WorldWideScience

Sample records for space settlements livable

  1. More Livable Urban Space for Children: Practices around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okşan TANDOĞAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rather than by any personal or mental features, a child’s behaviour is shaped by the spaces he/she occupies, namely his/her physical environment. In this context, urban open spaces such as the immediate surroundings of the home, the school garden and playground, all of which constitute the child’s physical environment and the spaces the child interacts in, are of great importance in the formation of the child as a member of society, and his/her socialization and development. In light of the role it plays in child development, making the physical environment more livable for children has become crucial, particularly in northern European countries, and various studies, projects and practices are being realised in these countries. Foremost among these studies are Child Friendly City initiatives. Other studies and practices may be analysed under headings such as street, school garden, playgrounds and the child’s transportation between school and home. In this study, the aim is to highlight the importance of physical environment for children, and, in this context, to put together a literature study related to applied and on-going studies and practices around the world in the effort to make the physical environment more livable for children.

  2. Space Livability of Street Vendors in Simpang Lima Public Space, Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjajanti, R.; Wahyono, H.

    2018-02-01

    Street vendors in Semarang have been growing rapidly and uncontrolled. They always use public space such as public roads, sidewalks, parks and fields as trading locations. The street vendors’ activities in the public space are considered as the cause of declining on environmental quality and aesthetics of the city. All these years, the government often evicted the street vendors than organized and provides adequate space for them. As one of the actual urban activities, the street vendors’ activities should be accommodated by the government and the location for them is managed in the urban spatial plan. Street vendors need spaces which livable and suitable to their activities’ requirements, has a relationship with users (street vendors’ doers and consumers) and the activities of street vendors themselves. Research on the aspect of space for street vendors is still less in quantity, whereas space for them is an urgent matter for the government in managing their activities. This study aims to identify the livability of space based on the street vendors’ behavior in their location. This research used descriptive quantitative method with questionnaires and GIS as the mapping tool for street vendors’ location. The result of the research shows that the livability of street vendor space is based on the activity of street vendors (type of merchandise, trading places’ size, trade place assessment, space dimension, trading time, duration and period) and space conditions (access, natural elements, safety and parking space).

  3. Spatial Analysis in Determining Physical Factors of Pedestrian Space Livability, Case Study: Pedestrian Space on Jalan Kemasan, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, A. F.; Aditianata, A.

    2018-02-01

    The existence of street as a place to perform various human activities becomes an important issue nowadays. In the last few decades, cars and motorcycles dominate streets in various cities in the world. On the other hand, human activity on the street is the determinant of the city livability. Previous research has pointed out that if there is lots of human activity in the street, then the city will be interesting. Otherwise, if the street has no activity, then the city will be boring. Learning from that statement, now various cities in the world are developing the concept of livable streets. Livable streets shown by diversity of human activities conducted in the streets’ pedestrian space. In Yogyakarta, one of the streets shown diversity of human activities is Jalan Kemasan. This study attempts to determine the physical factors of pedestrian space affecting the livability in Jalan Kemasan Yogyakarta through spatial analysis. Spatial analysis was performed by overlay technique between liveable point (activity diversity) distribution map and variable distribution map. Those physical pedestrian space research variable included element of shading, street vendors, building setback, seat location, divider between street and pedestrian way, and mixed use building function. More diverse the activity of one variable, then those variable are more affected then others. Overlay result then strengthened by field observation to qualitatively ensure the deduction. In the end, this research will provide valuable input for street and pedestrian space planning that is comfortable for human activities.

  4. Requirements for Space Settlement Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2004-02-01

    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  5. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  6. Livability theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Assumptions Livability theory involves the following six key assumptions: 1. Like all animals, humans have innate needs, such as for food, safety, and companionship. 2. Gratification of needs manifests in hedonic experience. 3. Hedonic experience determines how

  7. Livability theory

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Assumptions Livability theory involves the following six key assumptions: 1. Like all animals, humans have innate needs, such as for food, safety, and companionship. 2. Gratification of needs manifests in hedonic experience. 3. Hedonic experience determines how much we like the life we live (happiness). Hence, happiness depends on need gratification. 4.Need gratification depends on both external living conditions and inner abilities to use these. Hence, bad living...

  8. Biological challenges of true space settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankins, John C.; Mankins, Willa M.; Walter, Helen

    2018-05-01

    "Space Settlements" - i.e., permanent human communities beyond Earth's biosphere - have been discussed within the space advocacy community since the 1970s. Now, with the end of the International Space Station (ISS) program fast approaching (planned for 2024-2025) and the advent of low cost Earth-to-orbit (ETO) transportation in the near future, the concept is coming once more into mainstream. Considerable attention has been focused on various issues associated with the engineering and human health considerations of space settlement such as artificial gravity and radiation shielding. However, relatively little attention has been given to the biological implications of a self-sufficient space settlement. Three fundamental questions are explored in this paper: (1) what are the biological "foundations" of truly self-sufficient space settlements in the foreseeable future, (2) what is the minimum scale for such self-sustaining human settlements, and (3) what are the integrated biologically-driven system requirements for such settlements? The paper examines briefly the implications of the answers to these questions in relevant potential settings (including free space, the Moon and Mars). Finally, this paper suggests relevant directions for future research and development in order for such space settlements to become viable in the future.

  9. Seasonality, mobility, and livability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    Signature project 4a, Seasonality, Mobility, and Livability investigated the effects of weather, season, built environment, community amenities, attitudes, and demographics on mobility and quality of life (QOL). A four season panel survey exami...

  10. The structure of settlement space in a Polynesian chiefdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisler, M.; Kirch, P.V.

    1985-01-01

    A major settlement pattern study of a late prehistoric archaeological landscape on Molokaii Island, Hawaii, is summarised. The study focusses on the structure of settlement space within a 7.7 sq. km area situated along the south-central coast of Molokaii, and encompassing two traditional land units (ahupua'a), Kawela and Makakupaia Iki. Intensive survey resulted in the discovery of 499 architectural features. These features were recorded using a standardised data-base system (designed for computerised analysis using SPSS) with 37 discrete and continuous variable, including environmental data, architectural attributes, metrical data, and the presence and density of surface cultural materials. Seventy-two structural features (14 percent of the total sample) were excavated; the total excavated area of 442.5 sq. m provides the largest subsurface data base associated with an intensive settlement pattern survey in the Hawaiian Islands. The late prehistoric and largely contemporaneous nature of this sample is indicated by 13 radiocarbon age determinations, ranging from A.D. 1650-1820. The possibilities for directly applying ethnohistoric models in the analysis and interpretation of this settlement pattern are enhanced by the protohistoric age of the archaeological landscape. The structure of settlement space at Kawela and Makakupaia Iki is examined from the perspectives of several paradigms, including environmental, social, economic and semiotic. No single paradigm provides an adequate account of the variation and complexity of the settlement landscape; in consort, however, these varied perspectives contribute to an enhanced understanding of the structure of late prehistoric Hawaiian society

  11. Dispute settlement in international space law : a multi-door courthouse for outer space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goh, Gérardine Meishan

    2007-01-01

    The rights, rules and regulations of international space law are futile without an effective enforcement mechanism that provides a sufficient and adequate remedy. International space law is particularly significant in the evolution of international dispute settlement because it involves a

  12. Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Frow

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the idea of settlement in each of its three major senses: as a place of human habitation; as a fixed and stable order of habitation; and as a political consensus reconciling fractious groups. Arguing that traditional accounts of settlement depend, with a kind of pastoral nostalgia, upon a view of abstraction and social complexity as in themselves  harmful, it follows through the implications of the concept for ways of dealing with the stranger, and it uses a drawing by the nineteenth-century indigenous Australian artist Tommy McRae, done about 1890 and entitled Corroboree, or William Buckley and dancers from the Wathaurong people, to propose a counterfactual model through which a settlement with the stranger might be imagined.

  13. Use of a Lunar Outpost for Developing Space Settlement Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2008-01-01

    The type of polar lunar outpost being considered in the NASA Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) can effectively support the development of technologies that will not only significantly enhance lunar exploration, but also enable long term crewed space missions, including space settlement. The critical technologies are: artificial gravity, radiation protection, Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). These enhance lunar exploration by extending the time an astronaut can remain on the moon and reducing the need for supplies from Earth, and they seem required for space settlement. A polar lunar outpost provides a location to perform the research and testing required to develop these technologies, as well as to determine if there are viable countermeasures that can reduce the need for Earth-surface-equivalent gravity and radiation protection on long human space missions. The types of spinning space vehicles or stations envisioned to provide artificial gravity can be implemented and tested on the lunar surface, where they can create any level of effective gravity above the 1/6 Earth gravity that naturally exists on the lunar surface. Likewise, varying degrees of radiation protection can provide a natural radiation environment on the lunar surface less than or equal to 1/2 that of open space at 1 AU. Lunar ISRU has the potential of providing most of the material needed for radiation protection, the centrifuge that provides artificial gravity; and the atmosphere, water and soil for a CELSS. Lunar ISRU both saves the cost of transporting these materials from Earth and helps define the requirements for ISRU on other planetary bodies. Biosphere II provides a reference point for estimating what is required for an initial habitat with a CELSS. Previous studies provide initial estimates of what would be required to provide such a lunar habitat with the gravity and radiation environment of the Earth s surface. While much preparatory

  14. Coral larvae change their settlement preference for crustose coralline algae dependent on availability of bare space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Franziska; Bell, James J.; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.

    2018-06-01

    Competition for space is a major factor affecting coral survival. Since adult coral colonies are sessile, the settlement preferences of larvae have a strong impact on the competition for space that corals will face post-metamorphosis and will therefore influence long-term survival. Laboratory-based studies show that in simplified systems coral larvae use cues to guide them to suitable settlement locations, an adaptation that enhances post-settlement survival. Settlement preferences have also been reported from the field, where coral larvae encounter a wide variety of different potential settlement surfaces as the availability of free substratum (bare space) changes over time. In this field-based study, the abundance of different encrusting organisms and bare space present on settlement tiles was compared to their abundance under newly settled pocilloporid and poritid recruits, to determine if recruits choose their settlement substratum randomly. Tiles deployed for 3, 9, 12 and 15 months were used to determine if settlement choice varied as a function of benthic community successional stage. We found that pocilloporid and poritid larvae changed their settlement preference depending on the age of the benthic community they encountered. They reacted neutrally to crustose coralline algae (CCA) on tiles deployed for 3 months when bare space was abundant, but showed a clear preference for settlement on CCA on tiles deployed for 9-15 months once bare space was limited. Simultaneously, poritid recruits showed a decreasing preference over time to settle on biofilm. This change in preference is not linked to the availability of CCA because its abundance did not change significantly between tiles deployed for 3 versus 9-15 months. These results indicate that coral recruits react to several settlement cues simultaneously, guiding them to different settlement locations as the benthos changes over time. Furthermore, recruits from both families reacted similarly, suggesting that

  15. A travel - livability index for seniors, phase I : livability attribute importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    The term livability has been finding its way into policy discussions in the United : States steadily over the last decade. Organizations like the American Planning : Association (APA) and AARP have been concerned about livable neighborhoods and...

  16. Processes of Integration and Fragmentation of Economic Space: The Structure of Settlement Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Pavlovich Goryunov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study of processes of integration and fragmentation caused by the polarization of economic space. Under integration in economic space the authors understand the formation of new and transformation of existing settlement systems, while fragmentation is the dissolution of settlement systems and their transformation into loosely connected settlement networks. The study focuses on the structure of settlement systems. Authors propose a new method for studying the structure of settlement systems, which combines the use of factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. The proposed method utilizes the maximum of available information about the social-economic status of settlements to reveal regularities in their spatial organization. The authors test the proposed method on 35 large cities of the Central and Volga federal districts of Russia, which comprise the spatial surroundings of Moscow. The authors find four groups of cities forming the core of the settlement system centered around Moscow, a group of four cities forming a buffer zone around that system, as well as four cities in the studied sample which do not participate in the settlement system

  17. Research on Livable Community Evaluation Based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhangcai; Wu, Yang; Jin, Zhanghaonan; Zhang, Xu

    2018-01-01

    Community is the basic unit of the city. Research on livable community could provide a bottom-up research path for the realization of livable city. Livability is the total factor affecting the quality of community life. In this paper, livable community evaluation indexes are evaluated based on GIS and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Then the sum-index and sub-index of community livability are both calculated. And community livable evaluation index system is constructed based on the platform of GIS. This study provides theoretical support for the construction and management of livable communities, so as to guide the development and optimization of city.

  18. The structure of settlement space in a Polynesian chiefdom; Kawela, Molokai, Hawaiian Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisler, M; Kirch, P V [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (USA)

    1985-01-01

    A major settlement pattern study of a late prehistoric archaeological landscape on Molokaii Island, Hawaii, is summarised. The study focusses on the structure of settlement space within a 7.7 sq. km area situated along the south-central coast of Molokaii, and encompassing two traditional land units (ahupua'a), Kawela and Makakupaia Iki. Intensive survey resulted in the discovery of 499 architectural features. These features were recorded using a standardised data-base system (designed for computerised analysis using SPSS) with 37 discrete and continuous variable, including environmental data, architectural attributes, metrical data, and the presence and density of surface cultural materials. Seventy-two structural features (14 percent of the total sample) were excavated; the total excavated area of 442.5 sq. m provides the largest subsurface data base associated with an intensive settlement pattern survey in the Hawaiian Islands. The late prehistoric and largely contemporaneous nature of this sample is indicated by 13 radiocarbon age determinations, ranging from A.D. 1650-1820. The possibilities for directly applying ethnohistoric models in the analysis and interpretation of this settlement pattern are enhanced by the protohistoric age of the archaeological landscape. The structure of settlement space at Kawela and Makakupaia Iki is examined from the perspectives of several paradigms, including environmental, social, economic and semiotic. No single paradigm provides an adequate account of the variation and complexity of the settlement landscape; in consort, however, these varied perspectives contribute to an enhanced understanding of the structure of late prehistoric Hawaiian society. 45 refs; 12 figs; 3 tables.

  19. An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground-Analogue Design Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    The design concept of a modular and extensible hypergravity facility is presented. Several benefits of this facility are described including that the facility is suitable as a full-scale artificial-gravity space-settlement ground analogue for humans, animals, and plants for indefinite durations. The design is applicable as an analogue for on-orbit settlements as well as those on moons, asteroids, and Mars. The design creates an extremely long-arm centrifuge using a multi-car hypergravity vehicle travelling on one or more concentric circular tracks. This design supports the simultaneous generation of multiple-gravity levels to explore the feasibility and value of and requirements for such space-settlement designs. The design synergizes a variety of existing technologies including centrifuges, tilting trains, roller coasters, and optionally magnetic levitation. The design can be incrementally implemented such that the facility can be operational for a small fraction of the cost and time required for a full implementation. Brief concept of operation examples are also presented.

  20. Informal Settlements in Jamaica’s Tourism Space: Urban Spatial Development in a Small Island Developing State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheere

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the compatibility of government programmes for regularising or relocating informal settlements situated in a growing tourism space in Jamaica, a small island developing state (SIDS. The case study of Ocho Rios involves mapping, charting, and defining this resort town’s island tourism space. The paper questions the effectiveness of broad government programmes aimed at addressing informal settlements at a time when governance actors and Jamaica’s tourism policy agenda prioritise land use that accommodates a diversified and spatially growing tourism industry. Findings show that government programmes have been insufficiently responsive to informal settlements located in the Ocho Rios tourism space for a number of reasons and that attempts to address the informal settlements are often beset by corruption and a lack of trust between residents and the government. Under the current tourism policy agenda, regularisation of existing informal settlements is not feasible in light of the high real estate value of lands surrounding tourist resort towns. A more targeted approach to addressing informal settlements based on the location of an informal settlement in the vicinity of island tourism regions is required.

  1. Sustainability and Chinese Urban Settlements: Extending the Metabolism Model of Emergy Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activity interacts with urban form and inner metabolic processes, ultimately impacting urban sustainability. China’s cities have experienced many environmental issues and metabolic disturbances since the nation-wide market-oriented “reform and opening-up” policy was adopted in the 1980s. To analyze urban reform policy impacts and metabolism sustainability at a settlement scale, this study provides an integrated analysis to evaluate settlement metabolism and sustainability using a combination of emergy analysis and sustainability indicators based on scrutiny of two typical settlements (one pre- and one post-reform. The results reveal that housing reform policy stimulated better planning and construction, thereby improving built environmental quality, mixed functional land use, and residential livability. The pre-reform work-unit settlements are comparatively denser in per capita area but have less mixed land use. Housing reform has spatially changed the work–housing balance and increased commuting travel demand. However, short commuting distances in pre-reform settlements will not always decrease overall motor vehicle usage. Integrating non-commuting transport with local mixed land-use functional planning is a necessary foundation for sustainable urban design. Functional planning should provide convenient facilities and infrastructure, green space, and a suitable household density, and allow for short travel distances; these characteristics are all present in the post-reform settlement.

  2. Alternative use of space in slum settlements case study: Kampong Gandekan Kampung Baru in Kali Pepe river Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmastuti, Amalia Ji; Wardana, Agustinus Wisnu; Eng, Ir. Maya Andria Nirawati M.

    2018-02-01

    Slum areas are heavily populated urban informal settlements characterized by substandard housing and illegal land usage (squatting). Surakarta is one of many Indonesian cities that are still entangled by this problem. One of the slum concentrations in Surakarta is the slum settlement (kampong) alongside Kali Pepe riverbank. Within these slum settlements, people survive in substandard housing by effectively using the limited space. This research aims to discover the typologies of the alternative use of space. This research takes a case study approach in a few kampongs alongside Kali Pepe riverbank, based on the types and sizes of small houses within this area, considering the number of occupants and the space required. The data for this research is categorized as primary data which was collected through a series of site observations and focus group discussions. The data will be analysed, compared, and classified to find out the typology of the alternative solutions of space requirements. This research uses mixed-method analysis to define how Kali Pepe's slum residents alternatively use the spaces within their kampongs. Based on the typologies found through multiple analyses, this research concludes that the use of space in substandard housing cannot be bound by limited spaces. Furthermore, the main strategy to solve the problem of limited space is by using alternative spaces.

  3. Multifunctional spaces in slum settlements and their relation to activity pattern case study of Kampung Sangkrah, Surakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobirin, Abyzhar; Ramadhanty, Almira Husna; Hardiana, Ana

    2018-02-01

    Surakarta is a rapidly urbanized city and it causes the limitation of the availability of land within its urban area. This entangled problem is resulting in the development of slum settlements that spread across the city. One of the slum concentration areas is located on Pepe riverbanks downstream area that belongs to Kampung Sangkrah administrative boundaries. Slum settlements are characterized as a densely-populated area lacking of, or absence of, open space. This condition forces slum inhabitants to effectively use their available spaces, even multi-functionally. This research aims to observe how slum inhabitants multi-functionally use the spaces around their houses and determine the typology of multifunctional space and also the factors that influence it. To understand this phenomenon, this research used activity pattern perspectives. The scope of observation covers in-house (internal) space utilizations and neighborhood-level (external) space utilization. The data used for this research were collected primarily through site observations and interviews, using sampling to conduct data collection for in-house activities and space utilization. The analysis was conducted using descriptive method qualitatively. The research concluded that there are three types of multifunctional space utilization within slum settlements, and the utilization of spaces, whether internal or external utilization also varies depending on the inhabitants' economic-related activities.

  4. Sustainable values for a livable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCluney, R.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative paths to the future which might produce true sustainability involve comprehensive behavior change, not only by government and business leaders but also by ordinary citizens. Individual and societal behavior is guided to a great extent by the values and beliefs underlying that behavior. A growing body of literature deals with this subject, which is called environmental ethics. From the seminal work of Thomas Berry to conference proceedings and journal articles, examinations of the moral and ethical implications of the need for changing values and behavior can be found in both the religious and secular literature. Central to much of that literature is the concept of envisioning a sustainable future. Developing, promoting, and publicizing those visions will be important in overcoming the natural fears one has of changing basic values and beliefs, thereby enabling open and public discussion of the need of a set of sustainable values for a livable future

  5. Applications of geographic information systems (GIS) for livability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Livability is the idea that transportation, land use, housing, energy, and environmental considerations can be integrated to protect the environment, promote equitable development, and help to address the challenges of climate change. Geographi...

  6. From space and from the ground: determining forest dynamics in settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Kok, K.; Hott, H.C.; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has been partially attributed to the establishment of settlement projects. Acknowledging the difficulties in quantifying the rate and patterns of deforestation, the objective of this paper is to determine forest dynamics (deforestation and reforestation) in

  7. Conservation of brown bear in the Alps: space use and settlement behavior of reintroduced bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preatoni, Damiano; Mustoni, Andrea; Martinoli, Adriano; Carlini, Eugenio; Chiarenzi, Barbara; Chiozzini, Simonetta; Van Dongen, Stefan; Wauters, Luc A.; Tosi, Guido

    2005-11-01

    Large carnivores typically need large home ranges containing habitats patches of different quality. Consequently, their conservation requires habitat protection and management at the landscape scale. In some cases, reintroduction might be used to support remnant or restore extinct populations. This is the case for the brown bear ( Ursus arctos) in the Italian Alps. We monitored spacing behavior and settlement of reintroduced brown bears in Adamello-Brenta Natural Park, North-Italy, using radio-tracking. Habitat use, dispersion and survival were studied to evaluate the success of reintroduction and possible conflicts with man. All three males and five of seven females settled in the study area. Most bears roamed widely the first months after release, exploring the new habitat. Patterns of home range overlap between seasons and years revealed that home range use stabilized the year after first hibernation. Home ranges were larger in the mating season (May-July) than in spring or autumn. Home ranges varied between 34 and 1813 km 2 the year after release, but core-areas, where feeding activity was concentrated, were much smaller. Some bears had exclusive core-areas in summer and autumn, but most showed considerable core-area overlap with animals of the same and/or the opposite sex. Bears selected deciduous forests, mixed and conifer forests were used according to availability, and areas with anthropogenic disturbance were avoided. Most bears settled and some reproduced successfully at the release site, causing high initial population growth, suggesting that reintroduction can help to re-establish a brown bear population in the Italian Alps.

  8. Communities of the Future: Energy Programs for Livable Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J. G.; Strawn, N.

    1999-01-01

    This document relates how several of the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EERE) programs help communities across the nation deal with the issues of livability and sustainable growth. Highlights include background information on renewable energy technologies, some outstanding program anecdotes, and regional and Internet contact information

  9. Breaking new ground in mapping human settlements from space - The Global Urban Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Thomas; Heldens, Wieke; Hirner, Andreas; Keil, Manfred; Marconcini, Mattia; Roth, Achim; Zeidler, Julian; Dech, Stefan; Strano, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    Today, approximately 7.2 billion people inhabit the Earth and by 2050 this number will have risen to around nine billion, of which about 70% will be living in cities. The population growth and the related global urbanization pose one of the major challenges to a sustainable future. Hence, it is essential to understand drivers, dynamics, and impacts of the human settlements development. A key component in this context is the availability of an up-to-date and spatially consistent map of the location and distribution of human settlements. It is here that the Global Urban Footprint (GUF) raster map can make a valuable contribution. The new global GUF binary settlement mask shows a so far unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.4″ (∼ 12m) that provides - for the first time - a complete picture of the entirety of urban and rural settlements. The GUF has been derived by means of a fully automated processing framework - the Urban Footprint Processor (UFP) - that was used to analyze a global coverage of more than 180,000 TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X radar images with 3 m ground resolution collected in 2011-2012. The UFP consists of five main technical modules for data management, feature extraction, unsupervised classification, mosaicking and post-editing. Various quality assessment studies to determine the absolute GUF accuracy based on ground truth data on the one hand and the relative accuracies compared to established settlements maps on the other hand, clearly indicate the added value of the new global GUF layer, in particular with respect to the representation of rural settlement patterns. The Kappa coefficient of agreement compared to absolute ground truth data, for instance, shows GUF accuracies which are frequently twice as high as those of established low resolution maps. Generally, the GUF layer achieves an overall absolute accuracy of about 85%, with observed minima around 65% and maxima around 98%. The GUF will be provided open and free for any scientific use in

  10. Assessment of the Space Weather Effect on Human Health in the Arctic Zone Using the Example of Tiksi Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena A. Strekalovskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the space weather effect on the well-being and health of people with cardiovascular pathology in Arctic conditions, we carried out the processing and analysis of space weather parameters and the electronic database of patients with cardiovascular diseases at the Central District Hospital in Tiksi settlement (the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia (RS(Y. Patients visited the polyclinic or requested an ambulance because their health had deteriorated. As a result of our research, we found some conjunctions of trends in the change in geomagnetic disturbances (Kp-index and the number of patients' visits to medical institutions for arterial hypertension (AH in 2015, 2016 and 2017. It can therefore be concluded that geomagnetic disturbances have an impact on the cardiovascular system of a person living at high latitudes.

  11. A Case Study in Organizing for Livable and Sustainable Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Marx

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citizens in the U.S. are making organized efforts to demand a new approach to planning urban communities, one that results in more sustainable and livable communities. The profession of social work in the U.S. once had a primary role in organizing urban residents to advocate for healthier environments in their neighborhoods. Yet, recent research documents the diminishing emphasis on community organization as an intervention method in social work. This paper offers a descriptive case study of a successful community organizing effort to promote a more livable city in Portland, Maine (USA. Data was collected by the authors using in-depth personal interviews; archival records (census data, architect models; documents (e-mails, newspaper clippings as well as direct observation of the impacted community and development site. Implications for social work practitioners and educators involved in community organization promoting healthy communities are presented.

  12. A practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wu; Xu, Wenjie; Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin

    2017-11-01

    The settlement of any position of the municipal solid waste (MSW) body during the landfilling process and after its closure has effects on the integrity of the internal structure and storage capacity of the landfill. This paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process. The MSW body in the landfill was divided into independent column units, and the filling process of each column unit was determined by a simplified complete landfilling process. The settlement of a position in the landfill was calculated with the compression of each MSW layer in every column unit. Then, the simultaneous settlement of all the column units was integrated to obtain the settlement of the landfill and storage capacity of all the column units; this allowed to obtain the storage capacity of the landfill based on the layer-wise summation method. When the compression of each MSW layer was calculated, the effects of the fluctuation of the main leachate level and variation in the unit weight of the MSW on the overburdened effective stress were taken into consideration by introducing the main leachate level's proportion and the unit weight and buried depth curve. This approach is especially significant for MSW with a high kitchen waste content and landfills in developing countries. The stress-biodegradation compression model was used to calculate the compression of each MSW layer. A software program, Settlement and Storage Capacity Calculation System for Landfills, was developed by integrating the space and time discretization of the landfilling process and the settlement and storage capacity algorithms. The landfilling process of the phase IV of Shanghai Laogang Landfill was simulated using this software. The maximum geometric volume of the landfill error between the calculated and measured values is only 2.02%, and the accumulated filling weight error between the

  13. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 15.109 Section 15.109... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which... publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the Chief...

  14. Sacred Space in Community settlement of Kudus Kulon, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budi Sardjono, Agung; Rochma Harani, Arnis

    2017-12-01

    The sacred space becomes an important part of the spatial layout of Javanese society, as well as in most houses of the archipelago. This space is related to religious activities, highly respected and usually located in the main place. Kudus Kulon community is a part of Javanese culture in the northern coastal area of Java. Known as a devout Muslim society, sacred space in Kudus Kulon community house becomes an important thing to understand the culture of living in society. The research was conducted by looking at the religious activities of the community and how the space of activity is realized. The research was conducted by qualitative research method. In the Kudus Kulon community, sacred spaces are available in the house itself, in the community grup of houses, and around Kudus Kulon area. In every house, the sacred space can be found in Gedongan and extends to Dalem. In the community group of houses, the sacred space can be found in the neighbourhood praying area, while In Kudus Kulon area, it can be found in Mosque complex and Tower tomb. Physically sacred space is realized by raising the floor height of the space around it. In architectural view, the sacred space is seen on the elevation of the roof or roof angle. Spatially the sacred space occupies a central position and visually represented by a vertical orientation.

  15. Modular Extended-Stay HyperGravity Facility Design Concept: An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    This document defines the design concept for a ground-based, extended-stay hypergravity facility as a precursor for space-based artificial-gravity facilities that extend the permanent presence of both human and non-human life beyond Earth in artificial-gravity settlements. Since the Earth's current human population is stressing the environment and the resources off-Earth are relatively unlimited, by as soon as 2040 more than one thousand people could be living in Earthorbiting artificial-gravity habitats. Eventually, the majority of humanity may live in artificialgravity habitats throughout this solar system as well as others, but little is known about the longterm (multi-generational) effects of artificial-gravity habitats on people, animals, and plants. In order to extend life permanently beyond Earth, it would be useful to create an orbiting space facility that generates 1g as well as other gravity levels to rigorously address the numerous challenges of such an endeavor. Before doing so, developing a ground-based artificial-gravity facility is a reasonable next step. Just as the International Space Station is a microgravity research facility, at a small fraction of the cost and risk a ground-based artificial-gravity facility can begin to address a wide-variety of the artificial-gravity life-science questions and engineering challenges requiring long-term research to enable people, animals, and plants to live off-Earth indefinitely.

  16. Human Settlements in the South-Central U.S., Viewed at Night from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa; Evans, Cynthia; Stefanov, William; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Willis, Kimberly; Runco, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A recent innovation of astronauts observing Earth from the International Space Station (ISS) is documenting human footprints by photographing city lights at night time. One of the earliest night-time images from the ISS was the US-Mexico border at El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. The colors, patterns and density of city lights document the differences in the cultural settlement patterns across the border region, as well as within the urban areas themselves. City lights help outline the most populated areas in settlements around the world, and can be used to explore relative population densities, changing patterns of urban/suburban development, transportation networks, spatial relationship to geographic features, and more. The data also provides insight into parameters such as surface roughness for input into local and regional climate modeling and studies of light pollution. The ground resolution of night-time astronaut photography from the ISS is typically an order of magnitude greater than current Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data, and therefore can serve as a "zoom lens" for selected urban areas. Current handheld digital cameras in use on the ISS, optimized for greater light sensitivity, provide opportunities to obtain new detailed imagery of atmospheric phenomena such as airglow, aurora, and noctilucent clouds in addition to documenting urban patterns. ISS astronauts have taken advantage of increasingly sensitive digital cameras to document the world at night in unprecedented detail. In addition, the capability to obtain time-lapse imagery from fixed cameras has been exploited to produce dynamic videos of both changing surface patterns around the world and atmospheric phenomena. We will profile some spectacular images of human settlements over the South-Central U.S., and contrast with other images from around the world. More data can be viewed at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/Videos/CrewEarthObservationsVideos/. US-Mexico border is obvious by the different

  17. Conference on performance measures for transportation and livable communities : summary of work performed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Livability is primarily concerned with issues such as transportation choices, neighborhood character : and access to destinations, affordability, and maintaining cohesive rural, urban and suburban : communities. As transportation agencies work toward...

  18. Application of geographic information systems (GIS) for livability : case studies of select transportation agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Livability is the idea that transportation, land use, housing, energy, and environmental considerations can be integrated to protect the environment, promote equitable development, and help to address the challenges of climate change. Geographi...

  19. A GIS-based performance measurement system for assessing transportation sustainability and community livability : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-31

    Sustainability and livability in transportation, as the concepts referring to the capability of transportation systems to maintain the well being of our society, have been widely : accepted as the critical principles to improve quality of life and he...

  20. Till the Ductile Anchor Hold: Towards Space Settlements in the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dator, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Humans are restless explorers. For 99% of humanity s time on Earth, we have been nomadic wanderers, not farmers, warriors, factory workers, developers, or NASA employees. Only recently--for only a few thousand years--have most humans been tied to the land as many are now. But as more and more of us live in information societies and some indeed in dream societies where our identity derives from the knowledge we share and the image we project, and not from the property we own or the manual work we do, the time may be coming when we should break free from the land, and roam once again. But beware: the reality of Man and Woman the Explorer has a very dark side as well. Many people where I live view the recent experience of Man on the Move as a history of theft, murder, racism, exploitation, and genocide. So we need to be very careful if we say that space exploration is only natural for humans, since the experience has not been very uplifting and noble for most recipients of the exploring of others. But such warnings are not new. Humans have been alerting each other to the dangers of change and novelty from the very beginning: Who and what is this?

  1. Evaluating Neighborhoods Livability in Nigeria: A Structural Equation Modelling (SEM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Abass Iyanda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about city livability around the world and of particular concern is the aspects of the person-environment relationship which encompasses many characteristics suffice to make a place livable. Extant literature provides livability dimensions such as housing unit characteristics, neighborhood facilities, economic vitality and safety environment. These livability dimensions as well as their attributes found in the extant literature have been reported to have high reliability measurement level. Although, various methods have been applied to examine relationships among the variables however structural equation modeling (SEM has been found more holistic as a modeling technique to understand and explain the relationships that may exist among variable measurements. Structural equation modeling simultaneously performs multivariate analysis including multiple regression, path and factor analysis in the cause-effect relationships between latent constructs. Therefore, this study investigates the key factors of livability of planned residential neighborhoods in Minna, Nigeria with the research objectives of – (a to study the livability level of the selected residential neighborhoods, (b to determine the dimensions and indicators which most influence the level of livability in the selected residential neighborhoods, and (c to reliably test the efficacy of structural equation modeling (SEM in the assessment of livability. The methodology adopted in this study includes- Data collection with the aid of structured questionnaire survey administered to the residents of the study area based on stratified random sampling. The data collected was analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 22.0 and AMOS 22.0 software for structural equation modeling (a second-order factor. The study revealed that livability as a second-order factor is indicated by economic vitality, safety environment, neighborhood facilities

  2. 14 CFR 14.25 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 14.25 Section 14.25 Aeronautics... IMPLEMENTING THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT OF 1980 Procedures for Considering Applications § 14.25 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action...

  3. 14 CFR 1262.305 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1262.305 Section 1262.305... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 1262.305 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in...

  4. The administrative – political function of human settlements and the role it plays in organizing geographical space. Case study – Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Săgeată

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional typology of human settlements is shaped, among others, by their political-administrative function. Its distinctive place is determined by subjective factors, such as the political-administrative decisions, which have changed the course of some settlements to the benefit of others, or reverted them from their normal, natural evolution. That means outside involvement in space organization to the detriment of self-organization, the latter being the outcome of the permanent tendency of territorial systems to rebalance from exogenous factors-induced dysfunctions. Lately, the country’s territorial-administrative organization has been steadily challenged years over the past few based either on the 1925 administrative map, or on the disparities in the structure of the present counties and the economic and social fluxes going on at the local level of the settlements system. In view of the above, we have attempted to work out an optimal model for the administrative organization of Romania’s territory by proceeding from the distance between communal seats and the town towards which they gravitate. The latter’s capacity for discharging an administrative function, and the relations of subordination or competition amongst these towns in also discussed.

  5. Appropriate Urban Livability Indicators for Metropolitan Johor, Malaysia via Expert-Stakeholder Approach: a Delphi technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Gallares Pampanga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metro Johor is one of the fast emerging metropolitan urban centers where its current progress and spatial transformation have made it a key player in the economic growth of Malaysia. The recent creation of the Iskandar Malaysia, an economic strategy which aims to be a global player as potential destination for high-value investments, has certainly added social, environmental and economic stress to its urban citizens. This paper intends to develop urban livability indicators for Metropolitan Johor anchored on the changing urban complexion in the face of climate change, economic, governance, social and cultural dynamics, among others. The urban livability conundrum of Metro Johor illustrates that indicators are imperative, especially policy-based indicators, which would aid to scale-up the desired progress according to urban livability metrics. The study involves iterative 3-rounds of Delphi blind survey with Likert scale’s degree of agreement, and finally assigning weightings to each sub-indicator. Thus, with the expert-stakeholders involvement, constituting broad-sectoral community representation, a robust and appropriate urban livability index for Metro Johor was generated - a comprehensive framework yet prospective benchmark in appropriating timely policy decisions that would redound to the benefit of urban citizens ensuring a livable Metropolitan Johor.

  6. Sustainable livable housing: A review of what traditional urban areas residents find important

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musibau Lukuman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable livable housing is pre-condition for healthy living, improve quality of life and critical to economic and social survival. It also encompasses various aspects that predominantly depend on economic, social, cultural and environmental (ESCE conditions within the locality. To this end, this paper seeks to explore, classify and assess the sustainable livable housing attributes from the existing literatures through content analysis. A review of literature revealed a total of ninety two (92 constructs, which were further grouped nine (9 livable housing-related attributes groups. Well-structured questionnaires were administered to residents of traditional urban areas (TUA of Iwo Osun State, Nigeria with ninety two (92 constructs on Likert scale. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistic and relative importance index (RII. Out of (92 constructs from nine (9 livable housing-related attributes groups, the results identified seventy eight (78 important attributes (i.e. 35 most important and 43 important across groups and construct that TUA residents found important. Over RII was 0.409 for overall assessment of sustainable livable housing condition by TUA residents indicating that TUA residents are dissatisfied with their current housing conditions.

  7. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  8. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  9. Lessons Learned from Biosphere 2: When Viewed as a Ground Simulation/Analogue for Long Duration Human Space Exploration and Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCallum, T.; Poynter, J.; Bearden, D.

    A human mission to Mars, or a base on the Moon or Mars, is a longer and more complex mission than any space endeavor undertaken to date. Ground simulations provide a relevant, analogous environment for testing technologies and learning how to manage complex, long duration missions, while addressing inherent mission risks. Multiphase human missions and settlements that may preclude a rapid return to Earth, require high fidelity, end-to-end, at least full mission duration tests in order to evaluate a system's ability to sustain the crew for the entire mission and return the crew safely to Earth. Moreover, abort scenarios are essentially precluded in many mission scenarios, though certain risks may only become evident late in the mission. Aging and compounding effects cannot be simulated through accelerated tests for all aspects of the mission. Until such high fidelity long duration simulations are available, and in order to help prepare those simulations and mission designs, it is important to extract as many lessons as possible from analogous environments. Possibly the best analogue for a long duration space mission is the two year mission of Biosphere 2. Biosphere 2 is a three-acre materially closed ecological system that supported eight crewmembers with food, air and water in a sunlight driven bioregenerative system for two years. It was designed for research applicable to environmental management on Earth and the development of human life support for space. A brief overview of the two-year Biosphere 2 mission is presented, followed by select data and lessons learned that are applicable to the design and operation of a long duration human space mission, settlement or test bed. These lessons include technical, programmatic, and psychological issues

  10. Human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Cornelia W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available risk of deaths and injuries by drowning in floods and migration- related health effects. • Increased migration, which can result in human suffering, human rights violations, conflicts and political instability. • Loss of property and livelihoods.... The vulnerability of settlements in southern Africa is impacted by various and complex socio-economic processes related to the cultural, political and institutional contexts and demographic pressure, as well as specific high-risk zones susceptible to flash floods...

  11. Climato-economic livability predicts societal collectivism and political autocracy better than parasitic stress does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vliert, Evert; Postmes, Tom

    2012-04-01

    A 121-nation study of societal collectivism and a 174-nation study of political autocracy show that parasitic stress does not account for any variation in these components of culture once the interactive impacts of climatic demands and income resources have been accounted for. Climato-economic livability is a viable rival explanation for the reported effects of parasitic stress on culture.

  12. Accessing the mega-region : evaluating the role of livable community patterns in Gulf Coast mega-region planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzes both the need and mechanisms for integrating livability components such as : transit and active transportation into a broader mega-regions transportation framework. The research : builds a conceptual framework for understanding...

  13. The Settlement Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    terms. This article explores the trajectory of the comparatively under-researched Danish offspring of the movement. It demonstrates the tempering and compromise that occurred when utopian ideals of ‘brotherly love’, ‘God’s Kingdom’, and ‘radical social change’ were realized in concrete social...... arrangements. Contradictions and ambiguities arose when utopian ideas were confronted with what could be done. The Settlement became a highly ambiguous space, a ‘heterotopia’. The roots of the contradictions cannot simply be identified in the external pressure of legal requirements and funding criteria...

  14. A livability rating system of a high-rise housing and its computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengrui

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at the problems in housing choosing and purchasing in the high-rise residential buildings, this paper considers the factors that affect various livable degrees and analyzes the important degrees of the factors through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), quantifying the various factors by 10 point scoring system. Accordingly, this paper puts forward a habitable housing index, validating the correctness of the indicators by simulating the process of housing choosing through computer program.

  15. Livable Housing Design: The voluntary provision of inclusive housing in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Louise Ward

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the voluntary provision of inclusive housing. The impetus for the study is the Livable Housing Design initiative, an agreement among Australian housing industry and community leaders in 2010 to a national guideline and voluntary strategy with a target to provide minimum access features in all new housing by 2020. Situated in and around Brisbane, Australia, the study problematises the assumption that the housing industry will respond voluntarily; an assumption which this study concludes is unfounded. The Livable Housing Design initiative asks individual agents to consider the needs of people beyond the initial contract, to proceed with objective reasoning and to do the right thing voluntarily. Instead, the study found that interviewees focused on their immediate contractual obligations, were reluctant to change established practices and saw little reason to do more than was legally required of them. This paper argues that the highly-competitive and risk-averse nature of the industry works against a voluntary approach for inclusive housing and, if the 2020 target of the Livable Housing Design.

  16. The Settlements Growth in Mijen District, Suburb of Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigawati, B.; Yuliastuti, N.; Mardiansjah, F. H.

    2018-02-01

    Semarang is one of metropolitan cities in Indonesia. As common in metropolitan cities, Semarang has problems regarding the availability of urban space, especially for settlements. This is related to the increase of population in Semarang. The selection of settlements should consider the suitability of space usage. This study aimed to analyze the growth of Semarang settlements in 2006-2015, distribution patterns, characteristics, directions and factors affecting growth. The location of the research is Mijen District located in Suburb of Semarang. This research used a quantitative descriptive spatial approach by using remote sensing technique and Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed that some of the growth sites of settlements in Mijen District, the suburb of Semarang are located in areas which not suitable for settlements. There are several types of settlement patterns in Mijen District. Accessibility is the major factor driving the growth of settlements. An integrated development policy is needed to maintain a sustainable balance of urban settlement development.

  17. Space use by Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during settlement at a previous or a new nest location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Brink, Valentijn; Schroeder, Julia; Both, Christiaan; Lourenco, Pedro M.; Piersma, Theunis; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.

    Capsule Black-tailed Godwits first return to the nest location of the previous year, even when moving to a different nest location later that season. Aims To examine the use of space by Black-tailed Godwits during the two months before egg-laying to two weeks afterwards. Methods We compare the

  18. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  19. Does a Certain Rule Exist in the Long-Term Change of a City’s Livability? Evidence from New York, Tokyo, and Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabin Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Livability is the ultimate goal of city development. However, the question of whether the changing pattern of a city’s livability follows a certain rule or not has seldom been argued. To address the question, three cities, including New York, Tokyo, and Shanghai are selected for case studies. Based on a proposed assessment framework, the long-term trend and determinants of three cities’ livability are quantified and investigated. The results suggest that the livability of three cities demonstrates a similar changing pattern during the last decades, with the level going through a three-staged N-curve development, increasing at the beginning, then declining in the mid-term, and rebounding afterward. It implies that the staged development rule should be followed when constructing a livable city. Efforts should be targeted towards the most underlying aspects in different periods. The empirical analysis of the three cities ascertains the existence of a development rule regarding livability, and suggests many potential uses for decision-making support.

  20. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Andrew G; Guest, James R; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2) yr(-1)) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of Singapore's reefs appears relatively constrained, which could lead

  1. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  2. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  3. Minnesota Power Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  4. Modelling of settlement induced building damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardina, G.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the modelling of settlement induced damage to masonry buildings. In densely populated areas, the need for new space is nowadays producing a rapid increment of underground excavations. Due to the construction of new metro lines, tunnelling activity in urban areas is growing.

  5. Model for mapping settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  6. Settlement patterns and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based...... on economic and demographic studies and a large series of interviews problematize this. In Greenland the historical correlation between settlement pattern and livelihood has been decoupled, so that distributions of jobs and potential earnings to a growing extend is a consequence of political and...

  7. Collapse settlement in compacted soils

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, AR

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into collapse settlement in compacted soils is described, with special reference to recent cases in Southern Africa where collapse settlement occurred in road embankments following wetting of the soil. The laboratory work described...

  8. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 785.17 Section 785.17... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order...

  9. Sanitation in informal settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    and to cure when having the right means. This is a humanitarian scandal. In Dharavi / Mumbai, an estimated 700.000 people live and work on less than 250 hectares in a hybrid mix of formal and informal settlement. According to an UN report, in 2006 one toilet seat existed for 1440 dwellers while...

  10. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  11. THE CULTURE OF SETTLEMENT AREAS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urša Suhadolnik Vovko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study and grasp the contemporary rural areas in Slovenia, the students of the Faculty of Architecture carried out a public opinion survey on the subject of the culture of settlement areas, with a particular reference to the visual image of the experiential space of the settlements. Today, human needs and living values are an integral part of all documents, as they represent the starting-point of designing new concepts of living. Personal quality of living is explained by Mandič [1999] through the use of Allard's classification of human needs; however, Mercer's Quality of Living ranking is often used to measure the quality of the living environmentThe paper represents the results of the study, which included two target groups: The experts in spatial management and planning employed at municipal administrative offices; and the senior years’ students at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Ljubljana. The study represented here addressed the values of the living environment. The study was triggered by the 'colourfulness' that knows no limits in Slovenia. Putting the everyday indignation over the variety of all possible shades aside, it has become evident that the tiny elements that are also destroying the image of our settlements are all too often neglected: billboards, log cabins complementing garages and decorative elements, stalls during celebrations and fairs, fountains, monuments, mix of exotic plants, the Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs etc. The study included a survey to obtain a more objective approach to the studying of the quality from the viewpoints of the changing living culture and the use of communal external space in Slovenian settlements. The key question that resonated in most of other questions was: What would improve the quality of life in the settlement?

  12. The Landscape Change of Qiang’s Settlements in the Upper Reaches of Minjiang River after Wenchuan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Wen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Qiang ethnic group is one of the oldest ethnic groups in China, mainly living in upper reaches of Minjiang River in southwest of China. Qiang’s traditional settlements are valuable cultural heritages. Unfortunately, most of Qiang’s settlements were damaged during Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in different degree. After the earthquake, settlements were reconstructed in different ways. The landscape of Qiang’s settlements had been changed greatly by dual influences, the destruction of earthquake and reconstruction after earthquake. Researching the changing process of Qiang’s settlements landscape has great significance to the protection of cultural heritage and the inheritance of culture, especially in the period after earthquake. At first, Qiang’s settlements are classified into five types with typology method after field research, according to the different degree of destruction and the different model of reconstruction. The five types are settlements restored to original forms in original location, settlements rebuilt to traditional forms in original location, settlements transformed to traditional forms in original location, settlements rebuilt in new location according to unified planning and settlements rebuilt in new location by villagers themselves. Secondly, the five types of settlements are compared with traditional settlements from several aspects including geographical environment, location of settlements, forms of settlements, space structure, building materials and construction technology, in order to research for the change of the landscape characteristics. Finally, the changing processes of each type of settlements landscape are analyzed. The change of villagers’ demands for settlements space are analyzed with the changes of their production model, life style, traditional customs, cultural communication, national religion and spiritual pursuit. Based on this analysis, the main factors influencing the changes of Qiang

  13. THE SETTLEMENT OF STREN–KALI WONOKROMO–SURABAYA: The City Image Based on the Development of Marginal Society

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus Bawole

    2009-01-01

    As human beings the poor people in informal settlements also have the right to live better like any other well-off people. Although the government regards them as illegal, they demonstrate great ingenuity in developing their residential neighborhoods. Public spaces are the living room for the people living in the informal settlements - the place where people come to enjoy their settlement. The strategy of sustainable development for informal settlements can be carried out well if the inhabita...

  14. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  15. 29 CFR 102.151 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 102.151 Section 102.151 Labor Regulations... Expenses § 102.151 Settlement. The applicant and the General Counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of... on a proposed settlement of an award before an application has been filed, the proposed settlement...

  16. 17 CFR 10.108 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 10.108 Section 10... to the Commission; Settlements § 10.108 Settlements. (a) When offers may be made. Parties may at any time during the course of the proceeding propose offers of settlement. All offers of settlement shall...

  17. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlements. 20.502 Section 20... Settlements § 20.502 Settlements. (a) The parties may submit a proposed settlement to the ALJ. (b) The proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The...

  18. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 719.19 Section 719.19... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case, the Director of the Office of Export Enforcement will recommend the settlement to the Secretary...

  19. Trust Mines: Legal Documents and Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legal Documents and Settlements related to the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mines Region including the Phase 1 Settlement Agreement and Environmental Response Trust Agreement, Phase 2 Settlement Agreement Removal Site Evaluation (RSE) Trust Agreement.

  20. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...] International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission proposes to remove the International Settlements... proposes to remove the International Settlements Policy (ISP) from all U.S. international routes except...

  1. Synchronizing the city with human-based spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyergyák, János

    2018-03-01

    The paper is about to summarize the most important development tools to make the urban spaces more human friendly in Denver, Colorado. There are more needs for having more livable and sustainable areas by reducing the use of automobiles and focusing on multimodal street design. The strategies are the basic elements to make our urban spaces better and happier from The United States to Hungary

  2. Synchronizing the city with human-based spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyergyák János

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper is about to summarize the most important development tools to make the urban spaces more human friendly in Denver, Colorado. There are more needs for having more livable and sustainable areas by reducing the use of automobiles and focusing on multimodal street design. The strategies are the basic elements to make our urban spaces better and happier from The United States to Hungary

  3. 重组人表皮生长因子对植皮创面成活的影响%Effect of recombinant human epithelium growth factor on livability of skin graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙剑虹; 张明华; 谢庭鸿; 杨兴华; 黄晓元; 周捷

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of recombinant human epithelium growth factor (rhEGF) applied to skin graft. METHODS: 96 cases between February 2000 and December 2001, were treated. During the operation, After scar removed and skin grafted, the rhEGF was injected under the skin graft. 80 cases without injection of rhEGF were made as contrast. Ten days later, the area of survived skin was measured and the livability of skin was calculated. RESULTS: The skin livability of cases with injection of rhEGF was (90.67 ± 10.02)% and the skin livability of contrast cases was(76. 85 ± 8.35)%. There axisted evident differences between them( P < 0. 01) . CONCLUSION: The rhEGF was an effective method for increasing livability of skin graft.

  4. ESPACIO DE ASENTAMIENTO Y CAMPOS VISUALES EN LA ARQUEOLOGÍA DEL VALLE DE AMBATO, CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA / Settlement space and visual fields in the archeology of Ambato valley, Catamarca, Argentina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Assandri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La cultura Aguada en el Valle de Ambato, Catamarca, adquiere una manifestación particular que se observa a nivel espacial por la gran cantidad y variedad de las unidades de asentamiento, tanto por sus características externas, como emplazamiento en el terreno y relación con recursos hídricos, como por sus características internas. En este trabajo se intenta avanzar en el análisis espacial, que habíamos enfocado en las características internas de las estructuras construidas en el Valle, para ahondar en la relación de éstas con su espacio geográfico, como una de las manifestaciones espaciales de las relaciones entre los seres humanos y su ambiente.La propuesta es que a través del análisis de la visibilidad, de cada una de las estructuras, genere un aporte al conocimiento de los factores que contribuyen a su emplazamiento en el terreno. Palabras Clave: Aguada; análisis espacial; visibilidad; estructuras; emplazamiento. AbstractAguada culture in Ambato valley, Catamarca, acquires a particular manifestation observed spatially by the large number and variety of settlement units by their external characteristics such as location in relation to land and water resources, and its internal characteristics.  It attempts to advance in spatial analysis; we had focused on the internal characteristics of the structures built in the Valley, to deepen their relations with their geographical space as a spatial manifestation of the relationship between humans and their environment.  The proposal is that through the analysis of visibility, each of the structures, contribute to the knowledge of the factors contributing to its location in the field. Keywords: Aguada, spatial analysis, visibility, structures, location.

  5. Human exploration and settlement of Mars - The roles of humans and robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific objectives and strategies for human settlement on Mars are examined in the context of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integrated strategy for humans and robots in the exploration and settlement of Mars is examined. Such an effort would feature robotic, telerobotic, and human-supervised robotic phases.

  6. Fortified settlement Veletin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vojislav S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Remnants of the fortified settlement Veletin are located on a hill of the same name (map marking 969 near the small town Janjevo, in the vicinity of the Monastery Gračanica in Kosovo, in a region rich in metal ore (pic. 1-3. Veletin is mentioned for the first time as a landmark in King Milutin’s charter for the Monastery Gračanica issued in 1321. Namely, the boundary of villages donated to the monastery ran "from Oštri vrh on Veletjen between Sušica and between Gušterica". Villages of Sušica and Gušterica still exist under the same names. The mentioned Veletin refers to the hill with a fortified settlement or fortress at the top. In the past the hill and the fortress were for a long time a characteristic part of the historical landscape. Thanks to its favourable geostrategic position, vicinity of important roads and above all to the nearness of rich silver mines, the hill of Veletin was settled and fortified in pre-historic time, then in antiquity and in the middle ages. It is supposed that the Roman town Ulpiana (Justiniana Secunda, near the Monastery Gračanica, developed because of the vicinity of silver mines and that as a municipium became a center of administration of Janjevo - Novo Brdo metals in the II c. Mining reached its peak in this area only in the first half of the XV c., during the reign of Serbian despots. When this part of Serbia fell under Turkish rule in 1455, mining began to decline. In 1488, during the reign of Sultan Bajazet II, special regulations were made for the organization of work in Janjevo silver mines, which testify about their importance. It is hard to form an opinion about the appearance of Veletin at the time the Gračanica Charter was issued. Mining was growing at that time and it is possible that there was a fortress with a small crew to protect Janjevo and other nearby mining settlements. Veletin is explicitly mentioned as a fortress only in three cartographic sources of a later date. The first was

  7. 7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1427.21 Section 1427.21 Agriculture... § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the quality... maximum storage credit rates as determined and announced by CCC. (b) For purposes of settlements for...

  8. 39 CFR 962.26 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 962.26 Section 962.26 Postal Service... CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 962.26 Settlement. (a) Either party may make offers of settlement or proposals of... settlement terms to the Attorney General, as appropriate. [59 FR 51860, Oct. 13, 1994] ...

  9. 49 CFR 1016.306 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1016.306 Section 1016.306... Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after...

  10. 49 CFR 826.35 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 826.35 Section 826.35 Transportation... Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after...

  11. 17 CFR 148.25 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 148.25 Section 148... Considering Applications § 148.25 Settlement. The applicant may propose settlement of the award to the Commission before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the adjudicatory...

  12. 49 CFR 511.26 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 511.26 Section 511.26 Transportation...; Summary Judgment; Settlement § 511.26 Settlement. (a) Applicability. This section applies only to cases of..., 89 Stat. 911 (15 U.S.C. section 2007(3)). Settlement in other cases may be made only in accordance...

  13. 31 CFR 501.710 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 501.710 Section 501.710... the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.710 Settlement. (a) Availability. Either the Director or any..., propose an offer of settlement. The amount accepted in settlement may be less than the civil penalty that...

  14. 47 CFR 1.1525 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1.1525 Section 1.1525... Settlement. The applicant and Bureau counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after...

  15. 7 CFR 1.198 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1.198 Section 1.198 Agriculture Office of....198 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying...

  16. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying...

  17. 10 CFR 851.41 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 851.41 Section 851.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Enforcement Process § 851.41 Settlement. (a) DOE encourages settlement of a proceeding under this subpart at any time if the settlement is consistent with this part. The...

  18. 29 CFR 2200.100 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 2200.100 Section 2200.100 Labor Regulations... Miscellaneous Provisions § 2200.100 Settlement. (a) Policy. Settlement is permitted and encouraged by the... parties include any particular language in a settlement agreement, but does require that the agreement...

  19. 16 CFR 1025.26 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 1025.26 Section 1025.26... PROCEEDINGS Prehearing Procedures, Motions, Interlocutory Appeals, Summary Judgments, Settlements § 1025.26 Settlements. (a) Availability. Any party shall have the opportunity to submit an offer of settlement to the...

  20. 10 CFR 12.305 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 12.305 Section 12.305 Energy NUCLEAR... Considering Applications § 12.305 Settlement. The applicant and the NRC counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the...

  1. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may conduct settlement negotiations. If settlement negotiations are conducted during a conference, at the request of one...

  2. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1434.19 Section 1434.19 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement of loans shall be made by CCC on the... commodity: (1) If the value of the collateral at settlement is less than the amount due, the producer shall...

  3. 17 CFR 171.12 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 171.12 Section 171... RESPONSIBILITY ACTIONS General Provisions § 171.12 Settlement. At any time before the Commission has reached a... settlement agreement. If, in its view, the settlement is consistent with the public interest, the Commission...

  4. 12 CFR 747.612 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 747.612 Section 747.612 Banks and... Board Adjudications § 747.612 Settlement. The applicant and counsel for NCUA may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the...

  5. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has sole discretion to decide whether to appoint a settlement judge, except that a settlement judge... assigned to hear and decide the case. (ii) The settlement judge shall not be appointed to hear and decide... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure. 18...

  6. Settlement of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, P.K.; Guros, F.B.; Keshian, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two test embankments were constructed on top of an old tailings deposit near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico to determine settlement characteristics of hydraulically- deposited uranium mill tailings. Before construction of the embankments, properties of in-situ tailings and foundation soils were determined using data from boreholes, piezocone soundings, and laboratory tests. These properties were used to estimate post-construction settlement of a planned disposal embankment to be constructed on the tailings. However, excessive uncertainty existed in the following: field settlement rates of saturated and unsaturated tailings, degree of preconsolidation of the upper 15 feet of tailings, and the ability of an underlying silty sand foundation layer to facilitate drainage. Thus, assurance could not be provided that differential settlements of the radon barrier and erosion protection layers would be within allowable limits should the planned disposal embankment be constructed in a single-stage

  7. Basic Characteristics and Spatial Patterns of Pseudo-Settlements--Taking Dalian as An Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiaji; Zhang, Yingjia; Li, Xueming

    2016-01-20

    A person's living behavior patterns are closely related to three types of settlements: real-life settlements, imagined settlements, and pseudo-settlements. The term "pseudo-settlement" (PS) refers to the places that are selectively recorded and represented after the mass media chose and restructure the residence information. As the mass media rapidly develops and people's way of obtaining information gradually change, PS has already become one of the main ways for people to recognize and understand real-life settlements, as well as describe their impressions of imagined settlements. PS also has a profound impact on tourism, employment, investment, migration, real estate development, etc. Thus, the study of PSs has important theoretical and practical significance. This paper proposes to put forward residential quarters where the mass media is displayed as the object of study and establishes the pseudo-settlement index system of Dalian in and elaborate analysis of the concept of PSs. From three aspects, including pseudo-buildings, pseudo-districts and pseudo-culture, this paper uses the ArcGIS 10.0 kernel density (spacial analyst) to analyze and interpret the basic characteristics and spatial patterns of 14 elements of the PS in Dalian. Through systemic clustering analysis, it identifies eight major types of PSs in Dalian. Then it systematically elaborates current situations and characteristics of the spatial pattern of PSs in Dalian, namely: regionally concentrated, widely scattered and blank spaces without pseudo-settlements. Finally, this paper discusses the mechanism of formation of PSs in Dalian.

  8. Global Human Built-up And Settlement Extent (HBASE) Dataset From Landsat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Human Built-up And Settlement Extent (HBASE) Dataset from Landsat is a global map of HBASE derived from the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat dataset for...

  9. Monitoring informal settlements using SAR polarimetry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for settlement mapping and detection has remained largely unexplored in Southern Africa. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible role that SAR polarimetry could play in the monitoring of informal settlements....

  10. Prediction of embankment settlement over soft soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this project was to review and verify the current design procedures used by TxDOT : to estimate the total and rate of consolidation settlement in embankments constructed on soft soils. Methods : to improve the settlement predictions ...

  11. Empowering low-income community in Kampong settlement by exploring people's activities in surrounding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawole, Paulus; Sutanto, Haryati B.

    2017-11-01

    Urban Kampong is a spontaneous settlement growing in several big cities within developing countries including Indonesia. This settlement is developed by low-income people without any plan. Therefore there is no specific housing pattern in the settlement. The characteristics of the settlements is dominated by Javanese traditional roof typology and narrow path with minimal public open spaces. People's creativity in building their houses often uses second hand building materials that make their houses look specific. Besides, infrastructure facilities within Kampong Settlement are very poor. Because the poor living in Urban Kampong have to adjust their live with minimum infrastructure facilities available, they have to be creative in using all facilities available. Through the creativities of low-income people living in Urban Kampong the research will show how the inhabitants can be empowered by exploring inhabitant's creativities and consequently the environmental quality within Urban Kampong can be improved as well.

  12. 17 CFR 201.240 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 201.240 Section... of Practice Initiation of Proceedings and Prehearing Rules § 201.240 Settlement. (a) Availability... party to a proceeding already instituted, may, at any time, propose in writing an offer of settlement...

  13. 28 CFR 24.304 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 24.304 Section 24.304... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 24.304 Settlement. A prevailing party and Department counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award before...

  14. 29 CFR 101.7 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlements. 101.7 Section 101.7 Labor Regulations Relating... Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.7 Settlements. Before any complaint... for the submission and consideration of facts, argument, offers of settlement, or proposals of...

  15. 15 CFR 18.19 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 18.19 Section 18.19... Procedures for Considering Applications § 18.19 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a...

  16. 49 CFR 6.29 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 6.29 Section 6.29 Transportation... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.29 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection...

  17. 7 CFR 1.345 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1.345 Section 1.345 Agriculture Office of... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.345 Settlement. (a) A respondent may make offers of compromise of settlement at any time. (b) The reviewing official has the exclusive authority to...

  18. 22 CFR 134.25 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 134.25 Section 134.25 Foreign... Considering Applications § 134.25 Settlement. The applicant and the Department of State may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a...

  19. 17 CFR 201.54 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 201.54 Section 201... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.54 Settlement. The applicant and counsel for the Office or Division of the Commission may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final...

  20. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24... JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24 Settlement. A prevailing party and EPA counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award before final...

  1. 29 CFR 2704.305 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 2704.305 Section 2704.305 Labor Regulations... Settlement. In the event that counsel for the Secretary and an applicant agree to settle an EAJA claim after... of the settlement and request dismissal of the application. [63 FR 63177, Nov. 12, 1998] ...

  2. 24 CFR 1720.180 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 1720.180 Section 1720... Proceedings General Provisions § 1720.180 Settlements. Parties may propose in writing, at any time during the course of a proceeding, offers of settlement which shall be submitted to the Secretary. If determined to...

  3. 37 CFR 11.26 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 11.26 Section 11... Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.26 Settlement. Before or after a complaint under § 11.34 is filed, a settlement conference may occur between the OED...

  4. 39 CFR 960.17 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 960.17 Section 960.17 Postal Service... ACT IN POSTAL SERVICE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 960.17 Settlement. The applicant and the Postal Service may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the...

  5. 32 CFR 536.55 - Structured settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Structured settlements. 536.55 Section 536.55... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.55 Structured settlements. (a) The... of this part, structured settlements cannot be required but are encouraged in situations listed above...

  6. 39 CFR 958.23 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 958.23 Section 958.23 Postal Service..., CLEAN-UP COSTS AND DAMAGES FOR VIOLATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL REGULATIONS § 958.23 Settlement. Either party may make offers of settlement or proposals of adjustment at any time. The Determining Official has...

  7. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and...

  8. 5 CFR 2430.10 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 2430.10 Section 2430.10... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AWARDS OF ATTORNEY FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES § 2430.10 Settlement. The applicant and the General Counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the...

  9. 19 CFR 212.24 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 212.24 Section 212.24 Customs Duties... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 212.24 Settlement. The applicant and the Commission may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action...

  10. 15 CFR 904.213 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 904.213 Section 904.213 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... and Appeal Procedures General § 904.213 Settlements. If settlement is reached before the Judge has...

  11. 12 CFR 1705.24 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1705.24 Section 1705.24 Banks and... Consideration of the Application for Award § 1705.24 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award before the final decision on the application for award is made, either in...

  12. 7 CFR 1951.213 - Debt settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debt settlement. 1951.213 Section 1951.213 Agriculture... and Grants § 1951.213 Debt settlement. Subpart C of part 1956 of this chapter prescribes policies and procedures for debt settlement actions for loans covered under this subpart when it is determined that a debt...

  13. 24 CFR 28.45 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 28.45 Section 28.45... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 28.45 Settlements. (a) HUD and the respondent may enter into a settlement agreement at any time prior to the issuing of a notice of final...

  14. 10 CFR 1023.324 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1023.324 Section 1023.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Justice Act Procedures for Considering Applications § 1023.324 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in...

  15. 24 CFR 3800.60 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 3800.60 Section 3800... DEVELOPMENT INVESTIGATIONS IN CONSUMER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 3800.60 Settlements. (a) At any time during an investigation, the Department and the parties subject to an investigation may conduct settlement negotiations...

  16. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.25 Settlement. Trustees may settle claims for natural resource damages under this part at any time, provided that the settlement is adequate in the judgment of the...

  17. 15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 280.219 Section 280.219... Enforcement § 280.219 Settlement. (a) Cases may be settled before service of a charging letter. In cases in which settlement is reached before service of a charging letter, a proposed charging letter will be...

  18. 45 CFR 13.24 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlements. 13.24 Section 13.24 Public Welfare... ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 13.24 Settlements. The applicant and the agency's litigating party may agree on a proposed settlement of the award at any time prior to...

  19. 17 CFR 9.7 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 9.7 Section 9.7... DISCIPLINARY, ACCESS DENIAL OR OTHER ADVERSE ACTIONS General Provisions § 9.7 Settlement. At any time before... accordance with § 9.20, the parties may file a stipulation for dismissal based on a settlement agreement...

  20. 29 CFR 2204.306 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 2204.306 Section 2204.306 Labor Regulations... Procedures for Considering Applications § 2204.306 Settlement. The applicant and the Secretary may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a...

  1. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases § 134.217 Settlement. At any... have settled the case, and may file with such motion a copy of the settlement agreement. If the Judge...

  2. 5 CFR 2610.306 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 2610.306 Section 2610.306... ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 2610.306 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application...

  3. 29 CFR 16.303 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement. 16.303 Section 16.303 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 16.303 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action...

  4. 15 CFR 766.18 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 766.18 Section 766.18... PROCEEDINGS § 766.18 Settlement. (a) Cases may be settled before service of a charging letter. In cases in which settlement is reached before service of a charging letter, a proposed charging letter will be...

  5. 12 CFR 625.20 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 625.20 Section 625.20 Banks and... UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 625.20 Settlement. A prevailing party and the FCA through its counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award at any time...

  6. 7 CFR 1951.894 - Debt settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debt settlement. 1951.894 Section 1951.894 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND COLLECTIONS Rural Development Loan Servicing § 1951.894 Debt settlement. Debt settlement of all claims will be handled in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection...

  7. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  8. The Density of Sustainable Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the initial result of a cross-disciplinary attempt to encircle an answer to the question of optimal densities of sustainable settlements. Urban density is an important component in the framework of sustainable development and influences not only the character and design of cities...

  9. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  10. Transforming Karachi into a Livable and Competitive Megacity : A City Diagnostic and Transformation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2018-01-01

    With a population of 16 million, Karachi is the largest megacity in Pakistan. Despite being a large city that is home to many, it has seen a substantial decline in quality of life and economic competitiveness in recent decades. Basic service delivery is very poor, with very low indicators for water supply, sanitation, public transport and public spaces. Pollution levels are high, and the city is vulnerable to disasters and climate change. A highly complex political economy, institutional frag...

  11. The spatial study of unplanned settlements on the coastal of Belawan Medan fishermen village

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marpaung, B. O. Y.; Winny Silaban, Nadia

    2018-03-01

    One of the determining factors that formed informal settlements is the high demand for homes that are not comparable with the homes that were provided by the government. The settlement of Fisherman Village in Belawan Medan was built without a plan by settlers and was not involve government interference so that the spatial pattern formed uncontrollable. The shape of space that stretches represents the distribution of unplanned space. The purpose of this study is to find the structure of settlement and the relationship between the space structures with the spatial pattern in Belawan Medan Fishermen Village. In the process of collecting data, the researcher makes the maps of the observation area, the structure of the space, and the relationship between one space function with the other space functions. Also, the researchers identify the spacing pattern and the effect of one spatial element against the other. This study found a similar spatial pattern between one unplanned settlement and another unplanned settlement and there are also some tendencies of Belawan Medan Fishermen Village settlers when building the built environment in the relationship between building masses and the road network.

  12. Water Loss in Small Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė

    2014-01-01

    The main performance indicators of a water supply system include the quality and safety of water, continuous work, relevant pressure and small water loss. The majority of foreign and local projects on reducing water loss have been carried out in the water supply systems of metropolitans; however, the specificity of small settlements differs from that of big cities. Differences can be observed not only in the development of infrastructure and technical indicators but also in the features of wa...

  13. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  14. THE ROLE OF THE RELIEF IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS IN HUŞI DEPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA CHIRILĂ – ACATRINEI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Role of the Relief in the Development of Human Settlements in Huşi Depression. Human settlements are closely related to the regional physicalgeographical framework determined by the geological, geomorphological, hydrological and climatic features that condition the location and evolution of the settlements system. Among the morphometric parameters that characterize local conditions, slopes and altitudes play an important role in the spatial extent of settlements. Slope determines the access, the extension of built space and the drainage inside the area of settlements. An excessively flat land is not able to drain rainwater. The optimum gradient is 1-20, a value that generally characterizes terraces, plateaus and sculptural interfluves or accumulation glacises. Slopes over 50 raise problems in the construction of buildings and access roads, especially on territories with an excessive fragmentation. The altitudinal gradient is also important in the spatial development of settlements, as it implies a significant contrast between the localities situated in the eastern lower part of Depression and those located on the higher western and northern sides. To analyze the spatial evolution of human settlements in the Huşi Depression in relation to slope and altitude were used various editions of cartographic materials covering a period of about 80 years (1920-2010, the years 1950 and 2010 being conventionally selected as reference.

  15. Mapping Indigenous Settlement Topography in the Caribbean Using Drones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till F. Sonnemann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology of Amerindian settlements in the Caribbean has mostly been identified through scatters of artefacts; predominantly conglomerations of shells, ceramics and lithics. While archaeological material may not always be visible on the surface, particular settlement patterns may be identifiable by a topography created through cultural action: earthen mounds interchanging with mostly circular flattened areas. In northern Hispaniola, recent foot surveys have identified more than 200 pre-colonial sites of which several have been mapped in high resolution. In addition, three settlements with topographical characteristics have been extensively excavated, confirming that the mounds and flattened areas may have had a cultural connotation in this region. Without the availability of high resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data, a photogrammetric approach using UAS (unmanned aircraft system, commonly known as drones can fill the knowledge gap on a local scale, providing fast and reliable data collection and precise results. After photogrammetric processing, digital clearance of vegetation, and extraction of the georeferenced DEM (digital elevation model and orthophoto, filters and enhancements provide an opportunity to visualize the results in GIS. The outcome provides an overview of site size, and distribution of mounds and flattened areas. Measurement of the topographic changes in a variety of past settlements defines likely zones of habitat, and provides clues on the actual dimensions and density of living space. Understanding the relation of the mounds and adjacent flat areas within their environment allows a discussion on how, and for what purpose, the settlement was founded at a particular location, and provides clues about its spatial organization.

  16. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-3 - Consistent settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistent settlements. 301.6224(c)-3 Section... settlements. (a) In general. If the Internal Revenue Service enters into a settlement agreement with any..., settlement terms consistent with those contained in the settlement agreement entered into. (b) Requirements...

  17. Spatial adaptation as the Madurese migrant resilience form at urban informal sector workers settlement: a case study of Kotalama settlement - Malang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asikin, Damayanti; Antariksa; Dwi Wulandari, Lisa; Indira Rukmi, Wara

    2017-12-01

    Migration is the movement of the population that will bring the change of society's behavior because of the adjustments occuring at the destination of migrant area. The availability of houses in urban area is not a proportional comparison to the increasing of limited housing space, thus it encourages urban migrants to adapt to the existing conditions. Adaptation will be closely linked to the resilience of migrants in the process of interacting with their environment. The theory of urban settlement architecture continues to grow constantly, so the used paradigm should be interdisciplinary. Thereby, the understanding of adaptation, which is used will concern to various aspects of physical and non-physical environment, and it is viewed as a process and product of human interactions with the environment holistically. Malang city is one of the migration destinations of Madurese people since 1930s, and Kotalama Malang settlement is the settlement that holds the largest Madurese migrant working in informal sector, which has been developed since 1950s. This study was conducted to determine the spatial adaptation of Madurese migrants in urban settlement area as a resilience form towards their settlement environment. The qualitative descriptive method with the discourse analysis approach of searching the data through the observation and the in-depth interview of key person were used to know the adaptation process that happened. The study result indicated that spatial adaptation as a process and product on meso and micro scale conducted by Madurese migrants was the form of resilience towards their settlement environment.

  18. Geographical evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plants on settlement structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divinsky, B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of nuclear power plants are classed with respect to their character (one-sided or many-sided), order (primary or secondary), quality (positive or adverse), duration (temporary or permanent), and space (microregional or macroregional). The following topics must be included in the methodology of evaluation of the impacts of a nuclear power plant on the region: characteristics of the present settlement network, relationships within the settlement system, spatial transformation of settlements, development of urbanization, population density, town and village sizes, functional types of settlements, migration, age and social structure of the population, economic activity, town and village facilities, technical infrastructure, transport and traffic, psycho-social impacts of the occurrence of the nuclear power plant, microecology (microenvironment). (M.D.). 5 refs

  19. Problems and Alternatives of Settlement Lagoons for Mine Water Treatment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kil

    2015-04-01

    A field test and computational flow analysis were conducted to identify the structural problems with existing settlement lagoons and to propose effective alternatives. When it comes to existing settlement lagoons without any specifically designed internal structure, mine water flows along a specific route while other regions remained stagnant. Such a flow pattern along a specific region causes a significant reduction in retention time as well as the ineffective use of the space in a settlement lagoon. When applying the modified settlement lagoon design proposed in this study, the flow distribution of mine drainage became uniform and the time taken for mine drainage to reach the outlet was improved by as much as 360 times and the exchange efficiency was significantly enhanced from 14.5% to 82.7%.

  20. Working Group Reports and Presentations: Mars Settlement and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The long-term implications of space exploration must be considered early in the process. With this in mind, the Mars Settlement and Society Group focused on five key areas: Philosophical Framework, Community Infrastructure and Government, Creating Stakeholders, Human Subsystems, and Habitat Design. The team proposes long and short term goals to support getting to and then staying long-term on Mars. All objectives shared the theme that they should engage, inspire, and educate the public with the intent of fostering stakeholders in the exploration of Mars. The objectives of long-term settlement on Mars should not neglect group dynamics, issues of reproduction, and a strong philosophical framework for the establishment of a society.

  1. Livelihoods of squatter settlements : analysis from tenure perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, Ashokkumar; Nepali, Purna; Panday, U.S.; Shrestha, Reshma

    2017-01-01

    Squatter settlements are inevitable in most of the urban areas. Livelihood situation of squatter settlements seem poor, vulnerable and miserable. Living condition in these settlements suffered from overcrowding, inadequate accommodation, limited access to clean water and sanitation, lack of proper

  2. Public spaces and urban sustainability in the tropical built environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Y. M.; Kozlowski, M.

    2018-01-01

    Sustainability is an overarching sense of responsibility towards the future. On a city-wide level, urban sustainability incorporates a wide body of changes especially as they relate to the built environment, all of which intended at creating a livable place. This paper discusses existing public spaces in view of their achievement against a set of criteria for the built environment. The paper introduces performance design criteria for the tropical built environment. The key findings indicate that long-term strategies, guidance and directions for the city and region can achieve development which corresponds to local climate, synergies and provide a higher proportion of public spaces that offer something for everyone.

  3. NATURE-RURAL SETTLEMENT INTERACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Eminağaoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and management of natural environments are generally brought up upon adverse developments against nature in the humannature interactions. Although individual actions are often considered to be more immediate innatıre-related issuesi ecologic problems tend to spread in time and lead to reginol or even global problems. For this reason, it stands imperative that economic, ecologic and aesthetic values of the environment we live in be protected and used sustainably. Being the scene of nature and the environment landscape signifies the whole with living and nonliving entities where we live in. Dameged and destroyed landscape scenes particularly in urban areas necessitaites the reconsideration of human-nature relations and nature-frendly life style. This study investigates the rural settlements that show harmony with nature and reflects qualities of natural environments on the dwellings. Particularly, with the examples of drawing and pictures it examines the associatiation of rural settlements with nature as well as the use of the green as an occasional or spacial element.

  4. Livable Analytics - Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    -effective, web-based survey that takes approximately ten minutes to complete. The survey is intuitive and integrity. document GET FEEDBACK Open communication between building occupants and managers/owners. document Regents or individual photographer. Center for the Built Environment University of California, Berkeley

  5. 7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1427.172 Section 1427.172 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a...

  6. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 838.135 Section 838.135 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT... § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable for...

  7. 42 CFR 402.17 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 402.17 Section 402.17 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS General Provisions § 402.17 Settlement. CMS or OIG has...

  8. 45 CFR 150.413 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 150.413 Section 150.413 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.413 Settlement. CMS has exclusive...

  9. 42 CFR 1003.126 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1003.126 Section 1003.126 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has exclusive...

  10. 20 CFR 498.126 - Settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 498.126 Section 498.126 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has exclusive authority to settle any issues or case...

  11. 5 CFR 838.1018 - Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 838.1018 Section 838.1018 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT... Settlements. The former spouse may request that an amount be withheld from the retirement benefits that is...

  12. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when

  13. Improving settlement type classification of aerial images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mdakane, L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , an automated method can be used to help identify human settlements in a fixed, repeatable and timely manner. The main contribution of this work is to improve generalisation on settlement type classification of aerial imagery. Images acquired at different dates...

  14. Monitoring biofouling communities could reduce impacts to mussel aquaculture by allowing synchronisation of husbandry techniques with peaks in settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Dempster, Tim; Fitridge, Isla; Keough, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Fouling organisms in bivalve aquaculture cause significant economic losses for the industry. Managing biofouling is typically reactive, and involves time- and labour-intensive removal techniques. Mussel spat settlement and biofouling were documented over 20 months at three mussel farms within Port Phillip Bay (PPB), Australia to determine if knowledge of settlement patterns could assist farmers in avoiding biofouling. Mussel spat settlement was largely confined to a 2-month period at one farm. Of the problematic foulers, Ectopleura crocea settlement varied in space and time at all three farms, whilst Ciona intestinalis and Pomatoceros taeniata were present predominantly at one farm and exhibited more distinct settlement periods. Within PPB, complete avoidance of biofouling is impossible. However, diligent monitoring may help farmers avoid peaks in detrimental biofouling species and allow them to implement removal strategies such as manual cleaning, and postpone grading and re-socking practices, until after these peaks.

  15. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  16. Commuting in the settlement system of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Territorial organization of settlement system is the framework for internal migration flows. The purpose of this paper is to consider the relation between commuting and the settlement structure. Commuting patterns and characteristics of commuters in Serbia are relatively unknown and insufficiently researched, and as such, can not be adequately used in creation of development strategies and public policies which would include commuters' issues. It has been emphasized the importance of research of commuting ties between different settlements and also pointed out in which way commuting flows could be researched and analyzed by using existing sources, due to better understanding of connections between migrations and settlements. Commuting patterns of workers in Serbia and interrelations between the scope and the structure of commuting flows, as well as the type and population size of settlements in Serbia have been examined. Apart from territorial dimension of commuting phenomenon, socio-economic component of commuting population has also been considered. The use of costumised tabulations from 2002 Census have enabled us to examine all types of commuting and emphasise dominant directions of commuting flows of economically active population according to gender, level of education and sector of economic activity, within the settlement hierarchy. Workers have been classified into seven groups according to place of residence and place of work. The findings reveal there is a clear connection between the hierarchy structure and commuting patterns in Serbia. Further, we find some evidence that only 9,5% of workers - commuters have been working in the settlement of the same population size and type such as their residing settlement. Commuting flows within Serbia’s settlement system point out to certain variations when looking at individual categories of population, but it can be concluded that there is general trend of commuting "upwards" within the

  17. Decontamination strategies in contaminated settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Jouve, A.; Tallec, V. Le

    1996-01-01

    Six years after the Chernobyl accident, decontamination actions had been completed in many places, the contamination could be considered as fixed, especially on urban surfaces and the social situation was felt to be stabilized. Under those conditions the efficiency of the 'classical' decontamination techniques was under question, it was worthwhile to look at new specific techniques. Besides it was necessary to discuss the interest of new decontamination actions in settlements. The European Union (EU) sponsored a project ECP 4 in order to look at the opportunities for further dose reduction actions in the contaminated territories of the three republics affected by the accident. The objective was to provide a local decision maker, faced with many alternatives for decontamination, with all the elements for determining what to do according to the various objectives he might pursue. The main results are presented here. (author)

  18. PERMEABILITY MAP OF RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE TROPICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Antaryama

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Source of information for ventilation design of residential settlement is generally derived from wind tunnel or, recently, CFD studies, which involves both modeling and simulation of wind flow pattern and speed. Yet this is not readily accessible to most architects. In order to gain similar objectives but without involving detailed studies, the present study introduces a graphical method of gathering information about permeability of residential. It describes how the way wind reaches and flows through built spaces and forms (streets, park/garden, buildings, and makes use of access graphs and numerical measures to indicate permeability of a given residential settlement. Since the method is still in the initial development, further study will be required for refinement and validation. Nevertheless, the method can be employed to provide information for ventilation design of low-rise residential settlements, particularly at the schematic level. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Informasi untuk perancangan ventilasi alam pada permukiman selama ini sangat bergantung dari hasil-hasil yang diperoleh dari studi terowongan angin ataupun studi simulasi komputer dengan menggunakan CFD. Namun demikian ketersediaan informasi tersebut sangatlah terbatas bagi arsitek. Studi yang dilakukan penulis berusaha untuk mengisi kesenjangan yang ada dengan menyediakan tampilan grafis untuk menunjukkan permiabilitas sebuah permukiman. Perilaku angin di dalam dan permiablitas permukiman dijabarkan dengan menggunakan grafik akses dan pengukuran-pengukuran numerik. Oleh karena pengembangan metoda ini berada pada tahap awal, beberapa studi lanjutan sangatlah diperlukan. Kata kunci: morfologi permukiman, sains arsitektur, ventilasi alam, iklim tropis.

  19. Practical appraisal of sustainable development-Methodologies for sustainability measurement at settlement level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moles, Richard; Foley, Walter; Morrissey, John; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between settlement size, functionality, geographic location and sustainable development. Analysis was carried out on a sample of 79 Irish settlements, located in three regional clusters. Two methods were selected to model the level of sustainability achieved in settlements, namely, Metabolism Accounting and Modelling of Material and Energy Flows (MA) and Sustainable Development Index Modelling. MA is a systematic assessment of the flows and stocks of material within a system defined in space and time. The metabolism of most settlements is essentially linear, with resources flowing through the urban system. The objective of this research on material and energy flows was to provide information that might aid in the development of a more circular pattern of urban metabolism, vital to sustainable development. In addition to MA, a set of forty indicators were identified and developed. These target important aspects of sustainable development: transport, environmental quality, equity and quality of life issues. Sustainability indices were derived through aggregation of indicators to measure dimensions of sustainable development. Similar relationships between settlement attributes and sustainability were found following both methods, and these were subsequently integrated to provide a single measure. Analysis identified those attributes of settlements preventing, impeding or promoting progress towards sustainability

  20. Calcifying algae maintain settlement cues to larval abalone following algal exposure to extreme ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Jennifer K; Barry, James P; Gabrielson, Paul W; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Potts, Donald C; Palumbi, Stephen R; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2017-07-18

    Ocean acidification (OA) increasingly threatens marine systems, and is especially harmful to calcifying organisms. One important question is whether OA will alter species interactions. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) provide space and chemical cues for larval settlement. CCA have shown strongly negative responses to OA in previous studies, including disruption of settlement cues to corals. In California, CCA provide cues for seven species of harvested, threatened, and endangered abalone. We exposed four common CCA genera and a crustose calcifying red algae, Peyssonnelia (collectively CCRA) from California to three pCO 2 levels ranging from 419-2,013 µatm for four months. We then evaluated abalone (Haliotis rufescens) settlement under ambient conditions among the CCRA and non-algal controls that had been previously exposed to the pCO 2 treatments. Abalone settlement and metamorphosis increased from 11% in the absence of CCRA to 45-69% when CCRA were present, with minor variation among CCRA genera. Though all CCRA genera reduced growth during exposure to increased pCO 2 , abalone settlement was unaffected by prior CCRA exposure to increased pCO 2 . Thus, we find no impacts of OA exposure history on CCRA provision of settlement cues. Additionally, there appears to be functional redundancy in genera of CCRA providing cues to abalone, which may further buffer OA effects.

  1. The process of negotiating settlements at FERC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Interstate gas pipelines and their customers presently settle about 90% of the rate cases set for hearing before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The conventional regulatory litigation process is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. This paper explains the settlement process, illustrating with the 12 section 4 rate cases brought by pipelines from 2008 and 2009. The paper also discusses and illustrates why parties prefer settlement to litigation, what difference it makes, which cases tend to settle, what might account for the increasing frequency of settlements over time, the recent phenomenon of pre-filing settlements and the recent settlement of section 5 cases brought by FERC. In contrast to many other regulatory jurisdictions, FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. They make an initial analysis 3 months after a pipeline files for a tariff rate increase. Thereafter, the regulatory aim is to bring the parties into agreement, not to determine an outcome and impose it upon them. This is a different role for the regulatory body than was previously apparent. - Highlights: ► About 90% of FERC rate cases are settled, not litigated. ► FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. ► Conventional regulation is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. ► The paper also discusses which cases settle and what difference it makes.

  2. Harmonizing Settlement, Infrastructure, and Population Data to Support Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Yetman, G.

    2016-12-01

    The geospatial data community has been developing global-scale georeferenced population, human settlements, and infrastructure data for more than two decades, pushing available technologies to process ever growing amounts of data and increase the resolution of the outputs. These population, settlement, and infrastructure data products have seen wide use in varied aspects of sustainable development, including agriculture, energy, water, health, land use, transportation, risk management, and climate impact assessment. However, in most cases, data development has been driven by the availability of specific data sources (e.g., census data, night-time lights, radar data, or moderate- to high-resolution imagery), rather than by an integrated view of how best to characterize human settlement patterns over time and space on multiple dimensions using diverse data sources. Such an integrated view would enhance our ability to observe, model, and predict where on the planet people live and work—in the past, present, and future—and under what conditions, i.e., in relationship not only to environmental systems, resources, extremes, and changes, but also to the human settlements and built infrastructure that mediate impacts on both people and the environment. We report here on a new international effort to improve understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of existing and planned georeferenced data products, and to create a collaborative community across the natural, social, health, engineering, and data sciences and the public and private sectors supporting data integration and coordination to meet sustainable development data needs. Opportunities exist to share data and expertise, coordinate activities, pool computing resources, reduce duplication, improve data quality and harmonization, and facilitate effective data use for sustainable development monitoring and decision making, especially with respect to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the international

  3. 48 CFR 49.109-5 - Partial settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partial settlements. 49... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-5 Partial settlements. The TCO should attempt... settlements covering particular items of the prime contractor's settlement proposal. However, when a TCO...

  4. Measurement of Narora reactor building relative settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, P.M.; Pande, K.C.; Patwardhan, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    The civil construction of the reactor building of Narora Atomic Power Project has a special problem. The stability of the structure is liable to settlement as this location falls in seismic zone. To obviate the possibility of large scale unequal settlements, the reactor building is founded on a 4 meter thick rigid raft concreted in three layers, at a depth of 13 meters below ground. Stainless steel tanks will be embedded at 17 locations to measure relative settlements. The relative elevation difference will be detected by electrical probes when the water level in any one of the tanks touches the tip of the probes. The design envisages a maximum permissible unequal settlements of about 10 mm. over a period of 20 years. (K.B.)

  5. Do cues matter? Highly inductive settlement cues don't ensure high post-settlement survival in sea urchin aquaculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mos

    Full Text Available Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (90% than a natural biofilm (∼25%. The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%. Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should extend to post-settlement survival, which remains poor for T. gratilla and is a significant obstacle to increasing efficiency for aquaculture.

  6. Dispersed and decentralised settlement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of reintegration of the urban system new settlements are emerging on theurban rim, transitional zones are reurbanised, derelict areas within the cities are being developedand degraded urban areas of derelict industrial complexes are being renaturalised. Inthe periphery combined research and production parks are being set up, in the open landscapeintegrated business, trade and recreational centres are springing up. Decentralisationand recentralisation of focal points of development accompany the contemporary processesof reurbanisation and suburbanisation – they are simultaneous and move in two-direction i.e. to and from the city. We understand them as manifestation of a dynamic balance amongcontradiction existing between the centre and the rim. Deindustrialisation and relocation ofproduction and distribution from the centres of gravity to the periphery generate extensivedegraded urban areas within cities and between the city and suburbs. The periphery is beingurbanised with the creation of new, dispersed and nonhierachical poles of development, andthe city and inner city is undergoing reurbanization. The general environmental conditionsin the city and in the countryside are being equalised, the potentials of development arebeing sought in the comparative advantages of local conditions: be it attractive urban districts,be it suburban entities or countryside areas.

  7. The morphological / settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation or service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sogoni, Zukisa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available , it is of the utmost importance that a critical evaluation of settlement structure and patterns is undertaken to directly inform the manner in which social services are delivered in different settlement types....

  8. Transport corridors and settlements in a region. Linking settlements to public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is conditioning settlement to public transport on the regional and urban level. Similar to occurrences in Western Europe even in Slovenia strong settlement pressures and issues tied to development of suburbanisation are emerging in wider hinterlands of larger cities. In regional centres, where strong transport flows with frequent congestion happen, public transport should be the backbone of the transport system. It is important for consolidation of larger gravitation areas, especially conurbations. We can nevertheless establish that parallel to increasing use of private cars, the use of public transport is decreasing. Thus the present condition demands improvements of transport systems and suitable settlement density in conjunction with development of public transport. This can be achieved only by synergetic linking of public transport development and physical planning in a sustainable settlement system. In the Ljubljana functional region we specifically dealt with links between settlement and the regional public transport system, above all the proposed regional light-railway and tram system in the strict urban area. The decentralised denser settlement model is presented. Based on the study concerning settlement development in the railway corridors we proposed potential possibilities for denser settlement in the immediate areas of suburban railway stations in the northern part of the region, from Črnuče to Kamnik.

  9. Settlement Prediction of Footings Using VS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Ik CHO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity (VS is a key parameter for estimating the deformation characteristics of soil. In order to predict the settlement of shallow footings in granular soil, the VS and the concept of Schmertmann’s framework were adopted. The VS was utilized to represent soil stiffness instead of cone tip resistance (qc because the VS can be directly related to the small-strain shear modulus. By combining the VS measured in the field and the modulus reduction curve measured in the laboratory, the deformation characteristics of soil can be reliably estimated. Vertical stress increments were determined using two different profiles of the strain influence factor (Iz proposed in Schmertmann’s method and that calculated from the theory of elasticity. The corresponding modulus variation was determined by considering the stress level and strain at each depth. This state-dependent stress-strain relationship was utilized to calculate the settlement of footings based on the theory of elasticity. To verify the developed method, geotechnical centrifuge tests were carried out. The VS profiles were measured before each loading test, and the load-settlement curves were obtained during the tests. Comparisons between the measured and estimated load-settlement curves showed that the developed method adequately predicts the settlement of footings, especially for over-consolidated ground conditions.

  10. Planning urban settlements for quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Groth, N.; Hansen, K.E.; Björnberg, U.

    Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes livskvalitetsana......Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes...

  11. An economic assessment of patent settlements in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Bret; Orszag, Jonathan; Tyson, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This article demonstrates that in recent years, patent settlements between branded and generic manufacturers involving "reverse payments" from branded manufacturers to generic manufacturers have received close antitrust scrutiny, driven by concerns that such settlements harm consumers by delaying the entry of lower-priced generic drugs. The authors note that such settlements will be a focus of the Obama Administration's antitrust enforcement policy, yet there is a growing consensus among the courts that such settlements are anticompetitive only under narrow sets of circumstances. In this article, the authors present an analytical framework for evaluating the competitive effects of patent settlements, including those involving reverse payments, and demonstrate that these settlements can benefit consumers. Thus, the authors conclude that while continued scrutiny of such settlements is important, broad brush treatments are inappropriate and only a more individualized evaluation can correctly determine the competitive effects of a particular settlement agreement.

  12. 48 CFR 49.108-3 - Settlement procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.108-3 Settlement procedure. (a) Contractors shall settle with subcontractors in general conformity with the policies and principles relating to settlement...

  13. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  14. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  15. The urban features of informal settlements in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed Alzamil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains the urban features of three informal settlements in Jakarta: A. Kampung Bandan; B. Kampung Luar Batang; And C. Kampung Muara Baru. The data describes the urban features of physical structures, infrastructures, and public services. These data include maps showing locations of these settlements, photography of urban status, and examples of urban fabric. The data are obtained from the statistical records and field surveys of three settlements cases. Keywords: Informal settlements, Physical, Features, Urban, Kampung, Jakarta, Indonesia

  16. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the instructions...

  17. Infrastructure Provision and Classification of Rural Settlements in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study classifies the selected rural settlements on the basis of available infrastructure .To achieve this aim, 22 rural settlements were randomly selected. The cluster analysis was applied on the data in order to group the rural settlements on the basis of their infrastructure profiles. Thus the hierarchical method of cluster ...

  18. 6 CFR 13.46 - Compromise or settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 13.46 Section 13.46 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.46 Compromise or settlement. (a) Parties may Make offers of compromise or settlement at any time...

  19. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  20. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the terminology...

  1. Possible Applications of Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies at Lunar Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David S.; Allen, Carl; Jones, J. A.; Bayless, D.; Brown, I.; Sarkisova, S.; Garrison, D.

    2007-01-01

    The most ambitious goal of the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar system. Today, however, missions would have to bring all of the propellant, air, food, water, habitable volumes and shielding needed to sustain settlers beyond Earth. That is why resources for propellants, life support and construction of support systems and habitats must be found in space and utilized if humans hope to ever explore and colonize the solar system. The life support, fuel production and material processing systems currently proposed for spaceflight are essentially disconnected. Only traditional crop production has been proposed as a segment for bioregenerative life support systems, although the efficiency of higher plants for air regeneration is generally low. Thus, the investigation of air bioregeneration techniques based on the activity of photosynthetic organisms with higher rates of CO2 scrubbing and O2 release is very timely and important. Future systems for organic waste utilization in space may also benefit from the use of specific microorganisms. This janitorial job is efficiently carried out by microbes on Earth, which drive and connect different elemental cycles. It is likely that environmental control and life support systems based on bioregeneration will be capable of converting both organic and inorganic components of the waste at lunar settlements into edible biomass. The most challenging technologies for future lunar settlements are the extraction of elements (e.g. Fe, O, Si, etc) from local rocks for industrial feedstocks and the production of propellants. While such extraction can be accomplished by purely inorganic processes, the high energy requirements of such processes motivates the search for alternative technologies with lower energy requirements and appropriate efficiency. Well-developed terrestrial industrial biotechnologies for metals extraction and conversion could therefore be the prototypes for extraterrestrial

  2. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Namatovu, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging...

  3. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  4. Directional layouts in central lowland Maya settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the existence of non-random, directional patterns in the location of housemounds across the Late Classic Maya settlement landscape at Baking Pot, Belize, and then explores the wider implications of this patterning in the central Maya lowlands. It introduces an anisotropic method...

  5. Between archaeology and anthropology: imagining Neolithic settlements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květina, Petr; Hrnčíř, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 323-347 ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic longhouse * ethnographic analogy * settlement patterns Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. 17 CFR 8.16 - Settlement offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 8.16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION EXCHANGE PROCEDURES FOR DISCIPLINARY, SUMMARY, AND MEMBERSHIP DENIAL ACTIONS Disciplinary Procedure § 8.16 Settlement... the disciplinary committee at any time after the investigation report is completed. The disciplinary...

  7. THE SETTLEMENT OF STREN–KALI WONOKROMO–SURABAYA: The City Image Based on the Development of Marginal Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Bawole

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As human beings the poor people in informal settlements also have the right to live better like any other well-off people. Although the government regards them as illegal, they demonstrate great ingenuity in developing their residential neighborhoods. Public spaces are the living room for the people living in the informal settlements - the place where people come to enjoy their settlement. The strategy of sustainable development for informal settlements can be carried out well if the inhabitants are involved at the whole development process. In 2006 the population of Surabaya city was 2,716,971 people. An experience about urban upgrading in informal settlement along Wonokromo riverbank, Surabaya shows how the program implemented can improve the living quality of the inhabitants. With the program of Community Total Participation, the physical problems of the settlements can be reduced gradually. This paper will discuss the action research which tries to involve the inhabitants through total participatory strategy. The qualitative and quantitative data will be analyzed in order to find conclusions and to recommend alternative solutions.

  8. METHODOLOGY RELATED TO ESTIMATION OF INVESTMENT APPEAL OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Voshev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conditions for production activity vary considerably from region to region, from area to area, from settlement to settlement. In this connection, investors are challenged to choose an optimum site for a new enterprise. To make the decision, investors follow such references as: investment potential and risk level; their interrelation determines investment appeal of a country, region, area, city or rural settlement. At present Russia faces a problem of «black boxes» represented by a lot of rural settlements. No effective and suitable techniques of quantitative estimation of investment potential, rural settlement risks and systems to make the given information accessible for potential investors exist until now.

  9. The morphological /settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sogoni, Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available / settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery Zukisa Sogoni Planning Africa Conference 2016 4 July 2Project Focus and Background • CSIR... services. • Purpose is to support application & planning for new investment & prevent “unsustainable” investments / White elephants. 3Outputs • National set of service delivery catchments • Profile information per individual catchment • Ranking...

  10. Madrid principles of Nagorno-Karabakh settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Babayan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of this work presents the analysis of the basic document and the legal framework of the peace settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict on the modern stage - «Madrid or Basic principles», presented to the sides of the negotiations at the OSCE ministerial conference in the Spanish capital Madrid in November 2007. The both side’s statements, international mediators and institutes form a legal background of the vector and the framework of the negotiation process. There are the fundamental differences and contradictions in the approaches of the sides of the negotiations to the «Basic principles» of the settlement in this article. The work contains a comparison of the various items and elements of the Madrid document both in relation to each other, and to the principles of international law.

  11. Spatial Analyses of Harappan Urban Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Teramura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harappan Civilization occupies a unique place among the early civilizations of the world with its well planned urban settlements, advanced handicraft and technology, religious and trade activities. Using a Geographical Information Systems (GIS, this study presents spatial analyses that locate urban settlements on a digital elevation model (DEM according to the three phases of early, mature and late. Understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of Harappan sites and the change in some factors, such as topographic features, river passages or sea level changes, will lead to an understanding of the dynamism of this civilization. It will also afford a glimpse of the factors behind the formation, development, and decline of the Harappan Civilization.

  12. Research on the Starokuybyshevskoye Fortified Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubaydullin Ayrat M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Starokuybyshevskoye (Old-Kuybyshev fortified settlement is situated on the bank of the Bezdna river, 200 m to the northeast of Bolgar city. The site is being considerably eroded by the waters of the river and the Kuibyshev water reservoir. Currently it is situated on an island, under threat of complete destruction. In this regard, in 1946, 1987 and 1996, conservation and rescue excavations were conducted on the site. The detailed results of the 1996 studies are offered in the article. The ruins of an above-ground dwelling with an oven and three household pits were excavated. The ceramic assemblage of these structures has obvious features of the pre-Mongol Bulgar culture. In general, the findings make it possible to conclude that the settlement had existed only in the 11th through to the 13th century and that its collapse was associated with the Mongol invasion.

  13. Modern settlements in special needs education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2016-01-01

    . Settlements of this controversy govern whether the pupil or the educational institution becomes the main point of intervention. In Denmark, the particularities of settlements can be identified by juxtaposing the introduction of intelligence testing in the 1930s with the contemporary policy agenda of inclusion....... With intelligence testing, special needs education was to service children whose needs were seen as part of their human nature. Inclusion, in turn, assumes special needs to be stigmatizing cultural labels that need to be abandoned by changing school cultures. Drawing on actor-network theory we can approach......In the history of special needs education, the distinction between human nature and its social environment has been a controversial matter. The controversy regards whether special needs are primarily caused by the child's psycho-medical body or by cultural concepts of normality and deviance...

  14. Implementation of Ecohouse and ecoliving concept in architecture - SASAK traditional settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, Agus Zulkarnain; Subadyo, Achmad Tutut

    2017-11-01

    Sasak is one of the Indonesian indigenous tribes who live in the island of Lombok. Until now, they still maintain the customs and culture as well as settling in Sembalun, Senaru, Segenter, and Sade. The Large of Sasak traditional settlement area in Lombok is not increased so that it feared the carrying capacity will be exceeded and could lead to a shift of customs and culture. This paper (1) to formulate the concept of a traditional Sasak sustainability settlement, (2) reconstruct the conception and typology of layout, mass configuration, space-organization, structure and building construction homes custom of Sasak, to analyze the sustainability level of Sasak traditional settlement used questionnaires Community Sustainability Analysis. The results obtained in this study is the traditional settlement of the Sasak people - PTSDS is in conformity with the Eco village concept of Global Eco village Network. It is evident from the analysis of data by CSA which finds the total in 1226; with the value of the ecological aspect, the social aspect and the spiritual aspect, respectively 432, 373 and 421, which means the Sasak people - PTSDS shows very good progress on sustainability.

  15. COMPENSATORY INTEREST SETTLEMENT AND CREDIT BANKING MORATORIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Avelino Sánchez, Esteban Marino

    2014-01-01

    First is explained the reasons for this article, it mentions the specific legal rules that support the settlement of interest on the credit operations of companies in the financial system with end users, and then presents the average interest rates of some operations credit. Then we present the formula for calculating interest, and illustrates its application with examples 1 and 2 (the simplest). The following is, in examples 3 and 4, the calculation of interest with imputation of partial pay...

  16. Historical topography of the Tsarev settlement site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glukhov Aleksandr A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The topography of the Tsarev settlement site, one of major Golden Horde monuments in the Lower Volga region, is analyzed. The first descriptions of the settlement refer to the second half of the 18th century, while the initial large-scale excavations on the monument were conducted in the mid-19th century. By that time, the scientific community had adhered to the opinion that the ruins of Sarai (the city mainly associated with the Tsarev settlement site would stretch to a great distance from the Akhtuba river-head to Kolobovka village. The results of archaeological research of the 20th – early 21st century make it possible to challenge this view. To date, it is an established fact that the size of the actual urban area had constituted 5 x 2.2–2.3 km. The southern part of the city was occupied by the estates of the nobility, the central and northern parts were represented by trade and artisan quarters. Around the city, there were suburban cemeteries, including brick mausoleums (the ruins of which could be mistaken for the remains of dwellings in the 19th century, as well as the areas of irrigated agriculture.

  17. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  18. Socio spatial adaptation as a resilience form of native unplanned settlement in confrontation with new planned settlement development pressure (case study: enclave native settlement in Serpong, Tangerang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ischak, Mohammad; Setioko, Bambang; Nurgandarum, Dedes

    2017-12-01

    Urban growth refers to expansion of a metropolitan into sub urban areas as the surrounding environment, with no exception of Jakarta city due to limited availability and high price of land within the city. The city of Jakarta, as a metropolitan, carries of expansion in its surrounding environment including Tangerang. Privat developers may an important role in this urban growth through their large scale of new settlement development project. The formation of establishment of enclave native unplanned sub urban settlement scattered within planned new settlement in Tangerang is to be an consequence of Jakarta urban growth. This fenomena could be comprehended as a form of resilience native settlement in confrontation with the new planned settlement pressure. The aim of this research, presented in this paper is to understand the socio-spatial concept of those enclave native settlement as an adaptation form to the new planned settlement pressure. Through descriptive qualitative research method, with indepth interview as a main research instrument, this research could depict or uncover the facts that there are various form of socio-spatial adaptation as the main theme of resilience native suburban settlement formation.

  19. Evaluation of Induced Settlements of Piled Rafts in the Coupled Static-Dynamic Loads Using Neural Networks and Evolutionary Polynomial Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghorbani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupled Piled Raft Foundations (CPRFs are broadly applied to share heavy loads of superstructures between piles and rafts and reduce total and differential settlements. Settlements induced by static/coupled static-dynamic loads are one of the main concerns of engineers in designing CPRFs. Evaluation of induced settlements of CPRFs has been commonly carried out using three-dimensional finite element/finite difference modeling or through expensive real-scale/prototype model tests. Since the analyses, especially in the case of coupled static-dynamic loads, are not simply conducted, this paper presents two practical methods to gain the values of settlement. First, different nonlinear finite difference models under different static and coupled static-dynamic loads are developed to calculate exerted settlements. Analyses are performed with respect to different axial loads and pile’s configurations, numbers, lengths, diameters, and spacing for both loading cases. Based on the results of well-validated three-dimensional finite difference modeling, artificial neural networks and evolutionary polynomial regressions are then applied and introduced as capable methods to accurately present both static and coupled static-dynamic settlements. Also, using a sensitivity analysis based on Cosine Amplitude Method, axial load is introduced as the most influential parameter, while the ratio l/d is reported as the least effective parameter on the settlements of CPRFs.

  20. Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeta, W. C.; Holm, R. H.; Kamanula, J. F.; Mtonga, W. E.; de los Reyes, F. L.

    2017-08-01

    A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum trucks currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a result, households in the unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu rely primarily on manual pit emptying (i.e., shoveling by hand) or digging a new pit latrine. These practices have associated health risks and are limited by space constraints. This research focused on filling the technological gap through the design, development, and testing of a pedal powered modified Gulper pump using locally available materials and fabrication. A modified pedal powered Gulper technology was developed and demonstrated to be capable of lifting fecal sludge from a depth of 1.5 m with a mean flow rate of 0.00058 m3/s. If the trash content was low, a typical pit latrine with a volume of 1-4 m3 could be emptied within 1-2 h. Based on the findings in our research Phase IV, the pedal powered Gulper modification is promising as a potential emptying technology for lined pit latrines in unplanned settlement areas. The success rate of the technology is about 17% (5 out 30 sampled lined pit latrines were successful) and reflects the difficulty in finding a single technology that can work well in all types of pit latrines with varying contents. We note that cost should not be the only design criteria and acknowledge the challenge of handling trash in pit latrines.

  1. Object-based image analysis and data mining for building ontology of informal urban settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelifa, Dejrriri; Mimoun, Malki

    2012-11-01

    During recent decades, unplanned settlements have been appeared around the big cities in most developing countries and as consequence, numerous problems have emerged. Thus the identification of different kinds of settlements is a major concern and challenge for authorities of many countries. Very High Resolution (VHR) Remotely Sensed imagery has proved to be a very promising way to detect different kinds of settlements, especially through the using of new objectbased image analysis (OBIA). The most important key is in understanding what characteristics make unplanned settlements differ from planned ones, where most experts characterize unplanned urban areas by small building sizes at high densities, no orderly road arrangement and Lack of green spaces. Knowledge about different kinds of settlements can be captured as a domain ontology that has the potential to organize knowledge in a formal, understandable and sharable way. In this work we focus on extracting knowledge from VHR images and expert's knowledge. We used an object based strategy by segmenting a VHR image taken over urban area into regions of homogenous pixels at adequate scale level and then computing spectral, spatial and textural attributes for each region to create objects. A genetic-based data mining was applied to generate high predictive and comprehensible classification rules based on selected samples from the OBIA result. Optimized intervals of relevant attributes are found, linked with land use types for forming classification rules. The unplanned areas were separated from the planned ones, through analyzing of the line segments detected from the input image. Finally a simple ontology was built based on the previous processing steps. The approach has been tested to VHR images of one of the biggest Algerian cities, that has grown considerably in recent decades.

  2. Litigation and the Timing of Settlement: Evidence from Commercial Disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Grajzl; Katarina Zajc

    2015-01-01

    Although an overwhelming proportion of all legal disputes end in settlement, the determinants of the timing of settlement remain empirically underexplored. We draw on a novel dataset on the duration of commercial disputes in Slovenia to study how the timing of settlement is shaped by the stages and features of the litigation process. Using competing risk regression analysis, we find that events such as court-annexed mediation and the first court session, which enable the disputing parties to ...

  3. The urban features of informal settlements in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamil, Waleed

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the urban features of three informal settlements in Jakarta: A. Kampung Bandan; B. Kampung Luar Batang; And C. Kampung Muara Baru. The data describes the urban features of physical structures, infrastructures, and public services. These data include maps showing locations of these settlements, photography of urban status, and examples of urban fabric. The data are obtained from the statistical records and field surveys of three settlements cases.

  4. Deterring Spoilers: Peace Enforcement Operations and Political Settlements to Conflict

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Manseau, Nicole C

    2008-01-01

    .... In Somalia, Operation Restore Hope provided a strong peace enforcement operation, but ultimately failed to deter spoilers to United Nations negotiations for a political settlement to the conflict...

  5. The Researches on Cycle-Changeable Generation Settlement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Jun; LONG, Suyan; LV, Jianhu

    2018-03-01

    Through the analysis of the business characteristics and problems of price adjustment, a cycle-changeable generation settlement method is proposed to support any time cycle settlement, and put forward a complete set of solutions, including the creation of settlement tasks, time power dismantle, generating fixed cycle of electricity, net energy split. At the same time, the overall design flow of cycle-changeable settlement is given. This method supports multiple price adjustments during the month, and also is an effective solution to the cost reduction of month-after price adjustment.

  6. Space Technospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn

  7. Judging Fairness in Class Action Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Piché

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I describe the face of modern civil justice and discuss four paradoxes which justify re-evaluating the role of the judge responsible for reviewing class action settlements, in light of modern judicial culture. I also critically evaluate the existing procedures applicable to the fairness review as well as the judicial role described in the caselaw and doctrine, before suggesting a revised, three-parted role for the reviewing judge in the class action settlement context. Ultimately, I suggest that to reach fairness of process and outcome in class action settlements, judges should remain active and creative in their inquisitorial assessment of proposed class action settlements. They should also remain conciliatory, participating in the search for solutions regarding the proposed settlement, always seeking to find the truth (and what is “just” about the proposed settlement, in the utmost respect for the rights of absent class members, the respect of their interests, and the additional consideration of the interests of the defendants and of the public. Dans cet article, je présente l’état de la face de la justice civile moderne et je discute quatre paradoxes qui justifient une réévaluation du rôle du juge responsable de la révision et de l’approbation d’un règlement de recours collectif, à la lumière de la culture juridique moderne. Je propose aussi une évaluation critique des procédures en place s’appliquant à l’évaluation du caracters équitable de la transaction, de même que le rôle du juge décrit dans la jurisprudence et la doctrine, avant de suggérer un rôle révisé. Ce rôle modifié se décline en trois parties. Finalement, je suggère que pour atteindre l’équité de procédure et de résultat dans le cas de règlements en recours collectif, les juges devraient demeurer actifs et créatifs en enquêtant pour évaluer des règlements proposés dans les cas de recours collectifs. Ils et elles

  8. Housing / Human Settlements Atlas series: continued support towards more sustainable human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Goss, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available an answer to the key question of what (shelter type or model and supportive services) should be built where (in the most suitable location with the highest potential to support sustainable human settlements). The investment potential profile indicator has...

  9. Guidelines and criteria for planning Slovenian settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pogačnik

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with proposals for directing settlement development and management in Slovenia on the national level. They should be integrated in the spatial order, a part of the national spatial plan. First a short chronology of research with similar topics and simultaneous critical analysis is presented. The methodology and possible models for structuring directives is elaborated. Based on recent research by domestic authors, European guidelines and own ideas, a manual was devised, dividing guidelines hierarchically between the national, regional and local level. The second part or rather different type of text attached to the manual is a glossary. It also includes an index for further research of various sources.

  10. Public Service Provision in Clientelistic Political Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Hirvi, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The politics of public-service delivery continues to be neglected under the supposedly more context-sensitive post-Washington Consensus. Using interviews and documentary evidence from Ghana, this article provides an account of the networks of political interference and informal practices in Ghana......'s public water utility. It argues that, in order to understand why private-sector participation succeeds or fails and why similar arrangements have different outcomes across developing countries, we need to examine the effects of the informal institutional context, particularly the country......-specific political settlement in which public-service provision operates....

  11. MONITORING AND CONTROLLING ON SURFACE SETTLEMENT IN SAND AND GRAVEL STRATA CAUSED BY SUBWAY STATION CONSTRUCTION APPLYING PIPE-ROOF PRE-CONSTRUCTION METHOD (PPM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pipe-roof Pre-construction Method (PPM is regarded as a safer method to construct underground space, especially suitable for the construction sites with dense surface buildings, underground pipelines and complicated geological conditions. Xinleyizhi Station of Shenyang Metro constructed by PPM. In order to ensure safety in construction, the whole construction process was closely monitored. In this paper, monitoring results of surface settlement in PPM is analyzed. According to the monitoring results, the most serious settlement occurred in pipes jacking, which was the first and the most crucial step in PPM. The settlement reasons in each step are discussed, and controlling methods of surface settlement in each step are elaborated. Through close monitoring and timely control, the construction of Xinleyizhi Station completed smoothly. Because of the obvious advantages of PPM, the method will be used more widely in construction of shallow buried excavation under complicated surrounding and geological conditions.

  12. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  13. 76 FR 77997 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cashout Settlement; The Atlantic Richfield Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Ophir Mills and Smelter Site in Tooele County, Utah with the Atlantic Richfield Company based upon a cash-out settlement. The settlement...

  14. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation memorandum. 249.110 Section 249.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 249.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow...

  15. Analysis of an Underground Structure Settlement Risk due to Tunneling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Ghodrat, Hadi; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    of the underground commercial center structure settlement is estimated using both empirical and numerical methods. The settlement risk level of the commercial center structure is determined based on presented definitions about risk classification of various types of structures. Consequently, tunneling processes...

  16. 12 CFR 308.15 - Opportunity for informal settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Opportunity for informal settlement. 308.15 Section 308.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.15 Opportunity for informal settlement. Any respondent may, at any time...

  17. Transparency and public participation in WTO dispute settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahlborn, C.S.; Pfitzer, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to offer a comprehensive analysis of transparency and public participation in the WTO dispute settlement system, this memorandum first considers the current participatory practice throughout the various steps of the dispute settlement process. Secondly, the current state of the DSU

  18. Resilience and social costs: centralised towns vs. distributed settlements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    In government reports and political debates in Greenland it is often stated, that the divided settlement in general and especially the settlements are too costly, and that the outlying districts in general do not contribute sufficiently to the national economy. This presumption is used as an argu...

  19. 47 CFR 1.244 - Designation of a settlement judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Proceedings Presiding Officer § 1.244 Designation of a settlement judge. (a) In broadcast comparative cases... Administrative Law Judge for action. (c) If, in the discretion of the Chief Administrative Law Judge, it appears... Commission's Administrative Law Judges are eligible to act as settlement judges, except that an...

  20. 48 CFR 53.301-1438 - Settlement Proposal (Short Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement Proposal (Short Form). 53.301-1438 Section 53.301-1438 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-1438 Settlement Proposal (Short...

  1. 28 CFR 43.3 - Settlement and waiver of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement and waiver of claims. 43.3 Section 43.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RECOVERY OF COST OF HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL CARE AND TREATMENT FURNISHED BY THE UNITED STATES § 43.3 Settlement and waiver of claims. (a) The...

  2. Conciliation as the traditional method of disputes settlement in PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana F. Litvinova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article researches one of the peculiarities of civil disputes settlement in China. This peculiarity is the conciliatory method that is used during disputes settlement. The using of the method is based on Confucianism. The content of the method has been viewed in the article.

  3. Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on Poverty Reduction: The Case of Dar es Salaam City. ... Properties found in these areas are sound or improvable. ... Key words: regularisation, formalisation, land tenure, property rights, unplanned/informal settlements, poverty reduction, Dar es Salaam ...

  4. 32 CFR 536.124 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 536.124 Section 536.124 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.124 Settlement authority for maritime...

  5. 32 CFR 537.18 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 537.18 Section 537.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.18 Settlement authority for maritime claims. (a) The...

  6. Engineering approach to model and compute electric power markets settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, J.; Petrov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Back-office accounting settlement activities are an important part of market operations in Independent System Operator (ISO) organizations. A potential way to measure ISO market design correctness is to analyze how well market price signals create incentives or penalties for creating an efficient market to achieve market design goals. Market settlement rules are an important tool for implementing price signals which are fed back to participants via the settlement activities of the ISO. ISO's are currently faced with the challenge of high volumes of data resulting from the increasing size of markets and ever-changing market designs, as well as the growing complexity of wholesale energy settlement business rules. This paper analyzed the problem and presented a practical engineering solution using an approach based on mathematical formulation and modeling of large scale calculations. The paper also presented critical comments on various differences in settlement design approaches to electrical power market design, as well as further areas of development. The paper provided a brief introduction to the wholesale energy market settlement systems and discussed problem formulation. An actual settlement implementation framework and discussion of the results and conclusions were also presented. It was concluded that a proper engineering approach to this domain can yield satisfying results by formalizing wholesale energy settlements. Significant improvements were observed in the initial preparation phase, scoping and effort estimation, implementation and testing. 5 refs., 2 figs

  7. Automatic settlement analysis of single-layer armour layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; van gent, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    A method to quantify, analyse, and present the settlement of single-layer concrete armour layers of coastal structures is presented. The use of the image processing technique for settlement analysis is discussed based on various modelling
    studies performed over the years. The accuracy of the

  8. Experimental analysis of railway track settlement in transition zones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Liu, X.

    2017-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are the locations with considerable changes in the vertical support structures. Due to the differential stiffness and settlement in the open track and the engineering structure resulting in the dynamic amplification of the wheel forces, track settlement is usually

  9. Macrofauna Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Pearl oysters, seed collection, macrofauna, bivalves, settlement, monsoon seasons,. Kenya .... have shown that pearl oyster settlement is higher within calm ...... collectors in the Timor Sea, Northern Australia. J. Shellfish ... systems. Aquaculture, 189: 375-388. Urban, H.J. (2000b): Culture potential of the pearl.

  10. Analysis of spatial pattern of settlements in the federal capital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human settlements are important, seemingly static but dynamic, features of the cultural landscape that have attracted several studies due to the important role they play in human life. This paper examined the spatial distribution of settlements in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria. The analysis uses vector based ...

  11. 47 CFR 64.1002 - International settlements policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS International Settlements Policy and Modification... accounting rate modification, filed pursuant to § 64.1001, that includes a settlement rate that is at or... behavior that is harmful to U.S. customers. Carriers and other parties filing complaints must support their...

  12. 29 CFR 1603.108 - Settlement and alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement and alternative dispute resolution. 1603.108... Settlement and alternative dispute resolution. (a) The parties are at all times free to settle all or part of... a neutral mediator or to any other alternative dispute resolution process authorized by the...

  13. The development of informal settlements in South Africa, with particular reference to informal settlements around Daveyton on the East Rand, 1970-1999

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. The purpose of the study is to analyse the development of informal settlements in South Africa, with particular reference to the role of the Government in the improvement of informal settlement conditions around Daveyton, especially at the Etwatwa informal settlement. Research has shown that there is common experience in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America in as far as the development of squatter settlements or informal settlements are concerned. This st...

  14. Structured settlement annuities, part 1: overview and the underwriting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C J; Singer, R B

    2000-01-01

    Structured settlement underwriting is the underwriting of medically impaired lives for the purchase of an annuity to fund the settlement. Other than risk assessment, structured settlement (SS) underwriting has little in common with traditional life insurance underwriting. Most noteworthy of these differences is the relative lack of actuarial data on which to base decisions about mortality and the necessity for prospective thinking about risk assessment. The purpose of this paper is to provide a foundation for understanding the structured settlement business and to contrast the underwriting of structured settlements with that of traditional life insurance. This is the first part of a two-part article on SS annuities. Part 2 deals with the mortality experience in SS annuitants and the life-table methodology used to calculate life expectancy for annuitants at increased mortality risk.

  15. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km 2 ) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km 2 ). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km 2 ) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  16. Antidumping settlement rumors push prices up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The NUKEM price range jumped sharply last month, ending up at $8.05-$8.70. The market took off amidst reports that price and volume quotas would be part of the antidumping settlement being negotiated by certain CIS republics and the US Department of Commerce. And the republics got no relief from the US Court of International Trade. In an opinion issues September 25, Judge Jane Restani upheld the validity of Commerce's investigation, reinforcing the rising trend in prices. The lower end of the range was established by offers of CIS origin uranium to those utilities that will not be affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. Ten deals were completed on the spot market in September. In all but one, the sellers were intermediaries

  17. The settlement of foundation of existing large structure on soft ground and investigation of its allowable settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Toshiro

    1987-01-01

    In our laboratory a study of siting on quarternary ground is followed to make possible to construct a nuclear power plant on soil ground in Japan, a important subject is to understand bearing capacity, settlement and seismic responce of foundation. So measured data are collected about relation between ground and type of foundation, total settlement and differential settlement of already constructed large structures, and it is done to investigate the real condition and to examine allowable settlement. Investigated structures are mainly foreign nuclear power plant and domestic and foreign high buildings. The higher buildings are, the more raft foundation are for type of foundation and the higher contact pressure are to similar to a nuclear power plant. So discussion is done about mainly raft foundation. It is found that some measured maximum total settlements are larger than already proposed allowable values. So empirical allowable settlement is derived from measured values considering the effect of the width of base slab, contact pressure and foundation ground. Differential settlement is investigated about relation to maximum total settlement, and is formulated considering the width and the rigidity of base slab. Beside the limit of differential settlement is obtained as foundation is damaged, and the limit of maximum total settlement is obtained by combining this and above mentioned relation. Obtained allowable value is largely influenced by the width of base slab, and becomes less severe than some already proposed values. So it is expected that deformation of foundation is rationaly investigated when large structure as nuclear power plant is constructed on soft ground. (author)

  18. Population issues surface at human settlements conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This news brief focuses on the debate about population issues at the UN Conference on Human Settlements, held in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 1996. The Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements was adopted by world leaders at the conference. Leaders were committed to programs to improve standards of living, the right of citizens to adequate housing, and the mobilization of new financial resources. Dr. Sadik, as Executive Director of the UN Population Fund, stressed that natural increase accounts for 60% of urban population growth. Mr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, as UN Secretary General, stressed that over 50% of world population would live in urban centers by the year 2000, and almost 75% might do so by 2025. He indicated that all nations are interrelated; the poor and refugees from political conflict from one country travel to safer and richer countries. Dr. Sadik referred to the agreement at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) on stabilizing world population in the shortest time possible. This would require meeting the needs of men and women for health, education, and the power of personal decision making. The most important item was the satisfaction of women's need for reproductive health information and services and women's power to use services. Dr. Sadik urged that women be given the right to hold and inherit property and to obtain credit. It was pointed out that the language of Habitat's plan of action on population and development issues was frequently bracketed; consequently, the plan suffered from a lack of consensus. The debate between countries would end, if the language were not bracketed. Dr. Sadik recommended family planning for developing sustainable and liveable cities.

  19. Oil and gas development on the Metis settlements of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghostkeeper, E.N. [Metis Settlements General Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Goldie, D. [First Street Law Office, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the Alberta Metis Settlements. In 1990, the Metis Settlement Act defined the Metis as a people of Aboriginal ancestry. The mandate of the Alberta Federation of Metis Settlement Associations is to protect settlement lands, and to take legal action against the province for alleged improper handling of subsurface resource revenues regarding the Metis Population Betterment Trust Fund. The Federation also attains local government authority for the Settlements. The Metis resources include game farming and alternative livestock, oil and gas, diamonds, forestry, and agriculture. The main source of economic development is in the oil and gas sector. Before the 1990 Metis Settlement Accord, the only money earned by the Metis from oil and gas development was through employment and surface rights compensation. No benefits were derived from royalties or participation. Since 1990, 265 wells have been drilled on settlement lands, with participation of the Metis General Council in 136 wells. This paper presents the terms of the Metis Development Agreement with reference to: royalties; General Council's participation rights; operating procedures; disposition of production; and, general matters. 6 figs.

  20. Modern tendencies in developing net of settlements of municipality Smederevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Net of settlements of municipality Smederevo consists of Smederevo city and 26 rural settlements. It is a subsystem of the Belgrade metropolitan region. It has 120,000 inhabitants, and 70,000 of them live in town. From 1960 to 2000 it passes through phase of intensive demographic and functional transformation. Processes of demographic redistribution, deagrarization and urbanization are especially emphasized, caused by polarization influence of Smederevo city. From 1960 to 1980 population was developing by natural and migration components, but in villages occurred emigration of young population and caused increased average of older people and intensive decrease of population growth, which became negative. Demographic growth occurs only in periurban settlements, while stagnation and depopulation are typical for other settlements. Process of functional transformation of settlements is apparent also. Relative single functionality with dominant industry and slow diversification function are characteristic for Smederevo city, while villages are transforming from pure rural to rural-industrial and rural-obliging. It caused their progressive urbanization that is especially expressed in periurban settlements and along main traffic communications. In following period the aim is demographic and functional decentralization of net of settlements, by taking planning measures according to the model of center of villages group.

  1. Local Agenda 21. Settlement pattern and energy for transportation and heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orderud, Geir Inge

    1998-01-01

    This document deals with Local Agenda 21 (LA21) and the relationship between settlement pattern and the consumption of energy in transportation and heating of houses. Local Agenda 21 originates from the Earth Summit held in Rio in 1992 and draws up the strategies by which the local communities should participate in realizing the recommendations of the summit. So far much of the research around LA21 has examined how well the individual countries that ratified the Rio document have fulfilled the recommendations of Article 28 on local responsibility. From the point of view of research, however, the challenge is rather to investigate the conditions for realizing the broad participation of the people. From the administrative point of view, the important issue is the relationship between the representative channels and the direct participation of local people in the decision processes, as well as the delegation of decision-making authority from national to regional or local level. One recommendation in Agenda 21 is to emit less greenhouse gases. In this connection, a central issue is transportation, which is affected by the settlement pattern. A denser settlement within an urban area is supposed to reduce the transportation and the use of private cars. Thus the local development and area policy is a topic of current interest in the study of how LA21 works locally, especially so because sparsely built-up areas with single family houses are considered as the good way of living. Densely populated urban areas may conflict with the need for arable land and green space. LA 21 and the settlement pattern are both parts of a larger social environment and it is important know these relationships when local measures and actions are analysed. The possibility of a sustainable development must be assessed in relation to the fact that more power is gathered in the global flow of capital. 26 refs

  2. Improved Mapping of Human Population and Settlements through Integration of Remote Sensing and Socioeconomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Yetman, G.; MacManus, K.; Vinay, S.

    2017-12-01

    The diversity of data on human settlements, infrastructure, and population continues to grow rapidly, with recent releases of data products based on a range of different remote sensing data sources as well as census and administrative data. We report here on recent improvements in data from the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) and partner organizations, aimed at supporting both interdisciplinary research and real-world applications. The fourth version of SEDAC's Gridded Population of the World (GPWv4) now includes variables for age categories, gender, and urban/rural location, and has also been integrated with the Global Human Settlements (GHS) data developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission to produce a GHS-POP grid for the years 1975, 1990, 2000 and 2015. Through a collaboration between Facebook's Connectivity Lab and the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), High Resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL) data derived from 50-cm DigitalGlobe imagery are now available for selected developing countries at 30-m resolution. SEDAC is also developing interactive mapping and analysis tools to facilitate visualization and access to these often large and complex data products. For example, SEDAC has collaborated with scientists from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to release the Global Man-made Impervious Surfaces & Settlement Extents from Landsat data at 30-m resolution through an innovative map interface. We also summarize recent progress in developing an international data collective that is bringing together both data developers and data users from the public and private sectors to collaborate on expanding data access and use, improving data quality and documentation, facilitating data intercomparison and integration, and sharing of resources and capabilities.

  3. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR MODELING THE RURAL SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbenkova Elena Vladimirovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the paper describes the research results on validation of a rural settlement developmental model. The basic methods and approaches for solving the problem of assessment of the urban and rural settlement development efficiency are considered. Research objectives: determination of methodological approaches to modeling and creating a model for the development of rural settlements. Materials and methods: domestic and foreign experience in modeling the territorial development of urban and rural settlements and settlement structures was generalized. The motivation for using the Pentagon-model for solving similar problems was demonstrated. Based on a systematic analysis of existing development models of urban and rural settlements as well as the authors-developed method for assessing the level of agro-towns development, the systems/factors that are necessary for a rural settlement sustainable development are identified. Results: we created the rural development model which consists of five major systems that include critical factors essential for achieving a sustainable development of a settlement system: ecological system, economic system, administrative system, anthropogenic (physical system and social system (supra-structure. The methodological approaches for creating an evaluation model of rural settlements development were revealed; the basic motivating factors that provide interrelations of systems were determined; the critical factors for each subsystem were identified and substantiated. Such an approach was justified by the composition of tasks for territorial planning of the local and state administration levels. The feasibility of applying the basic Pentagon-model, which was successfully used for solving the analogous problems of sustainable development, was shown. Conclusions: the resulting model can be used for identifying and substantiating the critical factors for rural sustainable development and also become the basis of

  4. Factors influencing mode of claims settlement in workers' compensation cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D L; Wood, G A; MacDonald, S

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that influence the means by which 10,192 injured workers settled their compensation claims during 1990. The data on which this study is based come from a state in Australia where there are three means by which workers' compensation claims can be settled by lump sum payment: settlement following a specific injury payment, early settlement payment and settlement following a common law payment. This paper is specifically concerned with identifying the variables that determine whether the claim will be settled by a lump sum payment and whether different modes of claims settlement by lump sum are unique and predictable from a range of variables that include injury characteristics and demographics. The results of logistic regression modelling revealed that those who received a lump sum settlement could be reliably distinguished from those who did not receive such a payment. Each mode of settlement varied in the extent to which it could be predicted. Contrary to expectations, the most difficult form of settlement mode to predict was that of specific injury payments (4% accurate) with the most predictive being early settlement payments (81% accurate). Common law payments were also highly predictable (48% accurate). The form of lump sum payment received by injured workers was found to depend on a range of injury characteristics, indices of severity and for common law payments, gender and potential income loss. It is argued that although injury characteristics play a part in the process of claims settlement, personal circumstances and insurance company policies are influential in dictating the form by which workers compensation cases are finalized.

  5. Settlement of Canisters with smectite clay envelopes in deposition holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1986-12-01

    Settlement of canisters containing radioactive waste and being surrounded by dense smectite clay is caused by the stresses and heat induced in the clay. Consolidation by water expulsion of the clay underlying a model canister with 5 cm diameter and 30 cm length would theoretically account for a maximum finite settlement of about 70 my m in a few weeks, while shear-induced creep would yield a settlement of only a few microns in the same time period. These predictions were checked by running a laboratory test in which a dead load of 80 kg was applied to a small cylindrical copper canister embedded in Na bentonite. The settlement, which increased in proportion to log time, turned out to be about 6 my m in the first 2.5 months. After the first loading period at room temperature, heating to 50 degrees C and, after a 4 months long 'room temperature' period, to 70 degrees C took place. This cycling gave strong, instant settlement and upheaval because of the different thermal expansion of the interacting components of the system. After the development of constant temperature conditions in the entire system and completion of the consolidation or expansion that followed from the thermo-mechanical interactions, the settlement proceeded at a rather high rate at 70 degrees C, still following a log time creep law, but with somewhat stronger retardation. At room temperature, i.e. in the post-heating periods, the settlement seemed to cease, on the other hand. The conclusion from the study is that the canister movements under isothermal conditions were in accordance with the log t-type creep settlement that was predicted in theoretical grounds. Pre-heating and low stresses may account for extraordinary retardation of the settlement. (author)

  6. Critical Trajectories for the Human Settlement of the High Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Lee S.

    2007-02-01

    If preservation and prosperity of humanity on the Earth and human settlement of space are our goals, we should concentrate on a commercial path to get there. Commercial enterprise has a long history of fortuitously aiding scientific progress. We expect radical changes in the cost of earth to orbit transportation, and in the methods and efficacy of deep space transportation, within the next two decades. A successful space tourism industry, beginning with suborbital tourism, will greatly drive down the cost of access to orbit over the next 15 years. Inexpensive transportation to low Earth orbit is the first requirement for a great future on the High Frontier. Inexpensive means the cost associated with a mature transportation system. A mature system has a cost of three to five times the cost of the propellant. The first cheap, reliable and highly reusable rocket engines are just now appearing in vehicles. With an assured market and high flight rate, the heretofore glacial progress in reducing the cost of space transportation is likely to become rapid. This is the first critical enabling example of synergy between free market economics and scientific and technical progress in space. It will not be the last. New high power switches and ultracapacitors developed for the automotive market make possible cheap, robust and reliable mass driver engines. In space construction, using masses of nonterrestrial materials make the gravity tractor technique much more capable than previous schemes to maneuver asteroids. Ion propulsion will continue to improve and the first solar sails will be flown. Advanced robotics will allow remarkable improvements in productivity. The computing power available to robots began to follow the exponential Moore's law less than decade ago. The first commercial autonomous mobile robots appeared in late summer 2006. Humans, however, will be required for the foreseeable future in repair and supervisory roles, particularly in unstructured settings such as

  7. Types of population dynamics in settlements of Zaplanje area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the main directions of changes in the spatial-demographic settlements organization of Zaplanje, which, due to rapid demographic recession since the 60s of the 20th century, is the strongest depopulation area with the oldest population in Serbia. This research aims is to determine the main types of changes in demographic development of the settlements and indirectly reveals key issues of the sustainable development of Zaplanje settlements and revitalization of villages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  8. Microscale atmospheric pollution of Pogranichny settlement (Primorsky region, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, Aleksei; Ugay, Sergey; Drozd, Vladimir; Agoshkov, Alexander; Golokhvast, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses the study of atmospheric particulate matter in the small urban settlement Pogranichny by means of laser granulometry of snow water. The atmosphere of this settlement is polluted with particles under 10 μm (PM10) to a certain extent. We found microparticles potentially hazardous to health in significant quantities (from 176.3% to 24.9%) in 4 sampling points out of 9. Large particles (sized over 400 μm) dominate on the most territory of the settlement reaching 78.1%.

  9. The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper......, the behavior of a piled raft on undrained soil is studied based on a series of parametric studies on the average and differential settlement of piled raft using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The settlement behavior is found to be dependent on the number of piles and raft thickness....

  10. Settlements and the future Ontario wholesale electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlik, K.

    1998-01-01

    Settlement system processes which are likely to be in place in Ontario's new deregulated electricity market are discussed. Electricity settlements, i. e. the collection of metered and operational data, the processing of that data to ensure its integrity, the analysis of the data, the determination of payment, and the administration of the required transfer of funds, are analyzed. Some of the actions that those processes will require of prospective wholesale market participants are outlined. The paper also explains why it is that the settlement processes drove certain pivotal market design decisions

  11. 26 CFR 157.5891-1 - Imposition of excise tax on structured settlement factoring transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... settlement factoring transactions. 157.5891-1 Section 157.5891-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... SETTLEMENT FACTORING TRANSACTIONS Tax on Structured Settlement Factoring Transactions § 157.5891-1 Imposition of excise tax on structured settlement factoring transactions. (a) In general. Section 5891 imposes...

  12. 11 CFR 116.7 - Debt settlement plans filed by terminating committees; Commission review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... description of the terms under which the creditor has extended credit to nonpolitical debtors of similar risk... settlement plan after the creditors included in the debt settlement plan have agreed to the settlement or... payments to the creditors included in the debt settlement plan until completion of Commission review. The...

  13. Crowdsourced Quantification and Visualization of Urban Mobility Space Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Szell

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most cities are car-centric, allocating a privileged amount of urban space to cars at the expense of sustainable mobility like cycling. Simultaneously, privately owned vehicles are vastly underused, wasting valuable opportunities for accommodating more people in a livable urban environment by occupying spacious parking areas. Since a data-driven quantification and visualization of such urban mobility space inequality is lacking, here we explore how crowdsourced data can help to advance its understanding. In particular, we describe how the open-source online platform What the Street!? uses massive user-generated data from OpenStreetMap for the interactive exploration of city-wide mobility spaces. Using polygon packing and graph algorithms, the platform rearranges all parking and mobility spaces of cars, rails, and bicycles of a city to be directly comparable, making mobility space inequality accessible to a broad public. This crowdsourced method confirms a prevalent imbalance between modal share and space allocation in 23 cities worldwide, typically discriminating bicycles. Analyzing the guesses of the platform’s visitors about mobility space distributions, we find that this discrimination is consistently underestimated in the public opinion. Finally, we discuss a visualized scenario in which extensive parking areas are regained through fleets of shared, autonomous vehicles. We outline how such accessible visualization platforms can facilitate urban planners and policy makers to reclaim road and parking space for pushing forward sustainable transport solutions.

  14. Causes of informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality: An exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah K. Marutlulle

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore the causes of informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (EMM. The article strongly challenges the view that the cause of informal settlements in EMM and other parts of South Africa is predominantly the apartheid government and agrees with literature which provides evidence that to a larger extent, the present government, not the apartheid government, is one of the dominant causes of informal settlements. The article further establishes a common and fertile ground for the convergence of the different views and perspectives into variables which, in addition to the present government, include population growth, government economic policies, economic variables, housing shortage, unavailability of land and unaffordability as the real causes of informal settlements in EMM.

  15. Foundation Settlement Prediction Based on a Novel NGM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of foundation or subgrade settlement is very important during engineering construction. According to the fact that there are lots of settlement-time sequences with a nonhomogeneous index trend, a novel grey forecasting model called NGM (1,1,k,c model is proposed in this paper. With an optimized whitenization differential equation, the proposed NGM (1,1,k,c model has the property of white exponential law coincidence and can predict a pure nonhomogeneous index sequence precisely. We used two case studies to verify the predictive effect of NGM (1,1,k,c model for settlement prediction. The results show that this model can achieve excellent prediction accuracy; thus, the model is quite suitable for simulation and prediction of approximate nonhomogeneous index sequence and has excellent application value in settlement prediction.

  16. The Proposed Tobacco Settlement: Issues from a Federal Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antos, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    ..., sold, and consumed in the United States. That settlement would impose large payments on the tobacco industry, strengthen regulatory controls, and expand public health initiatives to reduce cigarette smoking...

  17. Current methodologies for assessing seismically induced settlements in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, R.

    1983-08-01

    Earthquake-induced surface settlements have ranged from 0.7 to 10 percent of layer thickness for the relatively few incidences where reliable estimates have been made of settlement magnitudes and soil conditions. Standard penetration test results obtained for pre-earthquake and postearthquake conditions in Japan show that relative densities have changed from 188 percent increase to 44 percent decrease. At present, there are no verified methods of seismic settlement analysis. However, there are current methods of analysis ranging from empirical to fully theoretical, which take into account a few to all of the major variables affecting seismically induced settlement behavior. This report reviews pertinent current knowledge and methodologies related to this subject. 69 references, 9 figures

  18. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems in general and on biobarriers in particular

  19. 32 CFR 842.129 - Settlement of claims against NAFIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Nonappropriated Fund Claims § 842.129 Settlement of claims against NAFIs. (a) This subpart does not establish legal theories for adjudication of claims. Refer to the appropriate...

  20. FEATURES OF WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT. THE STANDING OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Horia Rogoveanu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The WTO has an innovative system of dispute settlement, with the following features: sui-generis, integrated, resolving the disputes according to the WTO agreements, excluding unilateral solutions, interstate system. These features are detailed in the present article. Another level of analysis concerns the standing of the EU in the WTO, in general, and in the Geneva proceedings for dispute settlement, in particular. Generated by the quality of the European Communities statute as an original member of the Organisation, the EU has become one of the main users of the WTO dispute settlement system. One of the main challenges of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism is the implementation of decisions. In view of the cases assessed, while the execution record of the EU is a quite satisfactory one, it is apparent that implementation of decisions in more intricate cases creates difficulties at the Union level.

  1. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems, in general, and on biobarriers, in particular. 16 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  2. 31 CFR 248.7 - Claims requiring settlement action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE ISSUE OF SUBSTITUTES OF LOST... claimant and transmit such data to the Claims Division, General Accounting Office, for settlement action. ...

  3. Coastal environments around Thule settlements in Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2010-01-01

    Inuit have travelled to and settled in the coastal landscapes of Northeast Greenland for several longer periods during the latest ca. 4500 years. Most recently the Thule culture Inuit lived in the region from around 1400 until 1850 AD. The access to partly and periodically ice covered near coastal...... waters has been crucial to the primarily marine based subsistence strategy of the Thule Inuit culture, and their settlements are therefore found immediately at the coast. Changing geological and geomorphologic settings strongly influence the coastal morphodynamics, and only specific locations offer...... stable and protected conditions needed for proper winter settlements. The comprehensive study of coastal environments and Thule culture winter settlements in the Young Sound region show an accumulation of winter settlements, nearly all located either in protected pocket beaches or on stable basalt capes...

  4. 48 CFR 49.109-7 - Settlement by determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-7 Settlement by determination. (a... determination of the amount due consistent with the termination clause, including any cost principles...

  5. 32 CFR 750.10 - Claims: Settlement and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amount in full settlement and final satisfaction of the claim. In the latter instance, no payment will be... employee of the Government whose act or omission gave rise to the claim. [57 FR 4722, Feb. 7, 1992, as...

  6. 48 CFR 49.206-1 - Submission of settlement proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting data. Actual, standard (appropriately adjusted), or average costs may be used in preparing settlement proposals if they are determined under generally recognized accounting principles consistently... not be required to maintain unduly elaborate cost accounting systems merely because their contracts...

  7. 61 Traditional Settlement of Dispute amongst Ikwerre Ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First Lady

    2013-01-28

    Jan 28, 2013 ... Ogoloma, Fineface I. - Institute of Foundation Studies (IFS), Rivers. State University .... There are many case studies that emphasize Traditional Dispute Settlement in ..... Religion and Social Conflict Management (The case of.

  8. 48 CFR 227.7008 - Settlement of indemnified claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interests of the Government and is coordinated with the Department of Justice with a view to preserving any... the contractors are obtained, the settlement need not be coordinated with the Department of Justice. ...

  9. Application of semi-automated settlement detection for an integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRDLR

    The image is displayed as a false colour composite (RGB, 321) with red highlighting vegetation, cyan indicating settlement, and blue as water. 3. ... However, it is still regarded as a relatively new approach for earth observation image analysis ...

  10. AX Tank farm closure settlement estimates and soil testing; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECKER, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides a conservative three-dimensional settlement study of the AX Tank Farm closure with fill materials and a surface barrier. The finite element settlement model constructed included the interaction of four tanks and the surface barrier with the site soil and bedrock. Also addressed are current soil testing techniques suitable for the site soil with recommendations applicable to the AX Tank Farm and the planned cone penetration testing

  11. Application of graph theory to the morphological analysis of settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Szmytkie Robert

    2017-01-01

    In the following paper, the analyses of morphology of settlements were conducted using graph methods. The intention of the author was to create a quantifiable and simple measure, which, in a quantitative way, would express the degree of development of a graph (the spatial pattern of settlement). When analysing examples of graphs assigned to a set of small towns and large villages, it was noticed that the graph development index should depend on: a relative number of edges in relation to the n...

  12. Investigations into the Settlement and Attachment of Biofouling Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    attachment of biofouling marine invertebrates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-12-1 -0432 5b. GRANT NUMBER n/a 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER n/a 6...larval settlement in a variety of marine invertebrate species, including B. neritina. Light also inhibits B. neritina larval settlement, yet the...underlying mechanisms by which light and adrenergic compounds exert their effects on larvae are largely unknown. Octopamine is considered the invertebrate

  13. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority tha...

  14. SETTLEMENT OF BANKING DISPUTE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denico Doly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article talks about dispute between costumer and the bank. Settlement of disputes should be resolved by the principle of fast, accurate and cheap. Issues raised in this paper is how an ideal dispute resolution process to resolve dispute banking. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages in any dispute resolution process both through litigation and non litigation. Based in the principles of fast, accurate and cheap it is explained that banks in Indonesia must resolve their disputes through non litigation or ADR. Tulisan ini membicarakan mengenai penyelesaian sengketa antara nasabah dengan bank. Penyelesaian sengketa harusnya diselesaikan dengan prinsip cepat, tepat dan murah. Permasalahan yang diangkat dalam tulisan ini yaitu bagaimana proses penyelesaian sengketa yang ideal dalam menyelesaikan sengketa perbankan. Tulisan ini menggambarkan mengenai kelebihan dan kekurangan dalam setiap proses penyelesaian sengketa baik melalui jalur litigasi maupun non litigasi. Berdasarkan prinsip cepat, tepat dan murah maka dipaparkan bahwa perbankan di Indonesia harus menyelesaikan sengketanya melalui jalur non litigasi atau ADR.

  15. Principles and concepts in designing tropical-shore settlement in estuary ecosystem, case study: Weriagar District, Bintuni Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah; Nidia Kusuma, Bintang; Prayuni, Ira; Fernando, Aldo

    2017-12-01

    Weriagar District is located in estuary area and is prone to land loss, due to river and coastal erosion. This paper will describe about tropical-shore settlement design and house design in estuary area. The results from analysis phase shows that it's necessary to design a house and settlement that can fulfil the needs of indigenous people, both functionally and aesthetically. Functionally, the house is designed to provide spaces for both private and public needs of the family. It can be used either as a family private space or as a public gathering space between family and their neighbours. Aesthetically, house’ architectural form is designed into that identifies the locality of Weriagar District. The houses’ design feature highlighted in using local material, rainwater harvesting system, high pitched roof feature as response to hot-humid climate, and elevated-floor feature as response to tidal condition in estuary area. The houses design also considered daily activity pattern and community culture, including appropriate structure, construction, and material availability. The expected result was that the settlement improvement and house design would meet suitable standards and needs of inhabitants in Weriagar District.

  16. REDISCOVERING THE PRINCIPLES OF ECO-CITY AS SPATIAL ATTRIBUTES IN TRADITIONAL HOUSING SETTLEMENT: THE CASE OF URFA IN SOUTHEASTERN ANATOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEMAL INCERUH

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban spaces are generally defined and created by physical and non-physical entities. Among these entities buildings play important role in defing urban spaces. These open spaces come into being as a part of building (a private courtyard, as spaces between buildings for semi-public activities in cul-de-sac (as extensions of indoor/courtyard, or as common public gathering and thoroughfare spaces, in a settlement. Yet, these spaces have been studied and analyzed according to different physical and social aspects. But, this paper studies these spaces in different manner inspired from Dominsky`s three domains 'Reuse, Reduce and Recycle' of the outcomes of sustainable settlement. However, in this paper, these three 'Rs' are used as tools to enhance the sustainability of urban spaces and their ecological importance for a society both physically and morally. The objective of this paper is to explore the criteria of ecological sustainability and adaptation of changing society to traditional Anatolian settlements, and to derive physical issues and features of suatinabile design and planning for new sttelements in hot arid regions.

  17. Settlement duration and materiality: formal chronological models for the development of Barnhouse, a Grooved Ware settlement in Orkney

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Colin; Jones, Andrew Meirion; MacSween, Ann; Sheridan, Alison; Dunbar, Elaine; Reimer, Paula; Bayliss, Alex; Griffiths, Seren; Whittle, Alasdair

    2016-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and Bayesian chronological modelling, undertaken as part of the investigation by the Times of Their Lives project into the development of Late Neolithic settlement and pottery in Orkney, has provided precise new dating for the Grooved Ware settlement of Barnhouse, excavated in 1985–91. Previous understandings of the site and its pottery are presented. A Bayesian model based on 70 measurements on 62 samples (of which 50 samples are thought to date accurately the deposits fro...

  18. Landscape Features of Evciler Neighborhood as a Rural Settlement

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    Yekta Köse

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Preserved rural settlements provide information about the historical rural life. In this line of thought, this study aims to keep an account of a rural settlement before it is altered by urbanization, which is located near Ankara and in which merchandise of agricultural products in the historic markets of the city is its primary pursuit. In accordance with this purpose, a matrix was used. With this matrix, landscape identity features are assessed and elements constituting landscape features are designed in terms of their efficiency. Evciler neighborhood is chosen for study area because of its close location to the city and therefore the high risk of conversion and loss of identity under the pressure of urbanization, with respect to the change of its administrative status from village to neighborhood in correspondance with the 5216 Law on Metropolitan Municipalities. Decisions on developing and protecting distinctive features of landscape of rural settlements should include an objective considering features and identity of settlements from local to regional scale. In order to reach this objective, all dimensions of settlements’ landscape features should be understood. In conclusion, this study argues that rural settlements have been formed due to by the natural landscape and the oppurtunities offered by the natural structure whereby,this natural structure has determined various aspects of rural life from construction materials to the means of earning a living.

  19. Collapse settlement of wetted mine waste - two case histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.W.; Wade, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    Two separate projects, constructed on reclaimed coal mine waste at TransAlta's Highvale Mine complex in west-central Alberta, experienced significant settlements as a result of groundwater recharge. One project, a new service building for large coal haulers and other heavy mining equipment, was constructed in 1981 on a thick, compacted fly ash raft overlying 15 m of dynamically compacted mine waste. Little if any building settlement was observed for the first few years after construction at which time progressive differential settlements were experienced that were related to unanticipated groundwater recharge. The second project, the diversion of an environmentally sensitive creek away from the active mining area, involved the construction of a 1.5 km canal and a 5 m high stepped drop structure over dragline-dumped waste up to 20 m thick. Pre-compression of the mine waste beneath the drop structure was effected by water injection through a series of wells installed in the structure footprint prior to construction. This paper outlines the methods of construction, investigations conducted, confirmatory field test procedures and settlements measured at both projects and, based on the findings, provides guidelines for possible mitigative measures in reducing saturation-induced settlements in future developments on reclaimed land. 6 refs., 10 figs

  20. Population distribution, settlement patterns and accessibility across Africa in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Linard

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions.

  1. The influence of substrate material on ascidian larval settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anna L; Dijkstra, Jennifer A; Harris, Larry G

    2016-05-15

    Submerged man-made structures present novel habitat for marine organisms and often host communities that differ from those on natural substrates. Although many factors are known to contribute to these differences, few studies have directly examined the influence of substrate material on organism settlement. We quantified larval substrate preferences of two species of ascidians, Ciona intestinalis (cryptogenic, formerly C. intestinalis type B) and Botrylloides violaceus (non-native), on commonly occurring natural (granite) and man-made (concrete, high-density polyethylene, PVC) marine materials in laboratory trials. Larvae exhibited species-specific settlement preferences, but generally settled more often than expected by chance on concrete and HDPE. Variation in settlement between materials may reflect preferences for rougher substrates, or may result from the influence of leached chemicals on ascidian settlement. These findings indicate that an experimental plate material can influence larval behavior and may help us understand how substrate features may contribute to differences in settlement in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Negotiated settlements and the National Energy Board in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, Joseph; Littlechild, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    In Canada, settlements between oil and gas pipelines and users have largely superseded the litigation of major pipeline toll cases since 1995. Quantitatively, from the first half to the second half of the period 1985-2007 the average number of pipeline toll hearing days in Canada fell by three-quarters. On average, settlements last more than twice as long as litigated outcomes and have cut regulatory processing times by about one third for gas pipelines and by about two thirds for oil pipelines, with the result that regulatory processing times per effective toll-year have fallen to 13% and 27% respectively of previous levels. Qualitatively, settlements have been used to determine prices, operating and capital cost projections, return on equity, service quality improvements, risk-sharing investments and information requirements. They were the vehicle by which multi-year incentive agreements developed rapidly for all pipelines. They have also been used to introduce light-handed regulation. They have provided a mechanism for fruitful collaboration between pipelines and their customers and have changed attitudes in the industry. Two key actions of the National Energy Board have facilitated settlements by clarifying expectations and property rights: its generic cost of capital decision that removes the market power of the pipeline and enables effective negotiation with users, and its willingness to judge a settlement by the reasonableness of the process leading up to it instead of imposing the Board's own values on the outcome.

  3. Australia/Japan thermal coal settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, A.

    2000-01-01

    After prolonged negotiations, Australian suppliers and Japanese buyers have reached agreement on the benchmark thermal coal prices for the Japanese financial year 2000 (April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001). The benchmark price as negotiated with the Chubu and Tohoku power utilities is about US$1.20 down on last year's price of $29.95. The actual price change to each supplier varies slightly depending on the calorific value of each product as calculated against a benchmark value of 6700kcal/kg on a gross air-dried basis. It is strange, but the Australians and Japanese both have some reason to crow about the outcome of the negotiation. In US dollar terms, compared with April 1, 1999, the suppliers have secured a price rise from A$45.39 to A$47.97; while the Japanese can point to having achieved a price reduction from Y3551/t to Y3162/t. The joys of exchange rate fluctuations. The result can only be seen as a good one for Australia, especially as it is alleged that one of the Australian suppliers opened negotiations by putting a US$1 price reduction on the table. It is worth noting that the significance of the benchmark coal price is waning, with the annual negotiations in Japan covering only 14Mt of a total seaborne trade of some 450Mt. Consequently, few tonnes are marketed at the benchmark price and Australia finds itself in fierce competition with suppliers from Indonesia, China and Russia for huge, short-term tenders at FOB prices. Recent winning Australian bids have been barely over US$20/t FOBT ex east coast Australia-nearly 30% below the new US$28.75 benchmark price. Finally, on the negotiating table will come the settlements for the semi coking coals. This is where Australia should hold the trump card. Japan simply cannot replace, from other countries, the near 30Mt of high quality coal it purchases each year from Australia. But already the whiff of a US$1.45-US$1.50 price reduction hangs in the air. Copyright (2000) Australian Journal of Mining

  4. The visual image of prefabricated houses and new directions in the urban and architectural development of settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živa Deu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the general directions of sustainable development in the physical space, new, also detailed valuable and normative definitions for organising settlements have been defined. Urban design and architectural aspects are directed to planning according to given natural possibilities and typical form and identity of built structures. Studies and detailed analyses have shown that formerly established standards of the building culture consist of numerous valuable characteristics, which are in accordance with the principles of sustainable development. Prefabricated building, just like classical building, is a constituent part of the new process in the formation of settlements. To attain our goal, radical changes will be needed in the architectural design of prefabricated houses, because their present architecture is global, cosmopolitan and not adapted to the different natural conditions and existing typical built structures in Slovenia.

  5. Spatial-functional organization of settlements in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunić Nikola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the results of recent exploration of spatial and functional organization of Autonomous Province of Vojvodina in the Republic of Serbia (hereinafter referred to as “Vojvodina” based on identification of the level of development of spatial and functional connections and relationships within its settlement network. The research is theoretically and methodically based on principles of regionalization and recent doctrines of regional development, contemporary spatial planning and social and economics disciplines of social geography. Results to a great extent identify and scientifically explain problems of the development of spatial and functional organization of settlement network in Vojvodina. Based on these results, a recommendation for a possible model of a sustainable settlement network in Vojvodina has been given.

  6. Application of graph theory to the morphological analysis of settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmytkie Robert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the following paper, the analyses of morphology of settlements were conducted using graph methods. The intention of the author was to create a quantifiable and simple measure, which, in a quantitative way, would express the degree of development of a graph (the spatial pattern of settlement. When analysing examples of graphs assigned to a set of small towns and large villages, it was noticed that the graph development index should depend on: a relative number of edges in relation to the number of nodes (β index, the number of cycles (urban blocks, which evidences the complexity of the spatial pattern of settlement, and the average rank of nodes of a graph, which expresses the degree of complexity of a street network.

  7. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Han; Zhu, Xinyan; Chen, Di; Liu, Lingjia

    2016-06-01

    Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG) is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  8. Nosely III Settlement by Results of Studies in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikheev Alexey V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article peresents results of new archaeological studies of the medieval horizon of Nosely III settlement in Mari Volga region. It contains defi nitions of objects connected with the medieval layer (household pits. The authors provide results of analysis of the ceramic material represented by the local (hand-made, early wheel and “Slavicoid” ceramics and imported (wheel-made Russian and Bulgar-Horde ware and complex of items. New materials allow us to provide a more precise dating of the settlement and limit the time of its existence to 14th – 15th centuries and defi ne it as a Mari rural settlement belonging to the district of the Maly Sundyr (Vazhnanger hillfort.

  9. Housing Inequalities Regarding the Informal Settlements in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL-GABRIEL VÂLCEANU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and evolution of informal settlements in Romania are the result of a complex of historical and socio-economic factors and of some territorial planning policies dating from the socialist and post-socialist period. The lack of appropriate legislative instruments regarding urban planning, estate restitution and the weak control of the civil engineering department in conjunction with the policy of imposed sedentary life for the Roma population dating from the 50's and 60's generated multiple forms of territorialisation of the informal settlements and pronounced dynamics of this phenomenon at national level. The study shows the housing inequalities regarding the informal settlements in proportion to the place of residence, the access to the technical and urban utilities, the defining elements of the social profile of the inhabitants and the legislative and institutional framework that generated the emergence and the current evolution of this territorial phenomenon.

  10. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yue

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  11. Circular migration patterns and determinants in Nairobi slum settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien Beguy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures migration flows and determinants in two slum settlements in Nairobi City between 2003 and 2007. The results confirm the high intensity of migration with a quarter of the total slum population and a third of those aged 15-30 being renewed annually. A circular migration system is at play whereby the majority of slum dwellers are short-term migrants spending on average less than 3 years in the area. Migration is more intense during early adulthood (20-24, and despite very similar determinants across gender, mobility is more intense among women compared to men. The increasing feminization of migration is likely to change the face of slum settlements, resulting in more balanced sex ratios, in line with city-wide trends in Nairobi over the past half century. The high population turnover is due to the insecurity of livelihoods, tenure, and poor basic amenities and social services in slum settlements.

  12. Facilitating Settlement at the Arbitration Table: Comparing Views on Settlement Practice Among Arbitration Practitioners in East Asia and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Ali

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a cross cultural examination of how international arbitrators in East Asian and Western countries view the goal of settlement in international arbitration. The result of a 115 person survey and 64 follow up interviews shed light on the underlying cultural attitudes and approaches to settlement in international arbitration as practiced in diverse regions. The findings indicate that arbitration practitioner’s perceptions of the frequency of compromise decision in international arbitration demonstrate a high degree of convergence across regions. At the same time, cultural and socio-economic distinctions are reflected in varying arbitrator perceptions regarding the arbitrators’ role in settlement, whether settlement is regarded as a goal in arbitration and the types of efforts made pre-arbitration to settle disputes. In particular, arbitrators working in the East Asian region regard the goal of facilitating voluntary settlement in the context of international arbitration with greater importance and generally make greater efforts pre-arbitration to settle disputes as compared with counterparts in the West.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1934138

  13. Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Dator, James A

    2012-01-01

    Social Foundations of Human Space Exploration presents a uniquely human perspective on the quest to explore space and to understand the universe through the lens of the arts, humanities, and social sciences. It considers early stories about the universe in various cultures; recent space fiction; the origins and cultural rationale for the space age; experiences of humans in space and their emerging interactions with robots and artificial intelligence; how humans should treat environments and alien life; and the alternative futures of space exploration and settlement.

  14. Open data for informal settlements: Toward a user׳s guide for urban managers and planners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal settlements exist in a legally contested space and the quality of – and access to – information about them has been historically limited. The open data movement promises to address this gap by offering alternative sources for information and free or low cost analytical platforms. However, in order to use open data effectively, urban managers and planners need guidance to navigate these new data sources, software, and server platforms, as well as acquire the necessary skills. In this paper, we begin to address these issues by developing a framework that organizes the sprawling and rapidly evolving world of open urban data. Our framework includes three broad categories (1 inputs and resources, (2 activities and outputs, and (3 outcomes. We then identify and describe the key subcomponents under each, and list the prominent products and resources available to urban managers and planners. For example, under inputs and resources, we discuss open urban data sources such as Open Street Maps, cyberinfrastructure for web hosting, application deployment, and data processing, and open source software that can be used to analyze and visualize collected or derived data. We also identify the key resources available to planners for training and discuss the complementary opportunities presented by conventional datasets such as census and open urban data. Finally, using examples from ongoing activities in Mumbai, we show how open data resources can be useful for understanding urbanization and better integrating informal settlements into formal urban management and planning processes. We suggest that urban managers and planners working in informal settlements should take greater advantage of open data resources in order to both better address current challenges as well as for shaping a better future for the communities they serve.

  15. Risk factors for childhood malnutrition in Roma settlements in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janevic, Teresa; Petrovic, Oliver; Bjelic, Ivana; Kubera, Amber

    2010-08-22

    Children living in Roma settlements in Central and Eastern Europe face extreme levels of social exclusion and poverty, but their health status has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to elucidate risk factors for malnutrition in children in Roma settlements in Serbia. Anthropometric and sociodemographic measures were obtained for 1192 Roma children under five living in Roma settlements from the 2005 Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. Multiple logistic regression was used to relate family and child characteristics to the odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight. The prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight was 20.1%, 4.3%, and 8.0%, respectively. Nearly all of the children studied fell into the lowest quintile of wealth for the overall population of Serbia. Children in the lowest quintile of wealth were four times more likely to be stunted compared to those in the highest quintile, followed by those in the second lowest quintile (AOR = 2.1) and lastly by those in the middle quintile (AOR = 1.6). Children who were ever left in the care of an older child were almost twice as likely to stunted as those were not. Children living in urban settlements showed a clear disadvantage with close to three times the likelihood of being wasted compared to those living in rural areas. There was a suggestion that maternal, but not paternal, education was associated with stunting, and maternal literacy was significantly associated with wasting. Whether children were ever breastfed, immunized or had diarrhoeal episodes in the past two weeks did not show strong correlations to children malnutrition status in this Roma population. There exists a gradient relationship between household wealth and stunting even within impoverished settlements, indicating that among poor and marginalized populations socioeconomic inequities in child health should be addressed. Other areas on which to focus future research and public health intervention include maternal

  16. Accessibility and socio-economic development of human settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Samiul; Wang, Xiaoming; Khoo, Yong Bing; Foliente, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Access to facilities, services and socio-economic opportunities plays a critical role in the growth and decline of cities and human settlements. Previous attempts to explain changes in socio-economic indicators by differences in accessibility have not been convincing as countries with highly developed transport infrastructure have only seen marginal benefits of infrastructure improvements. Australia offers an ideal case for investigating the effects of accessibility on development since it is seen as home to some of the most liveable cities in the world while, at the same time, it also has some of the most isolated settlements. We investigate herein the connectivity and accessibility of all 1814 human settlements (population centers exceeding 200 persons) in Australia, and how they relate to the socio-economic characteristics of, and opportunities in, each population center. Assuming population as a proxy indicator of available opportunities, we present a simple ranking metric for a settlement using the number of population and the distance required to access all other settlements (and the corresponding opportunities therein). We find a strikingly unequal distribution of access to opportunities in Australia, with a marked prominence of opportunities in capital cities in four of the eight states. The two largest cities of Sydney and Melbourne have a dominant position across all socio-economic indicators, compared to all the other cities. In general, we observe across all the settlements that a decrease in access to opportunities is associated with relatively greater socio-economic disadvantage including increased median age and unemployment rate and decreased median household income. Our methodology can be used to better understand the potential benefits of improved accessibility based on infrastructure development, especially for remote areas and for cities and towns with many socio-economically disadvantaged population.

  17. Risk factors for childhood malnutrition in Roma settlements in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevic Teresa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children living in Roma settlements in Central and Eastern Europe face extreme levels of social exclusion and poverty, but their health status has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to elucidate risk factors for malnutrition in children in Roma settlements in Serbia. Methods Anthropometric and sociodemographic measures were obtained for 1192 Roma children under five living in Roma settlements from the 2005 Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. Multiple logistic regression was used to relate family and child characteristics to the odds of stunting, wasting, and underweight. Results The prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight was 20.1%, 4.3%, and 8.0%, respectively. Nearly all of the children studied fell into the lowest quintile of wealth for the overall population of Serbia. Children in the lowest quintile of wealth were four times more likely to be stunted compared to those in the highest quintile, followed by those in the second lowest quintile (AOR = 2.1 and lastly by those in the middle quintile (AOR = 1.6. Children who were ever left in the care of an older child were almost twice as likely to stunted as those were not. Children living in urban settlements showed a clear disadvantage with close to three times the likelihood of being wasted compared to those living in rural areas. There was a suggestion that maternal, but not paternal, education was associated with stunting, and maternal literacy was significantly associated with wasting. Whether children were ever breastfed, immunized or had diarrhoeal episodes in the past two weeks did not show strong correlations to children malnutrition status in this Roma population. Conclusions There exists a gradient relationship between household wealth and stunting even within impoverished settlements, indicating that among poor and marginalized populations socioeconomic inequities in child health should be addressed. Other areas on which to focus

  18. Settlement Relocation Modeling: Reacting to Merapi’s Eruption Incident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramitasari, A.; Buchori, I.

    2018-02-01

    Merapi eruption has made severe damages in Central Java Province. Klaten was one of the most affected area, specifically in Balerante Village. This research is made to comprehend GIS model on finding alternative locations for impacted settlement in hazardous zones of eruption. The principal objective of the research study is to identify and analyze physical condition, community characteristics, and local government regulation related to settlements relocation plan for impacted area of eruption. The output is location map which classified into four categories, i.e. not available, available with low accessibility, available with medium accessibility, and available with high accessibility.

  19. Biology as a Key Technological Foundation for Settlement Beyond Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Navarrete, J.; Kent, R. E.; McCutcheon, G.; Pless, E.; Paulino-Lima, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    Moving materials beyond Earth, whether spacecraft, living organisms, or both, is limited by mass constraints. Yet human survival requires an extensive infrastructure, from environmental regulation to life support. In practice this means habitats, food, oxygen, waste recycling, medicine and so on. Thus, there is a mismatch between what will be required in transit and at destination to fulfill dreams of human settlements and what can realistically moved there. Further, settlement off planet with current transportation systems requires the ability to operate independently of the Earth for prolonged periods of time, requiring long-term storage of supplies and the flexibilityto satisfy new needs.

  20. About some Inedited Trade Amphoras from Spina’s Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sciortino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available After an introduction about recent studies concerning the settlement of Spina, this paper presents the analysis of about 100 amphorical finds therein rescued in 1966. Autoptical analysis identified nine ceramic sample-groups, corresponding to Greek productions (mainly Corinthian, but also Chios, North-Aegean and Attic types: in particular Attic à la brosse amphora represents so far an unicum in Spina’s finds, Graeco-Italic and local productions too. This contribution ends with some considerations about Adriatic trade courses during Late Iron Age, suggested by other materials, such as Greek Plain Cooking Wares, recently identified in Spina’s settlement.

  1. Geoportal as a way for monitoring land settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталя Бубир

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of geoportals will improve land monitoring through timely detection of changes in land conditions, mobility access to geospatial data. The result of cadastre geoportals analysis of leading countries, including France, Germany, Great Britain, Austria, USA, Canada, has indicated that their content is correlated to cadastre features in one country and often do not contain complex issues of land monitoring settlements. In Ukraine, there is no public online mapping resource of this topic. It is proposed to establish specialized geoportal monitoring land settlements for public use. The geoportal contents should include an interactive map of each settlement, text information about settlements, laws and regulations, data about existing land use, including land-use violations and carried out or planned environmental activities. An important component of this portal is a personal user panel (Personal office, where he can view, save, print information that is of interest to him, including application forms to the local land management. On this basis we have developed a geoportal monitoring land settlements of Stepnogorsk village council within the student’s research work as part of the relevant geoportals in Zaporizhzhia region. The portal main menu includes: Settlements of Zaporizhzhia region; Monitoring land settlements; Land environmental; Virtual Tour; News. Additional menu contains five tabs: Home (go to home page geoportals; laws; Maps; Photo Gallery; Personal office. Interactive maps of settlements are based on Google maps. Map content includes mapping settlement’s functional areas and distribution of adverse natural and anthropogenic processes. The main map’s advantage is active zone, clicking on which the user is able to see which process is unfavorable in the territory, and which intended purpose is in this land. The user can also edit the map by his personal office. Overall, portal development within student

  2. Initial settlements of rock fills on soft clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Truls Martens

    2012-01-01

    Rock fills that hit the seabed will remold the underlying material. If this material is a clay with sufficiently low shear strength, it will adopt rheological properties, causing flow through the rock fill, and contributing to the initial settlements of the rock fill in addition to conventional consolidation theory. The settlements of the rocks depend upon the height of the rock fill and how the rocks have been laid out. This is due to the viscosity of the clay, and the fact that clay is thix...

  3. Guidance: Strategies to Achieve Timely Settlement and Implementation of RD/RA at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memorandum recommends strategies to encourage PRPs to enter into a settlement using the model RD/RA Consent Decree; discusses the current model UAO; and suggests practical alternatives to expedite Superfund settlements and the cleanup process.

  4. 76 FR 69733 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Tracy Lead Battery Site, Tracy, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... Corporation, Bay Side Holding Corporation and Zenith Investment and Management Corporation. The settlement requires the settling parties to pay $45,300.00 to the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement...

  5. 77 FR 11564 - Draft Policy on Consultation With Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Claims Settlement Act Corporations AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... draft policy on consultation with Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act corporations. DATES: Submit...-199, this consultation policy also applies to corporations established under the Alaska Native Claims...

  6. Deep Fully Convolutional Networks for the Detection of Informal Settlements in VHR Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persello, Claudio; Stein, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    This letter investigates fully convolutional networks (FCNs) for the detection of informal settlements in very high resolution (VHR) satellite images. Informal settlements or slums are proliferating in developing countries and their detection and classification provides vital information for

  7. Courts and open spaces in the Late Helladic III Argolid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siennicka, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    While space remains a neglected subject in research on Mycenaean settlements, archaeological and ethnographical studies devoted to social meaning of places and areas used by the inhabitants of the prehistoric and other communities increase in number. This paper aims to review the use and signific......While space remains a neglected subject in research on Mycenaean settlements, archaeological and ethnographical studies devoted to social meaning of places and areas used by the inhabitants of the prehistoric and other communities increase in number. This paper aims to review the use...... and significance of courts and other open spaces in the Mycenaean settlements in the Argolid during the Palatial and Post-Palatial periods (c. 15th–11th centuries BC). Various categories of areas, like courts, open spaces and open-air areas are discussed, with an emphasis on their functions and status. Courts...

  8. Ways of Optimising Regional Planning: Settlement Typology. Case Study: Baia Mare Depression

    OpenAIRE

    ADRIAN GAVRA; SORIN FILIP

    2006-01-01

    In a relatively uniform natural environment, the settlements in the Baia Mare Depression have very diverse forms. According to an oriented complex typology, we have identified the features and the problems characteristic of these settlements, according to the following criteria: the infrastructure already, demographic features, education, health, and tourism. By synthesising these criteria, we identified the following settlement types: polarising urban centres, under-pressure urban settlement...

  9. Informal Settlements, A minor field study on the situation in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Krstic, Marina; Tibbelin, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Informal settlements come in many forms and there are different expressions to describe them – illegal settlement or squatter settlement is some examples. Definitions of informal settlements emphasize lack of ownership or non-compliance with the authorities’ regulations. However they are tolerated to some degree by the authorities and are unlikely to be evicted or tested in court, which gives a sense of tenure security but no actual rights. This report aims to create a better understanding fo...

  10. The impact of preferences of inhabitants of settlements for developers activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawłowicz, J. A.; Szafranko, E.

    2017-08-01

    Urban community contributes to the development of any city, but it is essential that its residents can live, work and relax in a friendly environment. The source of their well-being and positive aesthetic experience is a harmonious landscape, shaped by the functional spatial layout of streets, blocks of buildings and structures and the accompanying elements of nature and development, ensuring the rational development of urban space. The need to knowing of public expectations in relation to residence, is an important step in planning new investments by developers and construction companies. In order to carry out of research cooperation has been established with the construction company. Cooperation allowed to gain experience in the commercialization and implementation of research and carry out analysis and evaluation of spatial structures in terms of urban development and functional housing estates, with special emphasis on the needs of society. The observations focused in particular on ecological building and the necessity of the creation and development of green areas, sports and recreation to residential areas. We know that every square meter of land designated for housing carries a possible profit for the developer. The more will be built and sold apartments the more earn the investor. However, to the apartment were popular meet the demands of customers concerning not only the housing unit, but also the environment in which the building is situated. It is therefore important that the settlements were attractive and meet the social needs of society. Social needs are related to satisfying the expectations of the inhabitants of the settlements related to the comfort of the apartment, being, rest and recreation living within the zone of residence. As part of the research work carried study work and field research. They consisted gain knowledge about work organization in the enterprise and hearing the reasons and scope of the activities the developer, as well as get

  11. Cultural Heritage Protection Issues In Leśnica, The Settlement Of Wrocław

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononowicz, Alena

    2015-09-01

    Leśnica, today the settlement on the western edge of Wrocław, formerly was an independent town, located on a previously wooded area, with a linear street system. It developed in the Middle Ages around the castle and church playing a service role for the Silesian Piast court on their way to Legnica and during hunting. In the thirteenth century it received city rights, and lost them in the eighteenth century. After the Piast dynasty had died out, it was sold by John of Luxembourg, and repeatedly changed its owners. In the nineteenth century it developed thanks to the industry, tourism and a convenient railway connection to Wrocław as well as hotel and restaurant facilities. In 1928, Leśnica was incorporated into Wrocław. After the Second World War, it lost its cultural continuity. In the 1970's, middle-heigh and high prefabricated buildings were built in the vicinity of a residential district. At the end of the twentieth and early twenty-first century, local industries were liquidated, and intensive land development started, causing the systematic blurring of its small-town character and its urban space started to acquire a character of a big city. In 2004, the old part of Leśnica was entered in the Register of Monuments. Also a ring road was planned, moving the cumbersome and dangerous transit traffic away from historic Średzka Street beyond the southern border of the settlement.

  12. Cultural Heritage Protection Issues In Leśnica, The Settlement Of Wrocław

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononowicz Alena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Leśnica, today the settlement on the western edge of Wrocław, formerly was an independent town, located on a previously wooded area, with a linear street system. It developed in the Middle Ages around the castle and church playing a service role for the Silesian Piast court on their way to Legnica and during hunting. In the thirteenth century it received city rights, and lost them in the eighteenth century. After the Piast dynasty had died out, it was sold by John of Luxembourg, and repeatedly changed its owners. In the nineteenth century it developed thanks to the industry, tourism and a convenient railway connection to Wrocław as well as hotel and restaurant facilities. In 1928, Leśnica was incorporated into Wrocław. After the Second World War, it lost its cultural continuity. In the 1970's, middle-heigh and high prefabricated buildings were built in the vicinity of a residential district. At the end of the twentieth and early twenty-first century, local industries were liquidated, and intensive land development started, causing the systematic blurring of its small-town character and its urban space started to acquire a character of a big city. In 2004, the old part of Leśnica was entered in the Register of Monuments. Also a ring road was planned, moving the cumbersome and dangerous transit traffic away from historic Średzka Street beyond the southern border of the settlement.

  13. Ecological wisdom of Hindu-Javanese community settlement in Cetho Hamlet, Lawu Mountains, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhsan, Fauzan Ali; Setioko, Bambang; Suprapti, Atiek

    2017-12-01

    Dwelling culture of Java community has a long history. In Javanese community point of view, Javanese culture is not a homogeneous entity. There is a diversity characteristic of a regional nature of Javanese culture, which is caused by differences in the natural environment on the island of Java. Dwelling Culture settled in the mountains is a variant form of Javanese culture that has its own uniqueness. This study aimed to describe the local values of the rural settlement structure of in Lawu mountains with Hindu-Javanese culture background. This study used a qualitative approach with case study strategy. The locus of research is in the Cetho hamlet on the slopes of Mount Lawu Karanganyar, Central Java. The results showed that local values in the neighborhoods of Cetho hamlet is based on the Memayu Hayuning Bawana philosophy. These concepts are abstracted into various aspects of settlements in Cetho hamlet such as aspects of dwelling house setting, water management, and ritual activities related to environmental management. Memayu Hayuning Bawana philosophy becomes a cultural space coloring the ecological action of the population of Cetho hamlet. The comprehensive motivation of ecological action ultimately leads to one final goal, namely the desire to maintain a harmonic atmosphere with the surroundings.

  14. Settlement pattern of Posidonia oceanica epibionts along a gradient of ocean acidification: an approach with mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. DONNARUMMA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of ocean acidification (OA on the colonization/settlement pattern of the epibiont community of the leaves and rhizomesof the Mediterranean seagrass,Posidoniaoceanica, have been studied at volcanic CO2vents off Ischia (Italy, using “mimics”as artificial substrates. The experiments were conducted in shallowPosidoniastands (2-3 m depth, in three stations on the northand three on the south sides of the study area, distributed along a pH gradient. At each station, 4 rhizome mimics and 6 artificialleaves were collected every three months (Sept 2009-Sept 2010. The epibionts on both leaf and rhizome mimics showed clearchanges along the pH gradient; coralline algae and calcareous invertebrates (bryozoans, serpulid polychaetes and barnacles weredominant at control stations but progressively disappeared at the most acidified stations. In these extremely low pH sites theassemblage was dominated by filamentous algae and non calcareous taxa such as hydroids and tunicates. Settlement pattern onthe artificial leaves and rhizome mimics over time showed a consistent distribution pattern along the pH gradient and highlightedthe peak of recruitment of the various organisms in different periods according to their life history.Posidoniamimics at theacidified station showed a poor and very simplified assemblage where calcifying epibionts seemed less competitive for space. Thisprofound difference in epiphyte communities in low pH conditions suggests cascading effects on the food web of the meadow and,consequently, on the functioning of the system

  15. STAKEHOLDERS PARTICIPATION FOR URBAN CLIMATE RESILIENCE: A CASE OF INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS REGULARIZATION IN KHULNA CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Kumar SIKDER

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on stakeholders’ participation, perceptions and local contextualization in the Informal Settlement (IS regularization processes in Khulna City. These processes are undertaken to address livelihood challenges of IS dwellers and to operationalize development initiatives in informal regularization projects. Adopting both a qualitative and quantitative approach, the research results show that IS formation in Khulna City started slowly with rural immigration. These immigrants remain vulnerable to climate change although some initiatives were undertaken since the last 20 years to improve their living conditions. The IS dwellers and local leaders initially participated in these settlement-upgrading initiatives due to accompanied incentives but they became adamant after the project period ended. It was also found that the city local government and NGOs do not have any permanent arrangement to sustain the IS regularization processes. The analysis of the interrelationships among the stakeholders revealed that the relevant public agencies are in conflict, and the role of the private sector is less recognized. The initiatives undertaken so far have limited success especially in granting tenure security, and the private landowners or local authorities that trespassed public spaces resort to forceful eviction. Amidst all these, there is the need for the formulation and implementation of climate resilience policies that address stakeholder participations in mitigating climate change consequences and enhance livelihood development.

  16. 'Men value their dignity': securing respect and identity construction in urban informal settlements in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Urban informal settlements remain sites of high HIV incidence and prevalence, as well as violence. Increasing attention is paid on how configurations of young men's masculinities shape these practices through exploring how men build respect and identity. In this paper, we explore how young Black South Africans in two urban informal settlements construct respect and a masculine identity. Data are drawn from three focus groups and 19 in-depth interviews. We suggest that while young men aspire to a 'traditional' masculinity, prioritising economic power and control over the household, we suggest that a youth masculinity emerges which, in lieu of alternative ways to display power, prioritises violence and control over men's sexual partners, men seeking multiple sexual partners and men's violence to other men. This functions as a way of demonstrating masculinity and their position within a public gender order. We suggest there are three implications of the findings for working with men on violence and HIV-risk reduction. First, there exist a number of contradictions in men's discourses about masculinity that may provide spaces and opportunities for change. Second, it is important to work on multiple issues at once given the way violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk are interlinked in youth masculinity. Finally, engaging with men's exclusion from the capitalist system may provide an important way to reduce violence.

  17. 48 CFR 49.603 - Formats for termination for convenience settlement agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for convenience settlement agreements. 49.603 Section 49.603 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Formats 49.603 Formats for termination for convenience settlement agreements. The formats to be used for termination for convenience settlement agreements should be substantially as shown in this section (see 49.109...

  18. Experience in settlement analysis and related geostatic considerations for the foundation design of heavy reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, R.L.; Yen, B.C.; Bhushan, K.; Haley, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    Potential settlement problems associated with new, heavier reactor structures are discussed. Methods for obtaining data for settlement analyses are summarized and analysis procedures are compared in an example. Stress history and stress distribution concepts are shown to be important for settlement estimates. (author)

  19. Biotic and abiotic effects of human settlements in the wildland-urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avi Bar-Massada; Volker C. Radeloff; Susan I. Stewart

    2014-01-01

    The wildland-urban interface (WUI) is the area in which human settlements adjoin or intermix with ecosystems. Although research on the WUI has been focused on wildfire risk to settlements, we argue here that there is a need to quantify the extent of areas in which human settlements interact with adjoining ecosystems, regardless of their ability to support fire spread....

  20. The health of populations living in the indigenous minority settlements of northern Yakutia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtseva, Tatiana E; Uvarova, Tatiana E; Tomsky, Mikhail I; Odland, Jon Ø

    2014-01-01

    This monograph contains the results of a study carried out by the Yakutsk Research Center for Complex Medical Problems, "Evaluating the health of the indigenous minorities of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) and optimizing medical assistance using innovative technologies and telemedicine in indigenous settlements." The child population was studied in 19 indigenous minority settlements, and the adult population was studied in 12 settlements.

  1. 32 CFR 536.122 - Limitation of settlement of maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Limitation of settlement of maritime claims. 536... AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.122 Limitation of settlement of maritime claims. (a) Within the United States the period of completing an administrative settlement under...

  2. 76 FR 13615 - B&B Manufacturing Site; Mobile, Mobile County, AL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the B&B Manufacturing Site located in Mobile, Mobile County, Alabama for publication. DATES: The Agency will consider public comments on the settlement... Site; Mobile, Mobile County, AL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION...

  3. 77 FR 69620 - Casmalia Disposal Site; Notice of Proposed CERCLA Administrative De Minimis Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... settlements. This settlement is intended to resolve the liabilities of 290 settling parties for the Casmalia... settlement requires these parties to pay over $2 million to EPA. Settling Parties: Parties that have elected...., Entenmann's/Orowheat, Eva Fkiaras, Evans Tank Lines, Exel Corp./Exel Microelectronics, Inc., Fabri Cote...

  4. 31 CFR 356.25 - How does the settlement process work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does the settlement process work? 356.25 Section 356.25 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued...) Determination of Auction Awards; Settlement § 356.25 How does the settlement process work? Securities bought in...

  5. 26 CFR 1.468B-2 - Taxation of qualified settlement funds and related administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of qualified settlement funds and... Taken § 1.468B-2 Taxation of qualified settlement funds and related administrative requirements. (a) In...) of this section is in lieu of any other taxation of the income of a qualified settlement fund under...

  6. 75 FR 48967 - Proposed Administrative Settlement Agreement Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... settlement agreement (``Settlement Agreement'') with Peter S. Austin, the William E. Austin Trust, and Austin & Austin Company, a partnership (``Respondents'') pursuant to Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive... CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), this notice is being published to inform the public of the proposed Settlement...

  7. Newer Demographic Development of the Settlement of Murter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Podgorelec

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Murter is the largest settlement on the same-named island and also in the entire Šibenik archipelago. As opposed to most of the settlements on the island, its population was less involved in earlier emigration flows, whereas newer emigration began to effect Murter only after the sixties. The effect of the depopulation period is visible in the changes of the age-sex structure, where can be seen primarily in ageing of the population and a disproportion in the sex ratio. Yet it can be confirmed that the settlement of Murter has not such an unfavourable demographic situation as do most Dalmatian islands. A slightly falling birth rate can be noticed, as well as a slight increase in the death rate. The demographic perspective of this population is relatively favourable (due to an expected development of tourism, development of agriculture and trades, nautical infrastructures etc., if addition emigration factors will not come into play. Based on a multiple-criteria evaluation of developmental levels, the island of Murter, primarily due to the central position of the settlement Murter, is ranked 11th out of 47 Croatian islands. The reason is that all higher ranked islands also have a significantly larger area.

  8. 48 CFR 49.109-4 - No-cost settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... incurred costs for the terminated portion of the contract or (b) the contractor is willing to waive the costs incurred and (c) no amounts are due the Government under the contract. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false No-cost settlement. 49.109...

  9. Wyoming's Early Settlement and Ethnic Groups, Unit IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming's early settlement and ethnic groups provides concepts, activities, stories, charts, and graphs for elementary school students. Concepts include the attraction Wyoming held for trappers; the major social, economic, and religious event called "The Rendezvous"; the different ethnic and religious groups that presently…

  10. Informal Settlements and the Role of Infrastructure: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This has resulted to the growth of slums and informal settlements, which are unplanned, lack basic infrastructure and services such as water, electricity, roads, lighting ... perspective to meet housing and infrastructure needs of the poor, where taxes paid by the rich should be used to subsidize infrastructure costs of the poor.

  11. 48 CFR 49.606 - Granting subcontract settlement authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-furnished material or articles completed but undelivered under the subcontract or purchase order, as these... articles may be disposed of without Government approval or screening if the total amount (at subcontract... retention or other disposal of termination inventory allocated to the settlement proposal. (ii) Deduct...

  12. Problems of litigation in settlement of maritime disputes for Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the problems of litigation in settlement of disputes in maritime industry in Nigeria, which sector is vital to the nation's economy. It also investigates the prospects and viability of arbitration technique as an alternative. It is discovered that although litigation has been the most common mechanism for the ...

  13. Traffic noise monitoring at road intersections in urban settlement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traffic noise monitoring at road intersections in urban settlement: Case study of Ramat Park Benin City. ... bus drivers) were responsible for the noise emission while enforcement of traffic laws in the state and relocation of the motor park close to the square were recommended control measures for noise reduction.

  14. Everything's Bigger in Texas: Except the Medmal Settlements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Baker (Tom); E. Helland (Eric); J.M. Klick (Jonathan)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractRecent work using Texas closed claim data finds that physicians are rarely required to use personal assets in medical malpractice settlements even when plaintiffs secure judgments above the physician's insurance limits. In equilibrium, this should lead physicians to purchase less

  15. The Spatial Economy in the Urban Informal Settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tunas, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the rapidly urbanizing world, the informal settlement has been forming a significant part of the common urban scene in many cities in the developing countries. It holds a particular role in the city as it houses millions of urban poor who has no access to the public housing. However it does not

  16. Aurignacian in Moravia. New geochronological, lithic and settlement data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Demidenko, Y. E.; Škrdla, Petr; Nejman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 108, prosinec (2017), s. 5-38 ISSN 0031-0506 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800010801; GA ČR GA15-19170S Keywords : Central Europe * Moravia * in situ new sites * Middle and Evolved Aurignacian * settlement pattern peculiarities Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology

  17. Cultivation of sponge larvae: settlement, survival, and growth of juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caralt, de S.; Otjens, H.; Uriz, M.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to culture sponge juveniles from larvae. Starting from larvae we expected to enhance the survival and growth, and to decrease the variation in these parameters during the sponge cultures. First, settlement success, morphological changes during metamorphosis, and survival of

  18. The Proposed Tobacco Settlement: Issues from a Federal Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    of other people at CBO provided helpful comments and suggestions as part of the agency’s internal review process. In addition, Robert Cook- Deegan ...10. Federal Trade Commission, Competition and the Financial Impact of the Proposed Tobacco Industry Settlement (September 1997). 11. Craig Howell

  19. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  20. Applied approach slab settlement research, design/construction : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Approach embankment settlement is a pervasive problem in Oklahoma and many other states. The bump and/or abrupt slope change poses a danger to traffic and can cause increased dynamic loads on the bridge. Frequent and costly maintenance may be needed ...

  1. Managing climatic risks for urban settlements along Angola's coast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Luanda, for instance, 5 million people live in informal settlements. ... of reliable data, specifically about which communities are most vulnerable, where environmental ... L'Angola bénéficiait autrefois d'une riche base de données climatiques.

  2. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 14 - Delegations of Settlement Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in charge of the Civil Division. (b) The Secretary may redelegate, in writing, the settlement authority delegated to him under this section. Section 2. Memorandum. Whenever the Secretary of Veterans... excess of $100,000 and within the amount delegated to him under section 1, a memorandum fully explaining...

  3. Pastoral Settlement. Farming and Hierarchy in Norse Vatnahverfi, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Koch

    farming system relied on extensive land use practices organized around shielings, and apparently after unique Greenlandic patterns. A population estimate based on these settlement patterns implies an average population in Vatnahverfi of only ca. 225-550 people, and an average maximum population of ca...

  4. Collective Settlement of Mass Claims in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAs far as collective mass claim settlement is concerned, it has been said that ‘the European landscape is a mixed bag of differing collective redress mechanisms’. One of the legal sys-tems in this ‘mixed bag’ is the small jurisdiction of the Kingdom of The Netherlands. With the enactment

  5. Profiling the vulnerabilities and risks of South African settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, Alize

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cities, towns and settlements provide housing and livelihoods for a growing global population. Estimates indicate that in 2014, 54% of the world’s population and 40% of the population on the African continent were considered urban. African city...

  6. Delineating Spatial Patterns in Human Settlements Using VIIRS Nighttime Light Data: A Watershed-Based Partition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As an informative proxy measure for a range of urbanization and socioeconomic variables, satellite-derived nighttime light data have been widely used to investigate diverse anthropogenic activities in human settlements over time and space from the regional to the national scale. With a higher spatial resolution and fewer over-glow and saturation effects, nighttime light data derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS instrument with day/night band (DNB, which is on the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership satellite (Suomi-NPP, may further improve our understanding of spatiotemporal dynamics and socioeconomic activities, particularly at the local scale. Capturing and identifying spatial patterns in human settlements from VIIRS images, however, is still challenging due to the lack of spatially explicit texture characteristics, which are usually crucial for general image classification methods. In this study, we propose a watershed-based partition approach by combining a second order exponential decay model for the spatial delineation of human settlements with VIIRS-derived nighttime light images. Our method spatially partitions the human settlement into five different types of sub-regions: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low and low lighting areas with different degrees of human activity. This is primarily based on the local coverage of locally maximum radiance signals (watershed-based and the rank and magnitude of the nocturnal radiance signal across the whole region, as well as remotely sensed building density data and social media-derived human activity information. The comparison results for the relationship between sub-regions with various density nighttime brightness levels and human activities, as well as the densities of different types of interest points (POIs, show that our method can distinctly identify various degrees of human activity based on artificial nighttime radiance and ancillary data. Furthermore

  7. Settlement Networks in Polish Spatial Development Regional Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtys, Jacek

    2017-10-01

    In 1999, ten years after the great political changes in Poland, 16 self-governed regions (in Polish: voivodeship) were created. According to Polish law, voivodeship spatial development plans, or regional plans in short, determine basic elements of the settlement network. No detailed regulations indicate the specific elements of the settlement network or what features of these elements should be determined. For this reason, centres as elements of the settlement network are variously named in different regions and take the form of various models. The purposes of the research described in this article are: (1) recognition and systematization of settlement network models determined in regional plans; and (2) assessment of the readability of determination in planning and its usefulness in the practice of regional policy. Six models of settlement networks in regional plans have been identified and classified into types and sub-types. Names of specific levels of centres indicate that they were classified according to two criteria: (1) level of services, which concerns only 5 voivodships; and (2) importance in development, which concerns the 11 other voivodships. The hierarchical model referring to the importance of development is less understandable than the one related to services. In the text of most plans, centres of services and centres of development are treated independently from their names. In some plans the functional types of towns and cities are indicated. In some voivodships, specifications in the plan text are too general and seem to be rather useless in the practice of regional policy. The author suggests that regional plans should determine two kinds of centres: hierarchical service centres and non-hierarchical centres of development. These centres should be further distinguished according to: (1) their role in the activation of surroundings; (2) their level of development and the necessity of action for their development; and (3) the types of actions

  8. Establishing a green-and-blue network within an existing settlement in central Hanoi towards urban ecologicalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang Minh

    2018-04-01

    As a mega city, Hanoi must solve huge problems in its urban development of which landscape is among the greatest and most urgent issues to deal with. Locally, within one settlement, landscape is often simply regarded by many city residents as a small park that helps improve environmental quality, especially in summer, and provides an open space for the local community to have a walk a few times a day. But actually, landscape plays a much more important role in one settlement as a complete unit and also as a miniature of a large city. Internationally, landscape is a complex concept as well as an integral part of urban ecology, and sustainability has been set at a much higher level and the final goal to reach. In central Hanoi, where the population and construction density is so high that the green area per capita is among the lowest in Asia, it is high time to rethink about the enhancement of living quality in a difficult situation. The academic article will focus on landscape ecology, rather than on landscape only, in central districts and propose an ecologicalisation for a typical settlement here towards a more liveable city concept.

  9. UNDERSTANDING RESIDENT’ ACTIVITY SYSTEM-IMPROVING QUALITY LIFE: A CASE STUDY OF DOME POST DISASTER SETTLEMENT IN NGELEPEN SLEMAN, YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYAM Rachma Marcillia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available House is not only functioning as a place for shelter, but also for accommodating personal and social activities of its inhabitants. Unfortunately in post quake disaster dome houses Ngelepen, Yogyakarta, the majority of the early settlers must change their behavior and habits that they used to do in their previous environment to adjust the new settlement. These happened because dome housing did not facilitate some activities whether personal or social activities within the house, therefore the activities extended to the outside of the house or even the surrounding environment. This study aims to understand the system activities on the dome house settlement Yogyakarta. In order to get detailed description, quantitative as well as qualitative approach was done through observation of the activities type, when and where the activities conducted. Data collection was done by continuous place centered behavior mapping to know how the occupants use and accommodate their behavior in certain time and specific place. The results of this study showed that daily activities on weekdays and holidays conducted by different group; children, adult and elderly, at different areas and for different type of activities in certain times. The pathways and courtyard of the house mostly used for domestic household activities and leisure as an extension of the social interaction space. In understanding the system activities that occurred, it is expected that this study can contribute to improve the quality of life of people live in a relocation settlement.

  10. Modeling of storage tank settlement based on the United States standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruchenkova Alesya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Up to 60% of storage tanks in operation have uneven settlement of the outer bottom contour, which often leads to accidents. Russian and foreign regulatory documents have different requirements for strain limits of metal structures. There is an increasing need for harmonizing regulatory documents. The aim of this study is to theoretically justify and to assess the possibility of applying the U.S. standards for specifying the allowable settlement of storage tanks used in Russia. The allowable uneven settlement was calculated for a vertical steel tank (VST-20000 according to API-653, a standard of the American Petroleum Institute. The calculated allowable settlement levels were compared with those established by Russian standards. Based on the finite element method, the uneven settlement development process of a storage tank was modeled. Stress-strain state parameters of tank structures were obtained at the critical levels established in API-653. Relationships of maximum equivalent stresses in VST metal structures to the vertical settlement component for settlement zones of 6 to 72 m in length were determined. When the uneven settlement zone is 6 m in length, the limit state is found to be caused by 30-mm vertical settlement, while stresses in the wall exceed 330 MPa. When the uneven settlement zone is 36 m in length, stresses reach the yield point only at 100-mm vertical settlement.

  11. B14 hut at the Bronze Age settlement of Mursia (Pantelleria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Debandi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribute deals with the explanation of the archaeological excavation of the B14 hut, that symbolizes the residential structures of the earliest phase of the village, but at the same time it can be considered exceptional for the size and for the inner setting. The stratigraphic sequence shows several episodes of transformation of inhabited space with real twisting changes that took place early in the history of the hut. In particular, in spite of the initial planning of the dwellings, each single feature adapted shape and size to different requirements among inhabitants, both productive and domestic. Ceramics of each phase of the sequence are presented showing vase types used especially in the earliest phase of the settlement. A the end of the life, the hut was completely covered by other dwellings.

  12. Kernel density estimation and transition maps of Moldavian Neolithic and Eneolithic settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Brigand

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Neo-Eneolithic settlement pattern and salt exploitation in Romanian Moldavia” (Brigand and Weller, 2018 [1]. Kernel density estimation (KDE is used in order to move beyond the discrete distribution of sites and to enable us to work on a continuous surface that reflects the intensity of the occupation in the space. Maps of density per period – Neolithic I (Cris, Neolithic II (LBK, Eneolithic I (Precucuteni, Eneolithic II (Cucuteni A, Eneolithic III-IV (Cucuteni A-B and B – are used to create maps of density difference (Figs. 1–4 in order to analyse the dynamic (either non-existent, negative or positive between two chronological sequences.

  13. An observation on the quality of interfaces in order to understand the complexity and coherence of informal settlement: A study on Tamansari Kampung in Bandung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawira, S.; Rahman, T.

    2018-05-01

    Self-organized settlements are formed within the limited capacity of the inhabitants with or without the Government’s interventions. This pattern is mostly found in the informal settlements, where occupants are the planners who are guided by their needs, limited resources and vernacular knowledge about place making. Understanding the process of its development and transformation could be a way of unfolding the complexity it offers to a formal urban setting. To identify the patterns of adaptation process, a study of morphological elements (i.e. house form, streets) could be a possible way. A case study of an informal settlement (Kampung of Tamansari, Bandung in Indonesia) has been taken to dissect these elements. Two of important components of the study area: house forms and streets created the first layer of urban fabric. High population density demanded layers of needs and activities which eventually guided the multifunctional characteristics of streets and house forms. Thus, streets create dialogue with the complex built forms-often known as interface is the key element to understand the underneath order of Tamansari. Here interface can be divided into two categories depending on their scale – small and large. Small scale interfaces are comprised of small elements such as, extended platform, fence, steps, low height wall, blank wall and elements to set above, set forth, set over in house forms. These components help to create and define semipublic spaces in the settlement. These spaces could be visually and physically interactive or no interactive which result into active or inactive spaces respectively. Small scale interfaces are common features of the settlement, whereas large scale interfaces are placed at strategic locations and act as active spaces. Connecting bridges, open spaces and contours often create special dialogue within and beyond the study area. Interfaces cater diversity in the settlement by creating hierarchy of spaces. Sense of belonging

  14. Differences in Pattern and Driving Forces between Urban and Rural Settlements in the Coastal Region of Ningbo, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization on the coast of China has attracted much attention. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in dynamics and related driving forces between urban and rural settlements. Applying the quantitative method, we demonstrate that substantial heterogeneity in settlement growth, landscape pattern metrics, change, land sources and driving forces is exhibited across the different types of urban and rural settlements. The spatial growth of urban settlements is dominated by in situ expansion, while rural settlements tend to be scattered and shrinking rapidly. The sprawl of human settlements has mainly occupied farm land, but reclamation projects are increasingly becoming important land sources for urban settlements. Local government has played a critical role in urban settlements, while the expansion of rural settlements is mainly driven by individual choice and village collective organizations. Such differences may account for differential options for the management of human settlements scientifically.

  15. Negotiated Settlements: Long-term Profits and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kent Fellows

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, utility regulators have relaxed their oversight of cost-ofservice regulation and this holds true for Alberta, where such regulation determines the fees associated with oil and gas pipeline usage. The traditional method has been for regulators to issue binding decisions on a firm’s cost of service after taking evidence at a formal hearing. Many regulators now prefer to encourage parties to settle a cost-of-service agreement through a negotiated settlement, which the regulator then approves. This process not only saves the cost of a hearing, it also permits firms and consumers to trade costs and benefits, settling on a final price more favourable to both. The author details how this arrangement can negatively impact future consumers by allowing the firm to defer the true burden of its depreciation expenses in return for inflated capital costs. Such a settlement lowers prices for the present but saddles future consumers with higher prices.

  16. PERMEABILITY MAP OF RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE TROPICS

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Ngurah Antaryama

    2002-01-01

    Source of information for ventilation design of residential settlement is generally derived from wind tunnel or, recently, CFD studies, which involves both modeling and simulation of wind flow pattern and speed. Yet this is not readily accessible to most architects. In order to gain similar objectives but without involving detailed studies, the present study introduces a graphical method of gathering information about permeability of residential. It describes how the way wind reaches and flow...

  17. The health of the poor: women living in informal settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, G; Arku, R; Montana, L

    2012-06-01

    A large share of the urban population in developing countries lives in informal settlements or "slums" today. This study investigates the association between slum residence and health among adult Ghanaian women residing in the Accra Metropolitan Area. Health data collected as part of the Women's Health Study of Accra round II (WHSA-II) was combined with data from the Household and Welfare Study of Accra (HAWS) to compare the health of female slum dwellers to the health of female non-slum dwellers living in the Accra Metropolitan Area. Group means were calculated and multivariate linear regression models were estimated to compare eight domains of health as measured by the short-form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. Women living in informal settlements were found to display consistently better health. Conditional on all observable characteristics, women living in informal settlements scored higher on all self-reported health outcomes than women living in non-slum areas. The differences appear largest for general health as well as for the physical role functioning domains, and appear smallest for the social role functioning and bodily pain domains. The results presented suggest that slum residence does not have a negative effect on self-reported health among women in Accra. Three factors may contribute to the generally positive association between slum residence and observed outcomes: i) self-selection of individuals with strong health into informal settlements and an accordingly small impact of environmental factors on health ii) self-selection of more driven and ambitious individuals into slum neighborhoods who may have a generally more positive view of their health and iii) the geographic placement of slum neighborhoods in central neighborhoods with relatively easy access to health facilities.

  18. Evaluation of Sille Settlement in the Context of Ecological Tourizm

    OpenAIRE

    Oktaç Beycan, Arife Deniz

    2017-01-01

    In our time people began to search for resting in historical, cultural and natural environments being other than coast, sea and urban tourism and they began to prefer different tourism activities. Tourism requests focusing on traditional settlements with cultural and natural values, have causes a sustainable tourism approach to come out.  Ecological tourism, which is one of the sustainable tourism types, is being used as a development tool by protecting the history, culture and nature.  Ecolo...

  19. Creating the High-Resolution Settlement Layer - lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, A.

    2017-12-01

    Facebook publishes the High-resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL: https://ciesin.columbia.edu/data/hrsl/) in collaboration with Columbia University's CIESIN institute and the World Bank. So far, data for 13 countries have been published over the past nine months. HRSL data for Burkina Faso, Ghana, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Malawi, Mexico, The Philippines, Rwanda, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Uganda are available for download. We will present a status update and report on lessons learned.

  20. The challenge of reforming the WTO dispute settlement understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, Heinz; Zimmermann, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Die im Mai 2003 abgelaufene Frist für den Abschluss der Verhandlungen über Verbesserungen und Klarstellungen zum WTO-Übereinkommen über dei Streitschlichtung (Dispute Settlement Understanding; DSU) unter dem Doha-Mandat wurde verfehlt. Die WTO-Mitglieder einigten sich jedoch im Juli 2003 auf eine Verlängerung des Verhandlungsmandates bis Ende Mai 2004. Der vorliegende Beitrag fasst die Verhandlungen zur Überprüfung des Streitschlichtungsverfahrens ("DSU review") kurz zusammen. Die Hauptstreit...

  1. Ontogenetic changes in responses to settlement cues by Anemonefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, D. L.; Munday, P. L.; Pratchett, M.; Jones, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Population connectivity for most marine species is dictated by dispersal during the pelagic larval stage. Although reef fish larvae are known to display behavioral adaptations that influence settlement site selection, little is known about the development of behavioral preferences throughout the larval phase. Whether larvae are attracted to the same sensory cues throughout their larval phase, or exhibit distinct ontogenetic shifts in sensory preference is unknown. Here, we demonstrate an ontogenetic shift in olfactory cue preferences for two species of anemonefish, a process that could aid in understanding both patterns of dispersal and settlement. Aquarium-bred naïve Amphiprion percula and A. melanopus larvae were tested for olfactory preference of relevant reef-associated chemical cues throughout the 11-day pelagic larval stage. Age posthatching had a significant effect on the preference for olfactory cues from host anemones and live corals for both species. Preferences of olfactory cues from tropical plants of A. percula, increased by approximately ninefold between hatching and settlement, with A. percula larvae showing a fivefold increase in preference for the olfactory cue produced by the grass species. Larval age had no effect on the olfactory preference for untreated seawater over the swamp-based tree Melaleuca nervosa, which was always avoided compared with blank seawater. These results indicate that reef fish larvae are capable of utilizing olfactory cues early in the larval stage and may be predisposed to disperse away from reefs, with innate olfactory preferences drawing newly hatched larvae into the pelagic environment. Toward the end of the larval phase, larvae become attracted to the olfactory cues of appropriate habitats, which may assist them in identification of and navigation toward suitable settlement sites.

  2. The politics of space - Who owns what? Earth law for space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    Topics of concern in developing space law, i.e., international disagreements, the present status of space law, and requirements for future space activities, are discussed. Factors inhibiting agreements include governments that wish to control specific regions of GEO, the refusal of several countries to permit international DBS television broadcasts over their boundaries, the possibility that weapons may be placed in space, and the lack of international laws governing humans and industries in space. It is noted that any state entering an international agreement has relinquished some of its sovereignty. The Outer Space Treaty has removed celestial bodies from claims of national appropriation. States retain sovereignty over their citizens who travel in space, a problematical concept once internationally-manned settlements in space or on the moon are established. It is recommended that space law develop mainly in reaction to the implementation of new space capabilities in order to avoid hindering space activities.

  3. 20 CFR 10.713 - How is a structured settlement (that is, a settlement providing for receipt of funds over a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... present value of the right to receive all of the payments included in the structured settlement, allocated... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is a structured settlement (that is, a... the gross recovery? 10.713 Section 10.713 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS...

  4. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, P.V.; Hartshorn, A.S.; Chadwick, O.A.; Vitousek, P.M.; Sherrod, D.R.; Coil, J.; Holm, L.; Sharp, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km2) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples.

  5. Krasnoye Syundyukovo I Fortifi ed Settlement: Investigation in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gismatulin Marat R.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article devoted to the results of new investigations of Krasnoye Syundyukovo I fortified settlement situated on the right bank of the Sviyaga river in the Ulyanovsk region. The site is one of the pre-Mongol towns of the Volga Bulgaria. A brick bath-house built in the 11th – 12th is its most well-known structure studied in 1991. Archaeological investigation of this site resumed in the summer of 2014. Two digs of 60 m2 (number VI and VII were organized on the territory of the settlement. Dig VII in the western part of the settlement yielded a household structure (cellar and numerous and various finds typical for the material culture of the population of a pre-Mongol Bulgar town: local ceramics, metal ware, as well as residues and slag, fragments of clothing and garnishment, etc. Dig VII had a significant number of artefacts associated with crafts and trade, which characterizes the activities of the population.

  6. Early Maori settlement impacts in northern coastal Taranaki, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmshurst, J.M.; Higham, T.F.G.; Allen, H.; Johns, D.; Phillips, C.

    2004-01-01

    Pollen and charcoal analyses of sediments from northern coastal Taranaki, New Zealand, show that Maori settlement impacts on the vegetation began with the burning of tall coastal forest in the mid-17th century. Forest was replaced with a fern-shrubland, and small wetlands expanded with changing hydrological conditions. This forest clearance was much later than in most regions of the country, where major forest disturbance and clearance began between AD 1200 and AD 1400. However, Maori were known to be using the forested coastal Taranaki landscape from at least AD 1300 to hunt the now extinct moa, and to collect shellfish, but neither of these activities necessarily required forest clearance or permanent settlement. Preserved rat-gnawed seeds in the wetland deposits provide evidence for the presence of the introduced kiore (Polynesian rat, Rattus exulans) in coastal Taranaki from about AD 1200, significantly before forest clearance or permanent human settlement. Although kiore were present in the coastal forests for as much as 400 years before forest clearance, the pollen records do not show any changes in forest composition during this time. (author). 58 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Food shortages and gender relations in Ikafe settlement, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L

    1998-03-01

    In 1996, an 18-month-old settlement created for 55,000 Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda came under attack by Ugandan rebels. By March 1997, the entire population of the settlement had migrated in search of safety. Because the refugees lost their livelihoods and cultivated fields, they had to adopt short-term coping strategies to acquire food. Two Oxfam researchers gathering information during this period for use in program planning and monitoring found that coping strategies included 1) hazarding dangerous journeys (women risked rape or abduction; men risked beating, looting, killing, or abduction) to harvest crops; 2) seeking piece-work employment; 3) exchanging sex for food; and 4) depleting assets. The crisis was particularly severe for single people (especially those with children). In families where the women but not the men could find employment, some men took on household responsibilities. As malnutrition increased, health declined. Observed changes to household gender relations included new sexual divisions of labor, assumption by females of decision-making power, increased domestic quarreling, and marital break-down (especially in cases where women had been raped). On the community level, women assumed more responsibility as men withdrew socially or left the settlement. These findings point to the importance of providing refugees with seeds, with small loans to stimulate business, and with the means to rebuild their sense of community.

  8. Challenging a court settlement: Concept, legal nature and methods of challenging in domestic and comparative law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author offers analysis of rules regulating the challenging of a court settlement in light of the evolution and legal nature of the court settlement in domestic and comparative law (Austrian, German, and Hungarian laws. The method of the procedural challenge depended on the understanding whether the settlement is an agreement (contract between parties before the court or it is a decision of the court (on acceptance or rejection of the proposal of the parties to reach a settlement. In the earlier instance the method of challenge is by filing of an action, and in the latter instance it represents a form of a legal remedy, most often extraordinary legal remedy - request for repetition of a trial, against final and binding decision of the court by which the settlement was either accepted or rejected. Theoretical dilemma about the legal nature of the court settlement, had an effect on normative regulations, as well as on court practice. In the Serbian law, this dilemma was resolved by enactment of the Civil Procedure Code which explicitly regulates that court settlement is challenged by an action before the court. As a result of this, the idea of a court settlement, as a form of an agreement, prevailed in the legal system. However, considerable procedural effects of the court settlement cannot be ignored. The principal procedural effect is that the litigation is terminated. Further, the court settlement represents a form of an executive title.

  9. Design principles of water sensitive in settlement area on the river banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryanti, E.; Hasriyanti, N.; Utami, W. D.

    2018-03-01

    This research will formulate the principle of designing settlement area of Kapuas River Pontianak with the approach of water sensitive concept of urban design (WSUD) the densely populated settlement area. By using a case study the approach that is a dense settlement area located on the banks of the river with literature study techniques to formulate the aspects considered and components that are set in the design, descriptive analysis with the rationalistic paradigm for identification characteristics of the settlement in the river banks areas with consideration of WSUD elements and formulate the principles of designing water-sensitive settlement areas. This research is important to do because the problems related to the water management system in the existing riverside settlement in Pontianak has not been maximal to do. So the primary of this research contains several objectives that will be achieved that is identifying the characteristics of riverside settlement area based on consideration of design aspects of the area that are sensitive to water and the principle of designing the area so that the existing problem structure will be formulated in relation to the community’s need for infrastructure in settlement environment and formulate and develop appropriate technology guidelines for integrated water management systems in riverside settlement areas and design techniques for water-sensitive settlements (WSUD).

  10. Settlement behavior of the container for high-level nuclear waste disposal. Effect of bentonite kinds and upgrading of evaluation method for settlement behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2006-01-01

    The settlement behavior of container at high-level nuclear waste disposal was investigated using centrifuge. In the experiments, the change of the amount of settlement was exponentially increased with decrease of swelling pressure of bentonite. Furthermore, each the amount of settlement showed almost same value without dependency of bentonite samples and dry density if swelling pressure of bentonites was same. The results from centrifuge model tests was analyzed by 2D axisymmetrical FEM. 2D axisymmetrical FEM that can consider the effect of saline concentration was expanded from previous 1D FEM. The good correlation between experimental results and numerical analysis was obtain from 2D axisymmetrical FEM that is better than 1D FEM. The increase of amount of settlement saline concentration was showed using 2D axisymmetrical FEM that consider the seawater conditions. Furthermore, each calculated the amount of settlement was showed almost same value without dependency of saline concentration if swelling pressure of bentonites was same. (author)

  11. MOBILE GIS: A TOOL FOR INFORMAL SETTLEMENT OCCUPANCY AUDIT TO IMPROVE INTEGRATED HUMAN SETTLEMENT IMPLEMENTATION IN EKURHULENI, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Mokoena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Upgrading and relocating people in informal settlements requires consistent commitment, good strategies and systems so as to improve the lives of those who live in them. In South Africa, in order to allocate subsidised housing to beneficiaries of an informal settlement, beneficiary administration needs to be completed to determine the number of people who qualify for a subsidised house. Conventional methods of occupancy audits are often unreliable, cumbersome and non-spatial. Accordingly, this study proposes the use of mobile GIS to conduct these audits to provide up-to-date, accurate, comprehensive and real-time data so as to facilitate the development of integrated human settlements. An occupancy audit was subsequently completed for one of the communities in the Ekurhuleni municipality, Gauteng province, using web-based mobile GIS as a solution to providing smart information through evidence based decision making. Fieldworkers accessed the off-line capturing module on a mobile device recording GPS coordinates, socio-economic information and photographs. The results of this audit indicated that only 56.86% of the households residing within the community could potentially benefit from receiving a subsidised house. Integrated residential development, which includes fully and partially subsidised housing, serviced stands and some fully bonded housing opportunities, would then be key to adequately providing access to suitable housing options within a project in a post-colonial South Africa, creating new post-1994 neighbourhoods, in line with policy. The use of mobile GIS therefore needs to be extended to other informal settlement upgrading projects in South Africa.

  12. Larval settlement preferences and post-settlement survival of the threatened Caribbean corals Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson-Williams, R.; Paul, Valerie J.; Arnold, S. N.; Steneck, R. S.

    2010-03-01

    The settlement specificity of two threatened Caribbean corals, Acropora palmata and A. cervicornis, was tested by measuring their rates of larval metamorphosis in response to crustose coralline algae (CCA) and other substrata. In the no-choice experiments, the coral larvae were placed in six treatments: filtered seawater (FSW), a fragment of biofilmed dead skeleton of A. palmata, or a fragment of one of four species of CCA ( Hydrolithon boergesenii, Porolithon pachydermum, Paragoniolithon solubile, and Titanoderma prototypum). Within each CCA treatment, there were three different substrata on which to settle and metamorphose: (1) the CCA surface, (2) the rock under the CCA, or (3) the plastic dish. The 5-day-old larvae of both A. palmata and A. cervicornis had similar rates of total metamorphosis (all substrata combined) in every treatment (excluding FSW) even in the absence of CCA. However, there were differences in larval behavior among the CCA species since the larvae settled and metamorphosed on different substrata in the presence of different CCA species. In the no-choice experiments the larvae of both corals had higher rates of metamorphosis on the top surfaces of H. boergesenii and/or T. prototypum than on P. pachydermum. In the choice experiments, the coral larvae were offered two species of CCA in the same dish. When given a choice, both species of coral larvae had more settlement and metamorphosis on the surface of H. boergesenii or T. prototypum or clean rock than onto the surface of P. solubile. After 6 weeks in the field, transplanted A. palmata recruits had approximately 15% survival on both T. prototypum and H. boergesenii, but A. cervicornis recruits only survived on T. prototypum (13%). Some, but not all, CCA species facilitated the larval settlement and post-settlement survival of these two threatened corals, highlighting the importance of benthic community composition for successful coral recruitment.

  13. Lake Erie and Lake Michigan zebra mussel settlement monitoring and implications for chlorination treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demoss, D.; Mendelsberg, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the 1991 zebra mussel veliger settlement monitoring program undertaken to record and evaluate zebra mussel veliger settlement in Lake Erie and Lake Michigan. Studies by Dr. Gerald Mackie of Canada in 1990 indicated veliger settlement may be occurring primarily during short time periods every season corresponding with warmer water temperatures. Veliger settlement monitoring was performed using a plexiglass sampler apparatus. The samplers were simple in design and consisted of a 20-inch-square plexiglass base panel with thirty-six 1 inch x 3 inch clear plexiglass microscope slides attached. The results of the monitoring program indicate the existence of preferential settlement periods for veligers correlating with sustained lake water temperatures above 70 degrees F. Veliger settlement concentrations in the south basin of Lake Michigan appear to be similar to those in western Lake Erie

  14. Alternatives of Cross-Border Securities Settlement System in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Yul Chai

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of cross-border securities settlement system is a very important element of regional capital market integration. Despite its importance, relatively few arguments, both theoretical and practical, have been advanced on the subject. This paper aims to examine the alternatives of cross-border securities settlement system in East Asia, and analyse the feasibility and the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative. The paper underlines the need to develop a multi-currency DVP securities settlement system. The conceivable alternatives of East Asia's cross-border securities settlement system can be divided into decentralized system and centralized system. It is possible to consider a large array of institutional settings according to the depository/settlement methods. The comparison of the alternatives is based on economic efficiency, feasibility and institutional location of settlement system. In view of these criteria, it is argued that a 'big-bang' approach toward imperfectly cenralized system is the most desirable alternative.

  15. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  16. "This is My Community": Reproducing and Resisting Boundaries of Exclusion in Contested Public Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolis, Erin E; Hammack, Phillip L

    2015-12-01

    The way that public space is structured has significant implications for identity, social interaction, and participation in society. For those experiencing homelessness, with no or limited private space, survival hinges on the accessibility and livability of public space. However, the increasing privatization of public space in the United States has contributed to the implementation of anti-homeless ordinances in cities, restricting sitting, standing, panhandling, and sleeping in public. This study analyzes data from interviews with housed and unhoused community members, text from a local policy document, and ethnographic observations to explore how boundaries between "insiders" and "outsiders" are drawn in public space and mediated through individual discourse. Our findings suggest that boundaries of exclusion are constructed through dominant narratives that portray the unhoused as a threat to safety and economic vitality, thus justifying the need for regulation and punishment through the criminalization of homelessness. Yet, informants also demonstrate resistance to this narrative by discussing how criminalization of homelessness perpetuates dehumanization, violence, and economic inequality. Policy implications for the regulation of public space are discussed.

  17. Rebels with a Cause: Power Sharing, Negotiated Settlements, and the Logic of Preemptive Defection

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Chelsea Blake

    2015-01-01

    Why are some negotiated settlements successful at resolving intrastate conflict, while others fail? Are settlements involving agreement to share power more effective and, if so, why have conclusions about power sharing been so mixed? I theorize in this project that power-sharing guarantees improve the prospects for a peaceful settlement by reducing the stakes of winning post-conflict elections, thereby increasing the likelihood that rebels will willingly demobilize. Contrary to the preemin...

  18. Role of the Russian Federation in the Settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H L Paronyan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role and the mediation efforts of Russian Federation, aimed at the settlement of the Karabakh conflict, as well as the activity of the OSCE Minsk group (today that is Russia, the United States and France, engaged in the settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict in 1992. In the conditions of intransigence of positions between conflicting parties, international mediation acquires particular significance in the settlement of the conflict. In opinion of both Armenian and Russian sides, the format of OSCE Minsk group is mostly responsible for the further settlement of the Karabakh conflict.

  19. Compressibility of peat and estimation of drainage settlement of a road right-of-way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saarilahti, M.

    1991-01-01

    The settlement of peatland road right-of-way can be estimated on the basis of geotechnology. The modulus of compression and the compression index measured by consolidation tests and the obtained values were tested against the observed settlement data from a literature survey. The regression coefficient between observed and calculated settlement was 0.84 when using only load factor (depth of ditches) as an independent variable, and 0.92 when peat moisture content was included into the model. Compression index gave a little higher correlation coefficients, 0.92-0.94. It seems possible to develop simple settlement calculation methods for fores road planning and construction

  20. Monitoring and modeling of long-term settlements of an experimental landfill in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Gustavo Ferreira; Catapreta, Cícero Antônio Antunes

    2013-02-01

    Settlement evaluation in sanitary landfills is a complex process, due to the waste heterogeneity, time-varying properties and influencing factors and mechanisms, such as mechanical compression due to load application and creep, and physical-chemical and biological processes caused by the wastes decomposition. Many empirical models for the analysis of long-term settlement in landfills are reported in the literature. This paper presents the results of a settlement monitoring program carried out during 6 years in Belo Horizonte experimental landfill. Different sets of field data were used to calibrate three long-term settlement prediction models (rheological, hyperbolic and composite). The parameters obtained in the calibration were used to predict the settlements and to compare with actual field data. During the monitoring period of 6 years, significant vertical strains were observed (of up to 31%) in relation to the initial height of the experimental landfill. The results for the long-term settlement prediction obtained by the hyperbolic and rheological models significantly underestimate the settlements, regardless the period of data used in the calibration. The best fits were obtained with the composite model, except when 1 year field data were used in the calibration. The results of the composite model indicate settlements stabilization at larger times and with larger final settlements when compared to the hyperbolic and rheological models. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Soundscapes and Larval Settlement: Larval Bivalve Responses to Habitat-Associated Underwater Sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, David B; Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2016-01-01

    We quantified the effects of habitat-associated sounds on the settlement response of two species of bivalves with contrasting habitat preferences: (1) Crassostrea virginicia (oyster), which prefers to settle on other oysters, and (2) Mercenaria mercenaria (clam), which settles on unstructured habitats. Oyster larval settlement in the laboratory was significantly higher when exposed to oyster reef sound compared with either off-reef or no-sound treatments. Clam larval settlement did not vary according to sound treatments. Similar to laboratory results, field experiments showed that oyster larval settlement in "larval housings" suspended above oyster reefs was significantly higher compared with off-reef sites.

  2. Population Ageing in Rural Settlements in the Republic of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic demographic characteristics of Croatia is the inherited dispersed population density with a large number of small settlements and the undeveloped system of regional and micro-regional centres. Such settlement structure was entirely inappropriate in the conditions of accelerated and urban-based industrialization after the Second World War. This period was characterised by a mass transition of agricultural population into non-agricultural activities, along with the abandonment of rural settlements. In addition to the strong emigration from rural areas in which younger age groups participated for the most part, there was a continuous reduction in fertility, too. All this has led to the narrowing of young age groups and consequently to the increase in the proportion of the elderly. An important factor of demographic ageing is the reduction in mortality of persons over 30 years of age and longer life respectively. Life expectancy of the Croatian population was 64.8 years in 1960 and 77.2 years in 1972. The average age constantly increased: it was 32.5 years in 1961, 35.4 in 1981 and it reached the high 41.7 years in 2011. The aggression and war against Croatia happened in the 1990s. Dramatic events affected the general social conditions and processes, strongly accelerating negative demographic trends. All this had further affected the socio-demographically eroded rural areas. There was a particularly difficult situation in the regions directly affected by the war; part of these areas had had the features of extreme demographic regression before the war sufferings and the war only further strengthened it. The overall population of Croatia is characterised by decreasing fertility, natural depopulation (negative natural change, total depopulation (since 1990 and intense population ageing. The duration and intensity of these processes clearly testifies to the demographic development of Croatia being very unfavourable. All this also

  3. Settlement of Tax Disputes in the Russian Federation and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Alexandrovna Konyukhova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the settlement of tax disputes in the Russian Federation and the Federal Republic of Germany. The features of the conflict settlement mechanism are both shown in the stage of administrative and judicial review. In accordance with German law, the administrative stage of dispute resolution, carried out by the tax authority, always precedes the filing of a complaint to a court. Consequently, the taxpayer submits his first application in writing to the tax authority that issued the tax act, though in some cases to a higher tax authority. This obligatory procedure was borrowed by the Russian tax system. The trial stage of tax dispute settlement in Germany is carried out by specialized courts, forming a two-level system for legal proceedings. Thus, the tax dispute submitted to the Court is settled first by the financial lands courts and then by the higher Federal Financial Court. However, the Federal Financial Court takes into consideration only certain categories of actions listed in the Act (the Regulations of finance courts (Finanzgerichtordnung. In Russia appeals of administrative review of tax conflicts, unlike in the German system, are handled by arbitration and general jurisdiction courts. The Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation is the supreme judicial body for settling economic disputes and other cases considered by arbitration courts in implementing federal procedural judicial supervision over their activities and provides explanations regarding judicial practices. Arbitration courts established at the level of the Federation to resolve disputes involving commercial entities, e.g. enterprises and entrepreneurs, resolve the bulk of tax disputes. These courts are composed of specially created panels of judges known as bars, i.e. groups of judges who specialize in reviewing taxation cases.

  4. The Ecology of Early Settlement in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The first volume presents new archaeological and ecological data and analyses on the relation between human subsistence and survival, and the natural history of North-Western Europe throughout the period 10000 – 6000 BC. The volume contains contributions from ecological oriented archaeologists...... and from the natural sciences, throwing new light on the physical and biotic/ecological conditions of relevance to the earliest settlement. Main themes are human subsistence, subsistence technology, ecology and food availability pertaining to the first humans, and demographic patterns among humans linked...

  5. EVALUATION OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT INFLUENCE ON SUBURBAN TRAFFIC FLOW DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Horbachov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Study results of the human settlement influence on the traffic flow density in suburban service of international, national and regional roads of Ukraine are presented. The possibility of an adequate description of suburban traffic flows in the vicinity of large cities is established, depending on the city population and link remoteness from the city center. The possibility is determined on the basis of obtained models to define the prognosis value of the intensity and specific maintenance of freight and passenger transport flows.

  6. Route planning of separate waste collection on a small settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna MRÓWCZYŃSKA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Waste collection problems are one of the most important logistic tasks to solve. The paper deals with the optimization of vehicle routes, which is one of the ways of reducing costs of waste collection. In this paper it was formulated the problem of optimization for a single vehicle. This task can be reduced to the Euler’s problem in the mathematical sense. The task was resolved using artificial immune systems. The methods have been adapted to solve real problems of selective waste collection on a small settlement. The solutions were discussed. It was described further plans for the development of methods for waste collection needs.

  7. Settlement of the USS Arizona, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkin, Brad A.; Kayen, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    the stiff clays and coral debris beneath the aft half of the USS Arizona and thickening toward the stern. The 2008 position of the hull has been documented using both tide-based and differential Global Positioning System (GPS) measuring systems. Analysis of historical and recent photographs was done to create a record of settlement from the time of sinking in 1941 to the present. By examining shadows in suitable photos, the sun azimuth, local time of day, and tide levels were determined to derive tide-adjusted and sea-level-rise-corrected elevations for structures on the hull and from these elevations to obtain settlement and tilt trends. The settlement trends, most complete for barbette 3, have two components. An early, nonlinear component ends on December 9, 1941, and represents the initial penetration and displacement of the bottom sediment by the hull. A linear, long-term trend of normal consolidation continues to the present day. Long-term settlement rates are greatest at the stern and decrease linearly to the midship, showing that the aft half of the hull is moving as an intact, rigid body. The recent rate of settlement at the stern is about 3.5 mm/year; rates at the starboard midship and forward part of the hull are less than one-third of the stern rate. The aft half of the USS Arizona hull presently tilts about 2 degrees to port, an increase of at least 1.5 degrees since the initial sinking of the ship. The results of this study identify differential settlement of the Arizona hull, due to the wedge of soft clay underlying the aft half of the hull, as the cause of the movement of the hull beneath the surface of Pearl Harbor. Calculation of sediment consolidation using lab-determined properties of the soft clay demonstrates that the observed settlements can be reproduced by projecting appropriate clay thicknesses beneath the hull. Several of the high-quality photographs analyzed for the historical settlement analysis highlight some of the limitations of this

  8. Settlement Behaviors of Metro Tunnels during the Metro Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbo Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the settlement behaviors of a metro tunnel during metro operation. A nonlinear vibration model of vehicle-track is established, and a series of vibration loadings for the frequency domain acting on segments are obtained based on a modal analysis method and applying the Fourier transformation algorithm. The displacements at any position in the soil are derived from the segment-soil interaction coupled model with the elastic continuum theory, and its accuracy is verified by comparing with the calculation result obtained by elastic-plastic finite element model.

  9. African Countries and WTO´s Dispute Settlement Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavi, Amin

    2007-01-01

    The WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism was designed, inter alia, to secure the 'rule of law' within international trade and provide all members with opportunities to exercise their rights under multilateral trade agreements. But, after ten years, no sub-Saharan African country has yet used the option...... to initiate a dispute. This article examines what prevents the WTO Africa Group from using the system and critically reviews the solutions they have proposed to remedy this. It concludes by discussing how this reflects broader problems concerning African participation in WTO, and puts forward some alternative...

  10. CONSIDERATIONS ON ASSESSMENT OF PAYMENT AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timeea Maria DUMESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Payment and settlement systems are financial instruments that are significant to the financial and banking system. Payment systems are a source of current information and an operative intervention tool by providing oversight use funds in the accounts of the banks. Since their implementation in the banking system structure these systems have evolved continuously in the market requirements, we are encountering major problems are mostly due to strict compliance with international standards, which ensure a high level of safety in their operation and measures by the central bank.

  11. Settlement patterns and communication routes of the western Maya wetlands: An archaeological and remote-sensing survey, Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, David R.

    This dissertation investigates the role of the seasonal wetlands in the political economy and subsistence strategies of the ancient Maya of Chunchucmil, Yucatan, Mexico. A combination of pedestrian surveys and remote-sensing tasks were performed in order to better understand the settlement patterns and potential communication routes in and through the wetlands between Chunchucmil and the Gulf of Mexico. These western wetlands had been proposed as the principal avenue for interregional trade between coastal merchants and inland consumers, yet were thought to be uninhabited and uncultivable. Following the survey tasks outlined in this dissertation, these wetlands were found to contain an abundance of archaeological settlements and features indicating habitation, utilization, and trade throughout this diverse ecological zone. The remote-sensing platforms utilized in this study include both multispectral (Landsat) and synthetic aperture radar (AirSAR), combined with additional remotely sensed resources. One of the goals of this survey was to test the capabilities of these two sensors for the direct detection of archaeological features from air and space. The results indicate that Landsat can be highly successful at detecting site location and measuring site size under certain environmental conditions. The Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar proved to be adept at detecting large mounded architecture within the Yucatecan karstic plain, but its further utility is hampered by limitations of resolution, scale, and land cover. One of the salient features of the landscape west of Chunchucmil is a network of stone pathways called andadores. These avenues through the wetlands outline a dendritic network of communication, trade, and extraction routes. The following dissertation places this network and its associated settlements (from suburban centers to diminutive camps) within their regional context, examining the roles they may have played in supporting a large mercantile

  12. Metering, settlement and export reward options for micro-generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme to evaluate the costs and benefits of various metering, settlement and export reward opportunities for both renewable and non-renewable forms of microgeneration based on existing projections to 2020. The technologies studied included single and three-phase applications of: solar photovoltaic (rated at 1 kW per installation); small-scale wind generation (rated at 1 kW per installation); micro-CHP (combined heat and power) (rated at 1.1 kW per installation); and micro-hydropower (rated at 3.7 and 6.4 kW per installation). The report outlines a number of different options for metering, settlement and export rewards, and describes the development of an economic model to quantify their costs and benefits. This model is then used to predict the future costs and benefits of the various options. The potential value of the options to the UK economy and any environmental benefits are discussed and a commentary on possible barriers to implementation is provided.

  13. Interim report on the settlement test in Stripa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Pusch, R.

    1989-11-01

    A deposition hole, of the KBS 3 concept type, is being simulated by a borehole with 40 cm diameter in the Stripa mine. The canister is heated and different vertical loads applied to the canister. The resulting canister displacement, rock displacements and swelling and compression of the compacted bentonite and sand/bentonite overfill are studied. The test is still running. So far the results and calculations have yielded the following main conclusions: The canister is heaving since the compacted bentonite is swelling upwards, thereby compacting the overlying sand/bentonite overfill; The effect of a temperature increase on the surrounding rock can only be explained by block movements. The very high pore pressure induced in heated bentonite is strongly affecting the rock; The total consolidation settlement caused by the weight of the canister is several times larger than the total creep settlement achieved in the initial 100-1000 years; The processes observed during the test are fairly well understood and seems to be predictable

  14. Post-settlement survivorship in two Caribbean broadcasting corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret W.

    2014-12-01

    The post-settlement phase of broadcast-spawned coral life histories is poorly known due to its almost complete undetectability and, hence, presumed low abundance in the field. We used lab-cultured settled polyps of two important Caribbean reef-building species with negligible larval recruitment to quantify early post-settlement survivorship (6-9 weeks) over multiple years/cohorts and differing orientation on a reef in the Florida Keys. Orbicella faveolata showed significantly and consistently better survivorship in vertical rather than horizontal orientation, but no discernable growth overall. Meanwhile, Acropora palmata showed no significant difference in survivorship between orientations, but significantly greater growth in the horizontal orientation. Both species showed significant variation in mean survivorship between cohorts of different years; 0-47 % for O. faveolata and 12-49 % for A. palmata over the observed duration. These results demonstrate wide variation in success of cohorts and important differences in the larval recruitment capacities of these two important but imperiled reef-building species.

  15. Impacts of the Master Settlement Agreement on the tobacco industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, F A; Mathews, C A; Trogdon, J G

    2004-12-01

    To assess effects of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) and the four individual state settlements on tobacco company decisions and performance. 10-K reports filed with the US Securities and Exchange Commission, firm and daily data from the Center for Research in Security Prices, stock price indices, market share and advertising data, cigarette export and domestic consumption data, and newspaper articles were used to assess changes before (1990-98) and after (1999-2002) the MSA was implemented. Five major tobacco manufacturers in the USA. Stockholder returns, operating performance of defendant companies, exports, market share of the original participants in the MSA, and advertising/promotion expenditures. Returns to investments in the tobacco industry exceeded returns from investments in securities of other companies, using each of four indexes as comparators. Domestic tobacco revenues increased during 1999-2002 from pre-MSA levels. Profits from domestic sales rose from levels prevailing immediately before the MSA. There is no indication that the MSA caused an increase in tobacco exports. Total market share of the original participating manufacturers in the MSA decreased. Total advertising expenditures by the tobacco companies increased at a higher rate than the 1990-98 trend during 1999-2002, but total advertising expenditures net of spending on coupons and promotions decreased. The experience during the post-MSA period demonstrates that the MSA did no major harm to the companies. Some features of the MSA appear to have increased company value and profitability.

  16. Multi-layered settlement Rudi XX (excavations in 1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vlasenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication presents the results of investigations, which had began in 1980 at the Rudi XX settlement in the Soroca District of the Republic of Moldova, obtained in 1982. There was confirmed the multi-layered structure of the site and the horizon of the Iron Age was first identified. But because of the small number and inexpressiveness of the ceramic findings, this layer was previously dated by a rather long period of time – from the late Hallstatt (7th-6th centuries BC to the Getic culture (4th-3rd centuries BC. The discovered structure in the form of a heavily burned pit was attributed, as a hypothesis, to the Getic crematorium. The production character of the early medieval settlement has been confirmed (presence of iron slag, fragments of ceramic blowing nozzles and iron ore. The remains of three ovens of the 8th-9th centuries were investigated. The collection of medieval pottery of the 6th-11th centuries and individual findings of iron, stone and bone objects was assembled.

  17. Hudson River settlement agreement: Technical rationale and cost considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Boreman, J.; Englert, T.L.; Kirk, W.L.; Horn, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to end litigation over open-cycle cooling at Hudson River power plants, out-of-court negotiations began in August 1979. On December 19, 1980, an agreement that was acceptable to all parties was reached. As an alternative to building cooling towers at the Indian Point, Bowline Point, and Roseton generating stations, the utilities agreed to a variety of technical and operational changes intended to reduce entrainment and impingement. In addition, they agreed to supplement the production of striped bass in the Hudson River estuary by means of a hatchery, to conduct a biological monitoring program, and to fund an independent research foundation for study of Hudson River environmental problems. Although the settlement costs were substantial, they were much smaller than the estimated costs of constructing and operating cooling towers. The settlement was expected to provide 15-43% of the impact reduction that might have been obtained with cooling at approximately 10% of the cost. 20 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Changing Settlements and Landscapes: Medieval Whittlewood, its Predecessors and Successors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Jones

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an interpretative synthesis of the development of a medieval landscape in the English Midlands. It explores its administrative organisation and divisions; the exploitation of its woodland, pasture, and arable resources; and the creation, growth, and decline of its villages, hamlets and farmsteads. It takes as its central theme two inter-related oppositions: continuity and change, moments and processes. In particular it examines the role these played in the development of varying settlement morphologies (the area under investigation contains both nucleated and dispersed settlement forms and in the introduction and demise of the open field system. The article is based on the investigation of twenty-one medieval villages and hamlets and their surrounding landscapes, straddling the Northamptonshire-Buckinghamshire boundary and previously falling within the royal forest of Whittlewood. This work was undertaken between 2000 and 2005 as part of an AHRC (formerly ARHB-funded research project. This enquiry, and the use it has made of the comparative method, has pinpointed moments of village and hamlet 'creation' and the alternative forms that these could take in their earliest phases. The subsequent development of these settlements has been charted, revealing the divergent paths they took towards the nucleated or dispersed plans they present when first mapped in the 17th, 18th or 19th centuries. This dynamic pattern of settlement has been set against a background of related changes to the authoritative landscape, which saw the fission and fusion of administrative units; to the economic landscape, which witnessed the development of the open field system and the re-organisation of woodland; and to social and cultural landscapes, affected inter alia by the growth and decline of population, and the imposition of Forest Law. The reconstruction of these medieval village territories has only been achieved by adopting an interdisciplinary

  19. 77 FR 58126 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Offer of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RP12-1021-000] Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Offer of Settlement Take notice that on September 4, 2012, Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC (Columbia) filed a Stipulation and Agreement (Settlement), including pro forma tariff records...

  20. Issue update: a regional settlement proposal to resolve the Washington Nuclear Plant No. 3 lawsuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) announced on August 2, 1985, that a number of substantive changes suggested by public comment on the Washington Nuclear Plant No. 3 settlement had been agreed to in principle by BPA and four private utilities. Since that date the details of these changes have been resolved, and the proposed settlement is now being offered for public review and comment

  1. 7 CFR 27.94 - Spot markets for contract settlement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. 27.94... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Spot Markets § 27.94 Spot markets for contract settlement purposes. The following are designated as spot markets for...

  2. 78 FR 718 - Enterprise TE Products Pipeline Company LLC; Notice of Settlement Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. IS12-203-000] Enterprise TE Products Pipeline Company LLC; Notice of Settlement Conference Take notice that an informal settlement conference will be convened in this proceeding commencing at 10:00 a.m. on January 3, 2013, at the offices of...

  3. Spatial Patterns and the Regional Differences of Rural Settlements in Jilin Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spatial patterns of rural settlements are important for understanding the drivers of land use change and the relationship between human activity and environmental processes. It has been suggested that the clustering of houses decreases the negative effects on the environment and promotes the development of the countryside, but few empirical studies have quantified the spatial distribution patterns of houses. Our aim was to explore the regional differences in rural settlement patterns and expand our understanding of their geographic associations, and thus contribute to land use planning and the implementation of the policy of “building a new countryside”. We used spatial statistical methods and indices of landscape metrics to investigate different settlement patterns in three typical counties within different environments in Jilin Province, Northeast China. The results indicated that rural settlements in these three counties were all clustered, but to a varied degree. Settlement density maps and landscape metrics displayed uniformity of the settlement distributions within plain, hill, and mountainous areas. Influenced by the physical environment, the scale, form, and degree of aggregation varied. Accordingly, three types of rural settlements were summarized: a low-density, large-scale and sparse type; a mass-like and point-scattered type; and a low-density and high cluster-like type. The spatial patterns of rural settlements are the result of anthropogenic and complex physical processes, and provide an important insight for the layout and management of the countryside.

  4. 75 FR 36271 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Home Warranty Companies' Payments to Real Estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Home Warranty Companies' Payments to Real Estate Brokers and... RESPA and HUD's implementing RESPA regulations, services performed by real estate brokers and agents as additional settlement services in a real estate transaction are compensable if the services are actual...

  5. 78 FR 24227 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request: Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Disclosures AGENCY.... Description of the need for the information and proposed use: The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of... Act), rulemaking authority for and certain enforcement authorities with respect to the Real Estate...

  6. The Impact of E-Skills on the Settlement of Iranian Refugees in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Saeed; Armarego, Jocelyn; Sudweeks, Fay

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Purpose: The research investigates the impact of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on Iranian refugees' settlement in Australia. Background: The study identifies the issues of settlement, such as language, cultural and social differences. Methodology: The Multi-Sited Ethnography (MSE), which is a qualitative methodology, has…

  7. A Multi-Objective Harmony Search Algorithm for Sustainable Design of Floating Settlements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cubukcuoglu, Cemre; Chatzikonstantinou, I.; Tasgetiren, Mehmet Fatih; Sariyildiz, I.S.; Pan, Q.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of computational intelligence techniques to the conceptual design and development of a large-scale floating settlement. The settlement in question is a design for the area of Urla, which is a rural touristic region located on the west coast of Turkey,

  8. A Multi-Objective Harmony Search Algorithm for Sustainable Design of Floating Settlements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çubukçuoglu, C.; Chatzikonstantinou, I.; Tasgetiren, Mehmet Fatih; Sariyildiz, I.S.; Pan, Quan-Ke

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the application of computational intelligence techniques to the conceptual design and development of a large-scale floating settlement. The settlement in question is a design for the area of Urla, which is a rural touristic region located on the west coast of Turkey,

  9. Key principles for adapting South African settlement patterns to climate change

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify key principles for adapting SA settlement patterns to climate change. Section 1 reviews the range of climate-related impacts likely to affect SA settlements using climate change models and scenarios as a context...

  10. Washington Closure Hanford Report of Settlement Monitoring of the ERDF Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. T. Cameron

    2008-07-30

    This report summarizes the results of the ERDF Settlement Monitoring Program conducted between August 9, 2007, and April 29, 2008, on the 35-foot and 70-foot levels of the ERDF landfill. The purpose of this monitoring program was to verify that the materials already placed under the 35-foot and 70-foot levels satisfy the settlement criteria of the conceptual cap design.

  11. Pre-Chernyakhov horizon of the multilayer settlement of Chernitsa I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Kurchatov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traces of craft activities are poorly represented in the cultural horizon of the Etulia type settlements. This paper introduces into scientific use a kiln possibly used for firing pottery, which was discovered in the multilayer settlement of Chernitsa I in the northern zone of the Dniester-Prut interfluves area.

  12. 75 FR 23318 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Philippines-Taxes on Distilled Spirits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... of a dispute settlement panel under the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization... established by the World Trade Organization (``WTO'') Dispute Settlement Body on April 20, 2010. USTR invites... available on the Web site of the World Trade Organization, http://www.wto.org . Comments will be placed in...

  13. Variation in habitat soundscape characteristics influences settlement of a reef-building coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Ashlee; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne; Peters, Jason W; Eggleston, David

    2016-01-01

    Coral populations, and the productive reef ecosystems they support, rely on successful recruitment of reef-building species, beginning with settlement of dispersing larvae into habitat favourable to survival. Many substrate cues have been identified as contributors to coral larval habitat selection; however, the potential for ambient acoustic cues to influence coral settlement responses is unknown. Using in situ settlement chambers that excluded other habitat cues, larval settlement of a dominant Caribbean reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata , was compared in response to three local soundscapes, with differing acoustic and habitat properties. Differences between reef sites in the number of larvae settled in chambers isolating acoustic cues corresponded to differences in sound levels and reef characteristics, with sounds at the loudest reef generating significantly higher settlement during trials compared to the quietest site (a 29.5 % increase). These results suggest that soundscapes could be an important influence on coral settlement patterns and that acoustic cues associated with reef habitat may be related to larval settlement. This study reports an effect of soundscape variation on larval settlement for a key coral species, and adds to the growing evidence that soundscapes affect marine ecosystems by influencing early life history processes of foundational species.

  14. Variation in habitat soundscape characteristics influences settlement of a reef-building coral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlee Lillis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coral populations, and the productive reef ecosystems they support, rely on successful recruitment of reef-building species, beginning with settlement of dispersing larvae into habitat favourable to survival. Many substrate cues have been identified as contributors to coral larval habitat selection; however, the potential for ambient acoustic cues to influence coral settlement responses is unknown. Using in situ settlement chambers that excluded other habitat cues, larval settlement of a dominant Caribbean reef-building coral, Orbicella faveolata, was compared in response to three local soundscapes, with differing acoustic and habitat properties. Differences between reef sites in the number of larvae settled in chambers isolating acoustic cues corresponded to differences in sound levels and reef characteristics, with sounds at the loudest reef generating significantly higher settlement during trials compared to the quietest site (a 29.5 % increase. These results suggest that soundscapes could be an important influence on coral settlement patterns and that acoustic cues associated with reef habitat may be related to larval settlement. This study reports an effect of soundscape variation on larval settlement for a key coral species, and adds to the growing evidence that soundscapes affect marine ecosystems by influencing early life history processes of foundational species.

  15. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in the electrochemical inhibition of barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolfo E. Perez-Roa; Marc A. Anderson; Dan Rittschof; Christopher G. Hunt; Daniel R. Noguera

    2009-01-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in electrochemical biofouling inhibition was investigated using a series of abiotic tests and settlement experiments with larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite, a cosmopolitan fouler. Larval settlement, a measure of biofouling potential, was reduced from 43% ± 14% to 5% ± 6% upon the application of...

  16. Brokering Identity and Learning Citizenship: Immigration Settlement Organizations and New Chinese Immigrants in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yidan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines citizenship learning and identity construction of new Chinese immigrants in a Canadian immigration settlement organization (ISO). I address the gap between the concept of "settlement" and "citizenship" generated by government-funded ISOs and new immigrants' actual practices in these programs. I adopt Dorothy…

  17. A comparison of imbalance settlement designs and results of Germany and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.; Abbasy, A.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Imbalance settlement is a vital part of the balancing market, i.e. the institutional arrangement that establishes market-based balance management in liberalized electricity markets. We investigate the impact of the imbalance settlement design on the behaviour of Balance Responsible Parties and

  18. Sanitation services for the informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mels, A.R.; Castellano, D.; Braadbaart, O.D.; Veenstra, S.; Dijkstra, I.; Meulman, B.; Singels, A.; Wilsenach, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Sanitation coverage in the informal settlements of Cape Town is severely lagging behind. A recent inventory showed that the main barriers to the implementation of proper sanitation systems are unsuitability of the location of many settlements (more than 40% of the sites are located on private land,

  19. 77 FR 4559 - Ecusta Mill Site, Pisgah Forest, Transylvania County, NC; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-R4-SFUND 2012-; FRL-9624-1] Ecusta Mill Site, Pisgah Forest... settlement for resolution of past response and future costs concerning the Ecusta Mill Superfund Site located... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Ecusta Mill Superfund...

  20. 48 CFR 53.301-1437 - Settlement Proposal for Cost-Reimbursement Type Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement Proposal for Cost-Reimbursement Type Contracts. 53.301-1437 Section 53.301-1437 Federal Acquisition Regulations...-1437 Settlement Proposal for Cost-Reimbursement Type Contracts. ER09DE97.012 [62 FR 64951, Dec. 9, 1997] ...

  1. Detection of Informal Settlements from VHR Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mboga, Nicholus; Persello, Claudio; Bergado, John; Stein, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    Information about the location and extent of informal settlements is necessary to guide decision making and resource allocation for their upgrading. Very high resolution (VHR) satellite images can provide this useful information, however, different urban settlement types are hard to be automatically

  2. 22 CFR 23.5 - Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General Accounting Office. 23.5 Section 23.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.5 Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting Office. Claims for settlement by the Department of State or by the General Accounting Office shall be submitted...

  3. 77 FR 76165 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Argentina-Measures Affecting the Importation of Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE [Dispute No. WTO/DS444] WTO Dispute Settlement... Organization (``WTO Agreement''). That request may be found at www.wto.org contained in a document designated... after the United States submits or receives a request for the establishment of a WTO dispute settlement...

  4. 77 FR 23539 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding European Communities and Certain Member States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE [Dispute No. WTO/DS316] WTO Dispute Settlement... Organization (``WTO Agreement''). That request may be found at www.wto.org contained in a document designated... a WTO dispute settlement panel. Consistent with this obligation, USTR is providing notice that it...

  5. MSettle Version 8.2 - Embankment Design and Soil Settlement Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, H.; Den Haan, E.J.; Sellmeijer, J.B.; Van Zantvoort, E.; Visschedijk, M.A.T.; Trompille, V.

    2009-01-01

    This is the user manual for MSetuser manual tle, which is being developed by Delft GeoSystems, a Deltares company. MSettle is a dedicated tool for predicting soil settlements by external loading. MSettle accurately and quickly determines the direct settlement, consolidation and creep along verticals

  6. 24 CFR 30.100 - Settlement of a civil money penalty action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement of a civil money penalty... Housing and Urban Development CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES: CERTAIN PROHIBITED CONDUCT Procedures § 30.100 Settlement of a civil money penalty action. The officials listed at subpart B of this part, or their...

  7. Authority, Legitimacy, and Fragmentation in the (Envisaged) Dispute Settlement Disciplines in Mega-Regionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schill, S.W.; Griller, S.; Obwexer, W.; Vranes, E.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter analyses the inter-state and investor-state dispute settlement disciplines included in mega-regionals, focusing on the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement and the Trans-Pacific Partnership. It argues that dispute settlement assumes a pivotal role in trade and investment

  8. 77 FR 27669 - Request for Public Comment on Settlement Part Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and to reduce litigation costs. The Settlement Part program is a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) under which larger contested OSHA..., such a case is first assigned to a ``Settlement Judge'' who will issue a discovery order and supervise...

  9. 10 CFR 2.338 - Settlement of issues; alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement of issues; alternative dispute resolution. 2... alternative dispute resolution under paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Settlement judge; alternative dispute... alternative dispute resolution as the Commission may provide or to which the parties may agree. The order...

  10. The role of territory settlement, individual quality, and nesting initiation on productivity of Bell's vireos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara J. Joos; Frank R., III Thompson; John. Faaborg

    2014-01-01

    Variation in habitat quality among territories within a heterogeneous patch should influence reproductive success of territory owners. Further, territory settlement order following an ideal despotic distribution (IDD) should predict the fitness of occupants if territory selection is adaptive. We recorded settlement order and monitored nests in territories occupied by...

  11. Primary Adhesion in Enteromorpha. Cue Detection and Surface Selection in the Settlement and Adhesion of Enteromorpha Spores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Callow, James

    2001-01-01

    .... spore settlement and adhesion. Our results provide the most comprehensive characterisation of the settlement and adhesion processes and the roles of surface-associated cues, of any soft-fouling species to date, We have shown...

  12. Simulation of water recovery and its effect on settlement of open-cut coal mine back-fill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderian, A.R.; Williams, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Open-cut coal mine back-fill usually undergoes significant settlement due to inundation by surface water infiltration and groundwater rise. The rate and magnitude of inundation settlement is difficult to predict and quantify due to the large number of contributing factors. Consequently, none of the available settlement models and theories has been able to successfully describe the inundation settlement occurring in back-filled open-cut coal mines. A combination of laboratory and numerical simulation of settlement is a valuable means of estimating the inundation settlement of back-fill. The settlements predicted by this simulation are in good agreement with previous observations of inundation settlement in open-cut coal mine back-fill. 11 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab

  13. Settlement behavior of the container for high-level nuclear waste disposal. Centrifuge model tests and proposal for simple evaluation method for settlement behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2004-01-01

    In Japan, bentonite will be used as buffer materials in high-level nuclear waste disposal. In the softened buffer material with the infiltration of various properties of under ground water, if the container deeply sinks, the decrease of the thickness of the buffer materials may lose the required abilities. Therefore, it is very important to consider settlement of container. In this study, influences of distilled water and artificial seawater on the settlement of the container were investigated and a simple evaluation method for settlement of the container was proposed. The following findings were obtained from this study. (1) Under the distilled water, amount of settlement decreases exponentially as dry density becomes larger. (2) While the amount of settlement of container under the 10% artificial seawater was almost equal to the one in the distilled water, the container was floating under the 100% artificial seawater. (3) The simple evaluation method for settlement of container was proposed based on the diffuse double layer theory, and the effectiveness of the proposed method was demonstrated by the results of several experiments. (author)

  14. Challenges to achieving sustainable sanitation in informal settlements of Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinda, Aime; Abbott, Pamela; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katrina; Adogo, Jane; Okurut, Kenan; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2013-12-10

    Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city's population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two informal settlements (Gatsata and Kimisagara) were selected for the study, which used a mixed method approach for data collection. The research found that residents experienced multiple problems because of poor sanitation and that the main barrier to improved sanitation was cost. Findings from this study can be used by the city authorities in the planning of effective sanitation intervention strategies for communities in informal settlements.

  15. Effects of bentonite kinds and dry density on the amount of settlement of overpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2009-01-01

    The effects of bentonite kinds and dry density on the settlement behavior of overpack for high level radioactive waste disposal were investigated using both experimental (i.e. centrifuge) and analytical approaches. The nonlinear elastic analysis using a tangent modulus of elasticity obtained from the diffuse double layer theory was carried out to explain the settlement behavior from centrifuge experiments. The difference of properties between bentonites can be considered by this analysis. The results of nonlinear elastic analysis agreed with experimental results. The amount of settlement was decreased with an increase in the dry density and was exponentially decreased with an increase in the swelling pressure. Furthermore, no difference of the amount of settlement was observed if swelling pressure of each bentonite is same. When swelling pressure is more than 1 MPa, the amount of settlement of model overpack into bentonite with 400 mm thickness was less than 10 mm. (author)

  16. Anthropological Aspects of Alcohol Trade in Microsocieties of Chukotka National Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Yarzutkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the report is to describe the communicative culture that has been established between the home-made vodka traders (home-distilled vodka producers, alcohol buyers and activists fighting for temperance in national settlements of Chukotka. Informal economic relations take place within particular settlements; the main thing that is involved in these relations is alcohol. Outside the settlement the connections between traders and buyers do not work and the network of interactions breaks. To mark out the participants in the alcohol trade the report presents the structure of settlement microsociety in Chukotka from a very generalised perspective, based on author's experience of staying in these settlements and on some statistical data.

  17. The Landscape Change of Qiang’s Settlements in the Upper Reaches of Minjiang River after Wenchuan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaofei Wen; Ying Meng; Changliu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Qiang ethnic group is one of the oldest ethnic groups in China, mainly living in upper reaches of Minjiang River in southwest of China. Qiang’s traditional settlements are valuable cultural heritages. Unfortunately, most of Qiang’s settlements were damaged during Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in different degree. After the earthquake, settlements were reconstructed in different ways. The landscape of Qiang’s settlements had been changed greatly by dual influences, the destruction of earthquake ...

  18. Evaluating procedural modelling for 3D models of informal settlements in urban design activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Rautenbach

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D modelling and visualisation is one of the fastest growing application fields in geographic information science. 3D city models are being researched extensively for a variety of purposes and in various domains, including urban design, disaster management, education and computer gaming. These models typically depict urban business districts (downtown or suburban residential areas. Despite informal settlements being a prevailing feature of many cities in developing countries, 3D models of informal settlements are virtually non-existent. 3D models of informal settlements could be useful in various ways, e.g. to gather information about the current environment in the informal settlements, to design upgrades, to communicate these and to educate inhabitants about environmental challenges. In this article, we described the development of a 3D model of the Slovo Park informal settlement in the City of Johannesburg Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa. Instead of using time-consuming traditional manual methods, we followed the procedural modelling technique. Visualisation characteristics of 3D models of informal settlements were described and the importance of each characteristic in urban design activities for informal settlement upgrades was assessed. Next, the visualisation characteristics of the Slovo Park model were evaluated. The results of the evaluation showed that the 3D model produced by the procedural modelling technique is suitable for urban design activities in informal settlements. The visualisation characteristics and their assessment are also useful as guidelines for developing 3D models of informal settlements. In future, we plan to empirically test the use of such 3D models in urban design projects in informal settlements.

  19. ‘Men value their dignity’: securing respect and identity construction in urban informal settlements in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Urban informal settlements remain sites of high HIV incidence and prevalence, as well as violence. Increasing attention is paid on how configurations of young men's masculinities shape these practices through exploring how men build respect and identity. In this paper, we explore how young Black South Africans in two urban informal settlements construct respect and a masculine identity. Methods Data are drawn from three focus groups and 19 in-depth interviews. Results We suggest that while young men aspire to a ‘traditional’ masculinity, prioritising economic power and control over the household, we suggest that a youth masculinity emerges which, in lieu of alternative ways to display power, prioritises violence and control over men's sexual partners, men seeking multiple sexual partners and men's violence to other men. This functions as a way of demonstrating masculinity and their position within a public gender order. Discussion We suggest there are three implications of the findings for working with men on violence and HIV-risk reduction. First, there exist a number of contradictions in men's discourses about masculinity that may provide spaces and opportunities for change. Second, it is important to work on multiple issues at once given the way violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk are interlinked in youth masculinity. Finally, engaging with men's exclusion from the capitalist system may provide an important way to reduce violence. PMID:24717188

  20. Timing and sequencing of events marking the transition to adulthood in two informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguy, Donatien; Kabiru, Caroline W; Zulu, Eliya M; Ezeh, Alex C

    2011-06-01

    Young people living in poor urban informal settlements face unique challenges as they transition to adulthood. This exploratory paper uses retrospective information from the baseline survey of a 3-year prospective study to examine the timing and sequencing of four key markers (first sex, marriage, birth, and independent housing) of the transition to adulthood among 3,944 adolescents in two informal settlements in Nairobi city, Kenya. Event history analysis techniques are employed to examine the timing of the events. Results indicate that there is no significant gender difference with regard to first sexual debut among adolescents. For many boys and girls, the first sexual experience occurs outside of marriage or other union. For males, the sequencing of entry begins with entry into first sex, followed by independent housing. Conversely, for females, the sequencing begins with first sex and then parenthood. Apart from sexual debut, the patterns of entry into union and parenthood do not differ much from what was observed for Nairobi as a whole. The space constraints that typify the two slums may have influenced the pattern of leaving home observed. We discuss these and other findings in light of their implications for young people's health and well-being in resource-poor settings in urban areas.

  1. ‘Men value their dignity’: securing respect and identity construction in urban informal settlements in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gibbs

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urban informal settlements remain sites of high HIV incidence and prevalence, as well as violence. Increasing attention is paid on how configurations of young men's masculinities shape these practices through exploring how men build respect and identity. In this paper, we explore how young Black South Africans in two urban informal settlements construct respect and a masculine identity. Methods: Data are drawn from three focus groups and 19 in-depth interviews. Results: We suggest that while young men aspire to a ‘traditional’ masculinity, prioritising economic power and control over the household, we suggest that a youth masculinity emerges which, in lieu of alternative ways to display power, prioritises violence and control over men's sexual partners, men seeking multiple sexual partners and men's violence to other men. This functions as a way of demonstrating masculinity and their position within a public gender order. Discussion: We suggest there are three implications of the findings for working with men on violence and HIV-risk reduction. First, there exist a number of contradictions in men's discourses about masculinity that may provide spaces and opportunities for change. Second, it is important to work on multiple issues at once given the way violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk are interlinked in youth masculinity. Finally, engaging with men's exclusion from the capitalist system may provide an important way to reduce violence.

  2. The sustainability of the concept of the idea of a 'Garden city' in the process of country revitalization: An example of the settlement of Kulpin in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlešić Majda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the sense of satisfying the need and intention to renew life in the country, an adequate solution of landscape and spatial arrangement of these locations represents a very important segment. For all that, it is crucial to keep those characteristics of space that are the ones that, from the aspect of local inhabitants, increase the feeling of belonging there and, through many generations, influence on people's identity formation. At the same time in order to enable the country revitalization, it is necessary to make it attractive enough and adjust it to more and more sophisticated needs of particularly, younger intellectuals, who are missing mostly in the country. One of the possible models for achieving the arrangement that will keep and attract new population, but still keep the identity of a settlement is the application of the idea and concept of a garden city. The idea of a garden city, although it dates from the antique times, got materialized by the end of the 19th century in England, while here it has passed unnoticed. The crucial motive of Howard Ebenezer's idea was to organize the existing functions of a town i.e. a settlement in general, on principles of organic growth. The very name 'garden city' did not denote something particular related to the very notions and categories of garden of a city. The idea referred to rational and tidy approach to the complex system typical precisely of a garden. Organizing the space defined by the idea of a garden city brings about harmony and uniqueness despite differences and enables its sustainability despite needs of growth, just like in a garden. Until all parameters of space get established, especially the ones that express its authenticity, in the sense of the non-existence of a precise solution, the openness of the idea enables its application on different locations. The village of Kulpin, one of 'street shaped villages' in Vojvodina, with its precise organizational space structure belongs to

  3. Chagas disease, migration and community settlement patterns in Arequipa, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Bayer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases in the Americas. Vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease has been historically rare in urban settings. However, in marginal communities near the city of Arequipa, Peru, urban transmission cycles have become established. We examined the history of migration and settlement patterns in these communities, and their connections to Chagas disease transmission.This was a qualitative study that employed focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Five focus groups and 50 in-depth interviews were carried out with 94 community members from three shantytowns and two traditional towns near Arequipa, Peru. Focus groups utilized participatory methodologies to explore the community's mobility patterns and the historical and current presence of triatomine vectors. In-depth interviews based on event history calendars explored participants' migration patterns and experience with Chagas disease and vectors. Focus group data were analyzed using participatory analysis methodologies, and interview data were coded and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Entomologic data were provided by an ongoing vector control campaign. We found that migrants to shantytowns in Arequipa were unlikely to have brought triatomines to the city upon arrival. Frequent seasonal moves, however, took shantytown residents to valleys surrounding Arequipa where vectors are prevalent. In addition, the pattern of settlement of shantytowns and the practice of raising domestic animals by residents creates a favorable environment for vector proliferation and dispersal. Finally, we uncovered a phenomenon of population loss and replacement by low-income migrants in one traditional town, which created the human settlement pattern of a new shantytown within this traditional community.The pattern of human migration is therefore an important underlying determinant of Chagas disease risk in and around Arequipa. Frequent

  4. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of the Inhabitants of the Kani Forest Tribal Settlements of Tiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandha, B.; Srinivasan, R.; Jambulingam, P.

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is reported among Kani tribes in forest settlements of Tiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. Epidemiological investigations are ongoing and 27 histopathologically confirmed cases of CL have been reported from five settlements indicating transmission of disease within settlements. One of the priorities for…

  5. 75 FR 31334 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Strengthening and Clarifying RESPA's “Required Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...-A178 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Strengthening and Clarifying RESPA's ``Required Use... by those in a position to refer settlement business (such as builders, real estate agents, and... referral fees, kickbacks, and unearned fees for real estate settlement services.\\1\\ \\1\\ In July 2008...

  6. 48 CFR 49.603-4 - Cost-reimbursement contracts-complete termination, with settlement limited to fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... settlement limited to fee. [Insert the following in Block 14 of SF 30 for settlement of cost-reimbursement... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement contracts-complete termination, with settlement limited to fee. 49.603-4 Section 49.603-4 Federal...

  7. Spatial Pattern and the Process of Settlement Expansion in Jiangsu Province from 1980 to 2010, Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Human settlement expansion has very important effects on regional population migration, economic balance and ecosystem services. Understanding the evolution of settlement expansion and regional differences is significant for regional sustainability. The results showed that in the past 30 years, the urbanization rate in Jiangsu province was lower. From 1980 to 2010, the expansion area of urban settlement was larger than that of rural settlement. Urban settlement expanded slowly from 1980 to 2005 and strongly from 2005 to 2010. Rural settlement expanded greatly from 1980 to 1995, and 37.14% of settlement was mostly on cropland. The type of urban settlement expansion from 1980 to 1995 and from 2000 to 2005 was compact expansion. Settlement expansion in the south of Jiangsu province was greater than that in the north of Jiangsu province. The spatial pattern of settlement in most cities was a cluster. In the past 30 years, urban and rural settlement expansion had significantly different impacts on the soil and water environment. Urban settlement expansion was great in the south of Jiangsu province and widened the economic and social gap between the south and north of Jiangsu province.

  8. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 10 - Commission Policy Relating to the Acceptance of Settlements in Administrative and Civil Proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Acceptance of Settlements in Administrative and Civil Proceedings A Appendix A to Part 10... Appendix A to Part 10—Commission Policy Relating to the Acceptance of Settlements in Administrative and... of law to be made in the settlement order entered by the Commission or a court. In accepting a...

  9. Early Neolithic settlement patterns and exchange networks in the Aegean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agathe Reingruber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neolithisation process is one of the major issues under debate in Aegean archaeology, since the description of the basal layers of Thessalian tell-settlements some fifty years ago. The pottery, figurines or stamps seemed to be of Anatolian origin, and were presumably brought to the region by colonists. The direct linking of the so-called ‘Neolithic Package’ with groups of people leaving Central Anatolia after the collapse of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B resulted in the colonisation model of the Aegean. This view is not supported by results obtained from natural sciences such as archaeobotany, radiocarbon analyses, and neutron activation on obsidian. When theories of social networks are brought into the discussion, the picture that emerges becomes much more differentiated and complex.

  10. Caspian energy and legal disputes: prospects for settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogutcu, Mehmet

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the Caspian energy prospects and politics on the global scene with a particular emphasis on the legal disputes and their impact on business operations. It also elaborates on the investment environment, the geopolitical stakes and country positions for each key player as they relate to the legal arguments that are randomly advanced according to the perceived national interests. Turkey position as a consumer, transit country and security provider for Caspian energy shipments in relation to other major players active in the region is also of special interest to the paper. The paper puts forth a series of ideas for reaching a settlement of the disputes in the Caspian region. (author)

  11. Value chain dynamics, settlement trajectories and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fold, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Global value chain (GVC) analysis has little to say about the interaction between regions and global chain dynamics. However, recent calls to address broader development issues have resulted in efforts to incorporate a spatial dimension in GVC analysis. Addressing this issue, the paper argues tha...... by value chain dynamics will improve by adding elements from global production network (GPN) theory to the combined methodology, namely by an examination of territorial embeddedness and value (creation, enhancement, capture, distribution) at settlement level.......Global value chain (GVC) analysis has little to say about the interaction between regions and global chain dynamics. However, recent calls to address broader development issues have resulted in efforts to incorporate a spatial dimension in GVC analysis. Addressing this issue, the paper argues...

  12. Natural Resource Damages Settlement Projects at the Fernald Preserve - 12316

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, Jane [Fernald Preserve Site Manager, DOE Office of Legacy Management, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Schneider, Tom [Fernald Project Manager, Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, Dayton, Ohio (United States); Hertel, Bill [Project Manager, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States); Homer, John [Environmental Scientist, S.M. Stoller Corporation, Harrison, Ohio (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of two ecological restoration projects at the Fernald Preserve that are funded through a CERCLA natural resource damage settlement. The Paddys Run Tributary Project involves creation of vernal pool wetland habitat with adjacent forest restoration. The Triangle Area Project is a mesic tall-grass prairie establishment, similar to other efforts at the Fernald Preserve. The goal of the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees is to establish habitat for Ambystomatid salamander species, as well as grassland birds. Planning and implementation of on-property ecological restoration projects is one component of compensation for natural resource injury. As with the rest of the Fernald Preserve, ecological restoration has helped turn a DOE liability into a community asset. (authors)

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF BALUWERTI SETTLEMENT IN SURAKARTA, CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLIKHAH Nafi’ah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is inseparable from social and cultural. One district in Surakarta Cities, Central Java that still has a specific character is Baluwerti which is the area for family and courtiers of Kasunanan palace. The problem of the development in Baluwerti Settlement is as a result the shift of empathy from its inhabitants. To assess, used syncrhonic-diachronic reading methods. Assessment of physical aspects reviewed through of compliance with spatial concepts of Mataram (Java state. Assessment of non-physical aspects include: the function of the building, socio-cultural, and ownership status. It is known that a shift in physical and non-physical aspects are the impact from reduced of the occupants empathy towards the Baluwerti existence.

  14. Migration and settlement of immigrants in a rural Danish municipality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    Since 2000, international migration has increased in several European countries with settlement in both urban and rural areas. However, the proportion of immigrants settling in rural areas is much larger in the Nordic regions compared to other European countries (Hedberg & Haandrikman, 2014; Søholt......, Aasland, Onsager & Vestby, 2012; Søholt, Tronstad, Rose & Vestby, 2015). At the same time, the Nordic countries have been the destination of a large number of asylum seekers and refugees, many of whom are settled in rural areas. Thus, migration of international migrants; immigrants and refugees change...... the demographic and ethnic composition of rural populations and contribute to the transformation of rural places (Hedberg, Forsberg, & Najib, 2012; Stenbacka: 2012 & 2016 and Søholt, Stenbacka & Nørgaard, 2017). This paper is based on a case study in a rural Danish municipality, where immigrants constitute...

  15. Tobacco industry direct marketing after the Master Settlement Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M Jane; Yulis, Spiro G; Delnevo, Cristine; Hrywna, Mary

    2004-07-01

    Although Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provisions have led to significant changes in tobacco marketing, expenditures and emphasis on marketing strategies and populations not bound by the MSA have increased significantly. This article discusses tobacco industry direct marketing practices, including direct mail, coupons, sweepstakes, brand loyalty programs, event sponsorship, and tobacco industry magazines, and the implications of such strategies. An analysis of a survey of New Jersey adult smokers provides context and documents notable rates of participation. In addition to bypassing marketing restrictions, many of these strategies operate out of sight of the public health community and most of the public and so go unchecked by either tobacco control advocates or public opinion. This article suggests that a first step in countering these practices is to increase awareness and understanding of them, followed by development of strategies to address them and to limit or eliminate their use in tobacco marketing.

  16. Weirs in the Waterworks of the Tsarev Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savel’ev Nikita I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The location and design of weirs as part of water supply system on the Tsarev settlement and its neighborhood are considered in the article. The descriptions of the 19th – early 20th cc. and archaeological data made it possible to establish the fact that the weirs had been constructed of earth with a backfill made of stones, bricks and slag. They served to regulate water discharge and to construct reservoirs. On the basis of 19th-century topographic maps and satellite images, it has been possible to figure out the locations and purpose of four major weirs, which had occupied key positions both outside and inside the town. Two reservoirs were constructed to the west and east of the town by means of large weirs (over 200 m long and 10 m tall. Two lesser weirs used to form internal water reservoirs.

  17. Settlement Control of Soft Ground using Cement-Ricehusk Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement is widely used for improvement of soft soils, but financial and environmental concerns are causing genuine concerns to all parties, leading to the quest for alternative and effective stabilizers. Ricehusk is an agricultural waste in Malaysia, commonly disposed of by open burning or dumping in landfills. Considering that the ashes derived from ricehusk are pozzolanic in nature, there is a possibility that a cement-ricehusk mixture could effectively improve soft soils with reduced cement dosage. This study examines the mixture’s effectiveness by monitoring the settlement reduction in a clay soil. Standard oedometer tests were carried out on a soft marine clay sample admixed with cement-ricehusk. Test specimens contained 0-10% cement and 0-5% of ricehusk respectively, and were left to cure for either seven or 28 days. The stabilized specimens were observed to undergo significant reduction in compressibility, verifying the potential of cement-ricehusk as an alternative soft soil stabilizer.

  18. Caspian energy and legal disputes: prospects for settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogutcu, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of the Caspian energy prospects and politics on the global scene with a particular emphasis on the legal disputes and their impact on business operations. It also elaborates on the investment environment, the geopolitical stakes and country positions for each key player as they relate to the legal arguments that are randomly advanced according to the perceived national interests. Turkey position as a consumer, transit country and security provider for Caspian energy shipments in relation to other major players active in the region is also of special interest to the paper. The paper puts forth a series of ideas for reaching a settlement of the disputes in the Caspian region. (author)

  19. Housing aspiration in an informal urban settlement: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akunnaya P. OPOKO

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Housing aspiration is an important aspect of housing market analysis. However, there is a paucity of empirical research on housing aspiration among residents in informal settlements in developing countries. This study therefore investigated housing aspiration among the residents of Ayobo, Lagos, Nigeria. A cross-sectional survey of 1,151 households in Ayobo was conducted using a structured questionnaire as the data-collection instrument. The data were analysed using descriptive statistical and categorical regression analyses. The results show that a majority of the respondents were low-income earners living in rented and rooming-house types of accommodation. Around 73% of them expressed an intention to move to another residence, and 56% of this category of respondents intend to move into self-contained flats. The reasons for the planned relocation include poor condition of their present dwellings, changes in tenure status and household size, and the desire for exclusive use of facilities in their homes. In addition to these reasons, the waste-disposal method, sharing facilities, employment, and age and marital status of the residents emerged as the strongest predictors of housing aspiration among the respondents in the survey. This implies that, in order to meet the housing preferences and aspirations of residents in informal urban settlements in Nigeria, housing developers need to give adequate attention to the marital, age, employment and tenure status of the residents and place emphasis on developing affordable single-family houses and block of flats, as well as strategies for improving access to basic social amenities and services.

  20. Indigenous Space and the Landscape of Settlement: A Historian as Expert Witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    This essay examines my work as expert witness in the case of U.S. v. Michigan, a Indigenous use-rights case. I was charged with parsing the intention of a specific article of the 1836 Treaty of Washington compelling land cession by Anishinaabe peoples and with writing a history of land use in the area from that date to the present for the Chippewa Ottawa Resource Authority (my employer). The challenges were not only methodological (how do you estimate use from ownership?) and epistemological (what constitutes proof that will satisfy both historians and lawyers?), but also sociological and psychological: what happens when an associate professor puts her progress toward full professor on hold for the sake of a court case?

  1. Spatial attraction in migrants' settlement patterns in the city of Catania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Mazza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In broad terms, and apart from ethnic discriminatory rules enforced in some places and at some times, residential segregation may be ascribed both to economic inhomogeneities in the urban space (e.g., in the cost of rents, or in occupation opportunities and to spatial attraction among individuals sharing the same group identity and culture. Objective: Traditional indices of spatial segregation do not distinguish between these two sources of clustering. Furthermore, they typically rely on census tracts, a scale that does not allow for fine-grained analysis. Also, the use of alternative zoning often leads to conflicting results. The aim of this paper is to measure spatial attraction among groups of foreign migrants in Catania (Italy using individual household data. Methods: We apply a version of Ripley's K-function specially conceived for assessing spatial attraction while adjusting for the effects of spatial inhomogeneity. To avoid the risk of confounding the two sources of clustering, spatial inhomogeneity is estimated following a case-control approach. Results: Different parts of the city exhibit different suitabilities for migrants of different nationalities, with groups mainly involved in housekeeping and caregiving being more spread than the ones specialized in peddling and retailing. A significant spatial attraction has been found for Sri Lankan, Mauritians, Senegalese, and Chinese. Conversely, the settlement patterns of Tunisians and Moroccans comply with random allocation. These results seem consistent with the hypothesis of a relevant correlation between chain migration and spatial attraction.

  2. THE CONCEPT OF LOCAL-SMART-HOUSING: TOWARDS SOCIO-CULTURAL SUSTAINABILITY OF VERNACULAR SETTLEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AmirHosein GhaffarianHoseini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent decades have witnessed the widespread manifestation of intelligent building design development around the world. Meanwhile, the concept of smart housing as one of the main issues of intelligent building design development has stimulated various architects and designers to make use of it for the sake of sustainable housing. However, this study represents a gap in smart housing design owing to the lack of a deep consideration on cultural values of users for ensuring the socio-cultural sustainability as one of the objectives of sustainable smart housing designs. Accordingly, the study puts forward the concept of local-smart-housing through utilization of appropriate vernacular architectural features and cultural values of vernacular settlements in smart housing design in order to reinforce the sociocultural sustainability. Meanwhile, this study is limited to the Malay context in order to identify the vernacular features of Malay vernacular settlement’s functional spaces for utilization in smart housing design to make them culturally responsive. Correspondingly, this study proposes the concept of local-smart-housing based on the incorporation of intelligent building design and utilization of vernacular features for enhancing the quality of life for users.

  3. Contrasting effects of heavy metals and hydrocarbons on larval settlement and juvenile survival in sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebrian, E.; Uriz, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminate sediments and waters of coastal areas threatening early stages of invertebrate development. Effects on these stages may largely determine the decline and even disappearance of invertebrate populations in polluted environments. Our study aimed to determine the possible influence of metals (Cu and Cd) and PAHs on larval settlement and consecutive survival of two widespread sponges of the Mediterranean: Crambe crambe and Scopalina lophyropoda. Larvae of both species were exposed to Cu and Cd for a short period during 1 week, and settlement and following (6 months) survival of juvenile were monitored. Short exposures to copper and cadmium at the concentrations used did not affect C. crambe settlement compared with SW control, and no effect on consecutive survival of juveniles was observed. In contrast, short pulses of copper and cadmium at the concentrations used enhanced Scopalina lophyropoda settlement and did not affect the consecutive survival of juveniles with respect to SW controls. Furthermore, experiments designed to assess the effects of short exposures to PAHs and the combined effect of contamination by Cu 2+ and PAHs on larval settlement, were conduced during 10 days on C. crambe larvae. Hydrocarbons, differently than copper and cadmium, inhibited the settlement of sponge larvae to a certain extent. The synergetic negative effect of copper and hydrocarbons on C. crambe settlers may cause a decline of populations in areas with both sources of contamination. The present study provides the only available data on toxicity of copper, cadmium and hydrocarbon toxicants on sponge larval settlement

  4. Larval settlement: the role of surface topography for sessile coral reef invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalan, Steve; Wahab, Muhammad A Abdul; Sprungala, Susanne; Poole, Andrew J; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-01-01

    For sessile marine invertebrates with complex life cycles, habitat choice is directed by the larval phase. Defining which habitat-linked cues are implicated in sessile invertebrate larval settlement has largely concentrated on chemical cues which are thought to signal optimal habitat. There has been less effort establishing physical settlement cues, including the role of surface microtopography. This laboratory based study tested whether surface microtopography alone (without chemical cues) plays an important contributing role in the settlement of larvae of coral reef sessile invertebrates. We measured settlement to tiles, engineered with surface microtopography (holes) that closely matched the sizes (width) of larvae of a range of corals and sponges, in addition to surfaces with holes that were markedly larger than larvae. Larvae from two species of scleractinian corals (Acropora millepora and Ctenactis crassa) and three species of coral reef sponges (Luffariella variabilis, Carteriospongia foliascens and Ircinia sp.,) were used in experiments. L. variabilis, A. millepora and C. crassa showed markedly higher settlement to surface microtopography that closely matched their larval width. C. foliascens and Ircinia sp., showed no specificity to surface microtopography, settling just as often to microtopography as to flat surfaces. The findings of this study question the sole reliance on chemical based larval settlement cues, previously established for some coral and sponge species, and demonstrate that specific physical cues (surface complexity) can also play an important role in larval settlement of coral reef sessile invertebrates.

  5. Correlation between surface chemistry and settlement behaviour in barnacle cyprids (Balanus improvisus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fino, A; Petrone, L; Aldred, N; Ederth, T; Liedberg, B; Clare, A S

    2014-02-01

    In laboratory-based biofouling assays, the influence of physico-chemical surface characteristics on barnacle settlement has been tested most frequently using the model organism Balanus amphitrite (= Amphibalanus amphitrite). Very few studies have addressed the settlement preferences of other barnacle species, such as Balanus improvisus (= Amphibalanus improvisus). This study aimed to unravel the effects of surface physico-chemical cues, in particular surface-free energy (SFE) and surface charge, on the settlement of cyprids of B. improvisus. The use of well-defined surfaces under controlled conditions further facilitates comparison of the results with recent similar data for B. amphitrite. Zero-day-old cyprids of B. improvisus were exposed to a series of model surfaces, namely self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols with varying end-groups, homogenously applied to gold-coated polystyrene (PS) Petri dishes. As with B. amphitrite, settlement of cyprids of B. improvisus was influenced by both SFE and charge, with higher settlement on low-energy (hydrophobic) surfaces and negatively charged SAMs. Positively charged SAMs resulted in low settlement, with intermediate settlement on neutral SAMs of similar SFE. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that despite previous suggestions to the contrary, these two species of barnacle show similar preferences in response to SFE; they also respond similarly to charge. These findings have positive implications for the development of novel antifouling (AF) coatings and support the importance of consistency in substratum choice for assays designed to compare surface preferences of fouling organisms.

  6. Between theory and quantification: An integrated analysis of metabolic patterns of informal urban settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacic, Zora; Giampietro, Mario

    2017-01-01

    As informal urban settlements grow in size and population across the developing world, the issue of how to design and implement effective policies to provide for the needs and the aspirations of dwellers becomes ever more pressing. This paper addresses the challenge of how to characterise in quantitative terms the complex and fast-changing phenomenon of informal urban settlements without falling into oversimplification and a narrow focus on the material deficits of informal settlements. Energy policies are taken as an example to illustrate the shortcomings of oversimplification in producing policy relevant information. We adopt a semantically open representation of informal settlements that can capture the diversity of adaptive strategies used by different settlement typologies, based on the societal metabolism approach. Results show that as settlements grow in size and complexity, they remain economically and politically marginalised and fail to integrate into the city. We argue that in the case of energy policy, the analysis must go beyond the definition of problems such as access to energy at the level of the individual, and focus on a multi-scale assessment including the household and community levels studying the capacity of the household to increase it energy throughput through exosomatic devices and infrastructure. - Highlights: • The policy challenges of fast changing informal urban settlements are assessed. • Metabolic patterns are used to assess and compare different typologies of slums. • Semantically open representations are used to capture the complexity of slums.

  7. Local Agenda 21. Settlement pattern and energy for transportation and heating; Lokal agenda 21. Bebyggelsesmoenster og energi til transport og oppvarming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orderud, Geir Inge

    1998-09-01

    This document deals with Local Agenda 21 (LA21) and the relationship between settlement pattern and the consumption of energy in transportation and heating of houses. Local Agenda 21 originates from the Earth Summit held in Rio in 1992 and draws up the strategies by which the local communities should participate in realizing the recommendations of the summit. So far much of the research around LA21 has examined how well the individual countries that ratified the Rio document have fulfilled the recommendations of Article 28 on local responsibility. From the point of view of research, however, the challenge is rather to investigate the conditions for realizing the broad participation of the people. From the administrative point of view, the important issue is the relationship between the representative channels and the direct participation of local people in the decision processes, as well as the delegation of decision-making authority from national to regional or local level. One recommendation in Agenda 21 is to emit less greenhouse gases. In this connection, a central issue is transportation, which is affected by the settlement pattern. A denser settlement within an urban area is supposed to reduce the transportation and the use of private cars. Thus the local development and area policy is a topic of current interest in the study of how LA21 works locally, especially so because sparsely built-up areas with single family houses are considered as the good way of living. Densely populated urban areas may conflict with the need for arable land and green space. LA 21 and the settlement pattern are both parts of a larger social environment and it is important know these relationships when local measures and actions are analysed. The possibility of a sustainable development must be assessed in relation to the fact that more power is gathered in the global flow of capital. 26 refs.

  8. Typology of Slum Management in Coastal Settlement as a Reference of Neighborhood Planning in Konawe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi; Bachrun, Ratna; Ornam, Kurniati

    2017-05-01

    Handling slum area actually needs to be done not only in slum areas that are part of a metropolitan city or a large town, but it also need to be conducted in the slum areas in the middle city, small town, and coastal areas. A slum generally includes physical condition, socio-economic conditions of cultural communities who live in the settlements, and the impact of both of these conditions. Environmental coastal settlements in Konawe located in the riverside that lead to loss of quality due to environmental stress of the condition of settlement that are not habitable, can be seen from the problems that exist, namely the existence of housing that goes into river body which causes malfunction of watershed river (DAS), and that is prone to flooding. The purpose of this study is to identify slums in coastal settlements in an effort to improve the quality of structured settlements to obtain a picture of the slum in Konawe, to know the problems regarding the existence of slums and future recommendation of the slum settlement in Konawe. Normative analysis was carried out in this research together with quantitative and qualitative description, as well as methods of spatial analysis (spatial). Identification of slum areas was analyzed based on indicators and parameters issued by the Directorate General of Human Settlements. Problems in some districts in Konawe located in the coastal rivers and coastal areas, consist of drainage, disposal of waste water, waste, and the settlement which is not in accordance with the Spatial Konawe. Among those, there are settlements categorized as slums and some are recommended for refurbishment.

  9. Topological patterns in street networks of self-organized urban settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, J.; Gautrais, J.; Reeves, N.; Solé, R. V.; Valverde, S.; Kuntz, P.; Theraulaz, G.

    2006-02-01

    Many urban settlements result from a spatially distributed, decentralized building process. Here we analyze the topological patterns of organization of a large collection of such settlements using the approach of complex networks. The global efficiency (based on the inverse of shortest-path lengths), robustness to disconnections and cost (in terms of length) of these graphs is studied and their possible origins analyzed. A wide range of patterns is found, from tree-like settlements (highly vulnerable to random failures) to meshed urban patterns. The latter are shown to be more robust and efficient.

  10. Use of Nondisclosure Agreements in Medical Malpractice Settlements by a Large Academic Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, William M; Jablonski, Joseph S; Thomas, Eric J

    2015-07-01

    Honesty and transparency are essential aspects of health care, including in physicians' and hospitals' responses to medical error. Biases and habits associated with medical malpractice litigation, however, may work at cross-purposes with compassion in clinical care and with efforts to improve patient safety. To determine the frequency of nondisclosure agreements in medical malpractice settlements and the extent to which the restrictions in these agreements seem incompatible with good patient care. We performed a retrospective review of medical malpractice claim files, including settlement agreements, for claims closed before (fiscal year 2001-2002), during (fiscal year 2006-2007), and after (fiscal years 2009-2012) the implementation of tort reform in Texas. We studied The University of Texas System, which self-insures malpractice claims that involve 6000 physicians at 6 medical campuses in 5 cities. Nondisclosure provisions in medical malpractice settlements. During the 5 study years, The University of Texas System closed 715 malpractice claims and made 150 settlement payments. For the 124 cases that met our selection criteria, the median compensation paid by the university was $100,000 (range, $500-$1.25 million), and the mean compensation was $185,372. A total of 110 settlement agreements (88.7%) included nondisclosure provisions. All the nondisclosure clauses prohibited disclosure of the settlement terms and amount, 61 (55.5%) prohibited disclosure that the settlement had been reached, 51 (46.4%) prohibited disclosure of the facts of the claim, 29 (26.4%) prohibited reporting to regulatory agencies, and 10 (9.1%) prohibited disclosure by the settling physicians and hospitals, not only by the claimant. Three agreements (2.7%) included specific language that prohibited the claimant from disparaging the physicians or hospitals. The 50 settlement agreements signed after tort reform took full effect in Texas (2009-2012) had stricter nondisclosure provisions than the

  11. Review of physical and socio-economic characteristics and intervention approaches of informal settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wekesa, BW

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available -1 Habitat International Volume 35, Issue 2, April 2011, Pages 238-245 A review of physical and socio-economic characteristics and intervention approaches of informal settlements B.W. Wekesaa, b, , , G.S. Steyna, 1, , F.A.O. (Fred) Otienoc, 2, , a... a literature survey, this paper reviews physical and socio-economic characteristics and the factors attributed to proliferation of the informal settlements and intervention approaches. The main objective was to establish how such settlements could...

  12. Soundscapes and Larval Settlement: Characterizing the Stimulus from a Larval Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Ashlee; Eggleston, David B; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that underwater sounds serve as a cue for the larvae of marine organisms to locate suitable settlement habitats; however, the relevant spatiotemporal scales of variability in habitat-related sounds and how this variation scales with larval settlement processes remain largely uncharacterized, particularly in estuarine habitats. Here, we provide an overview of the approaches we have developed to characterize an estuarine soundscape as it relates to larval processes, and a conceptual framework is provided for how habitat-related sounds may influence larval settlement, using oyster reef soundscapes as an example.

  13. Larval traits carry over to affect post-settlement behaviour in a common coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingeldein, Andrea L; White, J Wilson

    2016-07-01

    Most reef fishes begin life as planktonic larvae before settling to the reef, metamorphosing and entering the benthic adult population. Different selective forces determine survival in the planktonic and benthic life stages, but traits established in the larval stage may carry over to affect post-settlement performance. We tested the hypothesis that larval traits affect two key post-settlement fish behaviours: social group-joining and foraging. Certain larval traits of reef fishes are permanently recorded in the rings in their otoliths. In the bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum), prior work has shown that key larval traits recorded in otoliths (growth rate, energetic condition at settlement) carry over to affect post-settlement survival on the reef, with higher-larval-condition fish experiencing less post-settlement mortality. We hypothesized that this selective mortality is mediated by carry-over effects on post-settlement antipredator behaviours. We predicted that better-condition fish would forage less and be more likely to join groups, both behaviours that would reduce predation risk. We collected 550 recently settled bluehead wrasse (Thalassoma bifasciatum) from three reef sites off St. Croix (USVI) and performed two analyses. First, we compared each settler's larval traits to the size of its social group to determine whether larval traits influenced group-joining behaviour. Secondly, we observed foraging behaviour in a subset of grouped and solitary fish (n = 14) for 1-4 days post-settlement. We then collected the fish and tested whether larval traits influenced the proportion of time spent foraging. Body length at settlement, but not condition, affected group-joining behaviour; smaller fish were more likely to remain solitary or in smaller groups. However, both greater length and better condition were associated with greater proportions of time spent foraging over four consecutive days post-settlement. Larval traits carry over to affect post-settlement

  14. Models of Coupled Settlement and Habitat Networks for Biodiversity Conservation: Conceptual Framework, Implementation and Potential Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J. van Strien

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the expansion of settlement and transport infrastructure is one of the most important proximate as well as ultimate causes of biodiversity loss. As much as every modern human society depends on a network of settlements that is well-connected by transport infrastructure (i.e., settlement network, animal and plant species depend on networks of habitats between which they can move (i.e., habitat networks. However, changes to a settlement network in a region often threaten the integrity of the region's habitat networks. Determining plans and policy to prevent these threats is made difficult by the numerous interactions and feedbacks that exist between and within the settlement and habitat networks. Mathematical models of coupled settlement and habitat networks can help us understand the dynamics of this social-ecological system. Yet, few attempts have been made to develop such mathematical models. In this paper, we promote the development of models of coupled settlement and habitat networks for biodiversity conservation. First, we present a conceptual framework of key variables that are ideally considered when operationalizing the coupling of settlement and habitat networks. In this framework, we first describe important network-internal interactions by differentiating between the structural (i.e., relating to purely physical conditions determining the suitability of a location for living or movement and functional (i.e., relating to the actual presence, abundance or movement of people or other organisms properties of either network. We then describe the main one-way influences that a settlement network can exert on the habitat networks and vice versa. Second, we give several recommendations for the mathematical modeling of coupled settlement and habitat networks and present several existing modeling approaches (e.g., habitat network models and land-use transport interaction models that could be used for this purpose. Lastly, we elaborate

  15. Space nuclear power: a strategy for tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy: reliable, portable, abundant and low cost will be a most critical factor, perhaps the sine qua non, for the unfolding of man's permanent presence in space. Space-based nuclear power, in turn, is a key technology for developing such space platforms and the transportation systems necessary to service them. A strategy for meeting space power requirements is the development of a 100-kW(e) nuclear reactor system for high earth orbit missions, transportation from Shuttle orbits to geosynchronous orbit, and for outer planet exploration. The component technology for this nuclear power plant is now underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As permanent settlements are established on the Moon and in space, multimegawatt power plants will be needed. This would involve different technology similar to terrestrial nuclear power plants

  16. Beyond the EPBD: The low energy residential settlement Borgo Solare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aste, Niccolo; Adhikari, R.S.; Buzzetti, Michela

    2010-01-01

    The European Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) imposes the adoption of measures for improving the energy efficiency in buildings. These measures should take into account the local weather conditions as well as internal thermal environment and cost-effectiveness. In this respect, Italy is a very interesting benchmark. For Northern Italy, the climatic context is particularly difficult to deal with cold winters and hot summers. The legislations are changing very rapidly, but has not fully adapted to the local context. The considered methodology still involves winter heating while summer cooling is addressed in incomplete and inadequate ways. The energy issue is addressed only partially as final energy consumption, but with little attention to LCA. Moreover, the belief that the buildings with high energy savings are too expensive, and therefore not attractive from economic point of view. For these reasons, it is very important to develop case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of sustainable energy in architecture, according to a holistic approach. This paper describes a detailed techno-economic analysis for Borgo Solare project, an extremely advanced and innovative residential settlement designed on sustainable architecture concepts. One of the most innovative aspects of the project is that it is not just an experimental operation but Borgo Solare is a real urban district, which will be built without public funds and should be inhabited by common people. Excellent energy performance, therefore, must be accompanied by affordable market prices. The energy and economical analysis is presented taking into account also the embodied energy of the building. The results on the performance of a sample building (case study) of this settlement are reported, according to different construction standards: prior to EPBD, present from the EPBD and more efficient developed specifically for the project. It has been shown that using the better design practices

  17. 76 FR 63680 - Public Roundtable on Execution, Clearance and Settlement of Microcap Securities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... clearance and settlement process, potential regulatory changes impacting the Over-The-Counter markets, and Anti-Money Laundering concerns specific to microcap issuers. DATES: The roundtable discussion will be...

  18. Geotechnical LFRD calculations of settlement and bearing capacity of GDOT shallow bridge foundations and retaining walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    The AASHTO codes for Load Resistance Factored Design (LRFD) regarding shallow bridge foundations : and walls have been implemented into a set of spreadsheet algorithms to facilitate the calculations of bearing : capacity and footing settlements on na...

  19. The effects of shadow removal on across-date settlement type classification of quickbird images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luus, FPS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available QuickBird imagery acquired on separate dates may have significant differences in viewing- and illumination geometries, which can negatively impact across-date settlement type classification accuracy. The effect of cast shadows on classification...

  20. Data on strategically located land and spatially integrated urban human settlements in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musakwa, Walter

    2017-12-01

    In developing countries like South Africa processed geographic information systems (GIS) data on land suitability, is often not available for land use management. Data in this article is based on a published article "The strategically located land index support system for humans settlements land reform in South Africa" (Musakwa et al., 2017) [1]. This article utilities data from Musakwa et al. (2017) [1] and it goes on a step further by presenting the top 25th percentile of areas in the country that are strategically located and suited to develop spatially integrated human settlements. Furthermore the least 25th percentile of the country that are not strategically located and spatially integrated to establish human settlements are also presented. The article also presents the processed spatial datasets that where used to develop the strategically located land index as supplementary material. The data presented is meant to stir debate on spatially integrated human settlements in South Africa.