WorldWideScience

Sample records for space station solar

  1. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  2. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  3. Solar dynamic power systems for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Thomas B.; Nall, Marsha M.; Seidel, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    The Parabolic Offset Linearly Actuated Reflector (POLAR) solar dynamic module was selected as the baseline design for a solar dynamic power system aboard the space station. The POLAR concept was chosen over other candidate designs after extensive trade studies. The primary advantages of the POLAR concept are the low mass moment of inertia of the module about the transverse boom and the compactness of the stowed module which enables packaging of two complete modules in the Shuttle orbiter payload bay. The fine pointing control system required for the solar dynamic module has been studied and initial results indicate that if disturbances from the station are allowed to back drive the rotary alpha joint, pointing errors caused by transient loads on the space station can be minimized. This would allow pointing controls to operate in bandwidths near system structural frequencies. The incorporation of the fine pointing control system into the solar dynamic module is fairly straightforward for the three strut concentrator support structure. However, results of structural analyses indicate that this three strut support is not optimum. Incorporation of a vernier pointing system into the proposed six strut support structure is being studied.

  4. Scattering Effects of Solar Panels on Space Station Antenna Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneton, Robert J.; Ngo, John C.; Hwu, Shian U.; Johnson, Larry A.; Elmore, James D.; Lu, Ba P.; Kelley, James S.

    1994-01-01

    Characterizing the scattering properties of the solar array panels is important in predicting Space Station antenna performance. A series of far-field, near-field, and radar cross section (RCS) scattering measurements were performed at S-Band and Ku-Band microwave frequencies on Space Station solar array panels. Based on investigation of the measured scattering patterns, the solar array panels exhibit similar scattering properties to that of the same size aluminum or copper panel mockup. As a first order approximation, and for worse case interference simulation, the solar array panels may be modeled using perfect reflecting plates. Numerical results obtained using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) modeling technique are presented for Space Station antenna pattern degradation due to solar panel interference. The computational and experimental techniques presented in this paper are applicable for antennas mounted on other platforms such as ship, aircraft, satellite, and space or land vehicle.

  5. Radiator selection for Space Station Solar Dynamic Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Mike; Hoehn, Frank

    A study was conducted to define the best radiator for heat rejection of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System. Included in the study were radiators for both the Organic Rankine Cycle and Closed Brayton Cycle heat engines. A number of potential approaches were considered for the Organic Rankine Cycle and a constructable radiator was chosen. Detailed optimizations of this concept were conducted resulting in a baseline for inclusion into the ORC Preliminary Design. A number of approaches were also considered for the CBC radiator. For this application a deployed pumped liquid radiator was selected which was also refined resulting in a baseline for the CBC preliminary design. This paper reports the results and methodology of these studies and describes the preliminary designs of the Space Station Solar Dynamic Power System radiators for both of the candidate heat engine cycles.

  6. Solar panels for the International Space Station are uncrated and moved in the SSPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, a worker (left) guides the lifting of solar panels for the International Space Station (ISS). The panels are the first set of U.S.-provided solar arrays and batteries for ISS, scheduled to be part of mission STS-97 in December 1999. The mission, fifth in the U.S. flights for construction of ISS, will build and enhance the capabilities of the Space Station. It will deliver the solar panels as well as radiators to provide cooling. The Shuttle will spend 5 days docked to the station, which at that time will be staffed by the first station crew. Two space walks will be conducted to complete assembly operations while the arrays are attached and unfurled. A communications system for voice and telemetry also will be installed.

  7. An IBM PC-based math model for space station solar array simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    This report discusses and documents the design, development, and verification of a microcomputer-based solar cell math model for simulating the Space Station's solar array Initial Operational Capability (IOC) reference configuration. The array model is developed utilizing a linear solar cell dc math model requiring only five input parameters: short circuit current, open circuit voltage, maximum power voltage, maximum power current, and orbit inclination. The accuracy of this model is investigated using actual solar array on orbit electrical data derived from the Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment (SAFE/DAE), conducted during the STS-41D mission. This simulator provides real-time simulated performance data during the steady state portion of the Space Station orbit (i.e., array fully exposed to sunlight). Eclipse to sunlight transients and shadowing effects are not included in the analysis, but are discussed briefly. Integrating the Solar Array Simulator (SAS) into the Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) subsystem is also discussed.

  8. Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

  9. Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed: A Facility for Space Calibration and Measurement of Solar Cells on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Bailey, Sheila G.; Jenkins, Phillip; Sexton, J. Andrew; Scheiman, David; Christie, Robert; Charpie, James; Gerber, Scott S.; Johnson, D. Bruce

    2001-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Engineering Testbed ("PET") is a facility to be flown on the International Space Station to perform calibration, measurement, and qualification of solar cells in the space environment and then returning the cells to Earth for laboratory use. PET will allow rapid turnaround testing of new photovoltaic technology under AM0 conditions.

  10. Mechanical design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, M. S.; Hsu, L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary study and conceptual design of a low concentration ratio solar array for a space station application with approximately a 100 kW power requirement. The baseline design calls for a multiple series of inverted, truncated, pyramidal optical elements with a geometric concentration ratio (GCR) of 6. It also calls for low life cycle cost, simple on-orbit maintainability, 1984 technology readiness date, and gallium arsenide (GaAs) of silicon (Si) solar cell interchangeability. Due to the large area needed to produce the amount of power required for the baseline space station, a symmetrical wing design, making maximum use of the commonality of parts approach, was taken. This paper will describe the mechanical and structural design of a mass-producible solar array that is very easy to tailor to the needs of the individual user requirement.

  11. NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Wolford, David S.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies , William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mcnatt, Jeremiah S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Missions (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  12. On-Orbit Measurement of Next Generation Space Solar Cell Technology on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolford, David S.; Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies, William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2015-01-01

    Measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is in the process of measuring several solar cells in a supplemental experiment on NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4). Four industry and government partners have provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment will be on-orbit for approximately 18 months. It is completely self-contained and will provide its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four- junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) cells will be evaluated and the results compared to ground-based measurements.

  13. Root Cause Investigation of the Starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Deneen; Enriquez, Carlos; McCann, David; McFatter, Justin

    2010-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a single-axis pointing mechanism used to orient the solar power generating arrays relative to the sun for the International Space Station (ISS). Approximately 83 days after its on-orbit installation, one of the two SARJ mechanisms aboard the ISS began to exhibit high current draw. Later inspections via Extravehicular Activity (EVA) discovered that the case hardened steel race ring on the outboard side of the joint had extensive damage to one of its three rolling surfaces. A far-reaching investigation of the anomaly was undertaken, comprising metallurgical inspections, coupon tests, traction kinematics tests, detailed bearing measurements, and thermal and structural analyses. The investigation found that the race ring damage had been caused by high bearing edge stresses that resulted from inadequate lubrication of the rolling contact. The profile of the roller bearings and the metallurgical properties of the race ring were also found to be significant contributing factors.

  14. Materials on the International Space Station - Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, R. J.; Garner, J. C.; Lam, S. N.; Vazquez, J. A.; Braun, W. R.; Ruth, R. E.; Lorentzen, J. R.; Bruninga, R.; Jenkins, P. P.; Flatico, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a space solar cell experiment currently being built by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in collaboration with NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), and the US Naval Academy (USNA). The experiment has been named the Forward Technology Solar Cell Experiment (FTSCE), and the purpose is to rapidly put current and future generation space solar cells on orbit and provide validation data for these technologies. The FTSCE is being fielded in response to recent on-orbit and ground test anomalies associated with space solar arrays that have raised concern over the survivability of new solar technologies in the space environment and the validity of present ground test protocols. The FTSCE is being built as part of the Fifth Materials on the International Space Station (MISSE) Experiment (MISSE-5), which is a NASA program to characterize the performance of new prospective spacecraft materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the space environment. Telemetry, command, control, and communication (TNC) for the FTSCE will be achieved through the Amateur Satellite Service using the PCSat2 system, which is an Amateur Radio system designed and built by the USNA. In addition to providing an off-the-shelf solution for FTSCE TNC, PCSat2 will provide a communications node for the Amateur Radio satellite system. The FTSCE and PCSat2 will be housed within the passive experiment container (PEC), which is an approximately 2ft x2ft x 4in metal container built by NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) as part of the MISSE-5 program. NASA LaRC has also supplied a thin film materials experiment that will fly on the exterior of the thermal blanket covering the PCSat2. The PEC is planned to be transported to the ISS on a Shuttle flight. The PEC will be mounted on the exterior of the ISS by an astronaut during an extravehicular activity (EVA). After nominally one year, the PEC will be retrieved and returned to Earth. At the time of writing this paper, the

  15. Adjustment, error analysis and modular strategy for Space Solar Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Xian-Long; Xia, Xin-Lin; Sun, Chuang; Hou, Xin-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The optimal adjustment method for SSPS when it travels on orbit is determined. • Two solutions for the arrangement of transverse truss are proposed. • The effect and regulating method for the tracking error are investigated. • The mathematical partition model of a flat hexagon module concept is built. • The flux distributions on solar panel based on different number of modules are simulated. - Abstract: Space Solar Power Station (SSPS) is a very potential candidate for supplying abundant electrical energy. Symmetrical two-stage flat reflected concentrator (STFC) has many advantages when used in SSPS. However the steady performance and control method on orbit has become a big problem which will be discussed in this paper. The actual posture of entire station is analyzed in detail due to the requirements of good flux uniformity, circular concentrated spot and controlled concentration ratio. Here two regulating directions are studied. And the most optimal method in multidimensional space of adjusting parameters is developed. In order to verify the correctness and reliability, the concentrating characteristics in different cases are simulated by Monte-Carlo ray tracing method (MCRTM). Based on the optimal adjusting parameters, solutions for the arrangement of transverse truss are proposed. After that the effect and regulating method for tracking error is investigated to improve the tolerance performance as highly as possible. Finally the construction of concentrators is much important to the realizability, cost and working performance. A flat hexagon module concept and the regular pattern are investigated to build the optical model. The flux distribution on solar panel based on different big number of modules is simulated, which provides certain reference for the build of SSPS

  16. Structural assessment of a space station solar dynamic heat receiver thermal energy storage canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Kerslake, T. W.; Tong, M. T.

    1988-01-01

    The structural performance of a space station thermal energy storage (TES) canister subject to orbital solar flux variation and engine cold start up operating conditions was assessed. The impact of working fluid temperature and salt-void distribution on the canister structure are assessed. Both analytical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the temperature distribution of the canister. Subsequent finite element structural analyses of the canister were performed using both analytically and experimentally obtained temperatures. The Arrhenius creep law was incorporated into the procedure, using secondary creep data for the canister material, Haynes 188 alloy. The predicted cyclic creep strain accumulations at the hot spot were used to assess the structural performance of the canister. In addition, the structural performance of the canister based on the analytically determined temperature was compared with that based on the experimentally measured temperature data.

  17. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  18. Dosimetric control on board the MIR space station during the solar proton events of September-October 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benghin, V.V.; Petrov, V.M.; Chernykh, I.V.; Teltsov, M.V.; Shumshurov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    A set of dosimetric units for the control of radiation doses to cosmonauts on board the MIR space station contains an active dosimeter R-16 and a personal display dosimeter IPD-2. During the powerful solar proton events (SPE) in September-October 1989, the readings of these devices were used for the control of the crew's radiation damage. Results of the dose measurements and analysis of the dynamics caused by some heliogeophysical factors are given. It is shown that the total doses from SPE registered by the dosimeters R-16 and IPD-2 were 3.6 x 10 -2 and 0.9 x 10 -2 Gy, respectively. (author)

  19. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  20. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  1. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  2. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  3. Space Station power system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite

  4. Space station orbit maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  5. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  6. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  7. Radiation Measured with Different Dosimeters for ISS-Expedition 18-19/ULF2 on Board International Space Station during Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Gaza, R.; Roed, Y.; Semones, E.; Lee, K.; Steenburgh, R.; Johnson, S.; Flanders, J.; Zapp, N.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation field of particles in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly composed of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly). GCR are modulated by solar activity, at the period of solar minimum activity, GCR intensity is at maximum and the main contributor for space radiation is GCR. At present for space radiation measurements conducted by JSC (Johnson Space Center) SRAG (Space Radiation Analysis Group), the preferred active dosimeter sensitive to all LET (Linear Energy Transfer) is the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC); the preferred passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) sensitive to low LET as well as CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) sensitive to high LET. For the method using passive dosimeters, radiation quantities for all LET can be obtained by combining radiation results measured with TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs. TEPC, TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 detectors were used to measure the radiation field for the ISS (International Space Station) - Expedition 18-19/ULF2 space mission which was conducted from 15 November 2008 to 31 July 2009 - near the period of the recent solar minimum activity. LET spectra (differential and integral fluence, absorbed dose and dose equivalent) and radiation quantities were measured for positions TEPC, TESS (Temporary Sleeping Station, inside the polyethylene lined sleep station), SM-P 327 and 442 (Service Module - Panel 327 and 442). This paper presents radiation LET spectra measured with TEPC and CR-39 PNTDs and radiation dose measured with TLDs/OSLDs as well as the radiation quantities combined from results measured with passive dosimeters.

  8. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  9. Tether applications for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, W.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of space station applications for tethers were reviewed. Many will affect the operation of the station itself while others are in the category of research or scientific platforms. One of the most expensive aspects of operating the space station will be the continuing shuttle traffic to transport logistic supplies and payloads to the space station. If a means can be found to use tethers to improve the efficiency of that transportation operation, it will increase the operating efficiency of the system and reduce the overall cost of the space station. The concept studied consists of using a tether to lower the shuttle from the space station. This results in a transfer of angular momentum and energy from the orbiter to the space station. The consequences of this transfer is studied and how beneficial use can be made of it.

  10. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  11. Reliability models for Space Station power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C.; Patton, A. D.; Kim, Y.; Wagner, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the reliability evaluation of Space Station power system. The two options considered are the photovoltaic system and the solar dynamic system. Reliability models for both of these options are described along with the methodology for calculating the reliability indices.

  12. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  13. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  14. Space station propulsion requirements study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  15. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  16. Space Station Freedom food management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  17. Performances of solar water pumping station with solar tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buniatyan, V.V.; Vardanyan, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    For the solar water pumping stations ? solar tracking system with phototransistor is developed. On the basis of the experimental investigations the utility and efficiency of the PV water pumping station with solar tracker under different conditions of varying solar radiation in Armenia is shown

  18. Space Station Freedom operations costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accola, Anne L.; Williams, Gregory J.

    1988-01-01

    Measures to reduce the operation costs of the Space Station which can be implemented in the design and development stages are discussed. Operational functions are described in the context of an overall operations concept. The provisions for operations cost responsibilities among the partners in the Space Station program are presented. Cost estimating methodologies and the way in which operations costs affect the design and development process are examined.

  19. The 100 kW space station. [regenerative fuel cells and nickel hydrogen and nickel cadmium batteries for solar arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckhann, G.

    1977-01-01

    Solar array power systems for the space construction base are discussed. Nickel cadmium and nickel hydrogen batteries are equally attractive relative to regenerative fuel cell systems at 5 years life. Further evaluation of energy storage system life (low orbit conditions) is required. Shuttle and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cell technology appears adequate; large units (approximately four times shuttle) are most appropriate and should be studied for a 100 KWe SCB system. A conservative NiH2 battery DOD (18.6%) was elected due to lack of test data and offers considerable improvement potential. Multiorbit load averaging and reserve capacity requirements limit nominal DOD to 30% to 50% maximum, independent of life considerations.

  20. Space power station. Uchu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-02-20

    A calculation tells that the amount of electric power the world will use in the future will require 100 to 500 power plants each with an output of 5-GW class. If this conception is true, it is beyond dispute that utilizing nuclear power will constitute a core of the power generation even though the geographical conditions are severe for nuclear power plants. It is also certain that power generation using clean solar energy will play important roles if power supply stability can be achieved. This paper describes plans to develop space solar power generation and space nuclear power generation that can supply power solving problems concerning geographical conditions and power supply stability. The space solar power generation is a system to arrest solar energy on a static orbit. According to a result of discussions in the U.S.A., the plan calls for solar cell sheets spread over the surface of a structure with a size of 5 km [times] 10 km [times] 0.5 km thick, and electric power obtained therefrom is transmitted to a rectenna with a size of 10 km [times] 13 km, a receiving antenna on the ground. The space nuclear power generation will be constructed similarly on a static orbit. Researches on space nuclear reactors have already begun. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Space Station personal hygiene study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  2. Space Station - Risks and vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K.

    1986-01-01

    In assessing the prospects of the NASA Space Station program, it is important to take account of the long term perspective embodied in the proposal; its international participants are seen as entering a complex web of developmental and operational interdependence of indefinite duration. It is noted to be rather unclear, however, to what extent this is contemplated by such potential partners as the ESA, which has its own program goals. These competing hopes for eventual autonomy in space station operations will have considerable economic, technological, and political consequences extending well into the next century.

  3. Manned space stations - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  4. Space Solar Power: Satellite Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Frank E.

    1999-01-01

    Space Solar Power (SSP) applies broadly to the use of solar power for space related applications. The thrust of the NASA SSP initiative is to develop concepts and demonstrate technology for applying space solar power to NASA missions. Providing power from satellites in space via wireless transmission to a receiving station either on earth, another celestial body or a second satellite is one goal of the SSP initiative. The sandwich design is a satellite design in which the microwave transmitting array is the front face of a thin disk and the back of the disk is populated with solar cells, with the microwave electronics in between. The transmitter remains aimed at the earth in geostationary orbit while a system of mirrors directs sunlight to the photovoltaic cells, regardless of the satellite's orientation to the sun. The primary advantage of the sandwich design is it eliminates the need for a massive and complex electric power management and distribution system for the satellite. However, it requires a complex system for focusing sunlight onto the photovoltaic cells. In addition, positioning the photovoltaic array directly behind the transmitting array power conversion electronics will create a thermal management challenge. This project focused on developing designs and finding emerging technology to meet the challenges of solar tracking, a concentrating mirror system including materials and coatings, improved photovoltaic materials and thermal management.

  5. Automating Space Station operations planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, Kathleen A.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

  6. Work Station For Inverting Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.; Frasch, W.

    1982-01-01

    Final work station along walking-beam conveyor of solar-array assembly line turns each pretabbed solar cell over, depositing it back-side-up onto landing pad, which centers cell without engaging collector surface. Solar cell arrives at inverting work station collector-side-up with two interconnect tabs attached to collector side. Cells are inverted so that second soldering operation takes place in plain view of operator. Inversion protects collector from damage when handled at later stages of assembly.

  7. Space Station technology testbed: 2010 deep space transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1993-01-01

    A space station in a crew-tended or permanently crewed configuration will provide major R&D opportunities for innovative, technology and materials development and advanced space systems testing. A space station should be designed with the basic infrastructure elements required to grow into a major systems technology testbed. This space-based technology testbed can and should be used to support the development of technologies required to expand our utilization of near-Earth space, the Moon and the Earth-to-Jupiter region of the Solar System. Space station support of advanced technology and materials development will result in new techniques for high priority scientific research and the knowledge and R&D base needed for the development of major, new commercial product thrusts. To illustrate the technology testbed potential of a space station and to point the way to a bold, innovative approach to advanced space systems' development, a hypothetical deep space transport development and test plan is described. Key deep space transport R&D activities are described would lead to the readiness certification of an advanced, reusable interplanetary transport capable of supporting eight crewmembers or more. With the support of a focused and highly motivated, multi-agency ground R&D program, a deep space transport of this type could be assembled and tested by 2010. Key R&D activities on a space station would include: (1) experimental research investigating the microgravity assisted, restructuring of micro-engineered, materials (to develop and verify the in-space and in-situ 'tuning' of materials for use in debris and radiation shielding and other protective systems), (2) exposure of microengineered materials to the space environment for passive and operational performance tests (to develop in-situ maintenance and repair techniques and to support the development, enhancement, and implementation of protective systems, data and bio-processing systems, and virtual reality and

  8. Opportunities for Utilizing the International Space Station for Studies of F2- Region Plasma Science and High Voltage Solar Array Interactions with the Plasma Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria; Wright, Kenneth; Craven, Paul; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The near circular, 51.6deg inclination orbit of the International Space Station (ISS) is maintained within an altitude range of approximately 300 km to 400 km providing an ideal platform for conducting in-situ studies of space weather effects on the mid and low-latitude F-2 region ionosphere. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) is a suite of instruments installed on the ISS in August 2006 which includes a Floating Potential Probe (FPP), a Plasma Impedance Probe (PIP), a Wide-sweep Langmuir Probe (WLP), and a Narrow-sweep Langmuir Probe (NLP). The primary purpose for deploying the FPMU is to characterize ambient plasma temperatures and densities in which the ISS operates and to obtain measurements of the ISS potential relative to the space plasma environment for use in characterizing and mitigating spacecraft charging hazards to the vehicle and crew. In addition to the engineering goals, data from the FPMU instrument package is available for collaborative multi-satellite and ground based instrument studies of the F-region ionosphere during both quiet and disturbed periods. Finally, the FPMU measurements supported by ISS engineering telemetry data provides a unique opportunity to investigate interactions of the ISS high voltage (160 volt) solar array system with the plasma environment. This presentation will provide examples of FPMU measurements along the ISS orbit including night-time equatorial plasma density depletions sampled near the peak electron density in the F2-region ionosphere, charging phenomenon due to interaction of the ISS solar arrays with the plasma environment, and modification of ISS charging due to visiting vehicles demonstrating the capabilities of the FPMU probes for monitoring mid and low latitude plasma processes as well as vehicle interactions with the plasma environment.

  9. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  10. Transceiver for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, M.; Bruno, R.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes the design of the Laser Communication Transceiver (LCT) system which was planned to be flight tested as an attached payload on Space Station Freedom. The objective in building and flight-testing the LCT is to perform a broad class of tests addressing the critical aspects of space-based optical communications systems, providing a base of experience for applying laser communications technology toward future communications needs. The LCT's functional and performance requirements and capabilities with respect to acquisition, spatial tracking and pointing, communications, and attitude determination are discussed.

  11. Solar radiation observation stations updated to 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.A.; Cristina, J.R.; Williams, B.B.

    1979-04-01

    The type of sensing and recording equipment for 420 stations in the US are listed alphabetically by states. The stations are divided according to whether or not they are in the basic National Weather Service, NOAA, network. Reports of summarized solar radiation data are listed in an appendix. (MHR)

  12. Solar Power Beaming: From Space to Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; Parker, J M; Beach, R J; Yamamoto, R M

    2009-04-14

    Harvesting solar energy in space and power beaming the collected energy to a receiver station on Earth is a very attractive way to help solve mankind's current energy and environmental problems. However, the colossal and expensive 'first step' required in achieving this goal has to-date stifled its initiation. In this paper, we will demonstrate that recent advance advances in laser and optical technology now make it possible to deploy a space-based system capable of delivering 1 MW of energy to a terrestrial receiver station, via a single unmanned commercial launch into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Figure 1 depicts the overall concept of our solar power beaming system, showing a large solar collector in space, beaming a coherent laser beam to a receiving station on Earth. We will describe all major subsystems and provide technical and economic discussion to support our conclusions.

  13. Space Station automation and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    A group of fifteen students in the Electrical Engineering Department at the University of Maryland, College Park, has been involved in a design project under the sponsorship of NASA Headquarters, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Systems Research Center (SRC) at UMCP. The goal of the NASA/USRA project was to first obtain a refinement of the design work done in Spring 1986 on the proposed Mobile Remote Manipulator System (MRMS) for the Space Station. This was followed by design exercises involving the OMV and two armed service vehicle. Three students worked on projects suggested by NASA Goddard scientists for ten weeks this past summer. The knowledge gained from the summer design exercise has been used to improve our current design of the MRMS. To this end, the following program was undertaken for the Fall semester 1986: (1) refinement of the MRMS design; and (2) addition of vision capability to our design.

  14. Space station operating system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Albert E.; Harwell, Morris C.

    1988-01-01

    The current phase of the Space Station Operating System study is based on the analysis, evaluation, and comparison of the operating systems implemented on the computer systems and workstations in the software development laboratory. Primary emphasis has been placed on the DEC MicroVMS operating system as implemented on the MicroVax II computer, with comparative analysis of the SUN UNIX system on the SUN 3/260 workstation computer, and to a limited extent, the IBM PC/AT microcomputer running PC-DOS. Some benchmark development and testing was also done for the Motorola MC68010 (VM03 system) before the system was taken from the laboratory. These systems were studied with the objective of determining their capability to support Space Station software development requirements, specifically for multi-tasking and real-time applications. The methodology utilized consisted of development, execution, and analysis of benchmark programs and test software, and the experimentation and analysis of specific features of the system or compilers in the study.

  15. Evolutionary growth for Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Matthew Fisk; Mclallin, Kerry; Zernic, Mike

    1989-01-01

    Over an operational lifetime of at least 30 yr, Space Station Freedom will encounter increased Space Station user requirements and advancing technologies. The Space Station electrical power system is designed with the flexibility to accommodate these emerging technologies and expert systems and is being designed with the necessary software hooks and hardware scars to accommodate increased growth demand. The electrical power system is planned to grow from the initial 75 kW up to 300 kW. The Phase 1 station will utilize photovoltaic arrays to produce the electrical power; however, for growth to 300 kW, solar dynamic power modules will be utilized. Pairs of 25 kW solar dynamic power modules will be added to the station to reach the power growth level. The addition of solar dynamic power in the growth phase places constraints in the initial Space Station systems such as guidance, navigation, and control, external thermal, truss structural stiffness, computational capabilities and storage, which must be planned-in, in order to facilitate the addition of the solar dynamic modules.

  16. A customer-friendly Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  17. Examination of Surface Residuals Obtained During Re-Lubrication of the International Space Station (ISS) Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. E.; Golden, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The starboard SARJ mechanism on the ISS suffered a premature lubrication failure, resulting in widespread loss of the nitride case layer on its 10.3 meter circumference, 15-5PH steel race ring [1, 2]. To restore functionality, vacuum-stable grease was applied on-orbit, first to the port SARJ mechanism to save it from the damage suffered by the starboard mechanism. After 3 years of greased operation, telemetry indicated that the port mechanism required relubrication, so part of that process included sampling each of the three race ring surfaces to evaluate any wear debris recovered and the state of the originally applied grease. Extensive microscopic examination was conducted, which directed subsequent microanalysis of particulate. Since the SARJ mechanism operates in the vacuum of space, a sampling method and tool had to be developed for use by astronauts while working in the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). The sampling tool developed was a cotton terry-cloth mitt for the EMU glove, with samples taken by swiping each of the three port SARJ race-ring surfaces. The sample mitts for each surface were folded inward after sampling to preserve sample integrity, for return and ground analysis. The sample mitt for what is termed the outer canted surface of the SARJ race-ring is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 also demonstrates how increasing levels of magnification were used to survey the contamination removed in sampling, specifically looking for signs of wear debris or other features which could be further evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. The most surprising overall result at this point in the analysis was the relatively small amounts of grease recovered during sampling. It is clear that the mechanism was not operating with surplus lubricant. Obviously, evidence of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a major component in the grease applied, was prevalent in the analysis conducted. But a small amount of mechanism wear debris was observed. Figure 2

  18. Solar-Assisted Electric Vehicle Charging Station Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Durfee, Norman [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Overbey, Randall M [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been awarded $6.8 million in the Department of Energy (DOE) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds as part of an overall $114.8 million ECOtality grant with matching funds from regional partners to install 125 solar-assisted Electric Vehicle (EV) charging stations across Knoxville, Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis. Significant progress has been made toward completing the scope with the installation of 25 solar-assisted charging stations at ORNL; six stations at Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); and 27 stations at Nissan's Smyrna and Franklin sites, with three more stations under construction at Nissan's new lithium-ion battery plant. Additionally, the procurement process for contracting the installation of 34 stations at Knoxville, the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), and Nashville sites is underway with completion of installation scheduled for early 2012. Progress is also being made on finalizing sites and beginning installations of 30 stations in Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis by EPRI and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The solar-assisted EV charging station project has made great strides in fiscal year 2011. A total of 58 solar-assisted EV parking spaces have been commissioned in East and Middle Tennessee, and progress on installing the remaining 67 spaces is well underway. The contract for the 34 stations planned for Knoxville, UTK, and Nashville should be underway in October with completion scheduled for the end of March 2012; the remaining three Nissan stations are under construction and scheduled to be complete in November; and the EPRI/TVA stations for Chattanooga, Vanderbilt, and Memphis are underway and should be complete by the end of March 2012. As additional Nissan LEAFs are being delivered, usage of the charging stations has increased substantially. The project is on course to complete all 125 solar-assisted EV charging stations in time to collect meaningful data

  19. Space Station Freedom operations planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accola, Anne L.; Keith, Bryant

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom program is developing an operations planning structure which assigns responsibility for planning activities to three tiers of management. The strategic level develops the policy, goals and requirements for the program over a five-year horizon. Planning at the tactical level emphasizes program integration and planning for a two-year horizon. The tactical planning process, architecture, and products have been documented and discussed with the international partners. Tactical planning includes the assignment of user and system hardware as well as significant operational events to a time increment (the period of time from the arrival of one Shuttle to the manned base to the arrival of the next). Execution-level planning emphasizes implementation, and each organization produces detailed plans, by increment, that are specific to its function.

  20. Space Station Freedom - What if...?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Jerry

    1992-10-01

    The use of novel structural designs and the Energia launch system of the Commonwealth of Independent States for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program is evaluated by means of a concept analysis. The analysis assumes that: (1) Energia is used for all cargo and logistics resupply missions; (2) the shuttles are launched from the U.S.; and (3) an eight-person assured crew return vehicle is available. This launch/supply scenario reduces the deployment risk from 30 launches to a total of only eight launches reducing the cost by about 15 billion U.S. dollars. The scenario also significantly increases the expected habitable and storage volumes and decreases the deployment time by three years over previous scenarios. The specific payloads are given for Energia launches emphasizing a proposed design for the common module cluster that incorporates direct structural attachment to the truss at midspan. The design is shown to facilitate the accommodation of additional service hangars and to provide a more efficient program for spacecraft habitable space.

  1. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FCC. (c) The following frequency bands and segments are authorized to space stations: (1) The 17 m, 15... notifications to the International Bureau, FCC, Washington, DC 20554. (1) A pre-space notification within 30... risk of collision and a description of what measures the space station operator plans to take to avoid...

  2. GSFC contamination monitors for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosso, P. A.; Tveekrem, J. L.; Coopersmith, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the Work Package 3 activities in the area of neutral contamination monitoring for the Space Station. Goddard Space Flight Center's responsibilities include the development of the Attached Payload Accommodations Equipment (APAE), the Polar Orbiting Platform (POP), and the Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS). GSFC will also develop the Customer Servicing Facility (CSF) in Phase 2 of the Space Station.

  3. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  4. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  5. Space station astronauts discuss life in space during AGU interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Just one day after China's Shenzhou-9 capsule, carrying three Chinese astronauts, docked with the Tiangong-1 space lab on 18 June, Donald Pettit, a NASA astronaut on the International Space Station (ISS), said it is “a step in the right direction” that more people are in space. “Before they launched, there were six people in space,” he said, referring to those on ISS, “and there are 7 billion people on Earth.” The astronauts were “like one in a billion. Now there are nine people in space,” Pettit said during a 19 June interview that he and two other astronauts onboard ISS had with AGU. Pettit continued, “So the gradient of human beings going into space is moving in the right direction. We need to change these numbers so that more and more human beings can call space their home so we can expand off of planet Earth and move out into our solar system.”

  6. Dual keel Space Station payload pointing system design and analysis feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagala, Tom; Class, Brian F.; Bauer, Frank H.; Lebair, Deborah A.

    1988-01-01

    A Space Station attached Payload Pointing System (PPS) has been designed and analyzed. The PPS is responsible for maintaining fixed payload pointing in the presence of disturbance applied to the Space Station. The payload considered in this analysis is the Solar Optical Telescope. System performance is evaluated via digital time simulations by applying various disturbance forces to the Space Station. The PPS meets the Space Station articulated pointing requirement for all disturbances except Shuttle docking and some centrifuge cases.

  7. A facility for training Space Station astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Schmidt, James R.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) will be the primary facility for training the Space Station Freedom astronauts and the Space Station Control Center ground support personnel. Conceptually, the SSTF will consist of two parts: a Student Environment and an Author Environment. The Student Environment will contain trainers, instructor stations, computers and other equipment necessary for training. The Author Environment will contain the systems that will be used to manage, develop, integrate, test and verify, operate and maintain the equipment and software in the Student Environment.

  8. Artificial intelligence - NASA. [robotics for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) represents a vital common space support element needed to enable the civil space program and commercial space program to perform their missions successfully. It is pointed out that advances in AI stimulated by the Space Station Program could benefit the U.S. in many ways. A fundamental challenge for the civil space program is to meet the needs of the customers and users of space with facilities enabling maximum productivity and having low start-up costs, and low annual operating costs. An effective way to meet this challenge may involve a man-machine system in which artificial intelligence, robotics, and advanced automation are integrated into high reliability organizations. Attention is given to the benefits, NASA strategy for AI, candidate space station systems, the Space Station as a stepping stone, and the commercialization of space.

  9. Developments of space station; Uchu station no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, H. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    This paper introduces the Japanese experiment module (JEM) in developing a space station. The JEM consists of systems of a pressurizing section, an exposure section, a pressurizing portion of a supply section, a manipulator and an exposure portion of the supply section. The pressurizing section circulates and controls air so that crews can perform experiments under pressurized environment. The exposure section is a part in which experiments are carried out under exposure environment. The supply section runs between a station and the ground, with required devices loaded on it. The manipulator performs attaching a payload for the exposure section and replaces experimental samples. The JEM undergoes a schedule of fabricating an engineering model, testing for a certification a prototype flight model, and putting the model on a flight. The pressurizing section, exposure section and manipulator are at the stage of system tests. Surveillance of the JEM and control of the experiments are carried out at the Tsukuba Space Center. The Center is composed of a space experiment building, a zero-gravity environment testing building, an astronaut training building, a space station operating building, and a space station testing building. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Accommodating life sciences on the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, Roger D.

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project (BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science community and the Space Station Program. This paper discusses the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating these research objectives to constraints imposed by the Space Station System, while maintaining a user-friendly environment. Consideration is given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe, Japan, and Canada) are compared.

  11. Space Station data management system architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallary, William E.; Whitelaw, Virginia A.

    1987-01-01

    Within the Space Station program, the Data Management System (DMS) functions in a dual role. First, it provides the hardware resources and software services which support the data processing, data communications, and data storage functions of the onboard subsystems and payloads. Second, it functions as an integrating entity which provides a common operating environment and human-machine interface for the operation and control of the orbiting Space Station systems and payloads by both the crew and the ground operators. This paper discusses the evolution and derivation of the requirements and issues which have had significant effect on the design of the Space Station DMS, describes the DMS components and services which support system and payload operations, and presents the current architectural view of the system as it exists in October 1986; one-and-a-half years into the Space Station Phase B Definition and Preliminary Design Study.

  12. Space station evolution: Planning for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alphonso V.; Askins, Barbara S.

    1987-06-01

    The need for permanently manned presence in space has been recognized by the United States and its international partners for many years. The development of this capability was delayed due to the concurrent recognition that reusable earth-to-orbit transportation was also needed and should be developed first. While the decision to go ahead with a permanently manned Space Station was on hold, requirements for the use of the Station were accumulating as ground-based research and the data from unmanned spacecraft sparked the imagination of both scientists and entrepreneurs. Thus, by the time of the Space Station implementation decision in the early 1980's, a variety of disciplines, with a variety of requirements, needed to be accommodated on one Space Station. Additional future requirements could be forecast for advanced missions that were still in the early planning stages. The logical response was the development of a multi-purpose Space Station with the ability to evolve on-orbit to new capabilities as required by user needs and national or international decisions, i.e., to build an evolutionary Space Station. Planning for evolution is conducted in parallel with the design and development of the baseline Space Station. Evolution planning is a strategic management process to facilitate change and protect future decisions. The objective is not to forecast the future, but to understand the future options and the implications of these on today's decisions. The major actions required now are: (1) the incorporation of evolution provisions (hooks and scars) in the baseline Space Station; and (2) the initiation of an evolution advanced development program.

  13. Live from Space Station Learning Technologies Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This is the Final Report for the Live From Space Station (LFSS) project under the Learning Technologies Project FY 2001 of the MSFC Education Programs Department. AZ Technology, Inc. (AZTek) has developed and implemented science education software tools to support tasks under the LTP program. Initial audience consisted of 26 TreK in the Classroom schools and thousands of museum visitors to the International Space Station: The Earth Tour exhibit sponsored by Discovery Place museum.

  14. Space station evolution: Planning for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alphonso V.; Askins, Barbara S.

    1987-01-01

    The need for permanently manned presence in space has been recognized by the United States and its international partners for many years. The development of this capability was delayed due to the concurrent recognition that reusable earth-to-orbit transportation was also needed and should be developed first. While the decision to go ahead with a permanently manned Space Station was on hold, requirements for the use of the Station were accumulating as ground-based research and the data from unmanned spacecraft sparked the imagination of both scientists and entrepreneurs. Thus, by the time of the Space Station implementation decision in the early 1980's, a variety of disciplines, with a variety of requirements, needed to be accommodated on one Space Station. Additional future requirements could be forecast for advanced missions that were still in the early planning stages. The logical response was the development of a multi-purpose Space Station with the ability to evolve on-orbit to new capabilities as required by user needs and national or international decisions, i.e., to build an evolutionary Space Station. Planning for evolution is conducted in parallel with the design and development of the baseline Space Station. Evolution planning is a strategic management process to facilitate change and protect future decisions. The objective is not to forecast the future, but to understand the future options and the implications of these on today's decisions. The major actions required now are: (1) the incorporation of evolution provisions (hooks and scars) in the baseline Space Station; and (2) the initiation of an evolution advanced development program.

  15. Predictive Attitude Maintenance For A Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattis, Philip D.

    1989-01-01

    Paper provides mathematical basis for predictive management of angular momenta of control-moment gyroscopes (CMG's) to control attitude of orbiting space station. Numerical results presented for pitch control of proposed power-tower space station. Based on prior orbit history and mathematical model of density of atmosphere, predictions made of requirements on dumping and storage of angular momentum in relation to current loading state of CMG's and to acceptable attitude tolerances.

  16. Gravitational biology on the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  17. 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to Space Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  18. Cultural factors and the international space station

    OpenAIRE

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

    2005-01-01

    The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the ...

  19. Should the Space Station be an ark?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassersug, R

    1994-08-01

    This essay explores the pros and cons of maximizing the number of species that can be maintained on the Space Station. It reviews some of the history of comparative space biology to show that different cultures have different perspectives on the study of non-traditional research organisms (ie non-rodents) in space. Despite these differences, there are simple principles that all international partners in the Space Station endeavour should be able to uphold when deciding what facilities to build and what species to fly. As an argument for maximizing the taxonomic diversity on the Space Station, examples are given to show how very similar organisms may have different reactions to microgravity. At the same time the political pressure in the USA to make the Space Station an institution specifically servicing the 'health, well-being and economic benefits of people on earth', is acknowledged. Ultimately the justification for what species will be on the Space Station should rest with the quality of the scientific questions being asked.

  20. New directions for space solar power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.

    2009-07-01

    Several of the central issues associated with the eventual realization of the vision of solar power from space for terrestrial markets resolve around the expect costs associated with the assembly, inspection, maintenance and repair of future solar power satellite (SPS) stations. In past studies (for example, NASA's "Fresh Look Study", c. 1995-1997) efforts were made to reduce both the scale and mass of large, systems-level interfaces (e.g., the power management and distribution (PMAD) system) and on-orbit fixed infrastructures through the use of modular systems strategies. These efforts have had mixed success (as reflected in the projected on-orbit mass of various systems concepts. However, the author remains convinced of the importance of modular strategies for exceptionally large space systems in eventually realizing the vision of power from space. This paper will introduce some of the key issues associated with cost-competitive space solar power in terrestrial markets. It will examine some of the relevant SPS concepts and will assess the 'pros and cons' of each in terms of space assembly, maintenance and servicing (SAMS) requirements. The paper discusses at a high level some relevant concepts and technologies that may play r role in the eventual, successful resolution of these challenges. The paper concludes with an example of the kind of novel architectural approach for space solar power that is needed.

  1. Thermal Environmental Design in Outdoor Space Focusing on Radiation Environment Influenced by Ground Cover Material and Solar Shading, through the Examination on the Redevelopment Buildings in Front of Central Osaka Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Takebayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The outdoor open space is used for various purposes, e.g., to walk, rest, talk, meet, study, exercise, play, perform, eat, and drink. Therefore, it is desirable to provide various thermal environments according to users’ needs and their actual conditions. In this study, the radiation environment was evaluated, focusing on ground cover materials and solar radiation shading, through the examination on the redevelopment buildings in front of Central Osaka Station. The spatial distribution of solar radiation shading was calculated using ArcGIS and building shape data. Surface temperatures on the ground and wall are calculated based on the surface heat budget equation. MRT (Mean Radiant Temperature of the human body is calculated assuming that the human body is a sphere. The most dominant factor for the radiant environment is solar radiation shielding and the next is the improvement of surface cover. It is difficult to make SET* (Standard new Effective Temperature comfortable in the afternoon by both solar radiation shielding and improved surface cover because the air temperature is too high on a typical summer day (August. However, particularly in Rooftop Gardens and Green Garden, because the areas of shade grass and water are large, there are several places where people do not feel uncomfortable.

  2. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  3. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  4. Space Station Program threat and vulnerability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Steven D.; Veatch, John D.

    1987-01-01

    An examination has been made of the physical security of the Space Station Program at the Kennedy Space Center in a peacetime environment, in order to furnish facility personnel with threat/vulnerability information. A risk-management approach is used to prioritize threat-target combinations that are characterized in terms of 'insiders' and 'outsiders'. Potential targets were identified and analyzed with a view to their attractiveness to an adversary, as well as to the consequentiality of the resulting damage.

  5. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Space Station overall management approach for operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, G.

    1986-01-01

    An Operations Management Concept developed by NASA for its Space Station Program is discussed. The operational goals, themes, and design principles established during program development are summarized. The major operations functions are described, including: space systems operations, user support operations, prelaunch/postlanding operations, logistics support operations, market research, and cost/financial management. Strategic, tactical, and execution levels of operational decision-making are defined.

  7. Commercial opportunities utilizing the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Michael E.; Mongan, Phil; Overmyer, Carolyn M.; Jackson, Kenneth

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique capability of providing a low-g environment for both short- and long-duration experimentation. This environment can provide a unique and competitive research capability to industry; but until recently, utilization of this environment by the private sector has been limited if not totally unavailable. NASA has recently expressed an interest in the commercial development of space and this is now an integral part of the Agency's enabling legislation through the Space Act. NASA's objective is to foster the use of the space environment for the development of commercial products and processes. Through alliances and agreements with several commercial companies and universities, SPACEHAB, Inc., has built a comprehensive package of services designed to provide low-cost reliable access to space for experimenters. These services provide opportunities to support engineering test beds for materials exposure analysis, to mitigate structural failures as observed on the Hubble Space Telescope; materials processing, remote sensing; space environment definition; and electronic experiments. The intent of this paper is to identify commercial opportunities for utilizing the International Space Station and provide examples of several facilities currently being designed and manufactured by commercial companies with the purpose of providing access to the space environment for commercial users.

  8. Fluid Studies on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Will discuss the recent activities on the international space station, including the adiabatic two phase flow, capillary flow and interfacial phenomena, and boiling and condensation. Will also give a historic introduction to Microgravity Studies at Glenn Research Center. Talk will be given to students and faculty at University of Louisville.

  9. Space Station Water Processor Process Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David

    1995-01-01

    This report presents the results of the development program conducted under contract NAS8-38250-12 related to the International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor (WP) Process Pump. The results of the Process Pumps evaluation conducted on this program indicates that further development is required in order to achieve the performance and life requirements for the ISSWP.

  10. Space Station: Key to the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The possible applications, advantages and features of an advanced space station to be developed are considered in a non-technical manner in this booklet. Some of the areas of application considered include the following: the detection of large scale dynamic earth processes such as changes in snow pack, crops, and air pollution levels; the…

  11. Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

  12. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation for the Space Station are discussed. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based automation technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics. AI technology will also be developed for the servicing of satellites at the Space Station, system monitoring and diagnosis, space manufacturing, and the assembly of large space structures.

  13. KSC ground operations planning for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, J. R.; Revesz, W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, processing facilities are being built and activated to support the processing, checkout, and launch of Space Station elements. The generic capability of these facilities will be utilized to support resupply missions for payloads, life support services, and propellants for the 30-year life of the program. Special Ground Support Equipment (GSE) is being designed for Space Station hardware special handling requirements, and a Test, Checkout, and Monitoring System (TCMS) is under development to verify that the flight elements are ready for launch. The facilities and equipment used at KSC, along with the testing required to accomplish the mission, are described in detail to provide an understanding of the complexity of operations at the launch site. Assessments of hardware processing flows through KSC are being conducted to minimize the processing flow times for each hardware element. Baseline operations plans and the changes made to improve operations and reduce costs are described, recognizing that efficient ground operations are a major key to success of the Space Station.

  14. International Space Station Future Correlation Analysis Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.; Pinnamaneni, Murthy; Sugavanam, Sujatha; Grygier, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Ongoing modal analyses and model correlation are performed on different configurations of the International Space Station (ISS). These analyses utilize on-orbit dynamic measurements collected using four main ISS instrumentation systems: External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS), Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), and Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). Remote Sensor Units (RSUs) are network relay stations that acquire flight data from sensors. Measured data is stored in the Remote Sensor Unit (RSU) until it receives a command to download data via RF to the Network Control Unit (NCU). Since each RSU has its own clock, it is necessary to synchronize measurements before analysis. Imprecise synchronization impacts analysis results. A study was performed to evaluate three different synchronization techniques: (i) measurements visually aligned to analytical time-response data using model comparison, (ii) Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and (iii) lag from cross-correlation to align measurements. This paper presents the results of this study.

  15. Space Station - Opportunity for international cooperation and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with his announcement regarding the development of a permanently manned Space Station, President Reagan invited the United States' friends and allies to join in the Space Station program. The President's invitation was preceded by more than two years of interaction between NASA and some of its potential partners in Space Station planning activities. Attention is given to international participation in Space Station planning, international cooperation on the Space Station, the guidelines for international cooperation, and the key challenges. Questions regarding quid pro quos are considered along with aspects of technology transfer, commercial use, problems of management, and the next steps concerning the Space Station program.

  16. Space station pressurized laboratory safety guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgonigal, Les

    1990-01-01

    Before technical safety guidelines and requirements are established, a common understanding of their origin and importance must be shared between Space Station Program Management, the User Community, and the Safety organizations involved. Safety guidelines and requirements are driven by the nature of the experiments, and the degree of crew interaction. Hazard identification; development of technical safety requirements; operating procedures and constraints; provision of training and education; conduct of reviews and evaluations; and emergency preplanning are briefly discussed.

  17. Evolutionary space station fluids management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Results are summarized for an 11-month study to define fluid storage and handling strategies and requirements for various specific mission case studies and their associated design impacts on the Space Station. There are a variety of fluid users which require a variety of fluids and use rates. Also, the cryogenic propellants required for NASA's STV, Planetary, and Code Z missions are enormous. The storage methods must accommodate fluids ranging from a high pressure gas or supercritical state fluid to a sub-cooled liquid (and superfluid helium). These requirements begin in the year 1994, reach a maximum of nearly 1800 metric tons in the year 2004, and trail off to the year 2018, as currently planned. It is conceivable that the cryogenic propellant needs for the STV and/or Lunar mission models will be met by LTCSF LH2/LO2 tanksets attached to the SS truss structure. Concepts and corresponding transfer and delivery operations have been presented for STV propellant provisioning from the SS. A growth orbit maneuvering vehicle (OMV) and associated servicing capability will be required to move tanksets from delivery launch vehicles to the SS or co-orbiting platforms. Also, appropriate changes to the software used for OMV operation are necessary to allow for the combined operation of the growth OMV. To support fluid management activities at the Space Station for the experimental payloads and propellant provisioning, there must be truss structure space allocated for fluid carriers and propellant tanksets, and substantial beam strengthening may be required. The Station must have two Mobile Remote Manipulator Systems (MRMS) and the growth OMV propellant handling operations for the STV at the SS. Propellant needs for the Planetary Initiatives and Code Z mission models will most likely be provided by co-orbiting propellant platform(s). Space Station impacts for Code Z mission fluid management activities will be minimal.

  18. Momentum management strategy during Space Station buildup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Lynda; Malchow, Harvey; Hattis, Philip

    1988-01-01

    The use of momentum storage devices to control effectors for Space Station attitude control throughout the buildup sequence is discussed. Particular attention is given to the problem of providing satisfactory management of momentum storage effectors throughout buildup while experiencing variable torque loading. Continuous and discrete control strategies are compared and the effects of alternative control moment gyro strategies on peak momentum storage requirements and on commanded maneuver characteristics are described.

  19. International cooperation in the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raney, William P.

    1987-01-01

    The principles and policies governing participation in the International Space Station are examined from a NASA perspective. The history of the program is reviewed; the most important aspects of the partnership concept (functional allocation, shared access, and interface commonality) are considered in detail; and the ongoing outfitting studies are briefly characterized. Major issues remaining to be negotiated include (1) the overall management structure; (2) the division of responsibilities for system design, integration, operation, and utilization; and (3) the sharing of operating costs.

  20. 78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (13-154)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space...

  1. Space Weather: The Solar Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenn Rainer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The term space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that can affect human life and health. Our modern hi-tech society has become increasingly vulnerable to disturbances from outside the Earth system, in particular to those initiated by explosive events on the Sun: Flares release flashes of radiation that can heat up the terrestrial atmosphere such that satellites are slowed down and drop into lower orbits, solar energetic particles accelerated to near-relativistic energies may endanger astronauts traveling through interplanetary space, and coronal mass ejections are gigantic clouds of ionized gas ejected into interplanetary space that after a few hours or days may hit the Earth and cause geomagnetic storms. In this review, I describe the several chains of actions originating in our parent star, the Sun, that affect Earth, with particular attention to the solar phenomena and the subsequent effects in interplanetary space.

  2. Space Weather: The Solar Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenn, Rainer

    2006-08-01

    The term space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that can affect human life and health. Our modern hi-tech society has become increasingly vulnerable to disturbances from outside the Earth system, in particular to those initiated by explosive events on the Sun: Flares release flashes of radiation that can heat up the terrestrial atmosphere such that satellites are slowed down and drop into lower orbits, solar energetic particles accelerated to near-relativistic energies may endanger astronauts traveling through interplanetary space, and coronal mass ejections are gigantic clouds of ionized gas ejected into interplanetary space that after a few hours or days may hit the Earth and cause geomagnetic storms. In this review, I describe the several chains of actions originating in our parent star, the Sun, that affect Earth, with particular attention to the solar phenomena and the subsequent effects in interplanetary space.

  3. Characteristics of trapped proton anisotropy at Space Station Freedom altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Watts, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The ionizing radiation dose for spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO) is produced mainly by protons trapped in the Earth's magnetic field. Current data bases describing this trapped radiation environment assume the protons to have an isotropic angular distribution, although the fluxes are actually highly anisotropic in LEO. The general nature of this directionality is understood theoretically and has been observed by several satellites. The anisotropy of the trapped proton exposure has not been an important practical consideration for most previous LEO missions because the random spacecraft orientation during passage through the radiation belt 'averages out' the anisotropy. Thus, in spite of the actual exposure anisotropy, cumulative radiation effects over many orbits can be predicted as if the environment were isotropic when the spacecraft orientation is variable during exposure. However, Space Station Freedom will be gravity gradient stabilized to reduce drag, and, due to this fixed orientation, the cumulative incident proton flux will remain anisotropic. The anisotropy could potentially influence several aspects of Space Station design and operation, such as the appropriate location for radiation sensitive components and experiments, location of workstations and sleeping quarters, and the design and placement of radiation monitors. Also, on-board mass could possible be utilized to counteract the anisotropy effects and reduce the dose exposure. Until recently only omnidirectional data bases for the trapped proton environment were available. However, a method to predict orbit-average, angular dependent ('vector') trapped proton flux spectra has been developed from the standard omnidirectional trapped proton data bases. This method was used to characterize the trapped proton anisotropy for the Space Station orbit (28.5 degree inclination, circular) in terms of its dependence on altitude, solar cycle modulation (solar minimum vs. solar maximum), shielding thickness

  4. Medical impact analysis for the space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B D; Gardner, R M; Ostler, D V; Schulz, J M; Logan, J S

    1990-02-01

    Since the Space Station Health Maintenance Facility can house only a relatively limited quantity of supplies and equipment, the decisions about what should be included must be based on documented research. In this study, Space Station medical care priorities were determined by a medical impact analysis of two analog populations, U.S. Army and U.S. Navy personnel. Diseases and injuries in the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) were ranked, using a Medical Impact Score (MIS) combining modified incidence rate and a function of disease outcome. The validity of the analysis method was tested by measuring rank order correlation between the two analog populations. Despite virtually identical age and sex distributions, Army and Navy incidence rates differed significantly for half of the ICD-9-CM categories, p less than 0.05. Disability rates differed for 76%, p less than 0.05. Nevertheless, Army and Navy MIS rank orders for categories and sections were not significantly different, p less than 0.001. In critical ways, the Space Station will be a safer environment than Earth. Cardiac events, musculoskeletal injuries, affective psychoses, and renal calculi were among the highest scoring categories.

  5. Physics Research on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting Earth at an altitude of around 400 km. It has been manned since November 2000 and currently has a permanent crew of six. On-board ISS science is done in a wide field of sciences, from fundamental physics to biology and human physiology. Many of the experiments utilize the unique conditions of weightlessness, but also the views of space and the Earth are exploited. ESA’s (European Space Agency) ELIPS (European Programme Life and Physical sciences in Space) manages some 150 on-going and planned experiments for ISS, which is expected to be utilized at least to 2020. This presentation will give a short introduction to ISS, followed by an overview of the science field within ELIPS and some resent results. The emphasis, however, will be on ISS experiments which are close to the research performed at CERN. Silicon strip detectors like ALTEA are measuring the flux of ions inside the station. ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will provide unprecedented global ti...

  6. Radiation protection considerations in space station missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peddicord, K.L.; Bolch, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently studying the degree to which the baseline design of space station Freedom (SSF) would permit its evolution to a transportation node for lunar or Mars expeditions. To accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear-powered vehicles could be used in SSF's vicinity. This enhanced radiation environment around SSF could necessitate additional crew shielding to maintain cumulative doses below recommended limits. This paper presents analysis of radiation doses received upon the return and subsequent unloading of Mars vehicles utilizing either nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) or nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) propulsion systems. No inherent shielding by the vehicle structure or space station is assumed; consequently, the only operational parameters available to control radiation doses are the source-to-target distance and the reactor shutdown time prior to the exposure period. For the operations planning, estimated doses are shown with respect to recommended dose limits and doses due solely to the natural space environment in low Earth orbit

  7. Cultural factors and the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd

    2005-06-01

    The American and Russian/Soviet space programs independently uncovered psychosocial risks inherent in long-duration space missions. Now that these two countries are working together on the International Space Station (ISS), American-Russian cultural differences pose an additional set of risk factors. These may echo cultural differences that have been observed in the general population of the two countries and in space analogue settings, but little is known about how relevant these are to the select population of space program personnel. The evidence for the existence of mission-relevant cultural differences is reviewed and includes cultural values, emotional expressivity, personal space norms, and personality characteristics. The review is focused primarily on Russia and the United States, but also includes other ISS partner countries. Cultural differences among space program personnel may have a wide range of effects. Moreover, culture-related strains may increase the probability of distress and impairment. Such factors could affect the individual and interpersonal functioning of both crewmembers and mission control personnel, whose performance is also critical for mission safety and success. Examples from the anecdotal and empirical literature are given to illustrate these points. The use of existing assessment strategies runs the risk of overlooking important early warning signs of behavioral health difficulties. By paying more attention to cultural differences and how they might be manifested, we are more likely to detect problems early while they are still mild and resolvable.

  8. Live From Space Station Outreach Payload, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Live from Space Station? Outreach Payload (LFSSOP) is a technologically challenging, exciting opportunity for university students to conduct significant research...

  9. Orientation of Space Station Freedom electrical power system in environmental effects assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1990-01-01

    The orientation effects of six Space Station Freedom Electrical Power System (EPS) components are evaluated for three environmental interactions: aerodynamic drag, atomic oxygen erosion, and orbital debris impact. Designers can directly apply these orientation factors to estimate the magnitude of the examined environment and the environmental effects for the EPS component of interest. The six EPS components are the solar array, photovoltaic module radiator, integrated equipment assembly, solar dynamic concentrator, solar dynamic radiator, and beta gimbal.

  10. Risk Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, J.; Brezovic, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely complex system, both technically and programmatically. The Space Station must support a wide range of payloads and missions. It must be launched in numerous launch packages and be safely assembled and operated in the harsh environment of space. It is being designed and manufactured by many organizations, including the prime contractor, Boeing, the NASA institutions, and international partners and their contractors. Finally, the ISS has multiple customers, (e.g., the Administration, Congress, users, public, international partners, etc.) with contrasting needs and constraints. It is the ISS Risk Management Office strategy to proactively and systematically manages risks to help ensure ISS Program success. ISS program follows integrated risk management process (both quantitative and qualitative) and is integrated into ISS project management. The process and tools are simple and seamless and permeate to the lowest levels (at a level where effective management can be realized) and follows the continuous risk management methodology. The risk process assesses continually what could go wrong (risks), determine which risks need to be managed, implement strategies to deal with those risks, and measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The process integrates all facets of risk including cost, schedule and technical aspects. Support analysis risk tools like PRA are used to support programatic decisions and assist in analyzing risks.

  11. 77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-057] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International...

  12. 77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (12-003)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International...

  13. 77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 12-090] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International...

  14. Lunar Station: The Next Logical Step in Space Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Robert Bruce; Harper, Lynn; Newfield, Mark; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the product of the efforts of sixteen nations over the course of several decades. It is now complete, operational, and has been continuously occupied since November of 20001. Since then the ISS has been carrying out a wide variety of research and technology development experiments, and starting to produce some pleasantly startling results. The ISS has a mass of 420 metric tons, supports a crew of six with a yearly resupply requirement of around 30 metric tons, within a pressurized volume of 916 cubic meters, and a habitable volume of 388 cubic meters. Its solar arrays produce up to 84 kilowatts of power. In the course of developing the ISS, many lessons were learned and much valuable expertise was gained. Where do we go from here? The ISS offers an existence proof of the feasibility of sustained human occupation and operations in space over decades. It also demonstrates the ability of many countries to work collaboratively on a very complex and expensive project in space over an extended period of time to achieve a common goal. By harvesting best practices and lessons learned, the ISS can also serve as a useful model for exploring architectures for beyond low-­- earth-­-orbit (LEO) space development. This paper will explore the concept and feasibility for a Lunar Station. The Station concept can be implemented by either putting the equivalent capability of the ISS down on the surface of the Moon, or by developing the required capabilities through a combination of delivered materials and equipment and in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Scenarios that leverage existing technologies and capabilities as well as capabilities that are under development and are expected to be available within the next 3-­5 years, will be examined. This paper will explore how best practices and expertise gained from developing and operating the ISS and other relevant programs can be applied to effectively developing Lunar Station.

  15. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  16. Habitability Assessment of International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess habitability during the International Space Station 1-year mission, and subsequent 6-month missions, in order to better prepare for future long-duration spaceflights to destinations such as Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) and Mars, which will require crewmembers to live and work in a confined spacecraft environment for over a year. Data collected using Space Habitability Observation Reporting Tool (iSHORT), crew-collected videos, questionnaires, and PI conferences will help characterize the current state of habitability for the ISS. These naturalistic techniques provide crewmembers with the opportunity to self-report habitability and human factors observations in near real-time, which is not systematically done during ISS missions at present.

  17. Gram staining apparatus for space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, T. C.; Brown, H. D.; Irbe, R. M.; Pierson, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    A self-contained, portable Gram staining apparatus (GSA) has been developed for use in the microgravity environment on board the Space Station Freedom. Accuracy and reproducibility of this apparatus compared with the conventional Gram staining method were evaluated by using gram-negative and gram-positive controls and different species of bacteria grown in pure cultures. A subsequent study was designed to assess the performance of the GSA with actual specimens. A set of 60 human and environmental specimens was evaluated with the GSA and the conventional Gram staining procedure. Data obtained from these studies indicated that the GSA will provide the Gram staining capability needed for the microgravity environment of space.

  18. Plasma contactor development for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Hamley, John A.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Manzella, David H.; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy; Soulas, George C.; Nelson, Amy

    1993-01-01

    Plasma contactors have been baselined for the Space Station (SS) to control the electrical potentials of surfaces to eliminate/mitigate damaging interactions with the space environment. The system represents a dual-use technology which is a direct outgrowth of the NASA electric propulsion program and, in particular, the technology development effort on ion thrustor systems. The plasma contactor subsystems include the plasma contactor unit, a power electronics unit, and an expellant management unit. Under this pre-flight development program these will all be brought to breadboard or engineering model status. Development efforts for the plasma contactor include optimizing the design and configuration of the contactor, validating its required lifetime, and characterizing the contactor plume and electromagnetic interference. The plasma contactor unit design selected for the SS is an enclosed keeper, xenon hollow cathode plasma source. This paper discusses the test results and development status of the plasma contactor unit subsystem for the SS.

  19. Now calling at the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 31 July, an unmanned Russian Progress spacecraft was launched from the desert steppe of Kazakhstan. Its destination: the International Space Station (ISS). On board: five Timepix detectors developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration.   With the Timepix on board, Progress 48 was launched 31 July from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Source: RSC Energia. Timepix detectors are small, USB powered particle trackers based on Medipix2 technology. The Timepix chip, which was developed at CERN, is coupled to a silicon sensor and incorporated into a minature readout system - developed at IEAP, Prague - which is about the size of a USB pen drive. These systems have been used across a variety of disciplines: from the study of cosmic rays to biomedical imaging. Now on board the ISS, they are providing highly accurate measurements of space radiation for dosimetry purposes. “There’s nothing else in the world that has quite the capability of Timepix detectors to ...

  20. Solid waste treatment processes for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, T. R.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the state-of-the-art of solid waste(s) treatment processes applicable to a Space Station. From the review of available information a source term model for solid wastes was determined. An overall system is proposed to treat solid wastes under constraints of zero-gravity and zero-leakage. This study contains discussion of more promising potential treatment processes, including supercritical water oxidation, wet air (oxygen) oxidation, and chemical oxidation. A low pressure, batch-type treament process is recommended. Processes needed for pretreatment and post-treatment are hardware already developed for space operations. The overall solid waste management system should minimize transfer of wastes from their collection point to treatment vessel.

  1. Space Station Environmental Control/Life Support System engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. W.; Heppner, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with a systems engineering study which has provided an understanding of the overall Space Station ECLSS (Environmental Control and Life Support System). ECLSS/functional partitioning is considered along with function criticality, technology alternatives, a technology description, single thread systems, Space Station architectures, ECLSS distribution, mechanical schematics per space station, and Space Station ECLSS characteristics. Attention is given to trade studies and system synergism. The Space Station functional description had been defined by NASA. The ECLSS will utilize technologies which embody regenerative concepts to minimize the use of expendables.

  2. Space station interior design: Results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    The results of the NASA/AIA space station interior national design competition held during 1971 are presented in order to make available to those who work in the architectural, engineering, and interior design fields the results of this design activity in which the interiors of several space shuttle size modules were designed for optimal habitability. Each design entry also includes a final configuration of all modules into a complete space station. A brief history of the competition is presented with the competition guidelines and constraints. The first place award entry is presented in detail, and specific features from other selected designs are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of how some of these design features might be applied to terrestrial as well as space situations.

  3. Low earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahra, H.K.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the photovoltaic power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized

  4. Space Solar Power Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arif, Humayun; Barbosa, Hugo; Bardet, Christophe; Baroud, Michel; Behar, Alberto; Berrier, Keith; Berthe, Phillipe; Bertrand, Reinhold; Bibyk, Irene; Bisson, Joel; Bloch, Lawrence; Bobadilla, Gabriel; Bourque, Denis; Bush, Lawrence; Carandang, Romeo; Chiku, Takemi; Crosby, Norma; De Seixas, Manuel; De Vries, Joha; Doll, Susan; Dufour, Francois; Eckart, Peter; Fahey, Michael; Fenot, Frederic; Foeckersperger, Stefan; Fontaine, Jean-Emmanuel; Fowler, Robert; Frey, Harald; Fujio, Hironobu; Gasa, Jaume Munich; Gleave, Janet; Godoe, Jostein; Green, Iain; Haeberli, Roman; Hanada, Toshiya; Harris, Peter; Hucteau, Mario; Jacobs, Didier Fernand; Johnson, Richard; Kanno, Yoshitsugu; Koenig, Eva Maria; Kojima, Kazuo; Kondepudi, Phani; Kottbauer, Christian; Kulper, Doede; Kulagin, Konstantin; Kumara, Pekka; Kurz, Rainer; Laaksonen, Jyrki; Lang, Andrew Neill; Lathan, Corinna; Le Fur, Thierry; Lewis, David; Louis, Alain; Mori, Takeshi; Morlanes, Juan; Murbach, Marcus; Nagatomo, Hideo; O' brien, Ivan; Paines, Justin; Palaszewski, Bryan; Palmnaes, Ulf; Paraschivolu, Marius; Pathare, Asmin; Perov, Egor; Persson, Jan; Pessoa-Lopes, Isabel; Pinto, Michel; Porro, Irene; Reichert, Michael; Ritt-Fischer, Monika; Roberts, Margaret; Robertson II, Lawrence; Rogers, Keith; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Scire, Francesca; Shibatou, Katsuya; Shirai, Tatsuya; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Soucaille, Jean-Francois; Spivack, Nova; St. Pierre, Dany; Suleman, Afzal; Sullivan, Thomas; Theelen, Bas Johan; Thonstad, Hallvard; Tsuji, Masatoshi; Uchiumi, Masaharu; Vidqvist, Jouni; Warrell, David; Watanabe, Takafumi; Willis, Richard; Wolf, Frank; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Hong

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  5. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute, Budapest (Hungary); Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, State Scientific Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Reitz, G. [DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Linder Hohe (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 {mu}Gy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO{sub 4}:Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment

  6. Doses due to extra-vehicular activity on space stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Feher, I.; Akatov, Y.; Arkhanguelski, V.; Reitz, G.

    2006-01-01

    One of the many risks of long duration space flight is the dose from cosmic radiation, especially during periods of intensive solar activity. At such times, particularly during extra-vehicular activity (E.V.A.), when the astronauts are not protected by the wall of the spacecraft, cosmic radiation is a potentially serious health threat. Accurate dose measurement becomes increasingly important during the assembly of large space objects. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetric mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. K.F.K.I. Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosimeter systems, called Pille, for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 3 μGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of CaSO 4 :Dy bulb dosimeters and a small, compact, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosimeters. Such a system offers a solution for E.V.A. dosimetry as well. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations, on the Space Shuttle, and most recently on several segments of the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille system was used to make the first measurements of the radiation exposure of cosmonauts during E.V.A.. Such E.V.A. measurements were carried out twice (on June 12 and 16, 1987) by Y. Romanenko, the commander of the second crew of Mir. During the E.V.A. one of the dosimeters was fixed in a pocket on the outer surface of the left leg of his space-suit; a second dosimeter was located inside the station for reference measurements. The advanced TLD system Pille 96 was used during the Nasa-4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the exposure of two of the astronauts during their E.V.A. activities. The extra doses of two E.V.A. during the Euromir 95 and one E.V.A. during the Nasa4 experiment were

  7. Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) operations and safety view - Automation and robotics for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The automation and robotics requirements for the Space Station Initial Operational Concept (IOC) are discussed. The amount of tasks to be performed by an eight-person crew, the need for an automated or directed fault analysis capability, and ground support requirements are considered. Issues important in determining the role of automation for the IOC are listed.

  8. Study of flywheel energy storage for space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of flywheel systems for space stations using the Space Operations Center (SOC) as a point of reference is discussed. Comparisons with batteries and regenerative fuel cells are made. In the flywheel energy storage concept, energy is stored in the form of rotational kinetic energy using a spinning wheel. Energy is extracted from the flywheel using an attached electrical generator; energy is provided to spin the flywheel by a motor, which operates during sunlight using solar array power. The motor and the generator may or may not be the same device. Flywheel energy storage systems have a very good potential for use in space stations. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special impotance relative to batteries, are high energy density (lighter weight), longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the potential for very high discharge rate. Major disadvantages are noted.

  9. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  10. Commercialization of solar space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  11. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  12. Space Station Freedom Environmental Health Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Elizabeth E.; Russo, Dane M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the environmental planning and monitoring aspects of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Health Care Program, which encompasses all phases of the SSF assembly and operation from the first element entry at MB-6 through the Permanent Manned Capability and beyond. Environmental planning involves the definition of acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the radiation dose barothermal parameters and potential contaminants in the SSF air and water and on internal surfaces. Inflight monitoring will be implemented through the Environmental Health System, which consists of five subsystems: Microbiology, Toxicology, Water Quality, Radiation, and Barothermal Physiology. In addition to the environmental data interpretation and analysis conducted after each mission, the new data will be compared to archived data for statistical and long-term trend analysis and determination of risk exposures. Results of these analyses will be used to modify the acceptability limits and monitoring requirements for the future.

  13. Space station wardroom habitability and equipment study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, David; Miller, Christopher; Fauquet, Regis

    1989-01-01

    Experimental designs in life-size mock-up form for the wardroom facility for the Space Station Habitability Module are explored and developed. In Phase 1, three preliminary concepts for the wardroom configuration are fabricated and evaluated. In Phase 2, the results of Phase 1 are combined with a specific range of program design requirements to provide the design criteria for the fabrication of an innovative medium-fidelity mock-up of a wardrobe configuration. The study also focuses on the design and preliminary prototyping of selected equipment items including crew exercise compartments, a meal/meeting table and a portable workstation. Design criteria and requirements are discussed and documented. Preliminary and final mock-ups and equipment prototypes are described and illustrated.

  14. Radiation measurement on the International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopova, A.B.; Manaseryan, M.M.; Melkonyan, A.A.; Tatikyan, S.Sh.; Potapov, Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The results of an investigation of radiation environment on board the ISS with apogee/perigee of 420/380km and inclination 51.6 o are presented. For measurement of important characteristics of cosmic rays (particles fluxes, LET spectrum, equivalent doses and heavy ions with Z>=2) a nuclear photographic emulsion as a controllable threshold detector was used. The use of this detector permits a registration of the LET spectrum of charged particles within wide range of dE/dx and during last years it has already been successfully used on board the MIR station, Space Shuttles and 'Kosmos' spacecrafts. An integral LET spectrum was measured in the range 0.5-2.2x103keV/μm and the value of equivalent dose 360μSv/day was estimated. The flux of biologically dangerous heavy particles with Z>=2 was measured (3.85x103particles/cm2)

  15. The space station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  16. Microwave energy transmission system for solar power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    1988-05-05

    This paper deals with a microwave wireless energy transmission system which will be required for a solar power station under investigation, particularly, it describes its foundation and future investigation. It is supposed that for realization of microwave wireless transmission techniques, it is most important to investigate the effect of strong microwave beams on a plasma environment, establish control techniques for microwave beams in which a retro-directive system is combined with a computer control system, and develop a semiconductor transmission module. Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (Japan) made an experiment on the effect of microwaves on ionospheric plasma by using an observatory rocket. The institute has planned to make an experiment on a microwave energy transmission system which is to be mounted to a small-scale space flyer unit in order to examine the control of microwave beams and 10 KW power transmission, in addition to investigation on the interaction of microwave energy beams with a plasma environment. (4 figs, 3 tabs, 20 refs)

  17. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  18. Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

  19. Omics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbiting laboratory whose goals include advancing science and technology research. Completion of ISS assembly ushered a new era focused on utilization, encompassing multiple disciplines such as Biology and Biotechnology, Physical Sciences, Technology Development and Demonstration, Human Research, Earth and Space Sciences, and Educational Activities. The research complement planned for upcoming ISS Expeditions 45&46 includes several investigations in the new field of omics, which aims to collectively characterize sets of biomolecules (e.g., genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic products) that translate into organismic structure and function. For example, Multi-Omics is a JAXA investigation that analyzes human microbial metabolic cross-talk in the space ecosystem by evaluating data from immune dysregulation biomarkers, metabolic profiles, and microbiota composition. The NASA OsteoOmics investigation studies gravitational regulation of osteoblast genomics and metabolism. Tissue Regeneration uses pan-omics approaches with cells cultured in bioreactors to characterize factors involved in mammalian bone tissue regeneration in microgravity. Rodent Research-3 includes an experiment that implements pan-omics to evaluate therapeutically significant molecular circuits, markers, and biomaterials associated with microgravity wound healing and tissue regeneration in bone defective rodents. The JAXA Mouse Epigenetics investigation examines molecular alterations in organ specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight. Lastly, Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), NASA's first foray into human omics research, applies integrated analyses to assess biomolecular responses to physical, physiological, and environmental stressors associated

  20. Epigenetics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a state-of-the orbiting laboratory focused on advancing science and technology research. Experiments being conducted on the ISS include investigations in the emerging field of Epigenetics. Epigenetics refers to stably heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype (the transcriptional potential of a cell) resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations to the underlying DNA nucleotide sequence (the genetic code), which are caused by external or environmental factors, such as spaceflight microgravity. Molecular mechanisms associated with epigenetic alterations regulating gene expression patterns include covalent chemical modifications of DNA (e.g., methylation) or histone proteins (e.g., acetylation, phorphorylation, or ubiquitination). For example, Epigenetics ("Epigenetics in Spaceflown C. elegans") is a recent JAXA investigation examining whether adaptations to microgravity transmit from one cell generation to another without changing the basic DNA of the organism. Mouse Epigenetics ("Transcriptome Analysis and Germ-Cell Development Analysis of Mice in Space") investigates molecular alterations in organ-specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight, as well as assessing changes in offspring DNA. NASA's first foray into human Omics research, the Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), includes investigations evaluating differential epigenetic effects via comprehensive whole genome analysis, the landscape of DNA and RNA methylation, and biomolecular changes by means of longitudinal integrated multi-omics research. And the inaugural Genes in Space student challenge experiment (Genes in Space-1) is aimed at understanding how epigenetics plays a role in immune system dysregulation by assaying DNA methylation in immune cells

  1. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  2. Space water electrolysis: Space Station through advance missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Ronald J.; Schubert, Franz H.; Grigger, David J.

    1991-01-01

    Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) technology can satisfy the need for oxygen (O2) and Hydrogen (H2) in the Space Station Freedom and future advanced missions. The efficiency with which the SFE technology can be used to generate O2 and H2 is one of its major advantages. In fact, the SFE is baselined for the Oxygen Generation Assembly within the Space Station Freedom's Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). In the conventional SFE process an alkaline electrolyte is contained within the matrix and is sandwiched between two porous electrodes. The electrodes and matrix make up a unitized cell core. The electrolyte provides the necessary path for the transport of water and ions between the electrodes, and forms a barrier to the diffusion of O2 and H2. A hydrophobic, microporous membrane permits water vapor to diffuse from the feed water to the cell core. This membrane separates the liquid feed water from the product H2, and, therefore, avoids direct contact of the electrodes by the feed water. The feed water is also circulated through an external heat exchanger to control the temperature of the cell.

  3. Space Station - An integrated approach to operational logistics support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, G. J.

    1986-01-01

    Development of an efficient and cost effective operational logistics system for the Space Station will require logistics planning early in the program's design and development phase. This paper will focus on Integrated Logistics Support (ILS) Program techniques and their application to the Space Station program design, production and deployment phases to assure the development of an effective and cost efficient operational logistics system. The paper will provide the methodology and time-phased programmatic steps required to establish a Space Station ILS Program that will provide an operational logistics system based on planned Space Station program logistics support.

  4. Space Station Freedom - Accommodation for technology R&D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1989-01-01

    The paper examines the features of the accommodation equipment designed for the candidate technology payloads of the Space Station, which include magnetic plasma thruster systems and a hypothetical advanced electromagnetic propulsion system utilizing high-temperature superconductivity materials. The review of the accommodation-equipment concepts supports the assumption that some propulsion technologies can be tested on the Space Station while being attached externally to the station's truss structure. For testing technologies with inherent operation or performance hazards, space platforms and smaller free-flyers coordinated with the Space Station can be used. Diagrams illustrating typical accommodation equipment configurations are included.

  5. Role of the Space Station in Private Development of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhran, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is well underway in the assembly process and progressing toward completion. In February 2001, the United States laboratory "Destiny" was successfully deployed and the course of space utilization, for laboratory-based research and development (R&D) purposes, entered a new era - continuous on-orbit operations. By completion, the ISS complex will include pressurized laboratory elements from Europe, Japan, Russia and the U.S., as well as external platforms which can serve as observatories and technology development test beds serviced by a Canadian robotic manipulator. The international vision for a continuously operating, full service R&D complex in the unique environment of low-Earth orbit is becoming increasingly focused. This R&D complex will offer great opportunities for economic return as the basic research program proceeds on a global scale and the competitive advantages of the microgravity and ultravacuum environments are elucidated through empirical studies. In parallel, the ISS offers a new vantage point, both as a source for viewing of Earth and the Cosmos and as the subject of view for a global population that has grown during the dawning of the space age. In this regard, the ISS is both a working laboratory and a powerful symbol for human achievement in science and technology. Each of these aspects bears consideration as we seek to develop the beneficial attributes of space and pursue innovative approaches to expanding this space complex through private investment. Ultimately, the success of the ISS will be measured by the outcome at the end of its design lifetime. Will this incredible complex be de-orbited in a fiery finale, as have previous space platforms? Will another, perhaps still larger, space station be built through global government funding? Will the ISS ownership be transferred to a global, non-government organization for refurbishment and continuation of the mission on a privately financed basis? Steps taken

  6. Weather-power station. Solar energy, wind energy, water energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatta, M

    1975-10-02

    A combined power station is described, which enables one to convert solar energy and wind energy into other forms of energy. The plant consists of a water-filled boiler, in which solar energy heats the water by concentration, solar cells, and finally wind rotors, which transform wind energy into electrical energy. The transformed energy is partly available as steam heat, partly as mechanical or electrical energy. The plant can be used for supplying heating systems or electrolysis equipment. Finally, by incorporating suitable motors, a mobile version of the system can be produced.

  7. ANALYSIS OF SOLAR POWER STATION SCHEMES ON PHOTOELECTRIC MODULES FOR ELECTRIC CARS CHARGING STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hnatov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing schemes for building solar power stations on photoelectric modules with the revealing of their operation principles and functionality has been conducted. The specified technical characteristics of each of the analyzed schemes are given. The structural scheme of the solar charging station for electric cars with determining its functional capabilities and operation features is proposed. The practical application of this scheme will help to reduce the dependence on the general electric power supply network and will create conditions for its total rejection.

  8. A distributed planning concept for Space Station payload operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Jeff; Maxwell, Theresa; Reed, Tracey

    1994-01-01

    The complex and diverse nature of the payload operations to be performed on the Space Station requires a robust and flexible planning approach. The planning approach for Space Station payload operations must support the phased development of the Space Station, as well as the geographically distributed users of the Space Station. To date, the planning approach for manned operations in space has been one of centralized planning to the n-th degree of detail. This approach, while valid for short duration flights, incurs high operations costs and is not conducive to long duration Space Station operations. The Space Station payload operations planning concept must reduce operations costs, accommodate phased station development, support distributed users, and provide flexibility. One way to meet these objectives is to distribute the planning functions across a hierarchy of payload planning organizations based on their particular needs and expertise. This paper presents a planning concept which satisfies all phases of the development of the Space Station (manned Shuttle flights, unmanned Station operations, and permanent manned operations), and the migration from centralized to distributed planning functions. Identified in this paper are the payload planning functions which can be distributed and the process by which these functions are performed.

  9. Solar origins of space weather and space climate

    CERN Document Server

    Komm, Rudolf; Pevtsov, Alexei; Leibacher, John

    2014-01-01

    This topical issue is based on the presentations given at the 26th National Solar Observatory (NSO) Summer Workshop held at the National Solar Observatory/Sacramento Peak, New Mexico, USA from 30 April to 4 May 2012. This unique forum brought together experts in different areas of solar and space physics to help in developing a full picture of the origin of solar phenomena that affect Earth’s technological systems.  The articles include theory, model, and observation research on the origin of the solar activity and its cycle, as well as a discussion on how to incorporate the research into space-weather forecasting tools.  This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in solar physics and space science.  Previously published in Solar Physics, Vol. 289/2, 2014.

  10. Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1993-01-01

    Space Station thermal loading conditions represent an order of magnitude increase over current and previous spacecraft such as Skylab, Apollo, Pegasus III, Lunar Rover Vehicle, and Lockheed TRIDENT missiles. Thermal storage units (TSU's) were successfully used on these as well as many applications for ground based solar energy storage applications. It is desirable to store thermal energy during peak loading conditions as an alternative to providing increased radiator surface area which adds to the weight of the system. Basically, TSU's store heat by melting a phase change material (PCM) such as a paraffin. The physical property data for the PCM's used in the design of these TSU's is well defined in the literature. Design techniques are generally well established for the TSU's. However, the Space Station provides a new challenge in the application of these data and techniques because of three factors: the large size of the TSU required, the integration of the TSU for the Space Station thermal management concept with its diverse opportunities for storage application, and the TSU's interface with a two-phase (liquid/vapor) thermal bus/central heat rejection system. The objective in the thermal storage research and development task was to design, fabricate, and test a demonstration unit. One test article was to be a passive thermal storage unit capable of storing frozen food at -20 F for a minimum of 90 days. A second unit was to be capable of storing frozen biological samples at -94 F, again for a minimum of 90 days. The articles developed were compatible with shuttle mission conditions, including safety and handling by astronauts. Further, storage rack concepts were presented so that these units can be integrated into Space Station logistics module storage racks. The extreme sensitivity of spacecraft radiator systems design-to-heat rejection temperature requirements is well known. A large radiator area penalty is incurred if low temperatures are accommodated via a

  11. International Space Station Model Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.; Fitzpatrick, Kristin; Hodge, Jennifer; Grygier, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This paper summarizes the on-orbit structural dynamic data and the related modal analysis, model validation and correlation performed for the International Space Station (ISS) configuration ISS Stage ULF7, 2015 Dedicated Thruster Firing (DTF). The objective of this analysis is to validate and correlate the analytical models used to calculate the ISS internal dynamic loads and compare the 2015 DTF with previous tests. During the ISS configurations under consideration, on-orbit dynamic measurements were collected using the three main ISS instrumentation systems; Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS) and the Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). The measurements were recorded during several nominal on-orbit DTF tests on August 18, 2015. Experimental modal analyses were performed on the measured data to extract modal parameters including frequency, damping, and mode shape information. Correlation and comparisons between test and analytical frequencies and mode shapes were performed to assess the accuracy of the analytical models for the configurations under consideration. These mode shapes were also compared to earlier tests. Based on the frequency comparisons, the accuracy of the mathematical models is assessed and model refinement recommendations are given. In particular, results of the first fundamental mode will be discussed, nonlinear results will be shown, and accelerometer placement will be assessed.

  12. EXPRESS Rack Technology for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ted B.; Adams, J. Brian; Fisher, Edward M., Jr.; Prickett, Guy B.; Smith, Timothy G.

    1999-01-01

    The EXPRESS rack provides accommodations for standard Mid-deck Locker and ISIS drawer payloads on the International Space Station. A design overview of the basic EXPRESS rack and two derivatives, the Human Research Facility and the Habitat Holding Rack, is given in Part I. In Part II, the design of the Solid State Power Control Module (SSPCM) is reviewed. The SSPCM is a programmable and remotely controllable power switching and voltage conversion unit which distributes and protects up to 3kW of 12OVDC and 28VDC power to payloads and rack subsystem components. Part III details the development and testing of a new data storage device, the BRP EXPRESS Memory Unit (BEMU). The BEMU is a conduction-cooled device which operates on 28VDC and is based on Boeing-modified 9GB commercial disk-drive technology. In Part IV results of a preliminary design effort for a rack Passive Damping System (PDS) are reported. The PDS is intended to isolate ISPR-based experiment racks from on-orbit vibration. System performance predictions based on component developmental testing indicate that such a system can provide effective isolation at frequencies of 1 Hz and above.

  13. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  14. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  15. Return from space: from the International Space Station to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    On 16 May 2011, the space shuttle Endeavour took off for the last time from Cape Canaveral in Florida with six astronauts on board. Their mission (code-named STS-134) was to install the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS), the dark matter and antimatter detector designed at CERN, on the International Space Station. Since then, AMS has been sending data to CERN from space.   On Wednesday 25 July do not miss a rare opportunity to meet the mission’s six astronauts at CERN: Mark E. Kelly, commander (NASA) Greg H. Johnson, pilot (NASA) and the mission’s specialists: Michael Fincke (NASA) Roberto Vittori (ESA and ASI) Andrew J. Feustel (NASA) Greg Chamitoff (NASA) 4:20 pm: the event will kick off with a photo and autograph session at the Globe of Science and Innovation. 5 pm: lecture given by the astronauts for CERN personnel and summer students in the Main Auditorium. (Seats reserved for the summer students - contact: summer.student.info@cern.ch). ...

  16. Cleaning Robot for Solar Panels in Solar Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Lu-Bin; Shen, Cheng-Wei; Bian, Huai-Qiang; Wang, Yan

    2016-05-01

    The dust particles on solar panel surface have been a serious problem for the photovoltaic industry, a new monorail-tracked robot used for automatic cleaning of solar panel is presented in this paper. To meet the requirement of comprehensive and stable cleaning of PV array, the monorail-tracked pattern of robot is introduced based on the monorail structure technique. The running and striding mechanism are designed for mobility of robot on the solar panels. According to the carrying capacity and water circulation mechanism, a type of self-cleaning device with filtering system is developed. Combined with the computer software and communications technology, the control system is built in this robot, which can realize the functions of autonomous operation, positioning and monitoring. The application of this developed cleaning robot can actualize the Industrialization of automatic cleaning for PV components and have wide market prospect.

  17. An Operations Management System for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, H. G.

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the conceptual design of an integrated onboard Operations Management System (OMS). Both hardware and software concepts are presented and the integrated space station network is discussed. It is shown that using currently available software technology, an integrated software solution for Space Station management and control, implemented with OMS software, is feasible.

  18. The +vbar breakout during approach to Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Scott D.

    1993-01-01

    A set of burn profiles was developed to provide bounding jet firing histories for a +vbar breakout during approaches to Space Station Freedom. The delta-v sequences were designed to place the Orbiter on a safe trajectory under worst case conditions and to try to minimize plume impingement on Space Station Freedom structure.

  19. Use of automation and robotics for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Aaron

    1987-01-01

    An overview is presented of the various possible applications of automation and robotics technology to the Space Station system. The benefits of such technology to the private sector and the national economy are addressed. NASA's overall approach to incorporating advanced technology into the Space Station is examined.

  20. Automation and robotics for the Space Station - An ATAC perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Robert R.

    1989-01-01

    The study of automation and robotics for the Space Station by the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee is surveyed. The formation of the committee and the methodology for the Space Station automation study are discussed. The committee's recommendations for automation and robotics research and development are listed.

  1. Modular space station, phase B extension. Program operations plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    An organized approach is defined for establishing the most significant requirements pertaining to mission operations, information management, and computer program design and development for the modular space station program. The operations plan pertains to the space station and experiment module program elements and to the ground elements required for mission management and mission support operations.

  2. Space solar power - An energy alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The space solar power concept is concerned with the use of a Space Power Satellite (SPS) which orbits the earth at geostationary altitude. Two large symmetrical solar collectors convert solar energy directly to electricity using photovoltaic cells woven into blankets. The dc electricity is directed to microwave generators incorporated in a transmitting antenna located between the solar collectors. The antenna directs the microwave beam to a receiving antenna on earth where the microwave energy is efficiently converted back to dc electricity. The SPS design promises 30-year and beyond lifetimes. The SPS is relatively pollution free as it promises earth-equivalence of 80-85% efficient ground-based thermal power plant.

  3. Microwave energy transmission test toward the SPS using the space station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, N.; Matsumoto, H.; Miyatake, S.; Kimura, I.; Nagatomo, M.

    1986-12-01

    An outline of a project METT (Microwave Energy Transmission Test) using the Space Station is described. The objectives of the METT are to develop and test the technology of microwave energy transmission for the future Solar Power Satellite (SPS), and to estimate the environmental effects of the high power microwaves on the ionosphere and the atmosphere. Energy generated with solar cells is transmitted from a transmitting antenna on the bus platform near the Space Station to a rectenna on the sub-satellite or the ground station in order to test the total efficiency and the functions of the developed system of the energy transmission. Plasma similar to that in the D and E layers in the ionosphere is produced in a large balloon opened on the sub-satellite in order to investigate possible interactions between the SPS microwave and the ionospheric plasma and to determine the maximum power density of the microwave beam which passes through the ionosphere.

  4. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based on International Space Station Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples, Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  5. Space Solar Cell Characterization Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Measures, characterizes, and analyzes photovoltaic materials and devices. The primary focus is the measurement and characterization of solar cell response...

  6. EXPRESS Service to the International Space Station: EXPRESS Pallet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, Lowell; Bergmann, Alan

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the ultimate scientific accomplishment in the history of NASA, with its primary objective of providing unique scientific investigation opportunities. This objective is the basis for the creation of the EXPRESS Pallet System (ExPs). The EXPRESS Pallet will provide extremal/unpressurized accommodations for a wide variety of external users. The payload developers represent many science disciplines, including earth observation, communications, solar and deep space viewing, long-term exposure, and many others. The EXPRESS Pallet will provide a mechanism to maximum utilization of the limited ISS unpressurized payload volume, standard physical payload interfaces for users, a standard integration template for users and the capability to changeout payloads on-orbit. The EXPRESS Pallet provides access to Ram, Wake, Starboard, Port, Nadir, Zenith and Earth Limb for exposure and viewing. 'Me ExPs consists of the Pallet structure, payload Adapters, and a subsystem assembly which includes data controller, power distribution and conversion, and Extra Vehicular Robotics/Extra-Vehicular Activity systems.

  7. Cermet Coatings for Solar Stirling Space Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power converter. This paper will discuss the solar absorption characteristics of as-deposited cermet coatings as well as the solar absorption characteristics of the coatings after heating. The role of diffusion and island formation, during the deposition process and during heating will also be discussed.

  8. Directory of Solar-Terrestrial Physics Monitoring Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-06

    5/-- ---- I sources Toc ated.ADDRE SO , ip j NFUAkTION A0/IT STATIO N . Space Environment Services Center EATA ROU TINIL P/BLISHED N............. O N...SENT TO ARC-C---- ------ DAA oEN TOC _a-A- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -DATA ARILARLE ON REQUEST--------- YES DATA -EN To-W...FOR INFORMATIOM ABOUT STATION --- N UOSI Dept of Con e Direction d Control de Oeratio Wal Field Station de Sistemas Redioelectritcos P.O. Box S8

  9. Solar Energy for Space Heating & Hot Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet reviews the direct transfer of solar energy into heat, particularly for the purpose of providing space and hot water heating needs. Owners of buildings and homes are provided with a basic understanding of solar heating and hot water systems: what they are, how they perform, the energy savings possible, and the cost factors involved.…

  10. Solar/Space Environment Data (Satellites)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors the geospace and solar environments using a variety of space weather sensors aboard its fleet of...

  11. Space station accommodations for lunar base elements: A study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Cirillo, William; Llewellyn, Charles; Kaszubowski, Martin; Kienlen, E. Michael, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at NASA-LaRC to assess the impact on the space station of accommodating a Manned Lunar Base are documented. Included in the study are assembly activities for all infrastructure components, resupply and operations support for lunar base elements, crew activity requirements, the effect of lunar activities on Cape Kennedy operations, and the effect on space station science missions. Technology needs to prepare for such missions are also defined. Results of the study indicate that the space station can support the manned lunar base missions with the addition of a Fuel Depot Facility and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  12. Food Service and Nutrition for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings of the Workshop on Food Service and Nutrition for the Space Station, held in Houston, Texas, on April 10 and 11, 1984 was given. The workshop was attended by experts in food technology from industry, government, and academia. Following a general definition of unique space flight requirements, oral presentations were made on state of the art food technology with the objective of using this technology to support the space flight requirements. Numerous areas are identified which in the opinion of the conferees, would have space flight application. But additional effort, evaluation, or testing to include Shuttle inflight testing will be required for the technology to be applied to the Space Station.

  13. Advisory Committee on the Redesign of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The Space Station Program was initiated in 1984 to provide for permanent human presence in an orbiting laboratory. This program evolved into Space Station Freedom, later identified as a component to facilitate a return of astronauts to the Moon, followed by the exploration of Mars. In March 1993 the Clinton Administration directed NASA to undertake an intense effort to redesign the space station at a substantial cost savings relative to Space Station Freedom. The Advisory Committee on the Redesign of the Space Station was established in March 1993 to provide independent assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the redesign options. The results of the Committee's work is described. Discussion describes the mission that the Administration has articulated for the Space Station Program and the scientific and technical characteristics that a redesigned station must possess to fulfill those objectives. A description of recommended management, operations, and acquisition strategies for the redesigned program is provided. The Committee's assessment of the redesign options against five criteria are presented. The five criteria are technical capabilities, research capabilities, schedule, cost, and risk. A discussion of general mission risk is included.

  14. Efficient placement of structural dynamics sensors on the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepanto, Janet A.; Shepard, G. Dudley

    1987-01-01

    System identification of the space station dynamic model will require flight data from a finite number of judiciously placed sensors on it. The placement of structural dynamics sensors on the space station is a particularly challenging problem because the station will not be deployed in a single mission. Given that the build-up sequence and the final configuration for the space station are currently undetermined, a procedure for sensor placement was developed using the assembly flights 1 to 7 of the rephased dual keel space station as an example. The procedure presented approaches the problem of placing the sensors from an engineering, as opposed to a mathematical, point of view. In addition to locating a finite number of sensors, the procedure addresses the issues of unobserved structural modes, dominant structural modes, and the trade-offs involved in sensor placement for space station. This procedure for sensor placement will be applied to revised, and potentially more detailed, finite element models of the space station configuration and assembly sequence.

  15. The role of automation and robotics in space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Automation and robotics have played important roles in space research, most notably in planetary exploration. While an increased need for automation and robotics in space research is anticipated, some of the major challenges and opportunities for automation and robotics will be provided by the Space Station. Examples of these challenges are briefly reviewed.

  16. Veggie: Space Vegetables for the International Space Station and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.

    2016-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014. Veggie was designed by ORBITEC to be a compact, low mass, low power vegetable production system for astronaut crews. Veggie consists of a light cap containing red, blue, and green LEDs, an extensible transparent bellows, and a baseplate with a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in plant pillows, small growing bags that interface with the reservoir. The Veggie technology validation test, VEG-01, was initiated with the first test crop of 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce. Prior to flight, lettuce seeds were sanitized and planted in a substrate of arcillite (baked ceramic) mixed with controlled release fertilizer. Upon initiation, astronauts open the packaged plant pillows, install them in the Veggie hardware, and prime the system with water. Operations include plant thinning, watering, and photography. Plants were grown on the ISS for 33 days, harvested, and returned frozen to Earth for analysis. Ground controls were conducted at Kennedy Space Center in controlled environment chambers reproducing ISS conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and CO2. Returned plant samples were analyzed for microbial food safety and chemistry including elements, antioxidants, anthocyanins and phenolics. In addition the entire plant microbiome was sequenced, and returned plant pillows were analyzed via x-ray tomography. Food safety analyses allowed us to gain approvals for future consumption of lettuce by the flight surgeons and the payload safety office. A second crop of lettuce was grown in 2015, and the crew consumed half the produce, with the remainder frozen for later analysis. This growth test was followed by testing of a new crop in Veggie, zinnias. Zinnias were grown to test a longer duration flowering crop in preparation for tests of tomatoes and other fruiting crops in the future. Zinnias were harvested in February. Samples from the second harvest of lettuce and the

  17. Simulated Space Environmental Effects on Thin Film Solar Array Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finckenor, Miria; Carr, John; SanSoucie, Michael; Boyd, Darren; Phillips, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    The Lightweight Integrated Solar Array and Transceiver (LISA-T) experiment consists of thin-film, low mass, low volume solar panels. Given the variety of thin solar cells and cover materials and the lack of environmental protection typically afforded by thick coverglasses, a series of tests were conducted in Marshall Space Flight Center's Space Environmental Effects Facility to evaluate the performance of these materials. Candidate thin polymeric films and nitinol wires used for deployment were also exposed. Simulated space environment exposures were selected based on SSP 30425 rev. B, "Space Station Program Natural Environment Definition for Design" or AIAA Standard S-111A-2014, "Qualification and Quality Requirements for Space Solar Cells." One set of candidate materials were exposed to 5 eV atomic oxygen and concurrent vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation for low Earth orbit simulation. A second set of materials were exposed to 1 MeV electrons. A third set of samples were exposed to 50, 100, 500, and 700 keV energy protons, and a fourth set were exposed to >2,000 hours of near ultraviolet (NUV) radiation. A final set was rapidly thermal cycled between -55 and +125degC. This test series provides data on enhanced power generation, particularly for small satellites with reduced mass and volume resources. Performance versus mass and cost per Watt is discussed.

  18. Photovoltaics - solar power stations. Prospects of a cutting edge technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidenreich, M.

    2002-01-01

    Photovoltaics is the sector of the future in this millennium. The process of human urbanization has led to a high demand for electricity; at the same time high-density urban settlement offers an enormous surface area that could be used for photovoltaic equipment. Such surfaces include rooftops, building facades, parking lots for automobiles, train stations and solar soundproofing walls. According to conservative estimates, Austria has sufficient surface area for a peak solar output of 4,000 MW. This would be sufficient to supply some 1.6 million households with electricity from unlimited solar energy. However, a tremendous marketing effort will be required in order to achieve generation on such a scale. (author)

  19. CM Process Improvement and the International Space Station Program (ISSP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Ginny

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Configuration Management (CM) process improvements planned and undertaken for the International Space Station Program (ISSP). It reviews the 2004 findings and recommendations and the progress towards their implementation.

  20. Was Einstein wrong? Space station research may find out

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Experiments using ultra-precise clocks on the International Space Station will attempt to check if Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity is correct. Future experiments may also yield evidence of string theory (1 page).

  1. Implementation of Intellectual Property Law on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannix, John G.

    2002-01-01

    Because of the importance of intellectual property rights to the private sector, NASA has developed a reference guide to assist business leaders in understanding how the Intellectual Property Articles of the 1998 Intergovernmental Agreement on the International Space Station will be implemented. This reference guide discusses the statutory, regulatory and programmatic strictures on the deployment, utilization and ownership of intellectual property within the Space Station program. This guide presents an analysis of the intellectual property law aspects of the international agreements and documents pertaining to the International Space Station, and then relates them to NASA's authorities for entering into research and development agreements with private entities. This paper will discuss the reference guide and should aid potential agreement participants in understanding the legal environment for entering into agreements with NASA to fly research and development payloads on the International Space Station.

  2. Space Station Environmental Health System water quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Johanna E.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    One of the unique aspects of the Space Station is that it will be a totally encapsulated environment and the air and water supplies will be reclaimed for reuse. The Environmental Health System, a subsystem of CHeCS (Crew Health Care System), must monitor the air and water on board the Space Station Freedom to verify that the quality is adequate for crew safety. Specifically, the Water Quality Subsystem will analyze the potable and hygiene water supplies regularly for organic, inorganic, particulate, and microbial contamination. The equipment selected to perform these analyses will be commercially available instruments which will be converted for use on board the Space Station Freedom. Therefore, the commercial hardware will be analyzed to identify the gravity dependent functions and modified to eliminate them. The selection, analysis, and conversion of the off-the-shelf equipment for monitoring the Space Station reclaimed water creates a challenging project for the Water Quality engineers and scientists.

  3. Space station operations task force. Panel 4 report: Management integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The Management Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to provide a structure and ground rules for integrating the efforts of the other three panels and to address a number of cross cutting issues that affect all areas of space station operations. Issues addressed include operations concept implementation, alternatives development and integration process, strategic policy issues and options, and program management emphasis areas.

  4. Laboratory Calibration Studies in Support of ORGANICS on the International Space Station: Evolution of Organic Matter in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiterkamp, R.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Halasinski, T.; Salama, F.; Foing, B.; Schmidt, W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the scientific overview and current status of ORGANICS an exposure experiment performed on the International Space Station (ISS) to study the evolution of organic matter in space (PI: P. Ehrenfreund), with supporting laboratory experiments performed at NASA Ames. ORGANICS investigates the chemical evolution of samples submitted to long-duration exposure to space environment in near-Earth orbit. This experiment will provide information on the nature, evolution, and survival of carbon species in the interstellar medium (ISM) and in solar system targets.

  5. Space life sciences perspectives for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Laurence R.

    1992-01-01

    It is now generally acknowledged that the life science discipline will be the primary beneficiary of Space Station Freedom. The unique facility will permit advances in understanding the consequences of long duration exposure to weightlessness and evaluation of the effectiveness of countermeasures. It will also provide an unprecedented opportunity for basic gravitational biology, on plants and animals as well as human subjects. The major advantages of SSF are the long duration exposure and the availability of sufficient crew to serve as subjects and operators. In order to fully benefit from the SSF, life sciences will need both sufficient crew time and communication abilities. Unlike many physical science experiments, the life science investigations are largely exploratory, and frequently bring unexpected results and opportunities for study of newly discovered phenomena. They are typically crew-time intensive, and require a high degree of specialized training to be able to react in real time to various unexpected problems or potentially exciting findings. Because of the long duration tours and the large number of experiments, it will be more difficult than with Spacelab to maintain astronaut proficiency on all experiments. This places more of a burden on adequate communication and data links to the ground, and suggests the use of AI expert system technology to assist in astronaut management of the experiment. Typical life science experiments, including those flown on Spacelab Life Sciences 1, will be described from the point of view of the demands on the astronaut. A new expert system, 'PI in a Box,' will be introduced for SLS-2, and its applicability to other SSF experiments discussed. (This paper consists on an abstract and ten viewgraphs.)

  6. The International Space Station: A Pathway to the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.; Bartoe, John-David F.; Mustachio, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    Nearly six years after the launch of the first International Space Station element, and four years after its initial occupation, the United States and our 16 international partners have made great strides in operating this impressive Earth orbiting research facility. This past year we have done so in the face of the adversity of operating without the benefit of the Space Shuttle. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush affirmed the United States' commitment to completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010. The President also stated that we would focus our future research aboard the Station on the longterm effects of space travel on human biology. This research will help enable human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. In addition, ISS affords a unique opportunity to serve as an engineering test bed for hardware and operations critical to the exploration tasks. NASA looks forward to working with our partners on International Space Station research that will help open up new pathways for future exploration and discovery beyond low Earth orbit. This paper provides an overview of the International Space Station Program focusing on a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

  7. AMS-02 on the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spada Francesca R.

    2014-04-01

    During the first year in space, several billion events have been recorded. The flight operation, the detector performance, together with early results and perspective for physics measurements are reported.

  8. Space Station Engineering and Technology Development. Proceedings of the Panel on Program Performance and Onboard Mission Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    An ad-hoc committee was asked to review the following questions relevant to the space station program: (1) onboard maintainability and repair; (2) in-space research and technology program and facility plans; (3) solar thermodynamic research and technology development program planning; (4) program performance (cost estimating, management, and cost avoidance); (5) onboard versus ground-based mission control; and (6) technology development road maps from IOC to the growth station. The objective of these new assignments is to provide NASA with advice on ways and means for improving the content, performance, and/or effectiveness of these elements of the space station program.

  9. Component Data Base for Space Station Resistojet Auxiliary Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Clayton H.

    1988-01-01

    The resistojet was baselined for Space Station auxiliary propulsion because of its operational versatility, efficiency, and durability. This report was conceived as a guide to designers and planners of the Space Station auxiliary propulsion system. It is directed to the low thrust resistojet concept, though it should have application to other station concepts or systems such as the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), Manufacturing and Technology Laboratory (MTL), and the Waste Fluid Management System (WFMS). The information will likely be quite useful in the same capacity for other non-Space Station systems including satellite, freeflyers, explorers, and maneuvering vehicles. The report is a catalog of the most useful information for the most significant feed system components and is organized for the greatest convenience of the user.

  10. Electric motorcycle charging station powered by solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwattanapong, Akarawat; Chantharasenawong, Chawin

    2018-01-01

    This research proposes a design and verification of an off-grid photovoltaic system (PVS) for electric motorcycle charging station to be located in King’s Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand. The system is designed to work independently (off-grid) and it must be able to fully charge the batteries of a typical passenger electric motorcycle every evening. A 1,000W Toyotron electric motorcycle is chosen for this study. It carries five units of 12.8V 20Ah batteries in series; hence its maximum energy requirement per day is 1,200Wh. An assessment of solar irradiation data and the Generation Factor in Bangkok, Thailand suggests that the charging system consists of one 500W PV panel, an MPPT charge controller, 48V 150Ah battery, a 1,000W DC to AC inverter and other safety devices such as fuses and breakers. An experiment is conducted to verify the viability of the off-grid PVS charging station by collecting the total daily energy generation data in the raining season and winter. The data suggests that the designed off-grid solar power charging station for electric motorcycle is able to supply sufficient energy for daily charging requirements.

  11. Electrical power systems for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, W. E.

    1984-01-01

    Major challenges in power system development are described. Evolutionary growth, operational lifetime, and other design requirements are discussed. A pictorial view of weight-optimized power system applications shows which systems are best for missions of various lengths and required power level. Following definition of the major elements of the electrical power system, an overview of element options and a brief technology assessment are presented. Selected trade-study results show end-to-end system efficiencies, required photovoltaic power capability as a function of energy storage system efficiency, and comparisons with other systems such as a solar dynamic power system.

  12. Using computer graphics to design Space Station Freedom viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsberry, Betty S.; Lippert, Buddy O.; Mckee, Sandra D.; Lewis, James L., Jr.; Mount, Francis E.

    1993-01-01

    Viewing requirements were identified early in the Space Station Freedom program for both direct viewing via windows and indirect viewing via cameras and closed-circuit television (CCTV). These requirements reside in NASA Program Definition and Requirements Document (PDRD), Section 3: Space Station Systems Requirements. Currently, analyses are addressing the feasibility of direct and indirect viewing. The goal of these analyses is to determine the optimum locations for the windows, cameras, and CCTV's in order to meet established requirements, to adequately support space station assembly, and to operate on-board equipment. PLAID, a three-dimensional computer graphics program developed at NASA JSC, was selected for use as the major tool in these analyses. PLAID provides the capability to simulate the assembly of the station as well as to examine operations as the station evolves. This program has been used successfully as a tool to analyze general viewing conditions for many Space Shuttle elements and can be used for virtually all Space Station components. Additionally, PLAID provides the ability to integrate an anthropometric scale-modeled human (representing a crew member) with interior and exterior architecture.

  13. Linking the space shuttle and space stations early docking technologies from concept to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2017-01-01

    How could the newly authorized space shuttle help in the U.S. quest to build a large research station in Earth orbit? As a means of transporting goods, the shuttle could help supply the parts to the station. But how would the two entitles be physically linked? Docking technologies had to constantly evolve as the designs of the early space stations changed. It was hoped the shuttle would make missions to the Russian Salyut and American Skylab stations, but these were postponed until the Mir station became available, while plans for getting a new U. S. space station underway were stalled. In Linking the Space Shuttle and Space Stations, the author delves into the rich history of the Space Shuttle and its connection to these early space stations, culminating in the nine missions to dock the shuttle to Mir. By 1998, after nearly three decades of planning and operations, shuttle missions to Mir had resulted in: • A proven system to link up the space shuttle to a space station • Equipment and hands-on experienc...

  14. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition for... Union. (d) Earth station applicants requesting authority to operate with a non-U.S.-licensed space... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for earth stations...

  15. Solar EUV irradiance for space weather applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Solar EUV irradiance is an important driver of space weather models. Large changes in EUV and x-ray irradiances create large variability in the ionosphere and thermosphere. Proxies such as the F10.7 cm radio flux, have provided reasonable estimates of the EUV flux but as the space weather models become more accurate and the demands of the customers become more stringent, proxies are no longer adequate. Furthermore, proxies are often provided only on a daily basis and shorter time scales are becoming important. Also, there is a growing need for multi-day forecasts of solar EUV irradiance to drive space weather forecast models. In this presentation we will describe the needs and requirements for solar EUV irradiance information from the space weather modeler's perspective. We will then translate these requirements into solar observational requirements such as spectral resolution and irradiance accuracy. We will also describe the activities at NOAA to provide long-term solar EUV irradiance observations and derived products that are needed for real-time space weather modeling.

  16. Atmosphere composition monitor for space station and advanced missions application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynveen, R.A.; Powell, F.T.

    1987-01-01

    Long-term human occupation of extraterrestrial locations may soon become a reality. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently completed the definition and preliminary design of the low earth orbit (LEO) space station. They are now currently moving into the detailed design and fabrication phase of this space station and are also beginning to analyze the requirements of several future missions that have been identified. These missions include, for example, Lunar and Mars sorties, outposts, bases, and settlements. A requirement of both the LEO space station and future missions are environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), which provide a comfortable environment for humans to live and work. The ECLSS consists of several major systems, including atmosphere revitalization system (ARS), atmosphere pressure and composition control system, temperature and humidity control system, water reclamation system, and waste management system. Each of these major systems is broken down into subsystems, assemblies, units, and instruments. Many requirements and design drivers are different for the ECLSS of the LEO space station and the identified advanced missions (e.g., longer mission duration). This paper discusses one of the ARS assemblies, the atmosphere composition monitor assembly (ACMA), being developed for the LEO space station and addresses differences that will exist for the ACMA of future missions

  17. 78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    .... Greg Mann, Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-5140, NASA Headquarters... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice 13-091] NASA International Space Station... meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended...

  18. 75 FR 51852 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    .... Donald Miller, Office of International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-1527, National Aeronautics... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (10-090)] NASA International Space Station... meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, Public Law 92-463, as amended...

  19. Space Station life science research facility - The vivarium/laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchey, J. D.; Arno, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Research opportunities possible with the Space Station are discussed. The objective of the research program will be study gravity relationships for animal and plant species. The equipment necessary for space experiments including vivarium facilities are described. The cost of the development of research facilities such as the vivarium/laboratory and a bioresearch centrifuge is examined.

  20. Cermet coatings for solar Stirling space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Raack, Taylor

    2004-01-01

    Cermet coatings, molecular mixtures of metal and ceramic, are being considered for the heat inlet surface of a solar Stirling space power convertor. The role of the cermet coating is to absorb as much of the incident solar energy as possible. The ability to mix metal and ceramic at the atomic level offers the opportunity to tailor the composition and the solar absorptance of these coatings. Several candidate cermet coatings were created and their solar absorptance was characterized as-manufactured and after exposure to elevated temperatures. Coating composition was purposely varied through the thickness of the coating. As a consequence of changing composition, islands of metal are thought to form in the ceramic matrix. Computer modeling indicated that diffusion of the metal atoms played an important role in island formation while the ceramic was important in locking the islands in place. Much of the solar spectrum is absorbed as it passes through this labyrinth

  1. Space Station services and design features for users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzhals, Peter R.; Mckinney, Royce L.

    1987-01-01

    The operational design features and services planned for the NASA Space Station will furnish, in addition to novel opportunities and facilities, lower costs through interface standardization and automation and faster access by means of computer-aided integration and control processes. By furnishing a basis for large-scale space exploitation, the Space Station will possess industrial production and operational services capabilities that may be used by the private sector for commercial ventures; it could also ultimately support lunar and planetary exploration spacecraft assembly and launch facilities.

  2. A simulation model for reliability evaluation of Space Station power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C.; Patton, A. D.; Kumar, Mudit; Wagner, H.

    1988-01-01

    A detailed simulation model for the hybrid Space Station power system is presented which allows photovoltaic and solar dynamic power sources to be mixed in varying proportions. The model considers the dependence of reliability and storage characteristics during the sun and eclipse periods, and makes it possible to model the charging and discharging of the energy storage modules in a relatively accurate manner on a continuous basis.

  3. Alenia Spazio: Space Programs for Solar System Exploration .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, A.

    Alenia Spazio is the major Italian space industry and one of the largest in Europe, with 2,400 highly skilled employees and 16,000 square meters of clean rooms and laboratories for advanced technological research that are among the most modern and well-equipped in Europe. The company has wide experience in the design, development, assembly, integration, verification and testing of complete space systems: satellites for telecommunications and navigation, remote sensing, meteorology and scientific applications; manned systems and space infrastructures; launch, transport and re-entry systems, and control centres. Alenia Spazio has contributed to the construction of over 200 satellites and taken part in the most important national and international space programmes, from the International Space Station to the new European global navigation system Galileo. Focusing on Solar System exploration, in the last 10 years the Company took part, with different roles, to the major European and also NASA missions in the field: Rosetta, Mars Express, Cassini; will soon take part in Venus Express, and is planning the future with Bepi Colombo, Solar Orbiter, GAIA and Exomars. In this paper, as in the presentation, a very important Earth Observation mission is also presented: GOCE. All in all, the Earth is by all means part of the Solar system as well and we like to see it as a planet to be explored.

  4. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Requirements for Space Station Accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, D. A.; Clayton, M. J.; Runge, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    Top level requirements for assembly and integration of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Observatory at the Space Station are examined. Concepts are currently under study for LDR which will provide a sequel to the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. LDR will provide a spectacular capability over a very broad spectral range. The Space Station will provide an essential facility for the initial assembly and check out of LDR, as well as a necessary base for refurbishment, repair and modification. By providing a manned platform, the Space Station will remove the time constraint on assembly associated with use of the Shuttle alone. Personnel safety during necessary EVA is enhanced by the presence of the manned facility.

  5. Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) requirements for space station accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, D. A.; Clayton, M. J.; Runge, F. C.

    1985-04-01

    Top level requirements for assembly and integration of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) Observatory at the Space Station are examined. Concepts are currently under study for LDR which will provide a sequel to the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility. LDR will provide a spectacular capability over a very broad spectral range. The Space Station will provide an essential facility for the initial assembly and check out of LDR, as well as a necessary base for refurbishment, repair and modification. By providing a manned platform, the Space Station will remove the time constraint on assembly associated with use of the Shuttle alone. Personnel safety during necessary EVA is enhanced by the presence of the manned facility.

  6. Research on the International Space Station - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy M.

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations November 1998 to November 2000 it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence. Since that time and simultaneous with the complicated task of ISS construction and overcoming impacts from the tragic Columbia accident science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. As of this writing, over 162 experiments have been operated on the ISS, supporting research for hundreds of ground-based investigators from the U.S. and international partners. This report summarizes the experimental results collected to date. Today, NASA's priorities for research aboard the ISS center on understanding human health during long-duration missions, researching effective countermeasures for long-duration crewmembers, and researching and testing new technologies that can be used for future exploration crews and spacecraft. Through the U.S. National Laboratory designation, the ISS is also a platform available to other government agencies. Research on ISS supports new understandings, methods or applications relevant to life on Earth, such as understanding effective protocols to protect against loss of bone density or better methods for producing stronger metal alloys. Experiment results have already been used in applications as diverse as the manufacture of solar cell and insulation materials for new spacecraft and the verification of complex numerical models for behavior of fluids in fuel tanks. A synoptic publication of these results will be forthcoming in 2009. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities were tripled with the addition of ESA's Columbus and JAXA's Kibo scientific modules joining NASA's Destiny Laboratory. All three

  7. The Space Station Photovoltaic Panels Plasma Interaction Test Program: Test plan and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Felder, Marian C.; Sater, Bernard L.; Staskus, John V.

    1989-01-01

    The Plasma Interaction Test performed on two space station solar array panels is addressed. This includes a discussion of the test requirements, test plan, experimental set-up, and test results. It was found that parasitic current collection was insignificant (0.3 percent of the solar array delivered power). The measured arcing threshold ranged from -210 to -457 V with respect to the plasma potential. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the panels showed the panel time constant to range between 1 and 5 microsec, and the panel capacitance to be between .01 and .02 microF.

  8. The Space Station photovoltaic panels plasma interaction test program - Test plan and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Felder, Marian C.; Sater, Bernard L.; Staskus, John V.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma Interaction Test performed on two space station solar array panels is addressed. This includes a discussion of the test requirements, test plan, experimental set-up, and test results. It was found that parasitic current collection was insignificant (0.3 percent of the solar array delivered power). The measured arcing threshold ranged from -210 to -457 V with respect to the plasma potential. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the panels showed the panel time constant to range between 1 and 5 microsec, and the panel capacitance to be between .01 and .02 microF.

  9. Microgravity Science Glovebox Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    In the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency (ESA) astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain is seen working at the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG). He is working with the PROMISS experiment, which will investigate the growth processes of proteins during weightless conditions. The PROMISS is one of the Cervantes program of tests (consisting of 20 commercial experiments). The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  10. Space station communications and tracking equipment management/control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapell, M. H.; Seyl, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Design details of a communications and tracking (C and T) local area network and the distribution system requirements for the prospective space station are described. The hardware will be constructed of LRUs, including those for baseband, RF, and antenna subsystems. It is noted that the C and T equipment must be routed throughout the station to accommodate growth of the station. Configurations of the C and T modules will therefore be dependent on the function of the space station module where they are located. A block diagram is provided of a sample C and T hardware distribution configuration. A topology and protocol will be needed to accommodate new terminals, wide bandwidths, bidirectional message transmission, and distributed functioning. Consideration will be given to collisions occurring in the data transmission channels.

  11. Strategy for the Explorer program for solar and space physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Contents include: executive summary; the Explorer program - background and current status; strategy - level of activity; solar-terrestrial research (solar physics, space plasma physics, and upper atmospheric physics)

  12. Energy consumption analysis for the Mars deep space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1982-01-01

    Results for the energy consumption analysis at the Mars deep space station are presented. It is shown that the major energy consumers are the 64-Meter antenna building and the operations support building. Verification of the antenna's energy consumption is highly dependent on an accurate knowlege of the tracking operations. The importance of a regular maintenance schedule for the watt hour meters installed at the station is indicated.

  13. Potential for solar space heating in Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macgregor, A W.K.

    1980-07-01

    This paper investigates the relative effectiveness of passive-type solar-assisted space heating systems at various latitudes within the British Isles. A comparison is made of the useful solar gain of the same system linked to the same house at four different locations. Month-by-month energy balances indicate that the annual useful solar contribution at the highest latitude (Lerwick, 60 deg N) is about 35% higher than at the lowest latitude (Kew, 53 deg N). The main reason for this difference is the higher heating loads in the north, particularly outside the winter months. The estimated available irradiation on south-facing vertical surfaces was almost the same at all four locations. Previous work in the UK indicates that, contrary to the conclusions in this paper, more southerly latitudes were the most favorable for solar space heating. The reasons for the disparity are discussed. It is recommended that research and development of passive solar-assisted space heating systems should be most vigorously pursued in the more northerly latitudes of the British Isles, where both the potential benefit and the need are greatest.

  14. Space Station Freedom pressurized element interior design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, George D.; Aaron, John; Grant, Richard L.

    1990-01-01

    The process used to develop the on-orbit working and living environment of the Space Station Freedom has some very unique constraints and conditions to satisfy. The goal is to provide maximum efficiency and utilization of the available space, in on-orbit, zero G conditions that establishes a comfortable, productive, and safe working environment for the crew. The Space Station Freedom on-orbit living and working space can be divided into support for three major functions: (1) operations, maintenance, and management of the station; (2) conduct of experiments, both directly in the laboratories and remotely for experiments outside the pressurized environment; and (3) crew related functions for food preparation, housekeeping, storage, personal hygiene, health maintenance, zero G environment conditioning, and individual privacy, and rest. The process used to implement these functions, the major requirements driving the design, unique considerations and constraints that influence the design, and summaries of the analysis performed to establish the current configurations are described. Sketches and pictures showing the layout and internal arrangement of the Nodes, U.S. Laboratory and Habitation modules identify the current design relationships of the common and unique station housekeeping subsystems. The crew facilities, work stations, food preparation and eating areas (galley and wardroom), and exercise/health maintenance configurations, waste management and personal hygiene area configuration are shown. U.S. Laboratory experiment facilities and maintenance work areas planned to support the wide variety and mixtures of life science and materials processing payloads are described.

  15. Solar Stirling for deep space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2000-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the performance of solar thermal power systems for deep space planetary missions. The study incorporated projected advances in solar concentrator and energy conversion technologies. These technologies included inflatable structures, lightweight primary concentrators, high efficiency secondary concentrators, and high efficiency Stirling convertors. Analyses were performed to determine the mass and deployed area of multihundred watt solar thermal power systems for missions out to 40 astronomical units. Emphasis was given to system optimization, parametric sensitivity analyses, and concentrator configuration comparisons. The results indicated that solar thermal power systems are a competitive alternative to radioisotope systems out to 10 astronomical units without the cost or safety implications associated with nuclear sources

  16. Development of a Space Station Operations Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandli, A. E.; McCandless, W. T.

    To enhance the productivity of operations aboard the Space Station, a means must be provided to augment, and frequently to supplant, human effort in support of mission operations and management, both on the ground and onboard. The Operations Management System (OMS), under development at the Johnson Space Center, is one such means. OMS comprises the tools and procedures to facilitate automation of station monitoring, control, and mission planning tasks. OMS mechanizes, and hence rationalizes, execution of tasks traditionally performed by mission planners, the mission control center team, onboard System Management software, and the flight crew.

  17. Space Station flight telerobotic servicer functional requirements development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberright, John; Mccain, Harry; Whitman, Ruth I.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station flight telerobotic servicer (FTS), a flight robotic system for use on the first Space Station launch, is described. The objectives of the FTS program include: (1) the provision of an alternative crew EVA by supporting the crew in assembly, maintenance, and servicing activities, and (2) the improvement of crew safety by performing hazardous tasks such as spacecraft refueling or thermal and power system maintenance. The NASA/NBS Standard Reference Model provides the generic, hierarchical, structured functional control definition for the system. It is capable of accommodating additional degrees of machine intelligence in the future.

  18. Development of a Space Station Operations Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandli, A. E.; Mccandless, W. T.

    1988-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of operations aboard the Space Station, a means must be provided to augment, and frequently to supplant, human effort in support of mission operations and management, both on the ground and onboard. The Operations Management System (OMS), under development at the Johnson Space Center, is one such means. OMS comprises the tools and procedures to facilitate automation of station monitoring, control, and mission planning tasks. OMS mechanizes, and hence rationalizes, execution of tasks traditionally performed by mission planners, the mission control center team, onboard System Management software, and the flight crew.

  19. Performance of International Space Station Alpha Trace Contaminant Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis presented herein was conducted during the early transitional period between the Space Station Freedom and the International Space Station programs as part of an effort to evaluate key design specifications and standards used by the United States and Russia. The analysis was originally documented under NASA cover letter ED62(36-94) dated August 16, 1994. The analysis was revised and rereleased under NASA cover letter ED62(51-94) dated November 14, 1994. These cover letters are provided here to guide programmatic context for the reader.

  20. Space station contamination control study: Internal combustion, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    Contamination inside Space Station modules was studied to determine the best methods of controlling contamination. The work was conducted in five tasks that identified existing contamination control requirements, analyzed contamination levels, developed outgassing specification for materials, wrote a contamination control plan, and evaluated current materials of offgassing tests used by NASA. It is concluded that current contamination control methods can be made to function on the Space Station for up to 1000 days, but that current methods are deficient for periods longer than about 1000 days.

  1. Solar cells for space applications (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture focusses on qualification and verification tests and procedures on solar cells designed for space applications. The series of tests should produce orbital performance under determined illumination, temperature and irradiance. Tests are divided in outdoor and laboratory experiments. Environmental tests include durability, qualification (mechanical and electrical), I-V curves, Spectral response

  2. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W. [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  3. Solar system for domestic hot water and space heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, W [Arbeitsgemeinschaf Erneubare Energie, Gleisdorf (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    The solar thermal markets, different types of solar systems for hot water and space heating, the dimensioning and the components of solar heating systems, the properties of the systems are reviewed in this presentation

  4. A Solar Station for Education and Research on Solar Activity at a National University in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitsuka, J. K.

    2006-11-01

    pepe@geo.igp.gob.pe Beginning in 1937, the Carnegie Institution of Washington made active regional observations with a spectro-helioscope at the Huancayo Observatory. In 1957, during the celebration of the International Geophysical Year Mutsumi Ishitsuka arrived at the Geophysical Institute of Peru and restarted solar observations from the Huancayo Observatory. Almost 69 years have passed and many contributions for the geophysical and solar sciences have been made. Now the Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP), in cooperation with the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica (UNICA), and with the support of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, are planning to construct a solar station refurbishing a coelostat that worked for many years at the Huancayo Observatory. A 15 cm refractor telescope is already installed at the university, for the observation of sunspots. A solar Flare Monitor Telescope (FMT) from Hida Observatory of Kyoto University could be sent to Peru and installed at the solar station at UNICA. As the refurbished coelostat, FMT will become a good tool to improve education and research in sciences.

  5. Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station's Logistics and Maintenance program has had to develop new technologies and a management approach for both space and ground operations. The ISS will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines - it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally completed in 2006. It has over 6,000 orbital replaceable units (ORU), and spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operations. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station for both space and ground operations. It started with the basic support concept developed for Department of Defense systems, and then it was tailored for the unique requirements of a manned space vehicle. Space logistics is a new concept that has wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. This paper discusses what type of organization has been put into place to support both space and ground operations and discusses each element of that organization. In addition, some of the unique operations approaches this organization has had to develop is discussed.

  6. Space Station Freedom power - A reliability, availability, and maintainability assessment of the proposed Space Station Freedom electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnquist, S. R.; Twombly, M.; Hoffman, D.

    1989-01-01

    A preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of the proposed Space Station Freedom electric power system (EPS) was performed using the unit reliability, availability, and maintainability (UNIRAM) analysis methodology. Orbital replacement units (ORUs) having the most significant impact on EPS availability measures were identified. Also, the sensitivity of the EPS to variations in ORU RAM data was evaluated for each ORU. Estimates were made of average EPS power output levels and availability of power to the core area of the space station. The results of assessments of the availability of EPS power and power to load distribution points in the space stations are given. Some highlights of continuing studies being performed to understand EPS availability considerations are presented.

  7. Space Station - The base for tomorrow's electronic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    The potential value of space material processing on the Space Station for the electronics industry is examined. The primary advantages of the space environment for producing high-purity semiconductors and electrooptical materials are identified as the virtual absence of gravity (suppressing buoyancy-driven convection in melts and density segregation of alloys) and the availabilty of high vacuum (with high pumping speed and heat rejection). The recent history of material development and processing technology in the electronics industry is reviewed, and the principal features of early space experiments are outlined.

  8. Biotechnological experiments in space flights on board of space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    2012-07-01

    Space flight conditions are stressful for any plant and cause structural-functional transition due to mobiliation of adaptivity. In space flight experiments with pea tissue, wheat and arabidopsis we found anatomical-morphological transformations and biochemistry of plants. In following experiments, tissue of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana), potato (Solanum tuberosum), callus culture and culture and bulbs of suffron (Crocus sativus), callus culture of ginseng (Panax ginseng) were investigated. Experiments with stevia carried out in special chambers. The duration of experiment was 8-14 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. After experiment the plants grew in the same chamber and after 50 days the plants were moved into artificial ionexchange soil. The biochemical analysis of plants was done. The total concentration of glycozides and ratio of stevioside and rebauside were found different in space and ground plants. In following generations of stevia after flight the total concentration of stevioside and rebauside remains higher than in ground plants. Experiments with callus culture of suffron carried out in tubes. Duration of space flight experiment was 8-167 days. Board lamp was used for illumination of the plants. We found picrocitina pigment in the space plants but not in ground plants. Tissue culture of ginseng was grown in special container in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 167 days. Biological activity of space flight culutre was in 5 times higher than the ground culture. This difference was observed after recultivation of space flight samples on Earth during year after flight. Callus tissue of potato was grown in tubes in thermostate under stable temperature of 22 ± 0,5 C. Duration of space experiment was from 8 to 14 days. Concentration of regenerates in flight samples was in 5 times higher than in ground samples. The space flight experiments show, that microgravity and other

  9. Tissue equivalent detector measurements on Mir space station. Comparison with other data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection de la Sante de l`Homme et de Dosimetrie; Siegrist, M. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France); Duvivier, E.; Almarcha, B. [STEEL Technologies, Mazeres sur Salat (France); Dachev, T.P.; Semkova, J.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Central Lab. of Solar Energy and New Energy Sources; Petrov, V.M.; Bengin, V.; Koslova, S.B. [Institute of Biomedical Problems, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The measurement of the dose received by the cosmonauts, due to cosmic radiations, during a space mission is an important parameter to estimate the radiological risk. Tissue equivalent measurements of radiation environment inside the MIR space station were performed continuously since July 1992. Interesting results about radiation measurements show (a) the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) crossing, (c) the increase of radiation near the poles and (d) the effects of solar eruptions. These data are compared with solid state detector (SSD) and other tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) results. (authors). 4 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Tissue equivalent detector measurements on Mir space station. Comparison with other data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottollier-Depois, J.F.; Duvivier, E.; Almarcha, B.; Dachev, T.P.; Semkova, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of the dose received by the cosmonauts, due to cosmic radiations, during a space mission is an important parameter to estimate the radiological risk. Tissue equivalent measurements of radiation environment inside the MIR space station were performed continuously since July 1992. Interesting results about radiation measurements show (a) the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) crossing, (c) the increase of radiation near the poles and (d) the effects of solar eruptions. These data are compared with solid state detector (SSD) and other tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) results. (authors). 4 refs., 7 figs

  11. Requirements for modeling airborne microbial contamination in space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houdt, Rob; Kokkonen, Eero; Lehtimäki, Matti; Pasanen, Pertti; Leys, Natalie; Kulmala, Ilpo

    2018-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosols is one of the facets that affect indoor air quality, especially for people living in densely populated or confined habitats, and is associated to a wide range of health effects. Good indoor air quality is thus vital and a prerequisite for fully confined environments such as space habitats. Bioaerosols and microbial contamination in these confined space stations can have significant health impacts, considering the unique prevailing conditions and constraints of such habitats. Therefore, biocontamination in space stations is strictly monitored and controlled to ensure crew and mission safety. However, efficient bioaerosol control measures rely on solid understanding and knowledge on how these bioaerosols are created and dispersed, and which factors affect the survivability of the associated microorganisms. Here we review the current knowledge gained from relevant studies in this wide and multidisciplinary area of bioaerosol dispersion modeling and biological indoor air quality control, specifically taking into account the specific space conditions.

  12. Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dick, Brandon; Cook, Tony; Leonard, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) requires stores of Oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2) to provide for atmosphere replenishment, direct crew member usage, and payload operations. Currently, supplies of N2/O2 are maintained by transfer from the Space Shuttle. Following Space Shuttle is retirement in 2010, an alternate means of resupplying N2/O2 to the ISS is needed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has determined that the optimal method of supplying the ISS with O2/N2 is using tanks of high pressure N2/O2 carried to the station by a cargo vehicle capable of docking with the ISS. This paper will outline the architecture of the system selected by NASA and will discuss some of the design challenges associated with this use of high pressure oxygen and nitrogen in the human spaceflight environment.

  13. Solar Pumped Solid State Lasers for Space Solar Power: Experimental Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fork, Richard L.; Carrington, Connie K.; Walker, Wesley W.; Cole, Spencer T.; Green, Jason J. A.; Laycock, Rustin L.

    2003-01-01

    We outline an experimentally based strategy designed to lead to solar pumped solid state laser oscillators useful for space solar power. Our method involves solar pumping a novel solid state gain element specifically designed to provide efficient conversion of sunlight in space to coherent laser light. Kilowatt and higher average power is sought from each gain element. Multiple such modular gain elements can be used to accumulate total average power of interest for power beaming in space, e.g., 100 kilowatts and more. Where desirable the high average power can also be produced as a train of pulses having high peak power (e.g., greater than 10(exp 10 watts). The modular nature of the basic gain element supports an experimental strategy in which the core technology can be validated by experiments on a single gain element. We propose to do this experimental validation both in terrestrial locations and also on a smaller scale in space. We describe a terrestrial experiment that includes diagnostics and the option of locating the laser beam path in vacuum environment. We describe a space based experiment designed to be compatible with the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). We anticipate the gain elements will be based on low temperature (approx. 100 degrees Kelvin) operation of high thermal conductivity (k approx. 100 W/cm-K) diamond and sapphire (k approx. 4 W/cm-K). The basic gain element will be formed by sequences of thin alternating layers of diamond and Ti:sapphire with special attention given to the material interfaces. We anticipate this strategy will lead to a particularly simple, robust, and easily maintained low mass modelocked multi-element laser oscillator useful for space solar power.

  14. Lewis Research Center space station electric power system test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Martin, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center facilities were developed to support testing of the Space Station Electric Power System. The capabilities and plans for these facilities are described. The three facilities which are required in the Phase C/D testing, the Power Systems Facility, the Space Power Facility, and the EPS Simulation Lab, are described in detail. The responsibilities of NASA Lewis and outside groups in conducting tests are also discussed.

  15. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  16. NCERA-101 Station Report from Kennedy Space Center, FL, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    This is our annual report to the North Central Extension Research Activity, which is affiliated with the USDA and Land Grant University Agricultural Experiment Stations. I have been a member of this committee for 25 years. The presentation will be given by Dr. Gioia Massa, Kennedy Space Center

  17. Space station high gain antenna concept definition and technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    The layout of a technology base is reported from which a mechanically gimballed, directional antenna can be developed to support a manned space station proposed for the late 1970's. The effort includes the concept definition for the antenna assembly, an evaluation of available technology, the design of critical subassemblies and the design of critical subassembly tests.

  18. Space Station Freedom regenerative water recovery system configuration selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reysa, R.; Edwards, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) must recover water from various waste water sources to reduce 90 day water resupply demands for a four/eight person crew. The water recovery system options considered are summarized together with system configuration merits and demerits, resource advantages and disadvantages, and water quality considerations used to select the SSF water recovery system.

  19. NREL Research Takes Off for International Space Station | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    hydrogen. Research has proven that nitrate starvation triggers C. vulgaris to go into lipid production mode NREL Research Takes Off for International Space Station NREL Research Takes Off for International the other, Chlorella vulgaris, will make lipids. NREL research dating back to the late 1970s opened

  20. Cooperating expert systems for space station power distribution management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.A.; Chiou, W.C.

    1986-01-01

    In a complex system such as the manned Space Station, it is deemed necessary that many expert systems must perform tasks in a concurrent and cooperative manner. An important question to arise is: what cooperative-task-performing models are appropriate for multiple expert systems to jointly perform tasks. The solution to this question will provide a crucial automation design criteria for the Space Station complex systems architecture. Based on a client/server model for performing tasks, the authors have developed a system that acts as a front-end to support loosely-coupled communications between expert systems running on multiple Symbolics machines. As an example, they use the two ART*-based expert systems to demonstrate the concept of parallel symbolic manipulation for power distribution management and dynamic load planner/scheduler in the simulated Space Station environment. This on-going work will also explore other cooperative-task-performing models as alternatives which can evaluate inter and intra expert system communication mechanisms. It will serve as a testbed and a bench-marking tool for other Space Station expert subsystem communication and information exchange

  1. EAC training and medical support for International Space Station astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmid, E; Haignere, J P; Damian, K; Damann, V

    2000-11-01

    The operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be a global multilateral endeavour. Each International Partner will be responsible for the operation of its elements and for providing a crew complement proportional to its share of the overall resources. The preparations of the European Astronaut Centre to furnish training and medical support for the ISS astronauts are described.

  2. Cooperating Expert Systems For Space Station Power Distribution Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. A.; Chiou, W. C.

    1987-02-01

    In a complex system such as the manned Space Station, it is deem necessary that many expert systems must perform tasks in a concurrent and cooperative manner. An important question arise is: what cooperative-task-performing models are appropriate for multiple expert systems to jointly perform tasks. The solution to this question will provide a crucial automation design criteria for the Space Station complex systems architecture. Based on a client/server model for performing tasks, we have developed a system that acts as a front-end to support loosely-coupled communications between expert systems running on multiple Symbolics machines. As an example, we use two ART*-based expert systems to demonstrate the concept of parallel symbolic manipulation for power distribution management and dynamic load planner/scheduler in the simulated Space Station environment. This on-going work will also explore other cooperative-task-performing models as alternatives which can evaluate inter and intra expert system communication mechanisms. It will be served as a testbed and a bench-marking tool for other Space Station expert subsystem communication and information exchange.

  3. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  4. International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle: X-38. Educational Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide the world with an orbiting laboratory that will have long-duration micro-gravity experimentation capability. The crew size for this facility will depend upon the crew return capability. The first crews will consist of three astronauts from Russia and the United States. The crew is limited to three…

  5. Experimentation Using the Mir Station as a Space Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Institute for Machine Building (TsNIIMASH) Korolev, Moscow Region, Russia V. Teslenko and N. Shvets Energia Space Corporation Korolev, Moscow...N. Shvets Energia Space Corporation Korolev, Moscow Region, Russia J. A. Drakes/ D. G. Swann, and W. K. McGregor* Sverdrup Technology, Inc...and plume computations. Excitation of the plume gas molecular electronic states by solar radiation, geo- corona Lyman-alpha, and electronic impact

  6. Recommendations for the market introduction of solar thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trieb, F.; Nitsch, J.

    1998-01-01

    Until 2010, solar thermal power stations based on parabolic trough concentrating collectors can become a competitive option on the world's electricity market, if the market extension of this mature technology is supported by a concerted, long-term programme capable of bundling the forces of industry, finance, insurance and politics. Technical improvements based on the experience of over ten years of successful operation, series production and economies of scale will lead to a further cost reduction of 50% and to electricity costs of 0.06 - 0.04 US$/kWh for hybrid steam cycles and hybrid combined cycles, respectively. Until 2010, a capacity of 7 GW will be installed, avoiding 16 million tons of carbon dioxide per year. The programme comprises an investment of 16 billion US$ and requires external funding of 6%. (author)

  7. Space Station view of the Pyramids at Giza

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    One of the world's most famous archaeological sites has been photographed in amazing detail by the astronauts onboard Space Station Alpha. This image, taken 15 August, 2001, represents the greatest detail of the Giza plateau captured from a human-occupied spacecraft (approximate 7 m resolution). Afternoon sun casts shadows that help the eye make out the large pyramids of Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. Sets of three smaller queens' pyramids can be seen to the east of the Pyramid of Khufu and south of the Pyramid of Menkaure. The light-colored causeway stretching from the Mortuary Temple at the Pyramid of Khafre to the Valley Temple near the Sphinx (arrow) can also be seen. Because it is not tall enough to cast a deep shadow, the Sphinx itself cannot readily be distinguished. Although some commercial satellites, such as IKONOS, have imaged the Pyramids at Giza in greater detail (1 m resolution), this image highlights the potential of the International Space Station as a remote sensing platform. A commercial digital camera without space modifications was used to obtain this picture. Similarly, a variety of remote sensing instruments developed for use on aircraft can potentially be used from the Space Station. Currently, all photographs of Earth taken by astronauts from the Space Shuttle and Space Station are released to the public for scientific and educational benefit and can be accessed on the World Wide Web through the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth (http://eol/jsc.nasa.gov/sseop). Image ISS003-ESC-5120 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov).

  8. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Thomas [German Aerospace Center - DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as 'operational' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on 'scientific' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  9. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  10. Space vehicle with customizable payload and docking station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; McCabe, Kevin; Seitz, Daniel

    2018-01-30

    A "black box" space vehicle solution may allow a payload developer to define the mission space and provide mission hardware within a predetermined volume and with predetermined connectivity. Components such as the power module, radios and boards, attitude determination and control system (ADCS), command and data handling (C&DH), etc. may all be provided as part of a "stock" (i.e., core) space vehicle. The payload provided by the payload developer may be plugged into the space vehicle payload section, tested, and launched without custom development of core space vehicle components by the payload developer. A docking station may facilitate convenient development and testing of the space vehicle while reducing handling thereof.

  11. The space-age solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baugher, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    This book is a description of the sun, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets in the solar system. Discussion is based heavily on results obtained from recent space probes to Mercury, Venus, Mars Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus. Offers detailed descriptions of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and the results of the recent probes of Halley's comet. A discussion of meteorites leads to a description of the current models of the solar system. Introductory chapters present theories of the solar system from the ancient Greeks to the present day. Other topics covered include the sun, its structure, and how it generates energy; the surfaces, internal structures, and histories of the planets, from innermost Mercury to farthest Pluto, and their moons

  12. Space station automation and robotics study. Operator-systems interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    This is the final report of a Space Station Automation and Robotics Planning Study, which was a joint project of the Boeing Aerospace Company, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, and Boeing Computer Services Company. The study is in support of the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee established by NASA in accordance with a mandate by the U.S. Congress. Boeing support complements that provided to the NASA Contractor study team by four aerospace contractors, the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and the California Space Institute. This study identifies automation and robotics (A&R) technologies that can be advanced by requirements levied by the Space Station Program. The methodology used in the study is to establish functional requirements for the operator system interface (OSI), establish the technologies needed to meet these requirements, and to forecast the availability of these technologies. The OSI would perform path planning, tracking and control, object recognition, fault detection and correction, and plan modifications in connection with extravehicular (EV) robot operations.

  13. Space Station Freedom - Approaching the critical design phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrs, Richard H.; Huckins, Earle, III

    1992-01-01

    The status and future developments of the Space Station Freedom are discussed. To date detailed design drawings are being produced to manufacture SSF hardware. A critical design review (CDR) for the man-tended capability configuration is planned to be performed in 1993 under the SSF program. The main objective of the CDR is to enable the program to make a full commitment to proceed to manufacture parts and assemblies. NASA recently signed a contract with the Russian space company, NPO Energia, to evaluate potential applications of various Russian space hardware for on-going NASA programs.

  14. Medical Applications of Space Light-Emitting Diode Technology--Space Station and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, H.T.; Houle, J.M.; Donohoe, D.L.; Bajic, D.M.; Schmidt, M.H.; Reichert, K.W.; Weyenberg, G.T.; Larson, D.L.; Meyer, G.A.; Caviness, J.A.

    1999-06-01

    Space light-emitting diode (LED) technology has provided medicine with a new tool capable of delivering light deep into tissues of the body, at wavelengths which are biologically optimal for cancer treatment and wound healing. This LED technology has already flown on Space Shuttle missions, and shows promise for wound healing applications of benefit to Space Station astronauts.

  15. A Data Management System for International Space Station Simulation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Bradley J.; DelMundo, Rommel; Elcott, Sharif; McIntosh, Dawn; Niehaus, Brian; Papasin, Richard; Mah, Robert W.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Groups associated with the design, operational, and training aspects of the International Space Station make extensive use of modeling and simulation tools. Users of these tools often need to access and manipulate large quantities of data associated with the station, ranging from design documents to wiring diagrams. Retrieving and manipulating this data directly within the simulation and modeling environment can provide substantial benefit to users. An approach for providing these kinds of data management services, including a database schema and class structure, is presented. Implementation details are also provided as a data management system is integrated into the Intelligent Virtual Station, a modeling and simulation tool developed by the NASA Ames Smart Systems Research Laboratory. One use of the Intelligent Virtual Station is generating station-related training procedures in a virtual environment, The data management component allows users to quickly and easily retrieve information related to objects on the station, enhancing their ability to generate accurate procedures. Users can associate new information with objects and have that information stored in a database.

  16. The Space Station as a Construction Base for Large Space Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Space Station as a construction site for large space structures is examined. An overview is presented of the results of a program entitled Definition of Technology Development Missions (TDM's) for Early Space Stations - Large Space Structures. The definition of LSS technology development missions must be responsive to the needs of future space missions which require large space structures. Long range plans for space were assembled by reviewing Space System Technology Models (SSTM) and other published sources. Those missions which will use large space structures were reviewed to determine the objectives which must be demonstrated by technology development missions. The three TDM's defined during this study are: (1) a construction storage/hangar facility; (2) a passive microwave radiometer; and (3) a precision optical system.

  17. "EGM" (Electrostatics of Granular Matter): A Space Station Experiment to Examine Natural Particulate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Sauke, T.; Buehler, M.; Farrell, W.; Green, R.; Birchenough, A.

    1999-09-01

    A granular-materials experiment is being developed for a 2002 launch for Space Station deployment. The experiment is funded by NASA HQ and managed through NASA Lewis Research Center. The experiment will examine electrostatic aggregation of coarse granular materials with the goals of (a) obtaining proof for an electrostatic dipole model of grain interactions, and (b) obtaining knowledge about the way aggregation affects the behavior of natural particulate masses: (1) in unconfined dispersions (clouds such as nebulae, aeolian dust palls, volcanic plumes), (2) in semi-confined, self-loaded masses as in fluidized flows (pyroclastic surges, avalanches) and compacted regolith, or (3) in semi-confined non-loaded masses as in dust layers adhering to solar cells or space suits on Mars. The experiment addresses both planetary/astrophysical issues as well as practical concerns for human exploration of Mars or other solar system bodies. Additional information is contained in the original.

  18. Inspiring the Next Generation: The International Space Station Education Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Hasbrook, Pete; Knowles, Carolyn; Chicoine, Ruth Ann; Miyagawa, Yayoi; Koyama, Masato; Savage, Nigel; Zell, Martin; Biryukova, Nataliya; Pinchuk, Vladimir; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has a unique ability to capture the imagination of both students and teachers worldwide. Since 2000, the presence of humans onboard ISS has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over 43 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related educational activities. Projects such as YouTube Space Lab, Sally Ride Earth Knowledge-based Acquired by Middle Schools (EarthKAM), SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) Zero-Robotics, Tomatosphere, and MAI-75 events among others have allowed for global student, teacher and public access to space through student classroom investigations and real-time audio and video contacts with crewmembers. Educational activities are not limited to STEM but encompass all aspects of the human condition. This is well illustrated in the Uchu Renshi project, a chain poem initiated by an astronaut while in space and continued and completed by people on Earth. With ISS operations now extended to 2024, projects like these and their accompanying educational materials are available to more students around the world. From very early on in the program's history, students have been provided with a unique opportunity to get involved and participate in science and engineering projects. Many of these projects support inquiry-based learning that allows students to ask questions, develop hypothesis-derived experiments, obtain supporting evidence and identify solutions or explanations. This approach to learning is well-published as one of the most effective ways to inspire students to pursue careers in scientific and technology fields. Ever since the first space station element was launched, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed, both individually and collaboratively, by all the

  19. Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Anthony J.

    2001-02-01

    The International Space Station will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines-it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally complete in April of 2006. Space logistics is a new concept that will have wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. What is it like to do something that no one has done before? What challenges do you face? What kind of organization do you put together to perform this type of task? How do you optimize your resources to procure what you need? How do you change a paradigm within a space agency? How do you coordinate and manage a one of a kind system with approximately 5,700 Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs)? How do you plan for preventive and corrective maintenance, when you need to procure spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors? How do you transport large sections of ISS hardware around the country? These are some of the topics discussed in this paper. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operation. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station and only time will tell if we did it right. This paper discusses some of the experiences of the author after working 12 years on the International Space Station's integrated logistics & maintenance program. From his early days as a contractor supportability engineer and manager, to the NASA manager responsible for the entire ISS Logistics and Maintenance program. .

  20. Space Station Workshop: Commercial Missions and User Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The topics of discussion addressed during a three day workshop on commercial application in space are presented. Approximately half of the program was directed towards an overview and orientation to the Space Station Project; the technical attributes of space; and present and future potential commercial opportunities. The remaining time was spent addressing technological issues presented by previously-formed industry working groups, who attempted to identify the technology needs, problems or issues faced and/or anticipated by the following industries: extraction (mining, agriculture, petroleum, fishing, etc.); fabrication (manufacturing, automotive, aircraft, chemical, pharmaceutical and electronics); and services (communications, transportation and retail robotics). After the industry groups presented their technology issues, the workshop divided into smaller discussion groups composed of: space experts from NASA; academia; industry experts in the appropriate disciplines; and other workshop participants. The needs identified by the industry working groups, space station technical requirements, proposed commercial ventures and other issues related to space commercialization were discussed. The material summarized and reported are the consensus from the discussion groups.

  1. Shielding requirements for the Space Station habitability modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avans, Sherman L.; Horn, Jennifer R.; Williamsen, Joel E.

    1990-01-01

    The design, analysis, development, and tests of the total meteoroid/debris protection system for the Space Station Freedom habitability modules, such as the habitation module, the laboratory module, and the node structures, are described. Design requirements are discussed along with development efforts, including a combination of hypervelocity testing and analyses. Computer hydrocode analysis of hypervelocity impact phenomena associated with Space Station habitability structures is covered and the use of optimization techniques, engineering models, and parametric analyses is assessed. Explosive rail gun development efforts and protective capability and damage tolerance of multilayer insulation due to meteoroid/debris impact are considered. It is concluded that anticipated changes in the debris environment definition and requirements will require rescoping the tests and analysis required to develop a protection system.

  2. Effect of science laboratory centrifuge of space station environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searby, Nancy

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that it is essential to have a centrifuge operating during manned space station operations. Background information and a rationale for the research centrifuge are given. It is argued that we must provide a controlled acceleration environment for comparison with microgravity studies. The lack of control groups in previous studies throws into question whether the obseved effects were the result of microgravity or not. The centrifuge could be used to provide a 1-g environment to supply specimens free of launch effects for long-term studies. With the centrifuge, the specimens could be immediately transferred to microgravity without undergoing gradual acclimation. Also, the effects of artificial gravity on humans could be investigated. It is also argued that the presence of the centrifuge on the space station will not cause undo vibrations or other disturbing effects.

  3. Atmosphere and water quality monitoring on Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, William

    1990-01-01

    In Space Station Freedom air and water will be supplied in closed loop systems. The monitoring of air and water qualities will ensure the crew health for the long mission duration. The Atmosphere Composition Monitor consists of the following major instruments: (1) a single focusing mass spectrometer to monitor major air constituents and control the oxygen/nitrogen addition for the Space Station; (2) a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer to detect trace contaminants; (3) a non-dispersive infrared spectrometer to determine carbon monoxide concentration; and (4) a laser particle counter for measuring particulates in the air. An overview of the design and development concepts for the air and water quality monitors is presented.

  4. A fresh look at space solar power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankins, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies of systems to provide solar power from space for terrestrial use defined very large, geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) satellite concepts that--given massive initial government investments and extremely low cost space launch--might have led to power production at costs only somewhat higher than expected commercial prices. These studies of space solar power (SSP) succeeded in establishing technical feasibility. Shortly after the completion of the 1970s study, however, US funding came to an abrupt and seemingly permanent halt--in part because projected costs for the reference system were staggering: well in excess of $100B to achieve the first commercial kilowatt-hour of power. SSP has seen sporadic study and limited experimentation during the past decade (e.g., in Japan). Still, no existing SSP concept has engendered private development. New technologies now make possible concepts and approaches that suggest that SSP economic feasibility may be achievable early in the next century. In 1995, NASA's Advanced Concepts Office initiated a study taking a fresh look at innovative concepts for SSP that differ markedly from previously examined concepts, addressing innovative system architectures, markets and technologies that could radically reduce initial and operational costs. This paper will explore the issues associated with SSP and will summarize the results to date of NASA's recent fresh look at this important and increasingly timely field of space applications

  5. High data rate coding for the space station telemetry links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, D. R.; Viterbi, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Coding systems for high data rates were examined from the standpoint of potential application in space-station telemetry links. Approaches considered included convolutional codes with sequential, Viterbi, and cascaded-Viterbi decoding. It was concluded that a high-speed (40 Mbps) sequential decoding system best satisfies the requirements for the assumed growth potential and specified constraints. Trade-off studies leading to this conclusion are viewed, and some sequential (Fano) algorithm improvements are discussed, together with real-time simulation results.

  6. Performance issues in management of the Space Station Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    The onboard segment of the Space Station Information System (SSIS), called the Data Management System (DMS), will consist of a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) token-ring network. The performance of the DMS in scenarios involving two kinds of network management is analyzed. In the first scenario, how the transmission of routine management messages impacts performance of the DMS is examined. In the second scenario, techniques for ensuring low latency of real-time control messages in an emergency are examined.

  7. Observation of radiation environment in the International Space Station in 2012–March 2013 by Liulin-5 particle telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semkova Jordanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since June 2007 the Liulin-5 charged particle telescope, located in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom of the MATROSHKA-R project onboard the International Space Station (ISS, has been making measurements of the local energetic particle radiation environment. From 27 December 2011 to 09 March 2013 measurements were conducted in and outside the phantom located in the MIM1 module of the ISS. In this paper Liulin-5 dose rates, due to galactic cosmic rays and South Atlantic Anomaly trapped protons, measured during that period are presented. Particularly, dose rates and particle fluxes for the radiation characteristics in the phantom during solar energetic particle (SEP events occurring in March and May 2012 are discussed. Liulin-5 SEP observations are compared with other ISS data, GOES proton fluxes as well as with solar energetic particle measurements obtained onboard the Mir space station during previous solar cycles.

  8. Full space device optimization for solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Ahmer A B; Aly, Shahzada P; Hossain, Mohammad I; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Tabet, Nouar; Alharbi, Fahhad H

    2017-09-20

    Advances in computational materials have paved a way to design efficient solar cells by identifying the optimal properties of the device layers. Conventionally, the device optimization has been governed by single or double descriptors for an individual layer; mostly the absorbing layer. However, the performance of the device depends collectively on all the properties of the material and the geometry of each layer in the cell. To address this issue of multi-property optimization and to avoid the paradigm of reoccurring materials in the solar cell field, a full space material-independent optimization approach is developed and presented in this paper. The method is employed to obtain an optimized material data set for maximum efficiency and for targeted functionality for each layer. To ensure the robustness of the method, two cases are studied; namely perovskite solar cells device optimization and cadmium-free CIGS solar cell. The implementation determines the desirable optoelectronic properties of transport mediums and contacts that can maximize the efficiency for both cases. The resulted data sets of material properties can be matched with those in materials databases or by further microscopic material design. Moreover, the presented multi-property optimization framework can be extended to design any solid-state device.

  9. Engineering graphics data entry for space station data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The entry of graphical engineering data into the Space Station Data Base was examined. Discussed were: representation of graphics objects; representation of connectivity data; graphics capture hardware; graphics display hardware; site-wide distribution of graphics, and consolidation of tools and hardware. A fundamental assumption was that existing equipment such as IBM based graphics capture software and VAX networked facilities would be exploited. Defensible conclusions reached after study and simulations of use of these systems at the engineering level are: (1) existing IBM based graphics capture software is an adequate and economical means of entry of schematic and block diagram data for present and anticipated electronic systems for Space Station; (2) connectivity data from the aforementioned system may be incorporated into the envisioned Space Station Data Base with modest effort; (3) graphics and connectivity data captured on the IBM based system may be exported to the VAX network in a simple and direct fashion; (4) graphics data may be displayed site-wide on VT-125 terminals and lookalikes; (5) graphics hard-copy may be produced site-wide on various dot-matrix printers; and (6) the system may provide integrated engineering services at both the engineering and engineering management level.

  10. Space solar power satellite systems with a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellum, M. J. (Mervyn J.); Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in mankind's access to outer space. If the SE's promise of low-cost access to space can be realized, the economics of space-based business endeavors becomes much more feasible. In this paper, we describe a Solar Power Satellite (SPS) system and estimate its costs within the context of an SE. We also offer technical as well as financial comparisons between SPS and terrestrial solar photovoltaic technologies. Even though SPS systems have been designed for over 35 years, technologies pertinent to SPS systems are continually evolving. One of the designs we present includes an evolving technology, optical rectennas. SPS systems could be a long-term energy source that is clean, technologically feasible, and virtually limitless. Moreover, electrical energy could be distributed inexpensively to remote areas where such power does not currently exist, thereby raising the quality of life of the people living in those areas. The energy 'playing field' will be leveled across the world and the resulting economic growth will improve the lot of humankind everywhere.

  11. The Bus Station Spacing Optimization Based on Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of city, the problem of traffic is becoming more and more serious. Developing public transportation has become the key to solving this problem in all countries. Based on the existing public transit network, how to improve the bus operation efficiency, and reduce the residents transit trip cost has become a simple and effective way to develop the public transportation. Bus stop spacing is an important factor affecting passengers’ travel time. How to set up bus stop spacing has become the key to reducing passengers’ travel time. According to comprehensive traffic survey, theoretical analysis, and summary of urban public transport characteristics, this paper analyzes the impact of bus stop spacing on passenger in-bus time cost and out-bus time cost and establishes in-bus time and out-bus time model. Finally, the paper gets the balance best station spacing by introducing the game theory.

  12. Operations planning for Space Station Freedom - And beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Stephen S.; Martin, Thomas E.; Durham, H. J.

    1992-01-01

    The potential of automated planning and electronic execution systems for enhancing operations on board Space Station Freedom (SSF) are discussed. To exploit this potential the Operations Planning and Scheduling Subsystem is being developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Such systems may also make valuable contributions to the operation of resource-constrained, long-duration space habitats of the future. Points that should be considered during the design of future long-duration manned space missions are discussed. Early development of a detailed operations concept as an end-to-end mission description offers a basis for iterative design evaluation, refinement, and option comparison, particularly when used with an advanced operations planning system capable of modeling the operations and resource constraints of the proposed designs.

  13. Integration Assessment of Visiting Vehicle Induced Electrical Charging of the International Space Station Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leonard; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Galofaro, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) undergoes electrical charging in low Earth orbit (LEO) due to positively biased, exposed conductors on solar arrays that collect electrical charges from the space plasma. Exposed solar array conductors predominately collect negatively charged electrons and thus drive the metal ISS structure electrical ground to a negative floating potential (FP) relative to plasma. This FP is variable in location and time as a result of local ionospheric conditions. ISS motion through Earth s magnetic field creates an addition inductive voltage up to 20 positive and negative volts across ISS structure depending on its attitude and location in orbit. ISS Visiting Vehicles (VVs), such as the planned Orion crew exploration vehicle, contribute to the ISS plasma charging processes. Upon physical contact with ISS, the current collection properties of VVs combine with ISS. This is an ISS integration concern as FP must be controlled to minimize arcing of ISS surfaces and ensure proper management of extra vehicular activity crewman shock hazards. This report is an assessment of ISS induced charging from docked Orion vehicles employing negatively grounded, 130 volt class, UltraFlex (ATK Space Systems) solar arrays. To assess plasma electron current collection characteristics, Orion solar cell test coupons were constructed and subjected to plasma chamber current collection measurements. During these tests, coupon solar cells were biased between 0 and 120 V while immersed in a simulated LEO plasma. Tests were performed using several different simulated LEO plasma densities and temperatures. These data and associated theoretical scaling of plasma properties, were combined in a numerical model which was integrated into the Boeing Plasma Interaction Model. It was found that the solar array design for Orion will not affect the ISS FP by more than about 2 V during worst case charging conditions. This assessment also motivated a trade study to determine

  14. The International Space Station (ISS) Education Accomplishments and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Blue, Regina; Mayo, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers worldwide and thus stands as an invaluable learning platform for the advancement of proficiency in research and development and education. The presence of humans on board ISS for the past ten years has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines which will lead to an increase in quality of teachers, advancements in research and development, an increase in the global reputation for intellectual achievement, and an expanded ability to pursue unchartered avenues towards a brighter future. Over 41 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related activities since the year 2000. Projects such as the Amateur Radio on International Space Station (ARISS) and Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), among others, have allowed for global student, teacher, and public access to space through radio contacts with crewmembers and student image acquisition respectively. . With planned ISS operations at least until 2020, projects like the aforementioned and their accompanying educational materials will be available to enable increased STEM literacy around the world. Since the launch of the first ISS element, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed by each of the international partner agencies: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). Additionally, a number of non-participating countries, some under commercial agreements, have also participated in Station-related activities. Many of these programs still continue while others are being developed and added to the station crewmembers tasks

  15. Space Station Freedom - Configuration management approach to supporting concurrent engineering and total quality management. [for NASA Space Station Freedom Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    1990-01-01

    Some experiences of NASA configuration management in providing concurrent engineering support to the Space Station Freedom program for the achievement of life cycle benefits and total quality are discussed. Three change decision experiences involving tracing requirements and automated information systems of the electrical power system are described. The potential benefits of concurrent engineering and total quality management include improved operational effectiveness, reduced logistics and support requirements, prevention of schedule slippages, and life cycle cost savings. It is shown how configuration management can influence the benefits attained through disciplined approaches and innovations that compel consideration of all the technical elements of engineering and quality factors that apply to the program development, transition to operations and in operations. Configuration management experiences involving the Space Station program's tiered management structure, the work package contractors, international partners, and the participating NASA centers are discussed.

  16. Operations Data Files, driving force behind International Space Station operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Ferra, Lionel; Markus, Michael; Wolff, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Almost all tasks performed by the astronauts on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and by ground controllers in Mission Control Centre, from operation and maintenance of station systems to the execution of scientific experiments or high risk visiting vehicles docking manoeuvres, would not be possible without Operations Data Files (ODF). ODFs are the User Manuals of the Space Station and have multiple faces, going from traditional step-by-step procedures, scripts, cue cards, over displays, to software which guides the crew through the execution of certain tasks. Those key operational documents are standardized as they are used on-board the Space Station by an international crew constantly changing every 3 months. Furthermore this harmonization effort is paramount for consistency as the crew moves from one element to another in a matter of seconds, and from one activity to another. On ground, a significant large group of experts from all International Partners drafts, prepares reviews and approves on a daily basis all Operations Data Files, ensuring their timely availability on-board the ISS for all activities. Unavailability of these operational documents will halt the conduct of experiments or cancel milestone events. This paper will give an insight in the ground preparation work for the ODFs (with a focus on ESA ODF processes) and will present an overview on ODF formats and their usage within the ISS environment today and show how vital they are. Furthermore the focus will be on the recently implemented ODF features, which significantly ease the use of this documentation and improve the efficiency of the astronauts performing the tasks. Examples are short video demonstrations, interactive 3D animations, Execute Tailored Procedures (XTP-versions), tablet products, etc.

  17. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations: Large space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, R. M.; Reid, G.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives studied are the definition of the tested role of an early Space Station for the construction of large space structures. This is accomplished by defining the LSS technology development missions (TDMs) identified in phase 1. Design and operations trade studies are used to identify the best structural concepts and procedures for each TDMs. Details of the TDM designs are then developed along with their operational requirements. Space Station resources required for each mission, both human and physical, are identified. The costs and development schedules for the TDMs provide an indication of the programs needed to develop these missions.

  18. The Space Station Freedom - International cooperation and innovation in space safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, George A.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) being developed by the United States, European Space Agency (ESA), Japan, and Canada poses novel safety challenges in design, operations, logistics, and program management. A brief overview discloses many features that make SSF a radical departure from earlier low earth orbit (LEO) space stations relative to safety management: size and power levels; multiphase manned assembly; 30-year planned lifetime, with embedded 'hooks and scars' forevolution; crew size and skill-mix variability; sustained logistical dependence; use of man, robotics and telepresence for on-orbit maintenance of station and free-flyer systems; closed-environment recycling; use of automation and expert systems; long-term operation of collocated life-sciences and materials-science experiments, requiring control and segregation of hazardous and chemically incompatible materials; and materials aging in space.

  19. Modal Testing of Seven Shuttle Cargo Elements for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Kathy O.; Driskill, Timothy C.; Parks, Russel A.; Patterson, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    From December 1996 to May 2001, the Modal and Control Dynamics Team at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted modal tests on seven large elements of the International Space Station. Each of these elements has been or will be launched as a Space Shuttle payload for transport to the International Space Station (ISS). Like other Shuttle payloads, modal testing of these elements was required for verification of the finite element models used in coupled loads analyses for launch and landing. The seven modal tests included three modules - Node, Laboratory, and Airlock, and four truss segments - P6, P3/P4, S1/P1, and P5. Each element was installed and tested in the Shuttle Payload Modal Test Bed at MSFC. This unique facility can accommodate any Shuttle cargo element for modal test qualification. Flexure assemblies were utilized at each Shuttle-to-payload interface to simulate a constrained boundary in the load carrying degrees of freedom. For each element, multiple-input, multiple-output burst random modal testing was the primary approach with controlled input sine sweeps for linearity assessments. The accelerometer channel counts ranged from 252 channels to 1251 channels. An overview of these tests, as well as some lessons learned, will be provided in this paper.

  20. From CERN to the International Space Station and back

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In December I flew on the Space Shuttle Discovery to ISS, the International Space Station. The main objectives were to continue building ISS, deliver consumables, spare parts and experiments and for the exchange of one crew member on ISS. During the 8-day stay at ISS, I participated in three space-walks, but also got the opportunity to perform one experiment, ALTEA, related to radiation in space and light flashes seen by many people in space. I will give a quick personal history, from when I was a Fellow at Cern in 1990 and learned that I could apply to become an ESA astronaut, to when I finally boarded a space craft to launch on Dec. 9th 2006. A 17 minute video will tell the story about the flight itself. The second half of the talk will be about research related to radiation in space that I have been involved in since joining ESA in 1992. In particular, about light flashes that were first reported on Apollo-11 in 1969, and the SilEye detectors flown on Mir and ISS to investigate fluxes of charged particles ...

  1. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) on the International Space Station (ISS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Gasbarre, Joseph; Eckman, Richard; Topiwala, Nandkishore; Rodriquez-Alvarez, Otilia; Cheek, Dianne; Hall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will provide the science community with high-vertical resolution and nearly global observations of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gas species in the stratosphere and upper-troposphere. SAGE III/ISS measurements will extend the long-term Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) and SAGE data record begun in the 1970s. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are considered the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Key objectives of the mission are to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to re-establish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The space station mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. The SAGE III instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring atmospheric constituents with high vertical resolution. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. Science data is collected in solar occultation mode, lunar occultation mode, and limb scatter measurement mode. A SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle will provide access to space. Mounted in the unpressurized section of the Dragon trunk, SAGE III will be robotically removed from the Dragon and installed on the space station. SAGE III/ISS will be mounted to the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier-4 (ELC-4) location on the starboard side of the station. To facilitate a nadir view from this location, a Nadir Viewing Platform (NVP) payload was developed which mounts between the carrier and the SAGE III Instrument Payload (IP).

  2. Definition of satellite servicing technology development missions for early space stations. Volume 2: Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Early space station accommodation, build-up of space station manipulator capability, on-orbit spacecraft assembly test and launch, large antenna structure deployment, service/refurbish satellite, and servicing of free-flying materials processing platform are discussed.

  3. On-Orbit Prospective Echocardiography on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Melton, Shannon; Feiverson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    A number of echocardiographic research projects and experiments have been flown on almost every space vehicle since 1970, but validation of standard methods and the determination of Space Normal cardiac function has not been reported to date. Advanced Diagnostics in Microgravity (ADUM) -remote guided echocardiographic technique provides a novel and effective approach to on-board assessment of cardiac physiology and structure using a just-in-time training algorithm and real-time remote guidance aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The validation of remotely guided echocardiographic techniques provides the procedures and protocols to perform scientific and clinical echocardiography on the ISS and the Moon. The objectives of this study were: 1.To confirm the ability of non-physician astronaut/cosmonaut crewmembers to perform clinically relevant remotely guided echocardiography using the Human Research Facility on board the ISS. 2.To compare the preflight, postflight and in-flight echocardiographic parameters commonly used in clinical medicine.

  4. Space Station Centrifuge: A Requirement for Life Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur H.; Fuller, Charles A.; Johnson, Catherine C.; Winget, Charles M.

    1992-01-01

    A centrifuge with the largest diameter that can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom is required to conduct life science research in the microgravity environment of space. (This was one of the findings of a group of life scientists convened at the University of California, Davis, by Ames Research Center.) The centrifuge will be used as a research tool to understand how gravity affects biological processes; to provide an on-orbit one-g control; and to assess the efficacy of using artificial gravity to counteract the deleterious biological effect of space flight. The rationale for the recommendation and examples of using ground-based centrifugation for animal and plant acceleration studies are presented. Included are four appendixes and an extensive bibliography of hypergravity studies.

  5. Space station operations task force. Panel 3 report: User development and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The User Development and Integration Panel of the Space Station Operations Task Force was chartered to develop concepts relating to the operations of the Space Station manned base and the platforms, user accommodation and integration activities. The needs of the user community are addressed in the context with the mature operations phase of the Space Station. Issues addressed include space station pricing options, marketing strategies, payload selection and resource allocation options, and manifesting techniques.

  6. International Space Station End-of-Life Probabilistic Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Gary W.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) end-of-life (EOL) cycle is currently scheduled for 2020, although there are ongoing efforts to extend ISS life cycle through 2028. The EOL for the ISS will require deorbiting the ISS. This will be the largest manmade object ever to be de-orbited therefore safely deorbiting the station will be a very complex problem. This process is being planned by NASA and its international partners. Numerous factors will need to be considered to accomplish this such as target corridors, orbits, altitude, drag, maneuvering capabilities etc. The ISS EOL Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will play a part in this process by estimating the reliability of the hardware supplying the maneuvering capabilities. The PRA will model the probability of failure of the systems supplying and controlling the thrust needed to aid in the de-orbit maneuvering.

  7. Solar Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk,

    2012-01-01

    Radio bursts from the Sun are produced by electron accelerated to relativistic energies by physical processes on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The radio bursts are thus good indicators of solar eruptions. Three types of nonthermal radio bursts are generally associated with CMEs. Type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines. The electrons are thought to be accelerated at the reconnection region beneath the erupting CME, although there is another view that the electrons may be accelerated at the CME-driven shock. Type II bursts are due to electrons accelerated at the shock front. Type II bursts are also excellent indicators of solar energetic particle (SEP) events because the same shock is supposed accelerate electrons and ions. There is a hierarchical relationship between the wavelength range of type /I bursts and the CME kinetic energy. Finally, Type IV bursts are due to electrons trapped in moving or stationary structures. The low frequency stationary type IV bursts are observed occasionally in association with very fast CMEs. These bursts originate from flare loops behind the erupting CME and hence indicate tall loops. This paper presents a summary of radio bursts and their relation to CMEs and how they can be useful for space weather predictions.

  8. Space solar power for powering a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.); Kellum, M. J. (Mervyn J.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a Space Solar Power (SSP) system capable of powering the climbers of an SE. The initial SE will use laser power beaming from floating platforms near the SE platform. This study outlines an SSP system, based near the SE at geosynchronous altitude (GEO), which powers the climbers traversing the elevator. Such a system would reduce the SE system's dependence on fuel supply from land for its power beaming facilities. Moreover, since deploying SSP systems is anticipated to be a major use for SE's, SSP's could represent an elegant solution to the problem of SE energy consumption. SSP systems for sending usable power to Earth have been designed for well over 30 years. Technologies pertinent to SSP systems are continually evolving. This slightly different application carries the added requirements of aiming the beamed power at a moving target and sending the power in a form the climbers can use. Systems considered include beaming power to the climbers directly from a traditional SSP and reflecting sunlight onto the climbers. One of our designs includes a very new technology, optical rectennas. Mars SEs are conceived as having space-based power systems. Therefore, it is important to consider the problems that will be encountered in these types of applications.

  9. Space station needs, attributes and architectural options study. Volume 3: Mission requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    User missions that are enabled or enhanced by a manned space station are identified. The mission capability requirements imposed on the space station by these users are delineated. The accommodation facilities, equipment, and functional requirements necessary to achieve these capabilities are identified, and the economic, performance, and social benefits which accrue from the space station are defined.

  10. NASA space station automation: AI-based technology review. Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, O.; Georgeff, M. P.; Park, W.; Cheeseman, P. C.; Goldberg, J.; Neumann, P.; Kautz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Rom, R. J.; Poggio, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Research and Development projects in automation technology for the Space Station are described. Artificial Intelligence (AI) based technologies are planned to enhance crew safety through reduced need for EVA, increase crew productivity through the reduction of routine operations, increase space station autonomy, and augment space station capability through the use of teleoperation and robotics.

  11. Recent Pharmacology Studies on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The environment on the International Space Station (ISS) includes a variety of potential stressors including the absence of Earth's gravity, elevated exposure to radiation, confined living and working quarters, a heavy workload, and high public visibility. The effects of this extreme environment on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and even on stored medication doses, are not yet understood. Dr. Wotring will discuss recent analyses of medication doses that experienced long duration storage on the ISS and a recent retrospective examination of medication use during long-duration spaceflights. She will also describe new pharmacology experiments that are scheduled for upcoming ISS missions. Dr. Virginia E. Wotring is a Senior Scientist in the Division of Space Life Sciences in the Universities Space Research Association, and Pharmacology Discipline Lead at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Human Heath and Countermeasures Division. She received her doctorate in Pharmacological and Physiological Science from Saint Louis University after earning a B.S. in Chemistry at Florida State University. She has published multiple studies on ligand gated ion channels in the brain and spinal cord. Her research experience includes drug mechanisms of action, drug receptor structure/function relationships and gene & protein expression. She joined USRA (and spaceflight research) in 2009. In 2012, her book reviewing pharmacology in spaceflight was published by Springer: Space Pharmacology, Space Development Series.

  12. Prospects for Interdisciplinary Science Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of the International Space Station was completed in early 2011, and is now embarking on its first year of the coming decade of use as a laboratory. Two key types of physical science research are enabled by ISS: studies of processes that are normally masked by gravity, and instruments that take advantage of its position as a powerful platform in orbit. The absence of buoyancy-driven convection enables experiments in diverse areas such as fluids near the critical point, Marangoni convection, combustion, and coarsening of metal alloys. The positioning of such a powerful platform in orbit with robotic transfer and instrument support also provides a unique alternative platform for astronomy and physics instruments. Some of the operating or planned instruments related to fundamental physics on the International Space Station include MAXI (Monitoring all-sky X-ray Instrument for ISS), the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, CALET (Calorimetric Electron Telescope), and ACES (Atomic Clock Experiment in Space). The presentation will conclude with an overview of pathways for funding different types of experiments from NASA funding to the ISS National Laboratory, and highlights of the streamlining of services to help scientists implement their experiments on ISS.

  13. Space station common module network topology and hardware development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P.; Braunagel, L.; Chwirka, S.; Fishman, M.; Freeman, K.; Eason, D.; Landis, D.; Lech, L.; Martin, J.; Mccorkle, J.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptual space station common module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) network layouts and detailed network evaluations were developed. Individual pieces of hardware to be developed for the SSM/PMAD test bed were identified. A technology assessment was developed to identify pieces of equipment requiring development effort. Equipment lists were developed from the previously selected network schematics. Additionally, functional requirements for the network equipment as well as other requirements which affected the suitability of specific items for use on the Space Station Program were identified. Assembly requirements were derived based on the SSM/PMAD developed requirements and on the selected SSM/PMAD network concepts. Basic requirements and simplified design block diagrams are included. DC remote power controllers were successfully integrated into the DC Marshall Space Flight Center breadboard. Two DC remote power controller (RPC) boards experienced mechanical failure of UES 706 stud-mounted diodes during mechanical installation of the boards into the system. These broken diodes caused input to output shorting of the RPC's. The UES 706 diodes were replaced on these RPC's which eliminated the problem. The DC RPC's as existing in the present breadboard configuration do not provide ground fault protection because the RPC was designed to only switch the hot side current. If ground fault protection were to be implemented, it would be necessary to design the system so the RPC switched both the hot and the return sides of power.

  14. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; hide

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a collection of summaries of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/issscience) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It reflects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a way that will impact humanity like no laboratory on Earth. The ISS Program Science Forum will continue to capture and report on these results in the form of journal publications, conference proceedings, and patents. We anticipate that successful ISS research will

  15. High pressure water electrolysis for space station EMU recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Nick; Puskar, Michael; Moulthrop, Lawrence; Zagaja, John

    1988-01-01

    A high pressure oxygen recharge system (HPORS), is being developed for application on board the Space Station. This electrolytic system can provide oxygen at up to 6000 psia without a mechanical compressor. The Hamilton standard HPORS based on a solid polymer electrolyte system is an extension of the much larger and succesful 3000 psia system of the U.S. Navy. Cell modules have been successfully tested under conditions beyond which spacecraft may encounter during launch. The control system with double redundancy and mechanical backups for all electronically controlled components is designed to ensure a safe shutdown.

  16. New Results from AMS on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a precision particle physics detector. It was installed on the International Space Station on May 19, 2011. Results on electrons and positrons from the first 41 billion events will be presented. This includes the behavior of the positron fraction as a function of energy and the observation that the positron fraction reaches its maximum at energy 275 +/- 32 GeV. The measurement of the positron flux and the electron flux shows that both fluxes change their behavior at 30 GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. The combined (e+ + e-) flux will also be presented.

  17. Constrained Burn Optimization for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aaron J.; Jones, Brandon A.

    2017-01-01

    In long-term trajectory planning for the International Space Station (ISS), translational burns are currently targeted sequentially to meet the immediate trajectory constraints, rather than simultaneously to meet all constraints, do not employ gradient-based search techniques, and are not optimized for a minimum total deltav (v) solution. An analytic formulation of the constraint gradients is developed and used in an optimization solver to overcome these obstacles. Two trajectory examples are explored, highlighting the advantage of the proposed method over the current approach, as well as the potential v and propellant savings in the event of propellant shortages.

  18. Plant and animal accommodation for Space Station Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Richard L.; Gustan, Edith A.; Wiley, Lowell F.

    1986-01-01

    An extended study has been conducted with the goals of defining and analyzing relevant parameters and significant tradeoffs for the accommodation of nonhuman research aboard the NASA Space Station, as well as conducting tradeoff analyses for orbital reconfiguring or reoutfitting of the laboratory facility and developing laboratory designs and program plans. The two items exerting the greatest influence on nonhuman life sciences research were identified as the centrifuge and the specimen environmental control and life support system; both should be installed on the ground rather than in orbit.

  19. A virtual reality browser for Space Station models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsby, Michael; Pandya, Abhilash; Aldridge, Ann; Maida, James

    1993-01-01

    The Graphics Analysis Facility at NASA/JSC has created a visualization and learning tool by merging its database of detailed geometric models with a virtual reality system. The system allows an interactive walk-through of models of the Space Station and other structures, providing detailed realistic stereo images. The user can activate audio messages describing the function and connectivity of selected components within his field of view. This paper presents the issues and trade-offs involved in the implementation of the VR system and discusses its suitability for its intended purposes.

  20. Operational considerations for the Space Station Life Science Glovebox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Daryl N.; Bosley, John J.; Vogelsong, Kristofer; Schnepp, Tery A.; Phillips, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Laboratory (USL) module on Space Station will house a biological research facility for multidisciplinary research using living plant and animal specimens. Environmentally closed chambers isolate the specimen habitats, but specimens must be removed from these chambers during research procedures as well as while the chambers are being cleaned. An enclosed, sealed Life Science Glovebox (LSG) is the only locale in the USL where specimens can be accessed by crew members. This paper discusses the key science, engineering and operational considerations and constraints involving the LSG, such as bioisolation, accessibility, and functional versatility.

  1. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Manned Base (SSFMB) will support the operation of the many payloads that may be located within the pressurized modules or on external attachment points. The transaction management (TM) approach presented provides a set of overlapping features that will assure the effective and safe operation of the SSFMB and provide a schedule that makes potentially hazardous operations safe, allocates resources within the capability of the resource providers, and maintains an environment conducive to the operations planned. This approach provides for targets of opportunity and schedule adjustments that give the operators the flexibility to conduct a vast majority of their operations with no conscious involvement with the TM function.

  2. Process material management in the Space Station environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Humphries, W. R.

    1988-01-01

    The Space Station will provide a unique facility for conducting material-processing and life-science experiments under microgravity conditions. These conditions place special requirements on the U.S. Laboratory for storing and transporting chemicals and process fluids, reclaiming water from selected experiments, treating and storing experiment wastes, and providing vacuum utilities. To meet these needs and provide a safe laboratory environment, the Process Material Management System (PMMS) is being developed. Preliminary design requirements and concepts related to the PMMS are addressed, and the MSFC PMMS breadboard test facility and a preliminary plan for validating the overall system design are discussed.

  3. Space Station logistics policy - Risk management from the top down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paules, Granville; Graham, James L., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Considerations are presented in the area of risk management specifically relating to logistics and system supportability. These considerations form a basis for confident application of concurrent engineering principles to a development program, aiming at simultaneous consideration of support and logistics requirements within the engineering process as the system concept and designs develop. It is shown that, by applying such a process, the chances of minimizing program logistics and supportability risk in the long term can be improved. The problem of analyzing and minimizing integrated logistics risk for the Space Station Freedom Program is discussed.

  4. Approach to transaction management for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, C. R.; Cressy, Phil; Ohnesorge, T. E.; Hector, Garland

    1989-01-01

    An approach to managing the operations of the Space Station Freedom based on their external effects is described. It is assumed that there is a conflict-free schedule that, if followed, will allow only appropriate operations to occur. The problem is then reduced to that of ensuring that the operations initiated are within the limits allowed by the schedule, or that the external effects of such operations are within those allowed by the schedule. The main features of the currently adopted transaction management approach are discussed.

  5. Space station electrical power distribution analysis using a load flow approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ervin M.

    1987-01-01

    The space station's electrical power system will evolve and grow in a manner much similar to the present terrestrial electrical power system utilities. The initial baseline reference configuration will contain more than 50 nodes or busses, inverters, transformers, overcurrent protection devices, distribution lines, solar arrays, and/or solar dynamic power generating sources. The system is designed to manage and distribute 75 KW of power single phase or three phase at 20 KHz, and grow to a level of 300 KW steady state, and must be capable of operating at a peak of 450 KW for 5 to 10 min. In order to plan far into the future and keep pace with load growth, a load flow power system analysis approach must be developed and utilized. This method is a well known energy assessment and management tool that is widely used throughout the Electrical Power Utility Industry. The results of a comprehensive evaluation and assessment of an Electrical Distribution System Analysis Program (EDSA) is discussed. Its potential use as an analysis and design tool for the 20 KHz space station electrical power system is addressed.

  6. Enhanced science capability on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Ronald R.; Kienlen, Mike

    2002-12-01

    It is inevitable that the International Space Station (ISS) will play a significant role in the conduct of science in space. However, in order to provide this service to a wide and broad community and to perform it cost effectively, alternative concepts must be considered to complement NASA"s Institutional capability. Currently science payload forward and return data services must compete for higher priority ISS infrastructure support requirements. Furthermore, initial astronaut crews will be limited to a single shift. Much of their time and activities will be required to meet their physical needs (exercise, recreation, etc.), station maintenance, and station operations, leaving precious little time to actively conduct science payload operations. ISS construction plans include the provisioning of several truss mounted, space-hardened pallets, both zenith and nadir facing. The ISS pallets will provide a platform to conduct both earth and space sciences. Additionally, the same pallets can be used for life and material sciences, as astronauts could place and retrieve sealed canisters for long-term micro-gravity exposure. Thus the pallets provide great potential for enhancing ISS science return. This significant addition to ISS payload capacity has the potential to exacerbate priorities and service contention factors within the exiting institution. In order to have it all, i.e., more science and less contention, the pallets must be data smart and operate autonomously so that NASA institutional services are not additionally taxed. Specifically, the "Enhanced Science Capability on the International Space Station" concept involves placing data handling and spread spectrum X-band communications capabilities directly on ISS pallets. Spread spectrum techniques are considered as a means of discriminating between different pallets as well as to eliminate RFI. The data and RF systems, similar to that of "free flyers", include a fully functional command and data handling system

  7. Live Ultra-High Definition from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney; George, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    The first ever live downlink of Ultra-High Definition (UHD) video from the International Space Station (ISS) was the highlight of a 'Super Session' at the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) in April 2017. The Ultra-High Definition video downlink from the ISS all the way to the Las Vegas Convention Center required considerable planning, pushed the limits of conventional video distribution from a space-craft, and was the first use of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) from a space-craft. The live event at NAB will serve as a pathfinder for more routine downlinks of UHD as well as use of HEVC for conventional HD downlinks to save bandwidth. HEVC may also enable live Virtual Reality video downlinks from the ISS. This paper will describe the overall work flow and routing of the UHD video, how audio was synchronized even though the video and audio were received many seconds apart from each other, and how the demonstration paves the way for not only more efficient video distribution from the ISS, but also serves as a pathfinder for more complex video distribution from deep space. The paper will also describe how a 'live' event was staged when the UHD coming from the ISS had a latency of 10+ seconds. Finally, the paper will discuss how NASA is leveraging commercial technologies for use on-orbit vs. creating technology as was required during the Apollo Moon Program and early space age.

  8. Parking Space Occupancy at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Klang Valley Integrated Rapid Transit system in Klang Valley, Malaysia has been quickly gaining momentum during the recent years. There will be two new MRT lines (MRT Line 1 and MRT Line 2 and one new LRT line (LRT Line 3 extended from the current integrated rail transit system by year 2020 with more than 90 new rail stations. With the substantial addition of potential rail passengers, there are doubts whether the existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are able to accommodate the future parking space demand at rail stations. This research studies the parking occupancy at various Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley namely Taman Jaya, Asia Jaya, Taman Paramount, Taman Bahagia and Kelana Jaya by applying the non-conventional method utilizing Google Earth imageries. Results showed that the parking occupancy rate at these LRT stations were 100% or more before the commencement of LRT extension (Kelana Jaya and Ampang Lines in 2016 and in the range of 36% to 100% after the commencement of LRT extension due to the additionally built car parks and changes in parking pattern with dispersed passenger traffic.

  9. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microfluidics for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Lisa A.; Spearing, Scott

    2003-01-01

    At NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the Iterative Biological Crystallization (IBC) project has begun development on scientific hardware for macromolecular crystallization on the International Space Station (ISS). Currently ISS crystallization research is limited to solution recipes that were prepared on the ground prior to launch. The proposed hardware will conduct solution mixing and dispensing on board the ISS, be fully automated, and have imaging functions via remote commanding from the ground. Utilizing microfluidic technology, IBC will allow for on orbit iterations. The microfluidics LabChip(R) devices that have been developed, along with Caliper Technologies, will greatly benefit researchers by allowing for precise fluid handling of nano/pico liter sized volumes. IBC will maximize the amount of science return by utilizing the microfluidic approach and be a valuable tool to structural biologists investigating medically relevant projects.

  10. Motivational profile of astronauts at the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brcic, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that the motive triad of needs for achievement, power, and affiliation can predict variables such as occupational success and satisfaction, innovation, aggressiveness, susceptibility to illness, cooperation, conformity, and many others. The present study documents the motivational profiles of astronauts at three stages of their expedition. Thematic content analysis was employed for references to Winter's well-established motive markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and oral histories) of 46 astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. Significant pre-flight differences were found in relation to home agency and job status. NASA astronauts, compared with those from the Russian Space Agency, are motivated by higher need for power, as are commanders in comparison to flight engineers. The need for affiliation motive showed a significant change from pre-flight to in-flight stages. The implications of the relationship between the motivational profile of astronauts and the established behavioural correlates of such profiles are discussed.

  11. Channel coding in the space station data system network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, T.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed discussion of the use of channel coding for error correction, privacy/secrecy, channel separation, and synchronization is presented. Channel coding, in one form or another, is an established and common element in data systems. No analysis and design of a major new system would fail to consider ways in which channel coding could make the system more effective. The presence of channel coding on TDRS, Shuttle, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite Program system, the JSC-proposed Space Operations Center, and the proposed 30/20 GHz Satellite Communication System strongly support the requirement for the utilization of coding for the communications channel. The designers of the space station data system have to consider the use of channel coding.

  12. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  14. Effects of a Closed Space Environment on Gene Expression in Hair Follicles of Astronauts in the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In recent times long-term stay has become a common occurrence in the International Space Station (ISS). However adaptation to the space environment can sometimes...

  15. A Space Based Solar Power Satellite System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J. M.; Polling, D.; Ustamujic, F.; Yaldiz, R.; et al.

    2002-01-01

    (SPoTS) supplying other satellites with energy. SPoTS is due to be commercially viable and operative in 2020. of Technology designed the SPoTS during a full-time design period of six weeks as a third year final project. The team, organized according to the principles of systems engineering, first conducted a literature study on space wireless energy transfer to select the most suitable candidates for use on the SPoTS. After that, several different system concepts have been generated and evaluated, the most promising concept being worked out in greater detail. km altitude. Each SPoTS satellite has a 50m diameter inflatable solar collector that focuses all received sunlight. Then, the received sunlight is further redirected by means of four pointing mirrors toward four individual customer satellites. A market-analysis study showed, that providing power to geo-stationary communication satellites during their eclipse would be most beneficial. At arrival at geo-stationary orbit, the focused beam has expended to such an extent that its density equals one solar flux. This means that customer satellites can continue to use their regular solar arrays during their eclipse for power generation, resulting in a satellite battery mass reduction. the customer satellites in geo-stationary orbit, the transmitted energy beams needs to be pointed with very high accuracy. Computations showed that for this degree of accuracy, sensors are needed, which are not mainstream nowadays. Therefore further research must be conducted in this area in order to make these high-accuracy-pointing systems commercially attractive for use on the SPoTS satellites around 2020. Total 20-year system lifetime cost for 18 SPoT satellites are estimated at approximately USD 6 billion [FY2001]. In order to compete with traditional battery-based satellite power systems or possible ground based wireless power transfer systems the price per kWh for the customer must be significantly lower than the present one

  16. International Cooperation of Payload Operations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Tina; Onken, Jay

    2003-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide an orbiting laboratory to be used to conduct scientific research and commercial products utilizing the unique environment of space. The ISS Program has united multiple nations into a coalition with the objective of developing and outfitting this orbiting laboratory and sharing in the utilization of the resources available. The primary objectives of the real- time integration of ISS payload operations are to ensure safe operations of payloads, to avoid mutual interference between payloads and onboard systems, to monitor the use of integrated station resources and to increase the total effectiveness of ISS. The ISS organizational architecture has provided for the distribution of operations planning and execution functions to the organizations with expertise to perform each function. Each IPP is responsible for the integration and operations of their payloads within their resource allocations and the safety requirements defined by the joint program. Another area of international cooperation is the sharing in the development and on- orbit utilization of unique payload facilities. An example of this cooperation is the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The hardware was developed by ESA and provided to NASA as part of a barter arrangement.

  17. Selection of combined water electrolysis and resistojet propulsion for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical rationale is presented for the configuration of the NASA Space Station's two-element propulsion system, and attention is given to the cost benefits accruing to this system over the Space Station's service life. The principal system element uses gaseous oxygen and hydrogen obtained through water electrolysis to furnish attitude control, backup attitude control, and contingency maneuvering. The secondary element uses resistojets to augment Space Station reboost through the acceleration of waste gases in the direction opposite the Station's flight path.

  18. Key techniques for space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang; Xiong, Sheng-jun; Liu, Xiao-long; Han, Wei-hua

    2014-12-01

    In space, the absence of atmospheric turbulence, absorption, dispersion and aerosol factors on laser transmission. Therefore, space-based laser has important values in satellite communication, satellite attitude controlling, space debris clearing, and long distance energy transmission, etc. On the other hand, solar energy is a kind of clean and renewable resources, the average intensity of solar irradiation on the earth is 1353W/m2, and it is even higher in space. Therefore, the space-based solar pumped lasers has attracted much research in recent years, most research focuses on solar pumped solid state lasers and solar pumped fiber lasers. The two lasing principle is based on stimulated emission of the rare earth ions such as Nd, Yb, Cr. The rare earth ions absorb light only in narrow bands. This leads to inefficient absorption of the broad-band solar spectrum, and increases the system heating load, which make the system solar to laser power conversion efficiency very low. As a solar pumped semiconductor lasers could absorb all photons with energy greater than the bandgap. Thus, solar pumped semiconductor lasers could have considerably higher efficiencies than other solar pumped lasers. Besides, solar pumped semiconductor lasers has smaller volume chip, simpler structure and better heat dissipation, it can be mounted on a small satellite platform, can compose satellite array, which can greatly improve the output power of the system, and have flexible character. This paper summarizes the research progress of space-based solar pumped semiconductor lasers, analyses of the key technologies based on several application areas, including the processing of semiconductor chip, the design of small and efficient solar condenser, and the cooling system of lasers, etc. We conclude that the solar pumped vertical cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers will have a wide application prospects in the space.

  19. Habitability research priorities for the International Space Station and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M; Adolf, J A; Woolford, B J

    2000-09-01

    Advanced technology and the desire to explore space have resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on the ability of humans to adapt and function in microgravity environments. In addition, studies conducted in analogous environments, such as winter-over expeditions in Antarctica, have complemented the scientific understanding of human performance in LDSF. These findings indicate long duration missions may take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically, with potential impacts on performance. Significant factors in any manned LDSF are habitability, workload and performance. They are interrelated and influence one another, and therefore necessitate an integrated research approach. An integral part of this approach will be identifying and developing tools not only for assessment of habitability, workload, and performance, but also for prediction of these factors as well. In addition, these tools will be used to identify and provide countermeasures to minimize decrements and maximize mission success. The purpose of this paper is to identify research goals and methods for the International Space Station (ISS) in order to identify critical factors and level of impact on habitability, workload, and performance, and to develop and validate countermeasures. Overall, this approach will provide the groundwork for creating an optimal environment in which to live and work onboard ISS as well as preparing for longer planetary missions.

  20. Solar terrestrial coupling through space plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birn, J.

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project investigates plasma processes that govern the interaction between the solar wind, charged particles ejected from the sun, and the earth's magnetosphere, the region above the ionosphere governed by the terrestrial magnetic field. Primary regions of interest are the regions where different plasma populations interact with each other. These are regions of particularly dynamic plasma behavior, associated with magnetic flux and energy transfer and dynamic energy release. The investigations concerned charged particle transport and energization, and microscopic and macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere and adjacent regions. The approaches combined space data analysis with theory and computer simulations

  1. On-Orbit Prospective Echocardiography on International Space Station Crew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Douglas R.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Martin, David S.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Melton, Shannon L.; Feiveson, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A prospective trial of echocardiography was conducted on of six crewmembers onboard the International Space Station. The main objective was to determine the efficacy of remotely guided tele-echocardiography, including just-in-time e-training methods and determine what "space normal" echocardiographic data is. Methods Each crewmember operator (n=6) had 2-hour preflight training. Baseline echocardiographic data were collected 55 to 167days preflight. Similar equipment was used in each 60-minute in-flight session (mean microgravity exposure - 114 days (34 -- 190)). On Orbit ultrasound operators used an e-learning system within 24h of these sessions. Expert assistance was provided using ultrasound video downlink and two-way voice. Testing was repeated 5 to 16 days after landing. Separate ANOVA was used on each echocardiographic variable (n=33). Within each ANOVA, three tests were made: a) effect of mission phase (preflight, in-flight, post flight); b) effect of echo technician (two technicians independently analyzed the data); c) interaction between mission phase and technician. Results Nine rejections of the null hypothesis (mission phase or technician or both had no effect) were discovered and considered for follow up. Of these, six rejections were for significant technician effects, not as a result of space flight. Three rejections of the null hypothesis (Aortic Valve time velocity integral, Mitral E wave Velocity and heart rate) were attributable to space flight, however determined not to be clinically significant. No rejections were due to the interaction between technician and space flight. Conclusion No consistent clinically significant effects of long-duration space flight were seen in echocardiographic variables of the given group of subjects.

  2. NIRAC: Near Infrared Airglow Camera for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelinas, L. J.; Rudy, R. J.; Hecht, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    NIRAC is a space based infrared airglow imager that will be deployed to the International Space Station in late 2018, under the auspices of the Space Test Program. NIRAC will survey OH airglow emissions in the 1.6 micron wavelength regime, exploring the spatial and temporal variability of emission intensities at latitudes from 51° south to 51° north. Atmospheric perturbations in the 80-100 km altitude range, including those produced by atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs), are observable in the OH airglow. The objective of the NIRAC experiment is to make near global measurement of the OH airglow and airglow perturbations. These emissions also provide a bright source of illumination at night, allowing for nighttime detection of clouds and surface characteristics. The instrument, developed by the Aerospace Space Science Applications Laboratory, employs a space-compatible FPGA for camera control and data collection and a novel, custom optical system to eliminate image smear due to orbital motion. NIRAC utilizes a high-performance, large format infrared focal plane array, transitioning technology used in the existing Aerospace Corporation ground-based airglow imager to a space based platform. The high-sensitivity, four megapixel imager has a native spatial resolution of 100 meters at ISS altitudes. The 23° x 23° FOV sweeps out a 150 km swath of the OH airglow layer as viewed from the ISS, and is sensitive to OH intensity perturbations down to 0.1%. The detector has a 1.7 micron cutoff that precludes the need for cold optics and reduces cooling requirements (to 180 K). Detector cooling is provided by a compact, lightweight cryocooler capable of reaching 120K, providing a great deal of margin.

  3. 76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-074)] NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel...

  4. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  5. Microbiology and Crew Medical Events on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Kadwa, Biniafer; Taiym, Wafa; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane; Baalen, Mary Van

    2014-01-01

    The closed environment of the International Space Station (ISS) creates an ideal environment for microbial growth. Previous studies have identified the ubiquitous nature of microorganisms throughout the space station environment. To ensure safety of the crew, microbial monitoring of air and surface within ISS began in December 2000 and continues to be monitored on a quarterly basis. Water monitoring began in 2009 when the potable water dispenser was installed on ISS. However, it is unknown if high microbial counts are associated with inflight medical events. The microbial counts are determined for the air, surface, and water samples collected during flight operations and samples are returned to the Microbiology laboratory at the Johnson Space Center for identification. Instances of microbial counts above the established microbial limit requirements were noted and compared inflight medical events (any non-injury event such as illness, rashes, etc.) that were reported during the same calendar-quarter. Data were analyzed using repeated measures logistic regression for the forty-one US astronauts flew on ISS between 2000 and 2012. In that time frame, instances of microbial counts being above established limits were found for 10 times for air samples, 22 times for surface samples and twice for water. Seventy-eight inflight medical events were reported among the astronauts. A three times greater risk of a medical event was found when microbial samples were found to be high (OR = 3.01; p =.007). Engineering controls, crew training, and strict microbial limits have been established to mitigate the crew medical events and environmental risks. Due to the timing issues of sampling and the samples return to earth, identification of particular microorganisms causing a particular inflight medical event is difficult. Further analyses are underway.

  6. Psychosocial Research on the International Space Station: Special Privacy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Ritsher, J.; Grund, E.; Weiss, D.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.

    Conducting psychosocial research with astronauts and cosmonauts requires special privacy and confidentiality precautions due to the high profile nature of the subject population and to individual crewmember perception of the risks inherent in divulging sensitive psychological information. Sampling from this small population necessitates subject protections above and beyond standard scientific human subject protocols. Many of these protections have relevance for psychosocial research on the International Space Station. In our previous study of psychosocial issues involving crewmembers on the Mir space station, special precautions were taken during each phase of the missions. These were implemented in order to gain the trust necessary to ameliorate the perceived risks of divulging potentially sensitive psychological information and to encourage candid responses. Pre-flight, a standard confidentiality agreement was provided along with a special layman's summary indicating that only group-level data would be presented, and subjects chose their own ID codes known only to themselves. In-flight, special procedures and technologies (such as encryption) were employed to protect the data during the collection. Post-flight, an analytic strategy was chosen to further mask subject identifiers, and draft manuscripts were reviewed by the astronaut office prior to publication. All of the eligible five astronauts and eight cosmonauts who flew joint US/Russian missions on the Mir were successfully recruited to participate, and their data completion rate was 76%. Descriptive analyses of the data indicated that there was sufficient variability in all of the measures to indicate that thoughtful, discriminating responses were being provided (e.g., the full range of response options was used in 63 of the 65 items of the Profile of Mood States measure, and both true and false response options were used in all 126 items of the Group Environment and the Work Environment measures). This

  7. EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Rabbow

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS, carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form, lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center, according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data. In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

  8. Space Solar Power Technology Demonstration for Lunar Polar Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, M. W.; Fikes, J. C.; Howell, J.; Mankins, J. C.; Howell, J.

    2002-01-01

    A solar power generation station on a mountaintop near the moon's North or South pole can receive sunlight 708 hours per lunar day, for continuous power generation. Power can be beamed from this station over long distances using a laser-based wireless power transmission system and a photo-voltaic receiver. This beamed energy can provide warmth, electricity, and illumination for a robotic rover to perform scientific experiments in cold, dark craters where no other power source is practical. Radio-frequency power transmission may also be demonstrated in lunar polar applications to locate and recover sub-surface deposits of volatile material, such as water ice. High circular polarization ratios observed in data from Clementine spacecraft and Arecibo radar reflections from the moon's South pole suggest that water ice is indeed present in certain lunar polar craters. Data from the Lunar Prospector spacecraft's epi-thermal neutron spectrometer also indicate that hydrogen is present at the moon's poles. Space Solar Power technology enables investigation of these craters, which may contain a billion-year-old stratigraphic record of tremendous scientific value. Layers of ice, preserved at the moon's poles, could help us determine the sequence and composition of comet impacts on the moon. Such ice deposits may even include distinct strata deposited by secondary ejecta following significant Earth (ocean) impacts, linked to major extinctions of life on Earth. Ice resources at the moon's poles could provide water and air for human exploration and development of space as well as rocket propellant for future space transportation. Technologies demonstrated and matured via lunar polar applications can also be used in other NASA science missions (Valles Marineris. Phobos, Deimos, Mercury's poles, asteroids, etc.) and in future large-scale SSP systems to beam energy from space to Earth. Ground-based technology demonstrations are proceeding to mature the technology for such a near

  9. Space-Hotel EARLY BIRD - A Visionary Prospect of a Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekrane, R.; Holze, C.

    2002-01-01

    rachid.amekrane@astrium-space.com/Fax: +49 421 539-24801, cholze@zarm.uni-bremen.de/Fax: The International Space Station was planed for research purposes. In 2001 the first private man, Denis Tito,visited the ISS and the second private man, Mark Shuttleworth is following him. Space pioneers as Wernher von Braun, Sir Arthur C. Clarke had the dream that one day a space station in earth orbit will host tourists. It is evident that the ISS is not designed to host tourists. Therefore this dream is still open. Asking the question "how should a space station should look like to host tourists?" the German Aerospace Society DGLR e.V. initiated in April 2001 a contest under the patronage of Mr. Joerg Feustel-Buechl, the Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity, European Space Agency (ESA). Because the definition and design of living space is the content of architecture the approach was to gather new ideas from young architects in cooperation with space experts. This contest was directed at students of architecture and the task set was to design a hotel for the earth orbit and to accommodate 220 guests. The contest got the name "Early Bird - Visions of a Space Hotel". The results and models of the student's work were shown in an exhibition in Hamburg/Germany, which was open to the public from September 19th till October 20th 2001. During the summer term of 2001 seventeen designs were completed. Having specialists, as volunteers, in the field of space in charge meant that it could be ensured that the designs reflected a certain possibility of being able to be realized. Within this interdisciplinary project both parties learned from each other. The 17 different designs were focused on the expectations and needs of a future space tourist. The design are for sure not feasible today, but the designs are in that sense realistic that they could be built in future. This paper will present the overview of the 17 designs as visions of a future space hotel. The designs used

  10. International Space Station Medical Projects - Full Services to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzyk, R. A.; Primeaux, L. L.; Wood, S. J.; Vessay, W. B.; Platts, S. H.

    2018-01-01

    The International Space Station Medical Projects (ISSMP) Element provides planning, integration, and implementation services for HRP research studies for both spaceflight and flight analog research. Through the implementation of these two efforts, ISSMP offers an innovative way of guiding research decisions to meet the unique challenges of understanding the human risks to space exploration. Flight services provided by ISSMP include leading informed consent briefings, developing and validating in-flight crew procedures, providing ISS crew and ground-controller training, real-time experiment monitoring, on-orbit experiment and hardware operations and facilitating data transfer to investigators. For analog studies at the NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), the ISSMP team provides subject recruitment and screening, science requirements integration, data collection schedules, data sharing agreements, mission scenarios and facilities to support investigators. The ISSMP also serves as the HRP interface to external analog providers including the :envihab bed rest facility (Cologne, Germany), NEK isolation chamber (Moscow, Russia) and the Antarctica research stations. Investigators working in either spaceflight or analog environments requires a coordinated effort between NASA and the investigators. The interdisciplinary nature of both flight and analog research requires investigators to be aware of concurrent research studies and take into account potential confounding factors that may impact their research objectives. Investigators must define clear research requirements, participate in Investigator Working Group meetings, obtain human use approvals, and provide study-specific training, sample and data collection and procedures all while adhering to schedule deadlines. These science requirements define the technical, functional and performance operations to meet the research objectives. The ISSMP maintains an expert team of professionals with the knowledge and

  11. Expanded benefits for humanity from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amelia; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Buckley, Nicole; Zell, Martin; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, the International Space Station (ISS) (Fig. 1) partnership published the updated International Space Station Benefits for Humanity[1], a compilation of stories about the many benefits being realized in the areas of human health, Earth observations and disaster response, and global education. This compilation has recently been revised to include updated statistics on the impacts of the benefits, and new benefits that have developed since the first publication. Two new sections have also been added to the book, economic development of space and innovative technology. This paper will summarize the updates on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum, made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. The new section on "Economic Development of Space" highlights case studies from public-private partnerships that are leading to a new economy in low earth orbit (LEO). Businesses provide both transportation to the ISS as well as some research facilities and services. These relationships promote a paradigm shift of government-funded, contractor-provided goods and services to commercially-provided goods purchased by government agencies. Other examples include commercial firms spending research and development dollars to conduct investigations on ISS and commercial service providers selling services directly to ISS users. This section provides examples of ISS as a test bed for new business relationships, and illustrates successful partnerships. The second new section, "Innovative Technology," merges technology demonstration and physical science findings that promise to return Earth benefits through continued research. Robotic refueling concepts for life extensions of costly satellites in geo-synchronous orbit have applications to robotics in industry on Earth. Flame behavior experiments reveal insight into how fuel burns in microgravity leading to the possibility of improving engine efficiency on Earth. Nanostructures and smart fluids are

  12. Expanded Benefits for Humanity from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amelia; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Buckley, Nicole; Zell, Martin; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the updated International Space Station Benefits for Humanity, 2nd edition, a compilation of stories about the many benefits being realized in the areas of human health, Earth observations and disaster response, and global education. This compilation has recently been revised to include updated statistics on the impacts of the benefits, and new benefits that have developed since the first publication. Two new sections have also been added to the book, economic development of space and innovative technology. This paper will summarize the updates on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum, made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. The new section on "Economic Development of Space" highlights case studies from public-private partnerships that are leading to a new economy in low earth orbit (LEO). Businesses provide both transportation to the ISS as well as some research facilities and services. These relationships promote a paradigm shift of government-funded, contractor-provided goods and services to commercially-provided goods purchased by government agencies. Other examples include commercial firms spending research and development dollars to conduct investigations on ISS and commercial service providers selling services directly to ISS users. This section provides examples of ISS as a test bed for new business relationships, and illustrates successful partnerships. The second new section, Innovative Technology, merges technology demonstration and physical science findings that promise to return Earth benefits through continued research. Robotic refueling concepts for life extensions of costly satellites in geo-synchronous orbit have applications to robotics in industry on Earth. Flame behavior experiments reveal insight into how fuel burns in microgravity leading to the possibility of improving engine efficiency on Earth. Nanostructures and smart fluids are

  13. Modal Analysis and Model Correlation of the Mir Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung M.; Kaouk, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    This paper will discuss on-orbit dynamic tests, modal analysis, and model refinement studies performed as part of the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE). Mir is the Russian permanently manned Space Station whose construction first started in 1986. The MiSDE was sponsored by the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Phase 1 Office and was part of the Shuttle-Mir Risk Mitigation Experiment (RME). One of the main objectives for MiSDE is to demonstrate the feasibility of performing on-orbit modal testing on large space structures to extract modal parameters that will be used to correlate mathematical models. The experiment was performed over a one-year span on the Mir-alone and Mir with a Shuttle docked. A total of 45 test sessions were performed including: Shuttle and Mir thruster firings, Shuttle-Mir and Progress-Mir dockings, crew exercise and pushoffs, and ambient noise during night-to-day and day-to-night orbital transitions. Test data were recorded with a variety of existing and new instrumentation systems that included: the MiSDE Mir Auxiliary Sensor Unit (MASU), the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Russian Mir Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS), the Mir and Shuttle Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), and the Shuttle payload bay video cameras. Modal analysis was performed on the collected test data to extract modal parameters, i.e. frequencies, damping factors, and mode shapes. A special time-domain modal identification procedure was used on free-decay structural responses. The results from this study show that modal testing and analysis of large space structures is feasible within operational constraints. Model refinements were performed on both the Mir alone and the Shuttle-Mir mated configurations. The design sensitivity approach was used for refinement, which adjusts structural properties in order to match analytical and test modal parameters. To verify the refinement results, the analytical responses calculated using

  14. X-ray crystallography facility for the international space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McdDonald, William T.; Lewis, Johanna L.; Smith, Craig D.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1997-01-01

    Directed by NASA's Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) recently completed a Design Feasibility Study for the X-ray Crystallography Facility (XCF) for the International Space Station (ISS). The XCF is a facility for growing macromolecular protein crystals; harvesting, selecting, and mounting sample crystals, and snap-freezing the samples, if necessary; performing x-ray diffraction; and downlinking the diffraction data to the ground. Knowledge of the structure of protein molecules is essential for the development of pharmaceuticals by structure-based drug design techniques. Currently, x-ray diffraction of high quality protein crystals is the only method of determining the structure of these macromolecules. High quality protein crystals have been grown in microgravity onboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter for more than 10 years, but these crystals always have been returned to Earth for x-ray diffraction. The XCF will allow crystal growth, harvesting, mounting, and x-ray diffraction onboard the ISS, maximizing diffraction data quality and timeliness. This paper presents the XCF design concept, describing key feasibility issues for the ISS application and advanced technologies and operational features which resolve those issues. The conclusion is that the XCF design is feasible and can be operational onboard the ISS by early in 2002

  15. Sampling Indoor Aerosols on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.

    2016-01-01

    In a spacecraft cabin environment, the size range of indoor aerosols is much larger and they persist longer than on Earth because they are not removed by gravitational settling. A previous aerosol experiment in 1991 documented that over 90 of the mass concentration of particles in the NASA Space Shuttle air were between 10 m and 100 m based on measurements with a multi-stage virtual impactor and a nephelometer (Liu et al. 1991). While the now-retired Space Shuttle had short duration missions (less than two weeks), the International Space Station (ISS) has been continually inhabited by astronauts for over a decade. High concentrations of inhalable particles on ISS are potentially responsible for crew complaints of respiratory and eye irritation and comments about 'dusty' air. Air filtration is the current control strategy for airborne particles on the ISS, and filtration modeling, performed for engineering and design validation of the air revitalization system in ISS, predicted that PM requirements would be met. However, aerosol monitoring has never been performed on the ISS to verify PM levels. A flight experiment is in preparation which will provide data on particulate matter in ISS ambient air. Particles will be collected with a thermophoretic sampler as well as with passive samplers which will extend the particle size range of sampling. Samples will be returned to Earth for chemical and microscopic analyses, providing the first aerosol data for ISS ambient air.

  16. 76 FR 64122 - NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-095)] NASA Advisory Committee; Renewal of NASA's International Space Station Advisory Committee Charter AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal and amendment of the Charter of the International...

  17. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Test Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Darlene

    1989-01-01

    Different aspects of Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing are currently taking place at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Unique to this testing is the variety of test areas and the fact that all are located in one building. The north high bay of building 4755, the Core Module Integration Facility (CMIF), contains the following test areas: the Subsystem Test Area, the Comparative Test Area, the Process Material Management System (PMMS), the Core Module Simulator (CMS), the End-use Equipment Facility (EEF), and the Pre-development Operational System Test (POST) Area. This paper addresses the facility that supports these test areas and briefly describes the testing in each area. Future plans for the building and Space Station module configurations will also be discussed.

  18. The ground testing of a 2 kWe solar dynamic space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calogeras, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 25 years Space Solar Dynamic component development has advanced to the point where it is considered a leading candidate power source technology for the evolutionary phases of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program. Selection of SD power was based on studies and analyses which indicated significant savings in life cycle costs, launch mass and EVA requirements were possible when the system is compared to more conventional photovoltaic/battery power systems. Issues associated with micro-gravity operation such as the behavior of the thermal energy storage materials are being addressed in other programs. This paper reports that a ground test of a 2 kWe solar dynamic system is being planned by the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology to address the integration issues. The test will be scalable up to 25 kWe, will be flight configured and will incorporate relevant features of the SSF Solar Dynamic Power Module design

  19. Light Microscopy Module: International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicker, Ronald J.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Meyer, William V.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Abbott-Hearn, Amber; Atherton, Arthur; Beltram, Alexander; Bodzioney, Christopher; Brinkman, John; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began hardware operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2016, if all goes as planned, three experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Heated base-2 (ACE-H2) and [2] Advanced Colloids Experiments with Temperature control (ACE-T1). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al. and [2] from Chungnam National University, Daejeon, S. Korea: Chang-Soo Lee, et al.

  20. Artificial intelligence and the space station software support environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlowe, Gilbert

    1986-01-01

    In a software system the size of the Space Station Software Support Environment (SSE), no one software development or implementation methodology is presently powerful enough to provide safe, reliable, maintainable, cost effective real time or near real time software. In an environment that must survive one of the most harsh and long life times, software must be produced that will perform as predicted, from the first time it is executed to the last. Many of the software challenges that will be faced will require strategies borrowed from Artificial Intelligence (AI). AI is the only development area mentioned as an example of a legitimate reason for a waiver from the overall requirement to use the Ada programming language for software development. The limits are defined of the applicability of the Ada language Ada Programming Support Environment (of which the SSE is a special case), and software engineering to AI solutions by describing a scenario that involves many facets of AI methodologies.

  1. Automating Stowage Operations for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young

    2013-01-01

    A challenge for any proposed mission is to demonstrate convincingly that the proposed systems will in fact deliver the science promised. Funding agencies and mission design personnel are becoming ever more skeptical of the abstractions that form the basis of the current state of the practice with respect to approximating science return. To address this, we have been using automated planning and scheduling technology to provide actual coverage campaigns that provide better predictive performance with respect to science return for a given mission design and set of mission objectives given implementation uncertainties. Specifically, we have applied an adaptation of ASPEN and SPICE to the Eagle-Eye domain that demonstrates the performance of the mission design with respect to coverage of science imaging targets that address climate change and disaster response. Eagle-Eye is an Earth-imaging telescope that has been proposed to fly aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

  2. International Space Station Bacteria Filter Element Service Life Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses high-efficiency particulate air filters to remove particulate matter from the cabin atmosphere. Known as bacteria filter elements (BFEs), there are 13 elements deployed on board the ISS's U.S. segment in the flight 4R assembly level. The preflight service life prediction of 1 yr for the BFEs is based upon engineering analysis of data collected during developmental testing that used a synthetic dust challenge. While this challenge is considered reasonable and conservative from a design perspective, an understanding of the actual filter loading is required to best manage the critical ISS program resources. Testing was conducted on BFEs returned from the ISS to refine the service life prediction. Results from this testing and implications to ISS resource management are provided.

  3. The Case for Deep Space Telecommunications Relay Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Charles W.; Miranda, Felix A. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    Each future mission to Jupiter and beyond must carry the traditional suite of telecommunications systems for command and control and for mission data transmission to earth. The telecommunications hardware includes the large antenna and the high-power transmitters that enable the communications link. Yet future spacecraft will be scaled down from the hallmark missions of Galileo and Cassini to Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. This implies that a higher percentage of the spacecraft weight and power must be dedicated to telecommunications system. The following analysis quantifies this impact to future missions and then explores the merits of an alternative approach using deep space relay stations for the link back to earth. It will be demonstrated that a telecommunications relay satellite would reduce S/C telecommunications weight and power sufficiently to add one to two more instruments.

  4. Urine pretreatment for waste water processing systems. [for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H. E.; Verostko, C. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    Recovery of high quality water from urine is an essential part of life support on a Space Station to avoid costly launch and resupply penalties. Water can be effectively recovered from urine by distillation following pretreatment by a chemical agent to inhibit microorganism contamination and fix volatile ammonia constituents. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of several pretreatment chemicals which were tested at several concentration levels in combination with sulfuric acid in urine. The optimum pretreatment formulation was then evaluated with urine in the Hamilton Standard Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES). Over 2600 hours of test time was accumulated. Results of these laboratory and system tests are presented in this paper.

  5. Spatial distribution of absorbed dose onboard of International Space Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadrnickova, I.; Spumy, F.; Tateyama, R.; Yasuda, N.; Kawashima, H.; Kurano, M.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Akatov, Yu.; Shurshakov, V.; Kobayashi, I.; Ohguchi, H.; Koguchi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    The passive detectors (LD and PNTD) were exposed onboard of Russian Service Module Qn the International Space Station (ISS) from August 2004 to October 2005 (425 days). The detectors were located at 6 different positions inside the Service Module and also in 32 pockets on the surface of the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom located in crew cabin. Distribution of absorbed doses and dose equivalents measured with passive detectors, as well as LET spectra of fluences of registered particles, are presented as the function of detectors' location. The variation of dose characteristics for different locations can be up to factor of 2. In some cases, data measured with passive detectors are also compared with the data obtained by means of active instruments. (authors)

  6. Space Station CMIF extended duration metabolic control test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathryn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Extended Duration Metabolic Control Test (EMCT) was conducted at the MSFC Core Module Integration Facility. The primary objective of the EMCT was to gather performance data from a partially-closed regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system functioning under steady-state conditions. Included is a description of the EMCT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements of water and gas samples taken during the test. A comparison of the physical, chemical, and microbiological methods used in the post test laboratory analyses of the water samples is included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test, providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item. Analytical results pertaining to a system level mass balance and selected system power estimates are also included.

  7. Potential enhanced risk for space-station astronauts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    One of the limiting features of a low-orbital inclination space station will be the radiation dose to which astronauts will be exposed from fast protons trapped by the earth's magnetic field in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). This dose, typically 5 cGy for a 90-day mission, will be delivered in many small, hourly fractions corresponding to the orbiting period of the space station. Protons in the energy range of those trapped in the SAA deposit dose as a mixture of sparsely-ionizing, proton-induced Coulomb interactions, and densely ionizing interactions from proton-induced nuclear fragmentation products. For protons in the SAA, about one third of the dose and the majority of the dose equivalent will be due to densely-ionizing interactions. Thus it is possible that fast protons will, like neutrons, exhibit an enhancement of risk when delivered in many small fractions over a long period. To quantify the potential extent of the problem, the authors use consistent modeling of the inverse dose rate effect as a function of dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. The basic notion is that cells in some period of their cycle are more sensitive to radiation than cells that are not in this period. Then, a single exposure of cycling cells to densely-ionizing radiation will result in some fraction of these sensitive cells receiving very large depositions of energy - much greater than required to produce the changes that lead to oncogenic transformation. On the other hand, if the exposure is fractionated, a larger proportion of sensitive cells will be exposed, though to smaller average numbers of energy depositions

  8. CO2 on the International Space Station: An Operations Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Alexander, David

    2016-01-01

    PROBLEM STATEMENT: We describe CO2 symptoms that have been reported recently by crewmembers on the International Space Station and our continuing efforts to control CO2 to lower levels than historically accepted. BACKGROUND: Throughout the International Space Station (ISS) program, anecdotal reports have suggested that crewmembers develop CO2-related symptoms at lower CO2 levels than would be expected terrestrially. Since 2010, operational limits have controlled the 24-hour average CO2 to 4.0 mm Hg, or below as driven by crew symptomatology. In recent years, largely due to increasing awareness by crew and ground team, there have been increased reports of crew symptoms. The aim of this presentation is to discuss recent observations and operational impacts to lower CO2 levels on the ISS. CASE PRESENTATION: Crewmembers are routinely asked about CO2 symptoms in their weekly private medical conferences with their crew surgeons. In recent ISS expeditions, crewmembers have noted symptoms attributable to CO2 starting at 2.3 mmHg. Between 2.3 - 2.7 mm Hg, fatigue and full-headedness have been reported. Between 2.7 - 3.0 mm Hg, there have been self-reports of procedure missed steps or procedures going long. Above 3.0 - 3.4 mm Hg, headaches have been reported. A wide range of inter- and intra-individual variability in sensitivity to CO2 have been noted. OPERATIONAL / CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These preliminary data provide semi-quantitative ranges that have been used to inform a new operational limit of 3.0 mmHg as a compromise between systems capabilities and the recognition that there are human health and performance impacts at recent ISS CO2 levels. Current evidence would suggest that an operational limit between 0.5 and 2.0 mm Hg may maintain health and performance. Future work is needed to establish long-term ISS and future vehicle operational limits.

  9. Benefits of International Collaboration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrook, Pete; Robinson, Julie A.; Brown Tate, Judy; Thumm, Tracy; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; De Parolis, Lina; Hatton, Jason; Umezawa, Kazuo; Shirakawa, Masaki; hide

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is a valuable platform for research in space, but the benefits are limited if research is only conducted by individual countries. Through the efforts of the ISS Program Science Forum, international science working groups, and interagency cooperation, international collaboration on the ISS has expanded as ISS utilization has matured. Members of science teams benefit from working with counterparts in other countries. Scientists and institutions bring years of experience and specialized expertise to collaborative investigations, leading to new perspectives and approaches to scientific challenges. Combining new ideas and historical results brings synergy and improved peer-reviewed scientific methods and results. World-class research facilities can be expensive and logistically complicated, jeopardizing their full utilization. Experiments that would be prohibitively expensive for a single country can be achieved through contributions of resources from two or more countries, such as crew time, up- and downmass, and experiment hardware. Cooperation also avoids duplication of experiments and hardware among agencies. Biomedical experiments can be completed earlier if astronauts or cosmonauts from multiple agencies participate. Countries responding to natural disasters benefit from ISS imagery assets, even if the country has no space agency of its own. Students around the world participate in ISS educational opportunities, and work with students in other countries, through open curriculum packages and through international competitions. Even experiments conducted by a single country can benefit scientists around the world, through specimen sharing programs and publicly accessible "open data" repositories. For ISS data, these repositories include GeneLab and the Physical Science Informatics System. Scientists can conduct new research using ISS data without having to launch and execute their own experiments. Multilateral collections of research

  10. Solar energetic particles and space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reames, Donald V.; Tylka, Allan J.; Ng, Chee K.

    2001-02-01

    The solar energetic particles (SEPs) of consequence to space weather are accelerated at shock waves driven out from the Sun by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In the large events, these great shocks fill half of the heliosphere. SEP intensity profiles change appearance with longitude. Events with significant intensities of >10 MeV protons occur at an average rate of ~13 yr-1 near solar maximum and several events with high intensities of >100 MeV protons occur each decade. As particles stream out along magnetic field lines from a shock near the Sun, they generate waves that scatter subsequent particles. At high intensities, wave growth throttles the flow below the ``streaming limit.'' However, if the shock maintains its strength, particle intensities can rise above this limit to a peak when the shock itself passes over the observer creating a `delayed' radiation hazard, even for protons with energies up to ~1 GeV. The streaming limit makes us blind to the intensities at the oncoming shock, however, heavier elements such as He, O, and Fe probe the shape of the wave spectrum, and variation in abundances of these elements allow us to evade the limit and probe conditions at the shock, with the aid of detailed modeling. At high energies, spectra steepen to form a spectral `knee.' The location of the proton spectral knee can vary from ~10 MeV to ~1 GeV, depending on shock conditions, greatly affecting the radiation hazard. Hard spectra are a serious threat to astronauts, placing challenging requirements for shielding, especially on long-duration missions to the moon or Mars. .

  11. The US space station: Potential base for a spaceborne microwave facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcconnell, D.

    1983-01-01

    Concepts for a U.S. space station were studied to achieve the full potential of the Space Shuttle and to provide a more permanent presence in space. The space station study is summarized in the following questions: Given a space station in orbit in the 1990's, how should it best be used to achieve science and applications objectives important at that time? To achieve those objectives, of what elements should the station be comprised and how should the elements be configured and equipped. These questions are addressed.

  12. Engineering a Live UHD Program from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney; George, Sandy

    2017-01-01

    The first-ever live downlink of Ultra-High Definition (UHD) video from the International Space Station (ISS) was the highlight of a “Super Session” at the National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) Show in April 2017. Ultra-High Definition is four times the resolution of “full HD” or “1080P” video. Also referred to as “4K”, the Ultra-High Definition video downlink from the ISS all the way to the Las Vegas Convention Center required considerable planning, pushed the limits of conventional video distribution from a space-craft, and was the first use of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) from a space-craft. The live event at NAB will serve as a pathfinder for more routine downlinks of UHD as well as use of HEVC for conventional HD downlinks to save bandwidth. A similar demonstration was conducted in 2006 with the Discovery Channel to demonstrate the ability to stream HDTV from the ISS. This paper will describe the overall work flow and routing of the UHD video, how audio was synchronized even though the video and audio were received many seconds apart from each other, and how the demonstration paves the way for not only more efficient video distribution from the ISS, but also serves as a pathfinder for more complex video distribution from deep space. The paper will also describe how a “live” event was staged when the UHD video coming from the ISS had a latency of 10+ seconds. In addition, the paper will touch on the unique collaboration between the inherently governmental aspects of the ISS, commercial partners Amazon and Elemental, and the National Association of Broadcasters.

  13. Translational Cellular Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of Translational Research aims to coalesce interdisciplinary findings from basic science for biomedical applications. To complement spaceflight research using human subjects, translational studies can be designed to address aspects of space-related human health risks and help develop countermeasures to prevent or mitigate them, with therapeutical benefits for analogous conditions experienced on Earth. Translational research with cells and model organisms is being conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in connection with various human systems impacted by spaceflight, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. Examples of recent cell-based translational investigations on the ISS include the following. The JAXA investigation Cell Mechanosensing seeks to identify gravity sensors in skeletal muscle cells to develop muscle atrophy countermeasures by analyzing tension fluctuations in the plasma membrane, which changes the expression of key proteins and genes. Earth applications of this study include therapeutic approaches for some forms of muscular dystrophy, which appear to parallel aspects of muscle wasting in space. Spheroids is an ESA investigation examining the system of endothelial cells lining the inner surface of all blood vessels in terms of vessel formation, cellular proliferation, and programmed cell death, because injury to the endothelium has been implicated as underpinning various cardiovascular and musculoskeletal problems arising during spaceflight. Since endothelial cells are involved in the functional integrity of the vascular wall, this research has applications to Earth diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. The goal of the T-Cell Activation in Aging NASA investigation is to understand human immune system depression in microgravity by identifying gene expression patterns of candidate molecular regulators, which will provide further insight into factors that may play a

  14. Mobile solar mini power station filled with infrared heliochambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdukadirov, M.A.; Akhmedova, N.A.

    2000-01-01

    The work dedicated to development of perspective types of solar energetic devices of in-land application in accordance with conception about advantage of decentralized production of electrical and heat energy for supply of atom customers. It is given constructive particulars and characteristics of developed by authors mobile energy complex, which contents from block photoelectrical of convertor on the base of semiconductor solar elements, transparent in longwaved area out of edge of absorption base band, with power from 100 till 1000 Wt and heliochamber for accumulation of infrared part of solar radiation with wave length λ> 1 mcm. It is shown that, introduction into the system of energy complex the infrared heliochamber, increase the efficiency of equipment generally on the account of increasing the useful application of solar spectrum and extend her functional abilities. It is discussed the advantages of similar energy complex at decision of separate production tasks, including agriculture processing. (Author)

  15. International Space Station (ISS) 3D Printer Performance and Material Characterization Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Q. A.; Cooper, K. G.; Edmunson, J. E.; Johnston, M. M.; Werkheiser, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    In order for human exploration of the Solar System to be sustainable, manufacturing of necessary items on-demand in space or on planetary surfaces will be a requirement. As a first step towards this goal, the 3D Printing In Zero-G (3D Print) technology demonstration made the first items fabricated in space on the International Space Station. From those items, and comparable prints made on the ground, information about the microgravity effects on the printing process can be determined. Lessons learned from this technology demonstration will be applicable to other in-space manufacturing technologies, and may affect the terrestrial manufacturing industry as well. The flight samples were received at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center on 6 April 2015. These samples will undergo a series of tests designed to not only thoroughly characterize the samples, but to identify microgravity effects manifested during printing by comparing their results to those of samples printed on the ground. Samples will be visually inspected, photographed, scanned with structured light, and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples will be analyzed with computed tomography; some will be assessed using ASTM standard tests. These tests will provide the information required to determine the effects of microgravity on 3D printing in microgravity.

  16. Gene expression from plants grown on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Alexander; Pereira, Rhea; Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie

    Three experiments were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006 as part of the TROPI experiments. These experiments were performed to study graviTROPIsm and photoTROPIsm responses of Arabidopsis in microgravity (µg). Seedlings were grown with a variety of light and gravitational treatments for approximately five days. The frozen samples were returned to Earth during three space shuttle missions in 2007 and stored at -80° C. Due to the limited amount of plant biomass returned, new protocols were developed to minimize the amount of material needed for RNA extraction as a preparation for microarray analysis. Using these new protocols, RNA was extracted from several sets of seedlings grown in red light followed by blue light with one sample from 1.0g treatment and the other at µg. Using a 2-fold change criterion, microarray (Affymetrix, GeneChip) results showed that 613 genes were upregulated in the µg sample while 757 genes were downregulated. Upregulated genes in response to µg included transcription factors from the WRKY (15 genes), MYB (3) and ZF (8) families as well as those that are involved in auxin responses (10). Downregulated genes also included transcription factors such as MYB (5) and Zinc finger (10) but interestingly only two WRKY family genes were down-regulated during the µg treatment. Studies are underway to compare these results with other samples to identify the genes involved in the gravity and light signal transduction pathways (this project is Supported By: NASA NCC2-1200).

  17. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The Veggie vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellowsbaseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  18. The International Space Station Research Opportunities and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the International Space Station (ISS) construction and assembly was completed to become a world-class scientific research laboratory. We are now in the era of utilization of this unique platform that facilitates ground-breaking research in the microgravity environment. There are opportunities for NASA-funded research; research funded under the auspice of the United States National Laboratory; and research funded by the International Partners - Japan, Europe, Russia and Canada. The ISS facilities offer an opportunity to conduct research in a multitude of disciplines such as biology and biotechnology, physical science, human research, technology demonstration and development; and earth and space science. The ISS is also a unique resource for educational activities that serve to motivate and inspire students to pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Even though we have just commenced full utilization of the ISS as a science laboratory, early investigations are yielding major results that are leading to such things as vaccine development, improved cancer drug delivery methods and treatment for debilitating diseases, such as Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy. This paper

  19. International Space Station Research and Facilities for Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara M.

    2009-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station is nearing completion in fall of 2010. Although assembly has been the primary objective of its first 11 years of operation, early science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. Laboratory facilities outfitting has increased dramatically 2008-2009 with the European Space Agency s Columbus and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency s Kibo scientific laboratories joining NASA s Destiny laboratory in orbit. In May 2009, the ISS Program met a major milestone with an increase in crew size from 3 to 6 crewmembers, thus greatly increasing the time available to perform on-orbit research. NASA will launch its remaining research facilities to occupy all 3 laboratories in fall 2009 and winter 2010. To date, early utilization of the US Operating Segment of the ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting international and US partner research. With a specific focus on life sciences research, this paper will summarize the science accomplishments from early research aboard the ISS- both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. We will also look ahead to the full capabilities for life sciences research when assembly of ISS is complete in 2010.

  20. TANPOPO: Microbe and micrometeoroid capture experiments on International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Kensei; Yano, Hajime; Yokobori, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kawai, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Masamichi

    There is a long history of the microbe-collection experiments at high altitude. Microbes have been collected using balloons, aircraft and meteorological rockets from 1936 to 1976. Spore forming fungi and Bacilli, and Micrococci have been isolated in these experiments. It is not clear how high do microbes go up. If the microbes might have been present even at higher altitudes, the fact would endorse the possibility of interplanetary migration of life. TANPOPO, dandelion, is the name of a grass whose seeds with floss are spread by the wind. We propose the analyses of interplanetary migration of microbes, organic compounds and meteoroids on Japan Experimental Module (JEM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Ultra low-density aerogel will be used to capture micrometeoroid and debris. Particles captured by aerogel will be used for several analyses after the initial inspection of the gel and tracks. Careful analysis of the tracks in the aerogel will provide the size and velocity dependence of debris flux. The particles will be analyzed for mineralogical, organic and microbiological characteristics. Aerogels are ready for production in Japan. Aerogels and trays are space proven. All the analytical techniques are ready. The Tanpopo mission was accepted as a candidate experiments on Exposed Facility of ISS-JEM.

  1. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  2. Solar Electric Propulsion Concepts for Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Oleson, Steven R.; Barrett, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in solar array and electric thruster technologies now offer the promise of new, very capable space transportation systems that will allow us to cost effectively explore the solar system. NASA has developed numerous solar electric propulsion spacecraft concepts with power levels ranging from tens to hundreds of kilowatts for robotic and piloted missions to asteroids and Mars. This paper describes nine electric and hybrid solar electric/chemical propulsion concepts developed over the last 5 years and discusses how they might be used for human exploration of the inner solar system.

  3. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  4. Interplanetary Transit Simulations Using the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, J. B.; Arya, Maneesh

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the International Space Station (ISS) be utilized to simulate the transit portion of long-duration missions to Mars and near-Earth asteroids (NEA). The ISS offers a unique environment for such simulations, providing researchers with a high-fidelity platform to study, enhance, and validate technologies and countermeasures for these long-duration missions. From a space life sciences perspective, two major categories of human research activities have been identified that will harness the various capabilities of the ISS during the proposed simulations. The first category includes studies that require the use of the ISS, typically because of the need for prolonged weightlessness. The ISS is currently the only available platform capable of providing researchers with access to a weightless environment over an extended duration. In addition, the ISS offers high fidelity for other fundamental space environmental factors, such as isolation, distance, and accessibility. The second category includes studies that do not require use of the ISS in the strictest sense, but can exploit its use to maximize their scientific return more efficiently and productively than in ground-based simulations. In addition to conducting Mars and NEA simulations on the ISS, increasing the current increment duration on the ISS from 6 months to a longer duration will provide opportunities for enhanced and focused research relevant to long-duration Mars and NEA missions. Although it is currently believed that increasing the ISS crew increment duration to 9 or even 12 months will pose little additional risk to crewmembers, additional medical monitoring capabilities may be required beyond those currently used for the ISS operations. The use of the ISS to simulate aspects of Mars and NEA missions seems practical, and it is recommended that planning begin soon, in close consultation with all international partners.

  5. International Space Station Crew Quarters Ventilation and Acoustic Design Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Cady, Scott M; Welsh, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Operational Segment has four permanent rack sized ISS Crew Quarters (CQs) providing a private crew member space. The CQs use Node 2 cabin air for ventilation/thermal cooling, as opposed to conditioned ducted air-from the ISS Common Cabin Air Assembly (CCAA) or the ISS fluid cooling loop. Consequently, CQ can only increase the air flow rate to reduce the temperature delta between the cabin and the CQ interior. However, increasing airflow causes increased acoustic noise so efficient airflow distribution is an important design parameter. The CQ utilized a two fan push-pull configuration to ensure fresh air at the crew member's head position and reduce acoustic exposure. The CQ ventilation ducts are conduits to the louder Node 2 cabin aisle way which required significant acoustic mitigation controls. The CQ interior needs to be below noise criteria curve 40 (NC-40). The design implementation of the CQ ventilation system and acoustic mitigation are very inter-related and require consideration of crew comfort balanced with use of interior habitable volume, accommodation of fan failures, and possible crew uses that impact ventilation and acoustic performance. Each CQ required 13% of its total volume and approximately 6% of its total mass to reduce acoustic noise. This paper illustrates the types of model analysis, assumptions, vehicle interactions, and trade-offs required for CQ ventilation and acoustics. Additionally, on-orbit ventilation system performance and initial crew feedback is presented. This approach is applicable to any private enclosed space that the crew will occupy.

  6. Software Defined GPS Receiver for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Courtney B.; Robison, David E.; Koelewyn, Cynthia Lee

    2011-01-01

    JPL is providing a software defined radio (SDR) that will fly on the International Space Station (ISS) as part of the CoNNeCT project under NASA's SCaN program. The SDR consists of several modules including a Baseband Processor Module (BPM) and a GPS Module (GPSM). The BPM executes applications (waveforms) consisting of software components for the embedded SPARC processor and logic for two Virtex II Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that operate on data received from the GPSM. GPS waveforms on the SDR are enabled by an L-Band antenna, low noise amplifier (LNA), and the GPSM that performs quadrature downconversion at L1, L2, and L5. The GPS waveform for the JPL SDR will acquire and track L1 C/A, L2C, and L5 GPS signals from a CoNNeCT platform on ISS, providing the best GPS-based positioning of ISS achieved to date, the first use of multiple frequency GPS on ISS, and potentially the first L5 signal tracking from space. The system will also enable various radiometric investigations on ISS such as local multipath or ISS dynamic behavior characterization. In following the software-defined model, this work will create a highly portable GPS software and firmware package that can be adapted to another platform with the necessary processor and FPGA capability. This paper also describes ISS applications for the JPL CoNNeCT SDR GPS waveform, possibilities for future global navigation satellite system (GNSS) tracking development, and the applicability of the waveform components to other space navigation applications.

  7. International Space Station Aeromedical Support in Star City, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Richard; Chamberlin, Blake; Dowell, Gene; Castleberry, Tarah; Savage, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The Space Medicine Division at Johnson Space Center works with the International Space Station s international partners (IP) to accomplish assigned health care tasks. Each IP may assign a flight surgeon to support their assigned crewmembers during all phases of training, in-flight operations, and postflight activities. Because of the extensive amount of astronaut training conducted in Star City; NASA, in collaboration with its IPs, has elected to keep a flight surgeon assigned to NASA s Star City office to provide support to the U.S., Canadian, Japanese, and European astronauts during hazardous training activities and provide support for any contingency landings of Soyuz spacecraft in Kazakhstan. The physician also provides support as necessary to the Mission Control Center in Moscow for non-Russian crew-related activities. In addition, the physician in Star City provides ambulatory medical care to the non-Russian-assigned personnel in Star City and visiting dependents. Additional work involves all medical supplies, administration, and inventory. The Star City physician assists in medical evacuation and/or in obtaining support from western clinics in Moscow when required care exceeds local resources. Overall, the Russians are responsible for operations and the medical care of the entire crew when training in Star City and during launch/landing operations. However, they allow international partner flight surgeons to care for their crewmembers as agreed to in the ISS Medical Operations Requirements Document. Medical support focuses on pressurized, monitored, and other hazardous training activities. One of the most important jobs is to act as a medical advocate for the astronauts and to reduce the threat that these hazardous activities pose. Although the Russians have a robust medical system, evacuation may be needed to facilitate ongoing medical care. There are several international medical evacuation companies that provide this care.

  8. Space-Based Reconfigurable Software Defined Radio Test Bed Aboard International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Lux, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) recently launched a new software defined radio research test bed to the International Space Station. The test bed, sponsored by the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office within NASA is referred to as the SCaN Testbed. The SCaN Testbed is a highly capable communications system, composed of three software defined radios, integrated into a flight system, and mounted to the truss of the International Space Station. Software defined radios offer the future promise of in-flight reconfigurability, autonomy, and eventually cognitive operation. The adoption of software defined radios offers space missions a new way to develop and operate space transceivers for communications and navigation. Reconfigurable or software defined radios with communications and navigation functions implemented in software or VHDL (Very High Speed Hardware Description Language) provide the capability to change the functionality of the radio during development or after launch. The ability to change the operating characteristics of a radio through software once deployed to space offers the flexibility to adapt to new science opportunities, recover from anomalies within the science payload or communication system, and potentially reduce development cost and risk by adapting generic space platforms to meet specific mission requirements. The software defined radios on the SCaN Testbed are each compliant to NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. The STRS Architecture is an open, non-proprietary architecture that defines interfaces for the connections between radio components. It provides an operating environment to abstract the communication waveform application from the underlying platform specific hardware such as digital-to-analog converters, analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, RF attenuators, automatic gain control circuits, FPGAs, general-purpose processors, etc. and the interconnections among

  9. International cooperation in the Space Station programme - Assessing the experience to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The origins and framework for cooperation in the Space Station program are outlined. Particular attention is paid to issues and commitments between the countries and to the political context of the Station partnership. A number of conclusions concerning international cooperation in space are drawn based on the Space Station experience. Among these conclusions is the assertion that an international partnership requires realistic assesments, mutual trust, and strong commitments in order to work.

  10. International Space Station Data Collection for Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Remotely sensed data acquired by orbital sensor systems has emerged as a vital tool to identify the extent of damage resulting from a natural disaster, as well as providing near-real time mapping support to response efforts on the ground and humanitarian aid efforts. The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for acquiring disaster response imagery. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to autonomous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. NASA remote sensing assets on the station began collecting International Disaster Charter (IDC) response data in May 2012. The initial NASA ISS sensor systems responding to IDC activations included the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), mounted in the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF); the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) Facility, where the crew collects imagery using off-the-shelf handheld digital cameras; and the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), a visible to near-infrared system mounted externally on the Japan Experiment Module Exposed Facility. The ISSAC completed its primary mission in January 2013. It was replaced by the very high resolution ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) Pathfinder, a visible-wavelength digital camera, telescope, and pointing system. Since the start of IDC response in 2012 there have been 108 IDC activations; NASA sensor systems have collected data for thirty-two of these events. Of the successful data collections, eight involved two or more ISS sensor systems responding to the same event. Data has also been collected by International Partners in response to natural disasters, most notably JAXA and

  11. Beta cloth durability assessment for Space Station Freedom (SSF) Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) blanket covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, S.L.; Jacobs, S.; Le, J.

    1993-03-01

    MLI blankets for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) must comply with general program requirements and recommendations for long life and durability in the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment. Atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet/vacuum ultraviolet are the most important factors in the SSF natural environment which affect materials life. Two types of Beta cloth (Teflon coated woven glass fabric), which had been proposed as MLI blanket covers, were tested for long-term durability in the LEO environment. General resistance to atomic oxygen attack and permeation were evaluated in the high velocity atomic oxygen beam system at Los Alamos National Laboratories. Long-term exposure to the LEO environment was simulated in the laboratory using a radio frequency oxygen plasma asher. The plasma asher treated Beta cloth specimens were tested for thermo-optical properties and mechanical durability. Space exposure data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility and the Intelsat Solar Array Coupon were also used in the durability assessment. Beta cloth fabricated to Rockwell specification MBO 135-027 (Chemglas 250) was shown to have acceptable durability for general use as an MLI blanket cover material in the LEO environment while Sheldahl G414500 should be used only in locations which are protected from direct Ram atomic oxygen

  12. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

  13. Centrifuge Facility for the International Space Station Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1994-01-01

    The Centrifuge Facility planned for the International Space Station Alpha has under-one considerable redesign over the past year, primarily because the Station is now viewed as a 10 year mission rather than a 30 year mission and because of the need to simply the design to meet budget constraints and a 2000 launch date. The basic elements of the Centrifuge Facility remain the same, i.e., a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge, a micro-g holding unit, plant and animal habitats, a glovebox and a service unit. The centrifuge will still provide the full range of artificial gravity from 0.01 a to 2 - as originally planned; however, the extractor to permit withdrawal of habitats from the centrifuge without stopping the centrifuge has been eliminated. The specimen habitats have also been simplified and are derived from other NASA programs. The Plant Research Unit being developed by the Gravitational Biology Facility will be used to house plants in the Centrifuge Facility. Although not as ambitious as the Centrifuge Facility plant habitat, it will provide much better environmental control and lighting than the current Shuttle based Plant Growth Facility. Similarly, rodents will be housed in the Advanced Animal Habitat being developed for the Shuttle program. The Centrifuge Facility and ISSA will provide the opportunity to perform repeatable, high quality science. The long duration increments available on the Station will permit multigeneration studies on both plants and animals which have not previously been possible. The Centrifuge Facility will accommodate sufficient number of specimens to permit statistically significant sampling of specimens to investigate the time course of adaptation to altered gravity environments. The centrifuge will for the first time permit investigators to use gravity itself as a tool to investigate fundamental processes, to investigate the intensity and duration of gravity to maintain normal structure and function, to separate the effects of micro-g from

  14. In-space research, technology and engineering experiments and Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Richard; Gartrell, Charles F.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Space Station will serve as a technology research laboratory, a payload-servicing facility, and a large structure fabrication and assembly facility. Space structures research will encompass advanced structural concepts and their dynamics, advanced control concepts, sensors, and actuators. Experiments dealing with fluid management will gather data on such fundamentals as multiphase flow phenomena. As requirements for power systems and thermal management grow, experiments quantifying the performance of energy systems and thermal management concepts will be undertaken, together with expanded efforts in the fields of information systems, automation, and robotics.

  15. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Science's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Spearing, Scott F.; Jordan, Lee P.; McDaniel S. Greg

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas. The MSG is a very versatile and capable research facility on the ISS. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been used for a large body or research in material science, heat transfer, crystal growth, life sciences, smoke detection, combustion, plant growth, human health, and technology demonstration. MSG is an ideal platform for gravity-dependent phenomena related research. Moreover, the MSG provides engineers and scientists a platform for research in an environment similar to the one that spacecraft and crew members will actually experience during space travel and exploration. The MSG facility is ideally suited to provide quick, relatively inexpensive access to space for National Lab type investigations.

  16. A Novel Robot of Manufacturing Space Solar Cell Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuexin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel robot employed to manufacture space solar cell arrays. First of all including the mechanical configuration and control system, the architecture of the robot is described. Then the flow velocity field of adhesive in the dispensing needles is acquired based on hydrodynamics. The accurate section form model of adhesive dispensed on the solar cells is obtained, which is essential for the robot to control the uniformity of dispensing adhesive. Finally the experiment validates the feasibility and reliability of the robot system. The application of robots instead of manual work in manufacturing space solar cell arrays will enhance the development of space industry.

  17. A Novel Robot of Manufacturing Space Solar Cell Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuexin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel robot employed to manufacture space solar cell arrays. First of all including the mechanical configuration and control system, the architecture of the robot is described. Then the flow velocity field of adhesive in the dispensing needles is acquired based on hydrodynamics. The accurate section form model of adhesive dispensed on the solar cells is obtained, which is essential for the robot to control the uniformity of dispensing adhesive. Finally the experiment validates the feasibility and reliability of the robot system. The application of robots instead of manual work in manufacturing space solar cell arrays will enhance the development of space industry.

  18. TNB Experience in Developing Solar Hybrid Station at RPS Kemar, Gerik, Perak Darul Ridzuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, K A; Shamsudin, K N

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss on TNB experience in developing Solar Hybrid Station at RPS Kemar, Gerik, Perak. TNB has been approached by KKLW to submit proposal to provide electricity in the rural area namely RPS Kemar. Looking at area and source available, Solar Hybrid System was the best method in order to provide electricity at this area. This area is far from national grid sources. Solar Hybrid System is the best method to produce electrical power using the renewable energy from Solar PV, Battery and Diesel Generator Set. Nowadays, price of petroleum is slightly high due to higher demand from industry. Solar energy is good alternative in this country to practice in order to reduce cost for produce of electrical energy. Generally, Solar will produce energy during daytime and when become cloudy and dark, automatically battery and diesel generator set will recover the system through the hybrid controller system.

  19. Seasonal, Diurnal, and Solar-Cycle Variations of Electron Density at Two West Africa Equatorial Ionization Anomaly Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Ouattara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the variability of foF2 at two West Africa equatorial ionization anomaly stations (Ouagadougou and Dakar during three solar cycles (from cycle 20 to cycle 22, that is, from 1966 to 1998 for Ouagadougou and from 1971 to 1997 for Dakar. We examine the effect of the changing levels of solar extreme ultraviolet radiation with sunspot number. The study shows high correlation between foF2 and sunspot number (Rz. The correlation coefficient decreases from cycle 20 to cycle 21 at both stations. From cycle 21 to cycle 22 it decreases at Ouagadougou station and increases at Dakar station. The best correlation coefficient, 0.990, is obtained for Dakar station during solar cycle 22. The seasonal variation displays equinoctial peaks that are asymmetric between March and September. The percentage deviations of monthly average data from one solar cycle to another display variability with respect to solar cycle phase and show solar ultraviolet radiation variability with solar cycle phase. The diurnal variation shows a noon bite out with a predominant late-afternoon peak except during the maximum phase of the solar cycle. The diurnal Ouagadougou station foF2 data do not show a significant difference between the increasing and decreasing cycle phases, while Dakar station data do show it, particularly for cycle 21. The percentage deviations of diurnal variations from solar-minimum conditions show more ionosphere during solar cycle 21 at both stations for all three of the other phases of the solar cycle. There is no significant variability of ionosphere during increasing and decreasing solar cycle phases at Ouagadougou station, but at Dakar station there is a significant variability of ionosphere during these two solar-cycle phases.

  20. Improving Safety on the International Space Station: Transitioning to Electronic Emergency Procedure Books on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Journet, Katrina; Clahoun, Jessica; Morrow, Jason; Duncan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) originally designed the International Space Station (ISS) to operate until 2015, but have extended operations until at least 2020. As part of this very dynamic Program, there is an effort underway to simplify the certification of Commercial ]of ]the ]Shelf (COTS) hardware. This change in paradigm allows the ISS Program to take advantage of technologically savvy and commercially available hardware, such as the iPad. The iPad, a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc., was chosen to support this endeavor. The iPad is functional, portable, and could be easily accessed in an emergency situation. The iPad Electronic Flight Bag (EFB), currently approved for use in flight by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), is a fraction of the cost of a traditional Class 2 EFB. In addition, the iPad fs ability to use electronic aeronautical data in lieu of paper in route charts and approach plates can cut the annual cost of paper data in half for commercial airlines. ISS may be able to benefit from this type of trade since one of the most important factors considered is information management. Emergency procedures onboard the ISS are currently available to the crew in paper form. Updates to the emergency books can either be launched on an upcoming visiting vehicle such as a Russian Soyuz flight or printed using the onboard ISS printer. In both cases, it is costly to update hardcopy procedures. A new operations concept was proposed to allow for the use of a tablet system that would provide a flexible platform to support space station crew operations. The purpose of the system would be to provide the crew the ability to view and maintain operational data, such as emergency procedures while also allowing Mission Control Houston to update the procedures. The ISS Program is currently evaluating the safety risks associated with the use of iPads versus paper. Paper products can contribute to the flammability

  1. Pilot solar hybrid power station in rural area, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iszuan Shah Syed Ismail; Azmi Omar; Hamdan Hassan

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia has considerable number of widely deployed small rural area. These hamlets are very much associated with Orang Asli residents. They get their source of energy by candle or kerosene light while some richer community can afford a generator set. The usual or normal system using solar as a source for electricity at rural area is standalone system for each house. As for this project, a pilot centralized solar power station will be the source of electricity to light up the fifteen houses at Kampung Denai, Rompin, Pahang, Malaysia. This system will be the first ever built for the orang asli settlement at Pahang. The objectives of this project are to design and install the solar power station at remote location and to develop standard design of stand-alone solar power station suitable for Malaysia. Orang Asli residents at Kampung Denai was chosen because there is a school for the Orang Asli children. Moreover, the remote communities are living in stratification, which makes electrical wiring easier. Furthermore, the remote area is far from the last transmission line and cumbersome to bring diesel through the rough and unpredictable land road. The main domestic energy is for residential purposes (e.g. small lighting unit, radio, television, video, etc). The generator capacity is 18.6 kW. The solar sizing was done both for the home and school appliances at Kampung Denai. The maximum demand measured was 4195.35 kW. The pilot centralized solar power station consists of 10 kW photovoltaic panels, 10 kW inverter, 150 kWh battery and other balance of system. A generator set with capacity of 12.5 kVA is installed for back up and during monsoon season. This paper will present status of the system, operational and maintenance issues, load profile of the solar power station and economics and system design of the whole system

  2. Space station as a vital focus for advancing the technologies of automation and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsi, Giulio; Herman, Daniel H.

    1988-01-01

    A major guideline for the design of the U.S. Space Station is that the Space Station address a wide variety of functions. These functions include the servicing of unmanned assets in space, the support of commercial labs in space and the efficient management of the Space Station itself; the largest space asset. The technologies of Automation and Robotics have the promise to help in reducing Space Station operating costs and to achieve a highly efficient use of the human in space. The use of advanced automation and artificial intelligence techniques, such as expert systems, in Space Station subsystems for activity planning and failure mode management will enable us to reduce dependency on a mission control center and could ultimately result in breaking the umbilical link from Earth to the Space Station. The application of robotic technologies with advanced perception capability and hierarchical intelligent control to servicing system will enable the servicing of assets either in space or in situ with a high degree of human efficiency. The results of studies leading toward the formulation of an automation and robotics plan for Space Station development are presented.

  3. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2006-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  4. Design and modeling of low temperature solar thermal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar Ganesh, N.; Srinivas, T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The optimum conditions are different for efficiency and power conditions. ► The current model works up to a maximum separator temperature of 150 °C. ► The turbine concentration influences the high pressure. ► High solar beam radiation and optimized cycle conditions give low collector cost. -- Abstract: During the heat recovery in a Kalina cycle, a binary aqua–ammonia mixture changes its state from liquid to vapor, the more volatile ammonia vaporizes first and then the water starts vaporization to match temperature profile of the hot fluid. In the present work, a low temperature Kalina cycle has been investigated to optimize the heat recovery from solar thermal collectors. Hot fluid coming from solar parabolic trough collector with vacuum tubes is used to generate ammonia rich vapor in a boiler for power generation. The turbine inlet conditions are optimized to match the variable hot fluid temperature with the intermittent nature of the solar radiation. The key parameters discussed in this study are strong solution concentration, separator temperature which affects the hot fluid inlet temperature and turbine ammonia concentration. Solar parabolic collector system with vacuum tubes has been designed at the optimized power plant conditions. This work can be used in the selection of boiler, separator and turbine conditions to maximize the power output as well as efficiency of power generation system. The current model results a maximum limit temperature for separator as 150 °C at the Indian climatic conditions. A maximum specific power of 105 kW per kg/s of working fluid can be obtained at 80% of strong solution concentration with 140 °C separator temperature. The corresponding plant and cycle efficiencies are 5.25% and 13% respectively. But the maximum efficiencies of 6% and 15% can be obtained respectively for plant and Kalina cycle at 150 °C of separator temperature.

  5. International Space Station Instmments Collect Imagery of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    A new focus for utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting basic and applied research that directly benefits Earth's citizenry. In the Earth Sciences, one such activity is collecting remotely sensed imagery of disaster areas and making those data immediately available through the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System, especially in response to activations of the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters (known informally as the "International Disaster Charter", or IDC). The ISS, together with other NASA orbital sensor assets, responds to IDC activations following notification by the USGS. Most of the activations are due to natural hazard events, including large floods, impacts of tropical systems, major fires, and volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Through the ISS Program Science Office, we coordinate with ISS instrument teams for image acquisition using several imaging systems. As of 1 August 2013, we have successfully contributed imagery data in support of 14 Disaster Charter Activations, including regions in both Haiti and the east coast of the US impacted by Hurricane Sandy; flooding events in Russia, Mozambique, India, Germany and western Africa; and forest fires in Algeria and Ecuador. ISS-based sensors contributing data include the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), the ISERV (ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System) Pathfinder camera mounted in the US Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), formerly operating from the WORF, and high resolution handheld camera photography collected by crew members (Crew Earth Observations). When orbital parameters and operations support data collection, ISS-based imagery adds to the resources available to disaster response teams and contributes to the publicdomain record of these events for later analyses.

  6. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  7. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  8. Light Microsopy Module, International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Brown, Daniel F.; O'Toole, Martin A.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Abbot-Hearn, Amber Ashley; Atherton, Arthur Johnson; Beltram, Alexander; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2015, if all goes as planned, five experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with a manual sample base -3 (ACE-M-3), [2] the Advanced Colloids Experiment with a Heated Base -1 (ACE-H-1), [3] (ACE-H-2), [4] the Advanced Plant Experiment -03 (APEX-03), and [5] the Microchannel Diffusion Experiment (MDE). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] New York University: Paul Chaikin, Andrew Hollingsworth, and Stefano Sacanna, [2] University of Pennsylvania: Arjun Yodh and Matthew Gratale, [3] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al., [4] from the University of Florida and CASIS: Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl, and [5] from the Methodist Hospital Research Institute from CASIS: Alessandro Grattoni and Giancarlo Canavese.

  9. Quantitative Risk Modeling of Fire on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Theresa; Haught, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has worked to prevent fire events and to mitigate their impacts should they occur. Hardware is designed to reduce sources of ignition, oxygen systems are designed to control leaking, flammable materials are prevented from flying to ISS whenever possible, the crew is trained in fire response, and fire response equipment improvements are sought out and funded. Fire prevention and mitigation are a top ISS Program priority - however, programmatic resources are limited; thus, risk trades are made to ensure an adequate level of safety is maintained onboard the ISS. In support of these risk trades, the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) team has modeled the likelihood of fire occurring in the ISS pressurized cabin, a phenomenological event that has never before been probabilistically modeled in a microgravity environment. This paper will discuss the genesis of the ISS PRA fire model, its enhancement in collaboration with fire experts, and the results which have informed ISS programmatic decisions and will continue to be used throughout the life of the program.

  10. Adaptive Modeling of the International Space Station Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin Ray

    2007-01-01

    Software simulations provide NASA engineers the ability to experiment with spacecraft systems in a computer-imitated environment. Engineers currently develop software models that encapsulate spacecraft system behavior. These models can be inaccurate due to invalid assumptions, erroneous operation, or system evolution. Increasing accuracy requires manual calibration and domain-specific knowledge. This thesis presents a method for automatically learning system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques are applied to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). We also explore a knowledge fusion approach that uses traditional engineered EPS models to supplement the learned models. We observed that these engineered EPS models provide useful background knowledge to reduce predictive error spikes when confronted with making predictions in situations that are quite different from the training scenarios used when learning the model. Evaluations using ISS sensor data and existing EPS models demonstrate the success of the adaptive approach. Our experimental results show that adaptive modeling provides reductions in model error anywhere from 80% to 96% over these existing models. Final discussions include impending use of adaptive modeling technology for ISS mission operations and the need for adaptive modeling in future NASA lunar and Martian exploration.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Mohammed K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) provides the following three primary functions for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA): volume for concentrating/filtering pretreated urine, filtration of product distillate, and filtration of the Pressure Control and Pump Assembly (PCPA) effluent. The RFTAs, under nominal operations, are to be replaced every 30 days. This poses a significant logistical resupply problem, as well as cost in upmass and new tanks purchase. In addition, it requires significant amount of crew time. To address and resolve these challenges, NASA required Boeing to develop a design which eliminated the logistics and upmass issues and minimize recurring costs. Boeing developed the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) that allowed the tanks to be emptied on-orbit into disposable tanks that eliminated the need for bringing the fully loaded tanks to earth for refurbishment and relaunch, thereby eliminating several hundred pounds of upmass and its associated costs. The ARFTA will replace the RFTA by providing the same functionality, but with reduced resupply requirements

  12. Dusty Plasma Physics Facility for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goree, John; Hahn, Inseob

    2015-09-01

    The Dusty Plasma Physics Facility (DPPF) is an instrument planned for the International Space Station (ISS). If approved by NASA, JPL will build and operate the facility, and NASA will issue calls for proposals allowing investigators outside JPL to carry out research, public education, and outreach. Microgravity conditions on the ISS will be useful for eliminating two unwanted effects of gravity: sedimentation of dust particles to the bottom of a plasma chamber, and masking weak forces such as the ion drag force that act on dust particles. The DPPF facility is expected to support multiple scientific users. It will have a modular design, with a scientific locker, or insert, that can be exchanged without removing the entire facility. The first insert will use a parallel-plate radio-frequency discharge, polymer microspheres, and high-speed video cameras. This first insert will be designed for fundamental physics experiments. Possible future inserts could be designed for other purposes, such as engineering applications, and experimental simulations of astrophysical or geophysical conditions. The design of the facility will allow remote operation from ground-based laboratories, using telescience.

  13. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  14. Space Station Human Factors: Designing a Human-Robot Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis, Jennifer L.; Clarke, John Paul; Goza, S. Michael

    2001-01-01

    The experiments described in this paper are part of a larger joint MIT/NASA research effort and focus on the development of a methodology for designing and evaluating integrated interfaces for highly dexterous and multifunctional telerobot. Specifically, a telerobotic workstation is being designed for an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) anthropomorphic space station telerobot called Robonaut. Previous researchers have designed telerobotic workstations based upon performance of discrete subsets of tasks (for example, peg-in-hole, tracking, etc.) without regard for transitions that operators go through between tasks performed sequentially in the context of larger integrated tasks. The experiments presented here took an integrated approach to describing teleoperator performance and assessed how subjects operating a full-immersion telerobot perform during fine position and gross position tasks. In addition, a Robonaut simulation was also developed as part of this research effort, and experimentally tested against Robonaut itself to determine its utility. Results show that subject performance of teleoperated tasks using both Robonaut and the simulation are virtually identical, with no significant difference between the two. These results indicate that the simulation can be utilized as both a Robonaut training tool, and as a powerful design platform for telepresence displays and aids.

  15. Space Moves: Adding Movement to Solar System Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Deborah Bainer; Heidorn, Brent

    2009-01-01

    Earth and space science figure prominently in the National Science Education Standards for levels 5-8 (NRC 1996). The Earth in the Solar System standard focuses on students' ability to understand (1) the composition of the solar system (Earth, Moon, Sun, planets with their moons, and smaller objects like asteroids and comets) and (2) that…

  16. A solar observing station for education and research in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaname, José Iba, Ishitsuka; Ishitsuka, Mutsumi; Trigoso Avilés, Hugo; Takashi, Sakurai; Yohei, Nishino; Miyazaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Kazunari; Ueno, Satoru; Yumoto, Kiyohumi; Maeda, George

    2007-12-01

    Since 1937 Carnegie Institution of Washington made observations of active regions of the Sun with a Hale type spectro-helioscope in Huancayo observatory of the Instituto Geofísico del Perú (IGP). IGP has contributed significantly to geophysical and solar sciences in the last 69 years. Now IGP and the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica (UNICA) are planning to refurbish the coelostat at the observatory with the support of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. It is also planned to install a solar Flare Monitor Telescope (FMT) at UNICA, from Hida observatory of Kyoto University. Along with the coelostat, the FMT will be useful to improve scientific research and education.

  17. NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data Vb0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the...

  18. NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Provisional Science Data Vp0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) datasets were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the distribution and...

  19. Microbiomes of the Dust Particles Collected from the International Space Station and Spacecraft Assembly Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The safety of the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers and maintenance of ISS hardware are the primary rationale for monitoring microorganisms in this...

  20. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Study of BSL-2 bacterial isolates from the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In an on-going Microbial Observatory experimental investigation on the International Space Station (ISS) multiple bacterial isolates of Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2)...

  1. Energy consumption analysis of the Venus Deep Space Station (DSS-13)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, N. V.

    1983-01-01

    This report continues the energy consumption analysis and verification study of the tracking stations of the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex, and presents an audit of the Venus Deep Space Station (DSS 13). Due to the non-continuous radioastronomy research and development operations at the station, estimations of energy usage were employed in the energy consumption simulation of both the 9-meter and 26-meter antenna buildings. A 17.9% decrease in station energy consumption was experienced over the 1979-1981 years under study. A comparison of the ECP computer simulations and the station's main watt-hour meter readings showed good agreement.

  2. The JPL space photovoltaic program. [energy efficient so1 silicon solar cells for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Monck, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of energy efficient solar cells for space applications is discussed. The electrical performance of solar cells as a function of temperature and solar intensity and the influence of radiation and subsequent thermal annealing on the electrical behavior of cells are among the factors studied. Progress in GaAs solar cell development is reported with emphasis on improvement of output power and radiation resistance to demonstrate a solar cell array to meet the specific power and stability requirements of solar power satellites.

  3. Protection from Induced Space Environments Effects on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Stegall, Courtney; Schmidl, Danny; Huang, Alvin; Olsen, Randy; Koontz, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is one of the largest, most complex multinational scientific projects in history and protection from induced space environments effects is critical to its long duration mission as well as to the health of the vehicle and safety of on-orbit operations. This paper discusses some of the unique challenges that were encountered during the design, assembly and operation of the ISS and how they were resolved. Examples are provided to illustrate the issues and the risk mitigation strategies that were developed to resolve these issues. Of particular importance are issues related with the interaction of multiple spacecraft as in the case of ISS and Visiting Vehicles transporting crew, hardware elements, cargo and scientific payloads. These strategies are applicable to the development of future long duration space systems, not only during design, but also during assembly and operation of these systems.

  4. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  5. Space weather: Why are magnetospheric physicists interested in solar explosive phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, H. E. J.; Pulkkinen, T. I.

    when a CME will be ejected, will it hit the Earth, what will its density and speed be, and how the magnetic field will be wrapped around the plasma cloud. This is clearly an enormous modelling task, but very forthwhile to carry further. Also forecasting of the solar energetic particle events would be very usefule as they form the most hazardous single effect on spaceflight, be that on the Space Station, on the Moon, or even further. We illustrate the chain of effects from the solar atmosphere to near-Earth space using some of the CME-associated magnetic storm events from the SOHO era.

  6. Experimenting Galileo on Board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantinato, Samuele; Pozzobon, Oscar; Sands, Obed S.; Welch, Bryan W.; Clapper, Carolyn J.; Miller, James J.; Gamba, Giovanni; Chiara, Andrea; Montagner, Stefano; Giordano, Pietro; hide

    2016-01-01

    The SCaN Testbed is an advanced integrated communications system and laboratory facility installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2012. The testbed incorporates a set of new generation of Software Defined Radio (SDR) technologies intended to allow researchers to develop, test, and demonstrate new communications, networking, and navigation capabilities in the actual environment of space. Qascom, in cooperation with ESA and NASA, is designing a Software Defined Radio GalileoGPS Receiver capable to provide accurate positioning and timing to be installed on the ISS SCaN Testbed. The GalileoGPS waveform will be operated in the JPL SDR that is constituted by several hardware components that can be used for experimentations in L-Band and S-Band. The JPL SDR includes an L-Band Dorne Margolin antenna mounted onto a choke ring. The antenna is connected to a radio front end capable to provide one bit samples for the three GNSS frequencies (L1, L2 and L5) at 38 MHz, exploiting the subharmonic sampling. The baseband processing is then performed by an ATMEL AT697 processor (100 MIPS) and two Virtex 2 FPGAs. The JPL SDR supports the STRS (Space Telecommunications Radio System) that provides common waveform software interfaces, methods of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. The standard foresees the development of applications that are modular, portable, reconfigurable, and reusable. The developed waveform uses the STRS infrastructure-provided application program interfaces (APIs) and services to load, verify, execute, change parameters, terminate, or unload an application. The project is divided in three main phases. 1)Design and Development of the GalileoGPS waveform for the SCaN Testbed starting from Qascom existing GNSS SDR receiver. The baseline design is limited to the implementation of the single frequency Galileo and GPS L1E1 receiver even if as part of the activity it will be to assess the

  7. Definition of technology development missions for early space station satellite servicing, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The testbed role of an early manned space station in the context of a satellite servicing evolutionary development and flight demonstration technology plan which results in a satellite servicing operational capability is defined. A satellite servicing technology development mission (a set of missions) to be performed on an early manned space station is conceptually defined.

  8. 47 CFR 25.140 - Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualifications of fixed-satellite space station licensees. 25.140 Section 25.140 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25.140 Qualifications...

  9. The Effects of Solar Maximum on the Earth's Satellite Population and Space Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly approaching maximum of Solar Cycle 24 will have wide-ranging effects not only on the number and distribution of resident space objects, but also on vital aspects of space situational awareness, including conjunction assessment processes. The best known consequence of high solar activity is an increase in the density of the thermosphere, which, in turn, increases drag on the vast majority of objects in low Earth orbit. The most prominent evidence of this is seen in a dramatic increase in space object reentries. Due to the massive amounts of new debris created by the fragmentations of Fengyun-1C, Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 during the recent period of Solar Minimum, this effect might reach epic levels. However, space surveillance systems are also affected, both directly and indirectly, historically leading to an increase in the number of lost satellites and in the routine accuracy of the calculation of their orbits. Thus, at a time when more objects are drifting through regions containing exceptionally high-value assets, such as the International Space Station and remote sensing satellites, their position uncertainties increase. In other words, as the possibility of damaging and catastrophic collisions increases, our ability to protect space systems is degraded. Potential countermeasures include adjustments to space surveillance techniques and the resetting of collision avoidance maneuver thresholds.

  10. Erosion Data from the MISSE 8 Polymers Experiment After 2 Years of Space Exposure on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Asmar, Olivia C.; Yi, Grace T.; Mitchell, Gianna G.; Guo, Aobo; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Polymers Experiment was exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) space environment for 2.14 and 2.0 years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 8 (MISSE 8) and the Optical Reflector Materials Experiment-III (ORMatE-III), respectively. The experiment contained 42 samples, which were flown in either ram, wake, or zenith orientations. The primary objective was to determine the effect of solar exposure on the atomic oxygen erosion yield (Ey) of fluoropolymers. This paper provides an overview of the experiment with details on the polymers flown, the characterization techniques used, the atomic oxygen fluence for each exposure orientation, and the LEO Ey results. The Ey values for the fluoropolymers range from 1.45 x 10(exp -25) cm(exp 3)/atom for white Tedlar Registered Trademark? (polyvinyl fluoride with white titanium dioxide pigment) flown in the ram orientation to 6.32 x 10(exp -24) cm(exp 3)/atom for aluminized-Teflon Registered Trademark? fluorinated ethylene propylene (Al-FEP) flown in the zenith orientation. Erosion yield data for FEP flown in ram, wake and zenith orientations are compared, and the Ey was found to be highly dependent on orientation, hence environmental exposure. Teflon FEP had an order of magnitude higher Ey when flown in the zenith direction (6.32 x10(exp -24) cm(exp3)/atom) as compared to the ram direction (2.37 x 10(exp -25) cm(exp 3)/atom). The Ey of FEP was found to increase with a direct correlation to the solar exposure/AO fluence ratio showing the effect of solar radiation and/or heating due to solar exposure on FEP erosion. In addition, back-surface carbon painted FEP (C-FEP) flown in the zenith orientation had a significantly higher Ey than clear FEP or Al-FEP further indicating that heating has a significant impact on the erosion of FEP, particularly in the zenith orientation.

  11. Solar PV powered mobile cellular base station: Models and use cases in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderemi, BA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The huge costs of operating a mobile cellular base station, and the negative impact of greenhouse gasses on the environment have made the solar PV renewable energy source a sought after. In addition to cost and environmental factor, abundant supply...

  12. Development of a Cost-Effective Solar/Diesel Independent Power Plant for a Remote Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeolu Samuel Omogoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the design, simulation, and optimization of a solar/diesel hybrid power supply system for a remote station. The design involves determination of the station total energy demand as well as obtaining the station solar radiation data. This information was used to size the components of the hybrid power supply system (HPSS and to determine its configuration. Specifically, an appropriate software package, HOMER, was used to determine the number of solar panels, deep-cycle batteries, and rating of the inverter that comprise the solar section of the HPSS. A suitable diesel generator was also selected for the HPSS after careful technical and cost analysis of those available in the market. The designed system was simulated using the HOMER software package and the simulation results were used to carry out the optimization of the system. The final design adequately meets the station energy requirement. Based on a life expectancy of twenty-five years, a cost-benefit analysis of the HPSS was carried out. This analysis shows that the HPSS has a lower cost as compared to a conventional diesel generator power supply, thus recommending the HPSS as a more cost-effective solution for this application.

  13. Validated TRNSYS Model for Solar Assisted Space Heating System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, Nedal

    2014-01-01

    The present study involves a validated TRNSYS model for solar assisted space heating system as applied to a residential building in Jordan using new detailed radiation models of the TRNSYS 17.1 and geometric building model Trnsys3d for the Google SketchUp 3D drawing program. The annual heating load for a building (Solar House) which is located at the Royal ScientiFIc Society (RS5) in Jordan is estimated under climatological conditions of Amman. The aim of this Paper is to compare measured thermal performance of the Solar House with that modeled using TRNSYS. The results showed that the annual measured space heating load for the building was 6,188 kWh while the heati.ng load for the modeled building was 6,391 kWh. Moreover, the measured solar fraction for the solar system was 50% while the modeled solar fraction was 55%. A comparison of modeled and measured data resulted in percentage mean absolute errors for solar energy for space heating, auxiliary heating and solar fraction of 13%, 7% and 10%, respectively. The validated model will be useful for long-term performance simulation under different weather and operating conditions.(author)

  14. State-of-the art of dc components for secondary power distribution of Space Station Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauthamer, S.; Gangal, M.; Das, R.

    1991-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has selected 120-Vdc secondary power distribution for Space Station Freedom. Although this high voltage level is new for space applications, it is well within the bounds for components and subsystems being developed and in some cases being used in aerospace, defense, and terrestrial applications. In this paper state-of-the-art components and subsystems for Space Station Freedom in terms of performance, size, and topology are examined. One objective is to inform the users of Space Station Freedom about what is available in power supplies and power control devices. The other objective is to stimulate the interest in the component industry so that more focused product development can be started. Based on results of this study, it is estimated that, with some redesign, modifications, and space qualification, many of these components may be applied to Space Station Freedom needs

  15. Economic feasibility of solar water and space heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdek, R H; Hirshberg, A S; Babcock, W H

    1979-03-23

    The economic feasibility in 1977 and 1978 of solar water and combined water and space heating is analyzed for single-family detached residences and multi-family apartment buildings in four representative U.S. cities: Boston, Massachusetts; Washington, D.C.; Grand Junction, Colorado; and Los Angeles, California. Three economic decision criteria are utilized: payback period, years to recovery of down payment, and years to net positive cash flow. The cost competitiveness of the solar systems compared to heating systems based on electricity, fuel oil, and natural gas is then discussed for each city, and the impact of the federal tax credit for solar energy systems is assessed. It is found that even without federal incentives some solar water and space heating systems are competitive. Enactment of the solar tax credit, however, greatly enhances their competitiveness. The implications of these findings for government tax and energy pricing policies are discussed.

  16. Technical assessment of Mir-1 life support hardware for the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K. L.; Bagdigian, R. M.; Carrasquillo, R. L.; Carter, D. L.; Franks, G. D.; Holder, D. W., Jr.; Hutchens, C. F.; Ogle, K. Y.; Perry, J. L.; Ray, C. D.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has been progressively learning the design and performance of the Russian life support systems utilized in their Mir space station. In 1992, a plan was implemented to assess the benefits of the Mir-1 life support systems to the Freedom program. Three primary tasks focused on: evaluating the operational Mir-1 support technologies and understanding if specific Russian systems could be directly utilized on the American space station and if Russian technology design information could prove useful in improving the current design of the planned American life support equipment; evaluating the ongoing Russian life support technology development activities to determine areas of potential long-term application to the U.S. space station; and utilizing the expertise of their space station life support systems to evaluate the benefits to the current U.S. space station program which included the integration of the Russian Mir-1 designs with the U.S. designs to support a crew of six.

  17. Leadership and Cultural Challenges in Operating the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, J. L.; Ritsher, J. B.; Saylor, S. A.; Kanas, N.

    2006-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves an indefinite, continuous series of long-duration international missions, and this requires an unprecedented degree of cooperation across multiple sites, organizations, and nations. ISS flight controllers have had to find ways to maintain effective team performance in this challenging new context. The goal of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate the major leadership and cultural challenges faces by ISS flight controllers, and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount these challenges. We conducted a qualitative survey using a semi-structured interview. Subjects included 14 senior NASA flight controllers who were chosen on the basis of having had substantial experience working with international partners. Data were content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted some new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of Russian and American ISS mission control personnel. The interview data showed that respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership and cultural challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Surprisingly few respondents offered strategies for addressing the challenge of working with team members whose native language is not American English. The questionnaire data showed that Americans think it is more important than Russians that mission control personnel speak the same dialect of one shared common language. Although specific to the ISS program, our results are consistent with recent management, cultural, and aerospace research. We aim to use our results to improve training for current and future ISS flight controllers.

  18. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.

    2015-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. The filter element for this system has a non-standard cross-section with a length-to-width ratio (LW) of 6.6. A filter test setup was designed and built to meet industry testing standards. A CFD analysis was performed to initially determine the optimal duct geometry and flow configuration. Both a screen and flow straighter were added to the test duct design to improve flow uniformity and face velocity profiles were subsequently measured to confirm. Flow quality and aerosol mixing assessments show that the duct flow is satisfactory for the intended leak testing. Preliminary leak testing was performed on two different ISS filters, one with known perforations and one with limited use, and results confirmed that the testing methods and photometer instrument are sensitive enough to detect and locate compromised sections of an ISS BFE.Given the engineering constraints in designing spacecraft life support systems, it is anticipated that non-industry standard filters will be required in future designs. This work is focused on developing test protocols for testing the ISS BFE filters, but the methodology is general enough to be extended to other present and future spacecraft filters. These techniques for characterizing the test duct and perform leak testing

  19. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Shawn; Frazier, Natalie; Lehman, John

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400?C. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  20. Solar lanterns for domestic lighting in India. Viability of central charging station model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaurey, A.; Kandpal, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    About 68 million households in India rely on kerosene as a fuel for domestic lighting. Kerosene-based lighting devices, not only for poor quality of light, but also for the risks of indoor air pollution and fire hazards, etc. are not a desired option for domestic lighting purposes. Solar lantern is a better alternative in terms of its quality of illumination, durability and versatility of use. The dissemination model for solar lantern in India has so far been based on cash sales with or without the incentive of capital subsidy. This paper analyses several dissemination models including rental and fee-for-service based on centralized solar charging station concept for CFL- and LED-based designs of solar lanterns available in India. The basis of comparison is the acceptable daily costs or rental to the user as well as to the owner of the charging station. Further, the paper studies the impact of likely escalation in kerosene price on the acceptable daily rental and estimates the amount of subsidy required to make the charging station model viable for disseminating solar lanterns among rural households. (author)

  1. Langmuir Probes for Obstanovka Experiment Aboard the Russian Segment of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    charged due to the operation of so many instruments, solar batteries, life supporting devices, etc. The present grant is for the elaboration and tests of...sensors (in RKK “ Energia ” – Moscow)  Updating of the technological instruments - a new power supply block (PSB) was elaborated, which made it possible to...depending on space weather, Year of Astronomy: Solar and Solar - Terrestrial Physics 2009, Proceedings of the All-Russian Yearly Conference on Solar

  2. Space station automation study: Automation requriements derived from space manufacturing concepts,volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Automation reuirements were developed for two manufacturing concepts: (1) Gallium Arsenide Electroepitaxial Crystal Production and Wafer Manufacturing Facility, and (2) Gallium Arsenide VLSI Microelectronics Chip Processing Facility. A functional overview of the ultimate design concept incoporating the two manufacturing facilities on the space station are provided. The concepts were selected to facilitate an in-depth analysis of manufacturing automation requirements in the form of process mechanization, teleoperation and robotics, sensors, and artificial intelligence. While the cost-effectiveness of these facilities was not analyzed, both appear entirely feasible for the year 2000 timeframe.

  3. A solar station in Ica - Mutsumi Ishitsuka: a research center to improve education at the university and schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrazas-Ramos, Raúl

    2012-07-01

    The San Luis Gonzaga National University of Ica has built a solar station, in collaboration with the Geophysical Institute of Peru, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and the Hida Observatory. The Solar Station has the following equipment: a digital Spectrograph Solar Refractor Telescope Takahashi 15 cm aperture, 60 cm reflector telescope aperture, a magnetometer-MAGDAS/CPNM and a Burst Monitor Telescope Solar-FMT (Project CHAIN). These teams support the development of astronomical science and Ica in Peru, likewise contributing to science worldwide. The development of basic science will be guaranteed when university students, professors and researchers work together. The Solar Station will be useful for studying the different levels of university education and also for the general public. The Solar Station will be a good way to spread science in the region through public disclosure.

  4. A 50-kW Module Power Station of Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. H.; Lee, J. H.; Meador, W. E.; Conway, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    The conceptual design of a 50 kW Directly Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser (DSPIL) module was developed for a space-based power station which transmits its coherent-beam power to users such as the moon, Martian rovers, or other satellites with large (greater than 25 kW) electric power requirements. Integration of multiple modules would provide an amount of power that exceeds the power of a single module by combining and directing the coherent beams to the user's receiver. The model developed for the DSPIL system conservatively predicts the laser output power (50 kW) that appears much less than the laser output (93 kW) obtained from the gain volume ratio extrapolation of experimental data. The difference in laser outputs may be attributed to reflector configurations adopted in both design and experiment. Even though the photon absorption by multiple reflections in experimental cavity setup was more efficient, the maximum secondary absorption amounts to be only 24.7 percent of the primary. However, the gain volume ratio shows 86 percent more power output than theoretical estimation that is roughly 60 percent more than the contribution by the secondary absorption. Such a difference indicates that the theoretical model adopted in the study underestimates the overall performance of the DSPIL. This fact may tolerate more flexible and radical selection of design parameters than used in this design study. The design achieves an overall specific power of approximately 5 W/kg and total mass of 10 metric tons.

  5. Space satellite power system. [conversion of solar energy by photovoltaic solar cell arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a satellite solar power station was studied. It is shown that it offers the potential to meet a significant portion of future energy needs, is pollution free, and is sparing of irreplaceable earth resources. Solar energy is converted by photovoltaic solar cell arrays to dc energy which in turn is converted into microwave energy in a large active phased array. The microwave energy is beamed to earth with little attenuation and is converted back to dc energy on the earth. Economic factors are considered.

  6. Space Medicine: Shuttle - Space Station Crew Health and Safety Challenges for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervay, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation combines some views of the shuttle take off, and the shuttle and space station on orbit, and some views of the underwater astronaut training , with a general discussion of Space Medicine. It begins with a discussion of the some of the physiological issues of space flight. These include: Space Motion Sickness (SMS), Cardiovascular, Neurovestibular, Musculoskeletal, and Behavioral/Psycho-social. There is also discussion of the space environment and the issues that are posed including: Radiation, Toxic products and propellants, Habitability, Atmosphere, and Medical events. Included also is a discussion of the systems and crew training. There are also artists views of the Constellation vehicles, the planned lunar base, and extended lunar settlement. There are also slides showing the size of earth in perspective to the other planets, and the sun and the sun in perspective to other stars. There is also a discussion of the in-flight changes that occur in neural feedback that produces postural imbalance and loss of coordination after return.

  7. The world Bank's support for concentrated solar power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pariente-David, S.; Walters, J.; Govindarajalu, Ch.; Coma Cunill, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) was set up in 2008 to provide funding, especially subsidies, on an industrial scale for projects that experiment with, deploy or transfer low-carbon technology, which can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly in the long run. The CTF helps multilateral development banks providing the funds needed, and giving a boost to experiments with low-carbon techniques, while waiting for the conclusion of the negotiations conducted by the United Nations on climate change. The World Bank manages this temporary fund. The article presents the use of CTF as a catalyzer to lower costs, to create a viable market and to attract important financing for the development of concentrating solar plants in Middle East and North-Africa countries

  8. Radiation hardened high efficiency silicon space solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garboushian, V.; Yoon, S.; Turner, J.

    1993-01-01

    A silicon solar cell with AMO 19% Beginning of Life (BOL) efficiency is reported. The cell has demonstrated equal or better radiation resistance when compared to conventional silicon space solar cells. Conventional silicon space solar cell performance is generally ∼ 14% at BOL. The Radiation Hardened High Efficiency Silicon (RHHES) cell is thinned for high specific power (watts/kilogram). The RHHES space cell provides compatibility with automatic surface mounting technology. The cells can be easily combined to provide desired power levels and voltages. The RHHES space cell is more resistant to mechanical damage due to micrometeorites. Micro-meteorites which impinge upon conventional cells can crack the cell which, in turn, may cause string failure. The RHHES, operating in the same environment, can continue to function with a similar crack. The RHHES cell allows for very efficient thermal management which is essential for space cells generating higher specific power levels. The cell eliminates the need for electrical insulation layers which would otherwise increase the thermal resistance for conventional space panels. The RHHES cell can be applied to a space concentrator panel system without abandoning any of the attributes discussed. The power handling capability of the RHHES cell is approximately five times more than conventional space concentrator solar cells

  9. Robonaut 2 - Building a Robot on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron; Badger, Julia; Joyce, Charles; Potter, Elliott; Pike, Leah

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Robonaut Project embarked on a multi-phase mission to perform technology demonstrations on-board the International Space Station (ISS), showcasing state of the art robotics technologies through the use of Robonaut 2 (R2). This phased approach implements a strategy that allows for the use of ISS as a test bed during early development to both demonstrate capability and test technology while still making advancements in the earth based laboratories for future testing and operations in space. While R2 was performing experimental trials onboard the ISS during the first phase, engineers were actively designing for Phase 2, Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) Mobility, that utilizes a set of zero-g climbing legs outfitted with grippers to grasp handrails and seat tracks. In addition to affixing the new climbing legs to the existing R2 torso, it became clear that upgrades to the torso to both physically accommodate the climbing legs and to expand processing power and capabilities of the robot were required. In addition to these upgrades, a new safety architecture was also implemented in order to account for the expanded capabilities of the robot. The IVA climbing legs not only needed to attach structurally to the R2 torso on ISS, but also required power and data connections that did not exist in the upper body. The climbing legs were outfitted with a blind mate adapter and coarse alignment guides for easy installation, but the upper body required extensive rewiring to accommodate the power and data connections. This was achieved by mounting a custom adapter plate to the torso and routing the additional wiring through the waist joint to connect to the new set of processors. In addition to the power and data channels, the integrated unit also required updated electronics boards, additional sensors and updated processors to accommodate a new operating system, software platform, and custom control system. In order to perform the unprecedented task of building a robot

  10. Space Station data system analysis/architecture study. Task 1: Functional requirements definition, DR-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The initial task in the Space Station Data System (SSDS) Analysis/Architecture Study is the definition of the functional and key performance requirements for the SSDS. The SSDS is the set of hardware and software, both on the ground and in space, that provides the basic data management services for Space Station customers and systems. The primary purpose of the requirements development activity was to provide a coordinated, documented requirements set as a basis for the system definition of the SSDS and for other subsequent study activities. These requirements should also prove useful to other Space Station activities in that they provide an indication of the scope of the information services and systems that will be needed in the Space Station program. The major results of the requirements development task are as follows: (1) identification of a conceptual topology and architecture for the end-to-end Space Station Information Systems (SSIS); (2) development of a complete set of functional requirements and design drivers for the SSIS; (3) development of functional requirements and key performance requirements for the Space Station Data System (SSDS); and (4) definition of an operating concept for the SSIS. The operating concept was developed both from a Space Station payload customer and operator perspective in order to allow a requirements practicality assessment.

  11. Fifteen-foot diameter modular space station Kennedy Space Center launch site support definition (space station program Phase B extension definition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn, L. C.; Martin, M. L.; Murphy, C. W.; Niebla, J. F., V

    1971-01-01

    This document defines the facilities, equipment, and operational plans required to support the MSS Program at KSC. Included is an analysis of KSC operations, a definition of flow plans, facility utilization and modifications, test plans and concepts, activation, and tradeoff studies. Existing GSE and facilities that have a potential utilization are identified, and new items are defined where possible. The study concludes that the existing facilities are suitable for use in the space station program without major modification from the Saturn-Apollo configuration.

  12. Potential high efficiency solar cells: Applications from space photovoltaic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    NASA involvement in photovoltaic energy conversion research development and applications spans over two decades of continuous progress. Solar cell research and development programs conducted by the Lewis Research Center's Photovoltaic Branch have produced a sound technology base not only for the space program, but for terrestrial applications as well. The fundamental goals which have guided the NASA photovoltaic program are to improve the efficiency and lifetime, and to reduce the mass and cost of photovoltaic energy conversion devices and arrays for use in space. The major efforts in the current Lewis program are on high efficiency, single crystal GaAs planar and concentrator cells, radiation hard InP cells, and superlattice solar cells. A brief historical perspective of accomplishments in high efficiency space solar cells will be given, and current work in all of the above categories will be described. The applicability of space cell research and technology to terrestrial photovoltaics will be discussed.

  13. Why Deep Space Habitats Should Be Different from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand; Brown, MacAulay

    2016-01-01

    It is tempting to view the International Space Station (ISS) as a model for deep space habitats. This is not a good idea for many reasons. The ISS does not have a habitation module; instead the individual crew quarters are dispersed across several modules, the galley is in the US Laboratory and the waste hygiene compartment is in a Node. This distributed arrangement may be inconvenient but more important differences distinguish a deep space habitat from the ISS. First, the Space Shuttle launch system that shaped, sized, and delivered most ISS elements has been retired. Its replacement, the Space Launch System (SLS), is specifically designed for human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit and is capable of transporting more efficient, large diameter, heavy-lift payloads. Next, because of the Earth's protective geomagnetic field, ISS crews are naturally shielded from lethal radiation. Deep space habitat designs must include either a storm shelter or strategically positioned equipment and stowage for radiation protection. Another important difference is the increased transit time with no opportunity for an ISS-type emergency return. It takes 7 to 10 days to go between Earth and cis-lunar locations and 1000 days for the Mars habitat transit. This long commute calls for greater crew autonomy with habitats designed for the crew to fix their own problems. The ISS rack-enclosed, densely packaged subsystems are a product of the Shuttle era and not maintenance friendly. A solution better suited for deep space habitats spreads systems out allowing direct access to single-layer packaging and providing crew access to each component without having to remove another. Operational readiness is another important discriminator. The ISS required over 100 flights to build, resupply, and transport the crew, whereas SLS offers the capability to launch a fully provisioned habitat that is operational without additional outfitting or resupply flights.

  14. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2017-09-19

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  15. Solar proton events and their effect on space systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquille, C.

    1994-01-01

    Solar protons present a major problem to space systems because of the ionisation and displacement effects which arise from their interaction with matter. This is likely to become a greater problem in the future due to the use of more sensitive electronic components and the proposed expansion of manned activities in space. An outline is provided of the physical processes associated with individual solar events, the solar activity cycle and the transport of solar particles between the Sun and the Earth. The problems of predicting solar event fluences, both over short- and long-term periods, are discussed. The currently available solar proton event models used for long-term forecasting are briefly reviewed, and the advantages and deficiencies of each model are investigated. Predictions using the models are compared to measurements made by the GOES-7 satellite during the rising phase of the current solar cycle. These measurements are also used to illustrate the sensitivity of the models to the choice of confidence level and to the spectral form used for extrapolation over the solar proton energy range. (author)

  16. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the Space Station and for the US economy, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and robotics for use in the Space Station. The Technical Report, Volume 2, provides background information on automation and robotics technologies and their potential and documents: the relevant aspects of Space Station design; representative examples of automation and robotics; applications; the state of the technology and advances needed; and considerations for technology transfer to U.S. industry and for space commercialization.

  17. International Space Station Data Collection for Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A..

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters - including such events as tropical storms, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires -effect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, and also cause billions of dollars (USD) in damage to the global economy. Remotely sensed data acquired by orbital sensor systems has emerged as a vital tool to identify the extent of damage resulting from a natural disaster, as well as providing near-real time mapping support to response efforts on the ground and humanitarian aid efforts. The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for acquiring disaster response imagery. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to free-flyer based, sun-synchronous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. While several nations have well-developed terrestrial remote sensing programs and assets for data collection, many developing nations do not have ready access to such resources. The International Charter, Space and Major Disasters (also known as the "International Disaster Charter", or IDC; http://www.disasterscharter.org/home) addresses this disparity. It is an agreement between agencies of several countries to provide - on a best-effort basis - remotely sensed data of natural disasters to requesting countries in support of disaster response. The lead US agency for interaction with the IDC is the United States Geological Survey (USGS); when an IDC request or "activation" is received, the USGS notifies the science teams for NASA instruments with targeting information for data collection. In the case of the ISS, the Earth Sciences and Remote Sensing (ESRS) Unit, part of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science

  18. Lunar base mission technology issues and orbital demonstration requirements on space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space Station has been the object of considerable design, redesign, and alteration since it was originally proposed in early 1984. In the intervening years the station has slowly evolved to a specific design that was thoroughly reviewed by a large agency-wide Critical Evaluation Task Force (CETF). As space station designs continue to evolve, studies must be conducted to determine the suitability of the current design for some of the primary purposes for which the station will be used. This paper concentrates on the technology requirements and issues, the on-orbit demonstration and verification program, and the space station focused support required prior to the establishment of a permanently manned lunar base as identified in the National Commission on Space report. Technology issues associated with the on-orbit assembly and processing of the lunar vehicle flight elements are also discussed.

  19. Solar power from space: the worldwide grid of the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Recent interest in the feasibility and prospects for generating large amounts of electricity from space-based solar power systems is reviewed. The interest is generated by reports which suggest that sun-surfacing solar arrays in stationary earth orbit at an altitude 22,300 miles would not only be unaffected by the Earth's day-night cycle, cloud cover and atmospheric dust, but would also receive some eight times as much sunlight as solar collectors at the Earth's surface. The prediction is that relevant technology will be perfected to the point where by the middle of the 21. century a large share of the world's demand for electricity will be met by a series of very large space-based solar photovoltaic arrays. Several billion watts of power could be beamed to the Earth at microwave radio frequencies for collection by wide area rectifying ground antennas for conversion to electricity via transmitters connected to the photovoltaic arrays. A chronological account of development of this concept of beaming solar power from space shows that the idea has been around since the 1880s, gaining more and more credibility with each advance in space science . The moon, too, has been suggested as an ideal site for developing large-scale solar power systems that beam microwave energy to Earth. The lunar soil could supply silicon to build solar arrays, and metals such as iron and aluminum, for support structures and electric wiring. NASA is actively pursuing this line of inquiry, especially since all the problems involved with solar energy generation on earth, are absent on the moon.While a breakthrough is not imminent, the significant progress achieved to date in demonstrating the feasibility of wireless power transmission from space provides good reason for continuing to pursue this line of investigation

  20. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  1. Space Environmental Effects on Candidate Solar Sail Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David L.; Nehls, Mary; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted ot a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar, Teonex, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were characterized

  2. Biomechanical Analysis of Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, J. K.; Fincke, R. S.; Guilliams, M. E.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2011-01-01

    Treadmill locomotion exercise is an important aspect of ISS exercise countermeasures. It is widely believed that an optimized treadmill exercise protocol could offer benefits to cardiovascular and bone health. If training heart rate is high enough, treadmill exercise is expected to lead to improvements in aerobic fitness. If impact or bone loading forces are high enough, treadmill exercise may be expected to contribute to improved bone outcomes. Ground-based research suggests that joint loads increase with increased running speed. However, it is unknown if increases in locomotion speed results in similar increases in joint loads in microgravity. Although data exist regarding the biomechanics of running and walking in microgravity, a majority were collected during parabolic flight or during investigations utilizing a microgravity analog. The Second Generation Treadmill (T2) has been in use on the International Space Station (ISS) and records the ground reaction forces (GRF) produced by crewmembers during exercise. Biomechanical analyses will aid in understanding potential differences in typical gait motion and allow for modeling of the human body to determine joint and muscle forces during exercise. By understanding these mechanisms, more appropriate exercise prescriptions can be developed that address deficiencies. The objective of this evaluation is to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise prior to and during flight. The goal is to determine if locomotive biomechanics differ between normal and microgravity environments and to determine how combinations of subject load and speed influence joint loading during in-flight treadmill exercise. Further, the data will be used to characterize any differences in specific bone and muscle loading during locomotion in these two gravitational conditions. This project maps to the HRP Integrated Research Plan risks including Risk of Bone Fracture (Gap B15), Risk of Early Onset Osteoporosis Due to

  3. Rodent Research on the International Space Station - A Look Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, A. B.; Smithwick, M.; Wigley, C. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rodent Research on the International Space Station (ISS) is one of the highest priority science activities being supported by NASA and is planned for up to two flights per year. The first Rodent Research flight, Rodent Research-1 (RR-1) validates the hardware and basic science operations (dissections and tissue preservation). Subsequent flights will add new capabilities to support rodent research on the ISS. RR-1 will validate the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 30 days, video downlink to support animal health checks and scientific analysis, on-orbit dissections, sample preservation in RNA. Later and formalin, sample transfer from formalin to ethanol (hindlimbs), rapid cool-down and subsequent freezing at -80 of tissues and carcasses, sample return and recovery. RR-2, scheduled for SpX-6 (Winter 20142015) will add the following capabilities: animal husbandry for up to 60 days, RFID chip reader for individual animal identification, water refill and food replenishment, anesthesia and recovery, bone densitometry, blood collection (via cardiac puncture), blood separation via centrifugation, soft tissue fixation in formalin with transfer to ethanol, and delivery of injectable drugs that require frozen storage prior to use. Additional capabilities are also planned for future flights and these include but are not limited to male mice, live animal return, and the development of experiment unique equipment to support science requirements for principal investigators that are selected for flight. In addition to the hardware capabilities to support rodent research the Crew Office has implemented a training program in generic rodent skills for all USOS crew members during their pre-assignment training rotation. This class includes training in general animal handling, euthanasia, injections, and dissections. The dissection portion of this training focuses on the dissection of the spleen, liver, kidney with adrenals, brain, eyes, and hindlimbs. By achieving and

  4. Novel Space-based Solar Power Technologies and Architectures for Earth and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; O'Neill, Mark J.

    2005-01-01

    Research, development and studies of novel space-based solar power systems, technologies and architectures for Earth and beyond are needed to reduce the cost of clean electrical power for terrestrial use and to provide a stepping stone for providing an abundance of power in space, i.e., manufacturing facilities, tourist facilities, delivery of power between objects in space, and between space and surface sites. The architectures, technologies and systems needed for space to Earth applications may also be used for in-space applications. Advances in key technologies, i.e., power generation, power management and distribution, power beaming and conversion of beamed power are needed to achieve the objectives of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial applications. Power beaming or wireless power transmission (WPT) can involve lasers or microwaves along with the associated power interfaces. Microwave and laser transmission techniques have been studied with several promising approaches to safe and efficient WPT identified. These investigations have included microwave phased array transmitters, as well as laser transmission and associated optics. There is a need to produce "proof-of-concept" validation of critical WPT technologies for both the near-term, as well as far-term applications. Investments may be harvested in near-term beam safe demonstrations of commercial WPT applications. Receiving sites (users) include ground-based stations for terrestrial electrical power, orbital sites to provide power for satellites and other platforms, future space elevator systems, space vehicle propulsion, and space to surface sites. This paper briefly discusses achieving a promising approach to the solar power generation and beamed power conversion. The approach is based on a unique high-power solar concentrator array called Stretched Lens Array (SLA) for both solar power generation and beamed power conversion. Since both versions (solar and laser) of SLA use many identical components

  5. Studying Planarian Regeneration Aboard the International Space Station within the Student Space Flight Experimental Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vista SSEP Mission 11 Team; Hagstrom, Danielle; Bartee, Christine; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2018-05-01

    The growing possibilities of space travel are quickly moving from science fiction to reality. However, to realize the dream of long-term space travel, we must understand how these conditions affect biological and physiological processes. Planarians are master regenerators, famous for their ability to regenerate from very small parts of the original animal. Understanding how this self-repair works may inspire regenerative therapies in humans. Two studies conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS) showed that planarian regeneration is possible in microgravity. One study reported no regenerative defects, whereas the other study reported behavioral and microbiome alterations post-space travel and found that 1 of 15 planarians regenerated a Janus head, suggesting that microgravity exposure may not be without consequences. Given the limited number of studies and specimens, further microgravity experiments are necessary to evaluate the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration. Such studies, however, are generally difficult and expensive to conduct. We were fortunate to be sponsored by the Student Spaceflight Experiment Program (SSEP) to investigate how microgravity affects regeneration of the planarian species Dugesia japonica on the ISS. While we were unable to successfully study planarian regeneration within the experimental constraints of our SSEP Mission, we systematically analyzed the cause for the failed experiment, leading us to propose a modified protocol. This work thus opens the door for future experiments on the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration on SSEP Missions as well as for more advanced experiments by professional researchers.

  6. Studying Planarian Regeneration Aboard the International Space Station Within the Student Space Flight Experimental Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vista SSEP Mission 11 Team

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing possibilities of space travel are quickly moving from science fiction to reality. However, to realize the dream of long-term space travel, we must understand how these conditions affect biological and physiological processes. Planarians are master regenerators, famous for their ability to regenerate from very small parts of the original animal. Understanding how this self-repair works may inspire regenerative therapies in humans. Two studies conducted aboard the International Space Station (ISS showed that planarian regeneration is possible in microgravity. One study reported no regenerative defects, whereas the other study reported behavioral and microbiome alterations post-space travel and found that 1 of 15 planarians regenerated a Janus head, suggesting that microgravity exposure may not be without consequences. Given the limited number of studies and specimens, further microgravity experiments are necessary to evaluate the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration. Such studies, however, are generally difficult and expensive to conduct. We were fortunate to be sponsored by the Student Spaceflight Experiment Program (SSEP to investigate how microgravity affects regeneration of the planarian species Dugesia japonica on the ISS. While we were unable to successfully study planarian regeneration within the experimental constraints of our SSEP Mission, we systematically analyzed the cause for the failed experiment, leading us to propose a modified protocol. This work thus opens the door for future experiments on the effects of microgravity on planarian regeneration on SSEP Missions as well as for more advanced experiments by professional researchers.

  7. Scheduled Operation of PV Power Station Considering Solar Radiation Forecast Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Satoshi; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Ito, Takamitsu; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Saito, Yutaka; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Yamaguchi, Koji

    Massive penetration of photovoltaic generation (PV) power stations may cause some serious impacts on a power system operation due to their volatile and unpredictable output. Growth of uncertainty may require larger operating reserve capacity and regulating capacity. Therefore, in order to utilize a PV power station as an alternative for an existing power plant, improvement in controllability and adjustability of station output become very important factor. Purpose of this paper is to develop the scheduled operation technique using a battery system (NAS battery) and the meteorological forecast. The performance of scheduled operation strongly depends on the accuracy of solar radiation forecast. However, the solar radiation forecast contains error. This paper proposes scheduling method and rescheduling method considering the trend of forecast error. More specifically, the forecast error scenario is modeled by means of the clustering analysis of the past actual forecast error. Validity and effectiveness of the proposed method is ascertained through computational simulations using the actual PV generation data monitored at the Wakkanai PV power station and solar radiation forecast data provided by the Japan Weather Association.

  8. Environmental "Omics" of International Space Station: Insights, Significance, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Space Biology program funded two multi-year studies to catalogue International Space Station (ISS) environmental microbiome. The first Microbial Observatory (MO) experiment will generate a microbial census of the ISS surfaces and atmosphere using advanced molecular microbial community analysis "omics" techniques, supported by traditional culture-based methods and state-of-the art molecular techniques. The second MO experiment will measure presence of viral and select bacterial and fungal pathogens on ISS surfaces and correlate their presence on crew. The "omics" methodologies of the MO experiments will serve as the foundation for an extensive microbial census, offering significant insight into spaceflight-induced changes in the populations of beneficial and potentially harmful microbes. The safety of crewmembers and the maintenance of hardware are the primary goals for monitoring microorganisms in this closed habitat. The statistical analysis of the ISS microbiomes showed that three bacterial phyla dominated both in ISS and Earth cleanrooms, but varied in their abundances. While members of Actinobacteria were predominant on ISS, Proteobacteria dominated the Earth cleanrooms. Alpha diversity estimators indicated a significant drop in viable microbial diversity. To better characterize the shared community composition among samples, beta-diversity metrics analysis were conducted. At the bacterial species level characterization, the microbial community composition is strongly associated with sampling site. Results of the study indicate significant differences between ISS and Earth cleanroom microbiomes in terms of community structure and composition. Bacterial strains isolated from ISS surfaces were also tested for their resistance to nine antibiotics using conventional disc method and Vitek 2 system. Most of the Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant to penicillin. Five strains were specifically resistant to erythromycin and the ermA gene was also

  9. Biomechanics of the Treadmill Locomotion on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, John; Cromwell, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise prescriptions completed by International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are typically based upon evidence obtained during ground-based investigations, with the assumption that the results of long-term training in weightlessness will be similar to that attained in normal gravity. Coupled with this supposition are the assumptions that exercise motions and external loading are also similar between gravitational environments. Normal control of locomotion is dependent upon learning patterns of muscular activation and requires continual monitoring of internal and external sensory input [1]. Internal sensory input includes signals that may be dependent on or independent of gravity. Bernstein hypothesized that movement strategy planning and execution must include the consideration of segmental weights and inertia [2]. Studies of arm movements in microgravity showed that individuals tend to make errors but that compensation strategies result in adaptations, suggesting that control mechanisms must include peripheral information [3-5]. To date, however, there have been no studies examining a gross motor activity such as running in weightlessness other than using microgravity analogs [6-8]. The objective of this evaluation was to collect biomechanical data from crewmembers during treadmill exercise before and during flight. The goal was to determine locomotive biomechanics similarities and differences between normal and weightless environments. The data will be used to optimize future exercise prescriptions. This project addresses the Critical Path Roadmap risks 1 (Accelerated Bone Loss and Fracture Risk) and 11 (Reduced Muscle Mass, Strength, and Endurance). Data were collected from 7 crewmembers before flight and during their ISS missions. Before launch, crewmembers performed a single data collection session at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Three-dimensional motion capture data were collected for 30 s at speeds ranging from 1.5 to 9.5 mph in 0.5 mph increments

  10. Chart links solar, geophysical events with impacts on space technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, George R.

    While developing a Space Weather Training Program for Air Force Space Command and the 50th Weather Squadron, both based in Colorado, ARINC Incorporated produced a flowchart that correlates solar and geophysical events with their impacts on Air Force systems.Personnel from both organizations collaborated in the development of the flowchart and provided many comments and suggestions. The model became the centerpiece of the Space Environment Impacts Reference Pamphlet, as well as the formal Space Weather Training Program. Although it is not a numerical or computer model, the flowchart became known as the “Space Environmental Impacts Model.”

  11. Definition of technology development missions for early Space Station satellite servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The Executive Summary volume 1, includes an overview of both phases of the Definition of Technology Development Missions for Early Space Station Satellite Servicing. The primary purpose of Phase 1 of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Satellite Servicing Phase 1 study was to establish requirements for demonstrating the capability of performing satellite servicing activities on a permanently manned Space Station in the early 1990s. The scope of Phase 1 included TDM definition, outlining of servicing objectives, derivation of initial Space Station servicing support requirements, and generation of the associated programmatic schedules and cost. The purpose of phase 2 of the satellite servicing study was to expand and refine the overall understanding of how best to use the manned space station as a test bed for demonstration of satellite servicing capabilities.

  12. Solar-pumped lasers for space power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taussig, R.; Bruzzone, C.; Nelson, L.; Quimby, D.; Christiansen, W.

    1979-01-01

    Multi-Megawatt CW solar-pumped lasers appear to be technologically feasible for space power transmission in the 1990s time frame. A new concept for a solar-pumped laser is presented which utilizes an intermediate black body cavity to provide a uniform optical pumping environment for the lasant, either CO or CO2. Reradiation losses are minimized with resulting high efficiency operation. A 1 MW output laser may weigh as little as 8000 kg including solar collector, black body cavity, laser cavity and ducts, pumps, power systems and waste heat radiator. The efficiency of such a system will be on the order of 10 to 20%. Details of the new concept, laser design, comparison to competing solar-powered lasers and applications to a laser solar power satellite (SPS) concept are presented.

  13. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; Ferruit, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar...

  14. Design of annual storage solar space heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, F C; Cook, J D

    1979-11-01

    Design considerations for annual storage solar space heating systems are discussed. A simulation model for the performance of suh systems is described, and a method of classifying system configurations is proposed. It is shown that annual systems sized for unconstrained performance, with no unused collector or storage capacity, and no rejected heat, minimize solar acquisition costs. The optimal performance corresponds to the condition where the marginal storage-to-collector sizing ratio is equal to the corresponding marginal cost ratio.

  15. Solar pumped laser technology options for space power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of long-range options for in-space laser power transmission is presented. The focus is on the new technology and research status of solar-pumped lasers and their solar concentration needs. The laser options include gas photodissociation lasers, optically-pumped solid-state lasers, and blackbody-pumped transfer lasers. The paper concludes with a summary of current research thrusts.

  16. Alkaline water electrolysis technology for Space Station regenerative fuel cell energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Hoberecht, M. A.; Le, M.

    1986-01-01

    The regenerative fuel cell system (RFCS), designed for application to the Space Station energy storage system, is based on state-of-the-art alkaline electrolyte technology and incorporates a dedicated fuel cell system (FCS) and water electrolysis subsystem (WES). In the present study, emphasis is placed on the WES portion of the RFCS. To ensure RFCS availability for the Space Station, the RFCS Space Station Prototype design was undertaken which included a 46-cell 0.93 cu m static feed water electrolysis module and three integrated mechanical components.

  17. Life science research objectives and representative experiments for the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C. (Editor); Arno, Roger D. (Editor); Mains, Richard (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A workshop was convened to develop hypothetical experiments to be used as a baseline for space station designer and equipment specifiers to ensure responsiveness to the users, the life science community. Sixty-five intra- and extramural scientists were asked to describe scientific rationales, science objectives, and give brief representative experiment descriptions compatible with expected space station accommodations, capabilities, and performance envelopes. Experiment descriptions include hypothesis, subject types, approach, equipment requirements, and space station support requirements. The 171 experiments are divided into 14 disciplines.

  18. Automation and robotics for the Space Station - The influence of the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunamaker, Robert R.; Willshire, Kelli F.

    1988-01-01

    The reports of a committee established by Congress to identify specific systems of the Space Station which would advance automation and robotics technologies are reviewed. The history of the committee, its relation to NASA, and the reports which it has released are discussed. The committee's reports recommend the widespread use of automation and robotics for the Space Station, a program for technology development and transfer between industries and research and development communities, and the planned use of robots to service and repair satellites and their payloads which are accessible from the Space Station.

  19. A home away from home. [life support system design for Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, L. E.; Hager, R. W.; Mccown, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The role of the NASA-Marshall center in the development of the Space Station is discussed. The tasks of the center include the development of the life-support system; the design of the common module, which will form the basis for all pressurized Space Station modules; the design and outfit of a common module for the Material and Technology Laboratory (MTL) and logistics use; accommodations for operations of the Orbit Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) and the Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV); and the Space Station propulsion system. A description of functions and design is given for each system, with particular emphasis on the goals of safety, efficiency, automation, and cost effectiveness.

  20. Space-Based Solar Power System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    to this thesis, “the Boeing 702 offers a range of power up to 18 kW. Dual and triple -junction gallium arsenide solar cells enable such high power...CONCLUSIONS ........................................................................................................85 A. KEY POINTS AND...USAF. Without the proper starting point and frame of reference, this thesis would not have been possible. Thank you to everyone who had an influence on

  1. High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Multijunction Solar Cell for Space Power, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to utilize quantum dots to develop a super high-efficiency multijunction III-V solar cell for space. In metamorphic triple junction space solar...

  2. Observations of the Earth's magnetic field from the Space Station: Measurement at high and extremely low altitude using Space Station-controlled free-flyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, W., Jr.; Frawley, J. J.; Stefanik, M.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation studies established that the main (core), crustal and electrojet components of the Earth's magnetic field can be observed with greater resolution or over a longer time-base than is presently possible by using the capabilities provided by the space station. Two systems are studied. The first, a large lifetime, magnetic monitor would observe the main field and its time variation. The second, a remotely-piloted, magnetic probe would observe the crustal field at low altitude and the electrojet field in situ. The system design and the scientific performance of these systems is assessed. The advantages of the space station are reviewed.

  3. Solar radio bursts as a tool for space weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Matamoros, Carolina Salas; Zucca, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    The solar corona and its activity induce disturbances that may affect the space environment of the Earth. Noticeable disturbances come from coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are large-scale ejections of plasma and magnetic fields from the solar corona, and solar energetic particles (SEPs). These particles are accelerated during the explosive variation of the coronal magnetic field or at the shock wave driven by a fast CME. In this contribution, it is illustrated how full Sun microwave observations can lead to (1) an estimate of CME speeds and of the arrival time of the CME at the Earth, (2) the prediction of SEP events attaining the Earth. xml:lang="fr"

  4. 76 FR 65752 - International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-0550, National Aeronautics and Space Administration... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-104)] International Space Station (ISS... National Laboratory Advisory Committee is in the public interest in connection with the performance of...

  5. The Context for Food Service and Nutrition in the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial activities in space represent diverse markets where international competitors will be motivated by economic, technical and political considerations. These considerations are given and discussed. The space station program, industrial participation and the potential benefits of commercial activities in space are described. How food service and nutrition affects habitability, effects on physical condition, dietary goals, food preparation and meal service are detailed.

  6. The international space station: An opportunity for industry-sponsored global education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Cathleen E.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station provides an excellent opportunity for industry sponsorship of international space education. As a highly visible worldwide asset, the space station already commands our interest. It has captured the imagination of the world's researchers and connected the world's governments. Once operational, it can also be used to capture the dreams of the world's children and connect the world's industry through education. The space station's global heritage and ownership; its complex engineering, construction, and operation; its flexible research and technology demonstration capability; and its long duration make it the perfect educational platform. These things also make a space station education program attractive to industry. Such a program will give private industry the opportunity to sponsor space-related activities even though a particular industry may not have a research or technology-driven need for space utilization. Sponsors will benefit through public relations and goodwill, educational promotions and advertising, and the sale and marketing of related products. There is money to be made by supporting, fostering, and enabling education in space through the International Space Station. This paper will explore various ISS education program and sponsorship options and benefits, will examine early industry response to such an opportunity, and will make the case for moving forward with an ISS education program as a private sector initiative.

  7. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  8. Studies of Earth Space Environment and Sudden Disappearances of Solar Prominences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang, Tian-Sen

    2005-01-01

    With the support from AFOSR's Minority University Program, we worked on research of Sun-Earth space environment, conducted daily solar observation programs, improved solar instruments, and established...

  9. Optimal selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares - A Space Station system availability model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    A mathematical programing model is presented to optimize the selection of Orbital Replacement Unit on-orbit spares for the Space Station. The model maximizes system availability under the constraints of logistics resupply-cargo weight and volume allocations.

  10. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Propellant transfer, storage, and reliquefaction TDM; docking and berthing technology development mission; maintenance technology development mission; OTV/payload integration, space station interface/accommodations; combined TDM conceptual design; programmatic analysis; and TDM equipment usage are discussed.

  11. State Estimation of International Space Station Centrifuge Rotor With Incomplete Knowledge of Disturbance Inputs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Michael J

    2005-01-01

    This thesis develops a state estimation algorithm for the Centrifuge Rotor (CR) system where only relative measurements are available with limited knowledge of both rotor imbalance disturbances and International Space Station (ISS...

  12. Leadership issues with multicultural crews on the international space station: Lessons learned from Shuttle/Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick; Ritsher, Jennifer

    2005-05-01

    In isolated and confined environments, two important leadership roles have been identified: the task/instrumental role (which focuses on work goals and operational needs), and the supportive/expressive role (which focuses on morale goals and emotional needs). On the International Space Station, the mission commander should be familiar with both of these aspects of leadership. In previous research involving a 135-day Mir space station simulation in Moscow and a series of on-orbit Mir space station missions during the Shuttle/Mir program, both these leadership roles were studied. In new analyses of the Shuttle/Mir data, we found that for crewmembers, the supportive role of the commander (but not the task role) related positively with crew cohesion. For mission control personnel on the ground, both the task and supportive roles of their leader were related positively to mission control cohesion. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of leadership on board the International Space Station.

  13. A modular Space Station/Base electrical power system - Requirements and design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements and procedures necessary for definition and specification of an electrical power system (EPS) for the future space station are discussed herein. The considered space station EPS consists of a replaceable main power module with self-contained auxiliary power, guidance, control, and communication subsystems. This independent power source may 'plug into' a space station module which has its own electrical distribution, control, power conditioning, and auxiliary power subsystems. Integration problems are discussed, and a transmission system selected with local floor-by-floor power conditioning and distribution in the station module. This technique eliminates the need for an immediate long range decision on the ultimate space base power sources by providing capability for almost any currently considered option.

  14. The Ionizing Radiation Environment on the International Space Station: Performance vs. Expectations for Avionics and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Boeder, Paul A.; Pankop, Courtney; Reddell, Brandon

    2005-01-01

    The role of structural shielding mass in the design, verification, and in-flight performance of International Space Station (ISS), in both the natural and induced orbital ionizing radiation (IR) environments, is reported.

  15. Six-man, self-contained carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem for Space Station Prototype (SSP) application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostell, G. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Shumar, J. W.; Hallick, T. M.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    A six man, self contained, electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrating subsystem for space station prototype use was successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. A test program was successfully completed which covered shakedown testing, design verification testing, and acceptance testing.

  16. The First Five Years of the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the five years since its installation on the International Space Station, it has collected more than 90 billion cosmic rays. Some of the unexpected results and their possible interpretations will be presented.

  17. Radiation resistance of solar cells for space application, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsui, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sunaga, Hiromi

    1989-07-01

    A 50-μm thick ultrathin silicon solar cell and a 280-μm thick high performance AlGaAs/GaAs solar cell with high radiation resistance have been recently developed by National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). In order to study the radiation resistance of these cells, a joint research was carried out between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and NASDA from 1984 through 1987. In this research, the irradiation method of electron beams, the effects of the irradiation conditions on the deterioration of solar cells by electron beams, and the annealing effects of the radiation damage in solar cells were investigated. This paper is the first one of a series of reports of the joint research. In this paper, the space radiation environment which artificial satellites will encounter, the solar cells used, and the experimental methods are described. In addition to these, the results of the study on the irradiation procedure of electron beams are reported. In the study of the irradiation method of electron beams, three methods, that is, the fixed irradiation method, the moving irradiation method, and the spot irradiation method were examined. In the fixed irradiation method and moving one, stationary solar cells and solar cells moving by conveyer were irradiated by scanning electron beams, respectively. On the other hand, in the spot irradiation method, stationary solar cells were irradiated by non-scanning steady electron beams. It was concluded that the fixed irradiation method was the most proper method. In addition to this, in this study, some pieces of information were obtained with respect to the changes in the electrical characteristics of solar cells caused by the irradiation of electron beams. (author) 52 refs

  18. Roles of Solar Power from Space for Europe - Space Exploration and Combinations with Terrestrial Solar Plant Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerer, L.; Pipoli, T.; Galvez, A.; Ongaro, F.; Vasile, M.

    The paper presents the prospective roles of SPS concepts for Europe, shows the outcome of recent studies undertaken by ESA's Advanced Concepts Team (ACT) together with European industry and research centres and gives insight into planned activities. The main focus is on the assessment of the principal validity and economic viability of solar power from space concepts in the light of advances in alternative sustainable, clean and potentially abundant solar-based terrestrial concepts. The paper takes into account expected changes in the European energy system (e.g. gradual introduction of hydrogen as energy vector). Special emphasis is given to the possibilities of integrating space and terrestrial solar plants. The relative geographic proximity of areas in North Africa with high average solar irradiation to the European energy consumer market puts Europe in a special position regarding the integration of space and terrestrial solar power concepts. The paper presents a method to optimise such an integration, taking into account different possible orbital constellations, terrestrial locations, plant number and sizes as well as consumer profiles and extends the scope from the European-only to a multi continental approach including the fast growing Chinese electricity market. The work intends to contribute to the discussion on long-term options for the European commitment to worldwide CO2 emission reduction. Cleaner electricity generation and environmentally neutral transport fuels (e.g. solar generated hydrogen) might be two major tools in reaching this goal.

  19. The Prospect of Solar Energy in the Development of Power Stations in the State of Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramadhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the production capacity for power generation has not been able to keep pace with the surge in electricity demand in the oil-rich State of Kuwait. To expand its power generation capacity, Kuwait's strategic energy plans focus on constructing gas turbine and fuel oil stations. This paper aimed to evaluate the prospect of photovoltaic solar energy (PV in generating electricity as an alternative to decrease dependency on combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT power stations. It applies the LCOE framework to evaluate the economic feasibility of installing a 100 MW PV and CCGT power stations in Kuwait. The results indicate that under the assumption of 5% interest rate, the estimated LCOE of PV station ($0.19/kWh is unfeasible in comparison to the generation cost of gas turbine station ($0.11/kWh. However, the analysis has emphasized that evaluation of future electricity generation plans must not be limited to the LCOE criteria and should incorporate the following factors: the effect of natural gas supply constraints on the production of gas turbine plants, the environmental concerns of CO2 emissions, the peak load demand, and the domestic energy balance mix. The paper concludes that once these factors are addressed properly, the prospect of PV power stations becomes relatively feasible.

  20. New solar irradiances for use in space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W.; Bouwer, D.; Jones, A.

    Space environment research applications require solar irradiances in a variety of time scales and spectral formats We describe the development of research grade modeled solar irradiances using four models and systems that are also used for space weather operations The four models systems include SOLAR2000 S2K SOLARFLARE SFLR APEX and IDAR which are used by Space Environment Technologies SET to provide solar irradiances from the soft X-rays through the visible spectrum SFLR uses the GOES 0 1--0 8 nm X-rays in combination with a Mewe model subroutine to provide 0 1--30 0 nm irradiances at 0 1 nm spectral resolution at 1 minute time resolution and in a 6-hour XUV--EUV spectral solar flare evolution forecast with a 7 minute latency and a 2 minute cadence These irradiances have been calibrated with the SORCE XPS observations and we report on the inclusion of these irradiances in the S2K model There are additional developments with S2K that we discuss particularly the method by which S2K is emerging as a hybrid model empirical plus physics-based and real-time data integration platform Numerous new solar indices have been recently developed for the operations community and we describe their inclusion in S2K The APEX system is a real-time data retrieval system developed under contract to the University of Southern California Space Sciences Center SSC to provide SOHO SEM data processing and distribution SSC provides the updated SEM data to the research community and SET provides the operational data to the space operations community We

  1. Life support and internal thermal control system design for the Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, R.; Mitchell, K.; Reuter, J.; Carrasquillo, R.; Beverly, B.

    1991-01-01

    A Review of the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) as well as the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) design, including recent changes resulting from an activity to restructure the program, is provided. The development state of the original Space Station Freedom ECLSS through the restructured configuration is considered and the selection of regenerative subsystems for oxygen and water reclamation is addressed. A survey of the present ground development and verification program is given.

  2. Delay/Disruption Tolerance Networking (DTN) Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Mark; Pitts, Robert Lee; Gifford, Kevin K.; Jenkins, Andrew; Kuzminsky, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration and nearing final assembly. With its maturity and diverse payloads onboard, the opportunity exists to extend the orbital lab into a facility to exercise and demonstrate Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN). DTN is an end-to-end network service providing communications through environments characterized by intermittent connectivity, variable delays, high bit error rates, asymmetric links and simplex links. The DTN protocols, also known as bundle protocols, provide a store-and-forward capability to accommodate end-to-end network services. Key capabilities of the bundling protocols include: the Ability to cope with intermittent connectivity, the Ability to take advantage of scheduled and opportunistic connectivity (in addition to always up connectivity), Custody Transfer, and end-to-end security. Colorado University at Boulder and the Huntsville Operational Support Center (HOSC) have been developing a DTN capability utilizing the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload resources onboard the ISS, at the Boulder Payload Operations Center (POC) and at the HOSC. The DTN capability is in parallel with and is designed to augment current capabilities. The architecture consists of DTN endpoint nodes on the ISS and at the Boulder POC, and a DTN node at the HOSC. The DTN network is composed of two implementations; the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) and the open source DTN2 implementation. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. By being able to handle the types of environments described above, the DTN technology will be instrumental in extending networks into deep space to support future missions to other planets and other solar system points of interest. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology will be applicable to these types of deep space exploration missions.

  3. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE): Overview, Accomplishments and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Jaworske, Donald A.; Pippin, Gary; Jenkins, Philip P.; Walters, Robert J.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Palusinski, Iwona; Lorentzen, Justin R.

    2014-01-01

    Materials and devices used on the exterior of spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are subjected to environmental threats that can cause degradation in material properties, possibly threatening spacecraft mission success. These threats include: atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet and x-ray radiation, charged particle radiation, temperature extremes and thermal cycling, micrometeoroid and debris impacts, and contamination. Space environmental threats vary greatly based on spacecraft materials, thicknesses and stress levels, and the mission environment and duration. For more than a decade the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) has enabled the study of the long duration environmental durability of spacecraft materials in the LEO environment. The overall objective of MISSE is to test the stability and durability of materials and devices in the space environment in order to gain valuable knowledge on the performance of materials in space, as well as to enable lifetime predictions of new materials that may be used in future space flight. MISSE is a series of materials flight experiments, which are attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Individual experiments were loaded onto suitcase-like trays, called Passive Experiment Containers (PECs). The PECs were transported to the ISS in the Space Shuttle cargo bay and attached to, and removed from, the ISS during extravehicular activities (EVAs). The PECs were retrieved after one or more years of space exposure and returned to Earth enabling post-flight experiment evaluation. MISSE is a multi-organization project with participants from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Department of Defense (DoD), industry and academia. MISSE has provided a platform for environmental durability studies for thousands of samples and numerous devices, and it has produced many tangible impacts. Ten PECs (and one smaller tray) have been flown, representing MISSE 1 through MISSE

  4. Information management system: A summary discussion. [for use in the space shuttle sortie, modular space station and TDR satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    An information management system is proposed for use in the space shuttle sortie, the modular space station, the tracking data relay satellite and associated ground support systems. Several different information management functions, including data acquisition, transfer, storage, processing, control and display are integrated in the system.

  5. An Analytical Solution for Yaw Maneuver Optimization on the International Space Station and Other Orbiting Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrinskaya, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests a new method for optimizing yaw maneuvers on the International Space Station (ISS). Yaw rotations are the most common large maneuvers on the ISS often used for docking and undocking operations, as well as for other activities. When maneuver optimization is used, large maneuvers, which were performed on thrusters, could be performed either using control moment gyroscopes (CMG), or with significantly reduced thruster firings. Maneuver optimization helps to save expensive propellant and reduce structural loads - an important factor for the ISS service life. In addition, optimized maneuvers reduce contamination of the critical elements of the vehicle structure, such as solar arrays. This paper presents an analytical solution for optimizing yaw attitude maneuvers. Equations describing pitch and roll motion needed to counteract the major torques during a yaw maneuver are obtained. A yaw rate profile is proposed. Also the paper describes the physical basis of the suggested optimization approach. In the obtained optimized case, the torques are significantly reduced. This torque reduction was compared to the existing optimization method which utilizes the computational solution. It was shown that the attitude profiles and the torque reduction have a good match for these two methods of optimization. The simulations using the ISS flight software showed similar propellant consumption for both methods. The analytical solution proposed in this paper has major benefits with respect to computational approach. In contrast to the current computational solution, which only can be calculated on the ground, the analytical solution does not require extensive computational resources, and can be implemented in the onboard software, thus, making the maneuver execution automatic. The automatic maneuver significantly simplifies the operations and, if necessary, allows to perform a maneuver without communication with the ground. It also reduces the probability of command

  6. Space solar array reliability: A study and recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.; Rodiek, Julie A.

    2008-12-01

    Providing reliable power over the anticipated mission life is critical to all satellites; therefore solar arrays are one of the most vital links to satellite mission success. Furthermore, solar arrays are exposed to the harshest environment of virtually any satellite component. In the past 10 years 117 satellite solar array anomalies have been recorded with 12 resulting in total satellite failure. Through an in-depth analysis of satellite anomalies listed in the Airclaim's Ascend SpaceTrak database, it is clear that solar array reliability is a serious, industry-wide issue. Solar array reliability directly affects the cost of future satellites through increased insurance premiums and a lack of confidence by investors. Recommendations for improving reliability through careful ground testing, standardization of testing procedures such as the emerging AIAA standards, and data sharing across the industry will be discussed. The benefits of creating a certified module and array testing facility that would certify in-space reliability will also be briefly examined. Solar array reliability is an issue that must be addressed to both reduce costs and ensure continued viability of the commercial and government assets on orbit.

  7. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpat, Behcet E-mail: behcet.alpat@pg.infn.it

    2001-04-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a detector designed to operate in space to search for antimatter components in cosmic ray, the annihilation products of darkmatter and to study the antiprotons, positrons and light nuclei. A 'baseline' version of the experiment has successfully completed the precursor flight on Space Shuttle Discovery (June 2-12, 1998). The complete AMS is programmed for installation on International Space Station in year 2003 for an operational period of 3 years. In this contribution we report on the experimental configuration of AMS that will be installed on International Space Station.

  8. Work continues on Destiny, the U.S. Lab module, in the Space Station Processing Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), work continues on the U.S. Lab module, Destiny, which is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the International Space Station. Destiny shares space in the SSPF with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and Leonardo, the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) built by the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI). The SRTM is targeted for launch on mission STS-99 in September 1999. Leonardo is scheduled to launch on mission STS- 102 in June 2000.

  9. STS-102 Astronaut Thomas Views International Space Station Through Shuttle Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    STS-102 astronaut and mission specialist, Andrew S.W. Thomas, gazes through an aft window of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery as it approaches the docking bay of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched March 8, 2001, STS-102's primary cargo was the Leonardo, the Italian Space Agency-built Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM). The Leonardo MPLM is the first of three such pressurized modules that will serve as the ISS's moving vans, carrying laboratory racks filled with equipment, experiments, and supplies to and from the Station aboard the Space Shuttle. The cylindrical module is approximately 21-feet long and 15- feet in diameter, weighing almost 4.5 tons. It can carry up to 10 tons of cargo in 16 standard Space Station equipment racks. Of the 16 racks the module can carry, 5 can be furnished with power, data, and fluid to support refrigerators or freezers. In order to function as an attached station module as well as a cargo transport, the logistics module also includes components that provide life support, fire detection and suppression, electrical distribution, and computer functions. NASA's 103rd overall mission and the 8th Space Station Assembly Flight, STS-102 mission also served as a crew rotation flight. It delivered the Expedition Two crew to the Station and returned the Expedition One crew back to Earth.

  10. New space value of the solar oblateness obtained with PICARD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irbah, Abdanour; Meftah, Mustapha; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bocquier, Maxime; Cisse, E. Momar [Laboratoire Atmosphères, Milieux, Observations Spatiales (LATMOS), CNRS: UMR 8190-Université Paris VI-Pierre et Marie Curie-Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines-INSU, F-78280, Guyancourt (France); Djafer, Djelloul [Unité de Recherche Appliquée en Energies Renouvelables, URAER, Centre de Développement des Energies Renouvelables, CDER, 47133, Ghardaïa (Algeria); Corbard, Thierry, E-mail: Abdenour.Irbah@latmos.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire Lagrange, UMR7293, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d' Azur, Bd. de l' Observatoire, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2014-04-20

    The PICARD spacecraft was launched on 2010 June 15 with the scientific objective of studying the geometry of the Sun. It is difficult to measure solar oblateness because images are affected by optical distortion. Rolling the satellite, as done in previous space missions, determines the contribution of the telescope by assuming that the geometry of the Sun is constant during the observations. The optical response of the telescope is considered to be time-invariant during the roll operations. This is not the case for PICARD because an orbital signature is clearly observed in the solar radius computed from its images. We take this effect into account and provide the new space value of solar oblateness from PICARD images recorded in the solar continuum at 535.7 nm on 2011 July 4-5. The equator-pole radius difference is 8.4 ± 0.5 mas, which corresponds to an absolute radius difference of 6.1 km. This coincides with the mean value of all solar oblateness measurements obtained during the last two decades from the ground, balloons, and space. It is also consistent with values determined from models using helioseismology data.

  11. Simulated Space Environment Effects on a Candidate Solar Sail Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Bryant, Robert G.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Wadsworth, Heather M.; Craven, Paul D.; Nehls, Mary K.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    For long duration missions of solar sails, the sail material needs to survive harsh space environments and the degradation of the sail material controls operational lifetime. Therefore, understanding the effects of the space environment on the sail membrane is essential for mission success. In this study, we investigated the effect of simulated space environment effects of ionizing radiation, thermal aging and simulated potential damage on mechanical, thermal and optical properties of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) polyester solar sail membrane to assess the degradation mechanisms on a feasible solar sail. The solar sail membrane was exposed to high energy electrons (about 70 keV and 10 nA/cm2), and the physical properties were characterized. After about 8.3 Grad dose, the tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain of the sail membrane decreased by about 20 95%. The aluminum reflective layer was damaged and partially delaminated but it did not show any significant change in solar absorbance or thermal emittance. The effect on mechanical properties of a pre-cracked sample, simulating potential impact damage of the sail membrane, as well as thermal aging effects on metallized PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) film will be discussed.

  12. A review of technical options for solar charging stations in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Almeida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Charging stations are an attractive solution to provide access to electricity to low income populations with low energy consumption in remote and off-grid areas. This paper reviews the state of the art of charging stations, with special focus on the technical options. Forty-five different actors in this field were analysed, based on academic publications, reports, online search and surveys. Results show that most stations are run in Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia, are powered by solar energy and although there are many different energy services targeted, the most popular services are charging batteries, mobile phones and lamps. The first charging station was installed in 1992 but most activities happen after 2005. This recent growth has been enabled by the falling cost of photovoltaic modules, learning effect, economies of scale, financial innovation, private sector involvement and worldwide dissemination of mobile phones. While in the first system the only purpose was to charge solar photovoltaic lanterns, the first multi-purpose station appeared in 2008. As expected, the technical challenges are mostly related to the use of batteries not only because they represent the component with shortest lifetime but also because if the battery is not for individual use, social questions arise due to poor definition of rights and duties of the customers. Furthermore, the development of a sustainable business model is also a challenge since this requires technical skills and system monitoring that are not usually available locally. Finally, it is also suggested that the minimum technical quality standards for charging stations should be defined and implemented.

  13. Solar System Observations with the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, James; Hammel, Heidi; Milam, Stefanie; Stansberry, John; Lunine, Jonathan; Chanover, Nancy; Hines, Dean; Sonneborn, George; Tiscareno, Matthew; Brown, Michael; hide

    2016-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will enable a wealth of new scientific investigations in the near- and mid-infrared, with sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution greatly surpassing its predecessors. In this paper, we focus upon Solar System science facilitated by JWST, discussing the most current information available concerning JWST instrument properties and observing techniques relevant to planetary science. We also present numerous example observing scenarios for a wide variety of Solar System targets to illustrate the potential of JWST science to the Solar System community. This paper updates and supersedes the Solar System white paper published by the JWST Project in 2010. It is based both on that paper and on a workshop held at the annual meeting of the Division for Planetary Sciences in Reno, NV, in 2012.

  14. Radiative hazard of solar flares in the nearterrestrial cosmic space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomenskij, A.V.; Petrov, V.M.; Zil', M.V.; Eremkina, T.M.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation of radiation enviroment due to solar cosmic rays was carried out in the near-terrestrial space. Systematized are the data on cosmic ray flux and spectra detected during 19-th and 20-th cycles of solar activity. 127 flares are considered with proton fluxes of more than 10 proton/cm 2 at energies higher than 30 MeV. Obtained are distribution functions of intervals between flares, flux distribution of flares and characteristic rigidity, and also distribution of magnetic disturbances over Dsub(st)-variation amplitude. The totality of these distributions presents the statistic model of radiation enviroment caused by solar flare protons for the period of maximum solar .activity. This model is intended for estimation of radiation hazard at manned cosmic flights

  15. Effects of Solar Activity and Space Environment in 2003 Oct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Seok Cho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a good example of extreme solar and geomagnetic activities from October to November, 2003. These activities are characterized by very large sunspot groups, X-class solar flares, strong particle events, and huge geomagnetic storms. We discuss ground-based and space-based data in terms of space weather scales. Especially, we present several solar and geomagnetic disturbance data produced in Korea : sunspots, geo-magnetograms, aurora, Ionogram, and Total Electron Content (TEC map by GPS data. Finally, we introduce some examples of the satellite orbit and communication effects caused by these activities; e.g., the disturbances of the KOMPSAT-1 operational orbit and HF communication.

  16. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  17. Solar Space and Water Heating for School -- Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    90 page report gives overview of retrofitted solar space-heating and hot-water system installation for 61-year-old high school. Description, specifications, modifications, plan drawings for roof, three floors, basement, correspondence, and documents are part of report.

  18. Study of the Most Harmful Solar Energetic Particle for Shielding next Human Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komei Yamashiro, Bryan

    2015-04-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) accelerated by solar events such as flares and coronal mass ejections are radiation risks for humans in space on board the International Space Station (ISS), and will be significant obstacles for future long-duration manned space flight missions. This research supported efforts to improve predictions of large solar storms and aimed for a better understanding of Heliophysics. The main objective was to generate a dated catalog of the highest energy range SEPs measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02). Using online graphical user interfaces from the satellites, Solar and Heliospeheric Observatory (SOHO) and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-13, 15), the generated data files from the mounted particle detectors were plotted along a specified energy range. The resulting histograms illustrated the low energy range data from SOHO (4 MeV to 53 MeV) and the low-mid energy range from GOES (0.8 MeV to 500 MeV), which collectively provided a low- to mid-energy range spectrum of the specific event energy ranges versus the SEP proton flux. The high energy range results of the AMS-02 (125 MeV to a few TeV) will eventually be incorporated with the two alternative space satellites of lower energy ranges for a complete analysis across a full SEP energy range. X-ray flux from GOES-15 were then obtained and plotted with the corresponding time to portray initial phenomena of the solar events. This procedure was reproduced for 5 different events determined energetic enough to be measured by AMS-02. The generated plots showed correlation between the different satellite detectors.

  19. Advancing automation and robotics technology for the space station and the US economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, A.

    1985-01-01

    In response to Public Law 98-371, dated July 18, 1984, the NASA Advanced Technology Advisory Committee has studied automation and rebotics for use in the space station. The Executive Overview, Volume 1 presents the major findings of the study and recommends to NASA principles for advancing automation and robotics technologies for the benefit of the space station and of the U.S. economy in general. As a result of its study, the Advanced Technology Advisory Committee believes that a key element of technology for the space station is extensive use of advanced general-purpose automation and robotics. These systems could provide the United States with important new methods of generating and exploiting space knowledge in commercial enterprises and thereby help preserve U.S. leadership in space.

  20. Weakest solar wind of the space age and the current 'MINI' solar maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D. J.; Angold, N.; Elliott, H. A.; Livadiotis, G.; Schwadron, N. A.; Smith, C. W.; Skoug, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The last solar minimum, which extended into 2009, was especially deep and prolonged. Since then, sunspot activity has gone through a very small peak while the heliospheric current sheet achieved large tilt angles similar to prior solar maxima. The solar wind fluid properties and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have declined through the prolonged solar minimum and continued to be low through the current mini solar maximum. Compared to values typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s, the following proton parameters are lower on average from 2009 through day 79 of 2013: solar wind speed and beta (∼11%), temperature (∼40%), thermal pressure (∼55%), mass flux (∼34%), momentum flux or dynamic pressure (∼41%), energy flux (∼48%), IMF magnitude (∼31%), and radial component of the IMF (∼38%). These results have important implications for the solar wind's interaction with planetary magnetospheres and the heliosphere's interaction with the local interstellar medium, with the proton dynamic pressure remaining near the lowest values observed in the space age: ∼1.4 nPa, compared to ∼2.4 nPa typically observed from the mid-1970s through the mid-1990s. The combination of lower magnetic flux emergence from the Sun (carried out in the solar wind as the IMF) and associated low power in the solar wind points to the causal relationship between them. Our results indicate that the low solar wind output is driven by an internal trend in the Sun that is longer than the ∼11 yr solar cycle, and they suggest that this current weak solar maximum is driven by the same trend.