Electrocaloric effect refers to the entropy change and/or temperature change in dielectrics caused by the electric field induced polarization change. Recent discovery of giant ECE provides an opportunity to realize highly efficient cooling devices for a broad range of applications ranging from household appliances to industrial applications, from large-scale building thermal management to micro-scale cooling devices. The advances of electrocaloric (EC) based cooling device prototypes suggest that highly efficient cooling devices with compact size are achievable, which could lead to revolution in next generation refrigeration technology. This dissertation focuses on both EC based materials and cooling devices with their recent advances that address practical issues. Based on better understandings in designing an EC device, several EC material systems are studied and improved to promote the performances of EC based cooling devices. In principle, applying an electric field to a dielectric would cause change of dipolar ordering states and thus a change of dipolar entropy. Giant ECE observed in ferroelectrics near ferroelectric-paraelectric (FE-PE) transition temperature is owing to the large dipolar orientation change, between random-oriented dipolar states in paraelectric phase and spontaneous-ordered dipolar states in ferroelectric phases, which is induced by external electric fields. Besides pursuing large ECE, studies on EC cooling devices indicated that EC materials are required to possess wide operational temperature window, in which large ECE can be maintained for efficient operations. Although giant ECE was first predicted in ferroelectric polymers, where the large effect exhibits near FEPE phase transition, the narrow operation temperature window poses obstacles for these normal ferroelectrics to be conveniently perform in wide range of applications. In this dissertation, we demonstrated that the normal ferroelectric polymers can be converted to relaxor

  2. Materials

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  3. Predictive Multiscale Modeling of Nanocellulose Based Materials and Systems

    Kovalenko, Andriy

    2014-01-01

    enables rational design of CNC-based bionanocomposite materials and systems. Furthermore, the 3D-RISM-KH based multiscale modeling addresses the effect of hemicellulose and lignin composition on nanoscale forces that control cell wall strength towards overcoming plant biomass recalcitrance. It reveals molecular forces maintaining the cell wall structure and provides directions for genetic modulation of plants and pretreatment design to render biomass more amenable to processing. We envision integrated biomass valorization based on extracting and decomposing the non-cellulosic components to low molecular weight chemicals and utilizing the cellulose microfibrils to make CNC. This is an important alternative to approaches of full conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels that face challenges arising from the deleterious impact of cellulose crystallinity on enzymatic processing

  4. Predictive Multiscale Modeling of Nanocellulose Based Materials and Systems

    Kovalenko, Andriy

    2014-08-01

    enables rational design of CNC-based bionanocomposite materials and systems. Furthermore, the 3D-RISM-KH based multiscale modeling addresses the effect of hemicellulose and lignin composition on nanoscale forces that control cell wall strength towards overcoming plant biomass recalcitrance. It reveals molecular forces maintaining the cell wall structure and provides directions for genetic modulation of plants and pretreatment design to render biomass more amenable to processing. We envision integrated biomass valorization based on extracting and decomposing the non-cellulosic components to low molecular weight chemicals and utilizing the cellulose microfibrils to make CNC. This is an important alternative to approaches of full conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels that face challenges arising from the deleterious impact of cellulose crystallinity on enzymatic processing.

  5. Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting functions in a safeguards system

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting systems to enhance overall safeguards capability are developed and presented. These concepts identify ways in which material accounting systems can be used to enable effective monitoring of authorized movement of nuclear material through physical protection boundaries. Concepts are also discussed for monitoring user access to nuclear material and for tagging user identification to material accounting transactions through physical protection functions. These result in benefits in detecting diversion and in positively tracing material movement. Finally, coordination of safeguards information from both subsystems in such an integrated system through a safeguards coordination center is addressed with emphasis on appropriate response in case of discrepancies

  6. Dynamic materials accounting for solvent-extraction systems

    Cobb, D.D.; Ostenak, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for estimating nuclear materials inventories in solvent-extraction contactors are being developed. These methods employ chemical models and available process measurements. Comparisons of model calculations and experimental data for mixer-settlers and pulsed columns indicate that this approach should be adequate for effective near-real-time materials accounting in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants.

  7. Dynamic materials accounting for solvent-extraction systems

    Cobb, D.D.; Ostenak, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for estimating nuclear materials inventories in solvent-extraction contactors are being developed. These methods employ chemical models and available process measurements. Comparisons of model calculations and experimental data for mixer-settlers and pulsed columns indicate that this approach should be adequate for effective near-real-time materials accounting in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

  8. Transvision: A light transmission measurement system for greenhouse covering materials

    Swinkels, G.L.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: For determining the optical performance of greenhouse covering materials other than standard float glass the current Dutch NEN 2675 norm is no longer appropriate. The emergence of a new generation of materials (diffuse, layered) resulted in a new measuring protocol developed by TNO and

  9. Extended abstract proceedings of the 7. international symposium on new materials and nano-materials for electrochemical systems

    Savadogo, O. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Laboratoire de nouveaux materiaux pour l' energie et l' electrochimie; Brisard, G. [Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada). Dept. de Chimie] (eds.)

    2008-07-01

    This conference provided a forum to highlight the many aspects of new materials for electrochemical systems, including fuel cells. It provided a greater understanding of how operational conditions of fuel cells impact the electrochemical, chemical, physical and mechanical properties of materials and therefore the durability and reliability of fuel cell stacks. The presentations introduced the most recent advances and practices involving new materials and nanomaterials for electrochemical systems. The technical challenges facing the commercialization of PEM fuel cells include cost, reliability, service life, electrode performance, freeze/cold start, and power density. To drive performance and cost reduction, new materials must be provided along with more effective nano-electro-catalyst utilization. The presentations provided a comprehensive account on high performance platinum and non-precious metal catalysts for proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell applications. The conference featured 85 presentations, of which 82 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  10. Protective coatings on structural materials for energy conversion systems

    John, J.T.; De, P.K.; Srinivasa, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Structural Materials and Components used in coal fired energy conversion systems, crude oil refineries and coal gasification plants are subjected to degradation due to oxidation, sulfidation, carbonization and halogenation. Suitable protective coatings can significantly enhance their life. Protective coatings work by forming a highly stable, self-healing and slow growing protective scale at the operating temperatures. These scales act as barriers between the corrosive environment and the alloy and prevent degradation of the substitute. Three types of scales that provide such protection are based on Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . Aluminide coatings are major alumina forming protecting coatings, applied on nickel, cobalt and iron base alloys. Aluminide coatings are prepared by enriching the surface of a component by aluminum. In this paper the formation of aluminide coatings of nickel, IN738, Alloy 800, Zircaloy-2 and pure iron by chemical vapor deposition has been described. In this technique, Aluminum chloride vapors from bath kept at 353-373 K are carried in a stream of hydrogen gas into a Hot Walled CVD chamber kept at 1173-1373 K. The AlCl 3 vapors were allowed to react with pure aluminum whereby aluminum sub-chlorides like AlCl and AlCl 2 are produced which deposit aluminum on the substrates. At the high temperature of the deposition, aluminum diffuses into the substrate and forms the aluminide coating. The process can be represented by the reaction Al (i) + AlCl 3(g) AlCl 2(s) + AlCl 2 (g) . XRD and optical microscopic studies have characterized the coatings. On pure nickel and Alloy 800 the coating consists of Ni 2 Al 3 and NiAl respectively. On pure iron the coatings consisted of FeAl. On Zircaloy-2, ZrAl 2 was also detected. The CVD coating process, XRD and optical microscopy data will be discussed further

  11. Physical description of nuclear materials identification system (NMIS) signatures

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Mattingly, J.K.; Valentine, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes all time and frequency analysis parameters measured with a new correlation processor (capability up to 1 GHz sampling rates and up to five input data channels) for three input channels: (1) the 252 Cf source ionization chamber; (2) a detection channel; and (3) a second detection channel. An intuitive and physical description of the various measured quantities is given as well as a brief mathematical description and a brief description of how the data are acquired. If the full five-channel capability is used, the number of measured quantities increases in number but not in type. The parameters provided by this new processor can be divided into two general classes: time analysis signatures and their related frequency analysis signatures. The time analysis signatures include the number of time m pulses occurs in a time interval, that is triggered randomly, upon a detection event, or upon a source fission event triggered. From the number of pulses in a time interval, the moments, factorial moments, and Feynmann variance can be obtained. Recent implementations of third- and fourth-order time and frequency analysis signatures in this processor are also briefly described. Thus, this processor used with a timed source of input neutrons contains all of the information from a pulsed neutron measurement, one and two detector Rossi-α measurements, multiplicity measurements, and third- and fourth-order correlation functions. This processor, although originally designed for active measurements with a 252 Cf interrogating source, has been successfully used passively (without 252 Cf source) for systems with inherent neutron sources such as fissile systems of plutonium. Data from active measurements with an 18.75 kg highly enriched uranium (93.2 wt%, 235 U) metal casting for storage are presented to illustrate some of the various time and frequency analysis parameters. This processor, which is a five-channel time correlation analyzer with time channel widths

  12. Anticipated development in radioactive materials packaging and transport systems

    Williams, L.D.; Rhoads, R.E.; Hall, R.J.

    1976-07-01

    Closing the light water reactor fuel cycle and the use of mixed oxide fuels will produce materials such as solidified high level waste, cladding hulls and plutonium from Pu recycle fuel that have not been transported extensively in the past. Changes in allowable gaseous emissions from fuel cycle facilities may require the collection and transportation of radioactive noble gases and tritium. Although all of these materials could be transported in existing radioactive material packaging, economic considerations will make it desirable to develop new packaging specifically designed for each material. Conceptual package designs for these materials are reviewed. Special Nuclear Material transportation safeguards are expected to have a significant impact on future fuel cycle transportation. This subject is reviewed briefly. Other factors that could affect fuel cycle transportation are also discussed. Development of new packaging for radioactive materials is not believed to require the development of new technologies. New package designs will be primarily an adaptation of existing technology to fit the changing needs of a growing nuclear power industry. 23 references

  13. Design and construction of thermal desorption measurement system for tritium contained materials

    Hara, M.; Hatano, Y.; Calderoni, P.; Shimada, M.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-mode thermal desorption analysis system was designed and built in Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to examine the evolution of the hydrogen isotope gas from materials. The system is equipped with a mass spectrometer for stable hydrogen isotopes and an ionization chamber for tritium components. The performance of the system built was tested with using tritium contained materials. The evolution of tritiated gas species from contaminated materials was measured successfully by using the system. (author)

  14. Supporting the material control and accountancy system with physical protection system features

    Miyoshi, D.S.; Olson, C.E.; Caskey, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Most physical security functions can be accomplished by a range of alternative features. Careful design can provide comparable levels of security regardless of which option is chosen, albeit with possible differences in cost and efficiency. However, the effectiveness and especially the cost and efficiency of the material control and accounting system may be strongly influenced by the selection of a particular design approach to physical security. In this paper, a series of examples are cited to illustrate the effects that particular physical protection design choices may have. The examples have been chosen from several systems engineering projects at facilities within the DOE nuclear community. These examples are generalized, and a series of design principles are proposed for integrating physical security with material control and accounting by appropriate selection of alternative features. 2 references, 6 figures

  15. Advanced Thermal Interface Material Systems for Space Applications, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ultimate aim of proposed efforts are to develop innovative material and process (M increase thermal cycles before degradation and efforts to ensure ease of...

  16. Computer system for International Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Database support

    Arutyunjan, R.; Kabalevsky, S.; Kiselev, V.; Serov, A.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents description of the computer tools for support of International Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Database developed at IAEA. Work was focused on raw, qualified, processed materials data, search, retrieval, analysis, presentation and export possibilities of data. Developed software has the following main functions: provides software tools for querying and search of any type of data in the database; provides the capability to update the existing information in the database; provides the capability to present and print selected data; provides the possibility of export on yearly basis the run-time IRPVMDB with raw, qualified and processed materials data to Database members; provides the capability to export any selected sets of raw, qualified, processed materials data

  17. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    James E. McGrath

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 °C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and

  18. Advanced Materials for PEM-Based Fuel Cell Systems

    James E. McGrath; Donald G. Baird; Michael von Spakovsky

    2005-10-26

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are quickly becoming attractive alternative energy sources for transportation, stationary power, and small electronics due to the increasing cost and environmental hazards of traditional fossil fuels. Two main classes of PEMFCs include hydrogen/air or hydrogen/oxygen fuel cells and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The current benchmark membrane for both types of PEMFCs is Nafion, a perfluorinated sulfonated copolymer made by DuPont. Nafion copolymers exhibit good thermal and chemical stability, as well as very high proton conductivity under hydrated conditions at temperatures below 80 degrees C. However, application of these membranes is limited due to their high methanol permeability and loss of conductivity at high temperatures and low relative humidities. These deficiencies have led to the search for improved materials for proton exchange membranes. Potential PEMs should have good thermal, hydrolytic, and oxidative stability, high proton conductivity, selective permeability, and mechanical durability over long periods of time. Poly(arylene ether)s, polyimides, polybenzimidazoles, and polyphenylenes are among the most widely investigated candidates for PEMs. Poly(arylene ether)s are a promising class of proton exchange membranes due to their excellent thermal and chemical stability and high glass transition temperatures. High proton conductivity can be achieved through post-sulfonation of poly(arylene ether) materials, but this most often results in very high water sorption or even water solubility. Our research has shown that directly polymerized poly(arylene ether) copolymers show important advantages over traditional post-sulfonated systems and also address the concerns with Nafion membranes. These properties were evaluated and correlated with morphology, structure-property relationships, and states of water in the membranes. Further improvements in properties were achieved through incorporation of inorganic

  19. Computerized nuclear material database management system for power reactors

    Cheng Binghao; Zhu Rongbao; Liu Daming; Cao Bin; Liu Ling; Tan Yajun; Jiang Jincai

    1994-01-01

    The software packages for nuclear material database management for power reactors are described. The database structure, data flow and model for management of the database are analysed. Also mentioned are the main functions and characterizations of the software packages, which are successfully installed and used at both the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant for the purposed of handling nuclear material database automatically

  20. Engineering and material aspects of impurity control systems

    Koski, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The design of impurity control devices for fusion energy devices is discussed from the engineering and materials viewpoint. First, examples of impurity control devices are presented, and the plasma edge environment for which they are designed is briefly described. Materials concerns related to the design of the components are discussed and some currently proposed designs presented. Engineering tools available to the designer are listed, and some commonly encountered engineering analysis problems described

  1. Materials Technology Support for Radioisotope Power Systems Final Report

    Daniel P. Kramer; Chadwick D. Barklay

    2008-10-07

    Over the period of this sponsored research, UDRI performed a number of materials related tasks that helped to facilitate increased understanding of the properties and applications of a number of candidate program related materials including; effects of neutron irradiation on tantalum alloys using a 500kW reactor, thermodynamic based modeling of the chemical species in weld pools, and the application of candidate coatings for increased oxidation resistance of FWPF (Fine Weave Pierced Fabric) modules.

  2. Materials Technology Support for Radioisotope Power Systems Final Report

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Barklay, Chadwick D.

    2008-01-01

    Over the period of this sponsored research, UDRI performed a number of materials related tasks that helped to facilitate increased understanding of the properties and applications of a number of candidate program related materials including; effects of neutron irradiation on tantalum alloys using a 500kW reactor, thermodynamic based modeling of the chemical species in weld pools, and the application of candidate coatings for increased oxidation resistance of FWPF (Fine Weave Pierced Fabric) modules

  3. Pellet production from agricultural raw materials - A systems study

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven; Hansson, Per-Anders [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The demand for biofuel pellets has increased considerably in recent years, causing shortage of the traditional raw materials sawdust and wood shavings. In this study, the costs and energy requirements for the production of pellets from agricultural raw materials were analysed. The materials studied were Salix, reed canary grass, hemp, straw, screenings, rape-seed meal, rape cake and distiller's waste. Four production scales were analysed, having an annual output of 80,000, 8000, 800 and 80 tonnes of pellets per year. It was concluded that the raw materials of greatest interest were Salix and reed canary grass. They had competitive raw material costs and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelleting factories. Straw had low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems and should, as also is the case for screenings, be avoided in small-scale burners. Hemp had high raw material costs and is of less commercial interest, while distiller's waste, rape-seed meal and rape cake had higher alternative values when used as protein feed. The scale of production had a crucial influence on production costs. The machinery was used much more efficiently in large-scale plants, resulting in clear cost savings. Small-scale pelleting, both static and mobile, required cheap raw materials, low labour costs and long utilisation times to be profitable. In most cases, briquetting would be more commercially viable. The energy use in manufacturing pellets from air-dried crops was generally no higher than when moist sawdust was used as the raw material. (author)

  4. Development of data base system for nuclear material accountancy data at PNC

    Hirosawa, N.; Akiba, Mitsunori; Nakagima, Kiyoshi; Usui, Shinichi; Tosa, Kiyofumi; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki.

    1993-01-01

    PNC is developing a wide area of nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, much nuclear material with a various form exists at each facility in the Works, and the controls of the inventory changes and the physical inventories of nuclear material are important. Nuclear material accountancy is a basic measure in safeguards system based on Non-Proliferation Treaty(NPT). In the light of such importance of material accountancy, the data base of nuclear material control and the material accountancy report system for all facilities has been developed by using the computer. By this system, accountancy report to STA is being presented certainly and timely. Property management and rapid corresponding to inquiries from STA can be carried out by the data base system which has free item searching procedure. The present paper introduces 'Development of Data Base System for Nuclear Material Accountancy Data at PNC'. (author)

  5. Systems including catalysts in porous zeolite materials within a reactor for use in synthesizing hydrocarbons

    Rolllins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-07-24

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  6. Survey and evaluation of available thermal insulation materials for use on solar heating and cooling systems

    1980-03-01

    This is the final report of a survey and evaluation of insulation materials for use with components of solar heating and cooling systems. The survey was performed by mailing questionnaires to manufacturers of insulation materials and by conducting an extensive literature search to obtain data on relevant properties of various types of insulation materials. The study evaluated insulation materials for active and passive solar heating and cooling systems and for multifunction applications. Primary and secondary considerations for selecting insulation materials for various components of solar heating and cooling systems are presented.

  7. Uranium-lead shielding for nuclear material transportation systems

    Lusk, E.C.; Miller, N.E.; Basham, S.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The basis for the selection of shielding materials for spent fuel shipping containers is described with comments concerning the favorable and unfavorable aspects of steel, lead, and depleted uranium. A concept for a new type of material made of depleted uranium and lead is described which capitalizes on the best cask shielding characteristics of both materials. This cask shielding is made by filling the shielding cavity with pieces of depleted uranium and then backfilling the interstitial voids with lead. The lead would be bonded to the uranium and also to the cask shells if desired. Shielding density approaching 80 percent of that of solid uranium could be achieved, while a density of 65 percent is readily obtainable. This material should overcome the problems of the effect of lead melting in the fire accident, high thermal gradients at uranium-stainless steel interfaces and at a major reduction in cost over that of a solid uranium shielded cask. A development program is described to obtain information on the properties of the composite material to aid in design analysis and licensing and to define the fabrication techniques

  8. A development of radioactive material tracking and location control system

    Joo, Gwang Tae; Jung Seung Yong; Song, Jung Ho

    2005-01-01

    As the whole industry fields such as construction, chemistry, machine, medicine including nuclear-related field have extended the range of radioactive material uses, it is tendency that domestic uses of radioactive material have been increased in quantity and number. In addition, as the transportation, transfer and use of radioactive material have been frequent, its loss, robbery, and carelessness of handling may cause not only employees in charge but the public to worry about damage of explosion and put an obstacle to increase trust in nuclear-related industry. At present, though the transportation, use and storage of radioactive material conform to the institution and standard of the atomic energy law, if we tracking radioactive material in real time, we can take immediate actions to prevent its loss, robbery. As our research institute developed a terminal that control location and tracking real time location for gamma-ray projector used in transporting, transferring, and using nondestructive test, we take a good look at utilities by using GPS-Cell ID bases location control

  9. Evaluation of a real-time personnel and material tracking system

    Trujillo, A.A.; Hoover, C.E.; Garcia, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Past experience in addressing the insider threat has led to the development of general principles for mitigating the insider threat while minimizing adverse impacts on site operations. Among the general principles developed was the requirement of a real-time personnel and material tracking system. A real-time system for personnel and material tracking will aid in mitigating the insider threat by providing critical information regarding the movement and location of personnel and material. In addition, this system can provide an early detection mechanism for potential insider actions. A system integrating Radio Frequency (RF) transmitters for real-time personnel and material tracking has been developed. This system was installed and tested in an operational environment. This test was intended to demonstrate the system's ability to successfully control access to material and areas by personnel, as well as providing information regarding the status of materials in transit and storage

  10. Survey of strain-rate effects for some common structural materials used in radioactive material packaging and transportation systems

    Robinson, R.A.; Zielenbach, W.J.; Lawrence, A.A.

    1976-08-01

    In safety evaluation of radioactive material packaging and transport systems during accidents mechanical property data for the structural materials under impact conditions are needed in order to assess the damage and consequences of the accident. This document reviews the status of dynamic material property data for the following common structural materials: lead, uranium, stainless steels, steels, aluminum, copper, and brass. The strain rate data reviewed were limited to the range from static to dynamic impact velocities of 50 ft/s or strain rates of 10 2 /second; temperature conditions were limited to the range -40 to 1000 0 F. Purpose of this document is to explain the test methods, present some of the relevant data, and identify some of the needs for additional data. 7 tables, 14 figures, 77 references

  11. Solid waste and materials systems alternatives study summary

    Kasper, J.R.; Smith, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Site is a 560-sq.-mi. area in southeastern Washington State owned and operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Previous weapons program activities and recent environmental cleanup activities at the Hanford Site have resulted in an accumulation of large quantities of solid wastes and materials. Future Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) and Environmental Remediation activities will generate additional wastes. This paper provides a summary of a recently completed analysis of the Hanford Site Solid Wastes and Materials. The analysis involved development and compilation of waste stream and material information including type, classification. location current and project volumes, and curie content. Current program plans for treatment, storage, and disposal/disposition (TSD) have also been included in this analysis

  12. Safety Standard for Oxygen and Oxygen Systems: Guidelines for Oxygen System Design, Materials Selection, Operations, Storage, and Transportation

    1996-01-01

    NASA's standard for oxygen system design, materials selection, operation, and transportation is presented. Minimum guidelines applicable to NASA Headquarters and all NASA Field Installations are contained.

  13. Transportation of radioactive materials: legislative and regulatory information system

    Fore, C.S.; Heiskell, M.M.

    1980-01-01

    The transportation of radioactive materials, as well as hazardous materials in general, has been an issue of ever-increasing concern and an object of numerous regulations and legislative actions worldwide. The Transportation Technology Center of the US Department of Energy's Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is currently involved in developing a national program to assure the safe shipment of radioactive materials. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, this overall effort is being supported in a specialized manner. As part of the Logistics Modeling program at ORNL, the Ecological Sciences Information Center has developed comprehensive data bases containing legislative and regulatory actions relevant to the transportation of hazardous materials. The data bases are separated according to status level of the legislation. The Current Legislation Data Base includes all new legislative actions introduced during the present year (1980) or those bills carried over from the previous year's sessions. The second data file, Historical Legislation Data Base, consists of all legislative actions since 1976 that have passed and become public laws, as well as those actions that were unsuccessful and were classified as denied by law. Currently the data bases include state-, local-, and federal, level legislation, with emphasis on the transportation of radioactive materials. Because of their relevance to the transportation issues, actions involving related subject areas such as, disposal and storage of radioactive wastes, moratoriums on power plant construction, and remedial actions studies, special agencies to regulate shipment of radioactive materials, and requirements of advanced notification, permits and escorts are also included in the data bases

  14. Retrieval system of nuclear data for transmutation of nuclear materials

    Fujita, Mitsutane; Utsumi, Misako; Noda, Tetsuji [National Research Inst. for Metals, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    A database storing the data on nuclear reaction was built to calculate for simulating transmutation behaviours of materials /1/-/3/. In order to retrieve and maintain the database, the user interface for the data retrieval was developed where special knowledge on handling of the database or the machine structure is not required for end-user. It is indicated that using the database, the possibility of He formation and radioactivity in a material can be easily retrieved though the evaluation is qualitatively. (author)

  15. Systems analysis and simulation of fissile materials disposition alternatives

    Farish, T.J.; Farmen, R.F.; Boerigter, S.T.; DeMuth, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed process flow model has been developed for use in the Fissile Materials Disposition program. The model calculates fissile material flows and inventories among the various processing and storage facilities over the life of the disposition program. Given existing inventories and schedules for processing, we can estimate the required size of processing and storage facilities, including equipment requirements, plant floorspace, approximate costs, and surge capacities. The model was designed to allow rapid prototyping, parallel and team development of facility and sub-facility models, consistent levels of detail and the use of a library of generic objects representing unit process operations

  16. Ionic systems in materials research : new materials and processes based on ionic polymerizations and/or ionic liquids

    Guerrero-Sanchez, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Systems based on ionic interactions are usually related to reversible processes and/or transitory chemical states and, nowadays, they are believed to be key factors for the understanding and for the development of processes in several branches of chemistry and materials research. During the last

  17. Teaching Methodology of Flexible Pavement Materials and Pavement Systems

    Mehta, Yusuf; Najafi, Fazil

    2004-01-01

    Flexible pavement materials exhibit complex mechanical behavior, in the sense, that they not only show stress and temperature dependency but also are sensitive to moisture conditions. This complex behavior presents a great challenge to the faculty in bringing across the level of complexity and providing the concepts needed to understand them. The…

  18. Systems and methods for producing biofuels and related materials

    Leschine, Susan; Warnick, Thomas A.

    2010-03-23

    Clostridium phytofermentans cells (American Type Culture Collection 700394.sup.T) and all other strains of the species can ferment materials such as biomass into useful products and coproducts, such as ethanol, hydrogen and organic acids. Compositions that include Clostridium phytofermentans are also disclosed.

  19. CHAPTER 9 : Virus-based systems for functional materials

    Verwegen, Martijn; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.; Boker, Alexander; van Rijn, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Virus-based bionanotechnology holds the promise of control over the structure, properties and functionality of materials at the nanometre scale. After all, viruses, and by extension virus-like particles (VLPs), represent some of the largest hierarchical protein constructs found in Nature. Their

  20. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among...

  1. Topological structures of complex belief systems (II): Textual materialization

    Nescolarde Selva, Josué; Usó i Domènech, Josep Lluís

    2013-01-01

    Mythical and religious belief systems in a social context can be regarded as a conglomeration of sacrosanct rites, which revolve around substantive values that involve an element of faith. Moreover, we can conclude that ideologies, myths and beliefs can all be analyzed in terms of systems within a cultural context. The significance of being able to define ideologies, myths and beliefs as systems is that they can figure in cultural explanations. This, in turn, means that such systems can figur...

  2. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Coatings Systems Literature Survey

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Whitten, Mary; Perisich, Steven; hide

    2009-01-01

    When space vehicles are launched, extreme heat, exhaust, and chemicals are produced and these form a very aggressive exposure environment at the launch complex. The facilities in the launch complex are exposed to this aggressive environment. The vehicle exhaust directly impacts the flame deflectors, making these systems very susceptible to high wear and potential failure. A project was formulated to develop or identify new materials or systems such that the wear and/or damage to the flame deflector system, as a result of the severe environmental exposure conditions during launches, can be mitigated. This report provides a survey of potential protective coatings for the refractory concrete lining on the steel base structure on the flame deflectors at Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  3. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Canillas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Nervous System (CNS can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as “secondary injury”. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon.Existen diferentes tipos de lesiones o desordenes del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC que pueden provocar graves secuelas e incluso en algunos casos una discapacidad permanente. Además, el proceso de reparación del SNC tiene algunas complicaciones. El mecanismo natural de reacción a una lesión, el cual consiste en la formación de una cicatriz glial, es desencadenado por un proceso inflamatorio. Las moléculas liberadas durante estos procesos, la inflamación y formación de la cicatriz glial, así como la deficiencia en oxígeno y glucosa debidos a la lesión, crean un ambiente que inhibe la regeneración axonal creando la llamada “lesión secundaria”. Los biomateriales están adquiriendo un papel cada vez más importante en la reparación de SNC. Las

  4. Structural material anomaly detection system using water chemistry data

    Asakura, Yamato; Nagase, Makoto; Uchida, Shunsuke; Ohsumi, Katsumi.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of an advanced water chemistry diagnosis system for detection of anomalies and preventive maintenance of system components is proposed and put into a concrete form. Using the analogy to a medical inspection system, analyses of water chemistry change will make it possible to detect symptoms of anomalies in system components. Then, correlations between water chemistry change and anomaly occurrence in the components of the BWR primary cooling system are analyzed theoretically. These fragmentary correlations are organized and reduced to an algorithm for the on-line diagnosis system using on-line monitoring data, pH and conductivity. By using actual plant data, the on-line diagnosis model system is verified to be applicable for early and automatic finding of the anomaly cause and for timely supply of much diagnostic information to plant operators. (author)

  5. Conversion of plutonium-containing materials into borosilicate glass using the glass material oxidation and dissolution system

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess plutonium-containing materials (PCMs) in multiple chemical forms. Major problems are associated with the long-term management of these materials: safeguards and nonproliferation issues; health, environment, and safety concerns; waste management requirements; and high storage costs. These issues can be addressed by conversion of the PCMs to glass: however, conventional glass processes require oxide-like feed materials. Conversion of PCMs to oxide-like materials followed by vitrification is a complex and expensive process. A new vitrification process has been invented, the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) to allow direct conversion of PCMs to glass. GMODS directly converts metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass; oxidizes organics with the residue converted to glass; and converts chlorides to borosilicate glass and a secondary sodium chloride stream. Laboratory work has demonstrated the conversion of cerium (a plutonium surrogate), uranium (a plutonium surrogate), Zircaloy, stainless steel, multiple oxides, and other materials to glass. Equipment options have been identified for processing rates between 1 and 100,000 t/y. Significant work, including a pilot plant, is required to develop GMODS for applications at an industrial scale

  6. Order acceptance in food processing systems with random raw material requirements

    Kilic, Onur A.; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Wijngaard, Jacob; Tarim, S. Armagan

    This study considers a food production system that processes a single perishable raw material into several products having stochastic demands. In order to process an order, the amount of raw material delivery from storage needs to meet the raw material requirement of the order. However, the amount

  7. Local Area Network Material Accounting System (LANMAS) Functions and Features Overview

    Robichaux, J.J.

    1998-07-01

    The Local Area Network Material Accounting System (LANMAS) application is a standardized approach to comply with the DOE Order 5633.3B, control and Accountability of Nuclear Material, material accounting requirements. This paper provides a general overview of the functions and features included in the LANMAS application

  8. Neutron interrogation system using high gamma ray signature to detect contraband special nuclear materials in cargo

    Slaughter, Dennis R [Oakland, CA; Pohl, Bertram A [Berkeley, CA; Dougan, Arden D [San Ramon, CA; Bernstein, Adam [Palo Alto, CA; Prussin, Stanley G [Kensington, CA; Norman, Eric B [Oakland, CA

    2008-04-15

    A system for inspecting cargo for the presence of special nuclear material. The cargo is irradiated with neutrons. The neutrons produce fission products in the special nuclear material which generate gamma rays. The gamma rays are detecting indicating the presence of the special nuclear material.

  9. Improvement Of Physical Ergonomics Using Material Handling Systems

    Naveen Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is an investigation of the physical ergonomics of the work place in an automotive parts manufacturing company . Material transfer from one station to another station was done by hand including a walk of a few steps to the next station. The unmachined components that has a quite heavy raw weight also they are being loaded and unloaded by hand .Due to this continuous practice some workers began complaining physical pain in their backs and muscular related pains. The work conditions of the workers were assessed using the REBA Rapid Entire Body Assessment test to understand the stress and the impact the work environment they are exposed to. Few material handling concepts have been suggested and explained to improve the quality of the work conditions for the workers and the REBA test tends to show some significant improvement when these improvements are implemented into the production line.

  10. Materials performance in off-gas systems containing iodine

    Beavers, J.A.; Berry, W.E.; Griess, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    During the reprocessing of spent reactor fuel elements, iodine is released to gas streams from which it is ultimately removed by conversion to nonvolatile iodic acid. Under some conditions iodine can produce severe corrosion in off-gas lines; in this study these conditions were established. Iron- and nickel-based alloys containing more than 6% molybdenum, such as Hastelloy G (7%), Inconel 625 (9%), and Hastelloy C-276 (16%), as well as titanium and zirconium, remained free of attack under all conditions tested. When the other materials, notably the austenitic stainless steels, were exposed to gas streams containing even only low concentrations of iodine and water vapors at 25 and 40 0 C, a highly corrosive, brownish-green liquid formed on their surfaces. In the complete absence of water vapor, the iodine-containing liquid did not form and all materials remained unaffected. The liquid that formed had a low pH (usually 2 inhibited attack

  11. A Construction System for CALL Materials from TV News with Captions

    Kobayashi, Satoshi; Tanaka, Takashi; Mori, Kazumasa; Nakagawa, Seiichi

    Many language learning materials have been published. In language learning, although repetition training is obviously necessary, it is difficult to maintain the learner's interest/motivation using existing learning materials, because those materials are limited in their scope and contents. In addition, we doubt whether the speech sounds used in most materials are natural in various situations. Nowadays, some TV news programs (CNN, ABC, PBS, NHK, etc.) have closed/open captions corresponding to the announcer's speech. We have developed a system that makes Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) materials for both English learning by Japanese and Japanese learning by foreign students from such captioned newscasts. This system computes the synchronization between captions and speech by using HMMs and a forced alignment algorithm. Materials made by the system have following functions: full/partial text caption display, repetition listening, consulting an electronic dictionary, display of the user's/announcer's sound waveform and pitch contour, and automatic construction of a dictation test. Materials have following advantages: materials present polite and natural speech, various and timely topics. Furthermore, the materials have the following possibility: automatic creation of listening/understanding tests, and storage/retrieval of the many materials. In this paper, firstly, we present the organization of the system. Then, we describe results of questionnaires on trial use of the materials. As the result, we got enough accuracy on the synchronization between captions and speech. Speaking totally, we encouraged to research this system.

  12. Recent Advances on Neuromorphic Systems Using Phase-Change Materials

    Wang, Lei; Lu, Shu-Ren; Wen, Jing

    2017-05-01

    Realization of brain-like computer has always been human's ultimate dream. Today, the possibility of having this dream come true has been significantly boosted due to the advent of several emerging non-volatile memory devices. Within these innovative technologies, phase-change memory device has been commonly regarded as the most promising candidate to imitate the biological brain, owing to its excellent scalability, fast switching speed, and low energy consumption. In this context, a detailed review concerning the physical principles of the neuromorphic circuit using phase-change materials as well as a comprehensive introduction of the currently available phase-change neuromorphic prototypes becomes imperative for scientists to continuously progress the technology of artificial neural networks. In this paper, we first present the biological mechanism of human brain, followed by a brief discussion about physical properties of phase-change materials that recently receive a widespread application on non-volatile memory field. We then survey recent research on different types of neuromorphic circuits using phase-change materials in terms of their respective geometrical architecture and physical schemes to reproduce the biological events of human brain, in particular for spike-time-dependent plasticity. The relevant virtues and limitations of these devices are also evaluated. Finally, the future prospect of the neuromorphic circuit based on phase-change technologies is envisioned.

  13. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  14. Recent Advances on Neuromorphic Systems Using Phase-Change Materials.

    Wang, Lei; Lu, Shu-Ren; Wen, Jing

    2017-12-01

    Realization of brain-like computer has always been human's ultimate dream. Today, the possibility of having this dream come true has been significantly boosted due to the advent of several emerging non-volatile memory devices. Within these innovative technologies, phase-change memory device has been commonly regarded as the most promising candidate to imitate the biological brain, owing to its excellent scalability, fast switching speed, and low energy consumption. In this context, a detailed review concerning the physical principles of the neuromorphic circuit using phase-change materials as well as a comprehensive introduction of the currently available phase-change neuromorphic prototypes becomes imperative for scientists to continuously progress the technology of artificial neural networks. In this paper, we first present the biological mechanism of human brain, followed by a brief discussion about physical properties of phase-change materials that recently receive a widespread application on non-volatile memory field. We then survey recent research on different types of neuromorphic circuits using phase-change materials in terms of their respective geometrical architecture and physical schemes to reproduce the biological events of human brain, in particular for spike-time-dependent plasticity. The relevant virtues and limitations of these devices are also evaluated. Finally, the future prospect of the neuromorphic circuit based on phase-change technologies is envisioned.

  15. Toxic substances registry system: Index of material safety data sheets

    1993-01-01

    The Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's) listed in this index reflect product inventories and associated MSDS's which were submitted to the Toxic Substances Registry database maintained by the Base Operations Contractor at the Kennedy Space Center. The purpose of this index is to provide KSC government, contractor, and tenant organizations a means to access information on the hazards associated with these chemicals. The Toxic Substance Registry Service (TSRS) was established to manage information dealing with the storage and use of toxic and otherwise hazardous materials at KSC. As a part of this service, the BOC Environmental Health Services maintains a central repository of MSDS's which were provided to TSRS. The data on the TSRS are obtained from NASA, contractor, and tenant organizations who use or store hazardous materials at KSC. It is the responsibility of these organizations to conduct inventories, obtain MSDS's, distribute Hazard Communication information to their employees, and otherwise implement compliance with appropriate Federal, State, and NASA Hazard Communication and Worker Right-to-Know regulations and policies.

  16. Reconfigurable materials handling system incorporating part tracking, routing and scheduling

    Naidu, P

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available . Transmission range of 10m-30m indoors is common. RFID is a commonly available system which uses either low-cost passive Radio tags, or higher cost active tags, that an RF receiver can then read. An RFID system comprises of a reader, its associated antenna...]. 3. Proposed Tracking System The proposed tracking system consists of a two phases. In the first phase a passive radio frequency (RF) tag is read by a RF reader. In the second phase the information obtained from the reader is wirelessly...

  17. Handbook - Status assessment of polymeric materials in flue gas cleaning systems; Handbok - Statusbedoemning av polymera material i roekgassystem

    Roemhild, Stefanie

    2011-01-15

    In today's flue gas cleaning systems with advanced energy recovery systems and improved flue gas cleaning, the use of polymeric materials has continuously increased in applications where the flue gas environment is to corrosive to be handled with metallic materials. Typical polymeric materials used are fibre reinforced plastics (FRP), glassflake-filled linings, polypropylene (PP) and fluoropolymers. Demands on increased profitability and efficiency at incineration plants involve that also polymeric materials have to face more demanding environments with increased temperature, temperature changes, changes in fuel composition and therewith fluegas composition and longer service intervals. The knowledge on how polymeric materials perform in general and how these service conditions influence them, is, however, poor and continuous status assessment is therefore necessary. The overall aim of this project has been to assess simple techniques for status assessment of polymeric materials in flue gas cleaning equipment and to perform an inventory of present experience and knowledge on the use of polymeric materials. The project consisted of an inventory of present experience, analysis of material from shut-down plants and plants still in service, field testing in a plant adding sulphur during combustion and the assessment of different non-destructive testing (NDT) methods by laboratory experiments. The results of the project are summarised in the form of a handbook which in the first place addresses plant owners and maintenance staff at incineration plants and within the pulp and paper industry. In the introductory chapter typical polymeric materials (FRP, flake linings, PP and fluoropolymers) used in flue gas cleaning equipment are described as well as the occurring corrosion mechanisms. The inventory of process equipment is divided into sections about scrubbers, flue gas ducts, stacks, internals and other equipment such as storage tanks. Typical damages are

  18. REFERENCE MATERIALS SYSTEM OF SCIENTIFIC METHODICAL CENTRE OF STATE SERVICE OF REFERENCE MATERIALS FOR COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF SUBSTANCES AND MATERIALS URAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR METROLOGY

    E. V. Osinseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960s UNIIM performs research in the field of needs in reference materials of composition and properties of substances and materials (RM as well as develops it. During the research UNIIM has developed 757 types of RMs for metrological measurement assurance of factors of composition and properties of substance and materials for test laboratories of chemical, pharmaceutical, fuel, food industry, agriculture, metallurgy and ecological monitoring laboratories. List ofRMs enlarges thanks to development of UNIIM standards and transmission measurement facility from State standards of units. Taking into account the actual requirements in the field of measurements, the UNIIM's key destination is to assure the accuracy and the metrological traceability of measurements. The present-day system of RMs to be developed in UNIIM includes RMs of composition of inorganic and organic compounds and their solutions, fuels, stable isotopic materials, water, grounds, food products, biomaterials, nanomaterials, metals, alloys and other materials offerrous and non-ferrous industry, RMs of properties (thermodynamic, magnetic, physical-chemical, technical of substances and materials. The present article considers history of RMs list development which were created by UNIIM and the strategy of this direction.

  19. The changing logistical system of the building materials supply chain

    Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2000-01-01

    This study analyses how policy measures and technological developments affect the trade-offs between elements of the logistical system of a supply chain. It is assumed that this logistical system consists of the following elements: sourcing, production, inventory, transportation and service. Two

  20. Physical protection in the transport of nuclear materials (Legal aspects of the domestic system)

    Novais, F.J.G.

    1978-04-01

    A study of the physical protection system is made. Emphasis is given to some considerations in the nuclear material transport area, mainly the details of the domestic system, from a juridic pont of view. (Author) [pt

  1. Local system for control by console-mobile crane for russian depository of fissionable materials

    Troshchenko, V.G.; Kapustin, V.N.; Zinina, N.V.; Derbyshev, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Description of crane of console-mobile type used for transportation of fissionable materials in depository with local control system is represented. Local control system realizes program control in real time [ru

  2. Role of materials accounting in integrated safeguards systems for reprocessing plants

    Hakkila, E.A.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Markin, J.T.; Shipley, J.P.; Whitty, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    Integration of materials accounting and containment/surveillance techniques for international safeguards requires careful examination and definition of suitable inspector activities for verification of operator's materials accounting data. The inspector's verification procedures are designed to protect against data falsification and/or the use of measurement uncertainties to conceal missing material. Materials accounting activities are developed to provide an effective international safeguards system when combined with containment/surveillance activities described in a companion paper

  3. Digraph-fault tree methodology for the assessment of material control systems

    Lambert, H.E.; Lim, J.J.; Gilman, F.M.

    1979-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, under contract to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is developing a procedure to assess the effectiveness of material control and accounting systems at nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The purpose of a material control and accounting system is to prevent the theft of special nuclear material such as plutonium or highly enriched uranium. This report presents the use of a directed graph and fault tree analysis methodology in the assessment procedure. This methodology is demonstrated by assessing a simulated material control system design, the Test Bed

  4. Approach to a generalized real-time nuclear materials control system

    Jarsch, V.; Onnen, S.; Polster, F.J.; Woit, J.

    1978-01-01

    Untrained users and a large amount of--at first glance incompatible--processes and materials are the environment of computer-aided nuclear materials control systems. To find an efficient model of the real processes and materials descriptions and to allow the operating personnel to communicate with the system in his everyday symbolism are goals in the development of the concept presented in this paper. According to this concept a real-time minicomputer-based materials control system is being implemented in the Nuclear Research Center of Karlsruhe. The chosen approach satisfies the heterogeneous requirements of the various institutes of the Center and is also applicable to other nuclear plants

  5. Supporting the material control and accountancy system with physical protection system features

    Miyoshi, D.S.; Caskey, D.L.; Olson, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    Most physical security functions can be accomplished by a range of alternative features. Careful design can provide comparable levels of security regardless of which option is chosen, albeit with possible differences in cost and efficiency. However, the effectiveness and especially the cost and efficiency of the material control and accounting system may be strongly influenced by the selection of a particular design approach to physical security. In this paper, a series of examples are cited to illustrate the effects that particular physical protection design choices may have. The examples have been chosen from several systems engineering projects at facilities within the DOE nuclear community. These examples are generalized, and a series of design principles are proposed for integrating physical security with MC and A by appropriate selection of alternative features

  6. Material cycling solar system modeled ecosystem; Seitaikei wo model to shita busshitsu junkangata solar system

    Sato, M [Hachinohe Institute of Technology, Aomori (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    It is proposed to establish an integrated system close to a natural ecosystem for an industrial complex, taking that in Hachinohe City, Aomori Pref. as the conceptual site. It is a system in which materials are recycled by solar energy and industrial waste heat for a complex food industry. The conceptual site, although blessed with various marine products, are sometimes attacked by cold weather. Waste heat from a 250,000kW power plant, if transported by EHD heat pipes to the site, could provide roughly 400 times the heat required for production of agricultural and marine products, such as cabbages and fish meat. The waste heat, coupled with solar energy, should solve the problems resulting from hot waste water, if they could be utilized for the industrial purposes. The food industrial site that produces agricultural and marine products is considered to be suited as the center of the solar industrial complex incorporating farms. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  7. A platform for communicating construction material information between e-commerce systems

    Stephen C W Kong; LI Heng; SHEN Qi-ping

    2004-01-01

    E-commerce systems for construction material procurement are becoming increasingly important in Hong Kong. These E-commerce systems are non-interoperable and create problems for the buyers who use these systems to purchase construction materials. This paper presents the mobile agent-based approach and Web serv-ices-based approach for enabling interoperation of these systems in the E-Union environment.

  8. Inner solar system prospective energy and material resources

    Zacny, Kris

    2015-01-01

    This book investigates Venus and Mercury prospective energy and material resources. It is a collection of topics related to exploration and utilization of these bodies. It presents past and future technologies and solutions to old problems that could become reality in our life time. The book therefore is a great source of condensed information for specialists interested in current and impending Venus and Mercury related activities and a good starting point for space researchers, inventors, technologists and potential investors.   Written for researchers, engineers, and businessmen interested in Venus and Mercury exploration and exploitation.

  9. Computational Design of Batteries from Materials to Systems

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Santhanagopalan, Shriram [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yang, Chuanbo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Graf, Peter A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Usseglio Viretta, Francois L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Li, Qibo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Finegan, Donal [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pesaran, Ahmad A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yao, Koffi (Pierre) [Argonne National Laboratory; Abraham, Daniel [Argonne National Laboratory; Dees, Dennis [Argonne National Laboratory; Jansen, Andy [Argonne National Laboratory; Mukherjee, Partha [Texas A& M University; Mistry, Aashutosh [Texas A& M University; Verma, Ankit [Texas A& M University; Lamb, Josh [Sandia National Laboratories; Darcy, Eric [NASA

    2017-09-01

    Computer models are helping to accelerate the design and validation of next generation batteries and provide valuable insights not possible through experimental testing alone. Validated 3-D physics-based models exist for predicting electrochemical performance, thermal and mechanical response of cells and packs under normal and abuse scenarios. The talk describes present efforts to make the models better suited for engineering design, including improving their computation speed, developing faster processes for model parameter identification including under aging, and predicting the performance of a proposed electrode material recipe a priori using microstructure models.

  10. A new classification system for all-ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials.

    Gracis, Stefano; Thompson, Van P; Ferencz, Jonathan L; Silva, Nelson R F A; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2015-01-01

    Classification systems for all-ceramic materials are useful for communication and educational purposes and warrant continuous revisions and updates to incorporate new materials. This article proposes a classification system for ceramic and ceramic-like restorative materials in an attempt to systematize and include a new class of materials. This new classification system categorizes ceramic restorative materials into three families: (1) glass-matrix ceramics, (2) polycrystalline ceramics, and (3) resin-matrix ceramics. Subfamilies are described in each group along with their composition, allowing for newly developed materials to be placed into the already existing main families. The criteria used to differentiate ceramic materials are based on the phase or phases present in their chemical composition. Thus, an all-ceramic material is classified according to whether a glass-matrix phase is present (glass-matrix ceramics) or absent (polycrystalline ceramics) or whether the material contains an organic matrix highly filled with ceramic particles (resin-matrix ceramics). Also presented are the manufacturers' clinical indications for the different materials and an overview of the different fabrication methods and whether they are used as framework materials or monolithic solutions. Current developments in ceramic materials not yet available to the dental market are discussed.

  11. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  12. Some basic criteria for using of accountancy common system and nuclear material control

    Marzo, M.A.; Biaggio, A.L.

    1994-01-01

    Some basic criteria used by the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials, using in the Accountancy and Control Common System of Nuclear Materials (SCCC) are presented and the control elements are described. The SCCC is a safeguard system used for all nuclear materials present in all nuclear activities executed by Brazil and Argentina. (C.G.C.). 4 refs, 1 tab

  13. Material and fabrication considerations for the CANDU-PHWR heat transport system

    Filipovic, A.; Price, E.G.; Barber, D.; Nickerson, J.

    1987-03-01

    CANDU PHWR nuclear systems have used carbon steel material for over 25 years. The accumulated operating experience of over 200 reactor years has proven this unique AECL approach to be both technically and economically attractive. This paper discusses design, material and fabrication considerations for out-reactor heat transport system major components. The contribution of this unique choice of materials and equipment to the outstanding CANDU performance is briefly covered

  14. Material flow enhancement in production assembly lines under application of zoned order picking systems

    D. Živanić

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduced research work relates to the possibility of material flow enhancement in production systems, with the apostrophe on material order picking in production assembly lines. The paper presents basic rules and the results related to formed computer models of zoned order picking systems under the application of developed bound cavities method.

  15. Review on processing of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials towards system integration for hydrogen storage

    Ren, Jianwei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available materials to form part of a practical hydrogen storage system, knowledge of the ‘processing’ techniques to improve the properties of the powders is essential. However, the processing routes of MOF materials towards system integration are rarely reviewed...

  16. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    2013-06-27

    ... Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Regulatory guide; issuance... Guide (RG) 5.29, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants... material control and accounting. This guide applies to all nuclear power plants. ADDRESSES: Please refer to...

  17. Networked inventory management systems: materializing supply chain management

    Verwijmeren, M.A.A.P.; Vlist, van der P.; Donselaar, van K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Aims to explain the driving forces for networked inventory management. Discusses major developments with respect to customer requirements, networked organizations and networked inventory management. Presents high level specifications of networked inventory management information systems (NIMISs).

  18. Material Considerations for the Navy Shipboard Waste Destruction System

    Shifler, David

    1997-01-01

    Compliance with MARPOL environmental regulations has required the design of a waste management system to reduce the volume of solid shipboard waste and treat it so that it is safe to carry aboard ship. The U.S...

  19. Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM): 3D MAT

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 3D MAT Project seeks to design and develop a game changing Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS) technology tailored to meet the needs of the Orion Multi-Purpose...

  20. Procedure for the assessment of material control and accounting systems

    Maimoni, A.; Sacks, I.; Cleland, L.

    1978-01-01

    The current status of the LLL program for MC and A system assessment is reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to the assessment procedure and results. The integrated approach we have taken includes many of the functions normally assigned to physical security. Deceit and tampering are explicitly considered. The results of such a detailed assessment include a systematic identification of adversary targets; the most vulnerable portions of the safeguards system; the number and type of adversaries required, in collusion, to fail the system; and the conditional probabilities of safeguard system failure for a variety of assumptions. The assessment procedure was demonstrated by analyzing a prototype fuel cycle facility, the Test Bed. We believe our methodology will be useful to the NRC as a means of performing detailed, objective assessments. The nuclear industry also should find it valuable as a design tool

  1. Hybrid metal organic scintillator materials system and particle detector

    Bauer, Christina A.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Doty, F. Patrick; Simmons, Blake A.

    2011-07-26

    We describe the preparation and characterization of two zinc hybrid luminescent structures based on the flexible and emissive linker molecule, trans-(4-R,4'-R') stilbene, where R and R' are mono- or poly-coordinating groups, which retain their luminescence within these solid materials. For example, reaction of trans-4,4'-stilbenedicarboxylic acid and zinc nitrate in the solvent dimethylformamide (DMF) yielded a dense 2-D network featuring zinc in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination environments connected by trans-stilbene links. Similar reaction in diethylformamide (DEF) at higher temperatures resulted in a porous, 3-D framework structure consisting of two interpenetrating cubic lattices, each featuring basic to zinc carboxylate vertices joined by trans-stilbene, analogous to the isoreticular MOF (IRMOF) series. We demonstrate that the optical properties of both embodiments correlate directly with the local ligand environments observed in the crystal structures. We further demonstrate that these materials produce high luminescent response to proton radiation and high radiation tolerance relative to prior scintillators. These features can be used to create sophisticated scintillating detection sensors.

  2. Critical and precious materials consumption and requirement in wind energy system in the EU 27

    Kim, Junbeum; Guillaume, Bertrand; Chung, Jinwook; Hwang, Yongwoo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Critical and precious materials requirement in the wind energy system in the EU 27 by 2020. - Highlights: • The critical and precious materials consumption were calculated in wind energy system in the EU 27. • The future requirement of critical and precious materials was estimated in the EU 27 by 2020. • Fluorspar, silver, magnesium, indium, gold and tantalum are the mainly used and required materials. • This research approach could be applied to other industrial sectors as well as other renewable technology. - Abstract: Critical materials as well as rare earth elements and precious metals such as platinum, gold and silver are used significantly for computer hard disk drives, mobile phones, hybrid electric vehicles, batteries, renewable energy system and many other applications. It is therefore important to quantify and estimate both current stocks and flows of such materials, as well as future requirement for industries and economies. In this study, which is focused on wind energy system in the European Union (EU) 27, the current consumption and future requirement of critical and precious materials were calculated and estimated using the wind power production dataset from ecoinvent and data from National Renewable Energy Action Plan (NREAP). It is shown that fluorspar has been the most consumed material to date, and will probably be the most required material in the future. Among other critical and valuable materials, the main materials used for current wind energy system are silver, magnesium, indium, gold and tantalum. These materials will also be required significantly by 2020 for the wind energy system in the EU 27. It is argued that these results should be connected to the future energy and material policy and management

  3. Material requirements for bio-inspired sensing systems

    Biggins, Peter; Lloyd, Peter; Salmond, David; Kusterbeck, Anne

    2008-10-01

    The aim of developing bio-inspired sensing systems is to try and emulate the amazing sensitivity and specificity observed in the natural world. These capabilities have evolved, often for specific tasks, which provide the organism with an advantage in its fight to survive and prosper. Capabilities cover a wide range of sensing functions including vision, temperature, hearing, touch, taste and smell. For some functions, the capabilities of natural systems are still greater than that achieved by traditional engineering solutions; a good example being a dog's sense of smell. Furthermore, attempting to emulate aspects of biological optics, processing and guidance may lead to more simple and effective devices. A bio-inspired sensing system is much more than the sensory mechanism. A system will need to collect samples, especially if pathogens or chemicals are of interest. Other functions could include the provision of power, surfaces and receptors, structure, locomotion and control. In fact it is possible to conceive of a complete bio-inspired system concept which is likely to be radically different from more conventional approaches. This concept will be described and individual component technologies considered.

  4. Testing Systems and Results for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Materials

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Griffith, G.W.; Garnier, J.E.

    2012-01-01

    Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Development (ALFD) Pathway. Development and testing of high performance fuel cladding identified as high priority to support: enhancement of fuel performance, reliability, and reactor safety. One of the technologies being examined is an advanced fuel cladding made from ceramic matrix composites (CMC) utilizing silicon carbide (SiC) as a structural material supplementing a commercial Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) tube. A series of out-of-pile tests to fully characterize the SiC CMC hybrid design to produce baseline data. The planned tests are intended to either produce quantitative data or to demonstrate the properties required to achieve two initial performance conditions relative to standard zircaloybased cladding: decreased hydrogen uptake (corrosion) and decreased fretting of the cladding tube under normal operating and postulated accident conditions. These two failure mechanisms account for approximately 70% of all in-pile failures of LWR commercial fuel assemblies

  5. Evaluation of metallic materials for use in engineering barrier systems

    Pitman, S.G.; Griggs, B.; Elmore, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Conclusions of this work are as follows: Inconel, Incoloy, Hastelloy C-276, and titanium alloys all had excellent corrosion resistance in all postulated repository environments tested. Further work will be required to evaluate the pertinent enviro-mechanical properties of these materials; the mechanical properties of grade 2 titanium are better than those of grade 12 titanium, except the tensile and yield strengths. These properties include fatigue-crack-growth rate, environmental fatigue-crack-growth rate, fracture toughness, impact toughness, and dynamic fracture toughness; there is no evidence in the current data to indicate that the simulated repository environment is aggressive to grade 2 or grade 12 titanium. This includes data from corrosion-fatigue, crevice corrosion, wedge-loaded cracked specimens, and residual-stress specimens

  6. Guidelines for control room systems design. Working material. Report

    1993-01-01

    This report contains comprehensive technical and methodological information and recommendations for the benefit of Member States for advice and assistance in ''NPP control room systems'' design backfitting existing nuclear power plants and design for future stations. The term ''Control Room Systems'' refers to the entire human/machine interface for the nuclear stations - including the main control room, back-ups control room and the emergency control rooms, local panels, technical support centres, operating staff, operating procedures, operating training programs, communications, etc. Refs, figs and tabs

  7. Confinement on Soft Materials: Systems Synthesis and Application

    Almahdali, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    Isolating chemically-reactive sites into nanosized compartments is an important mode of control used by Nature to perform chemical transformations with extremely high yields and selectivity. Biological systems are fundamentally organized as bounded and isolated nano- and micro-sized environments featuring distinct localized properties, such as steric crowding, polarity, hydrophobicity, potential for molecular recognition, or pH. Through this compartmentalization, reaction substrates are sequestered away from interfering factors and competing substrates, or are physically prevented from forming alternative products or favoring specific pathways. Inspired by Nature, chemists have explored the rational design and application of various nanocompartments. This work explores three types of nanoconfinement systems capable of catalysis and specific transport: surfactant micelles, block-copolymer micelles, and hollow inorganic nanoparticles. The surfactant micelles are designed as part of a system of self-replicating micelles and are used to show how the chirality of the confinement system effects reaction kinetics. Simple click chemistry between a hydrophilic chiral head and a hydrophobic tail is used to produce an amphiphile under biphasic conditions. Once the product achieves critical micelle concentration, stable micelles can form. These micelles subsequently compartmentalize and pre-concentrate hydrophobic substrates, increasing the reaction rate and resulting in the self-propagation of the micellar structures and their chiralities. The next system explores block-copolymer micelles that are made up of a hydrophobic saturated fluorocarbon block and a hydrophilic block. The amphiphilic copolymers can form aggregates in water and, because of properties unique to the hydrophobic block, this system also increases oxygen solubility in water. Different fluorocarbon monomers are discussed and it was found that the structure of the fluorinated monomer, temperature, and p

  8. Systems and strippable coatings for decontaminating structures that include porous material

    Fox, Robert V [Idaho Falls, ID; Avci, Recep [Bozeman, MT; Groenewold, Gary S [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-12-06

    Methods of removing contaminant matter from porous materials include applying a polymer material to a contaminated surface, irradiating the contaminated surface to cause redistribution of contaminant matter, and removing at least a portion of the polymer material from the surface. Systems for decontaminating a contaminated structure comprising porous material include a radiation device configured to emit electromagnetic radiation toward a surface of a structure, and at least one spray device configured to apply a capture material onto the surface of the structure. Polymer materials that can be used in such methods and systems include polyphosphazine-based polymer materials having polyphosphazine backbone segments and side chain groups that include selected functional groups. The selected functional groups may include iminos, oximes, carboxylates, sulfonates, .beta.-diketones, phosphine sulfides, phosphates, phosphites, phosphonates, phosphinates, phosphine oxides, monothio phosphinic acids, and dithio phosphinic acids.

  9. The use of physical model simulation to emulate an AGV material handling system

    Hurley, R.G.; Coffman, P.E.; Dixon, J.R.; Walacavage, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes an application of physical modeling to the simulation of a prototype AGV (Automatic Guided Vehicle) material handling system. Physical modeling is the study of complex automated manufacturing and material handling systems through the use of small scale components controlled by mini and/or microcomputers. By modeling the mechanical operations of the proposed AGV material handling system, it was determined that control algorithms and AGV dispatch rules could be developed and evaluated. This paper presents a brief explanation of physical modeling as a simulation tool and addresses in detail the development of the control algorithm, dispatching rules, and a prototype physical model of a flexible machining system

  10. German Democratic Republic State system of accounting for and control of nuclear material

    Roehnsch, W.; Gegusch, M.

    1976-01-01

    The system of accountancy for and control of nuclear material in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) with its legal bases and components is embedded in the overall State system of protection in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. As the competent State authority, the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board of the GDR is also responsible for meeting the GDR's national and international tasks in the control of nuclear material. At enterprise level, the observance of all safety regulations for nuclear material, including the regulations for the control, is within the responsibility of managers of establishments, which are in any way concerned with the handling of nuclear material. To support managers and to function as internal control authorities, nuclear material officers have been appointed in these establishments. Design information, operating data, physical inventory of nuclear material and the respective enterprise records and reports are subject to State control by the Nuclear Material Inspectorate of the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection Board. This Inspectorate keeps the central records on nuclear material, forwards reports and information to, and maintains the necessary contacts with, the IAEA. For the nuclear material in the GDR four material balance areas have been established for control purposes. To rationalize central recording and reporting, electronic data processing is increasingly made use of. In a year-long national and international control of nuclear material, the State control system has stood the test and successfully co-operates with the IAEA. (author)

  11. Compilation and review of methodologies for estimating the comparative electric power system costs for renewable energy systems. Working material

    1993-01-01

    This Working Material provides a review of methodologies for estimating the costs of renewable energy systems and the state of art knowledge on stochastic features and economic evaluation methodologies of renewable energy systems for electricity generation in a grid integrated system. It is expected that this material facilitates the wider access by interested persons to sources for relevant comparative assessment activities which are progressing in the IAEA. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Roll compaction and granulation system for nuclear fuel material

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Holley, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    A roll compaction and roll granulation system has been designed and fabricated to replace conventional preslugging and crushing operations typically used in the fabrication of mixed oxide nuclear fuel pellets. This equipment will be of maintenance advantage with only the compaction and granulation rolls inside containment. The prototype is being tested and the results will be reported within a year

  13. A materials test system for static compression at elevated temperatures

    Korellis, J. S.; Steinhaus, C. A.; Totten, J. J.

    1992-06-01

    This report documents modifications to our existing computer-controlled compression testing system to allow elevated temperature testing in an evacuated environment. We have adopted an 'inverse' design configuration where the evacuated test volume is located within the induction heating coil, eliminating the expense and minimizing the evacuation time of a much larger traditional vacuum chamber.

  14. System simulation application for determining the size of daily raw material purchases at PT XY

    Napitupulu, H. L.

    2018-02-01

    Every manufacturing company needs to implement green production, including PT XY as a marine catchment processing industry in Sumatera Utara Province. The company is engaged in the processing of squid for export purposes. The company’s problem relates to the absence of a decision on the daily purchase amount of the squid. The purchase of daily raw materials in varying quantities has caused companies to face the problem of excess raw materials or otherwise the lack of raw materials. The low purchase of raw materials will result in reduced productivity, while large purchases will lead to increased cooling costs for storage of excess raw materials, as well as possible loss of damage raw material. Therefore it is necessary to determine the optimal amount of raw material purchases every day. This can be determined by applying simulation. Application of system simulations can provide the expected optimal amount of raw material purchases.

  15. Time-domain modeling for shielding effectiveness of materials against electromagnetic pulse based on system identification

    Chen, Xiang; Chen, Yong Guang; Wei, Ming; Hu, Xiao Feng

    2013-01-01

    Shielding effectiveness (SE) of materials against electromagnetic pulse (EMP) cannot be well estimated by traditional test method of SE of materials which only consider the amplitude-frequency characteristic of materials, but ignore the phase-frequency ones. In order to solve this problem, the model of SE of materials against EMP was established based on system identification (SI) method with time-domain linear cosine frequency sweep signal. The feasibility of the method in this paper was examined depending on infinite planar material and the simulation research of coaxial test method and windowed semi-anechoic box of materials. The results show that the amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency information of each frequency can be fully extracted with this method. SE of materials against strong EMP can be evaluated with time-domain low field strength (voltage) of cosine frequency sweep signal. And SE of materials against a variety EMP will be predicted by the model.

  16. Libretexts: a flexible online open system for disseminating educational materials relevant to geophysics at all levels

    Halpern, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Libretexts is an online open system for distributing educational materials with over 5 million page views per month. Covering geophysics, chemistry, physics and more it offers a platform for authors and users including faculty and students to access curated educational materials. Currently there are on line texts covering geology, geobiology, natural hazards and understanding the refusal to accept climate change as well as relevant materials in other sections on aquatic and atmospheric chemistry. In addition to "written" materials Libretexts provides access to simulations and demonstrations that are relevant. Most importantly the Libretext project welcomes new contributors. Faculty can use available materials to construct their own texts or supplementary materials in relatively short order. Since all material is covered by a Creative Commons Copyright, material can be added to as needed for teaching.

  17. The first stage of BFS integrated system for nuclear materials control and accounting. Final report

    1996-09-01

    The BFS computerized accounting system is a network-based one. It runs in a client/server mode. The equipment used in the system includes a computer network consisting of: One server computer system, including peripheral hardware and three client computer systems. The server is located near the control room of the BFS-2 facility outside of the 'stone sack' to ensure access during operation of the critical assemblies. Two of the client computer systems are located near the assembly tables of the BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities while the third one being the Fissile Material Storage. This final report details the following topics: Computerized nuclear material accounting methods; The portal monitoring system; Test and evaluation of item control technology; Test and evaluation of radiation based nuclear material measurement equipment; and The integrated demonstration of nuclear material control and accounting methods

  18. Fusion materials: Technical evaluation of the technology of vandium alloys for use as blanket structural materials in fusion power systems

    1993-01-01

    The Committee's evaluation of vanadium alloys as a structural material for fusion reactors was constrained by limited data and time. The design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is still in the concept stage, so meaningful design requirements were not available. The data on the effect of environment and irradiation on vanadium alloys were sparse, and interpolation of these data were made to select the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. With an aggressive, fully funded program it is possible to qualify a vanadium alloy as the principal structural material for the ITER blanket in the available 5 to 8-year window. However, the data base for V-5Cr-5Ti is United and will require an extensive development and test program. Because of the chemical reactivity of vanadium the alloy will be less tolerant of system failures, accidents, and off-normal events than most other candidate blanket structural materials and will require more careful handling during fabrication of hardware. Because of the cost of the material more stringent requirements on processes, and minimal historical worlding experience, it will cost an order of magnitude to qualify a vanadium alloy for ITER blanket structures than other candidate materials. The use of vanadium is difficult and uncertain; therefore, other options should be explored more thoroughly before a final selection of vanadium is confirmed. The Committee views the risk as being too high to rely solely on vanadium alloys. In viewing the state and nature of the design of the ITER blanket as presented to the Committee, h is obvious that there is a need to move toward integrating fabrication, welding, and materials engineers into the ITER design team. If the vanadium allay option is to be pursued, a large program needs to be started immediately. The commitment of funding and other resources needs to be firm and consistent with a realistic program plan

  19. Compositional descriptor-based recommender system for the materials discovery

    Seko, Atsuto; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Isao

    2018-06-01

    Structures and properties of many inorganic compounds have been collected historically. However, it only covers a very small portion of possible inorganic crystals, which implies the presence of numerous currently unknown compounds. A powerful machine-learning strategy is mandatory to discover new inorganic compounds from all chemical combinations. Herein we propose a descriptor-based recommender-system approach to estimate the relevance of chemical compositions where crystals can be formed [i.e., chemically relevant compositions (CRCs)]. In addition to data-driven compositional similarity used in the literature, the use of compositional descriptors as a prior knowledge is helpful for the discovery of new compounds. We validate our recommender systems in two ways. First, one database is used to construct a model, while another is used for the validation. Second, we estimate the phase stability for compounds at expected CRCs using density functional theory calculations.

  20. Development of on-line monitoring system using smart material

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Sang Pill; Park, Yi Hyun [Dongeui Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Chul [Donga Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    A hot press method was used to create the optimal fabrication condition for a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA) composite. The bonding strength between the matrix and the reinforcement within the SMA composite by the hot press method was more increased by cold rolling. In this study, the objective was to develop an on-line monitoring system in order to prevent the crack initiation and propagation by shape memory effect in SMA composite. Shape memory effect was used to prevent the SMA composite from crack propagation. For this system an optimal AE parameter should be determined according to the degree of damage and crack initiation. When the SMA composite was heated by the plate heater attached at the composite, the propagating cracks could be controlled by the compressive force of SMA.

  1. Development of on-line monitoring system using smart material

    Lee, Jin Kyung; Lee, Sang Pill; Park, Yi Hyun; Park, Young Chul

    2003-01-01

    A hot press method was used to create the optimal fabrication condition for a Shape Memory Alloy(SMA) composite. The bonding strength between the matrix and the reinforcement within the SMA composite by the hot press method was more increased by cold rolling. In this study, the objective was to develop an on-line monitoring system in order to prevent the crack initiation and propagation by shape memory effect in SMA composite. Shape memory effect was used to prevent the SMA composite from crack propagation. For this system an optimal AE parameter should be determined according to the degree of damage and crack initiation. When the SMA composite was heated by the plate heater attached at the composite, the propagating cracks could be controlled by the compressive force of SMA

  2. Development of the radiation inspection system for food materials

    Min, Sujung; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Myungjin; Lee, Unjang [ORIONENC Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Radioactive contamination of processed foodstuffs, livestock, marine products, farm products imported from Japan and fishes caught in coastal waters of Korea has become an important social issue. Recently, there are also needs of inspection system for monitoring of public meals such like school feedings of kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, high school and university. Radioactivity inspections of those foods are executed manually with portable measuring instruments or at labs using their samples. But, radioactivity inspections of those foods should execute field survey in real time. In consequence, there are some problem of time delay and low reliability. To protect the health of citizens from radioactivity contained in Japanese marine products imported to Korea, a system to inspect radioactivity in real time is developed. The system is to measure the radioactivity level of farm and marine products and public meals continuously and automatically at inspection sites of an agency checking radiation of imported foodstuffs to determine radioactive contamination. Performance was identified through the performance test (Cs-137 30, 50, 300, 900Bq/kg) at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). NaI(Tl) detector was satisfied the performance for measurement.

  3. Development of the radiation inspection system for food materials

    Min, Sujung; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Myungjin; Lee, Unjang

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of processed foodstuffs, livestock, marine products, farm products imported from Japan and fishes caught in coastal waters of Korea has become an important social issue. Recently, there are also needs of inspection system for monitoring of public meals such like school feedings of kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, high school and university. Radioactivity inspections of those foods are executed manually with portable measuring instruments or at labs using their samples. But, radioactivity inspections of those foods should execute field survey in real time. In consequence, there are some problem of time delay and low reliability. To protect the health of citizens from radioactivity contained in Japanese marine products imported to Korea, a system to inspect radioactivity in real time is developed. The system is to measure the radioactivity level of farm and marine products and public meals continuously and automatically at inspection sites of an agency checking radiation of imported foodstuffs to determine radioactive contamination. Performance was identified through the performance test (Cs-137 30, 50, 300, 900Bq/kg) at Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS). NaI(Tl) detector was satisfied the performance for measurement

  4. The national nuclear material tracking system. A Korea's countermeasure against nuclear terrorism

    Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Since nuclear terrorism has been identified as a real threat, the Korean government has earnestly developed elementary technologies and sub-systems for establishing an integrated defensive system against nuclear terrorism, which is based on the concept of defense-in-depth. This paper introduces the gist and implications of the studies that have been conducted in building the national nuclear material tracking system for preventing and intercepting the illicit trafficking and transporting of nuclear material in Korea. (orig.)

  5. The national nuclear material tracking system. A Korea's countermeasure against nuclear terrorism

    Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongbuk (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    Since nuclear terrorism has been identified as a real threat, the Korean government has earnestly developed elementary technologies and sub-systems for establishing an integrated defensive system against nuclear terrorism, which is based on the concept of defense-in-depth. This paper introduces the gist and implications of the studies that have been conducted in building the national nuclear material tracking system for preventing and intercepting the illicit trafficking and transporting of nuclear material in Korea. (orig.)

  6. Transfer tunnel transporter system for the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility

    Petty, J.A.; Miller, S.C.; Richards, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The detail design is complete and fabrication is approximately 75% complete on the Transfer Tunnel Transporter System. This system provides material handling capability for large, bulky equipment between two hot cells in a new Breeder Reactor Program support facility, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility. One hot cell has an air atmosphere, the other a high purity inert gas atmosphere which must be maintained during transfer operations. System design features, operational capabilities and remote recovery provisions are described

  7. An electromechanical material testing system for in situ electron microscopy and applications

    Zhu, Yong; Espinosa, Horacio D.

    2005-01-01

    We report the development of a material testing system for in situ electron microscopy (EM) mechanical testing of nanostructures. The testing system consists of an actuator and a load sensor fabricated by means of surface micromachining. This previously undescribed nanoscale material testing system makes possible continuous observation of the specimen deformation and failure with subnanometer resolution, while simultaneously measuring the applied load electronically with nanonewton resolution...

  8. Depleted uranium hexafluoride: The source material for advanced shielding systems

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cooley, C.R. [Department of Technology, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a management challenge and financial liability problem in the form of 50,000 cylinders containing 555,000 metric tons of depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) that are stored at the gaseous diffusion plants. DOE is evaluating several options for the disposition of this UF{sub 6}, including continued storage, disposal, and recycle into a product. Based on studies conducted to date, the most feasible recycle option for the depleted uranium is shielding in low-level waste, spent nuclear fuel, or vitrified high-level waste containers. Estimates for the cost of disposal, using existing technologies, range between $3.8 and $11.3 billion depending on factors such as the disposal site and the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Advanced technologies can reduce these costs, but UF{sub 6} disposal still represents large future costs. This paper describes an application for depleted uranium in which depleted uranium hexafluoride is converted into an oxide and then into a heavy aggregate. The heavy uranium aggregate is combined with conventional concrete materials to form an ultra high density concrete, DUCRETE, weighing more than 400 lb/ft{sup 3}. DUCRETE can be used as shielding in spent nuclear fuel/high-level waste casks at a cost comparable to the lower of the disposal cost estimates. Consequently, the case can be made that DUCRETE shielded casks are an alternative to disposal. In this case, a beneficial long term solution is attained for much less than the combined cost of independently providing shielded casks and disposing of the depleted uranium. Furthermore, if disposal is avoided, the political problems associated with selection of a disposal location are also avoided. Other studies have also shown cost benefits for low level waste shielded disposal containers.

  9. Polymeric Materials For Scale Inhibition In Cooling Water Systems

    Najwa S.Majeed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbonate deposition is generally predominant in cooling water-circulating system. For the control of calcium carbonate scale formation two types of polymeric scale inhibitors were used Polyamino polyether methylene phosphonate  (PAPEMPand polyacrylaminde(PAA.Model of cooling tower system have been built up in laboratory scale. Experiments were carried out using different inhibitor concentrations(0.5,1,1.5,2,3ppm ,at water temperature of  40oC and flow rate of 150 l/hr. It was found that Polyamino polyether methylene phosphonate    more effective than polyacryle amide'  as scale inhibitor in all used concentrations and the best inhibition efficiency (95% was at (2.5ppm of Polyamino polyether methylene phosphonate  and (85% with poly acryle amide at concentrations of (3 ppm. The performance of the polymeric scale inhibitors was compared with a method used to control heavy calcium carbonate scale forming by the deposition of sufficiently thin protective calcium carbonate scale using sulfuric acid and depending on Ryznar stability index controlling method. 

  10. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) / Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures (ACES) Materials Delivery System (MDS)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Tamasy, G. J.; Evers, C. J.; Sibille, L. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Fiske, M. R.; Fikes, J. C.; Case, M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) project is to incorporate the Liquid Goods Delivery System (LGDS) into the Dry Goods Delivery System (DGDS) structure to create an integrated and automated Materials Delivery System (MDS) for 3D printing structures with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. ACES 3 is a prototype for 3-D printing barracks for soldiers in forward bases, here on Earth. The LGDS supports ACES 3 by storing liquid materials, mixing recipe batches of liquid materials, and working with the Dry Goods Feed System (DGFS) previously developed for ACES 2, combining the materials that are eventually extruded out of the print nozzle. Automated Construction of Expeditionary Structures, Phase 3 (ACES 3) is a project led by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and supported by NASA. The equivalent 3D printing system for construction in space is designated Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) by NASA.

  11. Recent progresses and achievements in photovoltaic-phase change material technology: A review with special treatment on photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems

    Islam, M.M.; Pandey, A.K.; Hasanuzzaman, M.; Rahim, N.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Broad summary of phase change materials based cooling for photovoltaic modules. • Compendium on phase change materials that are mostly used in photovoltaic systems. • Extension of heat availability period by 75–100% with phase change material. • Heat storage potential improves by 33–50% more with phase change material. • Future trend and move in photovoltaic thermal research. - Abstract: This communication lays out an appraisal on the recent works of phase change materials based thermal management techniques for photovoltaic systems with special focus on the so called photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system. Attempt has also been made to draw wide-ranging classification of both photovoltaic and photovoltaic thermal systems and their conventional cooling or heat harvesting methods developed so far so that feasible phase change materials application area in these systems can be pointed out. In addition, a brief literature on phase change materials with particular focus on their solar application has also been presented. Overview of the researches and studies establish that using phase change materials for photovoltaic thermal control is technically viable if some issues like thermal conductivity or phase stability are properly addressed. The photovoltaic thermal-phase change material systems are found to offer 33% (maximum 50%) more heat storage potential than the conventional photovoltaic-thermal water system and that with 75–100% extended heat availability period and around 9% escalation in output. Reduction in temperature attained with photovoltaic thermal-phase change material system is better than that with regular photovoltaic-thermal water system, too. Studies also show the potential of another emerging technology of photovoltaic thermal-microencapsulated phase change material system that makes use of microencapsulated phase change materials in thermal regulation. Future focus areas on photovoltaic thermal-phase change

  12. Material orientation design of planar structures with prescribed anisotropy classes. Study of rhombic systems

    Czubacki, Radosław

    2018-01-01

    The paper deals with the minimum compliance problem of 2D structures made of a non-homogeneous elastic material. In the first part of the paper a comparison between solutions of Free Material Design (FMD), Cubic Material Design (CMD) and Isotropic Material Design (IMD) is shown for a simply supported plate in a shape of a deep beam, subjected to a concentrated in-plane force at its upper face. The isoperimetric condition fixes the value of the cost of the design expressed as the integral of the trace of the Hooke tensor. In the second part of the paper the material design approaches are extended to rhombic system in 2D. For the rhombic system the material properties of the structures are set, the design variables being the trajectories of anisotropy directions which in 2D are described by one parameter. In the Orthotropic Orientation Design (OOD) no isoperimetric condition is used.

  13. Radiation sensitive devices and systems for detection of radioactive materials and related methods

    Kotter, Dale K

    2014-12-02

    Radiation sensitive devices include a substrate comprising a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to resonate responsive to non-ionizing incident radiation. Systems for detecting radiation from a special nuclear material include a radiation sensitive device and a sensor located remotely from the radiation sensitive device and configured to measure an output signal from the radiation sensitive device. In such systems, the radiation sensitive device includes a radiation sensitive material and a plurality of resonance elements positioned on the radiation sensitive material. Methods for detecting a presence of a special nuclear material include positioning a radiation sensitive device in a location where special nuclear materials are to be detected and remotely interrogating the radiation sensitive device with a sensor.

  14. An investigation on the effects of phase change material on material components used for high temperature thermal energy storage system

    Kim, Taeil; Singh, Dileep; Zhao, Weihuan; Yua, Wenhua; France, David M.

    2016-05-01

    The latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems for concentrated solar power (CSP) plants with advanced power cycle require high temperature phase change materials (PCMs), Graphite foams with high thermal conductivity to enhance the poor thermal conductivity of PCMs. Brazing of the graphite foams to the structural metals of the LHTES system could be a method to assemble the system and a method to protect the structural metals from the molten salts. In the present study, the LHTES prototype capsules using MgCl2-graphite foam composites were assembled by brazing and welding, and tested to investigate the corrosion attack of the PCM salt on the BNi-4 braze. The microstructural analysis showed that the BNi-4 braze alloy can be used not only for the joining of structure alloy to graphite foams but also for the protecting of structure alloy from the corrosion by PCM.

  15. ALMA MEASUREMENTS OF CIRCUMSTELLAR MATERIAL IN THE GQ LUP SYSTEM

    MacGregor, Meredith A.; Wilner, David J.; Czekala, Ian; Andrews, Sean M.; Ricci, Luca [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Dai, Y. Sophia [Caltech/IPAC, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Herczeg, Gregory J. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, 100871 Beijing (China); Kratter, Kaitlin M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kraus, Adam L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Testi, Leonardo [European Southern Observatory (ESO) Headquarters, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2017-01-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the GQ Lup system, a young Sun-like star with a substellar-mass companion in a wide-separation orbit. These observations of 870 μ m continuum and CO J = 3–2 line emission with beam size ∼0.″3 (∼45 au) resolve the disk of dust and gas surrounding the primary star, GQ Lup A, and provide deep limits on any circumplanetary disk surrounding the companion, GQ Lup b. The circumprimary dust disk is compact with an FWHM of 59 ± 12 au, while the gas has a larger extent with a characteristic radius of 46.5 ± 1.8 au. By forward-modeling the velocity field of the circumprimary disk based on the CO emission, we constrain the mass of GQ Lup A to be M {sub *} = (1.03 ± 0.05) ∗ ( d /156 pc) M {sub ⊙}, where d is a known distance, and determine that we view the disk at an inclination angle of 60.°5 ± 0.°5 and a position angle of 346° ± 1°. The 3 σ upper limit on the 870 μ m flux density of any circumplanetary disk associated with GQ Lup b of <0.15 mJy implies an upper limit on the dust disk mass of <0.04 M {sub ⊕} for standard assumptions about optically thin emission. We discuss proposed mechanisms for the formation of wide-separation substellar companions given the non-detection of circumplanetary disks around GQ Lup b and other similar systems.

  16. A system design for the nuclear material accounting reports control based on the intra-net

    Jeon, I.; Park, S. J.; Min, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    The 34 nuclear facilities, including the nuclear power plants, were on operating in Korea and the Technology Center for Nuclear Control(TCNC) has been submit the nuclear material accounting reports to the government and IAEA. At the start point of this work, all reports were controlled via manually and at now, they were controlled based on the client/server system. The fast progress of the computer and internet communication changes the environment of computing from disk operating system to web based system using internet. So, a new system to access the safeguards information and nuclear material accounting system more convenient was needed. In this thesis, a safeguards information control system including the nuclear material accounting reports at the state level based on the web was designed. The oracle RDBMS (Relational Data Base Management System) was adopted for data base management. And all users can access this program via inter-net using their own computer

  17. Performance of materials in the component cooling water systems of pressurized water reactors

    Lee, B.S.

    1993-01-01

    The component cooling water (CCW) system provides cooling water to several important loads throughout the plant under all operating conditions. An aging assessment CCW systems in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) was conducted as part of Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program (NPAR) instituted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper presents some of the results on the performances of materials in respect of their application in CCW Systems. All the CCW system failures reported to the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) from January 1988 to June 1990 were reviewed; it is concluded that three of the main contributors to CCW system failures are valves, pumps, and heat exchangers. This study identified the modes and causes of failure for these components; most of the causes for the aging-related failures could be related to the performance of materials. Also, in this paper the materials used for these components are reviewed, and there aging mechanisms under CCW system conditions are discussed

  18. Internal accounting system for feed materials in the plutonium fuel fabrication complex at Cadarache

    Arnal, T.; Guillet, H.

    1976-01-01

    The internal accounting system of the Fabrication and Radiometallurgical Inspection Service (SFER) is basically designed to meet national and international requirements for nuclear materials accountancy as applied to feed materials. The authors discuss the principles underlying this accounting system for the case of the Plutonium Fuel Assembly Fabrication Complex at Cadarache. The sphere of application of the system covers more than 200 work stations and approximately 100 different materials. Some 20000 movements of feed materials per year represent transfers of a cumulative mass much greater than one ton of fissile material. A data processing system has therefore become essential in order to ensure the rapid and reliable acquisition of accounting data relating to these movements. The authors describe the system (definition of stations and material codes, description of supporting facilities used) and discuss the mode of acquisition with particular reference to relative speed of action. In conclusion, the authors indicate that the system offers interesting possibilities, in addition to its original purpose, in the following areas: Preparation of material balances; compliance with safety regulations to avert the risk of criticality; discouragement of possible diversion. (author)

  19. Savannah River Plant's Accountability Inventory Management System (AIMS) (Nuclear materials inventory control)

    Croom, R.G.

    1976-06-01

    The Accountability Inventory Management System (AIMS) is a new computer inventory control system for nuclear materials at the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina. The system has two major components, inventory files and system parameter files. AIMS, part of the overall safeguards program, maintains an up-to-date record of nuclear material by location, produces reports required by ERDA in addition to onplant reports, and is capable of a wide range of response to changing input/output requirements through use of user-prepared parameter cards, as opposed to basic system reprogramming

  20. Overview of hypertext and hypermedia systems and tools appropriate for structural and materials engineering

    Arents, H.C.; Bogaerts, W.F.L.

    1991-01-01

    After a concise description of the operational characteristics and the information consultation potential of hypertext and hypermedia systems, we discuss in detail the key system characteristics one has to look at when selecting commercially available hypertext and hypermedia products which are appropriate for structural and materials engineering. We then compare a number of PC-based, Macintosh-based and workstation-based hypertext and hypermedia systems and tools, highlighting the key features of each product. Finally, we briefly point to an existing materials engineering hypermedia application and discuss how hypermedia systems might be combined with expert systems to achieve added functionality and reliability. (orig./DG)

  1. Computer based ultrasonic system for mechanical and acoustical characterization of materials

    Rosly Jaafar; Mohd Rozni Mohd Yusof; Khaidzir Hamzah; Md Supar Rohani; Rashdi Shah Ahmad; Amiruddin Shaari

    2001-01-01

    Propagation of both modes of ultrasonic waves velocity i.e. longitudinal (compressional) and transverse (shear), propagating in a material are closely linked with the material's physical and mechanical properties. By measuring both velocity modes, materials' properties such as Young's, bulk and shear moduli, compressibility, Poisson ratio and acoustic impedance can be determined. This paper describes the development of a system that is able to perform the above tasks and is known as Computer Based Ultrasonic for Mechanical and Acoustical Characterisation of Materials (UMC). The system was developed in the NDT Instrumentation and Signal Processing (NDTSP) laboratory of the Physics Department, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia. Measurements were made on four solid samples, namely, glass, copper, mild steel and aluminium. The results of measurements obtained were found to be in good agreement with the values of measurements made using standard methods. The main advantage of using this system over other methods is that single measurement of two ultrasonic velocity modes yields six material's properties. (Author)

  2. Investigation of advanced materials based on low-dimensional systems

    Babenkov, Sergey

    2016-11-15

    In the framework of this thesis, a new end-station dedicated for dynamic-XPS measurements is created. The end-station is based on a new hemispherical electron spectrometer Argus which is equipped with a high speed detection system. In combination with the high brilliance XUV beamline P04 at PETRA III it provides users a unique tool for fast (down to 0.1 s/spectrum) and detailed investigations compared to existing XPS devices at other synchrotrons. This end-station is integrated into beamline P04 and available for users. During this research work it was widely used for fabrication of samples (Ar{sup +} sputtering, sample heating, film growth etc) and investigation of their properties by means of dynamic-XPS. Using several methods, the atomic and electronic structure of graphene grown on technically relevant substrates of cubic-SiC(001)/Si(001) (''on-axis'' and ''vicinal'') was investigated. We have shown a way to control the number of graphene layers by real-time photoemission measurements during preparation procedure. Using this approach, we have synthesized several samples with different numbers of graphene layers. Consequent atomically resolved STM studies prove the synthesis of a uniform, millimeter-scale graphene overlayer. At the same time, the graphene overlayer possesses rippled morphology and consists of large amount of domain boundaries. Directions of domain boundaries coincide with the directions of carbon atomic chains which were fabricated prior to graphene synthesis on the SiC(001)-c(2 x 2) surface reconstruction. Further, using vicinal-SiC, we synthesized Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene with self-aligned periodic nanodomain boundaries. We proposed a simple method to achieve a current On-Off ratio of 104 by opening a transport gap in Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene. Our low-temperature transport measurements clearly demonstrate that the self-aligned periodic NBs can induce a charge transport gap greater than 1

  3. Investigation of advanced materials based on low-dimensional systems

    Babenkov, Sergey

    2016-11-01

    In the framework of this thesis, a new end-station dedicated for dynamic-XPS measurements is created. The end-station is based on a new hemispherical electron spectrometer Argus which is equipped with a high speed detection system. In combination with the high brilliance XUV beamline P04 at PETRA III it provides users a unique tool for fast (down to 0.1 s/spectrum) and detailed investigations compared to existing XPS devices at other synchrotrons. This end-station is integrated into beamline P04 and available for users. During this research work it was widely used for fabrication of samples (Ar"+ sputtering, sample heating, film growth etc) and investigation of their properties by means of dynamic-XPS. Using several methods, the atomic and electronic structure of graphene grown on technically relevant substrates of cubic-SiC(001)/Si(001) (''on-axis'' and ''vicinal'') was investigated. We have shown a way to control the number of graphene layers by real-time photoemission measurements during preparation procedure. Using this approach, we have synthesized several samples with different numbers of graphene layers. Consequent atomically resolved STM studies prove the synthesis of a uniform, millimeter-scale graphene overlayer. At the same time, the graphene overlayer possesses rippled morphology and consists of large amount of domain boundaries. Directions of domain boundaries coincide with the directions of carbon atomic chains which were fabricated prior to graphene synthesis on the SiC(001)-c(2 x 2) surface reconstruction. Further, using vicinal-SiC, we synthesized Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene with self-aligned periodic nanodomain boundaries. We proposed a simple method to achieve a current On-Off ratio of 104 by opening a transport gap in Bernal-stacked trilayer graphene. Our low-temperature transport measurements clearly demonstrate that the self-aligned periodic NBs can induce a charge transport gap greater than 1.3 eV. More remarkably, the transport gap of

  4. Environmental impact of accidents involving radioactive material shipping systems

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Pope, R.B.; Huerta, M.; Nilson, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    Four full-scale spent fuel cask crash tests have been performed, including two head-on truck-barrier impacts (100 and 135 km/h), one railcar-barrier impact (130 km/h), and one locomotive grade crossing impact (130 km/h). Releases to the environment were limited to seepage of about 100 cc of cavity liquid from the cask head in the 135 km/h truck impact test and a slight head seal air leak in the 130 km/h locomotive grade crossing test. These releases were well within the limits specified by the NRC regulations, would have been easily cleaned up, and would have caused little effect on the environment and virtually no risk to the public. To further evaluate cask capability, the crashed spent-fuel rail cask system was fire tested. The cask withstood 90 minutes of a fully engulfing hydrocarbon pool fire while maintaining its structural integrity. At approximately 100 minutes into the fire test, the outer shell of the cask cracked resulting in the partial loss of lead radiation shielding. The failure of the shell was attributed to poor quality control during the original fabrication of the cask in the early 1960's. Present regulatory standards would prevent such occurrences in casks built and licensed today. In addition, the test was much more severe than the qualification criteria specified by present licensing requirements. 4 tables, 13 figures

  5. The Respiratory System. Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This instructional modular unit with instructor's guide provides materials on aspects of one of the major systems of the human body--the respiratory system. Its purpose is to introduce the student to the structures and functions of the human respiratory system--and the interrelationships of the two--and to famlliarize the student with some of the…

  6. Protection and thermal management of thermoelectric generator system using phase change materials: An experimental investigation

    Ahmadi Atouei, Saeed; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Ranjbar, A.A.

    2018-01-01

    In most thermoelectric systems the thermal boundary conditions are transient, and thermal manage-ment of the system is critical to improve electrical performance of the system. In this study, effect of using phase change materials (PCM) to control the hot and cold side temperatures...

  7. Overview and Demonstration of USEPA’s Risk-Informed Materials Management (RIMM) Tool System

    The Risk-Informed Materials Management (RIMM) Tool System is a data gathering and analysis platform for conducting material disposal and beneficial use assessments. Users can evaluate risks to human and ecological receptors associated with exposures to organic and inorganic chemi...

  8. Development and Evaluation of Educational Materials for Embedded Systems to Increase the Learning Motivation

    Koshino, Makoto; Kojima, Yuki; Kanedera, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Educational materials of embedded systems are currently used in many educational institutions. However, they have difficulties in arousing the interest of students. One of the reasons is that a poor CPU (central processing unit), which has been loaded in the current materials, cannot execute the multimedia processing. In order to make the…

  9. Conclusions with regard to the inspection goals of a system of material balance areas

    Gladitz, J.

    1989-01-01

    Starting from IAEA inspection goals in the control of individual material balance area, procedures of computation and estimation of inspection goals are derived for a system of material balance areas allowing for an optimal diversion strategy. By it the prerequisites were also developed to an evaluation of these goals for a State as a whole. (author)

  10. Structure, production and properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard materials and hard metals)

    Holleck, H.; Thuemmler, F.

    1979-07-01

    The report contains contributions by various authors to the research project on the production, structure, and physical properties of high-melting compounds and systems (hard metals and hard materials), in particular WC-, TaC-, and MoC-base materials. (GSCH) [de

  11. Steady State Crack Propagation in Layered Material Systems Displaying Visco-plastic Behaviour

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2012-01-01

    The steady state fracture toughness of elastic visco-plastic materials is studied numerically, using both a conventional and a higher order model. Focus is on the combined effect of strain hardening, strain gradient hardening and strain rate hardening on cracking in layered material systems...

  12. Elrotherm shielding systems. New pioneering material composites; Elrotherm-Abschirmsysteme. Neue Zukunftsweisende Materialkompositionen

    Zika-Beyerlein, B [ElringKlinger (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Abschirmtechnik

    2004-09-01

    Tightly packed engine compartments put special demands on thermal and acoustic shielding systems. With new material composites allowing for particularly thin-walled and light shielding parts, ElringKlinger is well equipped for the future. (orig.)

  13. Assessing the integrity of local area network materials accountability systems against insider threats

    Jones, E.; Sicherman, A.

    1996-07-01

    DOE facilities rely increasingly on computerized systems to manage nuclear materials accountability data and to protect against diversion of nuclear materials or other malevolent acts (e.g., hoax due to falsified data) by insider threats. Aspects of modern computerized material accountability (MA) systems including powerful personal computers and applications on networks, mixed security environments, and more users with increased knowledge, skills and abilities help heighten the concern about insider threats to the integrity of the system. In this paper, we describe a methodology for assessing MA applications to help decision makers identify ways of and compare options for preventing or mitigating possible additional risks from the insider threat. We illustrate insights from applying the methodology to local area network materials accountability systems

  14. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Standard Cement Materials, Epoxy Coating 4553

    The Standard Cement Materials, Inc. Standard Epoxy Coating 4553™ (SEC 4553) epoxy coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Ma...

  15. Z-Plant material information tracking system (ZMITS) software development and integration project management plan

    IBSEN, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document plans for software and interface development governing the implementation of ZMITS and other supporting systems necessary to manage information for material stabilization needs of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC)

  16. Notification: Audit of Security Categorization for EPA Systems That Handle Hazardous Material Information

    Project #OA-FY18-0089, January 8, 2018. The OIG plans to begin preliminary research to determine whether the EPA classified the sensitivity of data for systems that handle hazardous waste material information as prescribed by NIST.

  17. Hydrogen generation systems utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2015-07-14

    Systems, devices, and methods combine reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Multiple inlets of varied placement geometries deliver aqueous solution to the reaction. The reactant materials and aqueous solution are churned to control the state of the reaction. The aqueous solution can be recycled and returned to the reaction. One system operates over a range of temperatures and pressures and includes a hydrogen separator, a heat removal mechanism, and state of reaction control devices. The systems, devices, and methods of generating hydrogen provide thermally stable solids, near-instant reaction with the aqueous solutions, and a non-toxic liquid by-product.

  18. Molecular-beam epitaxial growth and ion-beam analysis systems for functional materials research

    Takeshita, H.; Aoki, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Naramoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental systems for molecular beam epitaxial growth and ion beam analysis have been designed and constructed for the research of inorganic functional materials such as thin films and superlattices. (author)

  19. Advanced Oxide Material Systems for 1650 Deg. C Thermal/Environmental Barrier Coating Applications

    Zhu, Dongming; Fox, Dennis S; Bansal, Narottam P; Miller, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    ... systems under engine high-heat-flux and severe thermal cycling conditions. In this report, the thermal conductivity and water vapor stability of selected candidate hafnia-, pyrochlore-, and magnetoplumbite-based TEBC materials are evaluated...

  20. Design of material management system of mining group based on Hadoop

    Xia, Zhiyuan; Tan, Zhuoying; Qi, Kuan; Li, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Under the background of persistent slowdown in mining market at present, improving the management level in mining group has become the key link to improve the economic benefit of the mine. According to the practical material management in mining group, three core components of Hadoop are applied: distributed file system HDFS, distributed computing framework Map/Reduce and distributed database HBase. Material management system of mining group based on Hadoop is constructed with the three core components of Hadoop and SSH framework technology. This system was found to strengthen collaboration between mining group and affiliated companies, and then the problems such as inefficient management, server pressure, hardware equipment performance deficiencies that exist in traditional mining material-management system are solved, and then mining group materials management is optimized, the cost of mining management is saved, the enterprise profit is increased.

  1. Utilization of Self-Healing Materials in Thermal Protection System Applications

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the Utilization of Self-Healing Materials for Thermal Protection System (TPS) Applications. Currently, the technology for repairing TPS from...

  2. Non-Proliferation, the IAEA Safeguards System, and the importance of nuclear material measurements

    Stevens, Rebecca S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this project is to explain the contribution of nuclear material measurements to the system of international verification of State declarations and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  3. Materials for Concentrator Photovoltaic Systems: Optical Properties and Solar Radiation Durability

    French, R. H.; Rodríguez-Parada, J. M.; Yang, M. K.; Lemon, M. F.; Romano, E. C.; Boydell, P.

    2010-10-01

    Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) systems are designed to operate over a wide range of solar concentrations, from low concentrations of ˜1 to 12 Suns to medium concentrations in the range from 12 to 200 Suns, to high concentration CPV systems going up to 2000 Suns. Many transparent optical materials are used for a wide variety of functions ranging from refractive and reflective optics to homogenizers, encapsulants and even thermal management. The classes of materials used also span a wide spectrum from hydrocarbon polymers (HCP) and fluoropolymers (FP) to silicon containing polymers and polyimides (PI). The optical properties of these materials are essential to the optical behavior of the system. At the same time radiation durability of these materials under the extremely wide range of solar concentrations is a critical performance requirement for the required lifetime of a CPV system. As part of our research on materials for CPV we are evaluating the optical properties and solar radiation durability of various polymeric materials to define the optimum material combinations for various CPV systems.

  4. The Status of Development on a Web-Based Nuclear Material Accounting System at KAERI

    Lee, Byungdoo; Kim, Inchul; Lee, Seungho; Kim, Hyunjo

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Safeguards (IS) has been applied to 10 nuclear facilities and 1 location outside facility (LOF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since July 2008. One of the major changes in the implementation of safeguards under the IS is to apply the concept of a Random Interim Inspection (RII) instead of an interim inspection. The RII plan is notified within a few hours under the IS. It is thus difficult for facility operators to prepare the inspection documents within a short time if they do not periodically manage and process the nuclear material accounting data at each facility. To resolve these issues, KAERI developed a Web-based accounting system with the function of a near real-time accounting (NRTA) system to effectively and efficiently manage the nuclear material accounting data produced at the nuclear facilities and cope with a short notice inspection under the IS, called KASIS (KAeri Safeguards Information treatment System). The facility operators must input the accounting data on the inventory changes, which are the transfers of nuclear materials among the nuclear facilities and the chemical/physical composition changes, into the KASIS. KAERI also established an RFID system for controlling and managing the transfer of nuclear material and/or radioactive materials between the nuclear facilities for the purpose of nuclear safety management, and developed the nuclear material accounting system with the functions of inventory management of nuclear material at the facility level

  5. The Status of Development on a Web-Based Nuclear Material Accounting System at KAERI

    Lee, Byungdoo; Kim, Inchul; Lee, Seungho; Kim, Hyunjo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The Integrated Safeguards (IS) has been applied to 10 nuclear facilities and 1 location outside facility (LOF) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) since July 2008. One of the major changes in the implementation of safeguards under the IS is to apply the concept of a Random Interim Inspection (RII) instead of an interim inspection. The RII plan is notified within a few hours under the IS. It is thus difficult for facility operators to prepare the inspection documents within a short time if they do not periodically manage and process the nuclear material accounting data at each facility. To resolve these issues, KAERI developed a Web-based accounting system with the function of a near real-time accounting (NRTA) system to effectively and efficiently manage the nuclear material accounting data produced at the nuclear facilities and cope with a short notice inspection under the IS, called KASIS (KAeri Safeguards Information treatment System). The facility operators must input the accounting data on the inventory changes, which are the transfers of nuclear materials among the nuclear facilities and the chemical/physical composition changes, into the KASIS. KAERI also established an RFID system for controlling and managing the transfer of nuclear material and/or radioactive materials between the nuclear facilities for the purpose of nuclear safety management, and developed the nuclear material accounting system with the functions of inventory management of nuclear material at the facility level.

  6. Materials degradation in fission reactors: Lessons learned of relevance to fusion reactor systems

    Was, Gary S.

    2007-01-01

    The management of materials in power reactor systems has become a critically important activity in assuring the safe, reliable and economical operation of these facilities. Over the years, the commercial nuclear power reactor industry has faced numerous 'surprises' and unexpected occurrences in materials. Mitigation strategies have sometimes solved one problem at the expense of creating another. Other problems have been solved successfully and have motivated the development of techniques to foresee problems before they occur. This paper focuses on three aspects of fission reactor experience that may benefit future fusion systems. The first is identification of parameters and processes that have had a large impact on the behavior of materials in fission systems such as temperature, dose rate, surface condition, gradients, metallurgical variability and effects of the environment. The second is the development of materials performance and failure models to provide a basis for assuring component integrity. Last is the development of proactive materials management programs that identify and pre-empt degradation processes before they can become problems. These aspects of LWR experience along with the growing experience with materials in the more demanding advanced fission reactor systems form the basis for a set of 'lessons learned' to aid in the successful management of materials in fusion reactor systems

  7. New Structure Design and Simulation of Brake by Wire System Based on Giant-magnetostrictive Material

    Changbao CHU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Existing electronic mechanical brake by wire system has several disadvantages. For instance, system actuators are complex, response speed slower, larger vibration noise, etc. This paper discusses a new type brake by wire system based on giant-magnetostrictive material. The new type brake by wire system model was set up under Matlab/Simulink software environment. PID control method was used to control the brake by wire system. Simulation results shows that the new type brake by wire system achieves better braking performance compared with hydraulic braking system. This work provides a new idea for researching automobile brake by wire system.

  8. A method for estimation of fatigue properties from hardness of materials through construction of expert system

    Jeon, Woo Soo; Song, Ji Ho

    2001-01-01

    An expert system for estimation of fatigue properties from simple tensile data of material is developed, considering nearly all important estimation methods proposed so far, i.e., 7 estimation methods. The expert system is developed to utilize for the case of only hardness data available. The knowledge base is constructed with production rules and frames using an expert system shell, UNIK. Forward chaining is employed as a reasoning method. The expert system has three functions including the function to update the knowledge base. The performance of the expert system is tested using the 54 ε-N curves consisting of 381 ε-N data points obtained for 22 materials. It is found that the expert system developed has excellent performance especially for steel materials, and reasonably good for aluminum alloys

  9. Conception and initial experiences with the information system for materials in need of control - ISUS; Konzeption und erste Erfahrungen mit dem Informations-System-Ueberwachungsbeduerftige Stoffe - ISUS

    Narz, T.

    1997-12-31

    This article presents an information systems for the control of hazardous materials in enterprises. Experiences in the sectors occupational safety, hazardous materials, waste management are described. (SR)

  10. Towards The Adaptation of Green Building Material Systems to the Egyptian Environment

    Sherif Mohamed Sabry Elattar; Eman Badawy Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This research briefly reviews the definition and the principles of green architecture, making a comparison between the global green building rating systems in respect to materials only. These systems are the [1, 2]Green Pyramid, BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environment Assessment Method), [3] LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) and the [4] Green Star in the form of Credits %, importance and its Requirements.The research Aims to evaluate the green building material ...

  11. IMPROVING THE SYSTEM OF RAW MATERIAL SUPPLY OF THE MEAT INDUSTRY

    A. M. Bukreev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the characteristics of the process of improving the system raw materials supply of meat industry and presents the main factors, criteria, principles and algorithm rational distribution of the meat industry. The relevance of the research topic, in a globalized economy and Russia's accession to the WTO, caused by necessity to improve the system of raw material supply domestic enterprises and enhancing food security.

  12. Decree 2805 by means of which the National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, is established

    1979-01-01

    This Decree has for object to establish a National Accounting and Control of Basic Nuclear Materials and Special Fusionable Materials System, under the supervision of the National Council for the Nuclear Industry Development. Its aims are to account nuclear materials, to control nuclear activities, to preserve and control nuclear information, to keep technical relationship with specialized organizations, and to garant nuclear safeguards [es

  13. Supporting system in emergency response plan for nuclear material transport accidents

    Nakagome, Y.; Aoki, S.

    1993-01-01

    As aiming to provide the detailed information concerning nuclear material transport accidents and to supply it to the concerned organizations by an online computer, the Emergency Response Supporting System has been constructed in the Nuclear Safety Technology Center, Japan. The system consists of four subsystems and four data bases. By inputting initial information such as name of package and date of accident, one can obtain the appropriate initial response procedures and related information for the accident immediately. The system must be useful for protecting the public safety from nuclear material transport accidents. But, it is not expected that the system shall be used in future. (J.P.N.)

  14. Development of expert system for transport of radioactive materials with the KEE tools

    Kimura, Yoshitaka; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Ikezawa, Yoshio

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of the expert system for the transport of radioactive material developed in the first step to the AI application to build an advanced radiation monitoring system. The system is composed of three subsystems on 'Judgment on the packages and the packagings', 'Diagnosis of confirmity of the packagings' and 'Judgment of transportable activities' and it will judge the type of the packages and the packagings and transportable activities, etc.. The system has brought the improvements on the rationalization and the reliability for our interpretations and judgments on the preparation of the transport of radioactive material. (author)

  15. The development of nuclear material accountability system - software user's manual

    Byeon, Kee Hoh; Kim, Ho Dong; Song, Dae Yong; Ko, Won Il; Hong, Jong Sook; Lee, Byung Doo

    1999-07-01

    We have developed the near-real time nuclear material accountability system, named by DMAS, for DUPIC Test Facility in the basis of the survey of DUPIC process and activities for the accountability of the system, and the review of the rules and regulations related to the nuclear material accounting. Our system adopts the structure and technologies used in COREMAS which was developed by LANL. This technical report illustrates the system structure and program usage as a user manual for DMAS. (author). 56 tabs., 1 fig.

  16. Overview of DYMCAS, the Y-12 Material Control And Accountability System

    Alspaugh, D. H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of DYMCAS, the material control and accountability information system for the Y-12 National Security Complex. A common misconception, even within the DOE community, understates the nature and complexity of material control and accountability (MC and A) systems, likening them to parcel delivery systems tracking packages at various locations or banking systems that account for money, down to the penny. A major point set forth in this paper is that MC and A systems such as DYMCAS can be and often are very complex. Given accountability reporting requirements and the critical and sensitive nature of the task, no MC and A system can be simple. The complexity of site-level accountability systems, however, varies dramatically depending on the amounts, kinds, and forms of nuclear materials and the kinds of processing performed at the site. Some accountability systems are tailored to unique and highly complex site-level materials and material processing and, consequently, are highly complex systems. Sites with less complexity require less complex accountability systems, and where processes and practices are the same or similar, sites on the mid-to-low end of the complexity scale can effectively utilize a standard accountability system. In addition to being complex, a unique feature of DYMCAS is its integration with the site production control and manufacturing system. This paper will review the advantages of such integration, as well as related challenges, and make the point that the effectiveness of complex MC and A systems can be significantly enhanced through appropriate systems integration

  17. Development of a generic, computerized nuclear material accountability system: NucMAS

    Cornell, M.D.; O'Leary, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The application NucMAS provides basic computerized accountability functions for the Savannah River Plant (SRP) Separations Department Material Balance Areas (MBA's). These functions include data entry, data management, calculations, and report generation. NucMAS can be used both for routine reporting to the SRP central Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) system and for rapid ad hoc queries in emergency situations. The system is designed to work with any process handling one or more of the 17 accountable nuclear materials specified by the Department of Energy (DOE). It relies on user-supplied configuration data to drive data prompts, report headings, data validations, and calculations

  18. RIM as the data base management system for a material properties data base

    Karr, P. H.; Wilson, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Relational Information Management (RIM) was selected as the data base management system for a prototype engineering materials data base. The data base provides a central repository for engineering material properties data, which facilitates their control. Numerous RIM capabilities are exploited to satisfy prototype data base requirements. Numerical, text, tabular, and graphical data and references are being stored for five material types. Data retrieval will be accomplished both interactively and through a FORTRAN interface. The experience gained in creating and exercising the prototype will be used in specifying requirements for a production system.

  19. Yugoslav central disposal system or rad waste materials: necessity and justification of construction

    Peric, A.; Plecas, I.; Pavlovic, R.

    1995-01-01

    Decision on searching for the location and the choice of appropriate type of system for final disposal of low and intermediate level rad waste materials should be made urgently in Yugoslavia. capacities for further storing of such waste materials on the site of the Vinca Institute will be full in the next few years, following the trend of present rad waste generation and delivery. Selection of the location and type of the disposal system in Yugoslavia is of crucial importance from the point of view of conservation of environment quality level and enabling permanent control of disposed immobilized rad waste materials and its impact on the environment. (author)

  20. SIMULASI GROUP TECHNOLOGY SYSTEM UNTUK MEMINIMALKAN BIAYA MATERIAL HANDLING DENGAN METODE HEURISTIC

    Much. Djunaidi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Group Technology System merupakan metode pengaturan fasilitas produksi (machine groups yang dibutuhkan untuk memproses suatu part family tertentu ke dalam sel-sel manufaktur. Pengaturan tata letak di CV. Sonytex yang berdasarkan process layout mengakibatkan perusahaan menghadapi permasalahan berupa tingginya kebutuhan material handling. Salah satu kriteria kinerja dalam pembentukan sel manufaktur pada GTS adalah meminimasi total jarak material handling, sehingga dapat mengurangi biaya material handling dan meningkatkan produktivitas. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga metode, yaitu Bond Energy Algorithm (BEA, Rank Order Clustering (ROC dan Rank Order Clustering 2 (ROC2. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah dengan menerapkan group technology systems diperoleh total pengurangan jarak material handling sebesar 70 m dan penghematan biaya material handling sebesar Rp 1.534.978,-. Berdasarkan model simulasi, relayout dengan metode BEA meningkatkan jumlah produksi sebesar 1 unit produk/hari dan penurunan waktu tunggu sebesar 0,575 menit.

  1. Radiation Detection System for Prevention of Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear and Radioactive Materials

    Kwak, Sung Woo; Chang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik

    2010-01-01

    Fixed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) deployed at border, seaport, airport and key traffic checkpoints have played an important role in preventing the illicit trafficking and transport of nuclear and radioactive materials. However, the RPM is usually large and heavy and can't easily be moved to different locations. These reasons motivate us to develop a mobile radiation detection system. The objective of this paper is to report our experience on developing the mobile radiation detection system for search and detection of nuclear and radioactive materials during road transport. Field tests to characterize the developed detection system were performed at various speeds and distances between the radioactive isotope (RI) transporting car and the measurement car. Results of measurements and detection limits of our system are described in this paper. The mobile radiation detection system developed should contribute to defending public's health and safety and the environment against nuclear and radiological terrorism by detecting nuclear or radioactive material hidden illegally in a vehicle

  2. Development of an expert system for transportation of hazardous and radioactive materials

    Ferrada, J.J.; Michelhaugh, R.D.; Rawl, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Transportation Management Division (EM-261), the Transportation Technologies Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has designed and developed an expert system prototype application of the hazardous materials transportation regulations. The objective of this task was to provide a proof-of-concept for developing a computerized expert system that will ensure straightforward, consistent, and error-free application of the hazardous materials transportation regulations. The expert system prototype entailed the analysis of what an expert in hazardous materials shipping information could/should do. From the analysis of the different features required for the expert system prototype, it was concluded that the developmental efforts should be directed to a Windows trademark 3.1 hypermedia environment. Hypermedia technology usually works as an interactive software system that gives personal computer users the ability to organize, manage, and present information in a number of formats--text, graphics, sound, and full-motion video

  3. Carbon-Carbon Composites as Recuperator Materials for Direct Gas Brayton Systems

    RA Wolf

    2006-01-01

    Of the numerous energy conversion options available for a space nuclear power plant (SNPP), one that shows promise in attaining reliable operation and high efficiency is the direct gas Brayton (GB) system. In order to increase efficiency, the GB system incorporates a recuperator that accounts for nearly half the weight of the energy conversion system (ECS). Therefore, development of a recuperator that is lighter and provides better performance than current heat exchangers could prove to be advantageous. The feasibility of a carbon-carbon (C/C) composite recuperator core has been assessed and a mass savings of 60% and volume penalty of 20% were projected. The excellent thermal properties, high-temperature capabilities, and low density of carbon-carbon materials make them attractive in the GB system, but development issues such as material compatibility with other structural materials in the system, such as refractory metals and superalloys, permeability, corrosion, joining, and fabrication must be addressed

  4. A computer network system for mutual usage four databases of nuclear materials (Data-Free-Way)

    Fujita, M.; Kurihara, Y.; Shindou, M.; Yokoyama, N.; Tachi, Y.; Kano, S.; Iwata, S.

    1996-01-01

    Distributed database system named 'Data-Free-Way' for advanced nuclear materials has been developed by National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) under cooperation agreement between these three organizations. In the paper, features and functions of the system including input data are described together with method to share database among the three organizations as well as examples of the easy accessible search of material properties. Results of analysis of tensile and creep properties data on type 316 stainless steel collected by the different organizations and stored in the present system are also introduced as an example of attractive utilization of the system. Moreover, in order to consider the system in near future, some trails of WWW server of several sites in 'Data-Free-Way' to supply the information on nuclear materials to Internet are introduced. (author)

  5. Carbon-Carbon Composites as Recuperator Material for Direct Gas Brayton Systems

    RA Wolf

    2006-07-19

    Of the numerous energy conversion options available for a space nuclear power plant (SNPP), one that shows promise in attaining reliable operation and high efficiency is the direct gas Brayton (GB) system. In order to increase efficiency, the GB system incorporates a recuperator that accounts for nearly half the weight of the energy conversion system (ECS). Therefore, development of a recuperator that is lighter and provides better performance than current heat exchangers could prove to be advantageous. The feasibility of a carbon-carbon (C/C) composite recuperator core has been assessed and a mass savings of 60% and volume penalty of 20% were projected. The excellent thermal properties, high-temperature capabilities, and low density of carbon-carbon materials make them attractive in the GB system, but development issues such as material compatibility with other structural materials in the system, such as refractory metals and superalloys, permeability, corrosion, joining, and fabrication must be addressed.

  6. Traceability System Model for Quality Gelatin Raw Material of Cattle Hides

    S Nur

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Several criteria must be accomplished within the provision of quality products in terms of the types of materials, the processing methods and effort to get it. Traceability system involves various parties that have different needs and goals in the process of supplying raw materials. Hence, there is a need for institutional systems engineering that can organize and manage the tracking process, the procurement of raw materials that guarantee the origin of gelatin raw materials, and facilitate the industry and customer to create a standardized quality of product. The purpose of the study formulates the institutional tracking models of gelatin raw material from cattle hide based on various criteria and assessment of the expert opinion. The methods used in this study were Interpretative structural modeling to formulate a representation of institutional tracking efficiently and analytical hierarchy process to determine the tracking strategy of industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide. The results obtained from the study were some key elements of institutional tracking model for industrial gelatin raw materials from cowhide and the traceability strategies for industrial raw materials from cattle hide gelatin Indonesia. (Animal Production 12(3: 190-198 (2010 Key Words: traceability, institutional model, cattle hide, gelatin

  7. Material recognition with the Medipix photon counting colour X-ray system

    Norlin, B. E-mail: borje.norlin@mh.se; Manuilskiy, A.; Nilsson, H.-E.; Froejdh, C

    2004-09-21

    An energy sensitive imaging system like Medipix1 has proved to be promising in distinguishing different materials in an X-ray image of an object. We propose a general method utilising X-ray energy information for material recognition. For objects where the thickness of the materials is unknown, a convenient material parameter to identify is K={alpha}{sub 1}/{alpha}{sub 2}, which is the ratio of the logarithms of the measured transmissions ln(t{sub 1})/ln(t{sub 2}). If a database of the parameter K for different materials and energies is created, this method can be used for material recognition independent of the thickness of the materials. Series of images of an object consisting of aluminium and silicon were taken with different energy thresholds. The X-ray absorption for silicon and aluminium is very similar for the range 40-60 keV and only differs for lower energies. The results show that it is possible to distinguish between aluminium and silicon on images achieved by Medipix1 using a standard dental source. By decreasing the spatial resolution a better contrast between the materials was achieved. The resolution of contrasts shown by the histograms was close to the limit of the system due to the statistical noise of the signal.

  8. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library

  9. A hyperspectral X-ray computed tomography system for enhanced material identification

    Wu, Xiaomei; Wang, Qian; Ma, Jinlei; Zhang, Wei; Li, Po; Fang, Zheng

    2017-08-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) can distinguish different materials according to their absorption characteristics. The hyperspectral X-ray CT (HXCT) system proposed in the present work reconstructs each voxel according to its X-ray absorption spectral characteristics. In contrast to a dual-energy or multi-energy CT system, HXCT employs cadmium telluride (CdTe) as the x-ray detector, which provides higher spectral resolution and separate spectral lines according to the material's photon-counter working principle. In this paper, a specimen containing ten different polymer materials randomly arranged was adopted for material identification by HXCT. The filtered back-projection algorithm was applied for image and spectral reconstruction. The first step was to sort the individual material components of the specimen according to their cross-sectional image intensity. The second step was to classify materials with similar intensities according to their reconstructed spectral characteristics. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed material identification process and indicated that the proposed HXCT system has good prospects for a wide range of biomedical and industrial nondestructive testing applications.

  10. Study on interface between nuclear material accounting system and national nuclear forensic library

    Jeong, Yonhong; Han, Jae-Jun; Chang, Sunyoung; Shim, Hye-Won; Ahn, Seungho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The implementation of nuclear forensics requires physical, chemical and radiological characteristics with transport history to unravel properties of seized nuclear materials. For timely assessment provided in the ITWG guideline, development of national response system (e.g., national nuclear forensic library) is strongly recommended. Nuclear material accounting is essential to obtain basic data in the nuclear forensic implementation phase from the perspective of nuclear non-proliferation related to the IAEA Safeguards and nuclear security. In this study, the nuclear material accounting reports were chosen due to its well-established procedure, and reviewed how to efficiently utilize the existing material accounting system to the nuclear forensic implementation phase In conclusion, limits and improvements in implementing the nuclear forensics were discussed. This study reviewed how to utilize the existing material accounting system for implementing nuclear forensics. Concerning item counting facility, nuclear material properties can be obtained based on nuclear material accounting information. Nuclear fuel assembly data being reported for the IAEA Safeguards can be utilized as unique identifier within the back-end fuel cycle. Depending upon the compulsory accountability report period, there exist time gaps. If national capabilities ensure that history information within the front-end nuclear fuel cycle is traceable particularly for the bulk handling facility, the entire cycle of national nuclear fuel would be managed in the framework of developing a national nuclear forensic library.

  11. Implementing of the nuclear materials accounting and control computerized system at JINR

    Dobryanskij, V.M.; Kalyakin, N.N.; Koltin, G.P.; Samojlov, V.N.; Cheker, A.V.; Shestakov, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the development of the computerized nuclear materials accounting system at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) are submitted. This work was carried out under Russian-American Nuclear Materials Protection, Control and Accounting (MPCandA) Program. The System was implemented at the Institute, it was attested to work with sensitive information. The computerized information nuclear materials accounting and control system, named MTIS (Materials Tracking Information System), is intended for the automated accounting of the nuclear materials used in JINR, tracking their moving, changes of their inventory amounts, preparation of the required documentation, and also for information support of the measures spent in the JINR on MPCandA program. MTIS can prepare reports for federal level and can also generate data to be reported for internal purposes. MTIS includes as one of the subsystems a program module to prepare reporting information to the Federal Information System (FIS). The system MTIS provides control of access to the database (DB), protection of the information against the non-authorized access, division of the data into the sensitive and non-sensitive data. (author)

  12. Development of an integrated system for nuclear material accountancy and control at JAERI

    Nishimura, Hideo; Nishizawa, Satoshi

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the design concept and the current status of an integrated system for nuclear material accountancy and control, which is under development at JAERI. We, at JAERI, have decided to update the current system for material accountancy and control and to develop the integrated new system with a consolidated data base in order to augment transparency, credibility and promptness of the system, to materialize a prudent control of obligations required by bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements, and to give information for the physical protection, safely handling, property control and cost-effective use of nuclear material and for public relations. The system is composed of two work-stations operated by UNIX, one for implementation and the other for development, and many terminals located at the headquarters, administrative offices, and research facilities and laboratories. It is connected with a mainframe computer. There are many files on the data base to record inventory changes, book and physical inventories, and statistics on material balances. These files are controlled by a commercial data base management system which enables us to make access to data on the files with a simple query language, spread sheet type software or an application program. (author)

  13. Development of resonance ionization spectroscopy system for fusion material surface analysis

    Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Satoh, Yasushi; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-10-01

    A Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) system is now under development aiming at in-situ observation and analysis neutral particles emitted from fusion material surfaces under irradiation of charged particles and neutrons. The basic performance of the RIS system was checked through a preliminary experiment on Xe atom detection. (author)

  14. The system of emergency cards for primary actions in accident at radioactive material transport in Russia

    Ananiev, V.V.; Ermakov, S.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Stovbur, V.I.; Shvedov, M.O.

    2004-01-01

    In the paper are reviewed the current and new designed system of the emergency cards for consignments of radioactive materials in Russian Federation, within the framework of a uniform state system of warning and liquidation of consequences of extraordinary situations and functional subsystem of warning and liquidation of accident situations of Federal Agency for Atomic Energy

  15. The management system for the safe transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Guide is to provide information to organizations that are developing, implementing or assessing a management system for activities relating to the transport of radioactive material. Such activities include, but are not limited to, design, fabrication, inspection and testing, maintenance, transport and disposal of radioactive material packaging. This publication is intended to assist those establishing or improving a management system to integrate safety, health, environmental, security, quality and economic elements to ensure that safety is properly taken into account in all activities of the organization. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Management system; 3. Management responsibility; 4. Resource management; 5. Process implementation; 6. Measurement, assessment and improvement; Appendix: Graded approach for management systems for the safe transport of radioactive materials; Annex I: Two examples of management systems; Annex II: Examples of management system standards; Annex III: Example of a documented management system (or quality assurance programme) for an infrequent consignor; Annex IV: Example of a documented management system (or quality assurance programme) description for an infrequent carrier; Annex V: Example of a procedure for control of records; Annex VI: Example of a procedure for handling packages containing radioactive materials, including receipt and dispatch; Annex VII: Example of a packaging maintenance procedure in a complex organization; Annex VIII: Example of an internal audit procedure in a small organization; Annex IX: Example of a corrective and preventive action procedure

  16. Integration of phase change materials in compressed hydrogen gas systems: Modelling and parametric analysis

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rothuizen, Erasmus; Jørgensen, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    to the phase change material, mainly occurs after the fueling is completed, resulting in a hydrogen peak temperature higher than 85 C and a lower fueled mass than a gas-cooled system. Such a mass reduction accounts for 12% with respect to the case of a standard tank system fueled at 40 C. A parametric analysis...

  17. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems during coupling operations

    Fields, S.R.

    1981-12-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Casks Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations

  18. Simulation of the dynamic response of radioactive material shipping package-railcar systems during coupling operations

    Fields, S.R.

    1983-10-01

    The basic equations of the computer model CARDS (Cask-Railcar Dynamic Simulator), developed for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to simulate the dynamic behavior of radioactive material shipping package - railcar systems, are presented. A companion model, CARRS (Cask Railcar Response Spectrum Generator), that generates system response as frequency response spectra is also presented in terms of its basic equations. 1 reference, 18 figures

  19. Training Sessions and Materials Present Ways to Improve System Efficiency: OIT Technical Assistance Fact Sheet: Training

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Interested in learning about innovative ways to improve the efficiency of your plant's steam, electric motor, and compressed air systems? This US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies fact sheet offers information regarding training sessions, teleconferences, and various training materials to teach you and your company ways to reduce energy use, save money, and reduce waste and pollution through system optimization

  20. The system of emergency cards for primary actions in accident at radioactive material transport in Russia

    Ananiev, V.V. [Div. of the Decommission of Nuclear and Radiation-Hazardous Object of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ermakov, S.V.; Ershov, V.N.; Stovbur, V.I. [FGUP ' ' Emergency Response Centre of Minatom of Russia' ' , St-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Shvedov, M.O. [Div. of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of the Federal Agency for Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    In the paper are reviewed the current and new designed system of the emergency cards for consignments of radioactive materials in Russian Federation, within the framework of a uniform state system of warning and liquidation of consequences of extraordinary situations and functional subsystem of warning and liquidation of accident situations of Federal Agency for Atomic Energy.

  1. Specific Methods of Information Security for Nuclear Materials Control and Accounting Automate Systems

    Konstantin Vyacheslavovich Ivanov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to specific methods of information security for nuclear materials control and accounting automate systems which is not required of OS and DBMS certifications and allowed to programs modification for clients specific without defenses modification. System ACCORD-2005 demonstrates the realization of this method.

  2. New high-throughput material-exploration system based on combinatorial chemistry and electrostatic atomization

    Fujimoto, K.; Takahashi, H.; Ito, S.; Inoue, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2006-01-01

    As a tool to facilitate future material explorations, our group has developed a new combinatorial system for the high-throughput preparation of compounds made up of more than three components. The system works in two steps: the atomization of a liquid by a high electric field followed by deposition to a grounded substrate. The combinatorial system based on this method has plural syringe pumps. The each starting materials are fed through the syringe pumps into a manifold, thoroughly mixed as they pass through the manifold, and atomized from the tip of a stainless steel nozzle onto a grounded substrate

  3. Executive summary of safeguards systems concepts for nuclear material transportation. Final report

    Baldonado, O.C.; Kevany, M.; Rodney, D.; Pitts, D.; Mazur, M.

    1977-09-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with System Development Corporation to develop integrated system concepts for the safeguard of special strategic nuclear materials (SSNM), which include plutonium, uranium 233 and uranium 235 of at least 20 percent enrichment, against malevolent action during interfacility transport. This executive summary outlines the conduct and findings of the project. The study was divided into three major subtasks: (1) The development of adversary action sequences; (2) The assessment of the vulnerability of the transport of nuclear materials to adversary action; (3) The development of conceptual safeguards system design requirements to reduce vulnerabilities

  4. Materials recovery system for source-separated noncombustible rubbish and bulky waste in Nishinomiya

    Adachi, Yoshihiro

    1987-01-01

    Since 1980, the city of Nishinomiya has been recovering materials from source-separated non-combustible and bulky waste to reduce the amount of final disposal. Materials amounting to 33-39% of the throughput are recovered in the Shredding and Separation Facility, which consists of a manual separation system, a mechanical separation system, a shredder, a pair of shears and incinerators. The facility system is shown in order of processing of the waste. The secondary pollution control, safety equipment, instrumentation, etc., are also described. The recovery percentage and use of revenues are explained in detail.

  5. Risk Identification in a Smart Monitoring System Used to Preserve Artefacts Based on Textile Materials

    Diaconescu, V. D.; Scripcariu, L.; Mătăsaru, P. D.; Diaconescu, M. R.; Ignat, C. A.

    2018-06-01

    Exhibited textile-materials-based artefacts can be affected by the environmental conditions. A smart monitoring system that commands an adaptive automatic environment control system is proposed for indoor exhibition spaces containing various textile artefacts. All exhibited objects are monitored by many multi-sensor nodes containing temperature, relative humidity and light sensors. Data collected periodically from the entire sensor network is stored in a database and statistically processed in order to identify and classify the environment risk. Risk consequences are analyzed depending on the risk class and the smart system commands different control measures in order to stabilize the indoor environment conditions to the recommended values and prevent material degradation.

  6. Stochastic Modelling and Self Tuning Control of a Continuous Cement Raw Material Mixing System

    Hannu T. Toivonen

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of a continuously operating system for cement raw material mixing is studied. The purpose of the mixing system is to maintain a constant composition of the cement raw meal for the kiln despite variations of the raw material compositions. Experimental knowledge of the process dynamics and the characteristics of the various disturbances is used for deriving a stochastic model of the system. The optimal control strategy is then obtained as a minimum variance strategy. The control problem is finally solved using a self-tuning minimum variance regulator, and results from a successful implementation of the regulator are given.

  7. Propagation Properties of Airy Beam through Periodic Slab System with Negative Index Materials

    Long Jin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on light transfer matrix and electric field vector equation, the evolution of Airy beam propagating in periodic slab system with three negative index materials (NIMs and its transmission mechanism are investigated. The intensity profiles on emergent surface of periodic slab system and side view of Airy beam propagating in each right handed material (RHM and double negative material (DNM unit including lossless and losses DNMs are discussed. It is revealed that the self-recovery Airy beam can be achieved in long distance by using lossless periodic slab system as long as the negative refractive index nl=-nr and each unit length L=Z. As to losses slab system contained DNMs, the smaller the collision frequencies are, the better the Airy beam quality is formed. It is expected that the proposed manner of beam transmission and corresponding conclusions can be useful for extension applications of optical control, especially for optical communication and optical encryption technique.

  8. Heat resistant materials and their feasibility issues for a space nuclear transportation system

    Olsen, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A number of nuclear propulsion concepts based on solid-core nuclear propulsion are being evaluated for a nuclear propulsion transportation system to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) involving the reestablishment of a manned lunar base and the subsequent exploration of Mars. These systems will require high-temperature materials to meet the operating conditions with appropriate reliability and safety built into these systems through the selection and testing of appropriate materials. The application of materials for nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) and nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) systems and the feasibility issues identified for their use will be discussed. Some mechanical property measurements have been obtained, and compatibility tests were conducted to help identify feasibility issues. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  9. Environment-oriented life cycle analysis of bulk materials, applied in solar cell systems

    Geelen, H.

    1994-04-01

    In the solar cell technology several bulk materials (glass, steel, aluminium, concrete, copper, zinc and synthetic materials) are applied intensively. By means of a life cycle analysis (LCA) the environmental effects and bottlenecks of the use of these materials is investigated in this report. Also attention is paid to the options to reduce the environmental effects of photovoltaic (PV) systems by changing processes and/or by redesign of the PV systems. Two systems are studied: solar cells, integrated in pitched roofs, and solar cells on the ground in solar cell arrays. The study is focused on the use of bulk materials in the solar module, the cables and the supporting construction. After brief introductions on the environment-oriented LCA method, the standard construction of PV modules and the principles of solar cells, an overview is given of the present and future material input for the above-mentioned PV-systems. Next, attention is paid to the energy consumption and the most important emissions of the production of the bulk materials. Based on these data three environmental effect scores of the PV systems are calculated and analyzed: the energy consumption, the greenhouse effect or global warming equivalent, and the acidifying effect or acidification equivalent. Also a fourth effect, for which the so-called environmental indicator human toxicity is defined, is described. By means of this indicator the hazardous effects for the public health can be indicated. The sum of the four indicators is a measure for the environmental profile of the roof PV-system and the ground PV-array system. Recommendations are given by which the systems and their environmental profiles can be improved. 29 figs., 50 tabs., 5 appendices, refs

  10. Radiation durability and functional reliability of polymeric materials in space systems

    Haruvy, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Polymeric materials are preferred for the light-weight construction of space-systems. Materials in space systems are required to fulfill a complete set of specifications, at utmost reliability, throughout the whole period of service in space, while being exposed to the hazardous influence of the space environment. The major threats of the space environment in orbits at the geostationary altitude (GSO) arise from ionizing radiations, the main constituents of which are highly energetic protons (affecting mainly the surface) and fast electrons (which produce the main threat to the electronic components). The maximum dose of ionizing radiation (within the limits of uncertainty of the calculations) at the surface of a material mounted on a space system, namely the ''Skin-Dose'', is ca. 2500 Mrads/yr. Space systems such as telecommunication satellites are planned to serve for prolonged periods of 30 years and longer. The cumulative predicted dose of ionizing-radiation over such periods presents a severe threat of chemical degradation to most of the polymeric construction materials commonly utilized in space systems. The reliability of each of the polymeric materials must be evaluated in detail, considering each of the relevant typical threats, such as ionizing-radiation, UV radiation, meteoroides flux, thermal cycling and ultra-high vacuum. For each of the exposed materials, conservation of the set of functional characteristics such as mechanical integrity, electrical and thermo-optical properties, electrical conductivity, surface charging and outgassing properties, which may cause contamination of neighboring systems, is evaluated. The reliability of functioning of the materials exposed to the space environment can thus be predicted, utilizing data from the literature, experimental results reported from space flights and laboratory simulations, and by chemical similarity of untested polymers to others. (author)

  11. Cermet materials, self-cleaning cermet filters, apparatus and systems employing same

    Kong, Peter C.

    2005-07-19

    A self-cleaning porous cermet material, filter and system utilizing the same may be used in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The porous cermet filter may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an alumina phase. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The porous filter may also be electrically conductive so that a current may be passed therethrough to heat the filter during use. Further, a heating element may be incorporated into the porous cermet filter during manufacture. This heating element can be coated with a ceramic material to electrically insulate the heating element. An external heating element may also be provided to heat the cermet filter during use.

  12. Nuclear material control and accounting system evaluation in uranium conversion operations

    Moreira, Jose Pontes

    1994-01-01

    The Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems in uranium conversion operations are described. The conversion plant, uses ammonium diuranate (ADU), as starting material for the production of uranium hexafluoride. A combination of accountability and verification measurement is used to verify physical inventory quantities. Two types of inspection are used to minimize the measurements uncertainty of the Material Unaccounted For (MUF) : Attribute inspection and Variation inspection. The mass balance equation is the base of an evaluation of a Material Balance Area (MBA). Statistical inference is employed to facilitate rapid inventory taking and enhance material control of Safeguards. The calculation of one sampling plan for a MBA and the methodology of inspection evaluation are also described. We have two kinds of errors : no detection and false delation. (author)

  13. Development and trial operation of a site-wide computerized material accounting system at Kurchatov Institute

    Roumiantsev, A.N.; Ostroumov, Y.A.; Yevstropov, A.V. [Kurchatov Institute RRC, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    Since August 1994 Kurchatov Institute in cooperation with several US Department of Energy Laboratories has been developing a site-wide computerized material accounting system for nuclear materials. In 1994 a prototype system was put into trial operation at two Kurchatov facilities. Evaluation of this prototype led to the development of a new computerized material accounting system named KI-MACS, which has been operational since 1996. This system is a site-wide local secure computer network with centralized database capable of dealing with strictly confidential data and performing near-real time accountancy. It utilizes a Microsoft Windows NT operating system with SQL Server and Visual Basic, and has a `star`-like network architecture. KI-MACS is capable of dealing with materials in itemized and bulk form, and can perform statistical evaluations of measurements and material balance. KI-MACS is fully integrated with bar code equipment, electronic scales, gamma-ray spectrometers and an Active Well Coincidence Counter, thus providing almost on-line evaluation and utilization of results of measurements, item identification and accounting. At present KI-MACS is being used in Physical Inventory Taking at the Kurchatov Central Storage Facility, and by the end of 1997 will be installed at twelve Kurchatov nuclear facilities.

  14. Development and trial operation of a site-wide computerized material accounting system at Kurchatov Institute

    Roumiantsev, A.N.; Ostroumov, Y.A.; Yevstropov, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Since August 1994 Kurchatov Institute in cooperation with several US Department of Energy Laboratories has been developing a site-wide computerized material accounting system for nuclear materials. In 1994 a prototype system was put into trial operation at two Kurchatov facilities. Evaluation of this prototype led to the development of a new computerized material accounting system named KI-MACS, which has been operational since 1996. This system is a site-wide local secure computer network with centralized database capable of dealing with strictly confidential data and performing near-real time accountancy. It utilizes a Microsoft Windows NT operating system with SQL Server and Visual Basic, and has a 'star'-like network architecture. KI-MACS is capable of dealing with materials in itemized and bulk form, and can perform statistical evaluations of measurements and material balance. KI-MACS is fully integrated with bar code equipment, electronic scales, gamma-ray spectrometers and an Active Well Coincidence Counter, thus providing almost on-line evaluation and utilization of results of measurements, item identification and accounting. At present KI-MACS is being used in Physical Inventory Taking at the Kurchatov Central Storage Facility, and by the end of 1997 will be installed at twelve Kurchatov nuclear facilities

  15. An integrated risk communication system for the transport of hazardous materials

    Minor, J.W. IV; Abkowitz, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of the prototype of an an internet-based, risk communication system prototype for the transport of hazardous materials. The system was designed with the objectives of: (1) incorporating functionality and features that are useful for meeting a variety of risk communication needs, and (2) demonstrating a high degree of interaction among system components, enabling customisation to meet the specific transport risk communication needs requirements of the host organisation. To demonstrate 'proof of concept', the system is applied to two scenarios: 1) building knowledge and awareness, focusing on how information can be entered, organised and disseminated to the public and other transport stakeholders, and 2) emergency management, utilising the system for securely managing information in responding to a transport incident involving hazardous materials transport incident. The effectiveness of the system in these applications is subsequently discussed. (author)

  16. Two-photon polymerization of an epoxy-acrylate resin material system

    Winfield, R.J.; O'Brien, S.

    2011-01-01

    Improved material systems are of great interest in the development of two-photon polymerization techniques for the fabrication of three dimensional micro- and nano-structures. The properties of the photosensitive resin are important in the realisation of structures with submicron dimensions. In this study investigation of a custom organic resin, cross-linked by a two-photon induced process, using a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser, is described. A structural, optical and mechanical analysis of the optimised material is presented. The influence of both material system and laser processing parameters on achievable micro-structure and size is presented as are representative structures. Parameters include: laser power, photo-initiator concentration and material composition.

  17. Selection of emitter material for application on a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power system

    Kramer, D.P.; Frohlich, N.D.; Koehler, F.A.; Ruhkamp, J.D.; Miller, R.G.; McDougal, J.R.; Pugh, B.K.; Barklay, C.D.; Howell, E.I. [EGG Mound Applied Technologies Building 88, P.O. Box 3000 Miamisburg, Ohio45343 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power systems are being considered for long duration space missions due to their predicted high thermal to electrical conversion efficiencies. One critical aspect of these power systems is the selection of an appropriate emitter material which will efficiently radiate the thermal energy generated by the heat source to the photovoltaics. The photovoltaics are {open_quotes}tuned{close_quotes} to convert the infrared wavelengths radiated by the emitter into electrical energy. The emphasis of this paper is on the selection and optimization of an appropriate emitter material which would meet all of the mission requirements. A Kepner Tregoe analysis was performed in order to rank the various candidate refractory materials in relationship to their physical and chemical properties. The results of the analysis and material recommendations are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Control method and system for use when growing thin-films on semiconductor-based materials

    McKee, Rodney A.; Walker, Frederick J.

    2001-01-01

    A process and system for use during the growth of a thin film upon the surface of a substrate by exposing the substrate surface to vaporized material in a high vacuum (HV) facility involves the directing of an electron beam generally toward the surface of the substrate as the substrate is exposed to vaporized material so that electrons are diffracted from the substrate surface by the beam and the monitoring of the pattern of electrons diffracted from the substrate surface as vaporized material settles upon the substrate surface. When the monitored pattern achieves a condition indicative of the desired condition of the thin film being grown upon the substrate, the exposure of the substrate to the vaporized materials is shut off or otherwise adjusted. To facilitate the adjustment of the crystallographic orientation of the film relative to the electron beam, the system includes a mechanism for altering the orientation of the surface of the substrate relative to the electron beam.

  19. Hydrogen generation systems and methods utilizing sodium silicide and sodium silica gel materials

    Wallace, Andrew P.; Melack, John M.; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2017-12-19

    Systems, devices, and methods combine thermally stable reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen and a non-toxic liquid by-product. The reactant materials can sodium silicide or sodium silica gel. The hydrogen generation devices are used in fuels cells and other industrial applications. One system combines cooling, pumping, water storage, and other devices to sense and control reactions between reactant materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. Springs and other pressurization mechanisms pressurize and deliver an aqueous solution to the reaction. A check valve and other pressure regulation mechanisms regulate the pressure of the aqueous solution delivered to the reactant fuel material in the reactor based upon characteristics of the pressurization mechanisms and can regulate the pressure of the delivered aqueous solution as a steady decay associated with the pressurization force. The pressure regulation mechanism can also prevent hydrogen gas from deflecting the pressure regulation mechanism.

  20. Parametric study of laminated composite material shaft of high speed rotor-bearing system

    Gonsalves, Thimothy Harold; Kumar, G. C. Mohan; Ramesh, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper some of the important parameters that influence the effectiveness of composite material shaft of high speed rotor-bearing system on rotor dynamics are analyzed. The type of composite material composition, the number of layers along with their stacking sequences are evaluated as they play an important role in deciding the best configuration suitable for the high-speed application. In this work the lateral modal frequencies for five types of composite materials shaft of a high-speed power turbine rotor-bearing system and stresses due to operating torque are evaluated. The results are useful for the selection of right combination of material, number of layers and their stacking sequences. The numerical analysis is carried out using the ANSYS Rotor dynamic analysis features.