WorldWideScience

Sample records for space settlement contest

  1. Requirements for Space Settlement Design

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2004-02-01

    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  2. Blue Marble Space Institute essay contest

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-04-01

    The Blue Marble Space Institute of Science, based in Seattle, Wash., is inviting college students to participate in its essay contest. Essays need to address the question, "In the next 100 years, how can human civilization prepare for the long-term changes to the Earth system that will occur over the coming millennium?" According to the institute, the purpose of the contest is "to stimulate creative thinking relating to space exploration and global issues by exploring how changes in the Earth system will affect humanity's future."

  3. The Initial Nine Space Settlements

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    The co-authors describe a chronology of space infrastructure development illustrating how each element of infrastructure enables development of subsequent more ambitious infrastructure. This is likened to the ``Southern California freeway phenomenon'', wherein a new freeway built in a remote area promotes establishment of gas stations, restaurants, hotels, housing, and eventually entire new communities. The chronology includes new launch vehicles, inter-orbit vehicles, multiple LEO space stations, lunar mining, on-orbit manufacturing, tourist destinations, and supporting technologies required to make it all happen. The space settlements encompassed by the chronology are in Earth orbit (L5 and L4), on the lunar surface, in Mars orbit, on the Martian surface, and in the asteroid belt. Each space settlement is justified with a business rationale for construction. This paper is based on materials developed for Space Settlement Design Competitions that enable high school students to experience the technical and management challenges of working on an industry proposal team.

  4. Contested spacing: International non-profit organizations and the mobility of asylum seekers

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    The importance of examining space from an organizational standpoint is timely, not the least because the use of this concept has critical and often unintended social, and political effects (Mengis, Nicolini & Gorli, 2016). The global refugee crisis following the post-2015 Syrian conflict is perhaps...... one indicative situation of the highly contested ways in which international non-profit organizations (INGOs) create spaces for their organizational activities (e.g., build informal settlements to provide emergency aid), and thus affect how individuals (e.g., asylum seekers) get re-settled, confined...... to, or even restricted from living in such spaces. These matters are relevant since in the contexts where both the opportunities to move freely and being at peace are challenged, space is not only a neutral structure in which such contested organizing takes place (Mengis et al., 2016). Rather...

  5. Biological challenges of true space settlement

    Mankins, John C.; Mankins, Willa M.; Walter, Helen

    2018-05-01

    "Space Settlements" - i.e., permanent human communities beyond Earth's biosphere - have been discussed within the space advocacy community since the 1970s. Now, with the end of the International Space Station (ISS) program fast approaching (planned for 2024-2025) and the advent of low cost Earth-to-orbit (ETO) transportation in the near future, the concept is coming once more into mainstream. Considerable attention has been focused on various issues associated with the engineering and human health considerations of space settlement such as artificial gravity and radiation shielding. However, relatively little attention has been given to the biological implications of a self-sufficient space settlement. Three fundamental questions are explored in this paper: (1) what are the biological "foundations" of truly self-sufficient space settlements in the foreseeable future, (2) what is the minimum scale for such self-sustaining human settlements, and (3) what are the integrated biologically-driven system requirements for such settlements? The paper examines briefly the implications of the answers to these questions in relevant potential settings (including free space, the Moon and Mars). Finally, this paper suggests relevant directions for future research and development in order for such space settlements to become viable in the future.

  6. Contested Space of Transborder Fishing in Timor and Arafura Seas

    Shiskha Prabawaningtyas

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the transformation of transborder fishing in Timor and Arafura Sea to demonstrated the contested space of which interplayed by local, state and international actor. State regulations had transformed transborder fishing into political space of authority competition relied on territorial sovereignty, while socio-cultural heritage reminds exploited within fluid space of livelihood survival when state function is just absent.

  7. Contest ``LET your School GO Into - Space Baptism 2007

    Sánchez, G.

    2009-05-01

    The contest ``Space Baptism 2007'' was organized with the cooperation of the Mirador de la Ciencia, a science museum associated with the local zoo in Barquisimeto, Venezuela, and in collaboration with the Asociación Larense de Astronomía, a local astronomy amateur group. This contest was aimed at students of primary schools and had as a final award the chance to give a proper name to an asteroid. The ultimate goal of the contest was to promote basic and space sciences to children and the young through activities that involved the creation of stories related to astronomy, enforcing creativity and originality, and encouraging group work and solidarity. As a result, the asteroid (12758) 1993 SM3 will be known from now on as (12758) Kabudarí. The success of this initiative is demonstrated by stories about the contest that appeared in several publications in local newspapers and magazines about the school and the students who won the contest. We are currently developing plans for repetitions of the contest to name two more asteroids.

  8. Contested Space of Transborder Fishing in Timor and Arafura Seas

    Shiskha Prabawaningtyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The continuity of Indonesian transborder fishing activities into Australian Fishing Zone (AFZ highlights the rooted dispute of maritime border when contested space of boundary shared by local, state and international actor is confronted. Therefore, the prevailing of multilayer perspective of maritime boundary should not be easily neglected. The colonial project in early 19th century in Southeast Asia that initiated the foundation of modern state-formation had challenged the prior-political and economic construction of the region, specifically on the issue of territoriality. The modernization of shipping and fishing activities of which relied on technology and capitals had generated political and economic competitions and later persuaded state’s actors of applying the strategy of the territorialisation of the sea in order to ensure control. Unavoidably, securitization of transborder fishing became preferable solution. Transborder fishings are further subjected into state control relied on territorial sovereignty. This paper examines the transformation of transborder fishing in Timor and Arafura Sea to demonstrated the contested space of which interplayed by local, state and international actor. State regulations had transformed transborder fishing into political space of authority competition relied on territorial sovereignty, while socio-cultural heritage reminds exploited within fluid space of livelihood survival when state function is just absent.

  9. The Structure-Agency Dialectic in Contested Science Spaces: "Do Earthworms Eat Apples?"

    Kane, Justine M.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on a group of African American third graders who attend a high-poverty urban school, I explore the structure-agency dialectic within contested spaces situated in a dialogically oriented science classroom. Contested spaces entail the moments in which the students challenge each other's and their teacher's science ideas and, in the process,…

  10. "Show me your impact": evaluating transitional justice in contested spaces.

    Duggan, Colleen

    2012-02-01

    This paper discusses some of the most significant challenges and opportunities for evaluating the effects of programs in support of transitional justice - the field that addresses how post-conflict or post authoritarian societies deal with legacies of wide spread human rights violations. The discussion is empirically grounded in a case study that assesses the efforts of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and one of its Guatemalan partners to evaluate the effects of a museum exposition that is attempting to recast historic memory and challenge racist attitudes in post-conflict Guatemala. The paper argues that despite the increasing trend to fund transitional justice programs, many international aid donors are stuck in traditional and arguably orthodox paradigms of program evaluation. This is having a negative effect not only upon the administration of aid but also upon how transitional justice research is perceived and valued by local populations. The case study experience indicates that there is no perfect evaluation model or approach for evaluating transitional justice programming - only choices to be made by commissioners of evaluation, evaluators, and those being evaluated. These are profoundly influenced by the extreme politics and moral values that define transitional justice settings as contested spaces in which calls to remember the tragic past must be balanced with aspirations to re-build a hopeful future. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The structure of settlement space in a Polynesian chiefdom

    Weisler, M.; Kirch, P.V.

    1985-01-01

    A major settlement pattern study of a late prehistoric archaeological landscape on Molokaii Island, Hawaii, is summarised. The study focusses on the structure of settlement space within a 7.7 sq. km area situated along the south-central coast of Molokaii, and encompassing two traditional land units (ahupua'a), Kawela and Makakupaia Iki. Intensive survey resulted in the discovery of 499 architectural features. These features were recorded using a standardised data-base system (designed for computerised analysis using SPSS) with 37 discrete and continuous variable, including environmental data, architectural attributes, metrical data, and the presence and density of surface cultural materials. Seventy-two structural features (14 percent of the total sample) were excavated; the total excavated area of 442.5 sq. m provides the largest subsurface data base associated with an intensive settlement pattern survey in the Hawaiian Islands. The late prehistoric and largely contemporaneous nature of this sample is indicated by 13 radiocarbon age determinations, ranging from A.D. 1650-1820. The possibilities for directly applying ethnohistoric models in the analysis and interpretation of this settlement pattern are enhanced by the protohistoric age of the archaeological landscape. The structure of settlement space at Kawela and Makakupaia Iki is examined from the perspectives of several paradigms, including environmental, social, economic and semiotic. No single paradigm provides an adequate account of the variation and complexity of the settlement landscape; in consort, however, these varied perspectives contribute to an enhanced understanding of the structure of late prehistoric Hawaiian society

  12. European Space Agency announces contest to "Name the Cluster Quartet"

    2000-02-01

    1. Contest rules The European Space Agency (ESA) is launching a public competition to find the most suitable names for its four Cluster II space weather satellites. The quartet, which are currently known as flight models 5, 6, 7 and 8, are scheduled for launch from Baikonur Space Centre in Kazakhstan in June and July 2000. Professor Roger Bonnet, ESA Director of Science Programme, announced the competition for the first time to the European Delegations on the occasion of the Science Programme Committee (SPC) meeting held in Paris on 21-22 February 2000. The competition is open to people of all the ESA member states (*). Each entry should include a set of FOUR names (places, people, or things from history, mythology, or fiction, but NOT living persons). Contestants should also describe in a few sentences why their chosen names would be appropriate for the four Cluster II satellites. The winners will be those which are considered most suitable and relevant for the Cluster II mission. The names must not have been used before on space missions by ESA, other space organizations or individual countries. One winning entry per country will be selected to go to the Finals of the competition. The prize for each national winner will be an invitation to attend the first Cluster II launch event in mid-June 2000 with their family (4 persons) in a 3-day trip (including excursions to tourist sites) to one of these ESA establishments: ESRIN (near Rome, Italy): winners from France, Ireland, United Kingdom, Belgium. VILSPA (near Madrid, Spain): winners from The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland. ESTEC (near Amsterdam, The Netherlands): winners from Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria. ESOC (in the Rhine Valley, Germany): winners from Italy, Spain , Portugal. During the first Cluster II launch event (June 2000) the chosen four names for the spacecraft will be announced. The grand prize will be: * a trip for the winner and family (4 people) to Paris where ESA's headquarters are

  13. Dispute settlement in international space law : a multi-door courthouse for outer space

    Goh, Gérardine Meishan

    2007-01-01

    The rights, rules and regulations of international space law are futile without an effective enforcement mechanism that provides a sufficient and adequate remedy. International space law is particularly significant in the evolution of international dispute settlement because it involves a

  14. Contesting a linguistic space: A case in the teaching and learning of ...

    The paper aims to highlight a contesting linguistic space, investigating the impact and the significance of code-switching in the teaching and learning of African languages in private schools. This research was undertaken in three private schools in the Limpopo Province in South Africa. In these schools English is prescribed ...

  15. Contestation in the Use of Residential space: House Typologies and ...

    The need to accommodate the populace creates competition for space; the outcome of this competition has produced differently zoned areas such as residential areas, shopping centres, parks and office towers. Bulawayo's residential areas are dominated by one-household units or detached one-storey houses in the ...

  16. Settlement

    John Frow

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the idea of settlement in each of its three major senses: as a place of human habitation; as a fixed and stable order of habitation; and as a political consensus reconciling fractious groups. Arguing that traditional accounts of settlement depend, with a kind of pastoral nostalgia, upon a view of abstraction and social complexity as in themselves  harmful, it follows through the implications of the concept for ways of dealing with the stranger, and it uses a drawing by the nineteenth-century indigenous Australian artist Tommy McRae, done about 1890 and entitled Corroboree, or William Buckley and dancers from the Wathaurong people, to propose a counterfactual model through which a settlement with the stranger might be imagined.

  17. Use of a Lunar Outpost for Developing Space Settlement Technologies

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2008-01-01

    The type of polar lunar outpost being considered in the NASA Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) can effectively support the development of technologies that will not only significantly enhance lunar exploration, but also enable long term crewed space missions, including space settlement. The critical technologies are: artificial gravity, radiation protection, Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). These enhance lunar exploration by extending the time an astronaut can remain on the moon and reducing the need for supplies from Earth, and they seem required for space settlement. A polar lunar outpost provides a location to perform the research and testing required to develop these technologies, as well as to determine if there are viable countermeasures that can reduce the need for Earth-surface-equivalent gravity and radiation protection on long human space missions. The types of spinning space vehicles or stations envisioned to provide artificial gravity can be implemented and tested on the lunar surface, where they can create any level of effective gravity above the 1/6 Earth gravity that naturally exists on the lunar surface. Likewise, varying degrees of radiation protection can provide a natural radiation environment on the lunar surface less than or equal to 1/2 that of open space at 1 AU. Lunar ISRU has the potential of providing most of the material needed for radiation protection, the centrifuge that provides artificial gravity; and the atmosphere, water and soil for a CELSS. Lunar ISRU both saves the cost of transporting these materials from Earth and helps define the requirements for ISRU on other planetary bodies. Biosphere II provides a reference point for estimating what is required for an initial habitat with a CELSS. Previous studies provide initial estimates of what would be required to provide such a lunar habitat with the gravity and radiation environment of the Earth s surface. While much preparatory

  18. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  19. Coral larvae change their settlement preference for crustose coralline algae dependent on availability of bare space

    Elmer, Franziska; Bell, James J.; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.

    2018-06-01

    Competition for space is a major factor affecting coral survival. Since adult coral colonies are sessile, the settlement preferences of larvae have a strong impact on the competition for space that corals will face post-metamorphosis and will therefore influence long-term survival. Laboratory-based studies show that in simplified systems coral larvae use cues to guide them to suitable settlement locations, an adaptation that enhances post-settlement survival. Settlement preferences have also been reported from the field, where coral larvae encounter a wide variety of different potential settlement surfaces as the availability of free substratum (bare space) changes over time. In this field-based study, the abundance of different encrusting organisms and bare space present on settlement tiles was compared to their abundance under newly settled pocilloporid and poritid recruits, to determine if recruits choose their settlement substratum randomly. Tiles deployed for 3, 9, 12 and 15 months were used to determine if settlement choice varied as a function of benthic community successional stage. We found that pocilloporid and poritid larvae changed their settlement preference depending on the age of the benthic community they encountered. They reacted neutrally to crustose coralline algae (CCA) on tiles deployed for 3 months when bare space was abundant, but showed a clear preference for settlement on CCA on tiles deployed for 9-15 months once bare space was limited. Simultaneously, poritid recruits showed a decreasing preference over time to settle on biofilm. This change in preference is not linked to the availability of CCA because its abundance did not change significantly between tiles deployed for 3 versus 9-15 months. These results indicate that coral recruits react to several settlement cues simultaneously, guiding them to different settlement locations as the benthos changes over time. Furthermore, recruits from both families reacted similarly, suggesting that

  20. Interrogating the Contested Spaces of Rural Aging: Implications for Research, Policy, and Practice.

    Skinner, Mark W; Winterton, Rachel

    2018-01-18

    Informed by a critical turn underway in rural gerontology, this article explores how the intersection of global and local trends relating to population aging and rural change create contested spaces of rural aging. The aim is to build our understanding of rural as a dynamic context within which the processes, outcomes, and experiences of aging are created, confronted, and contested by older adults and their communities. A review of key developments within gerontology and rural studies reveals how competing policies, discourses, and practices relating to healthy aging and aging in place, rural citizenship and governmentality, and social inclusion and inequality combine in particular ways to empower or disempower a diverse range of older rural adults aging in a diverse range of rural communities. The article provides a contextually sensitive perspective on potential sources of conflict and exclusion for older adults in dynamic rural spaces and further enhances our understanding of how rural physical and social environments are constructed and experienced in older age. A framework for interrogating emergent questions about aging in rural contexts is developed and implications for advancing research, policy, and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. CONTESTATION OF RELIGIOUS PUBLIC SPACE: CHRISTIANS VS MUSLIMS CASES IN PAPUA

    Zuly  Qadir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The land of Papua has often been associated with the Papua Independence Movement (GPM, in addition to the Independent Papua Organization (OPM which has been known since the 1990s. The battle between the civil society of Papua against the military seems to keep happening. Killing and shooting each other has always been a public discussion and media coverage. However, the thing that escapes people’s attention is a contestation that occured between the adherents of the religion of the indigenous Papuans who claim to adhere to Christianity, known as the ‘mountain people’, and the Muslims, known as the coastal and inland people who are regarded as non-natives of Papua. The contestation took place observably in public spaces like the streets, mountains, fields and various religious activities that involved mobs such as Kebaktian Kebangkitan Rohani (Spiritual Awakening Mass among the Christians, as well as talbligh akbar (huge gathering among the Muslims where they bring in speakers from outside Papua as an attraction. Such contestation has been going on since 1998 that sometimes triggered massive demonstrations and bans on religious activities as well as the establishment of a Muslim school. In the Papuan society, a lot of trouble is religious matters, coming both from the internal and external followers. To data were obtained through direct observations, in-depth interviews with a number of key informants, literature study and written documents related to the issue. The data were processed using interpretative approach as commonly used by Clifford and Geertz in the socio-anthropological tradition or social sciences in general.

  2. Micropolitics of Public Space: On the Contested Limits of Citizenship as a Locational Practice

    Andrés Di Masso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a social-psychological account of how public space dynamics may be consequential for the daily construction of citizenship. The article is organised around three interrelated ideas that are illustrated by a case study. First, it is argued that certain social-psychological processes that are typically involved in the construction of citizenship can be re-conceptualised as place-based processes that are located in public space. This interest in the ‘locational’ construction of citizenship implies focusing on membership, belonging, status, rights, entitlements and recognition as emplaced practices rather than as dislocated entities. The second idea relates to the troubled nature of citizenship as a place-related psychological category whose boundaries are hotly contested whenever disputes about controversial behaviour in public spaces surface. Accordingly, ‘the citizen’ is constantly re-shaped as everyday place-discourses and territorial practices in the public domain unfold in problematic ways. Finally, it is argued that such ‘locational’ constructions and enactments of citizenship in public space are usually framed by broader ideological dilemmas that are relevant to the maintenance and change of a given socio-political order. The ultimate purpose of the article is to demonstrate the potential for public space to become a possible site for grounding a social psychology of citizenship.

  3. Processes of Integration and Fragmentation of Economic Space: The Structure of Settlement Systems

    Alexander Pavlovich Goryunov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study of processes of integration and fragmentation caused by the polarization of economic space. Under integration in economic space the authors understand the formation of new and transformation of existing settlement systems, while fragmentation is the dissolution of settlement systems and their transformation into loosely connected settlement networks. The study focuses on the structure of settlement systems. Authors propose a new method for studying the structure of settlement systems, which combines the use of factor analysis, multidimensional scaling, and cluster analysis. The proposed method utilizes the maximum of available information about the social-economic status of settlements to reveal regularities in their spatial organization. The authors test the proposed method on 35 large cities of the Central and Volga federal districts of Russia, which comprise the spatial surroundings of Moscow. The authors find four groups of cities forming the core of the settlement system centered around Moscow, a group of four cities forming a buffer zone around that system, as well as four cities in the studied sample which do not participate in the settlement system

  4. Multitemporal Very High Resolution From Space: Outcome of the 2016 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest

    Mou, L.; Zhu, X.; Vakalopoulou, M.; Karantzalos, K.; Paragios, N.; Saux, Le B.; Moser, G.; Tuia, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the scientific outcomes of the 2016 Data Fusion Contest organized by the Image Analysis and Data Fusion Technical Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society are discussed. The 2016 Contest was an open topic competition based on a multitemporal and multimodal dataset,

  5. Technical paper contest for women 1992. Space challenges: Earth and beyond

    Orans, Robin (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Two of the major concerns of the NASA Ames Research Center (NASA ARC) Advisory Committee for Women (ACW) are that recruitment of women scientists, engineers, and technicians needs to increase and that barriers to advancement need to be removed for improved representation of women in middle and upper management and scientific positions. One strategy that addressed this concern was the ACW sponsorship of a Technical Paper Contest for Women at Ames Research Center. Other sponsors of the Contest were the Ames Equal Opportunity Council and the Ames Contractor Council. The Technical Paper Contest for Women greatly increased the visibility of both the civil service women and the women who work for contractors at Ames. The women had the opportunity to hone their written and oral presentation skills. Networking among Ames women increased.

  6. Preemption Contested: Suspect Spaces and Preventability in the July 7 Inquest

    de Goede, M.

    2014-01-01

    The London Coroner's Inquest into the deaths of July 7 2005 unequivocally rejected the notion that the security services could and should have been able to identify the 7/7 perpetrators as potential future terrorists before July 2005. These findings contest powerful post-9/11 security logics of

  7. The structure of settlement space in a Polynesian chiefdom; Kawela, Molokai, Hawaiian Islands

    Weisler, M; Kirch, P V [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (USA)

    1985-01-01

    A major settlement pattern study of a late prehistoric archaeological landscape on Molokaii Island, Hawaii, is summarised. The study focusses on the structure of settlement space within a 7.7 sq. km area situated along the south-central coast of Molokaii, and encompassing two traditional land units (ahupua'a), Kawela and Makakupaia Iki. Intensive survey resulted in the discovery of 499 architectural features. These features were recorded using a standardised data-base system (designed for computerised analysis using SPSS) with 37 discrete and continuous variable, including environmental data, architectural attributes, metrical data, and the presence and density of surface cultural materials. Seventy-two structural features (14 percent of the total sample) were excavated; the total excavated area of 442.5 sq. m provides the largest subsurface data base associated with an intensive settlement pattern survey in the Hawaiian Islands. The late prehistoric and largely contemporaneous nature of this sample is indicated by 13 radiocarbon age determinations, ranging from A.D. 1650-1820. The possibilities for directly applying ethnohistoric models in the analysis and interpretation of this settlement pattern are enhanced by the protohistoric age of the archaeological landscape. The structure of settlement space at Kawela and Makakupaia Iki is examined from the perspectives of several paradigms, including environmental, social, economic and semiotic. No single paradigm provides an adequate account of the variation and complexity of the settlement landscape; in consort, however, these varied perspectives contribute to an enhanced understanding of the structure of late prehistoric Hawaiian society. 45 refs; 12 figs; 3 tables.

  8. Contested Categories

    Drawing on social science perspectives, Contested Categories presents a series of empirical studies that engage with the often shifting and day-to-day realities of life sciences categories. In doing so, it shows how such categories remain contested and dynamic, and that the boundaries they create...

  9. An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground-Analogue Design Concept

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    The design concept of a modular and extensible hypergravity facility is presented. Several benefits of this facility are described including that the facility is suitable as a full-scale artificial-gravity space-settlement ground analogue for humans, animals, and plants for indefinite durations. The design is applicable as an analogue for on-orbit settlements as well as those on moons, asteroids, and Mars. The design creates an extremely long-arm centrifuge using a multi-car hypergravity vehicle travelling on one or more concentric circular tracks. This design supports the simultaneous generation of multiple-gravity levels to explore the feasibility and value of and requirements for such space-settlement designs. The design synergizes a variety of existing technologies including centrifuges, tilting trains, roller coasters, and optionally magnetic levitation. The design can be incrementally implemented such that the facility can be operational for a small fraction of the cost and time required for a full implementation. Brief concept of operation examples are also presented.

  10. Informal Settlements in Jamaica’s Tourism Space: Urban Spatial Development in a Small Island Developing State

    Sheere

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the compatibility of government programmes for regularising or relocating informal settlements situated in a growing tourism space in Jamaica, a small island developing state (SIDS. The case study of Ocho Rios involves mapping, charting, and defining this resort town’s island tourism space. The paper questions the effectiveness of broad government programmes aimed at addressing informal settlements at a time when governance actors and Jamaica’s tourism policy agenda prioritise land use that accommodates a diversified and spatially growing tourism industry. Findings show that government programmes have been insufficiently responsive to informal settlements located in the Ocho Rios tourism space for a number of reasons and that attempts to address the informal settlements are often beset by corruption and a lack of trust between residents and the government. Under the current tourism policy agenda, regularisation of existing informal settlements is not feasible in light of the high real estate value of lands surrounding tourist resort towns. A more targeted approach to addressing informal settlements based on the location of an informal settlement in the vicinity of island tourism regions is required.

  11. Contest Physics.

    Moehnke, Randy

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the use of contests to keep physics interesting and exciting for the students. Includes: balloon car, egg drop, tennis ball catapult, bridge building, mousetrap vehicle, musical instrument, slide photo, electric junk dissection, windmill generator, and solar heater. (MVL)

  12. Contested Spaces. Meaningful Places. Contemporary Performances of Place and Belonging in Spain and Brazil

    Maria J. C. Krom

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims to contribute to current anthropological debate on space and place, analysing in two instances of festival performance how, on the one hand the politics of appropriation of space contributes to the configuration of power relations, and how on the other hand, participants in these festivals engage individually and collectively with physical space(s to create places which they experience as meaningful in terms of identity and belonging.

  13. Micropolitics of Public Space: On the Contested Limits of Citizenship as a Locational Practice

    Di Masso, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a social-psychological account of how public space dynamics may be consequential for the daily construction of citizenship. The article is organised around three interrelated ideas that are illustrated by a case study. First, it is argued that certain social-psychological processes that are typically involved in the construction of citizenship can be re-conceptualised as place-based processes that are located in public space. This interest in the 'locational' constructio...

  14. "This is My Community": Reproducing and Resisting Boundaries of Exclusion in Contested Public Spaces.

    Toolis, Erin E; Hammack, Phillip L

    2015-12-01

    The way that public space is structured has significant implications for identity, social interaction, and participation in society. For those experiencing homelessness, with no or limited private space, survival hinges on the accessibility and livability of public space. However, the increasing privatization of public space in the United States has contributed to the implementation of anti-homeless ordinances in cities, restricting sitting, standing, panhandling, and sleeping in public. This study analyzes data from interviews with housed and unhoused community members, text from a local policy document, and ethnographic observations to explore how boundaries between "insiders" and "outsiders" are drawn in public space and mediated through individual discourse. Our findings suggest that boundaries of exclusion are constructed through dominant narratives that portray the unhoused as a threat to safety and economic vitality, thus justifying the need for regulation and punishment through the criminalization of homelessness. Yet, informants also demonstrate resistance to this narrative by discussing how criminalization of homelessness perpetuates dehumanization, violence, and economic inequality. Policy implications for the regulation of public space are discussed.

  15. Contesting Citizenship

    The new book shows how citizenship, its meaning and form, have become a vital site of contestation. While many minority groups struggle to redefine the rights of citizenship in more pluralized forms, the responsivbilities of citizenship are being reaffirmed by democratic governments concerned to ...

  16. Contestable Licensing

    Zvika Neeman; Gerhard O. Orosel

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a model of repeated franchise bidding for natural monopoly with contestable licensing - a franchisee halds an (exclusive) license to operate a franchise until another rm offers to pay more for it. In a world where quality is observable but not veri able, the simple regulatory scheme we describe combines market-like incentives with regulatory oversight to generate efficient outcomes.

  17. Contested collaboration

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1995-01-01

    . The model describes design phases, roles, themes, and intergroup communication networks as they evolve throughout the design process and characterizes design as a process of "contested collaboration". It is a first step towards a predictive design model that suggests strategies which may help participants...

  18. Designing Public Space for Mobility: Contestation, Negotiation and Experiment at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    Nikolaeva, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates airport design, using the example of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, from the point of view of managers, architects and designers. It is argued that existing accounts of the airport as a space of transit as well as a place for shopping and entertainment have underrated the comp......The paper investigates airport design, using the example of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, from the point of view of managers, architects and designers. It is argued that existing accounts of the airport as a space of transit as well as a place for shopping and entertainment have underrated...

  19. Constructing Public Space: Global Perspectives on Social Media and Popular Contestation

    Poell, T.; van Dijck, J.

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special section on the construction of public space in social media activism discusses (1) the types of social media practices involved in the construction of publicness during contemporary episodes of popular contention, (2) the particular political institutional contexts

  20. Exploring the Roots of Contested Public Spaces of Cairo : Using Self-organization as Alternative Lens

    Saleh, Mohamed; Rokem, Jonathan; Boano, Camillo

    2017-01-01

    For decades, public space as a concept in Egypt has been systematically deprived of its essential symbolic functions. Upon integrating the country into the global model of neoliberalism, the state has adopted public policies on various scales which resulted in a deep-rooted crisis of participation

  1. A Part but Apart: Discursive Explorations of the University as Contested Space in Kenya

    Johnson, Ane Turner; Singleton, Dawn S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in education and conflict in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about how universities and their constituents experience and make meaning of violence. This paper sought to capture university participants' sense of belongingness and attachment to the university space resulting from experiences with ethnic conflict in…

  2. Alternative use of space in slum settlements case study: Kampong Gandekan Kampung Baru in Kali Pepe river Surakarta

    Darmastuti, Amalia Ji; Wardana, Agustinus Wisnu; Eng, Ir. Maya Andria Nirawati M.

    2018-02-01

    Slum areas are heavily populated urban informal settlements characterized by substandard housing and illegal land usage (squatting). Surakarta is one of many Indonesian cities that are still entangled by this problem. One of the slum concentrations in Surakarta is the slum settlement (kampong) alongside Kali Pepe riverbank. Within these slum settlements, people survive in substandard housing by effectively using the limited space. This research aims to discover the typologies of the alternative use of space. This research takes a case study approach in a few kampongs alongside Kali Pepe riverbank, based on the types and sizes of small houses within this area, considering the number of occupants and the space required. The data for this research is categorized as primary data which was collected through a series of site observations and focus group discussions. The data will be analysed, compared, and classified to find out the typology of the alternative solutions of space requirements. This research uses mixed-method analysis to define how Kali Pepe's slum residents alternatively use the spaces within their kampongs. Based on the typologies found through multiple analyses, this research concludes that the use of space in substandard housing cannot be bound by limited spaces. Furthermore, the main strategy to solve the problem of limited space is by using alternative spaces.

  3. Multifunctional spaces in slum settlements and their relation to activity pattern case study of Kampung Sangkrah, Surakarta

    Shobirin, Abyzhar; Ramadhanty, Almira Husna; Hardiana, Ana

    2018-02-01

    Surakarta is a rapidly urbanized city and it causes the limitation of the availability of land within its urban area. This entangled problem is resulting in the development of slum settlements that spread across the city. One of the slum concentration areas is located on Pepe riverbanks downstream area that belongs to Kampung Sangkrah administrative boundaries. Slum settlements are characterized as a densely-populated area lacking of, or absence of, open space. This condition forces slum inhabitants to effectively use their available spaces, even multi-functionally. This research aims to observe how slum inhabitants multi-functionally use the spaces around their houses and determine the typology of multifunctional space and also the factors that influence it. To understand this phenomenon, this research used activity pattern perspectives. The scope of observation covers in-house (internal) space utilizations and neighborhood-level (external) space utilization. The data used for this research were collected primarily through site observations and interviews, using sampling to conduct data collection for in-house activities and space utilization. The analysis was conducted using descriptive method qualitatively. The research concluded that there are three types of multifunctional space utilization within slum settlements, and the utilization of spaces, whether internal or external utilization also varies depending on the inhabitants' economic-related activities.

  4. Geographies of exclusion: street drinking, gentrification and contests over public space.

    Pennay, Amy; Manton, Elizabeth; Savic, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Laws prohibiting the consumption of alcohol on the street have proliferated in Australia over the past 15 years. It is no coincidence that these laws have been implemented at the same time that significant advancements in urban renewal and gentrification have occurred in metropolitan cities. This paper draws on observational research as well as interviews and/or focus groups with street drinkers, residents and service providers (police, council workers, health workers and traders). Environmental economic and social changes that have occurred through gentrification are central to ongoing debates around the use of public space in urban areas. The geographical exclusion of street drinkers that has occurred as a result of these laws warrants the consideration of a more socially responsible strategy than the current legislative approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Contested space in the pharmacy: public attitudes to pharmacy harm reduction services in the West of Scotland.

    Gidman, Wendy; Coomber, Ross

    2014-01-01

    Internationally, community pharmacies have become increasingly involved in providing harm reduction services and health advice to people who use illicit drugs. This paper considers public opinion of community pharmacy services. It discusses attitudes to harm reduction services in the context of stigmatization of addiction and people who use drugs. This exploratory study involved twenty-six purposively sampled members of the public, from the West of Scotland, participating in one of 5 focus groups. The groups were composed to represent known groups of users and non-users of community pharmacy, none of whom were problem drug users. Three thematic categories were identified: methadone service users in community pharmacies; attitudes to harm reduction policies; contested space. Harm reduction service expansion has resulted in a high volume of drug users in and around some Scottish pharmacies. Even if harm reduction services are provided discretely users' behavior can differentiate them from other pharmacy users. Drug users' behavior in this setting is commonly perceived to be unacceptable and can deter other consumers from using pharmacy services. The results of this study infer that negative public opinion is highly suggestive of stereotyping and stigmatization of people who use drugs. Participants considered that (1) community pharmacies were unsuitable environments for harm reduction service provision, as they are used by older people and those with children; (2) current drug policy is perceived as ineffective, as abstinence is seldom achieved and methadone was reported to be re-sold; (3) people who use drugs were avoided where possible in community pharmacies. Community pharmacy harm reduction services increasingly bring together the public and drug users. Study participants were reluctant to share pharmacy facilities with drug users. This paper concludes by suggesting mechanisms to minimize stigmatization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fighting in a Contested Space Environment: Training Marines for Operations with Degraded or Denied Space-Enabled Capabilities

    2015-06-01

    TRAINING MARINES FOR OPERATIONS WITH DEGRADED OR DENIED SPACE-ENABLED CAPABILITIES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) David M. Garcia 7. PERFORMING ...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING...could possibly have been linked to the blast as well [19]. Space Debris (4) There are over 20,000 pieces of debris the size of a softball or greater

  7. Contesting danger

    Heathershaw, John; Megoran, Nick

    2011-01-01

    and subsequent considerations of the region in terms of the war on terror. It considers several examples of this discourse of danger including the popular US TV drama about presidential politics, The West Wing, the policy texts of ‘Washingtonian security analysis’ and accounts of danger, insecurity and urban...... of danger is contested within the region. The example of urban violence in Osh, Kyrgyzstan and Jalalabad, Afghanistan in 2010 demonstrates how opportunities to mitigate conflict may have been lost due to the distortions of this discourse of danger. It concludes by raising the challenge to policy...

  8. Centralized vs decentralized contests

    Beviá, Carmen; Corchón, Luis C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare two contests, decentralized in which there are several independent contests with non overlapping contestants and centralized in which all contestants fight for a unique prize which is the sum of all prizes in the small contests. We study the relationship between payoffs and efforts between these two contests. The first author acknowledges financial support from ECO2008-04756 (Grupo Consolidado-C), SGR2014-515 and PROMETEO/2013/037. The second author acknowledges financial suppor...

  9. US Space Superiority: It was Good While it Lasted; Exploring the Contesting and Congesting of the Space Domain

    2012-04-11

    she has always tolerated and encouraged that interest, even if it meant driving to Huntsville to watch an IMAX movie about space junk. I would also...last statement is not merely a false alarm or an attempt to create unnecessary drama , but is actually highlighting a real and growing dilemma that...today than anytime in human history , there are a number of forces that are continuing to shape the landscape of international relations and by

  10. Contested Rivers

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    In recent years, hydropower and the sustainability of large hydropower projects has become a contested field. While for example hydropower companies maintain that hydropower is a renewable and sustainable source of electricity, a number of NGOs sharply question this assumption. The paper explores...... policy making, decision drivers and framing of large hydropower projects in China. Hydropower is a complex and interesting field to explore as the consequences go beyond the immediate locality and interacts with local as well as the global contexts. Inspired by Tsing (2003) and Zhan (2008) the paper...... and natural scientists and Chinese hydropower companies (to name a few). The paper maps different actors’ framing of the issue to gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of hydropower policymaking in China, as well as map the local consequences of global policymaking about large hydropower...

  11. From space and from the ground: determining forest dynamics in settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon

    Diniz, F.H.; Kok, K.; Hott, H.C.; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has been partially attributed to the establishment of settlement projects. Acknowledging the difficulties in quantifying the rate and patterns of deforestation, the objective of this paper is to determine forest dynamics (deforestation and reforestation) in

  12. Conservation of brown bear in the Alps: space use and settlement behavior of reintroduced bears

    Preatoni, Damiano; Mustoni, Andrea; Martinoli, Adriano; Carlini, Eugenio; Chiarenzi, Barbara; Chiozzini, Simonetta; Van Dongen, Stefan; Wauters, Luc A.; Tosi, Guido

    2005-11-01

    Large carnivores typically need large home ranges containing habitats patches of different quality. Consequently, their conservation requires habitat protection and management at the landscape scale. In some cases, reintroduction might be used to support remnant or restore extinct populations. This is the case for the brown bear ( Ursus arctos) in the Italian Alps. We monitored spacing behavior and settlement of reintroduced brown bears in Adamello-Brenta Natural Park, North-Italy, using radio-tracking. Habitat use, dispersion and survival were studied to evaluate the success of reintroduction and possible conflicts with man. All three males and five of seven females settled in the study area. Most bears roamed widely the first months after release, exploring the new habitat. Patterns of home range overlap between seasons and years revealed that home range use stabilized the year after first hibernation. Home ranges were larger in the mating season (May-July) than in spring or autumn. Home ranges varied between 34 and 1813 km 2 the year after release, but core-areas, where feeding activity was concentrated, were much smaller. Some bears had exclusive core-areas in summer and autumn, but most showed considerable core-area overlap with animals of the same and/or the opposite sex. Bears selected deciduous forests, mixed and conifer forests were used according to availability, and areas with anthropogenic disturbance were avoided. Most bears settled and some reproduced successfully at the release site, causing high initial population growth, suggesting that reintroduction can help to re-establish a brown bear population in the Italian Alps.

  13. Breaking new ground in mapping human settlements from space - The Global Urban Footprint

    Esch, Thomas; Heldens, Wieke; Hirner, Andreas; Keil, Manfred; Marconcini, Mattia; Roth, Achim; Zeidler, Julian; Dech, Stefan; Strano, Emanuele

    2017-12-01

    Today, approximately 7.2 billion people inhabit the Earth and by 2050 this number will have risen to around nine billion, of which about 70% will be living in cities. The population growth and the related global urbanization pose one of the major challenges to a sustainable future. Hence, it is essential to understand drivers, dynamics, and impacts of the human settlements development. A key component in this context is the availability of an up-to-date and spatially consistent map of the location and distribution of human settlements. It is here that the Global Urban Footprint (GUF) raster map can make a valuable contribution. The new global GUF binary settlement mask shows a so far unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.4″ (∼ 12m) that provides - for the first time - a complete picture of the entirety of urban and rural settlements. The GUF has been derived by means of a fully automated processing framework - the Urban Footprint Processor (UFP) - that was used to analyze a global coverage of more than 180,000 TanDEM-X and TerraSAR-X radar images with 3 m ground resolution collected in 2011-2012. The UFP consists of five main technical modules for data management, feature extraction, unsupervised classification, mosaicking and post-editing. Various quality assessment studies to determine the absolute GUF accuracy based on ground truth data on the one hand and the relative accuracies compared to established settlements maps on the other hand, clearly indicate the added value of the new global GUF layer, in particular with respect to the representation of rural settlement patterns. The Kappa coefficient of agreement compared to absolute ground truth data, for instance, shows GUF accuracies which are frequently twice as high as those of established low resolution maps. Generally, the GUF layer achieves an overall absolute accuracy of about 85%, with observed minima around 65% and maxima around 98%. The GUF will be provided open and free for any scientific use in

  14. Making "ethical safe space" in the translation of contested knowledge: the role of community debate in defining end-of-life decision ethics.

    Kaufert, Joseph; Schwartz, Karen; Wiebe, Rhonda; Derksen, Jim; Lutfiyya, Zana M; Richert, Dean

    2013-04-01

    The objectives of this article are, first, to document a unique process of research knowledge translation (KT), which the authors describe as the creation of "ethical safe space," and, second, to document the narratives of forum participants and describe their interaction in a dialogue about vulnerability, the authority of physicians, and the perspective of people with disabilities on the policy. Narrative data from qualitative interviews with individual key informants and focus groups were used to identify speakers with specific expertise on policy, disability perspectives, and bioethical issues, who were invited to participate in the Forum on Ethical Safe Space. The planning workgroup adopted a model for enabling representative participation in the public forum designed to reduce the impact of physical, sensory, financial, language, and professional status barriers. Using the transcripts and keynote speakers' printed texts, primary themes and patterns of interaction were identified reflecting the alternative perspectives. Through the development of a workshop on ethical, legal, and disability-related implications of professional policy guidelines developed by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Manitoba, we provided a qualitative analysis of the discourse involving experts and disability community members supporting alternative positions on the impact of the policy statement, and discuss ethical, legal, and disability rights issues identified in the public debate. Contested policy and ethical frameworks for making decisions about withdrawing and withholding life supporting treatment may influence both the perspectives of palliative care providers and patients referred to palliative care facilities. An innovative model for KT using a public forum that enabled stakeholders with conflicting perspectives to engage with ethical and professional policy issues asserting the physician's authority in contested decisions involving withdrawing or withholding life

  15. Assessment of the Space Weather Effect on Human Health in the Arctic Zone Using the Example of Tiksi Settlement

    Alena A. Strekalovskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the space weather effect on the well-being and health of people with cardiovascular pathology in Arctic conditions, we carried out the processing and analysis of space weather parameters and the electronic database of patients with cardiovascular diseases at the Central District Hospital in Tiksi settlement (the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia (RS(Y. Patients visited the polyclinic or requested an ambulance because their health had deteriorated. As a result of our research, we found some conjunctions of trends in the change in geomagnetic disturbances (Kp-index and the number of patients' visits to medical institutions for arterial hypertension (AH in 2015, 2016 and 2017. It can therefore be concluded that geomagnetic disturbances have an impact on the cardiovascular system of a person living at high latitudes.

  16. Contested Cowboys: Ethnic Mexican Charros and the Struggle for Suburban Public Space in 1970s Los Angeles

    Barraclough, Laura R.

    2012-01-01

    While most studies of Mexican American suburbanization since the 1970s focus on the transformation of residential (private) space, it is in suburban public space that some of the most important struggles over belonging and rights have occurred. This article builds a theoretical framework to analyze the relationships between public space,…

  17. A practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process.

    Gao, Wu; Xu, Wenjie; Bian, Xuecheng; Chen, Yunmin

    2017-11-01

    The settlement of any position of the municipal solid waste (MSW) body during the landfilling process and after its closure has effects on the integrity of the internal structure and storage capacity of the landfill. This paper proposes a practical approach for calculating the settlement and storage capacity of landfills based on the space and time discretization of the landfilling process. The MSW body in the landfill was divided into independent column units, and the filling process of each column unit was determined by a simplified complete landfilling process. The settlement of a position in the landfill was calculated with the compression of each MSW layer in every column unit. Then, the simultaneous settlement of all the column units was integrated to obtain the settlement of the landfill and storage capacity of all the column units; this allowed to obtain the storage capacity of the landfill based on the layer-wise summation method. When the compression of each MSW layer was calculated, the effects of the fluctuation of the main leachate level and variation in the unit weight of the MSW on the overburdened effective stress were taken into consideration by introducing the main leachate level's proportion and the unit weight and buried depth curve. This approach is especially significant for MSW with a high kitchen waste content and landfills in developing countries. The stress-biodegradation compression model was used to calculate the compression of each MSW layer. A software program, Settlement and Storage Capacity Calculation System for Landfills, was developed by integrating the space and time discretization of the landfilling process and the settlement and storage capacity algorithms. The landfilling process of the phase IV of Shanghai Laogang Landfill was simulated using this software. The maximum geometric volume of the landfill error between the calculated and measured values is only 2.02%, and the accumulated filling weight error between the

  18. 14 CFR 15.109 - Settlements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 15.109 Section 15.109... Act of 1958 § 15.109 Settlements. (a) A publisher may not settle a claim with another party, for which... publisher submits a copy of the proposed settlement, and a statement justifying the settlement, to the Chief...

  19. Sacred Space in Community settlement of Kudus Kulon, Central Java, Indonesia

    Budi Sardjono, Agung; Rochma Harani, Arnis

    2017-12-01

    The sacred space becomes an important part of the spatial layout of Javanese society, as well as in most houses of the archipelago. This space is related to religious activities, highly respected and usually located in the main place. Kudus Kulon community is a part of Javanese culture in the northern coastal area of Java. Known as a devout Muslim society, sacred space in Kudus Kulon community house becomes an important thing to understand the culture of living in society. The research was conducted by looking at the religious activities of the community and how the space of activity is realized. The research was conducted by qualitative research method. In the Kudus Kulon community, sacred spaces are available in the house itself, in the community grup of houses, and around Kudus Kulon area. In every house, the sacred space can be found in Gedongan and extends to Dalem. In the community group of houses, the sacred space can be found in the neighbourhood praying area, while In Kudus Kulon area, it can be found in Mosque complex and Tower tomb. Physically sacred space is realized by raising the floor height of the space around it. In architectural view, the sacred space is seen on the elevation of the roof or roof angle. Spatially the sacred space occupies a central position and visually represented by a vertical orientation.

  20. Modular Extended-Stay HyperGravity Facility Design Concept: An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground Analogue

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    This document defines the design concept for a ground-based, extended-stay hypergravity facility as a precursor for space-based artificial-gravity facilities that extend the permanent presence of both human and non-human life beyond Earth in artificial-gravity settlements. Since the Earth's current human population is stressing the environment and the resources off-Earth are relatively unlimited, by as soon as 2040 more than one thousand people could be living in Earthorbiting artificial-gravity habitats. Eventually, the majority of humanity may live in artificialgravity habitats throughout this solar system as well as others, but little is known about the longterm (multi-generational) effects of artificial-gravity habitats on people, animals, and plants. In order to extend life permanently beyond Earth, it would be useful to create an orbiting space facility that generates 1g as well as other gravity levels to rigorously address the numerous challenges of such an endeavor. Before doing so, developing a ground-based artificial-gravity facility is a reasonable next step. Just as the International Space Station is a microgravity research facility, at a small fraction of the cost and risk a ground-based artificial-gravity facility can begin to address a wide-variety of the artificial-gravity life-science questions and engineering challenges requiring long-term research to enable people, animals, and plants to live off-Earth indefinitely.

  1. Human Settlements in the South-Central U.S., Viewed at Night from the International Space Station

    Dawson, Melissa; Evans, Cynthia; Stefanov, William; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Willis, Kimberly; Runco, Susan

    2012-01-01

    A recent innovation of astronauts observing Earth from the International Space Station (ISS) is documenting human footprints by photographing city lights at night time. One of the earliest night-time images from the ISS was the US-Mexico border at El Paso-Ciudad Juarez. The colors, patterns and density of city lights document the differences in the cultural settlement patterns across the border region, as well as within the urban areas themselves. City lights help outline the most populated areas in settlements around the world, and can be used to explore relative population densities, changing patterns of urban/suburban development, transportation networks, spatial relationship to geographic features, and more. The data also provides insight into parameters such as surface roughness for input into local and regional climate modeling and studies of light pollution. The ground resolution of night-time astronaut photography from the ISS is typically an order of magnitude greater than current Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) data, and therefore can serve as a "zoom lens" for selected urban areas. Current handheld digital cameras in use on the ISS, optimized for greater light sensitivity, provide opportunities to obtain new detailed imagery of atmospheric phenomena such as airglow, aurora, and noctilucent clouds in addition to documenting urban patterns. ISS astronauts have taken advantage of increasingly sensitive digital cameras to document the world at night in unprecedented detail. In addition, the capability to obtain time-lapse imagery from fixed cameras has been exploited to produce dynamic videos of both changing surface patterns around the world and atmospheric phenomena. We will profile some spectacular images of human settlements over the South-Central U.S., and contrast with other images from around the world. More data can be viewed at http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/Videos/CrewEarthObservationsVideos/. US-Mexico border is obvious by the different

  2. The Sidewalk as a Contested Space: Women’s Negotiation of Socio-Spatial Processes of Exclusion in Public Urban Space in Saudi Arabia

    Almahmood, Mohammed Abdulrahman M; Schulze, Oliver; Carstensen, Trine Agervig

    2018-01-01

    the use of outdoor seating to men only, thus sidewalks adjacent to, e.g., cafes function as mono-gender spaces dominated by men. However, young women negotiate spatially bounded gender norms through their presence, behaviour, and dress. Although sidewalks are conceived as men’s space, women account...

  3. Till the Ductile Anchor Hold: Towards Space Settlements in the 21st Century.

    Dator, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Humans are restless explorers. For 99% of humanity s time on Earth, we have been nomadic wanderers, not farmers, warriors, factory workers, developers, or NASA employees. Only recently--for only a few thousand years--have most humans been tied to the land as many are now. But as more and more of us live in information societies and some indeed in dream societies where our identity derives from the knowledge we share and the image we project, and not from the property we own or the manual work we do, the time may be coming when we should break free from the land, and roam once again. But beware: the reality of Man and Woman the Explorer has a very dark side as well. Many people where I live view the recent experience of Man on the Move as a history of theft, murder, racism, exploitation, and genocide. So we need to be very careful if we say that space exploration is only natural for humans, since the experience has not been very uplifting and noble for most recipients of the exploring of others. But such warnings are not new. Humans have been alerting each other to the dangers of change and novelty from the very beginning: Who and what is this?

  4. Rhetoric and Essentially Contested Arguments

    Garver, Eugene

    1978-01-01

    Draws a connection between Gallie's essentially contested concepts and Aristotle's account of rhetorical argument by presenting a definition of Essentially Contested Argument which is used as the connecting term between rhetoric and essentially contested concepts and by demonstrating the value of making this connection. (JF)

  5. Most Physically Educated Contest

    Mercier, Kevin; Howard, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    It is seldom that the accomplishments of secondary physical education students are celebrated. The Most Physically Educated Contest was developed to allow students from several school districts to gather for appropriate competition and to display the characteristics of physical literacy attained from participation in high-quality physical…

  6. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  7. Campaigning and Contestation

    Schwartz, Sander Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article is a critical study of the Facebook pages of politicians as public spheres using Dahlberg’s notion of contestation. A method is implemented inspired by qualitative content analysis and including focus groups in order to study citizen comments on eight main political candidates...

  8. 14 CFR 14.25 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 14.25 Section 14.25 Aeronautics... IMPLEMENTING THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT OF 1980 Procedures for Considering Applications § 14.25 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action...

  9. 14 CFR 1262.305 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1262.305 Section 1262.305... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 1262.305 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in...

  10. The administrative – political function of human settlements and the role it plays in organizing geographical space. Case study – Romania

    Radu Săgeată

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional typology of human settlements is shaped, among others, by their political-administrative function. Its distinctive place is determined by subjective factors, such as the political-administrative decisions, which have changed the course of some settlements to the benefit of others, or reverted them from their normal, natural evolution. That means outside involvement in space organization to the detriment of self-organization, the latter being the outcome of the permanent tendency of territorial systems to rebalance from exogenous factors-induced dysfunctions. Lately, the country’s territorial-administrative organization has been steadily challenged years over the past few based either on the 1925 administrative map, or on the disparities in the structure of the present counties and the economic and social fluxes going on at the local level of the settlements system. In view of the above, we have attempted to work out an optimal model for the administrative organization of Romania’s territory by proceeding from the distance between communal seats and the town towards which they gravitate. The latter’s capacity for discharging an administrative function, and the relations of subordination or competition amongst these towns in also discussed.

  11. Contested Property Claims

    Property relations are such a common feature of social life that we can sometimes forget the immense complexity of the web of laws, practices, and ideas that allow a property regime to function smoothly. But we are quickly reminded of this complexity when social conflict over property erupts. When...... social actors confront a property regime – for example by squatting – they enact what can be called ‘contested property claims’. These confrontations raise crucial issues of social justice and show the ways in which property conflicts often reflect wider social conflicts. Through a series of case studies...... from across the globe, this multidisciplinary anthology exploring contested property claims brings together works from anthropologists, legal scholars, and geographers, who show how disagreements give us a privileged window onto how property regimes function and illustrates the many ways...

  12. Contested Property Claims

    Property relations are such a common feature of social life that the complexity of the web of laws, practices, and ideas that allow a property regime to function smoothly are often forgotten. But we are quickly reminded of this complexity when conflict over property erupts. When social actors...... confront a property regime – for example by squatting – they enact what can be called ‘contested property claims’. As this book demonstrates, these confrontations raise crucial issues of social justice and show the ways in which property conflicts often reflect wider social conflicts. Through a series...... of case studies from across the globe, this multidisciplinary anthology brings together works from anthropologists, legal scholars, and geographers, who show how exploring contested property claims offers a privileged window onto how property regimes function, as well as an illustration of the many ways...

  13. Some core contested concepts.

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  14. Sound Settlements

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  15. Sound Settlements

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  16. 77 FR 27669 - Request for Public Comment on Settlement Part Program

    2012-05-11

    ... Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and to reduce litigation costs. The Settlement Part program is a form of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) under which larger contested OSHA..., such a case is first assigned to a ``Settlement Judge'' who will issue a discovery order and supervise...

  17. Bread Baking Contest.

    Blanchette, Amy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a classroom project in which elementary students bake homemade bread to learn about the settlement period in Canadian history and the early history of the students' community. Maintains that students learn to compare the lifestyle of the past with the present. (CFR)

  18. Lessons Learned from Biosphere 2: When Viewed as a Ground Simulation/Analogue for Long Duration Human Space Exploration and Settlement

    MacCallum, T.; Poynter, J.; Bearden, D.

    A human mission to Mars, or a base on the Moon or Mars, is a longer and more complex mission than any space endeavor undertaken to date. Ground simulations provide a relevant, analogous environment for testing technologies and learning how to manage complex, long duration missions, while addressing inherent mission risks. Multiphase human missions and settlements that may preclude a rapid return to Earth, require high fidelity, end-to-end, at least full mission duration tests in order to evaluate a system's ability to sustain the crew for the entire mission and return the crew safely to Earth. Moreover, abort scenarios are essentially precluded in many mission scenarios, though certain risks may only become evident late in the mission. Aging and compounding effects cannot be simulated through accelerated tests for all aspects of the mission. Until such high fidelity long duration simulations are available, and in order to help prepare those simulations and mission designs, it is important to extract as many lessons as possible from analogous environments. Possibly the best analogue for a long duration space mission is the two year mission of Biosphere 2. Biosphere 2 is a three-acre materially closed ecological system that supported eight crewmembers with food, air and water in a sunlight driven bioregenerative system for two years. It was designed for research applicable to environmental management on Earth and the development of human life support for space. A brief overview of the two-year Biosphere 2 mission is presented, followed by select data and lessons learned that are applicable to the design and operation of a long duration human space mission, settlement or test bed. These lessons include technical, programmatic, and psychological issues

  19. Human settlements

    Van Niekerk, Cornelia W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available risk of deaths and injuries by drowning in floods and migration- related health effects. • Increased migration, which can result in human suffering, human rights violations, conflicts and political instability. • Loss of property and livelihoods.... The vulnerability of settlements in southern Africa is impacted by various and complex socio-economic processes related to the cultural, political and institutional contexts and demographic pressure, as well as specific high-risk zones susceptible to flash floods...

  20. Graph transformation tool contest 2008

    Rensink, Arend; van Gorp, Pieter

    This special section is the outcome of the graph transformation tool contest organised during the Graph-Based Tools (GraBaTs) 2008 workshop, which took place as a satellite event of the International Conference on Graph Transformation (ICGT) 2008. The contest involved two parts: three “off-line case

  1. Reward and punishment in a team contest

    Heine, F.A.; Strobel, M.

    2015-01-01

    A team contest entails both public good situations within the teams as well as a contest across teams. In an experimental study, we analyse behaviour in such a team contest when allowing to punish or to reward other group members. Moreover, we compare two types of contest environment: One in which

  2. Social Identity and Group Contests

    Zaunbrecher, Henrik; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Social identity has been shown to successfully enhance cooperation and effort in cooperation and coordination games. Little is known about the causal effect of social identity on the propensity to engage in group conflict. In this paper we explore theoretically and experimentally whether social identity increases investments in group contests. We show theoretically that increased social identity with the own group implies higher investments in Tullock contests. Empirically we find that induce...

  3. Photowalk contest winners

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    The local winners of the global particle physics Photowalk have been announced by the five participating laboratories. At CERN, Diego Giol and Christian Stephani were the jury’s favourites, and their photos will now go forward to the global vote, competing against the local winners from DESY in Germany, Fermilab in the US, KEK in Japan and TRIUMF in Canada. Two prizes are to be awarded, one selected by a global jury, the other by popular vote – it’s time to get voting!   Diego Giol #1 The global winners of the Photowalk contest will be revealed by the second week of October, but the local CERN winners were announced last week. After three weeks of work, two meetings of the jury and three successive selections, 20 photos were chosen from the 792 entries. The three highest-ranked will participate in the final competition. The public can vote for their favourite photos on the interactions.org website until 8 October. Only two photographers took the three winning photo...

  4. The Settlement Utopia

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    terms. This article explores the trajectory of the comparatively under-researched Danish offspring of the movement. It demonstrates the tempering and compromise that occurred when utopian ideals of ‘brotherly love’, ‘God’s Kingdom’, and ‘radical social change’ were realized in concrete social...... arrangements. Contradictions and ambiguities arose when utopian ideas were confronted with what could be done. The Settlement became a highly ambiguous space, a ‘heterotopia’. The roots of the contradictions cannot simply be identified in the external pressure of legal requirements and funding criteria...

  5. The Settlements Growth in Mijen District, Suburb of Semarang

    Pigawati, B.; Yuliastuti, N.; Mardiansjah, F. H.

    2018-02-01

    Semarang is one of metropolitan cities in Indonesia. As common in metropolitan cities, Semarang has problems regarding the availability of urban space, especially for settlements. This is related to the increase of population in Semarang. The selection of settlements should consider the suitability of space usage. This study aimed to analyze the growth of Semarang settlements in 2006-2015, distribution patterns, characteristics, directions and factors affecting growth. The location of the research is Mijen District located in Suburb of Semarang. This research used a quantitative descriptive spatial approach by using remote sensing technique and Geographic Information System (GIS). The results showed that some of the growth sites of settlements in Mijen District, the suburb of Semarang are located in areas which not suitable for settlements. There are several types of settlement patterns in Mijen District. Accessibility is the major factor driving the growth of settlements. An integrated development policy is needed to maintain a sustainable balance of urban settlement development.

  6. Space use by Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa limosa during settlement at a previous or a new nest location

    Van Den Brink, Valentijn; Schroeder, Julia; Both, Christiaan; Lourenco, Pedro M.; Piersma, Theunis; Hooijmeijer, Jos C.E.W.

    Capsule Black-tailed Godwits first return to the nest location of the previous year, even when moving to a different nest location later that season. Aims To examine the use of space by Black-tailed Godwits during the two months before egg-laying to two weeks afterwards. Methods We compare the

  7. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  8. Contest experience and body size affect different types of contest decisions.

    Chen, Yu-Ju; Hsu, Yuying

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the relative importance of contest experience and size differences to behavioral decisions over the course of contests. Using a mangrove rivulus fish, Kryptolebias marmoratus, we showed that although contest experience and size differences jointly determined contest outcomes, they affected contestants' interactions at different stages of contests. Contest experience affected behavioral decisions at earlier stages of contests, including the tendency and latency to launch attacks, the tendency to escalate contests into mutual attacks and the outcome of non-escalated contests. Once contests were escalated into mutual attacks, the degree of size difference affected the fish's persistence in escalation and chance of winning, but contest experience did not. These results support the hypothesis that contest experience modifies individuals' estimation of their fighting ability rather than their actual strength. Furthermore, (1) in contests between two naïve contestants, more than 60 % of fish that were 2-3 mm smaller than their opponent escalated the contest to physical fights, even though their larger opponents eventually won 92 % of escalated fights and (2) fish with a losing experience were very likely to retreat in the face of an opponent 2-3 mm smaller than them without escalating. The result that a 2-3 mm size advantage could not offset the influence of a losing experience on the tendency to escalate suggests that, as well as depending on body size, the fish's physical strength is influenced by other factors which require further investigation.

  9. 29 CFR 2200.38 - Employee contests.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employee contests. 2200.38 Section 2200.38 Labor... Pleadings and Motions § 2200.38 Employee contests. (a) Secretary's statement of reasons. Where an affected employee or authorized employee representative files a notice of contest with respect to the abatement...

  10. Physics Contests for High School Students.

    Fox, Doug; Nelson, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Describes how the Ontario Section of the American Association of Physics Teachers started a "Grade Eleven Prize Physics Contest" to generate interest in physics and recognize outstanding students. Also describes outcomes of contests, adaptation of the contest by Southeastern Pennsylvania Section, and suggestions for others wanting to…

  11. Introduction : Global Cultures of Contestation

    Peeren, E.; Celikates, R.; de Kloet, J.; Poell, T.; Peeren, E.; Celikates, R.; de Kloet, J.; Poell, T.

    2018-01-01

    From the popular uprisings in North Africa and the Middle East in early 2011, via the Spanish indignados and Occupy Wall Street to the Umbrella movement in Hong Kong, recent years have seen major instances of popular contestation across the world. Moving beyond positions that present a singularly

  12. Financing bidders in takeover contests

    Vladimirov, V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper studies a takeover contests, in which cash-constrained bidders decide on the optimal way to finance their cash bid. For both bidders and the seller this decision is at least as important as deciding on whether the payment should be in cash or in securities. The main result is that the

  13. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith

    2007-01-01

    importance of particularized experiences and multiple ineequality agendas). These developments shape the way citizenship is both practiced and analysed. Mapping neat citizenship modles onto distinct nation-states and evaluating these in relation to formal equality is no longer an adequate approach....... Comparative citizenship analyses need to be considered in relation to multipleinequalities and their intersections and to multiple governance and trans-national organisinf. This, in turn, suggests that comparative citizenship analysis needs to consider new spaces in which struggles for equal citizenship occur...

  14. Documenting a Contested Memory

    Awad, Sarah H.

    2017-01-01

    This article looks at how symbols in the urban environment are intentionally produced and modified to regulate a community’s collective memory. Our urban environment is filled with symbols in the form of images, text, and structures that embody certain narratives about the past. Once those symbols...... to preserve the memory of the revolution through graffiti murals and the utilization of public space, and from the other, the authority’s efforts to replace those initiatives with its own official narrative. Building on the concept of collective memory, as well as Bartlett’s studies of serial reproductions...

  15. Local newspaper movie contests and the creation of the first movie fans

    Jessica Leonora Whitehead

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the advent of local newspaper movie contests in the 1910s and how these contests helped to create active movie fans. Such contests increased the popularity of the new medium of film by engaging local audiences in the process of filmmaking, including fans as scriptwriters and even stars. They helped to transform film into a dominant cultural practice by creating local spaces for film patrons to become part of the national pastime of going to the show. They did so by appealing directly to female spectators, who both legitimized going to the movies and created dynamic film fan communities.

  16. Open data for informal settlements: Toward a user׳s guide for urban managers and planners

    Arnab Chakraborty

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal settlements exist in a legally contested space and the quality of – and access to – information about them has been historically limited. The open data movement promises to address this gap by offering alternative sources for information and free or low cost analytical platforms. However, in order to use open data effectively, urban managers and planners need guidance to navigate these new data sources, software, and server platforms, as well as acquire the necessary skills. In this paper, we begin to address these issues by developing a framework that organizes the sprawling and rapidly evolving world of open urban data. Our framework includes three broad categories (1 inputs and resources, (2 activities and outputs, and (3 outcomes. We then identify and describe the key subcomponents under each, and list the prominent products and resources available to urban managers and planners. For example, under inputs and resources, we discuss open urban data sources such as Open Street Maps, cyberinfrastructure for web hosting, application deployment, and data processing, and open source software that can be used to analyze and visualize collected or derived data. We also identify the key resources available to planners for training and discuss the complementary opportunities presented by conventional datasets such as census and open urban data. Finally, using examples from ongoing activities in Mumbai, we show how open data resources can be useful for understanding urbanization and better integrating informal settlements into formal urban management and planning processes. We suggest that urban managers and planners working in informal settlements should take greater advantage of open data resources in order to both better address current challenges as well as for shaping a better future for the communities they serve.

  17. Corporate contestability and corporate expropriation

    Abdul Hadi Zulkafli

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents evidence on the role of ownership in dealing with corporate expropriation of listed companies in Malaysia. From the perspective of expropriation, a single controlling shareholder is always associated with such behavior due to their power and control at the expense of minority shareholder. However, subsequent individual or coalition of large shareholders can be an important corporate governance tool by providing effective monitoring that would lessen the possibility of expropriation by the controlling shareholder. Relating to that, this study evaluates the role of controlling and large shareholders in dealing with corporate expropriation. It is found that there is a negative relationship between single controlling shareholders and dividend payout ratio indicating that firms with only controlling shareholder will pay a lower dividend due to possible expropriation through profit diversion by controlling shareholder. Using Herfindahl Index as a proxy for ownership contestability, the presence of large shareholders along with controlling shareholder has a positive relationship with dividend payout implying that increased contestability helps to curb the power of controlling shareholder to expropriate fund for their own benefit. In accordance with agency theory, the outcome suggests that large shareholders play a monitoring role in minimizing the Type II agency problem. It is also verifying the argument made based on the Catering Theory of Dividend that the presence of large shareholder brings benefit to all shareholders as they are able to reduce profit diversion by demanding for higher dividend

  18. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    2005-05-01

    Forget the headphones you saw in the Warner Brothers thriller Contact, as well as the guttural throbs emanating from loudspeakers at the Very Large Array in that 1997 movie. In real life, radio telescopes aren't used for "listening" to anything - just like visible-light telescopes, they are used primarily to make images of astronomical objects. Now, the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) wants to encourage astronomers to use radio-telescope data to make truly compelling images, and is offering cash prizes to winners of a new image contest. Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio Galaxy Fornax A Radio-optical composite image of giant elliptical galaxy NGC 1316, showing the galaxy (center), a smaller companion galaxy being cannibalized by NGC 1316, and the resulting "lobes" (orange) of radio emission caused by jets of particles spewed from the core of the giant galaxy Click on image for more detail and images CREDIT: Fomalont et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF "Astronomy is a very visual science, and our radio telescopes are capable of producing excellent images. We're sponsoring this contest to encourage astronomers to make the extra effort to turn good images into truly spectacular ones," said NRAO Director Fred K.Y. Lo. The contest, offering a grand prize of $1,000, was announced at the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The image contest is part of a broader NRAO effort to make radio astronomical data and images easily accessible and widely available to scientists, students, teachers, the general public, news media and science-education professionals. That effort includes an expanded image gallery on the observatory's Web site. "We're not only adding new radio-astronomy images to our online gallery, but we're also improving the organization and accessibility of the images," said Mark Adams, head of education and public outreach (EPO) at NRAO. "Our long-term goal is to make the NRAO Image Gallery an international resource for radio astronomy imagery

  19. Learning Reproducibility with a Yearly Networking Contest

    Canini, Marco; Crowcroft, Jon

    2017-01-01

    fostered by organizing a yearly international contest. We argue that holding a contest undertaken by a plurality of students will have benefits that are two-fold. First, it will promote hands-on learning of skills that are helpful in producing artifacts

  20. Hmong transnational identity: the gendering of contested discourses

    Roberta Julian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hmong women throughout the diaspora are increasingly expressing ‘what it means to be Hmong’ and ‘what it means to be a Hmong woman’ in a variety of media that constitute western popular culture. At the same time, Hmong women residing in different nation-states live Hmong femininity differently. This paper explores the contested nature of Hmong identity through an exploration of discourses and practices at global and local levels, with a particular emphasis on their gendered dimensions. The paper argues that global narratives of Hmong identity are analytically distinct from, but empirically intertwined with, the constructions of Hmong identities across transnational social spaces. Through a focus on Hmong in Australia and the United States, the paper highlights the significance of place, generation, gender, religion, class and status as axes of contestation and debate in the construction of Hmong identities.

  1. Contest in Nanai Shamanic Tales

    Tatiana Diomidovna Bulgakova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tale motif of the shamanic tale competition is examined with due regard for the interpretation given by the Nanai storyteller-shamans from the standpoint of their personal spiritual experience. In shamanic practice it is not the personal ability (skill or physical power that provides a challenger victory in conflict, but obtaining spirits-helpers more powerful than those of his or her rival. The predominate role of these fantastic personages/helpers in tales that represent invisible spirit helpers perform real shamanic praxis, explains the loser’s unconditional submission and readiness to sacrifice their freedom or life to the winner. It also clarifies the motivation of the initiators of these contests and games: by means of gathering a great number of competitors, such shamans solve their personal spiritual problems, such as the need to overcome their adversaries or find allies in the struggle against their opponents.

  2. Coral settlement on a highly disturbed equatorial reef system.

    Bauman, Andrew G; Guest, James R; Dunshea, Glenn; Low, Jeffery; Todd, Peter A; Steinberg, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    Processes occurring early in the life stages of corals can greatly influence the demography of coral populations, and successful settlement of coral larvae that leads to recruitment is a critical life history stage for coral reef ecosystems. Although corals in Singapore persist in one the world's most anthropogenically impacted reef systems, our understanding of the role of coral settlement in the persistence of coral communities in Singapore remains limited. Spatial and temporal patterns of coral settlement were examined at 7 sites in the southern islands of Singapore, using settlement tiles deployed and collected every 3 months from 2011 to 2013. Settlement occurred year round, but varied significantly across time and space. Annual coral settlement was low (~54.72 spat m(-2) yr(-1)) relative to other equatorial regions, but there was evidence of temporal variation in settlement rates. Peak settlement occurred between March-May and September-November, coinciding with annual coral spawning periods (March-April and October), while the lowest settlement occurred from December-February during the northeast monsoon. A period of high settlement was also observed between June and August in the first year (2011/12), possibly due to some species spawning outside predicted spawning periods, larvae settling from other locations or extended larval settlement competency periods. Settlement rates varied significantly among sites, but spatial variation was relatively consistent between years, suggesting the strong effects of local coral assemblages or environmental conditions. Pocilloporidae were the most abundant coral spat (83.6%), while Poritidae comprised only 6% of the spat, and Acroporidae coral spat. These results indicate that current settlement patterns are reinforcing the local adult assemblage structure ('others'; i.e. sediment-tolerant coral taxa) in Singapore, but that the replenishment capacity of Singapore's reefs appears relatively constrained, which could lead

  3. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  4. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  5. Minnesota Power Settlement

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  6. Payoff Shares in Two-Player Contests

    Samuel Häfner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In imperfectly discriminating contests with symmetric valuations, equilibrium payoffs are positive shares of the value of the prize. In contrast to a bargaining situation, players’ shares sum to less than one because a residual share of the value is lost due to rent dissipation. In this paper, we consider contests with two players and investigate the relationship between these equilibrium shares and the parameters of a class of asymmetric Tullock contest success functions. Our main finding is that any players’ shares that sum up to less than one can arise as the unique outcome of a pure-strategy Nash equilibrium for appropriate parameters.

  7. Winner of video contest inspired by the LHC

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    A video contest was launched this year to mark the 10th anniversary of the Frederick Phineas and Sandra Priest Rose Centre for Earth and Space. Luke Cahill, a 27 year-old BFA graduate, has just won the contest with a movie about CERN.   Luke, who works in the film industry in Los Angeles and also takes physics classes, came across a video promoting the contest while he was browsing the American Natural History Museum website. "It seemed like a perfect opportunity to combine my passion for science with my craft of filmmaking", says Luke. Luke decided to make a video about the LHC. To him, CERN embodies the ideals of scientific progress and discovery, continually expanding the boundaries of our knowledge. "I have never actually been to CERN but it's high on the list of places I want to visit when I travel to Europe", says Luke. There is a lot of misleading information on the Internet about CERN – especially about the LHC. Luke wanted to clarify what the ...

  8. Interaction location outweighs the competitive advantage of numerical superiority in Cebus capucinus intergroup contests.

    Crofoot, Margaret C; Gilby, Ian C; Wikelski, Martin C; Kays, Roland W

    2008-01-15

    Numerical superiority confers a competitive advantage during contests among animal groups, shaping patterns of resource access, and, by extension, fitness. However, relative group size does not always determine the winner of intergroup contests. Smaller, presumably weaker social groups often defeat their larger neighbors, but how and when they are able to do so remains poorly understood. Models of competition between individuals suggest that location may influence contest outcome. However, because of the logistical difficulties of studying intergroup interactions, previous studies have been unable to determine how contest location and group size interact to shape relationships among groups. We address this question by using an automated radio telemetry system to study intergroup interactions among six capuchin monkey (Cebus capucinus) social groups of varying sizes. We find that the odds of winning increase with relative group size; one additional group member increases the odds of winning an interaction by 10%. However, this effect is not uniform across space; with each 100 m that a group moves away from the center of its home range, its odds of winning an interaction decrease by 31%. We demonstrate that contest outcome depends on an interaction between group size and location, such that small groups can defeat much larger groups near the center of their home range. The tendency of resident groups to win contests may help explain how small groups persist in areas with intense intergroup competition.

  9. Modelling of settlement induced building damage

    Giardina, G.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the modelling of settlement induced damage to masonry buildings. In densely populated areas, the need for new space is nowadays producing a rapid increment of underground excavations. Due to the construction of new metro lines, tunnelling activity in urban areas is growing.

  10. CONTESTED IDENTITIES IN MEDIA PORTRAYAL OF MILITANTS ...

    MR MATTHEW

    2017-02-02

    Feb 2, 2017 ... been highly contested, along political, social and religious lines. ... This approach to CDA tends to link text analysis of news ... opposition materials allows the militants' view of their identity to be contrasted and compared.

  11. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender ... First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  12. Corporal punishment contestations, paradoxes and implications for ...

    Corporal punishment contestations, paradoxes and implications for school leadership: A case study of two South African high schools. ... South African Journal of Education. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  13. Rising to the challenge : A model of contest performance

    DesAutels, Philip; Berthon, Pierre; Salehi-Sangari, Esmail

    2011-01-01

    Contests are a ubiquitous form of promotion widely adopted by financial services advertisers, yet, paradoxically, academic research on them is conspicuous in its absence. This work addresses this gap by developing a model of contest engagement and performance. Using motivation theory, factors that drive participant engagement are modeled, and engagement's effect on experience and marketing success of the contest specified. Measures of contest performance, in-contest engagement and post-contes...

  14. Bitcoin Mining as a Contest

    Nicola Dimitri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple game theoretic framework, assuming complete information, to model Bitcoin mining activity. It does so by formalizing the activity as an all-pay contest: a competition where participants contend with each other to win a prize by investing in computational power, and victory is probabilistic. With at least two active miners, the unique pure strategy Nash equilibrium of the game suggests the following interesting insights on the motivation for being a miner: while the optimal amount of energy consumption depends also on the reward for solving the puzzle, as long as the reward is positive the decision to be an active miner depends only on the mining costs. Moreover, the intrinsic structure of the mining activity seems to prevent the formation of a monopoly, because in an equilibrium with two miners, both of them will have positive expected profits for any level of the opponent’s costs. A monopoly could only form if the rate of return on investment were higher outside bitcoin.

  15. Cassini Scientist for a Day: an international contest in Greece

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Moussas, Xenophon; Xystouris, Georgios; Coustenis, Athena; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Katsavrias, Christos; Bampasidis, Georgios; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kouloumvakos, Athanasios; Patsou, Ioanna

    2013-04-01

    The Cassini Outreach Team of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is being organizing a brilliant school contest in Astronomy focusing in the Saturnian system. This essay contest provides school students all around the worlds with the opportunity to get involved in astronomy and astrophysics and planetary sciences in particular. From 2010 the 'Cassini Scientist for a Day' contest has being one of the most successful as well as important outreach activities of ESA and NASA in Greece with hundreds of participants all over Greece. The number of participants is growing rapidly every year. This type of school competition in Greece is particularly important since Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Sciences, although very popular, are not included in the school curricula and thus students rarely have the opportunity to experience and participate actively in these subjects. For the years 2010 and 2011, the Space Physics Group of the Astronomy, Astrophysics and Mechanics section of the University of Athens in association with external colleagues has been selected as the co-ordinator of NASA for the competition in Greece. Under the guidance of Cassini Outreach team, the members of the Space Physics Group have informed, explained and spread the rules of the competition at primary, secondary and high schools all over Greece. In general, the students have the option to choose Cassini monitoring between three targets of the Saturnian system, which the participants show that will bring the best scientific result. Their arguments should be summarized in an essay of 500 words more or less. They also have the option to do team work through groups of maximum three students. The participation in the contest for 2010 was unexpectedly high and thoroughly satisfied. The winners awarded through a ceremony which was held in the largest amphitheater at the central building of the University of Athens, that was fully packed. The following year 2011 the participation increased up to 300% while

  16. Model for mapping settlements

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  17. Settlement patterns and sustainability

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based...... on economic and demographic studies and a large series of interviews problematize this. In Greenland the historical correlation between settlement pattern and livelihood has been decoupled, so that distributions of jobs and potential earnings to a growing extend is a consequence of political and...

  18. Collapse settlement in compacted soils

    Booth, AR

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into collapse settlement in compacted soils is described, with special reference to recent cases in Southern Africa where collapse settlement occurred in road embankments following wetting of the soil. The laboratory work described...

  19. The 2016 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    Sanchez-Bermudez, J.; Thiébaut, E.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Heininger, M.; Schertl, D.; Weigelt, G.; Millour, F.; Schutz, A.; Ferrari, A.; Vannier, M.; Mary, D.; Young, J.

    2016-08-01

    Image reconstruction in optical interferometry has gained considerable importance for astrophysical studies during the last decade. This has been mainly due to improvements in the imaging capabilities of existing interferometers and the expectation of new facilities in the coming years. However, despite the advances made so far, image synthesis in optical interferometry is still an open field of research. Since 2004, the community has organized a biennial contest to formally test the different methods and algorithms for image reconstruction. In 2016, we celebrated the 7th edition of the "Interferometric Imaging Beauty Contest". This initiative represented an open call to participate in the reconstruction of a selected set of simulated targets with a wavelength-dependent morphology as they could be observed by the 2nd generation of VLTI instruments. This contest represents a unique opportunity to benchmark, in a systematic way, the current advances and limitations in the field, as well as to discuss possible future approaches. In this contribution, we summarize: (a) the rules of the 2016 contest; (b) the different data sets used and the selection procedure; (c) the methods and results obtained by each one of the participants; and (d) the metric used to select the best reconstructed images. Finally, we named Karl-Heinz Hofmann and the group of the Max-Planck-Institut fur Radioastronomie as winners of this edition of the contest.

  20. 15 CFR 785.17 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 785.17 Section 785.17... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case prior to issuance of a NOVA, a settlement proposal consisting of a settlement agreement and order...

  1. Sanitation in informal settlements

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    and to cure when having the right means. This is a humanitarian scandal. In Dharavi / Mumbai, an estimated 700.000 people live and work on less than 250 hectares in a hybrid mix of formal and informal settlement. According to an UN report, in 2006 one toilet seat existed for 1440 dwellers while...

  2. Morgellons: contested illness, diagnostic compromise and medicalisation.

    Fair, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The case of Morgellons illustrates how the emergence of a new medically contested illness intersected with and impacted on the diagnostic processes of an existing uncontested psychiatric condition, Delusional Parasitosis (DP). More specifically, the sociopolitical processes at play in the contested illness, Morgellons, dubiously reflect patient empowerment, as well the resilience and power of medical jurisdiction. This research offers insights into the contested illness and medicalisation literatures, and aims to bridge these two approaches towards the relationship between patient empowerment and medical authority, which I do through the notion of doctor-patient compromise. The data for this research come from a comprehensive qualitative analysis of Morgellons discourse through four key sources: the pro-Morgellons website Morgellons.org; the anti-Morgellons website Morgellonswatch.com; the popular media's portrayal of Morgellons; and the DP and Morgellons articles published in peer-reviewed medical journals, as made available on PubMed.

  3. Learning Reproducibility with a Yearly Networking Contest

    Canini, Marco

    2017-08-10

    Better reproducibility of networking research results is currently a major goal that the academic community is striving towards. This position paper makes the case that improving the extent and pervasiveness of reproducible research can be greatly fostered by organizing a yearly international contest. We argue that holding a contest undertaken by a plurality of students will have benefits that are two-fold. First, it will promote hands-on learning of skills that are helpful in producing artifacts at the replicable-research level. Second, it will advance the best practices regarding environments, testbeds, and tools that will aid the tasks of reproducibility evaluation committees by and large.

  4. Holiday Door Decorating Contest Brings Cheer | Poster

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer Other than the time of year, what do the following have in common: the leg lamp from the movie “A Christmas Story,” a compilation of silly holiday jokes, a gingerbread house, and Santa on a motorcycle? All four were among the individual door winners for the Holiday Door Decorating Contest, held at NCI at Frederick in December. Employees dressed up their office doors, hallways, and even stairwells to participate. Entries for the contest included individual office doors as well as groups. Some employees even “decked the halls” of whole office buildings to participate.

  5. Contestation of citizenship ’from below’

    Brändle, Verena Katharina

    -up’ approach to citizenship contestation according to people’s views of their relationship with political authorities as well as concerning questions of how to organise just social interaction among each other. Here, the thesis argues that online media allow people to constitute themselves as political...... citizenship, the thesis conducts an inductive comments analysis and compares them across German and Danish online news sites. Regarding EU mobiles’ citizenship contestation, it draws from two online surveys distributed in Facebook groups and analyses and compares semi-structured interviews with EU mobiles...

  6. Social licence, corporate social responsibility and coal seam gas: framing the new political dynamics of contestation

    Curran, Giorel

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the contestation dynamics between the unconventional gas mining sector and its challengers through the prism of the social licence to operate. Social licence is a dominant narrative in the mining sector today and as a signifier of the sector's CSR credentials, the term is an influential one. Its capacity to confer project legitimacy, and hence avoid the risks of community opposition, helps explain why most companies seek to gain one. Today both gas proponents and opponents talk the language of social licence: the former to defend their projects, the latter to challenge them. Yet, beyond rhetoric, the precise meaning of social licence remains elusive. This paper uses a case study of community opposition to primarily coal seam gas projects in an eastern Australian region to explore how the absence of a precise meaning for social licence has created a strategic opportunity space for the industry's opponents to invest social licence with a potent democracy frame. This democracy framing has proved particularly effective as a contestation tool and helps explain the outcomes in this case. - Highlights: • Unconventional gas exploration and mining is becoming increasingly contested. • A key way of managing this contestation is through the social licence to operate. • Both proponents and opponents of gas mining use social licence strategically. • Social licence has become increasingly politicised. • A democratic frame assists the effectiveness of contestation.

  7. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  8. THE CULTURE OF SETTLEMENT AREAS IN SLOVENIA

    Urša Suhadolnik Vovko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study and grasp the contemporary rural areas in Slovenia, the students of the Faculty of Architecture carried out a public opinion survey on the subject of the culture of settlement areas, with a particular reference to the visual image of the experiential space of the settlements. Today, human needs and living values are an integral part of all documents, as they represent the starting-point of designing new concepts of living. Personal quality of living is explained by Mandič [1999] through the use of Allard's classification of human needs; however, Mercer's Quality of Living ranking is often used to measure the quality of the living environmentThe paper represents the results of the study, which included two target groups: The experts in spatial management and planning employed at municipal administrative offices; and the senior years’ students at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Ljubljana. The study represented here addressed the values of the living environment. The study was triggered by the 'colourfulness' that knows no limits in Slovenia. Putting the everyday indignation over the variety of all possible shades aside, it has become evident that the tiny elements that are also destroying the image of our settlements are all too often neglected: billboards, log cabins complementing garages and decorative elements, stalls during celebrations and fairs, fountains, monuments, mix of exotic plants, the Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs etc. The study included a survey to obtain a more objective approach to the studying of the quality from the viewpoints of the changing living culture and the use of communal external space in Slovenian settlements. The key question that resonated in most of other questions was: What would improve the quality of life in the settlement?

  9. Hybrid All-Pay and Winner-Pay Contests

    Lagerlöf, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In many contests in economic and political life, both all-pay and winner-pay expenditures matter for winning. This paper studies such hybrid contests under symmetry and asymmetry. The symmetric model is very general but still yields a simple closed-form solution. More contestants tend to lead to ...... expenditures. An endogenous bias that maximizes total expenditures disfavors the high-valuation contestant but still makes her the more likely one to win....

  10. The National Solo and Ensemble Contest 1929-1937

    Meyers, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first investigation of the nine-year history of the National Solo and Ensemble Contests, held in the United States in conjunction with the National School Band and Orchestra Contests of the late 1920s and early to mid-1930s. Primary sources used include letters from those involved with the planning of the contests, meeting…

  11. Bribing potential entrants in a rent-seeking contest

    Schoonbeek, L.

    We consider a two-stage model of a Tullock rent-seeking contest where one new potential entrant makes his appearance. In the first stage each other player can contribute to bribe this new player to commit not to enter the contest. In the second stage we have the actual contest either with or without

  12. Contending with contest in academic literacy. | Murray ...

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 29 (1996) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Contending with contest in academic literacy. H Murray ...

  13. Contests with rank-order spillovers

    M.R. Baye (Michael); D. Kovenock (Dan); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a unified framework for characterizing symmetric equilibrium in simultaneous move, two-player, rank-order contests with complete information, in which each player's strategy generates direct or indirect affine "spillover" effects that depend on the rank-order of her

  14. Robots in Action - Professional Contest 2017

    Paul Ciprian Patic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Robotics Society of Romania, Targoviste subsidiary, together with the Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Information Technology Faculty, "Valahia" University of Targoviste, held on May 30th 2017, starting from 11.00h, in the Rotonda of Engineering Faculties, the tenth edition of the professional students contest "ROBOTS IN ACTION".

  15. Robots in Action - Professional Contest 2016

    Paul Ciprian Patic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The organizers of the 9th edition of the Professional Contest "ROBOTS IN ACTION" were, as usual, the Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Information Technology Faculty, "Valahia" University of Targoviste, together with the Robotics Society of Romania, Targoviste subsidiary and the Students League.

  16. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...

  17. Jackpot for Insurgent in Louisiana Contest

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Campaigns for state school board are typically quiet affairs, eliciting only modest interest from the public and even less from political donors. But the race last fall for the District 2 seat on Louisiana's board of elementary and secondary education was a remarkable exception. The contest attracted the attention of education activists and…

  18. Designing Successful Science Contests for K-12

    Schwerin, T.; Colleton, N.

    2006-12-01

    Contests can engage, motivate, instruct and inspire students of all grade levels and interests. What are the ingredients necessary for a successful science contest? The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES) has recommendations for designing science-based competitions that are both fun and educational for for elementary and secondary students. These recommendations were developed as a result of IGES' experience gained through two annual student competitions that focus on Earth science topics: An annual art contest, for grades 2-4, challenges U.S. students to explore a specific Earth science topic. For example, past themes have included Polar Explorations: Going to Extremes (2006); Connect-4: Air, Land, Water, and Life (2005); and Picture Me: What Kind of Earth Explorer Would I Be? (2004). The contest supports national science education standards for grades K-4, and includes suggested classroom activities, books, and movies. The Thacher Scholarship was founded in 2000 by IGES in honor of the late Peter S. Thacher, a former IGES board member and leader in promoting the use of satellite remote sensing. The $4,000 scholarship is awarded to exceptional high school students displaying the best use of satellite remote sensing in understanding our changing planet.

  19. Contested claims to gardens and land

    Obika, Julaina; Adol, Ben Otto; Babiiha, Sulayman Mpisi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter explores how, in a patrilineal and patriarchal society recovering from two decades of war, women and men frame arguments about entitlement. Here claims to gardens (plots of land for cultivation) become a contested conversation about women’s rights of belonging to family and community...

  20. The Landscape Change of Qiang’s Settlements in the Upper Reaches of Minjiang River after Wenchuan Earthquake

    Xiaofei Wen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Qiang ethnic group is one of the oldest ethnic groups in China, mainly living in upper reaches of Minjiang River in southwest of China. Qiang’s traditional settlements are valuable cultural heritages. Unfortunately, most of Qiang’s settlements were damaged during Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 in different degree. After the earthquake, settlements were reconstructed in different ways. The landscape of Qiang’s settlements had been changed greatly by dual influences, the destruction of earthquake and reconstruction after earthquake. Researching the changing process of Qiang’s settlements landscape has great significance to the protection of cultural heritage and the inheritance of culture, especially in the period after earthquake. At first, Qiang’s settlements are classified into five types with typology method after field research, according to the different degree of destruction and the different model of reconstruction. The five types are settlements restored to original forms in original location, settlements rebuilt to traditional forms in original location, settlements transformed to traditional forms in original location, settlements rebuilt in new location according to unified planning and settlements rebuilt in new location by villagers themselves. Secondly, the five types of settlements are compared with traditional settlements from several aspects including geographical environment, location of settlements, forms of settlements, space structure, building materials and construction technology, in order to research for the change of the landscape characteristics. Finally, the changing processes of each type of settlements landscape are analyzed. The change of villagers’ demands for settlements space are analyzed with the changes of their production model, life style, traditional customs, cultural communication, national religion and spiritual pursuit. Based on this analysis, the main factors influencing the changes of Qiang

  1. The 2014 interferometric imaging beauty contest

    Monnier, John D.; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Le Bouquin, Jean-Baptiste; Tuthill, Peter G.; Wittkowski, Markus; Grellmann, Rebekka; Müller, André; Renganswany, Sridhar; Hummel, Christian; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Young, John; Buscher, David; Sanchez-Bermudez, Joel; Alberdi, Antxon; Schoedel, Rainer; Köhler, Rainer; Soulez, Ferréol; Thiébaut, Éric; Kluska, Jacques; Malbet, Fabien; Duvert, Gilles; Kraus, Stefan; Kloppenborg, Brian K.; Baron, Fabien; de Wit, Willem-Jan; Rivinius, Thomas; Merand, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    Here we present the results of the 6th biennial optical interferometry imaging beauty contest. Taking advantage of a unique opportunity, the red supergiant VY CMa and the Mira variable R Car were observed in the astronomical H-band with three 4-telescope configurations of the VLTI-AT array using the PIONIER instrument. The community was invited to participate in the subsequent image reconstruction and interpretation phases of the project. Ten groups submitted entries to the beauty contest, and we found reasonable consistency between images obtained from independent workers using quite different algorithms. We also found that significant differences existed between the submitted images, much greater than in past beauty contests that were all based on simulated data. A novel crowd-sourcing" method allowed consensus median images to be constructed, filtering likely artifacts and retaining real features." We definitively detect strong spots on the surfaces of both stars as well as distinct circumstellar shells of emission (likely water/CO) around R Car. In a close contest, Joel Sanchez (IAA-CSIC/Spain) was named the winner of the 2014 interferometric imaging beauty contest. This process has shown that new comers" can use publicly-available imaging software to interpret VLTI/PIONIER imaging data, as long as sufficient observations are taken to have complete uv coverage { a luxury that is often missing. We urge proposers to request adequate observing nights to collect sufficient data for imaging and for time allocation committees to recognise the importance of uv coverage for reliable interpretation of interferometric data. We believe that the result of the proposed broad international project will contribute to inspiring trust in the image reconstruction processes in optical interferometry.

  2. Contests versus Norms: Implications of Contest-Based and Norm-Based Intervention Techniques.

    Bergquist, Magnus; Nilsson, Andreas; Hansla, André

    2017-01-01

    Interventions using either contests or norms can promote environmental behavioral change. Yet research on the implications of contest-based and norm-based interventions is lacking. Based on Goal-framing theory, we suggest that a contest-based intervention frames a gain goal promoting intensive but instrumental behavioral engagement. In contrast, the norm-based intervention was expected to frame a normative goal activating normative obligations for targeted and non-targeted behavior and motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviors in the future. In two studies participants ( n = 347) were randomly assigned to either a contest- or a norm-based intervention technique. Participants in the contest showed more intensive engagement in both studies. Participants in the norm-based intervention tended to report higher intentions for future energy conservation (Study 1) and higher personal norms for non-targeted pro-environmental behaviors (Study 2). These findings suggest that contest-based intervention technique frames a gain goal, while norm-based intervention frames a normative goal.

  3. Contests versus Norms: Implications of Contest-Based and Norm-Based Intervention Techniques

    Magnus Bergquist

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interventions using either contests or norms can promote environmental behavioral change. Yet research on the implications of contest-based and norm-based interventions is lacking. Based on Goal-framing theory, we suggest that a contest-based intervention frames a gain goal promoting intensive but instrumental behavioral engagement. In contrast, the norm-based intervention was expected to frame a normative goal activating normative obligations for targeted and non-targeted behavior and motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviors in the future. In two studies participants (n = 347 were randomly assigned to either a contest- or a norm-based intervention technique. Participants in the contest showed more intensive engagement in both studies. Participants in the norm-based intervention tended to report higher intentions for future energy conservation (Study 1 and higher personal norms for non-targeted pro-environmental behaviors (Study 2. These findings suggest that contest-based intervention technique frames a gain goal, while norm-based intervention frames a normative goal.

  4. THE SETTLEMENT OF STREN–KALI WONOKROMO–SURABAYA: The City Image Based on the Development of Marginal Society

    Paulus Bawole

    2009-01-01

    As human beings the poor people in informal settlements also have the right to live better like any other well-off people. Although the government regards them as illegal, they demonstrate great ingenuity in developing their residential neighborhoods. Public spaces are the living room for the people living in the informal settlements - the place where people come to enjoy their settlement. The strategy of sustainable development for informal settlements can be carried out well if the inhabita...

  5. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  6. 29 CFR 102.151 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 102.151 Section 102.151 Labor Regulations... Expenses § 102.151 Settlement. The applicant and the General Counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of... on a proposed settlement of an award before an application has been filed, the proposed settlement...

  7. 17 CFR 10.108 - Settlements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 10.108 Section 10... to the Commission; Settlements § 10.108 Settlements. (a) When offers may be made. Parties may at any time during the course of the proceeding propose offers of settlement. All offers of settlement shall...

  8. 33 CFR 20.502 - Settlements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlements. 20.502 Section 20... Settlements § 20.502 Settlements. (a) The parties may submit a proposed settlement to the ALJ. (b) The proposed settlement must be in the form of a proposed decision, accompanied by a motion for its entry. The...

  9. 15 CFR 719.19 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 719.19 Section 719.19... Settlement. (a) Settlements before issuance of a NOVA. When the parties have agreed to a settlement of the case, the Director of the Office of Export Enforcement will recommend the settlement to the Secretary...

  10. Constructing and Contesting City of London Power

    Baker, Andrew; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Existing literature on the City of London has tended to focus on its ‘structural power’, while neglecting political and narrative agency. This paper acts as a corrective by presenting evidence to show that since the financial crash of 2008 the political terrain the City operates on has become more...... contested, crowded and noisier. The contribution develops a middle course between a positive assessment of the role of civil society in relation to global finance, and a more pessimistic reading. We demonstrate how macro-narratives and public story-telling both construct and contest City and financial...... sector power. In a new pattern since the financial crash, NGOs have moved from campaigns of limited duration and narrow focus, to a more sustained presence on macro-structural issues. Adopting a supply–demand framework for assessing governance and regulatory change, we look at the emergence of TheCity...

  11. Trust Mines: Legal Documents and Settlements

    Legal Documents and Settlements related to the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mines Region including the Phase 1 Settlement Agreement and Environmental Response Trust Agreement, Phase 2 Settlement Agreement Removal Site Evaluation (RSE) Trust Agreement.

  12. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    2011-07-19

    ...] International Settlements Policy Reform AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Federal Communications Commission proposes to remove the International Settlements... proposes to remove the International Settlements Policy (ISP) from all U.S. international routes except...

  13. Robots in Action - Proffesional Contest 2014

    Paul Ciprian Patic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Information Technology Faculty, "Valahia" University of Targoviste, together with the Robotics Society of Romania, Targoviste subsidiary and the Students League, held the 7th edition of the Professional Contest "ROBOTS IN ACTION" on June 5th 2014, starting from 12.00h, in the Faculty hall. Students and teams of students participated, exposing 10 practical applications in the fields of robotics and mechatronics.

  14. Case study: Natural bodybuilding contest preparation.

    Kistler, Brandon M; Fitschen, Peter J; Ranadive, Sushant M; Fernhall, Bo; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the physiological changes that occur in a natural bodybuilder during prolonged contest preparation for a proqualifying contest. During the 26-week preparation, the athlete undertook a calorically restrictive diet with 2 days of elevated carbohydrate intake per week, increased cardiovascular (CV) training, and attempted to maintain resistance-training load. The athlete was weighed twice a week and body composition was measured monthly by DXA. At baseline and every 2 weeks following CV structure and function was measured using a combination of ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiorespiratory performance was measured by VO(2)peak at baseline, 13 weeks, and 26 weeks. Body weight (88.6 to 73.3 Kg, R(2) = .99) and percent body fat (17.5 to 7.4%) were reduced during preparation. CV measurements including blood pressure (128/61 to 113/54 mmHg), brachial pulse wave velocity (7.9 to 5.8m/s), and measures of wave reflection all improved. Indexed cardiac output was reduced (2.5 to 1.8L/m(2)) primarily due to a reduction in resting heart rate (71 to 44 bpm), and despite an increase in ejection faction (57.9 to 63.9%). Assessment of HRV found a shift in the ratio of low to high frequency (209.2 to 30.9%). Absolute VO2 was minimally reduced despite weight loss resulting in an increase in relative VO2 (41.9 to 47.7 ml/Kg). In general, this prolonged contest preparation technique helped the athlete to improve body composition and resulted in positive CV changes, suggesting that this method of contest preparation appears to be effective in natural male bodybuilders.

  15. Contested Norms in Inter-National Encounters: The ‘Turbot War’ as a Prelude to Fairer Fisheries Governance

    Antje Wiener

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is about contested norms in inter-national encounters in global fisheries governance. It illustrates how norms work by reconstructing the trajectory of the 1995 ‘Turbot War’ as a series of inter-national encounters among diverse sets of Canadian and European stakeholders. By unpacking the contestations and identifying the norms at stake, it is suggested that what began as action at cross-purposes (i.e. each party referring to a different fundamental norm, ultimately holds the potential for fairer fisheries governance. This finding is shown by linking source and settlement of the dispute and identifying the shared concern for the balance between the right to fish and the responsibility for sustainable fisheries. The article develops a framework to elaborate on procedural details including especially the right for stakeholder access to regular contestation. It is organised in four sections: section 1 summarises the argument, section 2 presents the framework of critical norms research, section 3 reconstructs contestations of fisheries norms over the duration of the dispute, and section 4 elaborates on the dispute as a prelude to fairer fisheries governance. The latter is based on a novel conceptual focus on stakeholder access to contestation at the meso-layer of fisheries governance where organising principles are negotiated close to policy and political processes, respectively. The conclusion suggests for future research to pay more attention to the link between the ‘is’ and the ‘ought’ of norms in critical norms research in International Relations theories (IR.

  16. ESPACIO DE ASENTAMIENTO Y CAMPOS VISUALES EN LA ARQUEOLOGÍA DEL VALLE DE AMBATO, CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA / Settlement space and visual fields in the archeology of Ambato valley, Catamarca, Argentina.

    Susana Assandri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La cultura Aguada en el Valle de Ambato, Catamarca, adquiere una manifestación particular que se observa a nivel espacial por la gran cantidad y variedad de las unidades de asentamiento, tanto por sus características externas, como emplazamiento en el terreno y relación con recursos hídricos, como por sus características internas. En este trabajo se intenta avanzar en el análisis espacial, que habíamos enfocado en las características internas de las estructuras construidas en el Valle, para ahondar en la relación de éstas con su espacio geográfico, como una de las manifestaciones espaciales de las relaciones entre los seres humanos y su ambiente.La propuesta es que a través del análisis de la visibilidad, de cada una de las estructuras, genere un aporte al conocimiento de los factores que contribuyen a su emplazamiento en el terreno. Palabras Clave: Aguada; análisis espacial; visibilidad; estructuras; emplazamiento. AbstractAguada culture in Ambato valley, Catamarca, acquires a particular manifestation observed spatially by the large number and variety of settlement units by their external characteristics such as location in relation to land and water resources, and its internal characteristics.  It attempts to advance in spatial analysis; we had focused on the internal characteristics of the structures built in the Valley, to deepen their relations with their geographical space as a spatial manifestation of the relationship between humans and their environment.  The proposal is that through the analysis of visibility, each of the structures, contribute to the knowledge of the factors contributing to its location in the field. Keywords: Aguada, spatial analysis, visibility, structures, location.

  17. Human exploration and settlement of Mars - The roles of humans and robots

    Duke, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    The scientific objectives and strategies for human settlement on Mars are examined in the context of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integrated strategy for humans and robots in the exploration and settlement of Mars is examined. Such an effort would feature robotic, telerobotic, and human-supervised robotic phases.

  18. Psychology: red enhances human performance in contests.

    Hill, Russell A; Barton, Robert A

    2005-05-19

    Red coloration is a sexually selected, testosterone-dependent signal of male quality in a variety of animals, and in some non-human species a male's dominance can be experimentally increased by attaching artificial red stimuli. Here we show that a similar effect can influence the outcome of physical contests in humans--across a range of sports, we find that wearing red is consistently associated with a higher probability of winning. These results indicate not only that sexual selection may have influenced the evolution of human response to colours, but also that the colour of sportswear needs to be taken into account to ensure a level playing field in sport.

  19. Fortified settlement Veletin

    Jovanović Vojislav S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Remnants of the fortified settlement Veletin are located on a hill of the same name (map marking 969 near the small town Janjevo, in the vicinity of the Monastery Gračanica in Kosovo, in a region rich in metal ore (pic. 1-3. Veletin is mentioned for the first time as a landmark in King Milutin’s charter for the Monastery Gračanica issued in 1321. Namely, the boundary of villages donated to the monastery ran "from Oštri vrh on Veletjen between Sušica and between Gušterica". Villages of Sušica and Gušterica still exist under the same names. The mentioned Veletin refers to the hill with a fortified settlement or fortress at the top. In the past the hill and the fortress were for a long time a characteristic part of the historical landscape. Thanks to its favourable geostrategic position, vicinity of important roads and above all to the nearness of rich silver mines, the hill of Veletin was settled and fortified in pre-historic time, then in antiquity and in the middle ages. It is supposed that the Roman town Ulpiana (Justiniana Secunda, near the Monastery Gračanica, developed because of the vicinity of silver mines and that as a municipium became a center of administration of Janjevo - Novo Brdo metals in the II c. Mining reached its peak in this area only in the first half of the XV c., during the reign of Serbian despots. When this part of Serbia fell under Turkish rule in 1455, mining began to decline. In 1488, during the reign of Sultan Bajazet II, special regulations were made for the organization of work in Janjevo silver mines, which testify about their importance. It is hard to form an opinion about the appearance of Veletin at the time the Gračanica Charter was issued. Mining was growing at that time and it is possible that there was a fortress with a small crew to protect Janjevo and other nearby mining settlements. Veletin is explicitly mentioned as a fortress only in three cartographic sources of a later date. The first was

  20. The Effects of Ocean Acidification on Feeding and Contest Behaviour by the Beadlet Anemone Actinia equina

    Bamber, Tess Olivia; Jackson, Angus Charles; Mansfield, Robert Philip

    2018-05-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing oceanic pH to decline worldwide, a phenomenon termed ocean acidification. Mounting experimental evidence indicates that near-future levels of CO2 will affect calcareous invertebrates such as corals, molluscs and gastropods, by reducing their scope for calcification. Despite extensive research into ocean acidification in recent years, the effects on non-calcifying anthozoans, such as sea anemones, remain little explored. In Western Europe, intertidal anemones such as Actinia equina are abundant, lower trophic-level organisms that function as important ecosystem engineers. Changes to behaviours of these simple predators could have implications for intertidal assemblages. This investigation identified the effects of reduced seawater pH on feeding and contest behaviour by A. equina. Video footage was recorded for A. equina feeding at current-day seawater (pH 8.1), and the least (pH 7.9) and most (pH 7.6) severe end-of-century predictions. Footage was also taken of contests over ownership of space between anemones exposed to reduced pH and those that were not. No statistically significant differences were identified in feeding duration or various aspects of contest behaviour including initiating, winning, inflating acrorhagi, inflicting acrorhagial peels and contest duration. Multivariate analyses showed no effect of pH on a combination of these variables. This provides contrast with other studies where anemones with symbiotic algae thrive in areas of natural increased acidity. Thus, novel experiments using intraspecific contests and resource-holding potential may prove an effective approach to understand sub-lethal consequences of ocean acidification for A. equina, other sea anemones and more broadly for marine ecosystems.

  1. 7 CFR 1427.21 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1427.21 Section 1427.21 Agriculture... § 1427.21 Settlement. (a) The settlement of cotton loans will be made by CCC on the basis of the quality... maximum storage credit rates as determined and announced by CCC. (b) For purposes of settlements for...

  2. 39 CFR 962.26 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 962.26 Section 962.26 Postal Service... CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 962.26 Settlement. (a) Either party may make offers of settlement or proposals of... settlement terms to the Attorney General, as appropriate. [59 FR 51860, Oct. 13, 1994] ...

  3. 49 CFR 1016.306 - Settlement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1016.306 Section 1016.306... Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after...

  4. 49 CFR 826.35 - Settlement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 826.35 Section 826.35 Transportation... Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after...

  5. 17 CFR 148.25 - Settlement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 148.25 Section 148... Considering Applications § 148.25 Settlement. The applicant may propose settlement of the award to the Commission before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the adjudicatory...

  6. 49 CFR 511.26 - Settlement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 511.26 Section 511.26 Transportation...; Summary Judgment; Settlement § 511.26 Settlement. (a) Applicability. This section applies only to cases of..., 89 Stat. 911 (15 U.S.C. section 2007(3)). Settlement in other cases may be made only in accordance...

  7. 31 CFR 501.710 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 501.710 Section 501.710... the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.710 Settlement. (a) Availability. Either the Director or any..., propose an offer of settlement. The amount accepted in settlement may be less than the civil penalty that...

  8. 47 CFR 1.1525 - Settlement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1.1525 Section 1.1525... Settlement. The applicant and Bureau counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying proceeding, or after...

  9. 7 CFR 1.198 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1.198 Section 1.198 Agriculture Office of....198 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying...

  10. 24 CFR 14.320 - Settlement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 14.320 Section 14.320... Applications § 14.320 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the underlying...

  11. 10 CFR 851.41 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 851.41 Section 851.41 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WORKER SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAM Enforcement Process § 851.41 Settlement. (a) DOE encourages settlement of a proceeding under this subpart at any time if the settlement is consistent with this part. The...

  12. 29 CFR 2200.100 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 2200.100 Section 2200.100 Labor Regulations... Miscellaneous Provisions § 2200.100 Settlement. (a) Policy. Settlement is permitted and encouraged by the... parties include any particular language in a settlement agreement, but does require that the agreement...

  13. 16 CFR 1025.26 - Settlements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 1025.26 Section 1025.26... PROCEEDINGS Prehearing Procedures, Motions, Interlocutory Appeals, Summary Judgments, Settlements § 1025.26 Settlements. (a) Availability. Any party shall have the opportunity to submit an offer of settlement to the...

  14. 10 CFR 12.305 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 12.305 Section 12.305 Energy NUCLEAR... Considering Applications § 12.305 Settlement. The applicant and the NRC counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the...

  15. 10 CFR 590.309 - Settlements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 590.309 Section 590.309 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.309 Settlements. The parties may conduct settlement negotiations. If settlement negotiations are conducted during a conference, at the request of one...

  16. 7 CFR 1434.19 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1434.19 Section 1434.19 Agriculture... FOR HONEY § 1434.19 Settlement. The value of the settlement of loans shall be made by CCC on the... commodity: (1) If the value of the collateral at settlement is less than the amount due, the producer shall...

  17. 17 CFR 171.12 - Settlement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 171.12 Section 171... RESPONSIBILITY ACTIONS General Provisions § 171.12 Settlement. At any time before the Commission has reached a... settlement agreement. If, in its view, the settlement is consistent with the public interest, the Commission...

  18. 12 CFR 747.612 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 747.612 Section 747.612 Banks and... Board Adjudications § 747.612 Settlement. The applicant and counsel for NCUA may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a settlement of the...

  19. 29 CFR 18.9 - Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure.

    2010-07-01

    ... has sole discretion to decide whether to appoint a settlement judge, except that a settlement judge... assigned to hear and decide the case. (ii) The settlement judge shall not be appointed to hear and decide... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Consent order or settlement; settlement judge procedure. 18...

  20. Settlement of uranium mill tailings

    Chen, P.K.; Guros, F.B.; Keshian, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two test embankments were constructed on top of an old tailings deposit near Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico to determine settlement characteristics of hydraulically- deposited uranium mill tailings. Before construction of the embankments, properties of in-situ tailings and foundation soils were determined using data from boreholes, piezocone soundings, and laboratory tests. These properties were used to estimate post-construction settlement of a planned disposal embankment to be constructed on the tailings. However, excessive uncertainty existed in the following: field settlement rates of saturated and unsaturated tailings, degree of preconsolidation of the upper 15 feet of tailings, and the ability of an underlying silty sand foundation layer to facilitate drainage. Thus, assurance could not be provided that differential settlements of the radon barrier and erosion protection layers would be within allowable limits should the planned disposal embankment be constructed in a single-stage

  1. The Cultural Ideological Contestation in National Examination

    Kerta Adhi Made

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to find out the forms and the factors leading to the contestation of cultural ideology in National Examination. This research utilized Qualitative Research method and the approach of Cultural Studies. Based on the analysis, it was found that the forms of ideological contestation, specifically, centralistic, prioritizing on the result of cognitive domain, and imaging. The factors which caused consisted of political of education, state policies, and socio-cultural. The implications of this research were (1 There was shifting of educational values into capitalism, (2 The meaning of learning became limited in which it was just purposed at facing National Examination, (3 Educational services have shifted from humanist public services to commodification of education, with the result that honesty was marginalized. Eventhough the government has developed sophisticated system and very tight supervision, if the character of the subjects are not formed and cultured, accordingly, the National Examination stated honest and achievement oriented will be just a slogan. Therefore, the education system needs to be improved. The education paradigm which is more emphasized on the increasing of intellectual intelligence by multiple choice tests and scores needs to be deconstructed by adjusting with Indonesian cultural values based on “Pancasila” as ideological foundation and developing character education to the children from early age.

  2. Contested Boundaries: psychiatry, disease, and diagnosis.

    Rosenberg, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    Since the 19th century, we have come to think of disease in terms of specific entities--entities defined and legitimated in terms of characteristic somatic mechanisms. Since the last third of that century, we have expanded would-be disease categories to include an ever-broader variety of emotional pain, idiosyncrasy, and culturally unsettling behaviors. Psychiatry has been the residuary legatee of these developments, developments that have always been contested at the ever-shifting boundary between disease and deviance, feeling and symptom, the random and the determined, the stigmatized and the value-free. Even in our era of reductionist hopes, psychopharmaceutical practice, and corporate strategies, the legitimacy of many putative disease categories will remain contested. The use of the specific disease entity model will always be a reductionist means to achieve necessarily holistic ends, both in terms of cultural norms and the needs of suffering individuals. Bureaucratic rigidities and stakeholder conflicts structure and intensify such boundary conflicts, as do the interests and activism of an interested lay public.

  3. Self-sacrifice in 'desperado' contests between relatives

    Monnin Thibaud

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intra-specific competition occurs in all animal species and can lead to escalated conflict. Overt fighting entails the risk of injury or death, and is usually avoided through the use of conventions or pre-fight assessments. However, overt fighting can be expected when value of the contest outweighs the value of the future, as contestants have little or nothing to lose. In these situations, respect for conventions and asymmetries between contestants can break down, and overt fighting becomes more likely (the desperado effect. Such conditions can arise in contests between queens over colony ownership in social insects, because the value of inheriting a colony of potentially thousands of helpers is huge and queens may have very limited alternative reproductive options. However, in social species the balance of possible outcomes may be influenced by inclusive fitness, as contestants are often relatives. Here we present a simple model based on social insects, which demonstrates that not fighting can be selectively advantageous when there is a risk posed by fighting to inclusive fitness, even when not fighting is likely to result in death. If contestants are related, a loser can still gain indirect fitness through the winner, whereas fighting introduces a risk that both queens will die and thereby obtain zero inclusive fitness. When relatedness is high and fighting poses a risk of all contestants dying, it can be advantageous to cede the contest and be killed, rather than risk everything by fighting.

  4. 27 CFR 10.24 - Sales promotion contests.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales promotion contests. 10.24 Section 10.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.24 Sales promotion contests...

  5. Reversing the AAPT Photo Contest: A Physics Teacher Education Activity

    Hechter, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    This year while awaiting the arrival of the AAPT High School Physics Photo Contest poster, I developed an idea for my physics teacher education course that used the photo contest in a new context. While using an external source like a photograph to learn physics is not new to physics education, this article describes how we used the foundational…

  6. The Effect of Peer Pressure on Performance in Crowdsourcing Contests

    Heite, Jonas; Hoisl, Karin

    We investigate whether and why performance differences exist between contestants with the same abilities but who compete against more skilled or less skilled contestants. We analyze 1,677 unique coders competing in 38 software algorithm competitions with random assignment. Part of these coders co...

  7. A Contest-Oriented Project for Learning Intelligent Mobile Robots

    Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; Su, Juing-Huei; Lee, Chyi-Shyong

    2013-01-01

    A contest-oriented project for undergraduate students to learn implementation skills and theories related to intelligent mobile robots is presented in this paper. The project, related to Micromouse, Robotrace (Robotrace is the title of Taiwanese and Japanese robot races), and line-maze contests was developed by the embedded control system research…

  8. Basic Characteristics and Spatial Patterns of Pseudo-Settlements--Taking Dalian as An Example.

    Gao, Jiaji; Zhang, Yingjia; Li, Xueming

    2016-01-20

    A person's living behavior patterns are closely related to three types of settlements: real-life settlements, imagined settlements, and pseudo-settlements. The term "pseudo-settlement" (PS) refers to the places that are selectively recorded and represented after the mass media chose and restructure the residence information. As the mass media rapidly develops and people's way of obtaining information gradually change, PS has already become one of the main ways for people to recognize and understand real-life settlements, as well as describe their impressions of imagined settlements. PS also has a profound impact on tourism, employment, investment, migration, real estate development, etc. Thus, the study of PSs has important theoretical and practical significance. This paper proposes to put forward residential quarters where the mass media is displayed as the object of study and establishes the pseudo-settlement index system of Dalian in and elaborate analysis of the concept of PSs. From three aspects, including pseudo-buildings, pseudo-districts and pseudo-culture, this paper uses the ArcGIS 10.0 kernel density (spacial analyst) to analyze and interpret the basic characteristics and spatial patterns of 14 elements of the PS in Dalian. Through systemic clustering analysis, it identifies eight major types of PSs in Dalian. Then it systematically elaborates current situations and characteristics of the spatial pattern of PSs in Dalian, namely: regionally concentrated, widely scattered and blank spaces without pseudo-settlements. Finally, this paper discusses the mechanism of formation of PSs in Dalian.

  9. Global Human Built-up And Settlement Extent (HBASE) Dataset From Landsat

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Human Built-up And Settlement Extent (HBASE) Dataset from Landsat is a global map of HBASE derived from the Global Land Survey (GLS) Landsat dataset for...

  10. Using contests to allocate pollution rights

    MacKenzie, Ian A.; Hanley, Nick; Kornienko, Tatiana

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we advocate a new initial allocation mechanism for a tradable pollution permit market. We outline a Permit Allocation Contest (PAC) that distributes permits to firms based on their rank relative to other firms. This ranking is achieved by ordering firms based on an observable 'external action' where the external action is an activity or characteristic of the firm that is independent of their choice of emissions in the tradable permit market. We argue that this mechanism has a number of benefits over auctioning and grandfathering. Using this mechanism efficiently distributes permits, allows for the attainment of a secondary policy objective and has the potential to be more politically appealing than existing alternatives.

  11. The Indian IVF saga: a contested history

    Aditya Bharadwaj

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The politics of conception in India can be traced back to the birth of the world’s first test-tube baby in 1978. This article focuses on an incident where scientists and clinicians were involved in a heated contest over ascription of intellectual credit for the birth of the first test-tube baby in India. It traces the controversy surrounding claims and counter-claims within the medical domain that appear to have emerged as a corollary to the rapid expansion of assisted conception in India. The article emphasizes the fact that this contentious issue played out largely in the media and shows that the generation of scientific credibility and reward is produced and ascribed both inside and outside the scientific domain. In so doing the article offers a glimpse into the unique ability of cultural activity to shape and recast the perception of science and scientific outcomes.

  12. Space Contestations and the Teaching of African Philosophy in ...

    ... of focusing on Western philosophy 2) the fact that very few teachers of philosophy in Africa are focused mainly or only on Western philosophy in their academic productivity and 3) the disparity between the premises and the conclusion of the arguments in favour of the current pride of place accorded to Western philosophy.

  13. Academic leadership in nursing: legitimating the discipline in contested spaces.

    McNamara, Martin S

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the potential of recent conceptual developments in the sociology of education for conceptualising academic leadership in nursing. During an investigation into the current status and future trajectory of academic nursing in Ireland, academic leadership emerged as a major concern for respondents. The languages of legitimation of academic leaders were elicited in in-depth interviews and analysed as expressions of underlying legitimation principles. The concept of legitimation principles provides a way of thinking about how academic nursing is positioned in the health and higher education sectors, how its leaders construct its identity, practices and purposes, and clarifies the proper focus and goals of academic leadership in nursing. Academic leadership is concerned with legitimating the discipline of nursing as an autonomous, coherent and distinctive professional and academic endeavour. This legitimacy must be secured in academic, clinical and wider contexts in which academic nursing is viewed with ambivalence; leaders must take account of the impact of nursing history on the current status and future trajectory of the discipline. The analytic tools facilitate a better understanding of the internal and external conditions under which academic nursing will flourish, or wither, in contemporary higher education.

  14. Curriculum Reform in Higher Education: A Contested Space

    Shay, Suellen

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical and analytical tools from the sociology of education, in particular the work of Basil Bernstein and Karl Maton, the paper explores the tensions within curriculum reform discourses and how these tensions play out in different global contexts. The analysis focuses on two curriculum reform policies--Hong Kong and South…

  15. The role of male contest competition over mates in speciation

    Anna QVARNSTRÖM, Niclas VALLIN, Andreas RUDH

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the role of sexual selection in the speciation process largely focuses on the diversifying role of mate choice. In particular, much attention has been drawn to the fact that population divergence in mate choice and in the male traits subject to choice directly can lead to assortative mating. However, male contest competition over mates also constitutes an important mechanism of sexual selection. We review recent empirical studies and argue that sexual selection through male contest competition can affect speciation in ways other than mate choice. For example, biases in aggression towards similar competitors can lead to disruptive and negative frequency-dependent selection on the traits used in contest competition in a similar way as competition for other types of limited resources. Moreover, male contest abilities often trade-off against other abilities such as parasite resistance, protection against predators and general stress tolerance. Populations experiencing different ecological conditions should therefore quickly diverge non-randomly in a number of traits including male contest abilities. In resource based breeding systems, a feedback loop between competitive ability and habitat use may lead to further population divergence. We discuss how population divergence in traits used in male contest competition can lead to the build up of reproductive isolation through a number of different pathways. Our main conclusion is that the role of male contest competition in speciation remains largely scientifically unexplored [Current Zoology 58 (3: 490–506, 2012].

  16. 29 CFR 2700.21 - Effect of filing notice of contest of citation or order.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of filing notice of contest of citation or order... REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Contests of Citations and Orders § 2700.21 Effect of filing notice of contest of citation or order. (a) The filing of a notice of contest of a citation or order issued under...

  17. Monitoring informal settlements using SAR polarimetry

    Kleynhans, W

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for settlement mapping and detection has remained largely unexplored in Southern Africa. The objective of this study is to investigate the possible role that SAR polarimetry could play in the monitoring of informal settlements....

  18. Prediction of embankment settlement over soft soils.

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this project was to review and verify the current design procedures used by TxDOT : to estimate the total and rate of consolidation settlement in embankments constructed on soft soils. Methods : to improve the settlement predictions ...

  19. Changes in heart rate associated with contest outcome in agonistic encounters in lobsters.

    Hernáindez-Falcón, Jesús; Basu, Alo C; Govindasamy, Siddhartan; Kravitz, Edward A

    2005-03-01

    Agonistic contests between lobsters housed together in a confined space progress through encounters of increasing intensity until a dominance relationship is established. Once this relationship is established, losing animals continually retreat from the advances of winners. These encounters are likely to consume much energy in both winning and losing animals. Therefore, one might expect involvement of many physiological systems before, during and after fights. Here, we report effects of agonistic encounters on cardiac frequency in winning and losing adult lobsters involved in dyadic interactions. The results show that: (i) small but significant increases in heart rate are observed upon chemical detection of a conspecific; (ii) during agonistic interactions, further increases in heart rate are seen; and (iii) ultimate winners exhibit greater increases in heart rate lasting longer periods of time compared to ultimate losers. Heart rate in winners remains elevated for at least 15 min after the contests have ended and animals have been returned to their home tanks. Reduced effects are seen in second and third pairings between familiar opponents. The sustained changes in heart rate that we observe in winning lobsters may result from hormonal modulation of cardiac function related to the change in social status brought about by contest outcome.

  20. Empowering low-income community in Kampong settlement by exploring people's activities in surrounding environment

    Bawole, Paulus; Sutanto, Haryati B.

    2017-11-01

    Urban Kampong is a spontaneous settlement growing in several big cities within developing countries including Indonesia. This settlement is developed by low-income people without any plan. Therefore there is no specific housing pattern in the settlement. The characteristics of the settlements is dominated by Javanese traditional roof typology and narrow path with minimal public open spaces. People's creativity in building their houses often uses second hand building materials that make their houses look specific. Besides, infrastructure facilities within Kampong Settlement are very poor. Because the poor living in Urban Kampong have to adjust their live with minimum infrastructure facilities available, they have to be creative in using all facilities available. Through the creativities of low-income people living in Urban Kampong the research will show how the inhabitants can be empowered by exploring inhabitant's creativities and consequently the environmental quality within Urban Kampong can be improved as well.

  1. Identification of potential inhibitors based on compound proposal contest: Tyrosine-protein kinase Yes as a target.

    Chiba, Shuntaro; Ikeda, Kazuyoshi; Ishida, Takashi; Gromiha, M Michael; Taguchi, Y-H; Iwadate, Mitsuo; Umeyama, Hideaki; Hsin, Kun-Yi; Kitano, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Kazuki; Sugaya, Nobuyoshi; Kato, Koya; Okuno, Tatsuya; Chikenji, George; Mochizuki, Masahiro; Yasuo, Nobuaki; Yoshino, Ryunosuke; Yanagisawa, Keisuke; Ban, Tomohiro; Teramoto, Reiji; Ramakrishnan, Chandrasekaran; Thangakani, A Mary; Velmurugan, D; Prathipati, Philip; Ito, Junichi; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Honma, Teruki; Hirokawa, Takatsugu; Akiyama, Yutaka; Sekijima, Masakazu

    2015-11-26

    A search of broader range of chemical space is important for drug discovery. Different methods of computer-aided drug discovery (CADD) are known to propose compounds in different chemical spaces as hit molecules for the same target protein. This study aimed at using multiple CADD methods through open innovation to achieve a level of hit molecule diversity that is not achievable with any particular single method. We held a compound proposal contest, in which multiple research groups participated and predicted inhibitors of tyrosine-protein kinase Yes. This showed whether collective knowledge based on individual approaches helped to obtain hit compounds from a broad range of chemical space and whether the contest-based approach was effective.

  2. 17 CFR 201.240 - Settlement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 201.240 Section... of Practice Initiation of Proceedings and Prehearing Rules § 201.240 Settlement. (a) Availability... party to a proceeding already instituted, may, at any time, propose in writing an offer of settlement...

  3. 28 CFR 24.304 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 24.304 Section 24.304... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 24.304 Settlement. A prevailing party and Department counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award before...

  4. 29 CFR 101.7 - Settlements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlements. 101.7 Section 101.7 Labor Regulations Relating... Section 10 (a) to (i) of the Act and Telegraph Merger Act Cases § 101.7 Settlements. Before any complaint... for the submission and consideration of facts, argument, offers of settlement, or proposals of...

  5. 15 CFR 18.19 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 18.19 Section 18.19... Procedures for Considering Applications § 18.19 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a...

  6. 49 CFR 6.29 - Settlement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 6.29 Section 6.29 Transportation... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.29 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection...

  7. 7 CFR 1.345 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1.345 Section 1.345 Agriculture Office of... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.345 Settlement. (a) A respondent may make offers of compromise of settlement at any time. (b) The reviewing official has the exclusive authority to...

  8. 22 CFR 134.25 - Settlement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 134.25 Section 134.25 Foreign... Considering Applications § 134.25 Settlement. The applicant and the Department of State may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a...

  9. 17 CFR 201.54 - Settlement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 201.54 Section 201... Regulations Pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice Act § 201.54 Settlement. The applicant and counsel for the Office or Division of the Commission may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final...

  10. 40 CFR 17.24 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 17.24 Section 17.24... JUSTICE ACT IN EPA ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 17.24 Settlement. A prevailing party and EPA counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award before final...

  11. 29 CFR 2704.305 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 2704.305 Section 2704.305 Labor Regulations... Settlement. In the event that counsel for the Secretary and an applicant agree to settle an EAJA claim after... of the settlement and request dismissal of the application. [63 FR 63177, Nov. 12, 1998] ...

  12. 24 CFR 1720.180 - Settlements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 1720.180 Section 1720... Proceedings General Provisions § 1720.180 Settlements. Parties may propose in writing, at any time during the course of a proceeding, offers of settlement which shall be submitted to the Secretary. If determined to...

  13. 37 CFR 11.26 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 11.26 Section 11... Disciplinary Proceedings; Jurisdiction, Sanctions, Investigations, and Proceedings § 11.26 Settlement. Before or after a complaint under § 11.34 is filed, a settlement conference may occur between the OED...

  14. 39 CFR 960.17 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 960.17 Section 960.17 Postal Service... ACT IN POSTAL SERVICE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 960.17 Settlement. The applicant and the Postal Service may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the...

  15. 32 CFR 536.55 - Structured settlements.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Structured settlements. 536.55 Section 536.55... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.55 Structured settlements. (a) The... of this part, structured settlements cannot be required but are encouraged in situations listed above...

  16. 39 CFR 958.23 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 958.23 Section 958.23 Postal Service..., CLEAN-UP COSTS AND DAMAGES FOR VIOLATION OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL REGULATIONS § 958.23 Settlement. Either party may make offers of settlement or proposals of adjustment at any time. The Determining Official has...

  17. 7 CFR 1782.20 - Debt Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Debt Settlement. 1782.20 Section 1782.20 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) SERVICING OF WATER AND WASTE PROGRAMS § 1782.20 Debt Settlement. Pursuant to 7 U.S.C. 1981, this section prescribes policies for debt settlement of Water and Waste Disposal loans; Watershed loans and...

  18. 5 CFR 2430.10 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 2430.10 Section 2430.10... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AWARDS OF ATTORNEY FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES § 2430.10 Settlement. The applicant and the General Counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the...

  19. 19 CFR 212.24 - Settlement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 212.24 Section 212.24 Customs Duties... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 212.24 Settlement. The applicant and the Commission may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action...

  20. 15 CFR 904.213 - Settlements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 904.213 Section 904.213 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... and Appeal Procedures General § 904.213 Settlements. If settlement is reached before the Judge has...

  1. 12 CFR 1705.24 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1705.24 Section 1705.24 Banks and... Consideration of the Application for Award § 1705.24 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award before the final decision on the application for award is made, either in...

  2. 7 CFR 1951.213 - Debt settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debt settlement. 1951.213 Section 1951.213 Agriculture... and Grants § 1951.213 Debt settlement. Subpart C of part 1956 of this chapter prescribes policies and procedures for debt settlement actions for loans covered under this subpart when it is determined that a debt...

  3. 24 CFR 28.45 - Settlements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 28.45 Section 28.45... IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 28.45 Settlements. (a) HUD and the respondent may enter into a settlement agreement at any time prior to the issuing of a notice of final...

  4. 10 CFR 1023.324 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1023.324 Section 1023.324 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Justice Act Procedures for Considering Applications § 1023.324 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in...

  5. 24 CFR 3800.60 - Settlements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlements. 3800.60 Section 3800... DEVELOPMENT INVESTIGATIONS IN CONSUMER REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 3800.60 Settlements. (a) At any time during an investigation, the Department and the parties subject to an investigation may conduct settlement negotiations...

  6. 15 CFR 990.25 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 990.25 Section 990.25... DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Authorities § 990.25 Settlement. Trustees may settle claims for natural resource damages under this part at any time, provided that the settlement is adequate in the judgment of the...

  7. 15 CFR 280.219 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 280.219 Section 280.219... Enforcement § 280.219 Settlement. (a) Cases may be settled before service of a charging letter. In cases in which settlement is reached before service of a charging letter, a proposed charging letter will be...

  8. 45 CFR 13.24 - Settlements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlements. 13.24 Section 13.24 Public Welfare... ACT IN AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 13.24 Settlements. The applicant and the agency's litigating party may agree on a proposed settlement of the award at any time prior to...

  9. 17 CFR 9.7 - Settlement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 9.7 Section 9.7... DISCIPLINARY, ACCESS DENIAL OR OTHER ADVERSE ACTIONS General Provisions § 9.7 Settlement. At any time before... accordance with § 9.20, the parties may file a stipulation for dismissal based on a settlement agreement...

  10. 29 CFR 2204.306 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement. 2204.306 Section 2204.306 Labor Regulations... Procedures for Considering Applications § 2204.306 Settlement. The applicant and the Secretary may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application, either in connection with a...

  11. 13 CFR 134.217 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 134.217 Section 134... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Rules of Practice for Most Cases § 134.217 Settlement. At any... have settled the case, and may file with such motion a copy of the settlement agreement. If the Judge...

  12. 5 CFR 2610.306 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 2610.306 Section 2610.306... ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 2610.306 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action on the application...

  13. 29 CFR 16.303 - Settlement.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement. 16.303 Section 16.303 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 16.303 Settlement. The applicant and agency counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of the award before final action...

  14. 15 CFR 766.18 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 766.18 Section 766.18... PROCEEDINGS § 766.18 Settlement. (a) Cases may be settled before service of a charging letter. In cases in which settlement is reached before service of a charging letter, a proposed charging letter will be...

  15. 12 CFR 625.20 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 625.20 Section 625.20 Banks and... UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 625.20 Settlement. A prevailing party and the FCA through its counsel may agree on a proposed settlement of an award at any time...

  16. 7 CFR 1951.894 - Debt settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Debt settlement. 1951.894 Section 1951.894 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SERVICING AND COLLECTIONS Rural Development Loan Servicing § 1951.894 Debt settlement. Debt settlement of all claims will be handled in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection...

  17. Access Contested: Security, Identity, and Resistance in Asian ...

    2011-09-30

    Sep 30, 2011 ... Book cover Access Contested: Security, Identity, and Resistance in Asian ... examines the interplay of national security, social and ethnic identity, and ... Burmese media, and distributed-denial-of-service attacks and other ...

  18. Animal personality as a cause and consequence of contest behaviour.

    Briffa, Mark; Sneddon, Lynne U; Wilson, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    We review the evidence for a link between consistent among-individual variation in behaviour (animal personality) and the ability to win contests over limited resources. Explorative and bold behaviours often covary with contest behaviour and outcome, although there is evidence that the structure of these 'behavioural syndromes' can change across situations. Aggression itself is typically repeatable, but also subject to high within-individual variation as a consequence of plastic responses to previous fight outcomes and opponent traits. Common proximate mechanisms (gene expression, endocrine control and metabolic rates) may underpin variation in both contest behaviour and general personality traits. Given the theoretical links between the evolution of fighting and of personality, we suggest that longitudinal studies of contest behaviour, combining behavioural and physiological data, would be a useful context for the study of animal personalities. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Another Tale of Two Cities: Contestation of Globalization in Odia ...

    Another Tale of Two Cities: Contestation of Globalization in Odia Ofeimun's ... state, in all its social, economic and cultural aspirations, coupled with its trappings of ... as a result of such issues as capitalism, race, nationality, identity and nativity.

  20. Sporting contests: seeing red? Putting sportswear in context.

    Rowe, Candy; Harris, Julie M; Roberts, S Craig

    2005-10-27

    The shirt colour worn by sportsmen can affect the behaviour of the competitors, but Hill and Barton show that it may also influence the outcome of contests. By analysing the results of men's combat sports from the Athens 2004 Olympics, they found that more matches were won by fighters wearing red outfits than by those wearing blue; they suggest that red might confer success because it is a sign of dominance in many animal species and could signal aggression in human contests. Here we use another data set from the 2004 Olympics to show that similar winning biases occur in contests in which neither contestant wears red, indicating that a different mechanism may be responsible for these effects.

  1. Sunflower Beauty Contest : tsvetõ zimoi / Marina Poltavtseva

    Poltavtseva, Marina

    2001-01-01

    Lillekleitide võistlusest Sunflower Beauty Contest Tallinna klubis Decolte. Konkursi idee on florist Tatjana Tridvornovalt. Esimese koha sai Viimsi lilleäri lilleseadjate Meri-Liis Kõivu ja Triinu Põlderi lillekleit "Talvepruut"

  2. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  3. The Density of Sustainable Settlements

    Lauring, Michael; Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the initial result of a cross-disciplinary attempt to encircle an answer to the question of optimal densities of sustainable settlements. Urban density is an important component in the framework of sustainable development and influences not only the character and design of cities...

  4. Youth as contested sites of culture: The intergenerational acculturation gap amongst new migrant communities-Parental and young adult perspectives.

    Andre M N Renzaho

    Full Text Available Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1 to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2 to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth.A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18-24 of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker. Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English.The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country's cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts; and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and family rules; and

  5. Youth as contested sites of culture: The intergenerational acculturation gap amongst new migrant communities—Parental and young adult perspectives

    Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Dhingra, Nidhi; Georgeou, Nichole

    2017-01-01

    Background Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth. Methods A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18–24) of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker). Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English. Results The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country’s cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts); and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and

  6. Youth as contested sites of culture: The intergenerational acculturation gap amongst new migrant communities-Parental and young adult perspectives.

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Dhingra, Nidhi; Georgeou, Nichole

    2017-01-01

    Immigration often results in changes in family dynamics, and within this process of dynamic relational adjustment youth can be conceptualised as contested sites of culture and associated intergenerational conflicts. This paper considers the experiences of migrant youth in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia using conflict as a useful lens through which to view issues of migrant youth identity and their sense of social connectedness, belonging, and agency. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to explore how migrant youth cope with acculturative stress and intergenerational conflicts, and 2) to better understand the systemic and family-related factors that facilitate positive settlement experiences for migrant youth. A total of 14 focus group discussions, comprising 164 people, were carried out in Greater Western Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. These focus groups targeted newly arrived migrant parents and young adults (aged 18-24) of African, Burmese, Nepalese, Indian, Afghani, Bangladeshi and Iraqi backgrounds. Each focus group was 1.5 hours in duration and was conducted by a team of three people (an experienced facilitator, an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker, and a note taker). Data were collected using a standard interview schedule, and an accredited interpreter/bilingual worker asked the questions in the appropriate language and translated participant responses into English. The findings highlight how youth in new migrant families become contested sites of culture as they try to balance integration into the new culture while maintaining their originating country's cultural values. Two themes and four subthemes emerged from the analysis: Intergenerational acculturation gap (loss of family capital and intergenerational conflicts); and factors that successfully protected positive family values while still allowing young people to integrate (the legal system that disarm authoritarian parenting practices and family rules; and parental use

  7. Holiday Decorating Contest - A Way to Meet Fellow Employees | Poster

    The trolls from “Frozen,” a North Pole tunnel, and a Christmas tree­–shaped periodic table of elements were just a few of the decorations on display during the second annual Holiday Decorating Contest in December. The contest, sponsored by the R&W Club Frederick, awarded prizes to three groups and two individuals whose decorations were judged based on visual impact,

  8. A national environmental design contest and capstone course for universities

    Bhada, Ron K.; Abbas Ghassemi; Deraid Morgan, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Waste-management Education and Research Consortium (WERC) of New Mexico has developed and implemented an environmental design contest for competition by universities throughout America. This is the first university environmental design contest anywhere in the world. WERC is a consortium of three universities, a community college, and two national laboratories sponsored by the DOE with the mission of generating resources to address issues associated with environmental management. The contest was structured to give university student groups from all over America an opportunity to exchange information via a national contest for design, development, and testing of an environmental control process. A practical environmental problem was presented to the competing teams. Each team prepared a total plant design for the solution of the environmental problem. They further prepared a working model to demonstrate each solution on a smaller scale. The design stressed not just the technical solution, but also such factors as economics, risk analysis, regulations, public policy and communications. The judging was preformed by experts from academia, industry and government agencies. The awards were based on the written plant design, the small demonstration, as well as presentations by the competing teams. All the criteria noted above(technical excellence, risk analysis, etc.) were weighted in the judging. Seven universities from throughout the United States competed in the first contest held in April 1991. The program fully accomplished its objective of providing a design challenge as well as providing a medium of exchanging information in the environmental area between various regions of the country. Over twenty universities have signed up to compete in next year's contest. In fact many have used the contest problem as part of their capstone design course. This paper presents the experiences of the first design contest and the topic for the second year. (author)

  9. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    Liu, Lin; Schaefer, Kevin; Gusmeroli, Alessio; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Zhang, Tinjun; Parsekian, Andrew; Zebker, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3–4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10–35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  10. "Rape Culture" language and the news media: contested versus non-contested cases

    April COBOS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The American news media has recently reported on several rape and sexual assault cases in various cultural settings, sparking public conversations about rape culture in different cultural contexts. The article is focused as a Critical Discourse Analysis that compares the language use in news articles from The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal over a six months period in order to more clearly understand the way the news media uses language in regards to gender and sexual assault and creates a spectrum of valid versus contested reports of sexual assault in different cultural settings.

  11. Contested understandings of recovery in mental health.

    McCabe, Rhiannah; Whittington, Richard; Cramond, Laura; Perkins, Elizabeth

    2018-05-17

    The concept of recovery is contested throughout the existing literature and in mental health services. Little research exists that gives voice to service user perspectives of recovery. This paper explores how service users in two recovery oriented services run by the National Health Service in North West England talked about recovery and what it meant to them. 14 service users accessing these services took part in semi-structured qualitative interviews focusing on the concept of recovery. Data were analysed using an interpretive phenomenological analysis approach. Service users talked about recovery as a dynamic, day to day process as well as an outcome; specifically related to being discharged from inpatient settings. A number of factors including relationships and medication were cited to have the potential to make or break recovery. The study highlights the continued dominance of the biomedical model in mental health services. Service users appear to have internalised staff and services' understanding of recovery perhaps unsurprisingly given the power differential in these relationships. Implications for clinical practice are explored.

  12. Contested psychiatric ontology and feminist critique

    Angel, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    In this article I discuss the emergence of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) within American psychiatry and beyond in the postwar period, setting out what I believe to be important and suggestive questions neglected in existing scholarship. Tracing the nomenclature within successive editions of the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM), I consider the reification of the term ‘FSD’, and the activism and scholarship that the rise of the category has occasioned. I suggest that analysis of FSD benefits from scrutiny of a wider range of sources (especially since the popular and scientific cross-pollinate). I explore the multiplicity of FSD that emerges when one examines this wider range, but I also underscore a reinscribing of anxieties about psychogenic aetiologies. I then argue that what makes the FSD case additionally interesting, over and above other conditions with a contested status, is the historically complex relationship between psychiatry and feminism that is at work in contemporary debates. I suggest that existing literature on FSD has not yet posed some of the most important and salient questions at stake in writing about women’s sexual problems in this period, and can only do this when the relationship between ‘second-wave’ feminism, ‘post-feminism’, psychiatry and psychoanalysis becomes part of the terrain to be analysed, rather than the medium through which analysis is conducted. PMID:23355764

  13. The spatial study of unplanned settlements on the coastal of Belawan Medan fishermen village

    Marpaung, B. O. Y.; Winny Silaban, Nadia

    2018-03-01

    One of the determining factors that formed informal settlements is the high demand for homes that are not comparable with the homes that were provided by the government. The settlement of Fisherman Village in Belawan Medan was built without a plan by settlers and was not involve government interference so that the spatial pattern formed uncontrollable. The shape of space that stretches represents the distribution of unplanned space. The purpose of this study is to find the structure of settlement and the relationship between the space structures with the spatial pattern in Belawan Medan Fishermen Village. In the process of collecting data, the researcher makes the maps of the observation area, the structure of the space, and the relationship between one space function with the other space functions. Also, the researchers identify the spacing pattern and the effect of one spatial element against the other. This study found a similar spatial pattern between one unplanned settlement and another unplanned settlement and there are also some tendencies of Belawan Medan Fishermen Village settlers when building the built environment in the relationship between building masses and the road network.

  14. Rethinking Eurovision Song Contest as a Clash of Cultures

    Zeynep Merve ŞIVGIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern era’s understanding of culture overlooked culture, as a social and cultural analysis category as well as a way of life. This point of view has lost its validity and culture gained significance as an area where rulership and power struggle exists. Especially the privileged existence of popular culture; having an interdependence attachment to power relations in addition to an allowing structure for alternative discourses other than the official discourse is a cruicial asset. This article examines Eurovision Song Contest with its over 50 years of traditionaled history, as a noteworthy television program of popular culture. Despite often being considered as “kitsch”, the contest refers more than of an ordinary song competition. The artists who participate in the contest compete for the country they represent rather than an individual race which takes “national identity” more on stage. In this respect the contest has a stimulus effect on national consciousness. This alerted effect can clearly be seen on public debates just before, during and after the contest. It is claimed in this study that Turkey’s position in Eurovision Song Contest offers a view of the “cultural struggle” towards Western civilization since the beginning of the modernization process. In this framework this study primarily focuses on the relationship between identity and culture, followed by the role of popular culture in the construction of cultural identity. Afterwards the study tries to discover how does this contest became a tool of cultural struggle in Turkish society by analyzing the news and the discource of the news that took place in national print media.

  15. Water Loss in Small Settlements

    Mindaugas Rimeika; Anželika Jurkienė

    2014-01-01

    The main performance indicators of a water supply system include the quality and safety of water, continuous work, relevant pressure and small water loss. The majority of foreign and local projects on reducing water loss have been carried out in the water supply systems of metropolitans; however, the specificity of small settlements differs from that of big cities. Differences can be observed not only in the development of infrastructure and technical indicators but also in the features of wa...

  16. Contested ‘relational policy spaces’ in two European border regions

    Dörry, Sabine; Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Cross-border cooperation to promote economic development and political integration has been among the EU’s key themes since the 1990s, and contemporary policy networks are considered useful organisational solutions. Focusing on transport policies in the border regions of Basel and Luxembourg, we...... analyse measures of persistency of national preferences among policy actors, mapping their perceived ‘policy spaces of action’ and conceptualising these policy spaces as relational. We discuss two empirical findings: The networks’ various actors on either side of the border appear to perceive the actual...... ‘policy spaces’ very differently. Therefore, and due to the networks’ terminability, these policy spaces are highly contested and frequently negotiated between the actors. Based on a combination of in-depth interviews, sketch maps, and social network analysis, we show that large spatiocultural differences...

  17. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    X. Jiao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  18. THE ROLE OF THE RELIEF IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS IN HUŞI DEPRESSION

    ELENA CHIRILĂ – ACATRINEI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Role of the Relief in the Development of Human Settlements in Huşi Depression. Human settlements are closely related to the regional physicalgeographical framework determined by the geological, geomorphological, hydrological and climatic features that condition the location and evolution of the settlements system. Among the morphometric parameters that characterize local conditions, slopes and altitudes play an important role in the spatial extent of settlements. Slope determines the access, the extension of built space and the drainage inside the area of settlements. An excessively flat land is not able to drain rainwater. The optimum gradient is 1-20, a value that generally characterizes terraces, plateaus and sculptural interfluves or accumulation glacises. Slopes over 50 raise problems in the construction of buildings and access roads, especially on territories with an excessive fragmentation. The altitudinal gradient is also important in the spatial development of settlements, as it implies a significant contrast between the localities situated in the eastern lower part of Depression and those located on the higher western and northern sides. To analyze the spatial evolution of human settlements in the Huşi Depression in relation to slope and altitude were used various editions of cartographic materials covering a period of about 80 years (1920-2010, the years 1950 and 2010 being conventionally selected as reference.

  19. Mapping Indigenous Settlement Topography in the Caribbean Using Drones

    Till F. Sonnemann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology of Amerindian settlements in the Caribbean has mostly been identified through scatters of artefacts; predominantly conglomerations of shells, ceramics and lithics. While archaeological material may not always be visible on the surface, particular settlement patterns may be identifiable by a topography created through cultural action: earthen mounds interchanging with mostly circular flattened areas. In northern Hispaniola, recent foot surveys have identified more than 200 pre-colonial sites of which several have been mapped in high resolution. In addition, three settlements with topographical characteristics have been extensively excavated, confirming that the mounds and flattened areas may have had a cultural connotation in this region. Without the availability of high resolution LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging data, a photogrammetric approach using UAS (unmanned aircraft system, commonly known as drones can fill the knowledge gap on a local scale, providing fast and reliable data collection and precise results. After photogrammetric processing, digital clearance of vegetation, and extraction of the georeferenced DEM (digital elevation model and orthophoto, filters and enhancements provide an opportunity to visualize the results in GIS. The outcome provides an overview of site size, and distribution of mounds and flattened areas. Measurement of the topographic changes in a variety of past settlements defines likely zones of habitat, and provides clues on the actual dimensions and density of living space. Understanding the relation of the mounds and adjacent flat areas within their environment allows a discussion on how, and for what purpose, the settlement was founded at a particular location, and provides clues about its spatial organization.

  20. 26 CFR 301.6224(c)-3 - Consistent settlements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistent settlements. 301.6224(c)-3 Section... settlements. (a) In general. If the Internal Revenue Service enters into a settlement agreement with any..., settlement terms consistent with those contained in the settlement agreement entered into. (b) Requirements...

  1. Spatial adaptation as the Madurese migrant resilience form at urban informal sector workers settlement: a case study of Kotalama settlement - Malang

    Asikin, Damayanti; Antariksa; Dwi Wulandari, Lisa; Indira Rukmi, Wara

    2017-12-01

    Migration is the movement of the population that will bring the change of society's behavior because of the adjustments occuring at the destination of migrant area. The availability of houses in urban area is not a proportional comparison to the increasing of limited housing space, thus it encourages urban migrants to adapt to the existing conditions. Adaptation will be closely linked to the resilience of migrants in the process of interacting with their environment. The theory of urban settlement architecture continues to grow constantly, so the used paradigm should be interdisciplinary. Thereby, the understanding of adaptation, which is used will concern to various aspects of physical and non-physical environment, and it is viewed as a process and product of human interactions with the environment holistically. Malang city is one of the migration destinations of Madurese people since 1930s, and Kotalama Malang settlement is the settlement that holds the largest Madurese migrant working in informal sector, which has been developed since 1950s. This study was conducted to determine the spatial adaptation of Madurese migrants in urban settlement area as a resilience form towards their settlement environment. The qualitative descriptive method with the discourse analysis approach of searching the data through the observation and the in-depth interview of key person were used to know the adaptation process that happened. The study result indicated that spatial adaptation as a process and product on meso and micro scale conducted by Madurese migrants was the form of resilience towards their settlement environment.

  2. Sowing Resilience and Contestation in Times of Crises: The Case of Urban Gardening Movements in Barcelona

    Marta Camps-Calvet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban gardens have been observed to multiply in response to crises. However, the meaning and motivations behind the emergence of gardening movements varies greatly over space and time. In this paper we argue that bottom up urban gardening initiatives taking place in Southern European countries in form of land occupation and communalization represent forms of resistance that enhance social cohesion and collective action in times of need. Specifically, this research examines the role of urban gardens in (i building community resilience and (ii articulating forms of resistance and contestation to development pressure and commodified urban lifestyles. Our research is based on data collected among 27 urban gardening initiatives in Barcelona, Spain, including 13 self-governed community gardens and 14 public gardens. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with gardeners and with staff from the Barcelona City Council. Our results show mechanisms through which urban gardens can contribute to build resilience by nurturing social and ecological diversity, generating and transmitting local ecological knowledge, and by creating opportunities for collective action and self-organization. We further examine collectively managed gardens as urban commons that emerge as a form of resistance to the privatization of public urban space, and that offer opportunities to experiment with new models of urban lifestyles. We show how gardening initiatives can be seen to represent an emerging form of urban green commons that provides a suitable ground to ‘sow’ resilience and contestation in times of crises and socio-ecological deterioration.

  3. The Intra-Industry Effects of Proxy Contests

    Fang Chen; Jian Huang; Han Yu

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the first study on the intra-industry effects of proxy contests. Using a sample of proxy contests from January 1988 through December 2008, we identify a striking cross-sectional difference in market reaction to the target companies. As much as 61% of the target firms have a significant positive cumulative abnormal return (CARs) in the period (‒10, +10) around the announcement day, while 39% of the target firms have the negative CARs in the same event window. Moreover, we find th...

  4. Sex Difference in Testosterone Response to a Video Game Contest

    Mazur, Allan; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Edelbrock, Sandy

    1997-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were assayed from saliva samples given by young men (n = 28) and women (n = 32) before, during, and after competing with a same-sex partner in a video game. The T response to the competition is different in each sex; the C response is the same. Male results confirm prior reports of a pre-contest rise in testosterone. Male results did not confirm previous findings that after a contest, the testosterone of winners is higher than that of losers, perhaps because ...

  5. Analysis of karate injuries sustained in 295 contests.

    McLatchie, G R

    1976-11-01

    The injuries sustained in 295 karate contests were analysed. It was noted that in 25 per cent of the contests there was some sort of injury, and in 10 per cent the injury was severe enough to cause the withdrawal of the participant. Injury seemed to occur most commonly among lower-grade participants and more often in the first hour of each day's competition. Protective padding of the arms, legs, feet and hands, and the use of gumshields and protective boxes appeared to reduce the incidence and severity of injury.

  6. Contestability of Container Liner Shipping Market in Alliance Era

    Enna Hirata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross section panel model is applied to estimate the effect that the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI has on container freight rates for a sample of six major container liner shipping routes during 2009 to 2011. The estimated coefficient of HHI is non-positive and statistically insignificant, indicating that higher concentration level does not lead to high price and the container liner shipping market is contestable for the period under consideration. The suggestion that efficiency can be achieved without actual competition in a contestable market is highly significant for policy makers.

  7. “Terrorists or tags”? Contested identities in media portrayal of ...

    Contested identities in media portrayal of militants in Nigeria. ... that have been highly contested, along political, social and religious lines. ... This approach to CDA tends to link text analysis of news stories to media production processes and ...

  8. Geographical evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plants on settlement structures

    Divinsky, B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of nuclear power plants are classed with respect to their character (one-sided or many-sided), order (primary or secondary), quality (positive or adverse), duration (temporary or permanent), and space (microregional or macroregional). The following topics must be included in the methodology of evaluation of the impacts of a nuclear power plant on the region: characteristics of the present settlement network, relationships within the settlement system, spatial transformation of settlements, development of urbanization, population density, town and village sizes, functional types of settlements, migration, age and social structure of the population, economic activity, town and village facilities, technical infrastructure, transport and traffic, psycho-social impacts of the occurrence of the nuclear power plant, microecology (microenvironment). (M.D.). 5 refs

  9. Problems and Alternatives of Settlement Lagoons for Mine Water Treatment System

    Lee, Dong-Kil

    2015-04-01

    A field test and computational flow analysis were conducted to identify the structural problems with existing settlement lagoons and to propose effective alternatives. When it comes to existing settlement lagoons without any specifically designed internal structure, mine water flows along a specific route while other regions remained stagnant. Such a flow pattern along a specific region causes a significant reduction in retention time as well as the ineffective use of the space in a settlement lagoon. When applying the modified settlement lagoon design proposed in this study, the flow distribution of mine drainage became uniform and the time taken for mine drainage to reach the outlet was improved by as much as 360 times and the exchange efficiency was significantly enhanced from 14.5% to 82.7%.

  10. Working Group Reports and Presentations: Mars Settlement and Society

    McKay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The long-term implications of space exploration must be considered early in the process. With this in mind, the Mars Settlement and Society Group focused on five key areas: Philosophical Framework, Community Infrastructure and Government, Creating Stakeholders, Human Subsystems, and Habitat Design. The team proposes long and short term goals to support getting to and then staying long-term on Mars. All objectives shared the theme that they should engage, inspire, and educate the public with the intent of fostering stakeholders in the exploration of Mars. The objectives of long-term settlement on Mars should not neglect group dynamics, issues of reproduction, and a strong philosophical framework for the establishment of a society.

  11. Livelihoods of squatter settlements : analysis from tenure perspective

    Shrestha, Ashokkumar; Nepali, Purna; Panday, U.S.; Shrestha, Reshma

    2017-01-01

    Squatter settlements are inevitable in most of the urban areas. Livelihood situation of squatter settlements seem poor, vulnerable and miserable. Living condition in these settlements suffered from overcrowding, inadequate accommodation, limited access to clean water and sanitation, lack of proper

  12. Dark Side or Bright Light: Destructive and Constructive Deviant Content in Consumer Ideation Contests

    Gatzweiler, A.; Blazevic, V.; Piller, F.T.

    2017-01-01

    Firms use ideation contests to generate ideas from consumers. This type of collaboration provides access to new knowledge and reveals latent consumer needs. But it also is risky, as firms give up control to an unknown crowd. Some contestants use ideation contests to post content that is unintended

  13. Using Soil and Water Conservation Contests for Extension: Experiences from the Bolivian Mountain Valleys

    Kessler, A.; Graaff, de J.

    2007-01-01

    Soil and water conservation (SWC) contests among farmer groups were organized in five rural villages in the Bolivian mountain valleys. The contests were aimed at quickly achieving widespread sustainable results. This article analyzes the effectiveness of these contests as an extension tool. Mixed

  14. NATURE-RURAL SETTLEMENT INTERACTIONS

    Zehra Eminağaoğlu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and management of natural environments are generally brought up upon adverse developments against nature in the humannature interactions. Although individual actions are often considered to be more immediate innatıre-related issuesi ecologic problems tend to spread in time and lead to reginol or even global problems. For this reason, it stands imperative that economic, ecologic and aesthetic values of the environment we live in be protected and used sustainably. Being the scene of nature and the environment landscape signifies the whole with living and nonliving entities where we live in. Dameged and destroyed landscape scenes particularly in urban areas necessitaites the reconsideration of human-nature relations and nature-frendly life style. This study investigates the rural settlements that show harmony with nature and reflects qualities of natural environments on the dwellings. Particularly, with the examples of drawing and pictures it examines the associatiation of rural settlements with nature as well as the use of the green as an occasional or spacial element.

  15. Contesting “Iraq”: a social constructivist explanation | Bailie ...

    Using social constructivism as a theoretical lens of inquiry, sense is made of this migration. The empirical evidence that accompanies this theoretical work is drawn from the debate over the conflict in Iraq. This debate is used as a means by which to bring the contestation over the notion of “civil war” to the fore and reveal the ...

  16. CERN Photo Club (CPC) / Canon Contest - My View of CERN

    Steyaert, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The CERN Photo Club has organized in collaboration with Canon Switzerland a photo contest open to all members of the CERN (Persons with a CERN access card). The only restriction is that the photos must have been taken with a CANON camera (DSLR, bridge or compact) between 1 and 31 October 2016.

  17. Perspectives on ... Multiculturalism and Library Exhibits: Sites of Contested Representation

    Reece, Gwendolyn J.

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes a multicultural library exhibit presenting the Palestinian/Israeli conflict as a site of contested representation. Qualitative methodology is used to interrogate the exhibit and its audience reception. Drawing on insights from critical pedagogy, implications for libraries arising from this case study are given and suggestions…

  18. Contesting 'Patriotic History': Zimbabwe's liberation war history and ...

    Remarkably, the article observes that the exclusively women authored anthology on liberation war history offers an inventory of a gender based trajectory of memory, thus ... On the other hand, the sidelined demographic categories contest narrow 'patriotic history' by engineering counter discursive historical accounts.

  19. Writing Freedom: The Art of Contesting Incarceration | Maina ...

    Human existence and interaction is essentially characterized by a contest between individuals who at times have diametrically opposed social, political, and economic ideals. Due to the forceful nature of our idiosyncrasies, we always perceive our ideals infallible and hence as fit of being enforced on others. This attempt ...

  20. Unravelling the Contested Nature of Carbon Capture and Storage

    van Egmond, Sander

    2016-01-01

    Our climate is changing. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) has been identified as an important technology to reduce CO2 emissions in order to avoid dangerous climate change. The implementation of CCS is however slow and CCS is publicly contested. This thesis focuses on the debate on this technology.

  1. Giving Back — IDRC photo contest winner shares prize with ...

    2011-01-28

    Jan 28, 2011 ... Giving Back — IDRC photo contest winner shares prize with Senegalese colleagues ... South or the developed world are tackling the challenges of urban living. ... Upon his return to Canada, the 26-year-old wrote to IDRC the ...

  2. Contest success function with the possibility of a draw: axiomatization

    Blavatskyy, Pavlo R.

    -, č. 208 (2004), s. 1-21 ISSN 1424-0459 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : contest success function * logit * irrelevant alternatives Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.iew.unizh.ch/wp/iewwp208.pdf

  3. Contestation des Nobel une tradition aussi ancienne que leur attribution

    Sevestre, G

    2003-01-01

    "La contestation des Nobel, avec cette annee la campagne lancee par un Americain afin de faire reconnaitre son role dans la mise au point de l'imagerie a resonance magnetique (IRM), constitue une tradition, quasiment aussi ancienne que l'attribution de ces distinctions" (1 page).

  4. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Dijkstra, P.D.; Preenen, P.T.Y.; Essen, H. van

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue

  5. 5 CFR 890.1055 - Contesting a denial of reinstatement.

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES HEALTH BENEFITS PROGRAM Administrative Sanctions Imposed Against... reconsideration of the initial decision. A provider may contest OPM's decision to deny a reinstatement application... present oral arguments to the debarring official. The provider may be accompanied by counsel when making a...

  6. CIP's Eighth Annual Educational Software Contest: The Winners.

    Donnelly, Denis

    1997-01-01

    Announces the winners of an annual software contest for innovative software in physics education. Winning entries include an application to help students visualize the origin of energy bands in a solid, a package on the radioastronomy of pulsars, and a school-level science simulation program. Also includes student winners, honorable mentions,…

  7. ECMS--Educational Contest Management System for Selecting Elite Students

    Schneider, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    Selecting elite students out of a huge collective is a difficult task. The main problem is to provide automated processes to reduce human work. ECMS (Educational Contest Management System) is an online tool approach to help--fully or partly automated--with the task of selecting such elite students out of a mass of candidates. International tests…

  8. Online videos to promote sun safety: results of a contest

    Annelise Lorelei Dawson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-percent of Americans search health information online, half of whom access medical content on social media websites.  In spite of this broad usage, the medical community underutilizes social media to distribute preventive health information.  This project aimed to highlight the promise of social media for delivering skin cancer prevention messaging by hosting and quantifying the impact of an online video contest. In 2010 and 2011, we solicited video submissions and searched existing YouTube videos.  Three finalists were selected and ranked. Winners were announced at national dermatology meetings and publicized via a contest website. Afterwards, YouTube view counts were monitored.  No increase in video viewing frequency was observed following the 2010 or 2011 contest.  This contest successfully identified exemplary online sun safety videos; however, increased viewership remains to be seen.  Social media offers a promising outlet for preventive health messaging. Future efforts must explore strategies for enhancing viewership of online content.

  9. Winning the young men over through a contest.

    Kweeken, F A

    1987-11-01

    5 years ago, the Family Planning Association of Liberia (FPAL) was perturbed by the very minimal youth participation in its programs. Male participation was also at its lowest. The president of the Association then hit upon an innovative idea: a Gentleman of the Year contest. The contestants are selected on the basis of the following criteria: they must be between the ages of 21 and 30 years, at least high school graduates, sportsmen, and possessed of good character and good health. They should also have some knowledge of family planning. The contestants appear before the judges 5 times. For their 1st appearance they don sportswear; for their 2nd, African attire; and for the 5th, a business suit. During their 3rd and 4th appearances they display a talent and go through an interview. As a result of the contest, the FPAL can now boast a viable National Youth Department. The FPAL considers the National Youth Department its most valuable program. A budgetary allocation for it has been included in the Association's 3 year plan to enable the Department to function even more effectively. Plans are also being made for a youth seminar.

  10. Evaluating the Operational Content of Contestable Market Theory.

    1986-12-01

    Aurelius , Marcus , Meditations. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin Books, Ltd., 1964. Bailey, Elizabeth and John Panzar. "The Contestability of Airline...must have as its sole aim the service and harmony of all." ( Aurelius , Book 7, Verse 5) I also thank my reader, Dr. Dennis Quinn. Accession For %’A

  11. Law as a Second-Order Essentially Contested Concept

    W. van der Burg (Wibren)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractSince Gallie introduced the notion of essentially contested concepts, it has given rise to considerable debate and confusion. The aim of this paper is to bring clarity to these debates by offering a critical reconstruction of the notion of essential contestedness. I argue that we

  12. Conservation narratives and contested protected areas in Zambia: a ...

    Conservation narratives and contested protected areas in Zambia: a political ecological analysis. ... Mgbakoigba: Journal of African Studies ... This paper uses a political ecological perspective to examine the link between environmental conservation narratives and resource conflicts and degradation in Zambia's protected ...

  13. 7 CFR 1427.172 - Settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement. 1427.172 Section 1427.172 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.172 Settlement. (a...

  14. 5 CFR 838.135 - Settlements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 838.135 Section 838.135 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT... § 838.135 Settlements. (a) OPM must comply with the terms of a properly filed court order acceptable for...

  15. 42 CFR 402.17 - Settlement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 402.17 Section 402.17 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS General Provisions § 402.17 Settlement. CMS or OIG has...

  16. 45 CFR 150.413 - Settlement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 150.413 Section 150.413 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.413 Settlement. CMS has exclusive...

  17. 42 CFR 1003.126 - Settlement.

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement. 1003.126 Section 1003.126 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has exclusive...

  18. 20 CFR 498.126 - Settlement.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement. 498.126 Section 498.126 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.126 Settlement. The Inspector General has exclusive authority to settle any issues or case...

  19. 5 CFR 838.1018 - Settlements.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlements. 838.1018 Section 838.1018 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) COURT... Settlements. The former spouse may request that an amount be withheld from the retirement benefits that is...

  20. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when

  1. Improving settlement type classification of aerial images

    Mdakane, L

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available , an automated method can be used to help identify human settlements in a fixed, repeatable and timely manner. The main contribution of this work is to improve generalisation on settlement type classification of aerial imagery. Images acquired at different dates...

  2. Monitoring biofouling communities could reduce impacts to mussel aquaculture by allowing synchronisation of husbandry techniques with peaks in settlement.

    Sievers, Michael; Dempster, Tim; Fitridge, Isla; Keough, Michael J

    2014-02-01

    Fouling organisms in bivalve aquaculture cause significant economic losses for the industry. Managing biofouling is typically reactive, and involves time- and labour-intensive removal techniques. Mussel spat settlement and biofouling were documented over 20 months at three mussel farms within Port Phillip Bay (PPB), Australia to determine if knowledge of settlement patterns could assist farmers in avoiding biofouling. Mussel spat settlement was largely confined to a 2-month period at one farm. Of the problematic foulers, Ectopleura crocea settlement varied in space and time at all three farms, whilst Ciona intestinalis and Pomatoceros taeniata were present predominantly at one farm and exhibited more distinct settlement periods. Within PPB, complete avoidance of biofouling is impossible. However, diligent monitoring may help farmers avoid peaks in detrimental biofouling species and allow them to implement removal strategies such as manual cleaning, and postpone grading and re-socking practices, until after these peaks.

  3. Predicting sales promotion contest proneness and participation

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    is a purchase incentive offering a chance to win one or more, generally uncertain, rewards. Interest has been driven by changing economic and competitive environments including a battle for supermarket shelf space, the penetration of store brands, increased manufacturer brand price discounting and improved...

  4. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  5. Innovation contests to promote sexual health in china: a qualitative evaluation

    Wei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innovation contests call on non-experts to help solve problems. While these contests have been used extensively in the private sector to increase engagement between organizations and clients, there is little data on the role of innovation contests to promote health campaigns. We implemented an innovation contest in China to increase sexual health awareness among youth and evaluated community engagement in the contest. Methods The sexual health image contest consisted of an open call for sexual health images, contest promotion activities, judging of entries, and celebrating contributions. Contest promotion activities included in-person and social media feedback, classroom didactics, and community-driven activities. We conducted 19 semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample to ensure a range of participant scores, experts and non-expert participants, submitters and non-submitters. Transcripts of each interview were coded with Atlas.ti and evaluated by three reviewers. Results We identified stages of community engagement in the contest which contributed to public health impact. Community engagement progressed across a continuum from passive, moderate, active, and finally strong engagement. Engagement was a dynamic process that appeared to have little relationship with formally submitting an image to the contest. Among non-expert participants, contest engagement increased knowledge, healthy attitudes, and empowered participants to share ideas about safe sex with others outside of the contest. Among experts who helped organize the contest, the process of implementing the contest fostered multi-sectoral collaboration and re-oriented public health leadership towards more patient-centered public health campaigns. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that innovation contests may be a useful tool for public health promotion by enhancing community engagement and re-orienting health campaigns to make them more patient-centered.

  6. Innovation contests to promote sexual health in China: a qualitative evaluation.

    Zhang, Wei; Schaffer, David; Tso, Lai Sze; Tang, Songyuan; Tang, Weiming; Huang, Shujie; Yang, Bin; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-01-14

    Innovation contests call on non-experts to help solve problems. While these contests have been used extensively in the private sector to increase engagement between organizations and clients, there is little data on the role of innovation contests to promote health campaigns. We implemented an innovation contest in China to increase sexual health awareness among youth and evaluated community engagement in the contest. The sexual health image contest consisted of an open call for sexual health images, contest promotion activities, judging of entries, and celebrating contributions. Contest promotion activities included in-person and social media feedback, classroom didactics, and community-driven activities. We conducted 19 semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample to ensure a range of participant scores, experts and non-expert participants, submitters and non-submitters. Transcripts of each interview were coded with Atlas.ti and evaluated by three reviewers. We identified stages of community engagement in the contest which contributed to public health impact. Community engagement progressed across a continuum from passive, moderate, active, and finally strong engagement. Engagement was a dynamic process that appeared to have little relationship with formally submitting an image to the contest. Among non-expert participants, contest engagement increased knowledge, healthy attitudes, and empowered participants to share ideas about safe sex with others outside of the contest. Among experts who helped organize the contest, the process of implementing the contest fostered multi-sectoral collaboration and re-oriented public health leadership towards more patient-centered public health campaigns. The results of this study suggest that innovation contests may be a useful tool for public health promotion by enhancing community engagement and re-orienting health campaigns to make them more patient-centered.

  7. Commuting in the settlement system of Serbia

    Lukić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Territorial organization of settlement system is the framework for internal migration flows. The purpose of this paper is to consider the relation between commuting and the settlement structure. Commuting patterns and characteristics of commuters in Serbia are relatively unknown and insufficiently researched, and as such, can not be adequately used in creation of development strategies and public policies which would include commuters' issues. It has been emphasized the importance of research of commuting ties between different settlements and also pointed out in which way commuting flows could be researched and analyzed by using existing sources, due to better understanding of connections between migrations and settlements. Commuting patterns of workers in Serbia and interrelations between the scope and the structure of commuting flows, as well as the type and population size of settlements in Serbia have been examined. Apart from territorial dimension of commuting phenomenon, socio-economic component of commuting population has also been considered. The use of costumised tabulations from 2002 Census have enabled us to examine all types of commuting and emphasise dominant directions of commuting flows of economically active population according to gender, level of education and sector of economic activity, within the settlement hierarchy. Workers have been classified into seven groups according to place of residence and place of work. The findings reveal there is a clear connection between the hierarchy structure and commuting patterns in Serbia. Further, we find some evidence that only 9,5% of workers - commuters have been working in the settlement of the same population size and type such as their residing settlement. Commuting flows within Serbia’s settlement system point out to certain variations when looking at individual categories of population, but it can be concluded that there is general trend of commuting "upwards" within the

  8. Decontamination strategies in contaminated settlement

    Hubert, P.; Jouve, A.; Tallec, V. Le

    1996-01-01

    Six years after the Chernobyl accident, decontamination actions had been completed in many places, the contamination could be considered as fixed, especially on urban surfaces and the social situation was felt to be stabilized. Under those conditions the efficiency of the 'classical' decontamination techniques was under question, it was worthwhile to look at new specific techniques. Besides it was necessary to discuss the interest of new decontamination actions in settlements. The European Union (EU) sponsored a project ECP 4 in order to look at the opportunities for further dose reduction actions in the contaminated territories of the three republics affected by the accident. The objective was to provide a local decision maker, faced with many alternatives for decontamination, with all the elements for determining what to do according to the various objectives he might pursue. The main results are presented here. (author)

  9. PERMEABILITY MAP OF RESIDENTIAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE TROPICS

    I Gusti Ngurah Antaryama

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Source of information for ventilation design of residential settlement is generally derived from wind tunnel or, recently, CFD studies, which involves both modeling and simulation of wind flow pattern and speed. Yet this is not readily accessible to most architects. In order to gain similar objectives but without involving detailed studies, the present study introduces a graphical method of gathering information about permeability of residential. It describes how the way wind reaches and flows through built spaces and forms (streets, park/garden, buildings, and makes use of access graphs and numerical measures to indicate permeability of a given residential settlement. Since the method is still in the initial development, further study will be required for refinement and validation. Nevertheless, the method can be employed to provide information for ventilation design of low-rise residential settlements, particularly at the schematic level. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Informasi untuk perancangan ventilasi alam pada permukiman selama ini sangat bergantung dari hasil-hasil yang diperoleh dari studi terowongan angin ataupun studi simulasi komputer dengan menggunakan CFD. Namun demikian ketersediaan informasi tersebut sangatlah terbatas bagi arsitek. Studi yang dilakukan penulis berusaha untuk mengisi kesenjangan yang ada dengan menyediakan tampilan grafis untuk menunjukkan permiabilitas sebuah permukiman. Perilaku angin di dalam dan permiablitas permukiman dijabarkan dengan menggunakan grafik akses dan pengukuran-pengukuran numerik. Oleh karena pengembangan metoda ini berada pada tahap awal, beberapa studi lanjutan sangatlah diperlukan. Kata kunci: morfologi permukiman, sains arsitektur, ventilasi alam, iklim tropis.

  10. Sustainability and Chinese Urban Settlements: Extending the Metabolism Model of Emergy Evaluation

    Lijie Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activity interacts with urban form and inner metabolic processes, ultimately impacting urban sustainability. China’s cities have experienced many environmental issues and metabolic disturbances since the nation-wide market-oriented “reform and opening-up” policy was adopted in the 1980s. To analyze urban reform policy impacts and metabolism sustainability at a settlement scale, this study provides an integrated analysis to evaluate settlement metabolism and sustainability using a combination of emergy analysis and sustainability indicators based on scrutiny of two typical settlements (one pre- and one post-reform. The results reveal that housing reform policy stimulated better planning and construction, thereby improving built environmental quality, mixed functional land use, and residential livability. The pre-reform work-unit settlements are comparatively denser in per capita area but have less mixed land use. Housing reform has spatially changed the work–housing balance and increased commuting travel demand. However, short commuting distances in pre-reform settlements will not always decrease overall motor vehicle usage. Integrating non-commuting transport with local mixed land-use functional planning is a necessary foundation for sustainable urban design. Functional planning should provide convenient facilities and infrastructure, green space, and a suitable household density, and allow for short travel distances; these characteristics are all present in the post-reform settlement.

  11. Practical appraisal of sustainable development-Methodologies for sustainability measurement at settlement level

    Moles, Richard; Foley, Walter; Morrissey, John; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationships between settlement size, functionality, geographic location and sustainable development. Analysis was carried out on a sample of 79 Irish settlements, located in three regional clusters. Two methods were selected to model the level of sustainability achieved in settlements, namely, Metabolism Accounting and Modelling of Material and Energy Flows (MA) and Sustainable Development Index Modelling. MA is a systematic assessment of the flows and stocks of material within a system defined in space and time. The metabolism of most settlements is essentially linear, with resources flowing through the urban system. The objective of this research on material and energy flows was to provide information that might aid in the development of a more circular pattern of urban metabolism, vital to sustainable development. In addition to MA, a set of forty indicators were identified and developed. These target important aspects of sustainable development: transport, environmental quality, equity and quality of life issues. Sustainability indices were derived through aggregation of indicators to measure dimensions of sustainable development. Similar relationships between settlement attributes and sustainability were found following both methods, and these were subsequently integrated to provide a single measure. Analysis identified those attributes of settlements preventing, impeding or promoting progress towards sustainability

  12. Calcifying algae maintain settlement cues to larval abalone following algal exposure to extreme ocean acidification.

    O'Leary, Jennifer K; Barry, James P; Gabrielson, Paul W; Rogers-Bennett, Laura; Potts, Donald C; Palumbi, Stephen R; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2017-07-18

    Ocean acidification (OA) increasingly threatens marine systems, and is especially harmful to calcifying organisms. One important question is whether OA will alter species interactions. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) provide space and chemical cues for larval settlement. CCA have shown strongly negative responses to OA in previous studies, including disruption of settlement cues to corals. In California, CCA provide cues for seven species of harvested, threatened, and endangered abalone. We exposed four common CCA genera and a crustose calcifying red algae, Peyssonnelia (collectively CCRA) from California to three pCO 2 levels ranging from 419-2,013 µatm for four months. We then evaluated abalone (Haliotis rufescens) settlement under ambient conditions among the CCRA and non-algal controls that had been previously exposed to the pCO 2 treatments. Abalone settlement and metamorphosis increased from 11% in the absence of CCRA to 45-69% when CCRA were present, with minor variation among CCRA genera. Though all CCRA genera reduced growth during exposure to increased pCO 2 , abalone settlement was unaffected by prior CCRA exposure to increased pCO 2 . Thus, we find no impacts of OA exposure history on CCRA provision of settlement cues. Additionally, there appears to be functional redundancy in genera of CCRA providing cues to abalone, which may further buffer OA effects.

  13. CONTESTED HERITAGE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICAL TRANSFORMATION OF DERRY/LONDONDERRY’S SIEGE MONUMENT

    Gehan Selim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transformations of Derry/Londonderry’s medieval city walls during the twentieth century have shaped an urbanism of segregated settlements within a city of religious confrontation. The heritage of military blockades, peace lines and watchtowers imposed upon the city’s Walls has influenced the disintegration of public space and created areas of no man’s land around the peripheries of the monument. The aim of this paper is to examine physical transformation and trace the consequences of urban planning regarding the historic city Walls. This change includes the shifting of residential settlements in the Bogside/Fountain areas and the movement of Protestant settlements towards the Waterside of Derry/Londonderry. The history and heritage of the Walls are analysed by focusing on four periods: 1600, when the first medieval walls were constructed; the housing crisis of 1948; the 1968 urban area plan and the beginning of the ‘Troubles’; and the present day. This analysis offers an understanding of the spatial relationships between enclaves and the monument over key moments of conflict and political change. The paper reveals that the manifestations of the Walls have aided in the further division of religiously segregated communities in Derry/Londonderry.

  14. The process of negotiating settlements at FERC

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Interstate gas pipelines and their customers presently settle about 90% of the rate cases set for hearing before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). The conventional regulatory litigation process is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. This paper explains the settlement process, illustrating with the 12 section 4 rate cases brought by pipelines from 2008 and 2009. The paper also discusses and illustrates why parties prefer settlement to litigation, what difference it makes, which cases tend to settle, what might account for the increasing frequency of settlements over time, the recent phenomenon of pre-filing settlements and the recent settlement of section 5 cases brought by FERC. In contrast to many other regulatory jurisdictions, FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. They make an initial analysis 3 months after a pipeline files for a tariff rate increase. Thereafter, the regulatory aim is to bring the parties into agreement, not to determine an outcome and impose it upon them. This is a different role for the regulatory body than was previously apparent. - Highlights: ► About 90% of FERC rate cases are settled, not litigated. ► FERC Trial Staff play an active role in facilitating negotiation and settlement. ► Conventional regulation is now only an occasional means of dispute resolution. ► The paper also discusses which cases settle and what difference it makes.

  15. 29 CFR 2700.20 - Notice of contest of a citation or order issued under section 104 of the Act.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of contest of a citation or order issued under... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Contests of Citations and Orders § 2700.20 Notice of contest of a citation or order issued under section 104 of the Act. (a) Who may contest. (1) An...

  16. Harmonizing Settlement, Infrastructure, and Population Data to Support Sustainable Development

    Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Yetman, G.

    2016-12-01

    The geospatial data community has been developing global-scale georeferenced population, human settlements, and infrastructure data for more than two decades, pushing available technologies to process ever growing amounts of data and increase the resolution of the outputs. These population, settlement, and infrastructure data products have seen wide use in varied aspects of sustainable development, including agriculture, energy, water, health, land use, transportation, risk management, and climate impact assessment. However, in most cases, data development has been driven by the availability of specific data sources (e.g., census data, night-time lights, radar data, or moderate- to high-resolution imagery), rather than by an integrated view of how best to characterize human settlement patterns over time and space on multiple dimensions using diverse data sources. Such an integrated view would enhance our ability to observe, model, and predict where on the planet people live and work—in the past, present, and future—and under what conditions, i.e., in relationship not only to environmental systems, resources, extremes, and changes, but also to the human settlements and built infrastructure that mediate impacts on both people and the environment. We report here on a new international effort to improve understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of existing and planned georeferenced data products, and to create a collaborative community across the natural, social, health, engineering, and data sciences and the public and private sectors supporting data integration and coordination to meet sustainable development data needs. Opportunities exist to share data and expertise, coordinate activities, pool computing resources, reduce duplication, improve data quality and harmonization, and facilitate effective data use for sustainable development monitoring and decision making, especially with respect to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the international

  17. 48 CFR 49.109-5 - Partial settlements.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Partial settlements. 49... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-5 Partial settlements. The TCO should attempt... settlements covering particular items of the prime contractor's settlement proposal. However, when a TCO...

  18. The HepTestContest: a global innovation contest to identify approaches to hepatitis B and C testing.

    Tucker, Joseph D; Meyers, Kathrine; Best, John; Kaplan, Karyn; Pendse, Razia; Fenton, Kevin A; Andrieux-Meyer, Isabelle; Figueroa, Carmen; Goicochea, Pedro; Gore, Charles; Ishizaki, Azumi; Khwairakpam, Giten; Miller, Veronica; Mozalevskis, Antons; Ninburg, Michael; Ocama, Ponsiano; Peeling, Rosanna; Walsh, Nick; Colombo, Massimo G; Easterbrook, Philippa

    2017-11-01

    Innovation contests are a novel approach to elicit good ideas and innovative practices in various areas of public health. There remains limited published literature on approaches to deliver hepatitis testing. The purpose of this innovation contest was to identify examples of different hepatitis B and C approaches to support countries in their scale-up of hepatitis testing and to supplement development of formal recommendations on service delivery in the 2017 World Health Organization hepatitis B and C testing guidelines. This contest involved four steps: 1) establishment of a multisectoral steering committee to coordinate a call for contest entries; 2) dissemination of the call for entries through diverse media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, email listservs, academic journals); 3) independent ranking of submissions by a panel of judges according to pre-specified criteria (clarity of testing model, innovation, effectiveness, next steps) using a 1-10 scale; 4) recognition of highly ranked entries through presentation at international conferences, commendation certificate, and inclusion as a case study in the WHO 2017 testing guidelines. The innovation contest received 64 entries from 27 countries and took a total of 4 months to complete. Sixteen entries were directly included in the WHO testing guidelines. The entries covered testing in different populations, including primary care patients (n = 5), people who inject drugs (PWID) (n = 4), pregnant women (n = 4), general populations (n = 4), high-risk groups (n = 3), relatives of people living with hepatitis B and C (n = 2), migrants (n = 2), incarcerated individuals (n = 2), workers (n = 2), and emergency department patients (n = 2). A variety of different testing delivery approaches were employed, including integrated HIV-hepatitis testing (n = 12); integrated testing with harm reduction and addiction services (n = 9); use of electronic medical records to support targeted testing (n = 8

  19. The HepTestContest: a global innovation contest to identify approaches to hepatitis B and C testing

    Joseph D. Tucker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innovation contests are a novel approach to elicit good ideas and innovative practices in various areas of public health. There remains limited published literature on approaches to deliver hepatitis testing. The purpose of this innovation contest was to identify examples of different hepatitis B and C approaches to support countries in their scale-up of hepatitis testing and to supplement development of formal recommendations on service delivery in the 2017 World Health Organization hepatitis B and C testing guidelines. Methods This contest involved four steps: 1 establishment of a multisectoral steering committee to coordinate a call for contest entries; 2 dissemination of the call for entries through diverse media (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, email listservs, academic journals; 3 independent ranking of submissions by a panel of judges according to pre-specified criteria (clarity of testing model, innovation, effectiveness, next steps using a 1-10 scale; 4 recognition of highly ranked entries through presentation at international conferences, commendation certificate, and inclusion as a case study in the WHO 2017 testing guidelines. Results The innovation contest received 64 entries from 27 countries and took a total of 4 months to complete. Sixteen entries were directly included in the WHO testing guidelines. The entries covered testing in different populations, including primary care patients (n = 5, people who inject drugs (PWID (n = 4, pregnant women (n = 4, general populations (n = 4, high-risk groups (n = 3, relatives of people living with hepatitis B and C (n = 2, migrants (n = 2, incarcerated individuals (n = 2, workers (n = 2, and emergency department patients (n = 2. A variety of different testing delivery approaches were employed, including integrated HIV-hepatitis testing (n = 12; integrated testing with harm reduction and addiction services (n = 9; use of electronic medical records to

  20. Guobin Yang (ed.), China’s Contested Internet,

    Arsène, Séverine

    2016-01-01

    China’s Contested Internet is a collective book composed of 10 chapters, seven of which were previously published in a special issue of China Information in July 2014. With case studies ranging from around 2006 to 2013, this collection of papers covers some of the most salient phenomena that have characterised the Chinese Internet over the last decade: e-government initiatives such as public consultation on the health system reform project (Steven J. Balla), and municipal microblogs (Jesper S...

  1. Measurement of Narora reactor building relative settlement

    Deo, P.M.; Pande, K.C.; Patwardhan, H.S.

    1977-01-01

    The civil construction of the reactor building of Narora Atomic Power Project has a special problem. The stability of the structure is liable to settlement as this location falls in seismic zone. To obviate the possibility of large scale unequal settlements, the reactor building is founded on a 4 meter thick rigid raft concreted in three layers, at a depth of 13 meters below ground. Stainless steel tanks will be embedded at 17 locations to measure relative settlements. The relative elevation difference will be detected by electrical probes when the water level in any one of the tanks touches the tip of the probes. The design envisages a maximum permissible unequal settlements of about 10 mm. over a period of 20 years. (K.B.)

  2. Experience affects the outcome of agonistic contests without affecting the selective advantage of size.

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Elias, Damian O; Punzalan, David; Mason, Andrew C; Andrade, Maydianne C B

    2009-06-01

    In the field, phenotypic determinants of competitive success are not always absolute. For example, contest experience may alter future competitive performance. As future contests are not determined solely on phenotypic attributes, prior experience could also potentially alter phenotype-fitness associations. In this study, we examined the influence of single and multiple experiences on contest outcomes in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus. We also examined whether phenotype-fitness associations altered as individuals gained more experience. Using both size-matched contests and a tournament design, we found that both winning and losing experience affected future contest success; males with prior winning experience were more likely to win subsequent contests. Although experience was a significant determinant of success in future contests, male weight was approximately 1.3 times more important than experience in predicting contest outcomes. Despite the importance of experience in determining contest outcomes, patterns of selection did not change between rounds. Overall, our results show that experience can be an important determinant in contest outcomes, even in short-lived invertebrates, and that experience alone is unlikely to alter phenotype-fitness associations.

  3. Do cues matter? Highly inductive settlement cues don't ensure high post-settlement survival in sea urchin aquaculture.

    Benjamin Mos

    Full Text Available Increasing settlement and post-settlement survival during the critical transition from planktonic larvae to benthic juveniles will increase efficiency for sea urchin aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of temperature and settlement cues on the settlement and post-settlement survival of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla during this phase. The current commercial methodology, which utilises natural biofilm settlement plates, was tested and resulted in low settlement (90% than a natural biofilm (∼25%. The addition of macroalgae-conditioned seawater to natural biofilm significantly increased settlement rates (>85%. Mixed consortia and single strains of bacteria isolated from macroalgae, biofilms and adult conspecifics all induced significant settlement, but at significantly lower rates than macroalgae. No evidence was found that higher rates of settlement to bacteria on macroalgae were generated by a cofactor from the macroalgae. Age of bacterial cultures, culturing bacteria on solid and liquid media and concentration of nutrients in cultures had little effect on settlement rates. Finally, macroalgae-conditioned seawater combined with natural biofilm settlement plates induced significantly higher settlement than to the biofilm plates alone in a commercial scale trial. However, high post-settlement mortality resulted in equivalent survival between treatments after 25 days. This study highlights that settlement studies should extend to post-settlement survival, which remains poor for T. gratilla and is a significant obstacle to increasing efficiency for aquaculture.

  4. New Technological Interventions in Conservation Conflicts: Countering Emotions and Contested Knowledge.

    Verma, Audrey; van der Wal, René; Fischer, Anke

    2017-01-01

    New technologies have increasingly featured in environmental conservation conflicts. We examined the deployment of imaging devices such as sonar equipment and cameras to survey the Fal estuary in Cornwall, UK. Due to heavy use of these waters, there have been several disputes coalescing around protected marine features, including the estuary's rare maerl beds. A comparison of two cases, scallop dredging and docks development, showed technical instruments being deployed to produce information about the marine environment as evidence to inform decision-making. The use of imaging devices stimulated political action and was regarded as a move away from emotion-based decision-making towards desired objectivity. Simultaneously, however, the process of deploying these devices was challenged and there was recognition that the resultant information could be used to construct the estuary as a politically charged space. Thus, rather than clarifying and resolving contentious issues, technological interventions generated new baselines for knowledge contestation and amplified ongoing battles for credibility and authority.

  5. Gains from resistance: contesting a new digital technology in a service sector workplace

    Shulzhenko, Elena; Holmgren, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Increasing expectations of efficiency enabled by new digital technology have led to renewed interest in spaces remaining for employee resistance to management power. The study contributes to this debate by analysing resistance to a new technology introduced in the home-nursing sector in Denmark....... Nurses succeeded in halting a technological change that allowed them to report data related to their visits online from inside patients’ homes and reduced their co-located working time. Work location became a central area of contestation between nurses and management. The study offers a nuanced analysis...... of power relations during the technological change. It shows that the capacity of IT management – a management actor uninhibited by a care ethos - to influence nursing workplaces rose along with the increasing significance of expertise in digital technologies in performing care work. Nurses’ alliances...

  6. The Political Geographies of Europeanisation: Mapping the Contested Conceptions of Europeanisation

    Florent Marciacq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article questions why Europeanisation is such a contested notion, by exploring the different politico-geographical structures of meaning on which the different conceptions of Europeanisation can be mapped. It starts with the contention that the political geography of Europeanisation has long been determined by European Union (EU integration alone. This produced an EU, inward-looking bias in Europeanisation research, which a paradigmatic shift towards governance perspectives helped mitigate. Such a shift is not only progressive in terms of concept formation; it also explains why the concept of Europeanisation has developed multifaceted contours. Using three ideal types of European governance (Westphalian, neo-Westphalian, post-Westphalian, the article shows that conceptions and spaces of Europeanisation are multiple in essence. It concludes that defining Europeanisation is a social act having politico-geographical motivations. But it nonetheless denies the claim that all conceptions of Europeanisation are equally good.

  7. Dispersed and decentralised settlement system

    Andrej Černe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of reintegration of the urban system new settlements are emerging on theurban rim, transitional zones are reurbanised, derelict areas within the cities are being developedand degraded urban areas of derelict industrial complexes are being renaturalised. Inthe periphery combined research and production parks are being set up, in the open landscapeintegrated business, trade and recreational centres are springing up. Decentralisationand recentralisation of focal points of development accompany the contemporary processesof reurbanisation and suburbanisation – they are simultaneous and move in two-direction i.e. to and from the city. We understand them as manifestation of a dynamic balance amongcontradiction existing between the centre and the rim. Deindustrialisation and relocation ofproduction and distribution from the centres of gravity to the periphery generate extensivedegraded urban areas within cities and between the city and suburbs. The periphery is beingurbanised with the creation of new, dispersed and nonhierachical poles of development, andthe city and inner city is undergoing reurbanization. The general environmental conditionsin the city and in the countryside are being equalised, the potentials of development arebeing sought in the comparative advantages of local conditions: be it attractive urban districts,be it suburban entities or countryside areas.

  8. The morphological / settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation or service delivery

    Sogoni, Zukisa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available , it is of the utmost importance that a critical evaluation of settlement structure and patterns is undertaken to directly inform the manner in which social services are delivered in different settlement types....

  9. Transport corridors and settlements in a region. Linking settlements to public transport

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is conditioning settlement to public transport on the regional and urban level. Similar to occurrences in Western Europe even in Slovenia strong settlement pressures and issues tied to development of suburbanisation are emerging in wider hinterlands of larger cities. In regional centres, where strong transport flows with frequent congestion happen, public transport should be the backbone of the transport system. It is important for consolidation of larger gravitation areas, especially conurbations. We can nevertheless establish that parallel to increasing use of private cars, the use of public transport is decreasing. Thus the present condition demands improvements of transport systems and suitable settlement density in conjunction with development of public transport. This can be achieved only by synergetic linking of public transport development and physical planning in a sustainable settlement system. In the Ljubljana functional region we specifically dealt with links between settlement and the regional public transport system, above all the proposed regional light-railway and tram system in the strict urban area. The decentralised denser settlement model is presented. Based on the study concerning settlement development in the railway corridors we proposed potential possibilities for denser settlement in the immediate areas of suburban railway stations in the northern part of the region, from Črnuče to Kamnik.

  10. Optical Interference Coatings Design Contest 2007: triple bandpass filter and nonpolarizing beam splitter.

    Tilsch, Markus; Hendrix, Karen

    2008-05-01

    A triple bandpass filter (28 solutions received) and a nonpolarizing beam splitter (23 solutions received) were the subjects of the design contest held in conjunction with the 2007 Optical Interference Coatings topical meeting of the Optical Society of America. Fifteen designers participated using a wide spectrum of design approaches and optimization strategies to create the submissions. The results differ significantly, but all meet the contest requirements. Fabien Lemarchand wins both contests by submitting the thinnest (6254 nm) triple bandpass design and the widest (61.7 nm) nonpolarizing beam-splitter design. Michael Trubetskov is in second place, followed by Vladimir Pervak in both contests. The submitted designs are described and evaluated.

  11. Settlement Prediction of Footings Using VS

    Hyung Ik CHO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shear wave velocity (VS is a key parameter for estimating the deformation characteristics of soil. In order to predict the settlement of shallow footings in granular soil, the VS and the concept of Schmertmann’s framework were adopted. The VS was utilized to represent soil stiffness instead of cone tip resistance (qc because the VS can be directly related to the small-strain shear modulus. By combining the VS measured in the field and the modulus reduction curve measured in the laboratory, the deformation characteristics of soil can be reliably estimated. Vertical stress increments were determined using two different profiles of the strain influence factor (Iz proposed in Schmertmann’s method and that calculated from the theory of elasticity. The corresponding modulus variation was determined by considering the stress level and strain at each depth. This state-dependent stress-strain relationship was utilized to calculate the settlement of footings based on the theory of elasticity. To verify the developed method, geotechnical centrifuge tests were carried out. The VS profiles were measured before each loading test, and the load-settlement curves were obtained during the tests. Comparisons between the measured and estimated load-settlement curves showed that the developed method adequately predicts the settlement of footings, especially for over-consolidated ground conditions.

  12. Contested Hydrohegemony: Hydraulic Control and Security in Turkey

    Jeroen Warner

    2008-10-01

    The present analysis suggests that Turkey’s basin and regional hegemony is contested and constrained from different sides, not least at home. Its water projects are a flashpoint of domestic, basin as well as global politics. It argues that the need to access capital in the international market to realise these ambitions necessitated a 'passive revolution' in Turkey which opened a window of opportunity utilised by the internationalised counter-hegemonic moves against Turkey’s dam projects in Southeast Anatolia, notably the ongoing Ilisu dam on the Tigris.

  13. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Preenen, Paul T. Y.; van Essen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,87...

  14. Into the black. 1993 Hospital Turnaround Contest winners.

    Cerne, F; Bergman, R

    1993-07-20

    Turning a hospital around takes a lot more than adjusting the financials, as the winners and finalists in the Great Comebacks 1993: The Hospital Turnaround Contest demonstrate. In every case we report on, the hospital being recognized has worked intensively with its community to reassess the services needed by its patients, build support for major management and delivery changes, and articulate the reasons for the strategies being used. Each of the eight hospital organizations we profile, which are spread across the country from Texas to Wisconsin to Maine to North Carolina--has put together its own version of success--in other words, eight lessons in innovation and progress.

  15. Contested Regional Orders and Institutional Balancing in the Asia Pacific

    He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    . On the basis of institutional balancing theory, I argue that (i) China’s rise has led to a competition among different regional orders, that is, the US-led bilateralism versus ASEAN-centered and China-supported multilateralism. However, conflicts or wars are not inevitable since the contested regional orders...... can coexist in the Asia Pacific. (ii) The deepening economic interdependence has encouraged regional powers, including the United States, China and ASEAN, to rely on different institutional balancing strategies to pursue security after the Cold War....

  16. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: Socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    Wolsink, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to environmental policy and claimed to serve sustainability goals. They are considered to serve (proclaimed) public interests, while the adverse impact or risk that mainly concerns environmental values as well is concentrated at a smaller scale, for example in local communities. The social acceptance of environmental policy infrastructure is institutionally determined. The institutional capacity for learning in infrastructure decision-making processes in the following three domains is compared: 1.The implementation of wind power as a renewable energy innovation; 2.The policy on space-water adaptation, with its claim to implement a new style of management replacing the current practice of focusing on control and 'hard' infrastructure; 3.Waste policy with a focus on sound waste management and disposal, claiming a preference for waste minimization (the 'waste management hierarchy'). All three cases show a large variety of social acceptance issues, where the appraisal of the impact of siting the facilities is confronted with the desirability of the policies. In dealing with environmental conflict, the environmental capacity of the Netherlands appears to be low. The policies are frequently hotly contested within the process of infrastructure decision-making. Decision-making on infrastructure is often framed as if consensus about the objectives of environmental policies exists. These claims are not justified, and therefore stimulating the emergence of environmental conflicts that discourage social acceptance of the policies. Authorities are frequently involved in planning infrastructure that conflicts with their officially proclaimed policy objectives. In these circumstances, they are

  17. Planning urban settlements for quality of life

    Boje Groth, N.; Hansen, K.E.; Björnberg, U.

    Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes livskvalitetsana......Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes...

  18. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Peter D. Dijkstra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014. In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi. We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi. The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.

  19. Does Blue Uniform Color Enhance Winning Probability in Judo Contests?

    Dijkstra, Peter D; Preenen, Paul T Y; van Essen, Hans

    2018-01-01

    The color of an athlete's uniform may have an effect on psychological functioning and consequently bias the chances of winning contests in sport competition. Several studies reported a winning bias for judo athletes wearing a blue outfit relative to those wearing a white outfit. However, we argue there is no winning bias and that previous studies were confounded and based on small and specific data sets. We tested whether blue biases winning in judo using a very extensive judo data set (45,874 contests from all international judo tournaments between 2008 and 2014). In judo, the first called athlete for the fight used to wear the blue judogi but this was changed to the white judogi in 2011. This switch enabled us to compare the win bias before and after this change to isolate the effect of the color of the judogi . We found a significant win bias for the first called athlete, but this effect was not significantly related to the color of the judogi . The lack of a significant win effect of judogi color suggests that blue does not bias winning in judo, and that the blue-white pairing ensures an equal level of play. Our study shows the importance of thoroughly considering alternative explanations and using extensive datasets in color research in sports and psychology.

  20. An economic assessment of patent settlements in the pharmaceutical industry.

    Dickey, Bret; Orszag, Jonathan; Tyson, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This article demonstrates that in recent years, patent settlements between branded and generic manufacturers involving "reverse payments" from branded manufacturers to generic manufacturers have received close antitrust scrutiny, driven by concerns that such settlements harm consumers by delaying the entry of lower-priced generic drugs. The authors note that such settlements will be a focus of the Obama Administration's antitrust enforcement policy, yet there is a growing consensus among the courts that such settlements are anticompetitive only under narrow sets of circumstances. In this article, the authors present an analytical framework for evaluating the competitive effects of patent settlements, including those involving reverse payments, and demonstrate that these settlements can benefit consumers. Thus, the authors conclude that while continued scrutiny of such settlements is important, broad brush treatments are inappropriate and only a more individualized evaluation can correctly determine the competitive effects of a particular settlement agreement.

  1. 48 CFR 49.108-3 - Settlement procedure.

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.108-3 Settlement procedure. (a) Contractors shall settle with subcontractors in general conformity with the policies and principles relating to settlement...

  2. The Wildlife Habitat Education Program: Moving from Contest Participation to Implementation

    Allen, Kevin; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Harper, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Do members participating in the Wildlife Habitat Education Program (WHEP) apply knowledge gained by implementing wildlife management practices at the local level? 4-H members who participated in the National WHEP Contest from 2003-2005 and 2007-2011 completed an evaluation at the end of each contest. The evaluation asked participants if they…

  3. Exploring the Effects of Contest Mechanisms on Idea Shortlisting in an Open Idea Competition

    Merz, Alexander Benedikt; Seeber, Isabella; Maier, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Picking the most promising from a multitude of crowd-generated ideas challenges organizations that employ open idea competitions. Hence, hosts of such contests often filter submitted ideas into shortlists to help juries selecting the winning ideas. While contest communities and rewards have been...

  4. Contestation and Continuity in Educational Reform: A Critical Study of Innovations in Environmental Education.

    Robottom, Ian Morris

    Contestation can be defined as a process in which self-interested individuals and groups in a social organization cooperate, compete, and negotiate in a complex interaction aimed at solving social problems. This dissertation explores the notion of contestation in the field of environmental education. In the first part of the document a framework…

  5. Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2013: The Teams and the Design of Their Systems

    Ahlbrecht, Tobias; Bender-Saebelkampf, Christian; Brito, Maiquel

    2013-01-01

    Five teams participated in the Multi-Agent Programming Contest in 2013: All of them gained experience in 2012 already. In order to better understand which paradigms they used, which techniques they considered important and how much work they invested, the organisers of the contest compiled together...

  6. Developing Conceptions of Fair Contest Procedures and the Understanding of Skill and Luck.

    Thorkildsen, Theresa A.; White-McNulty, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to assumptions about aversive effects of competition on achievement motivation, in this study young people saw academic contests as fair. When participants completed structural interviews on fair ways to organize science contests and on differentiation of skill and luck, age-related trends in their conceptions of procedural justice were…

  7. Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2011 - The Python-DTU Team

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Ettienne, Mikko Berggren; Vester, Steen

    We provide a brief description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall design, the tools and the algorithms that we plan to use in the agent contest.......We provide a brief description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall design, the tools and the algorithms that we plan to use in the agent contest....

  8. Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2016 – The Python-DTU Team

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Halkjær From, Andreas; Jacobi, Salvador

    2018-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall system design and the tools used in the agent contest.......We provide a detailed description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall system design and the tools used in the agent contest....

  9. Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2012 - The Python-DTU Team

    Villadsen, Jørgen; Jensen, Andreas Schmidt; Ettienne, Mikko Berggren

    We provide a brief description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall design, the tools and the algorithms that we plan to use in the agent contest.......We provide a brief description of the Python-DTU system, including the overall design, the tools and the algorithms that we plan to use in the agent contest....

  10. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  11. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    2006-02-01

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  12. The urban features of informal settlements in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Waleed Alzamil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains the urban features of three informal settlements in Jakarta: A. Kampung Bandan; B. Kampung Luar Batang; And C. Kampung Muara Baru. The data describes the urban features of physical structures, infrastructures, and public services. These data include maps showing locations of these settlements, photography of urban status, and examples of urban fabric. The data are obtained from the statistical records and field surveys of three settlements cases. Keywords: Informal settlements, Physical, Features, Urban, Kampung, Jakarta, Indonesia

  13. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the instructions...

  14. Infrastructure Provision and Classification of Rural Settlements in ...

    This study classifies the selected rural settlements on the basis of available infrastructure .To achieve this aim, 22 rural settlements were randomly selected. The cluster analysis was applied on the data in order to group the rural settlements on the basis of their infrastructure profiles. Thus the hierarchical method of cluster ...

  15. 6 CFR 13.46 - Compromise or settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 13.46 Section 13.46 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.46 Compromise or settlement. (a) Parties may Make offers of compromise or settlement at any time...

  16. 48 CFR 49.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. (a) The TCO shall, at the conclusion of negotiations, prepare a settlement negotiation memorandum...

  17. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the terminology...

  18. Possible Applications of Photoautotrophic Biotechnologies at Lunar Settlements

    McKay, David S.; Allen, Carl; Jones, J. A.; Bayless, D.; Brown, I.; Sarkisova, S.; Garrison, D.

    2007-01-01

    The most ambitious goal of the Vision of Space Exploration is to extend human presence across the solar system. Today, however, missions would have to bring all of the propellant, air, food, water, habitable volumes and shielding needed to sustain settlers beyond Earth. That is why resources for propellants, life support and construction of support systems and habitats must be found in space and utilized if humans hope to ever explore and colonize the solar system. The life support, fuel production and material processing systems currently proposed for spaceflight are essentially disconnected. Only traditional crop production has been proposed as a segment for bioregenerative life support systems, although the efficiency of higher plants for air regeneration is generally low. Thus, the investigation of air bioregeneration techniques based on the activity of photosynthetic organisms with higher rates of CO2 scrubbing and O2 release is very timely and important. Future systems for organic waste utilization in space may also benefit from the use of specific microorganisms. This janitorial job is efficiently carried out by microbes on Earth, which drive and connect different elemental cycles. It is likely that environmental control and life support systems based on bioregeneration will be capable of converting both organic and inorganic components of the waste at lunar settlements into edible biomass. The most challenging technologies for future lunar settlements are the extraction of elements (e.g. Fe, O, Si, etc) from local rocks for industrial feedstocks and the production of propellants. While such extraction can be accomplished by purely inorganic processes, the high energy requirements of such processes motivates the search for alternative technologies with lower energy requirements and appropriate efficiency. Well-developed terrestrial industrial biotechnologies for metals extraction and conversion could therefore be the prototypes for extraterrestrial

  19. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Namatovu, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    of entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging...

  20. Clearing and settlement of exchange traded derivatives

    John McPartland

    2009-01-01

    Derivatives are a class of financial instruments that derive their value from some underlying commodity, security, index, or other asset. Futures and options are common forms of derivatives. This article explains how clearing and settlement systems for exchange traded derivatives work.

  1. Directional layouts in central lowland Maya settlement

    Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the existence of non-random, directional patterns in the location of housemounds across the Late Classic Maya settlement landscape at Baking Pot, Belize, and then explores the wider implications of this patterning in the central Maya lowlands. It introduces an anisotropic method...

  2. Between archaeology and anthropology: imagining Neolithic settlements

    Květina, Petr; Hrnčíř, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 323-347 ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic longhouse * ethnographic analogy * settlement patterns Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. 17 CFR 8.16 - Settlement offers.

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 8.16 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION EXCHANGE PROCEDURES FOR DISCIPLINARY, SUMMARY, AND MEMBERSHIP DENIAL ACTIONS Disciplinary Procedure § 8.16 Settlement... the disciplinary committee at any time after the investigation report is completed. The disciplinary...

  4. HIV cure research community engagement in North Carolina: a mixed-methods evaluation of a crowdsourcing contest.

    Mathews, Allison; Farley, Samantha; Blumberg, Meredith; Knight, Kimberley; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa; Muessig, Kate; Rennie, Stuart; Tucker, Joseph

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a crowdsourcing contest to promote HIV cure research community engagement. Crowdsourcing contests are open calls for community participation to achieve a task, in this case to engage local communities about HIV cure research. Our contest solicited images and videos of what HIV cure meant to people. Contestants submitted entries to IdeaScale, an encrypted online contest platform. We used a mixed-methods study design to evaluate the contest. Engagement was assessed through attendance at promotional events and social media user analytics. Google Analytics measured contest website user-engagement statistics. Text from contest video entries was transcribed, coded and analysed using MAXQDA. There were 144 attendees at three promotional events and 32 entries from 39 contestants. Most individuals who submitted entries were black ( n =31), had some college education ( n =18) and were aged 18-23 years ( n =23). Social media analytics showed 684 unique page followers, 2233 unique page visits, 585 unique video views and an overall reach of 80,624 unique users. Contest submissions covered themes related to the community's role in shaping the future of HIV cure through education, social justice, creativity and stigma reduction. Crowdsourcing contests are feasible for engaging community members in HIV cure research. Community contributions to crowdsourcing contests provide useful content for culturally relevant and locally responsive research engagement.

  5. Desdemona and a ticket to space; training for space flight in a 3g motion simulator

    Wouters, M.

    2014-01-01

    On October 5, 2013, Marijn Wouters and two other contestants of a nation-wide competition ‘Nederland Innoveert’ underwent a space training exercise. One by one, the trainees were pushed to their limits in the Desdemona motion simulator, an experience that mimicked the Space Expedition Corporation

  6. THE SETTLEMENT OF STREN–KALI WONOKROMO–SURABAYA: The City Image Based on the Development of Marginal Society

    Paulus Bawole

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As human beings the poor people in informal settlements also have the right to live better like any other well-off people. Although the government regards them as illegal, they demonstrate great ingenuity in developing their residential neighborhoods. Public spaces are the living room for the people living in the informal settlements - the place where people come to enjoy their settlement. The strategy of sustainable development for informal settlements can be carried out well if the inhabitants are involved at the whole development process. In 2006 the population of Surabaya city was 2,716,971 people. An experience about urban upgrading in informal settlement along Wonokromo riverbank, Surabaya shows how the program implemented can improve the living quality of the inhabitants. With the program of Community Total Participation, the physical problems of the settlements can be reduced gradually. This paper will discuss the action research which tries to involve the inhabitants through total participatory strategy. The qualitative and quantitative data will be analyzed in order to find conclusions and to recommend alternative solutions.

  7. METHODOLOGY RELATED TO ESTIMATION OF INVESTMENT APPEAL OF RURAL SETTLEMENTS

    A. S. Voshev

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Conditions for production activity vary considerably from region to region, from area to area, from settlement to settlement. In this connection, investors are challenged to choose an optimum site for a new enterprise. To make the decision, investors follow such references as: investment potential and risk level; their interrelation determines investment appeal of a country, region, area, city or rural settlement. At present Russia faces a problem of «black boxes» represented by a lot of rural settlements. No effective and suitable techniques of quantitative estimation of investment potential, rural settlement risks and systems to make the given information accessible for potential investors exist until now.

  8. Weighing both sides: morality, mortality, and framing contests over obesity.

    Saguy, Abigail C; Riley, Kevin W

    2005-10-01

    Despite recent and growing media attention surrounding obesity in the United States, the so-called obesity epidemic remains a highly contested scientific and social fact. This article examines the contemporary obesity debate through systematic examination of the claims and claimants involved in the controversy. We argue that four primary groups-antiobesity researchers, antiobesity activists, fat acceptance researchers, and fat acceptance activists-are at the forefront of this controversy and that these groups are fundamentally engaged in framing contests over the nature and consequences of excess body weight. While members of the fat acceptance groups embrace a body diversity frame, presenting fatness as a natural and largely inevitable form of diversity, members of the antiobesity camp frame higher weights as risky behavior akin to smoking, implying that body weight is under personal control and that people have a moral and medical responsibility to manage their weight. Both groups sometimes frame obesity as an illness, which limits blame by suggesting that weight is biologically or genetically determined but simultaneously stigmatizes fat bodies as diseased. While the antiobesity camp frames obesity as an epidemic to increase public attention, fat acceptance activists argue that concern over obesity is distracting attention from a host of more important health issues for fat Americans. We examine the strategies claimants use to establish their own credibility or discredit their opponents, and explain how the fat acceptance movement has exploited structural opportunities and cultural resources created by AIDS activism and feminism to wield some influence over U.S. public health approaches. We conclude that notions of morality play a central role in the controversy over obesity, as in many medical disputes, and illustrate how medical arguments about body weight can be used to stymie rights claims and justify morality-based fears.

  9. The morphological /settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery

    Sogoni, Z

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available / settlement pattern classification of South African settlements based on a settlement catchment approach, to inform facility allocation and service delivery Zukisa Sogoni Planning Africa Conference 2016 4 July 2Project Focus and Background • CSIR... services. • Purpose is to support application & planning for new investment & prevent “unsustainable” investments / White elephants. 3Outputs • National set of service delivery catchments • Profile information per individual catchment • Ranking...

  10. HGSA DNA day essay contest winner 60 years on: still coding for cutting-edge science.

    Yates, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    MESSAGE FROM THE EDUCATION COMMITTEE: In 2013, the Education Committee of the Human Genetics Society of Australasia (HGSA) established the DNA Day Essay Contest in Australia and New Zealand. The contest was first established by the American Society of Human Genetics in 2005 and the HGSA DNA Day Essay Contest is adapted from this contest via a collaborative partnership. The aim of the contest is to engage high school students with important concepts in genetics through literature research and reflection. As 2013 marks the 60th anniversary of the discovery of the double helix of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick and the 10th anniversary of the first sequencing of the human genome, the essay topic was to choose either of these breakthroughs and explain its broader impact on biotechnology, human health and disease, or our understanding of basic genetics, such as genetic variation or gene expression. The contest attracted 87 entrants in 2013, with the winning essay authored by Patrick Yates, a Year 12 student from Melbourne High School. Further details about the contest including the names and schools of the other finalists can be found at http://www.hgsa-essay.net.au/. The Education Committee would like to thank all the 2013 applicants and encourage students to enter in 2014.

  11. Ethical Concerns of and Risk Mitigation Strategies for Crowdsourcing Contests and Innovation Challenges: Scoping Review

    Pan, Stephen W; Mathews, Allison; Stein, Gabriella; Bayus, Barry; Rennie, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Background Crowdsourcing contests (also called innovation challenges, innovation contests, and inducement prize contests) can be used to solicit multisectoral feedback on health programs and design public health campaigns. They consist of organizing a steering committee, soliciting contributions, engaging the community, judging contributions, recognizing a subset of contributors, and sharing with the community. Objective This scoping review describes crowdsourcing contests by stage, examines ethical problems at each stage, and proposes potential ways of mitigating risk. Methods Our analysis was anchored in the specific example of a crowdsourcing contest that our team organized to solicit videos promoting condom use in China. The purpose of this contest was to create compelling 1-min videos to promote condom use. We used a scoping review to examine the existing ethical literature on crowdsourcing to help identify and frame ethical concerns at each stage. Results Crowdsourcing has a group of individuals solve a problem and then share the solution with the public. Crowdsourcing contests provide an opportunity for community engagement at each stage: organizing, soliciting, promoting, judging, recognizing, and sharing. Crowdsourcing poses several ethical concerns: organizing—potential for excluding community voices; soliciting—potential for overly narrow participation; promoting—potential for divulging confidential information; judging—potential for biased evaluation; recognizing—potential for insufficient recognition of the finalist; and sharing—potential for the solution to not be implemented or widely disseminated. Conclusions Crowdsourcing contests can be effective and engaging public health tools but also introduce potential ethical problems. We present methods for the responsible conduct of crowdsourcing contests. PMID:29523500

  12. Collective space and urbanity

    Kajita, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    the privacy of individual households? Envisaging potential functions and uses of the shared access route, this paper discusses the importance of continuous reflections of two perspectives: 1) architects’ logic (opportunistic attempt) of space making and 2) residents’ consideration and appropriation of spaces....... lives contest the intension of the architects who wish to open the building towards society. Employing spatial analyses, participative observations and direct interviews with residents as methods for ‘on site’ research, this paper unfolds the potential of the shared access route in the ability...

  13. Madrid principles of Nagorno-Karabakh settlement

    K K Babayan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of this work presents the analysis of the basic document and the legal framework of the peace settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict on the modern stage - «Madrid or Basic principles», presented to the sides of the negotiations at the OSCE ministerial conference in the Spanish capital Madrid in November 2007. The both side’s statements, international mediators and institutes form a legal background of the vector and the framework of the negotiation process. There are the fundamental differences and contradictions in the approaches of the sides of the negotiations to the «Basic principles» of the settlement in this article. The work contains a comparison of the various items and elements of the Madrid document both in relation to each other, and to the principles of international law.

  14. Spatial Analyses of Harappan Urban Settlements

    Hirofumi Teramura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harappan Civilization occupies a unique place among the early civilizations of the world with its well planned urban settlements, advanced handicraft and technology, religious and trade activities. Using a Geographical Information Systems (GIS, this study presents spatial analyses that locate urban settlements on a digital elevation model (DEM according to the three phases of early, mature and late. Understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of Harappan sites and the change in some factors, such as topographic features, river passages or sea level changes, will lead to an understanding of the dynamism of this civilization. It will also afford a glimpse of the factors behind the formation, development, and decline of the Harappan Civilization.

  15. Research on the Starokuybyshevskoye Fortified Settlement

    Gubaydullin Ayrat M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Starokuybyshevskoye (Old-Kuybyshev fortified settlement is situated on the bank of the Bezdna river, 200 m to the northeast of Bolgar city. The site is being considerably eroded by the waters of the river and the Kuibyshev water reservoir. Currently it is situated on an island, under threat of complete destruction. In this regard, in 1946, 1987 and 1996, conservation and rescue excavations were conducted on the site. The detailed results of the 1996 studies are offered in the article. The ruins of an above-ground dwelling with an oven and three household pits were excavated. The ceramic assemblage of these structures has obvious features of the pre-Mongol Bulgar culture. In general, the findings make it possible to conclude that the settlement had existed only in the 11th through to the 13th century and that its collapse was associated with the Mongol invasion.

  16. Modern settlements in special needs education

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2016-01-01

    . Settlements of this controversy govern whether the pupil or the educational institution becomes the main point of intervention. In Denmark, the particularities of settlements can be identified by juxtaposing the introduction of intelligence testing in the 1930s with the contemporary policy agenda of inclusion....... With intelligence testing, special needs education was to service children whose needs were seen as part of their human nature. Inclusion, in turn, assumes special needs to be stigmatizing cultural labels that need to be abandoned by changing school cultures. Drawing on actor-network theory we can approach......In the history of special needs education, the distinction between human nature and its social environment has been a controversial matter. The controversy regards whether special needs are primarily caused by the child's psycho-medical body or by cultural concepts of normality and deviance...

  17. Implementation of Ecohouse and ecoliving concept in architecture - SASAK traditional settlement

    Arief, Agus Zulkarnain; Subadyo, Achmad Tutut

    2017-11-01

    Sasak is one of the Indonesian indigenous tribes who live in the island of Lombok. Until now, they still maintain the customs and culture as well as settling in Sembalun, Senaru, Segenter, and Sade. The Large of Sasak traditional settlement area in Lombok is not increased so that it feared the carrying capacity will be exceeded and could lead to a shift of customs and culture. This paper (1) to formulate the concept of a traditional Sasak sustainability settlement, (2) reconstruct the conception and typology of layout, mass configuration, space-organization, structure and building construction homes custom of Sasak, to analyze the sustainability level of Sasak traditional settlement used questionnaires Community Sustainability Analysis. The results obtained in this study is the traditional settlement of the Sasak people - PTSDS is in conformity with the Eco village concept of Global Eco village Network. It is evident from the analysis of data by CSA which finds the total in 1226; with the value of the ecological aspect, the social aspect and the spiritual aspect, respectively 432, 373 and 421, which means the Sasak people - PTSDS shows very good progress on sustainability.

  18. COMPENSATORY INTEREST SETTLEMENT AND CREDIT BANKING MORATORIUM

    Avelino Sánchez, Esteban Marino

    2014-01-01

    First is explained the reasons for this article, it mentions the specific legal rules that support the settlement of interest on the credit operations of companies in the financial system with end users, and then presents the average interest rates of some operations credit. Then we present the formula for calculating interest, and illustrates its application with examples 1 and 2 (the simplest). The following is, in examples 3 and 4, the calculation of interest with imputation of partial pay...

  19. Wisdom of the Crowds: Crowd-Based Development of a Logo for a Conference Using a Crowdsourcing Contest.

    Ong, Jason J; Bilardi, Jade E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-10-01

    Crowdsourcing methods have been widely used in business, but rarely in sexual health research. We evaluated a crowdsourced logo contest as part of an international human immunodeficiency virus conference. A logo crowdsourcing contest was conducted for the 20th International Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Conference. Crowdsourcing has a group of individuals solve a task, often as part of an open contest. Semistructured interviews were conducted with key informants including contest organizers, contest contributors, and conference attendees. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a content analysis approach. In total, 22 interviews were conducted with 3 contest organizers, 7 contest contributors, and 12 conference attendees. All individuals reported that the crowdsourced logo provided benefits beyond branding the conference, including creating a shared sense of purpose among diverse conference participants and explicitly demonstrating the strong community orientation of the conference. Conference organizers and attendees all reported deeper engagement because of the story of the Tanzanian artist who won the contest. Most conference attendees (11/12) preferred the crowdsourced logo compared with the previous company-organized logo, and all (22/22) supported the logo contest continuing. Implementing a logo contest was simple and relatively inexpensive. Stakeholders identified several ways to enhance crowdsourcing logo contest methods including wider promotion of the contest to encourage broader participation, greater transparency in the selection process, and a different prize structure which acknowledges the contribution of more contestants. We found that a crowdsourcing contest helped engage local and global communities in the lead-up before and during an international conference. Similar participatory events may be useful for sexual health conferences and research projects.

  20. Historical topography of the Tsarev settlement site

    Glukhov Aleksandr A.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The topography of the Tsarev settlement site, one of major Golden Horde monuments in the Lower Volga region, is analyzed. The first descriptions of the settlement refer to the second half of the 18th century, while the initial large-scale excavations on the monument were conducted in the mid-19th century. By that time, the scientific community had adhered to the opinion that the ruins of Sarai (the city mainly associated with the Tsarev settlement site would stretch to a great distance from the Akhtuba river-head to Kolobovka village. The results of archaeological research of the 20th – early 21st century make it possible to challenge this view. To date, it is an established fact that the size of the actual urban area had constituted 5 x 2.2–2.3 km. The southern part of the city was occupied by the estates of the nobility, the central and northern parts were represented by trade and artisan quarters. Around the city, there were suburban cemeteries, including brick mausoleums (the ruins of which could be mistaken for the remains of dwellings in the 19th century, as well as the areas of irrigated agriculture.

  1. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  2. Patient agency and contested notions of disability in social assistance applications in South Africa.

    Kelly, Gabrielle

    2017-02-01

    Problems in fairly allocating welfare and health resources are very often located in the spaces where citizens interact directly with state workers. This study draws on observations of doctor-patient encounters in disability assessments for the South African disability grant (DG) to examine how doctor-patient interactions and patient agency shape social welfare allocation in a context of high poverty and inequality. Data were gathered via interviews with healthcare workers and observations of doctor-patient interactions in twelve clinics and three hospitals in the Western Cape province between October 2013 and August 2014. Twenty-four doctors were interviewed, of whom seventeen were observed conducting a total of 216 consultations with patients. Two training sessions of DG assessors were also observed. Findings show that interactions between doctors and patients are sites of negotiation and contestation over rights to social assistance. Claimants' understanding of disability differed from biomedical and bureaucratic definitions. Patients attempted to influence doctors' decisions through narratives of suffering and performances of disability. Others used verbal or physical abuse as a form of protest against perceived unfair treatment. To defend themselves from these pressures and maintain authority in these interactions, doctors employed coping strategies that distanced and objectified claimants. This resulted in strained doctor-patient relationships and made the DG system confusing to the public. This demonstrates the importance of considering trust, power dynamics and the exercise of agency by both patients and providers in understanding policy implementation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Caffeine Reduces Reaction Time and Improves Performance in Simulated-Contest of Taekwondo

    Santos, Victor G. F.; Santos, Vander R. F.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Almeida, Jose W.; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Kiss, Maria A. P. D. M.; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on reaction time during a specific taekwondo task and athletic performance during a simulated taekwondo contest. Ten taekwondo athletes ingested either 5 mg·kg−1 body mass caffeine or placebo and performed two combats (spaced apart by 20 min). The reaction-time test (five kicks “Bandal Tchagui”) was performed immediately prior to the first combat and immediately after the first and second combats. Caffeine improved reaction time (from 0.42 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.07 s) only prior to the first combat (P = 0.004). During the first combat, break times during the first two rounds were shorter in caffeine ingestion, followed by higher plasma lactate concentrations compared with placebo (P = 0.029 and 0.014, respectively). During the second combat, skipping-time was reduced, and relative attack times and attack/skipping ratio was increased following ingestion of caffeine during the first two rounds (all P Caffeine resulted in no change in combat intensity parameters between the first and second combat (all P > 0.05), but combat intensity was decreased following placebo (all P caffeine reduced reaction time in non-fatigued conditions and delayed fatigue during successive taekwondo combats. PMID:24518826

  4. Socio spatial adaptation as a resilience form of native unplanned settlement in confrontation with new planned settlement development pressure (case study: enclave native settlement in Serpong, Tangerang)

    Ischak, Mohammad; Setioko, Bambang; Nurgandarum, Dedes

    2017-12-01

    Urban growth refers to expansion of a metropolitan into sub urban areas as the surrounding environment, with no exception of Jakarta city due to limited availability and high price of land within the city. The city of Jakarta, as a metropolitan, carries of expansion in its surrounding environment including Tangerang. Privat developers may an important role in this urban growth through their large scale of new settlement development project. The formation of establishment of enclave native unplanned sub urban settlement scattered within planned new settlement in Tangerang is to be an consequence of Jakarta urban growth. This fenomena could be comprehended as a form of resilience native settlement in confrontation with the new planned settlement pressure. The aim of this research, presented in this paper is to understand the socio-spatial concept of those enclave native settlement as an adaptation form to the new planned settlement pressure. Through descriptive qualitative research method, with indepth interview as a main research instrument, this research could depict or uncover the facts that there are various form of socio-spatial adaptation as the main theme of resilience native suburban settlement formation.

  5. People's practices : exploring contestation, counter-development, and rural livelihoods : ...cases from Muktinagar, Bangladesh

    Huq, H.

    2000-01-01

    People's Practices: Exploring contestation, Counter - development, and rural livelihoods

    The central problems explored in the thesis concern the vulnerability of disadvantaged local people, especially women, and their agency; development discourses and counter-development

  6. Regulation as a political contest: the probability of conservation of a renewable resource

    Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2017-01-01

    How do the levels of extreme positions of various interest groups influence the conservation policies in the context of a renewable resource conservation contest? To answer this question, a model is provided where conservation policy is determined as a contest between two opposing interest groups......: one in favor of conservation and another in favor of non-conservation. The levels of extreme positions for the conservationalists are determined by their demands about the severity of the conservation strategy that needs to be implemented. For the non-conservation group, the level of extreme position...... is determined by how large the current harvest of the resource should be. The main driver of the model is that resource conservation is realized only if the conservation group wins the contest, which again depends on the relative gain the two contenders receive when winning the contest. The paper derives...

  7. 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest Winner: Visualizing Unsteady Vortical Behavior of a Centrifugal Pump

    Otto, Mathias; Kuhn, Alexander; Engelke, Wito; Theisel, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In the 2011 IEEE Visualization Contest, the dataset represented a high-resolution simulation of a centrifugal pump operating below optimal speed. The goal was to find suitable visualization techniques to identify regions of rotating stall

  8. Contested environmental policy infrastructure: socio-political acceptance of renewable energy, water, and waste facilities

    Wolsink, M.

    2010-01-01

    The construction of new infrastructure is hotly contested. This paper presents a comparative study on three environmental policy domains in the Netherlands that all deal with legitimising building and locating infrastructure facilities. Such infrastructure is usually declared essential to

  9. Re-Packaging FPIC: Contesting the Shape of Corporate Responsability,Sate Authority, and Indigenous Governance

    David Szablowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I propose to examine how rival global governmentalprojects are asserted and contested by decentralized networks thatlink actors operating at different scales. I argue that Tsing’s notionof «travelling packages» provides a useful way of conceptualizingthe means by which elements of these projects are diffused, translated,taken up, and adapted into different localities around theworld. I explore these dynamics in relation to the contestation of agovernance model based on the principle that the free, prior andinformed consent (FPIC of an indigenous people is required toauthorize actions that may affect upon indigenous territory or indigenousrights. Through the assertion of different versions of FPIC,networked actors are contesting the nature and shape of corporatesocial responsibility, the authority of the state, and the significanceof indigenous governance. I propose to explore the implicationsof different packaging strategies on the contestation between rivalgovernance models and on their propensity for uptake in local sites.

  10. Issues and challenges of information fusion in contested environments: panel results

    Blasch, Erik; Kadar, Ivan; Chong, Chee; Jones, Eric K.; Tierno, Jorge E.; Fenstermacher, Laurie; Gorman, John D.; Levchuk, Georgiy

    2015-05-01

    With the plethora of information, there are many aspects to contested environments such as the protection of information, network privacy, and restricted observational and entry access. In this paper, we review and contrast the perspectives of challenges and opportunities for future developments in contested environments. The ability to operate in a contested environment would aid societal operations for highly congested areas with limited bandwidth such as transportation, the lack of communication and observations after a natural disaster, or planning for situations in which freedom of movement is restricted. Different perspectives were presented, but common themes included (1) Domain: targets and sensors, (2) network: communications, control, and social networks, and (3) user: human interaction and analytics. The paper serves as a summary and organization of the panel discussion as towards future concerns for research needs in contested environments.

  11. Martin Luther King Jr. contest winning posters to be displayed in downtown Blacksburg

    Shannon, Kelly Baker

    2010-01-01

    Each year as part of the Martin Luther King Jr. celebration at Virginia Tech area kindergarten through 12th grade students are invited to participate in the annual Martin Luther King Jr. poster contest.

  12. Means of Evidence and Evidence Collection in Contested Procedure in Kosovo

    Mr.Sc. Makfirete Krasniqi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to serve as a helpful tool for students, jurists, lawyers, judges and others, in the profesional and scientific aspect. In ruling a contested procedure in a professional manner, the court has to find the truth, so that the contested procedure is most efficient until reaching the final verdict. In my research, I intend to enrich the science with my knowledge in the field of contested procedure. In this study I have used analytical, comparative, synthesis, generalization and other methods. Those reading this paper will understand how evidence is the most important part in a fair trial, since failure to prove claims very often leads towards an incorrect situation; they will understand how difficult and painful would be forfeiting rights for the litigating party, which would lead to serious changes, such as losing property, losing a job, compensation of personal income, compensation for damage caused. The paper in itself contains deposited evidence, which maintain the level of estimation from the court in order to make a judgment in a contested procedure with a court verdict. In this paper I present the subject of: “Means of evidence and evidence collection in contested procedure”, where I have tried to research the theory but also the practice in contested proceedings, addressing the positive aspects, the deficiencies and novelties. In the legal provisions of the Law on Contested Procedure of theRepublicofKosovo, no. 03/L-006, of 30 June 2008, and Law no. 04/L-118, of 13 September 2012, on amendments to the Law on Contested Procedure, evidentiary means and evidence collection are included in chapter XXII.

  13. 1993 Technical Paper Contest for Women. Gear Up 2000: Women in Motion

    Orans, Robin (Editor); Duckett, Sophie (Editor); White, Susan (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center Advisory Committee for Women (ACW) sponsored the second ACW Technical paper Contest for Ames women in order to increase the visibility of, and to encourage writing for publication by Ames women scientists, engineers, and technicians. The topics of the contest paper mirrored in the topics of the 1993 Society for Women Engineers (SWE) National Convention, which included technological, workplace, global, and family issues.

  14. Does popularity matter in a TV song competition? Evidence from a national music contest

    Budzinski, Oliver; Pannicke, Julia

    2017-01-01

    There is a considerable amount of literature analyzing factors of success in music contests, in particular those where the audience votes for the winner. However, one factor that is highlighted by the economic theory of stardom is generally neglected in the literature. In this paper, we tackle this research gap by focusing on a national music contest in Germany and investigating how popularity of the participating artists influences the final voting results. We employ two different concepts o...

  15. Working Paper 172 - Political Economy of Service Delivery: Monitoring versus Contestation

    Kjell Hausken; Mthuli Ncube

    2013-01-01

    Many communities suffer limited public goods provision due to civil servants (doctors, teachers, etc) supplementing their low income with moonlighting activities. Monitors of civil servants commonly also earn low salaries from monitoring and may prefer political contestation for power and prestige. We determine an internal equilibrium for how monitors strike a balance between monitoring and political contestation. We also determine a corner solution where an unresourceful monitor does not mon...

  16. Globalized conflicts, globalized responses. Changing manners of contestation among indigenous communities

    Benyei, Petra; Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Orta-Martínez, Martí

    2017-01-01

    In a globalized world, environmental conflicts affecting indigenous communities (including hunter-gatherer groups) have intensified and grown in their transnational character. These changes have affected the choice of manners of contestation of these groups, favouring in some cases the emergence...... activities and confront conflicts through a truly bottom-up approach. The chapter ends discussing how, despite the potential of such new manners of contestation, the power imbalances that currently underpin many indigenous conflicts are first to be addressed....

  17. Boundary Struggles : Contestations of Free Speech in the Norwegian Publis Sphere

    2017-01-01

    Freedom of speech is a fundamental human right and a core value in liberal democracies. It is also, however, one of our time’s most contested issues, constantly claimed to be either too wide-ranging, at the peril of vulnerable minority groups, or too limited, restricting dissent and democratic deliberation. Employing a sociological lens on the dynamics of the public sphere, this book investigates how the boundaries of free speech are contested and negotiated through social processes which sil...

  18. Contested Norms in the Process of EU Enlargement: Non-Discrimination and Minority Rights

    Antje Wiener; Guido Schwellnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the adoption of EU conditions regarding non-discrimination and minority protection in three applicant countries: Romania, Hungary and Poland. While non-discrimination is a well established EU norm, minority rights are a contested norm and not enshrined in the acquis communautaire. It is argued that contestation over norm meaning highlights the importance of norm resonance and domestic norm construction in processes of norm diffusion, and that the conceptual tension between...

  19. Evaluation of Induced Settlements of Piled Rafts in the Coupled Static-Dynamic Loads Using Neural Networks and Evolutionary Polynomial Regression

    Ali Ghorbani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coupled Piled Raft Foundations (CPRFs are broadly applied to share heavy loads of superstructures between piles and rafts and reduce total and differential settlements. Settlements induced by static/coupled static-dynamic loads are one of the main concerns of engineers in designing CPRFs. Evaluation of induced settlements of CPRFs has been commonly carried out using three-dimensional finite element/finite difference modeling or through expensive real-scale/prototype model tests. Since the analyses, especially in the case of coupled static-dynamic loads, are not simply conducted, this paper presents two practical methods to gain the values of settlement. First, different nonlinear finite difference models under different static and coupled static-dynamic loads are developed to calculate exerted settlements. Analyses are performed with respect to different axial loads and pile’s configurations, numbers, lengths, diameters, and spacing for both loading cases. Based on the results of well-validated three-dimensional finite difference modeling, artificial neural networks and evolutionary polynomial regressions are then applied and introduced as capable methods to accurately present both static and coupled static-dynamic settlements. Also, using a sensitivity analysis based on Cosine Amplitude Method, axial load is introduced as the most influential parameter, while the ratio l/d is reported as the least effective parameter on the settlements of CPRFs.

  20. Designing local solutions for emptying pit latrines in low-income urban settlements (Malawi)

    Chipeta, W. C.; Holm, R. H.; Kamanula, J. F.; Mtonga, W. E.; de los Reyes, F. L.

    2017-08-01

    A lack of effective options in local technology poses challenges when onsite household sanitation facilities are eventually filled to capacity in unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu City, located in northern Malawi. Vacuum trucks currently dominate the market but focus on emptying septic tanks in the more easily accessible planned settlement areas, rather than servicing the pit latrines common in unplanned settlement areas. As a result, households in the unplanned settlement areas within Mzuzu rely primarily on manual pit emptying (i.e., shoveling by hand) or digging a new pit latrine. These practices have associated health risks and are limited by space constraints. This research focused on filling the technological gap through the design, development, and testing of a pedal powered modified Gulper pump using locally available materials and fabrication. A modified pedal powered Gulper technology was developed and demonstrated to be capable of lifting fecal sludge from a depth of 1.5 m with a mean flow rate of 0.00058 m3/s. If the trash content was low, a typical pit latrine with a volume of 1-4 m3 could be emptied within 1-2 h. Based on the findings in our research Phase IV, the pedal powered Gulper modification is promising as a potential emptying technology for lined pit latrines in unplanned settlement areas. The success rate of the technology is about 17% (5 out 30 sampled lined pit latrines were successful) and reflects the difficulty in finding a single technology that can work well in all types of pit latrines with varying contents. We note that cost should not be the only design criteria and acknowledge the challenge of handling trash in pit latrines.

  1. Object-based image analysis and data mining for building ontology of informal urban settlements

    Khelifa, Dejrriri; Mimoun, Malki

    2012-11-01

    During recent decades, unplanned settlements have been appeared around the big cities in most developing countries and as consequence, numerous problems have emerged. Thus the identification of different kinds of settlements is a major concern and challenge for authorities of many countries. Very High Resolution (VHR) Remotely Sensed imagery has proved to be a very promising way to detect different kinds of settlements, especially through the using of new objectbased image analysis (OBIA). The most important key is in understanding what characteristics make unplanned settlements differ from planned ones, where most experts characterize unplanned urban areas by small building sizes at high densities, no orderly road arrangement and Lack of green spaces. Knowledge about different kinds of settlements can be captured as a domain ontology that has the potential to organize knowledge in a formal, understandable and sharable way. In this work we focus on extracting knowledge from VHR images and expert's knowledge. We used an object based strategy by segmenting a VHR image taken over urban area into regions of homogenous pixels at adequate scale level and then computing spectral, spatial and textural attributes for each region to create objects. A genetic-based data mining was applied to generate high predictive and comprehensible classification rules based on selected samples from the OBIA result. Optimized intervals of relevant attributes are found, linked with land use types for forming classification rules. The unplanned areas were separated from the planned ones, through analyzing of the line segments detected from the input image. Finally a simple ontology was built based on the previous processing steps. The approach has been tested to VHR images of one of the biggest Algerian cities, that has grown considerably in recent decades.

  2. Litigation and the Timing of Settlement: Evidence from Commercial Disputes

    Peter Grajzl; Katarina Zajc

    2015-01-01

    Although an overwhelming proportion of all legal disputes end in settlement, the determinants of the timing of settlement remain empirically underexplored. We draw on a novel dataset on the duration of commercial disputes in Slovenia to study how the timing of settlement is shaped by the stages and features of the litigation process. Using competing risk regression analysis, we find that events such as court-annexed mediation and the first court session, which enable the disputing parties to ...

  3. The urban features of informal settlements in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    Alzamil, Waleed

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the urban features of three informal settlements in Jakarta: A. Kampung Bandan; B. Kampung Luar Batang; And C. Kampung Muara Baru. The data describes the urban features of physical structures, infrastructures, and public services. These data include maps showing locations of these settlements, photography of urban status, and examples of urban fabric. The data are obtained from the statistical records and field surveys of three settlements cases.

  4. Individual performance and leader's laterality in interactive contests.

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2017-05-01

    Left-handedness is known to provide an intrinsic and tactical advantage at top level in many sports involving interactive contests. Again, most of the renowned leaders of the world are known to have been left-handed. Leadership plays an important role in politics, sports and mentorship. In this paper we show that Cricket captains who bat left-handed have a strategic advantage over the right-handed captains in One Day International (ODI) and Test matches. The present study involving 46 left-handed captains and 148 right-handed captains in ODI matches, reveal a strong relation between leader's laterality and team member performance, demonstrating the critical importance of left-handedness and successful leadership. The odds for superior batting performance in an ODI match under left-handed captains are 89% higher than the odds under right-handed captains. Our study shows that left-handed captains are more successful in extracting superior performance from the batsmen and bowlers in ODI and Test matches; perhaps indicating left-handed leaders are better motivators as leaders when compared to right-handed captains.

  5. Contested Development in Indonesia: Rethinking Ethnicity and Gender in Mining

    Kristina Großmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Page Header User Username Password Remember me Notifications View Subscribe Information For Readers Home About Login Register Search Current Archives Submit your Article Leave the Editoral Platform and Return to our Website Home > Vol 10, No 1 (2017 > Großmann Contested Development in Indonesia: Rethinking Ethnicity and Gender in Mining Kristina Großmann, Martina Padmanabhan, Katharina von Braun Abstract This article reviews the literature on the relationship between gender and ethnicity in Indonesia’s mining sector and outlines shortcomings and prospects for further research. Recent studies on mining and gender focus predominantly on women and how they are negatively affected by mining. Ethnicity, although a growing asset in struggles on environmental transformations, is hardly included in research on mining. The intertwinement of ethnicity and gender in elaborations on mining is often depicted in literature of development programs and environmental organizations in which indigenous women are homogenized as marginalized victims. We argue, however, for a multidimensional approach on mining that takes into account the institutionalization of gender and ethnicity in mining governance as well as the role of gender and ethnic identities. Feminist political ecology and institutional analysis are pointing the way for such an approach. Furthermore, other relevant categories such as class, age, or status should be considered in the analysis of the complex and multidimensional environmental transformations of the mining sector in Indonesia.

  6. Heterogeneous information sharing of sensor information in contested environments

    Wampler, Jason A.; Hsieh, Chien; Toth, Andrew; Sheatsley, Ryan

    2017-05-01

    The inherent nature of unattended sensors makes these devices most vulnerable to detection, exploitation, and denial in contested environments. Physical access is often cited as the easiest way to compromise any device or network. A new mechanism for mitigating these types of attacks developed under the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, ASD(R and E) project, "Smoke Screen in Cyberspace", was demonstrated in a live, over-the-air experiment. Smoke Screen encrypts, slices up, and disburses redundant fragments of files throughout the network. Recovery is only possible after recovering all fragments and attacking/denying one or more nodes does not limit the availability of other fragment copies in the network. This experiment proved the feasibility of redundant file fragmentation, and is the foundation for developing sophisticated methods to blacklist compromised nodes, move data fragments from risks of compromise, and forward stored data fragments closer to the anticipated retrieval point. This paper outlines initial results in scalability of node members, fragment size, file size, and performance in a heterogeneous network consisting of the Wireless Network after Next (WNaN) radio and Common Sensor Radio (CSR).

  7. Decision-making and emotions in the contested information environment

    M.W. Haas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Future conflicts will necessitate the ability to conduct effective military operations in a contested information environment. The building and maintaining of robust situational awareness, protection of decision-making effectiveness of individuals and teams, fighting through information attacks from both in, and through, the cyberspace domain, will be essential. Increasing the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in degrading task performance and decision-making during cyber attacks will enable the development of advanced human-centered defensive techniques that aid fight-through capability. In this position paper, the development and evaluation of software that simulates real-time and persistent manipulation of the information environment is discussed. Results of the evaluation indicated that the task performance of a team of decision-makers performing collaborative tasks could be degraded through real-time manipulation of cyberspace content and operation. The paper concludes with a discussion of focus and direction for future research and development. It is suggested that the building of a deeper understanding of the perceptual and cognitive factors that are significant in the relationship between information environment manipulation and reduction in task performance is required. This understanding will aid in the defence of cyberspace attacks, will aid in fight through and mission assurance, and will aid the Information Operations community.

  8. Design Disruption in Contested, Contingent and Contradictory Future-Making

    Yoko Akama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to problematize how we step into situations that are often contested, contingent and contradictory. In this context, how can we sharpen our sensitivity of the role design plays in generating understanding and future-making possibilities? Here, we employ the term disruption as a way to question our own knowledge construction and research practices in Design Anthropology and Participatory Design. We pursue disruption as a political and necessary consciousness when Design Anthropology meets Participatory Design and discuss the generative, reflexive and analytical dimensions of disruption through three vignettes. These vignettes raises questions of how we interrogate disruptions of power to consider different ways in which this manifests when entering into and participating in ongoing changing process. They also highlight the need to displace existing knowledge, rather than pursuing ‘mutual learning’ that had been a defining commitment of Participatory Design. Lastly, the vignettes reveal the need to disrupt the designer-researcher in order to surrender to contradiction and contingency as part of future-making.

  9. Contested minorities – the case of Upper Silesia

    Gierczak Dariusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Upper Silesia in terms of ethnicity is a typical example of a historical region in Europe, but in fact, one of the few exceptions in contemporary Poland, where its mixed ethnic and religious structures have at least partly survived until today. While their existence had been denied by Nazi Germany (1933-1945 as well as by the Polish People's Republic (1945-1989, the emancipation of the German and Silesian minorities after the democratic changes of 1989 have evoked strong emotions in the ethnically almost uniform country. Nonetheless, the recent situation of minorities has improved as never before. Minority organisations has been officially recognized and German finally has become the second language in some municipalities of Upper Silesia, but the largest ethnic group in the whole country, the Silesians, have still experienced no formal recognition as a national minority. This article deals with the demographic aspects of the ethnic groups in Upper Silesia since the 19th century until recent times. The census results concerning the ethnic minorities or languages in Upper Silesia have been contested since the first records of that kind have been taken. The outcomes of the both last censuses of 2002 and 2011 concerning the minority question reflected for the first time a much more realistic picture of the status quo. Furthermore, they showed that the idea of Silesian identification found an unexpected high number of supporters. This fact indicates an emerging meaning of regional identification amid significant changes of cultural values in Polish society.

  10. Deterring Spoilers: Peace Enforcement Operations and Political Settlements to Conflict

    Manseau, Nicole C

    2008-01-01

    .... In Somalia, Operation Restore Hope provided a strong peace enforcement operation, but ultimately failed to deter spoilers to United Nations negotiations for a political settlement to the conflict...

  11. The Researches on Cycle-Changeable Generation Settlement Method

    XU, Jun; LONG, Suyan; LV, Jianhu

    2018-03-01

    Through the analysis of the business characteristics and problems of price adjustment, a cycle-changeable generation settlement method is proposed to support any time cycle settlement, and put forward a complete set of solutions, including the creation of settlement tasks, time power dismantle, generating fixed cycle of electricity, net energy split. At the same time, the overall design flow of cycle-changeable settlement is given. This method supports multiple price adjustments during the month, and also is an effective solution to the cost reduction of month-after price adjustment.

  12. Space Technospheres

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn

  13. Judging Fairness in Class Action Settlements

    Catherine Piché

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I describe the face of modern civil justice and discuss four paradoxes which justify re-evaluating the role of the judge responsible for reviewing class action settlements, in light of modern judicial culture. I also critically evaluate the existing procedures applicable to the fairness review as well as the judicial role described in the caselaw and doctrine, before suggesting a revised, three-parted role for the reviewing judge in the class action settlement context. Ultimately, I suggest that to reach fairness of process and outcome in class action settlements, judges should remain active and creative in their inquisitorial assessment of proposed class action settlements. They should also remain conciliatory, participating in the search for solutions regarding the proposed settlement, always seeking to find the truth (and what is “just” about the proposed settlement, in the utmost respect for the rights of absent class members, the respect of their interests, and the additional consideration of the interests of the defendants and of the public. Dans cet article, je présente l’état de la face de la justice civile moderne et je discute quatre paradoxes qui justifient une réévaluation du rôle du juge responsable de la révision et de l’approbation d’un règlement de recours collectif, à la lumière de la culture juridique moderne. Je propose aussi une évaluation critique des procédures en place s’appliquant à l’évaluation du caracters équitable de la transaction, de même que le rôle du juge décrit dans la jurisprudence et la doctrine, avant de suggérer un rôle révisé. Ce rôle modifié se décline en trois parties. Finalement, je suggère que pour atteindre l’équité de procédure et de résultat dans le cas de règlements en recours collectif, les juges devraient demeurer actifs et créatifs en enquêtant pour évaluer des règlements proposés dans les cas de recours collectifs. Ils et elles

  14. Engaging Public Space: Art Education Pedagogies for Social Justice

    Duncum, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Considering social justice to be founded on human rights, which, in turn, are grounded in freedom of thought, expression, and assembly, this essay reviews efforts by art educators to engage with public space as a form of social justice pedagogy. Public space, whether actual or virtual, is understood to be inherently devoted to contestation in the…

  15. Housing / Human Settlements Atlas series: continued support towards more sustainable human settlements

    Goss, H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available an answer to the key question of what (shelter type or model and supportive services) should be built where (in the most suitable location with the highest potential to support sustainable human settlements). The investment potential profile indicator has...

  16. Guidelines and criteria for planning Slovenian settlements

    Andrej Pogačnik

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with proposals for directing settlement development and management in Slovenia on the national level. They should be integrated in the spatial order, a part of the national spatial plan. First a short chronology of research with similar topics and simultaneous critical analysis is presented. The methodology and possible models for structuring directives is elaborated. Based on recent research by domestic authors, European guidelines and own ideas, a manual was devised, dividing guidelines hierarchically between the national, regional and local level. The second part or rather different type of text attached to the manual is a glossary. It also includes an index for further research of various sources.

  17. Public Service Provision in Clientelistic Political Settlements

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Hirvi, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The politics of public-service delivery continues to be neglected under the supposedly more context-sensitive post-Washington Consensus. Using interviews and documentary evidence from Ghana, this article provides an account of the networks of political interference and informal practices in Ghana......'s public water utility. It argues that, in order to understand why private-sector participation succeeds or fails and why similar arrangements have different outcomes across developing countries, we need to examine the effects of the informal institutional context, particularly the country......-specific political settlement in which public-service provision operates....

  18. MONITORING AND CONTROLLING ON SURFACE SETTLEMENT IN SAND AND GRAVEL STRATA CAUSED BY SUBWAY STATION CONSTRUCTION APPLYING PIPE-ROOF PRE-CONSTRUCTION METHOD (PPM

    Xian Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pipe-roof Pre-construction Method (PPM is regarded as a safer method to construct underground space, especially suitable for the construction sites with dense surface buildings, underground pipelines and complicated geological conditions. Xinleyizhi Station of Shenyang Metro constructed by PPM. In order to ensure safety in construction, the whole construction process was closely monitored. In this paper, monitoring results of surface settlement in PPM is analyzed. According to the monitoring results, the most serious settlement occurred in pipes jacking, which was the first and the most crucial step in PPM. The settlement reasons in each step are discussed, and controlling methods of surface settlement in each step are elaborated. Through close monitoring and timely control, the construction of Xinleyizhi Station completed smoothly. Because of the obvious advantages of PPM, the method will be used more widely in construction of shallow buried excavation under complicated surrounding and geological conditions.

  19. Space space space

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  20. 76 FR 77997 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cashout Settlement; The Atlantic Richfield Company

    2011-12-15

    ... administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Ophir Mills and Smelter Site in Tooele County, Utah with the Atlantic Richfield Company based upon a cash-out settlement. The settlement...

  1. Recommendations for natural bodybuilding contest preparation: resistance and cardiovascular training.

    Helms, E R; Fitschen, P J; Aragon, A A; Cronin, J; Schoenfeld, B J

    2015-03-01

    The anabolic effect of resistance training can mitigate muscle loss during contest preparation. In reviewing relevant literature, we recommend a periodized approach be utilized. Block and undulating models show promise. Muscle groups should be trained 2 times weekly or more, although high volume training may benefit from higher frequencies to keep volume at any one session from becoming excessive. Low to high (~3-15) repetitions can be utilized but most repetitions should occur in the 6-12 range using 70-80% of 1 repetition maximum. Roughly 40-70 reps per muscle group per session should be performed, however higher volume may be appropriate for advanced bodybuilders. Traditional rest intervals of 1-3 minutes are adequate, but longer intervals can be used. Tempo should allow muscular control of the load; 1-2 s concentric and 2-3 s eccentric tempos. Training to failure should be limited when performing heavy loads on taxing exercises, and primarily relegated to single-joint exercises and higher repetitions. A core of multi-joint exercises with some single-joint exercises to address specific muscle groups as needed should be used, emphasizing full range of motion and proper form. Cardiovascular training can be used to enhance fat loss. Interference with strength training adaptations increases concomitantly with frequency and duration of cardiovascular training. Thus, the lowest frequency and duration possible while achieving sufficient fat loss should be used. Full-body modalities or cycling may reduce interference. High intensities may as well; however, require more recovery. Fasted cardiovascular training may not have benefits over fed-state and could be detrimental.

  2. Theatrical Tectonics: The Mediating Agent for a Contesting Practice

    Gevork Hartoonian

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper posits the idea that the theme of agency in architecture is parallactic. It discusses the tectonic as an agent through which architecture turns into a state of constant flux. The intention is to promote a discourse of criticality, the thematic of which is drawn from the symptoms that galvanise architecture’s rapport with the image-laden culture of late capitalism. In an attempt to log the thematic of a contested practice, this essay will re-map the recent history of contemporary architecture.Exploring New Brutalism’s criticism of the established ethos of International Style architecture, the first part of this paper will highlight the movement’s tendency towards replacing the painterly with the sculptural, and this in reference to the contemporary interest in monolithic architecture. Having established the import of tectonics for the architecture of Brutalism, the paper then argues that in the present situation, when architecture – like other cultural products – is infatuated with the spectacle of late capitalism, a re-thinking of the Semperian notion of theatricality is useful. Of interest in the tectonic of theatricality is the work’s capacity to bring forth the division between intellectual and physical labours, and this in reference to architecture’s reserved acceptance of technification for which the aforementioned division is vital.Particular attention will be given to two projects, Zaha Hadid’s Phaeno Center and OMA’s Casa da Musica, where architectonic aspects of New Brutalism are revisited in the light of the tectonic of theatricality.

  3. 5 CFR 890.1069 - Information the debarring official must consider in deciding a provider's contest of proposed...

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... deciding a provider's contest of proposed penalties and assessments. (a) Documentary material and written...

  4. 48 CFR 249.110 - Settlement negotiation memorandum.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement negotiation memorandum. 249.110 Section 249.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 249.110 Settlement negotiation memorandum. Follow...

  5. Analysis of an Underground Structure Settlement Risk due to Tunneling

    Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Ghodrat, Hadi; Firouzianbandpey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    of the underground commercial center structure settlement is estimated using both empirical and numerical methods. The settlement risk level of the commercial center structure is determined based on presented definitions about risk classification of various types of structures. Consequently, tunneling processes...

  6. 12 CFR 308.15 - Opportunity for informal settlement.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Opportunity for informal settlement. 308.15 Section 308.15 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.15 Opportunity for informal settlement. Any respondent may, at any time...

  7. Transparency and public participation in WTO dispute settlement

    Ahlborn, C.S.; Pfitzer, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    In order to offer a comprehensive analysis of transparency and public participation in the WTO dispute settlement system, this memorandum first considers the current participatory practice throughout the various steps of the dispute settlement process. Secondly, the current state of the DSU

  8. Resilience and social costs: centralised towns vs. distributed settlements?

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    In government reports and political debates in Greenland it is often stated, that the divided settlement in general and especially the settlements are too costly, and that the outlying districts in general do not contribute sufficiently to the national economy. This presumption is used as an argu...

  9. 47 CFR 1.244 - Designation of a settlement judge.

    2010-10-01

    ... Proceedings Presiding Officer § 1.244 Designation of a settlement judge. (a) In broadcast comparative cases... Administrative Law Judge for action. (c) If, in the discretion of the Chief Administrative Law Judge, it appears... Commission's Administrative Law Judges are eligible to act as settlement judges, except that an...

  10. 48 CFR 53.301-1438 - Settlement Proposal (Short Form).

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement Proposal (Short Form). 53.301-1438 Section 53.301-1438 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-1438 Settlement Proposal (Short...

  11. 28 CFR 43.3 - Settlement and waiver of claims.

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement and waiver of claims. 43.3 Section 43.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RECOVERY OF COST OF HOSPITAL AND MEDICAL CARE AND TREATMENT FURNISHED BY THE UNITED STATES § 43.3 Settlement and waiver of claims. (a) The...

  12. Conciliation as the traditional method of disputes settlement in PRC

    Svetlana F. Litvinova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article researches one of the peculiarities of civil disputes settlement in China. This peculiarity is the conciliatory method that is used during disputes settlement. The using of the method is based on Confucianism. The content of the method has been viewed in the article.

  13. Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on ...

    Formalisation of Unplanned Settlements and Its Implications on Poverty Reduction: The Case of Dar es Salaam City. ... Properties found in these areas are sound or improvable. ... Key words: regularisation, formalisation, land tenure, property rights, unplanned/informal settlements, poverty reduction, Dar es Salaam ...

  14. 32 CFR 536.124 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 536.124 Section 536.124 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.124 Settlement authority for maritime...

  15. 32 CFR 537.18 - Settlement authority for maritime claims.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Settlement authority for maritime claims. 537.18 Section 537.18 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY CLAIMS AND ACCOUNTS CLAIMS ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES § 537.18 Settlement authority for maritime claims. (a) The...

  16. Engineering approach to model and compute electric power markets settlements

    Kumar, J.; Petrov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Back-office accounting settlement activities are an important part of market operations in Independent System Operator (ISO) organizations. A potential way to measure ISO market design correctness is to analyze how well market price signals create incentives or penalties for creating an efficient market to achieve market design goals. Market settlement rules are an important tool for implementing price signals which are fed back to participants via the settlement activities of the ISO. ISO's are currently faced with the challenge of high volumes of data resulting from the increasing size of markets and ever-changing market designs, as well as the growing complexity of wholesale energy settlement business rules. This paper analyzed the problem and presented a practical engineering solution using an approach based on mathematical formulation and modeling of large scale calculations. The paper also presented critical comments on various differences in settlement design approaches to electrical power market design, as well as further areas of development. The paper provided a brief introduction to the wholesale energy market settlement systems and discussed problem formulation. An actual settlement implementation framework and discussion of the results and conclusions were also presented. It was concluded that a proper engineering approach to this domain can yield satisfying results by formalizing wholesale energy settlements. Significant improvements were observed in the initial preparation phase, scoping and effort estimation, implementation and testing. 5 refs., 2 figs

  17. Automatic settlement analysis of single-layer armour layers

    Hofland, B.; van gent, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    A method to quantify, analyse, and present the settlement of single-layer concrete armour layers of coastal structures is presented. The use of the image processing technique for settlement analysis is discussed based on various modelling
    studies performed over the years. The accuracy of the

  18. Experimental analysis of railway track settlement in transition zones

    Wang, H.; Markine, V.L.; Liu, X.

    2017-01-01

    Transition zones in railway tracks are the locations with considerable changes in the vertical support structures. Due to the differential stiffness and settlement in the open track and the engineering structure resulting in the dynamic amplification of the wheel forces, track settlement is usually

  19. Macrofauna Settlement on Pearl Oyster Collectors in Kenya ...

    Key words: Pearl oysters, seed collection, macrofauna, bivalves, settlement, monsoon seasons,. Kenya .... have shown that pearl oyster settlement is higher within calm ...... collectors in the Timor Sea, Northern Australia. J. Shellfish ... systems. Aquaculture, 189: 375-388. Urban, H.J. (2000b): Culture potential of the pearl.

  20. Analysis of spatial pattern of settlements in the federal capital ...

    Human settlements are important, seemingly static but dynamic, features of the cultural landscape that have attracted several studies due to the important role they play in human life. This paper examined the spatial distribution of settlements in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Nigeria. The analysis uses vector based ...

  1. 47 CFR 64.1002 - International settlements policy.

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS International Settlements Policy and Modification... accounting rate modification, filed pursuant to § 64.1001, that includes a settlement rate that is at or... behavior that is harmful to U.S. customers. Carriers and other parties filing complaints must support their...

  2. 29 CFR 1603.108 - Settlement and alternative dispute resolution.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement and alternative dispute resolution. 1603.108... Settlement and alternative dispute resolution. (a) The parties are at all times free to settle all or part of... a neutral mediator or to any other alternative dispute resolution process authorized by the...

  3. The development of informal settlements in South Africa, with particular reference to informal settlements around Daveyton on the East Rand, 1970-1999

    2012-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. The purpose of the study is to analyse the development of informal settlements in South Africa, with particular reference to the role of the Government in the improvement of informal settlement conditions around Daveyton, especially at the Etwatwa informal settlement. Research has shown that there is common experience in developing countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America in as far as the development of squatter settlements or informal settlements are concerned. This st...

  4. Structured settlement annuities, part 1: overview and the underwriting process.

    Schmidt, C J; Singer, R B

    2000-01-01

    Structured settlement underwriting is the underwriting of medically impaired lives for the purchase of an annuity to fund the settlement. Other than risk assessment, structured settlement (SS) underwriting has little in common with traditional life insurance underwriting. Most noteworthy of these differences is the relative lack of actuarial data on which to base decisions about mortality and the necessity for prospective thinking about risk assessment. The purpose of this paper is to provide a foundation for understanding the structured settlement business and to contrast the underwriting of structured settlements with that of traditional life insurance. This is the first part of a two-part article on SS annuities. Part 2 deals with the mortality experience in SS annuitants and the life-table methodology used to calculate life expectancy for annuitants at increased mortality risk.

  5. An Analysis of the Influence of Graph Theory When Preparing for Programming Contests

    Cristina Jordán

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject known as Programming Contests in the Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Engineering course focuses on solving programming problems frequently met within contests such as the Southwest Europe Regional Contest (SWERC. In order to solve these problems one first needs to model the problem correctly, find the ideal solution, and then be able to program it without making any mistakes in a very short period of time. Leading multinationals such as Google, Apple, IBM, Facebook and Microsoft place a very high value on these abilities when selecting candidates for posts in their companies. In this communication we present some preliminary results of an analysis of the interaction between two optional subjects in the Computer Science Degree course: Programming Contests (PC and Graphs, Models and Applications (GMA. The results of this analysis enabled us to make changes to some of the contents in GMA in order to better prepare the students to deal with the challenges they have to face in programming contests.

  6. UV-green iridescence predicts male quality during jumping spider contests.

    Lim, Matthew L M; Li, Daiqin

    2013-01-01

    Animal colour signals used in intraspecies communications can generally be attributed to a composite effect of structural and pigmentary colours. Notably, the functional role of iridescent coloration that is 'purely' structural (i.e., absence of pigments) is poorly understood. Recent studies reveal that iridescent colorations can reliably indicate individual quality, but evidence of iridescence as a pure structural coloration indicative of male quality during contests and relating to an individual's resource-holding potential (RHP) is lacking. In age- and size-controlled pairwise male-male contests that escalate from visual displays of aggression to more costly physical fights, we demonstrate that the ultraviolet-green iridescence of Cosmophasis umbratica predicts individual persistence and relates to RHP. Contest initiating males exhibited significantly narrower carapace band separation (i.e., relative spectral positions of UV and green hues) than non-initiators. Asymmetries in carapace and abdomen brightness influenced overall contest duration and escalation. As losers retreated upon having reached their own persistence limits in contests that escalated to physical fights, losers with narrower carapace band separation were significantly more persistence. We propose that the carapace UV-green iridescence of C. umbratica predicts individual persistence and is indicative of a male's RHP. As the observed UV-green hues of C. umbratica are 'pure' optical products of a multilayer reflector system, we suggest that intrasexual variations in the optical properties of the scales' chitin-air-chitin microstructures are responsible for the observed differences in carapace band separations.

  7. UV-green iridescence predicts male quality during jumping spider contests.

    Matthew L M Lim

    Full Text Available Animal colour signals used in intraspecies communications can generally be attributed to a composite effect of structural and pigmentary colours. Notably, the functional role of iridescent coloration that is 'purely' structural (i.e., absence of pigments is poorly understood. Recent studies reveal that iridescent colorations can reliably indicate individual quality, but evidence of iridescence as a pure structural coloration indicative of male quality during contests and relating to an individual's resource-holding potential (RHP is lacking. In age- and size-controlled pairwise male-male contests that escalate from visual displays of aggression to more costly physical fights, we demonstrate that the ultraviolet-green iridescence of Cosmophasis umbratica predicts individual persistence and relates to RHP. Contest initiating males exhibited significantly narrower carapace band separation (i.e., relative spectral positions of UV and green hues than non-initiators. Asymmetries in carapace and abdomen brightness influenced overall contest duration and escalation. As losers retreated upon having reached their own persistence limits in contests that escalated to physical fights, losers with narrower carapace band separation were significantly more persistence. We propose that the carapace UV-green iridescence of C. umbratica predicts individual persistence and is indicative of a male's RHP. As the observed UV-green hues of C. umbratica are 'pure' optical products of a multilayer reflector system, we suggest that intrasexual variations in the optical properties of the scales' chitin-air-chitin microstructures are responsible for the observed differences in carapace band separations.

  8. The shrinking mining city: urban dynamics and contested territory.

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Wu, Chung-Tong; Schatz, Laura K; Taira, Nobuhisa; Vargas-Hernández, José G

    2012-01-01

    Shrinking mining cities — once prosperous settlements servicing a mining site or a system of mining sites — are characterized by long-term population and/or economic decline. Many of these towns experience periods of growth and shrinkage, mirroring the ebbs and flows of international mineral markets which determine the fortunes of the dominant mining corporation upon which each of these towns heavily depends. This dependence on one main industry produces a parallel development in the fluctuations of both workforce and population. Thus, the strategies of the main company in these towns can, to a great extent, determine future developments and have a great impact on urban management plans. Climate conditions, knowledge, education and health services, as well as transportation links, are important factors that have impacted on lifestyles in mining cities, but it is the parallel development with the private sector operators (often a single corporation) that constitutes the distinctive feature of these cities and that ultimately defines their shrinkage. This article discusses shrinking mining cities in capitalist economies, the factors underpinning their development, and some of the planning and community challenges faced by these cities in Australia, Canada, Japan and Mexico.

  9. Deforestation and Carbon Stock Loss in Brazil's Amazonian Settlements.

    Yanai, Aurora Miho; Nogueira, Euler Melo; de Alencastro Graça, Paulo Maurício Lima; Fearnside, Philip Martin

    2017-03-01

    We estimate deforestation and the carbon stock in 2740 (82 %) of the 3325 settlements in Brazil's Legal Amazonia region. Estimates are made both using available satellite data and a carbon map for the "pre-modern" period (prior to 1970). We used data from Brazil's Project for Monitoring Deforestation in Amazonia updated through 2013 and from the Brazilian Biomes Deforestation Monitoring Project (PMDBBS) updated through 2010. To obtain the pre-modern and recent carbon stocks we performed an intersection between a carbon map and a map derived from settlement boundaries and deforestation data. Although the settlements analyzed occupied only 8 % of Legal Amazonia, our results indicate that these settlements contributed 17 % (160,410 km 2 ) of total clearing (forest + non-forest) in Legal Amazonia (967,003 km 2 ). This represents a clear-cutting of 41 % of the original vegetation in the settlements. Out of this total, 72 % (115,634 km 2 ) was in the "Federal Settlement Project" (PA) category. Deforestation in settlements represents 20 % (2.6 Pg C) of the total carbon loss in Legal Amazonia (13.1 Pg C). The carbon stock in remaining vegetation represents 3.8 Pg C, or 6 % of the total remaining carbon stock in Legal Amazonia (58.6 Pg C) in the periods analyzed. The carbon reductions in settlements are caused both by the settlers and by external actors. Our findings suggest that agrarian reform policies contributed directly to carbon loss. Thus, the implementation of new settlements should consider potential carbon stock losses, especially if settlements are created in areas with high carbon stocks.

  10. Antidumping settlement rumors push prices up

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The NUKEM price range jumped sharply last month, ending up at $8.05-$8.70. The market took off amidst reports that price and volume quotas would be part of the antidumping settlement being negotiated by certain CIS republics and the US Department of Commerce. And the republics got no relief from the US Court of International Trade. In an opinion issues September 25, Judge Jane Restani upheld the validity of Commerce's investigation, reinforcing the rising trend in prices. The lower end of the range was established by offers of CIS origin uranium to those utilities that will not be affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. Ten deals were completed on the spot market in September. In all but one, the sellers were intermediaries

  11. The settlement of foundation of existing large structure on soft ground and investigation of its allowable settlement

    Okamoto, Toshiro

    1987-01-01

    In our laboratory a study of siting on quarternary ground is followed to make possible to construct a nuclear power plant on soil ground in Japan, a important subject is to understand bearing capacity, settlement and seismic responce of foundation. So measured data are collected about relation between ground and type of foundation, total settlement and differential settlement of already constructed large structures, and it is done to investigate the real condition and to examine allowable settlement. Investigated structures are mainly foreign nuclear power plant and domestic and foreign high buildings. The higher buildings are, the more raft foundation are for type of foundation and the higher contact pressure are to similar to a nuclear power plant. So discussion is done about mainly raft foundation. It is found that some measured maximum total settlements are larger than already proposed allowable values. So empirical allowable settlement is derived from measured values considering the effect of the width of base slab, contact pressure and foundation ground. Differential settlement is investigated about relation to maximum total settlement, and is formulated considering the width and the rigidity of base slab. Beside the limit of differential settlement is obtained as foundation is damaged, and the limit of maximum total settlement is obtained by combining this and above mentioned relation. Obtained allowable value is largely influenced by the width of base slab, and becomes less severe than some already proposed values. So it is expected that deformation of foundation is rationaly investigated when large structure as nuclear power plant is constructed on soft ground. (author)

  12. Homeostatic study of the effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome

    Yuan, Jian-Qin; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi; Wu, Ren-Le; Ruan, Chang-Xiong; He, Li-Mei; Liu, Song-Hao

    2008-12-01

    There are effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome. It has been explained from the psychological and perceptual viewpoints, respectively. It was studied by integrating the homeostatic theory of exercise training and autonomic nervous model of color vision in this paper. It was found that the effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome depend on autonomic nervous homeostasis (ANH). Color can be classified into hot color such as red, orange and yellow and cold color such as green, blue and violet. If the athletes have been in ANH, there are no effects of sportswear color on the contest outcome. If the autonomic nervous system is far from ANH due to exercise induced fatigue, wearing cold color had no predominance for cold-hot matches, and wearing white had no predominance for white-color matches.

  13. The first mathematical models of dynamic meteorology: The Berlin prize contest of 1746

    Egger, J.; Pelkowski, J. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.

    2008-02-15

    The first models of dynamic meteorology were published in 1747 as a result of a prize contest of the Academy of Prussia. The topic of the contest concerned the determination of the winds 'if the Earth were surrounded everywhere by an ocean'. D'Alembert formulated a shallow water model for the first time in his prize-winning contribution and attempted to calculate tidal motions within the fluid layers. Daniel Bernoulli viewed the atmosphere as a boundary layer wherein the winds rotating with the earth at low elevations have to adjust their motion to a solar atmosphere at large heights. He is first in applying the principle of angular momentum conservation in continuum geophysics when calculating the zonal wind profile. An account of the historical background of the contest is given, as well as some later reactions to d'Alembert's solution. (orig.)

  14. Population issues surface at human settlements conference.

    1996-01-01

    This news brief focuses on the debate about population issues at the UN Conference on Human Settlements, held in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 1996. The Istanbul Declaration on Human Settlements was adopted by world leaders at the conference. Leaders were committed to programs to improve standards of living, the right of citizens to adequate housing, and the mobilization of new financial resources. Dr. Sadik, as Executive Director of the UN Population Fund, stressed that natural increase accounts for 60% of urban population growth. Mr. Boutros Boutros-Ghali, as UN Secretary General, stressed that over 50% of world population would live in urban centers by the year 2000, and almost 75% might do so by 2025. He indicated that all nations are interrelated; the poor and refugees from political conflict from one country travel to safer and richer countries. Dr. Sadik referred to the agreement at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) on stabilizing world population in the shortest time possible. This would require meeting the needs of men and women for health, education, and the power of personal decision making. The most important item was the satisfaction of women's need for reproductive health information and services and women's power to use services. Dr. Sadik urged that women be given the right to hold and inherit property and to obtain credit. It was pointed out that the language of Habitat's plan of action on population and development issues was frequently bracketed; consequently, the plan suffered from a lack of consensus. The debate between countries would end, if the language were not bracketed. Dr. Sadik recommended family planning for developing sustainable and liveable cities.

  15. Oil and gas development on the Metis settlements of Alberta

    Ghostkeeper, E.N. [Metis Settlements General Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Goldie, D. [First Street Law Office, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the Alberta Metis Settlements. In 1990, the Metis Settlement Act defined the Metis as a people of Aboriginal ancestry. The mandate of the Alberta Federation of Metis Settlement Associations is to protect settlement lands, and to take legal action against the province for alleged improper handling of subsurface resource revenues regarding the Metis Population Betterment Trust Fund. The Federation also attains local government authority for the Settlements. The Metis resources include game farming and alternative livestock, oil and gas, diamonds, forestry, and agriculture. The main source of economic development is in the oil and gas sector. Before the 1990 Metis Settlement Accord, the only money earned by the Metis from oil and gas development was through employment and surface rights compensation. No benefits were derived from royalties or participation. Since 1990, 265 wells have been drilled on settlement lands, with participation of the Metis General Council in 136 wells. This paper presents the terms of the Metis Development Agreement with reference to: royalties; General Council's participation rights; operating procedures; disposition of production; and, general matters. 6 figs.

  16. Modern tendencies in developing net of settlements of municipality Smederevo

    Tošić Dragutin S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Net of settlements of municipality Smederevo consists of Smederevo city and 26 rural settlements. It is a subsystem of the Belgrade metropolitan region. It has 120,000 inhabitants, and 70,000 of them live in town. From 1960 to 2000 it passes through phase of intensive demographic and functional transformation. Processes of demographic redistribution, deagrarization and urbanization are especially emphasized, caused by polarization influence of Smederevo city. From 1960 to 1980 population was developing by natural and migration components, but in villages occurred emigration of young population and caused increased average of older people and intensive decrease of population growth, which became negative. Demographic growth occurs only in periurban settlements, while stagnation and depopulation are typical for other settlements. Process of functional transformation of settlements is apparent also. Relative single functionality with dominant industry and slow diversification function are characteristic for Smederevo city, while villages are transforming from pure rural to rural-industrial and rural-obliging. It caused their progressive urbanization that is especially expressed in periurban settlements and along main traffic communications. In following period the aim is demographic and functional decentralization of net of settlements, by taking planning measures according to the model of center of villages group.

  17. Research protocol: a realist synthesis of contestability in community-based mental health markets.

    Durham, Jo; Bains, Amara

    2015-03-25

    In most developed nations, there has been a shift from public services to a marketisation of public goods and services - representing a significant reform process aiming to transform the way in which community-based human services, such as health, are delivered and consumed. For services, this means developing the capacity to adapt and innovate in response to changing circumstances to achieve quality. The availability of rigorous research to demonstrate whether a market approach and contestability, in particular, is a coherent reform process is largely absent. Contestability operates on the premise that better procurement processes allow more providers to enter the market and compete for contracts. This is expected to create stimulus for greater efficiencies, innovation and improved service delivery to consumers. There is limited understanding, however, about how community-based providers morph and re-configure in response to the opportunities posed by contestability. This study focuses on the effect of a contestability policy on the community-managed mental health sector. A realist review will be undertaken to understand how and why the introduction of contestability into a previously incontestable market influences the ways in which community-based mental health providers respond to contestability. The review will investigate those circumstances that shape organisational response and generate outcomes through activating mechanisms. An early scoping has helped to formulate the initial program theory. A realist synthesis will be undertaken to identify relevant journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the emerging contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes and their configurations. The analysis will seek patterns and regularities in these configurations across the extracted data and will focus on addressing our theory-based questions. Increasingly, community-based mental health markets are moving to contestability models. Rigorous

  18. A Comparison between the Swedish 3G Beauty Contest and the UK 3G Auction

    Welin, Erik

    2006-01-01

    This thesis compares the two different version of public franchise bidding for awarding 3G licenses used in Sweden and the UK, respectively a beauty contest and an auction. The fact is that the Swedish beauty contest has failed to tackle many of the problems discussed in connection with public franchise bidding in an effective way. Sweden has first of all had problems with enforcing the ambitious coverage criteria. The UK has on the other hand succeeded in tackling the problems and raised gov...

  19. "In and against the Museum": The Contested Spaces of Museum Education for Adults

    Grek, Sotiria

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on museum and gallery education for adults in Dundee, Scotland. Dundee has recently experienced a shift from being mainly working class to an educational, cultural and tourist centre. Hence, an interesting field for the examination of the educational policies and practices of the city museums/galleries and the different fashions…

  20. Cooperative conflict and contested space: a case study of risk and safety in the steel industry.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation is a journey into the world of risk and safety in the steel industry. The problem statement that is explored in this study relates to the nature of the relationship between safety performance and stakeholders in the steel industry, the nature of the relationships between different stakeholders and the way in which these relationships impact on risk management strategies. The author contends that safety is not a normative or procedural system within the workplace, but rather ...

  1. Adapt or Perish: Aeromedical Evacuation in the Contested Air Space of the Pacific Theater

    2016-08-01

    British Citizenship .57 These examples aside, and in most cases, due to the realist nature of most states and the anarchistic way of the world, the...Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments, 2003. Kubrick, Stanley. Full Metal Jacket. Warner Bros. 118 min., 1987. Digital Video Disk. Lowe

  2. Canoe Pedagogy and Colonial History: Exploring Contested Spaces of Outdoor Environmental Education

    Newbery, Liz

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I explore how histories of colonialism are integral to the Euro-Western idea of wilderness at the heart of much outdoor environmental education. In the context of canoe tripping, I speculate about why the politics of land rarely enters into teaching on the land. Finally, because learning from difficult knowledge often troubles the…

  3. Will Gender Equality Ever Fit In? Contested Discursive Spaces of University Reform

    Kreissl, Katharina; Striedinger, Angelika; Sauer, Birgit; Hofbauer, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other European countries, the introduction of non-academic, especially managerial, criteria in higher education has shaped and altered Austrian universities since over a decade. This paper presents the results of a frame analysis of Austrian higher education debates from 1993 until 2010. It outlines how reforms in higher education were…

  4. Responsible leadership:interweaving personal and public in pluralistic, contested space

    Tams, Svenja; Marshall, J A

    2010-01-01

    We examine the notion of responsible leadership. Consistent with the contextual ‘turn’ in mainstream leadership literature, we argue that theorising about responsible leadership needs to consider responsible business practices associally constructed and interpreted differently across individuals, organizations, institutional fields and the wider political, economic and socio-cultural context. We position responsible leadership with regards to discourses about ethical conduct, corporate respon...

  5. Contested Spaces of Transitional Justice : Legal Empowerment in Global Post-Conflict Contexts Revisited

    Kurze, Arnaud; Lamont, Christopher; Robins, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This article critically examines the concept of legal empowerment as it has been used with reference to transitional justice, mapping its rise and impact based on a selection of case studies. In recent decades, international transitional justice advocacy has evolved dramatically, with practice

  6. Local Agenda 21. Settlement pattern and energy for transportation and heating

    Orderud, Geir Inge

    1998-01-01

    This document deals with Local Agenda 21 (LA21) and the relationship between settlement pattern and the consumption of energy in transportation and heating of houses. Local Agenda 21 originates from the Earth Summit held in Rio in 1992 and draws up the strategies by which the local communities should participate in realizing the recommendations of the summit. So far much of the research around LA21 has examined how well the individual countries that ratified the Rio document have fulfilled the recommendations of Article 28 on local responsibility. From the point of view of research, however, the challenge is rather to investigate the conditions for realizing the broad participation of the people. From the administrative point of view, the important issue is the relationship between the representative channels and the direct participation of local people in the decision processes, as well as the delegation of decision-making authority from national to regional or local level. One recommendation in Agenda 21 is to emit less greenhouse gases. In this connection, a central issue is transportation, which is affected by the settlement pattern. A denser settlement within an urban area is supposed to reduce the transportation and the use of private cars. Thus the local development and area policy is a topic of current interest in the study of how LA21 works locally, especially so because sparsely built-up areas with single family houses are considered as the good way of living. Densely populated urban areas may conflict with the need for arable land and green space. LA 21 and the settlement pattern are both parts of a larger social environment and it is important know these relationships when local measures and actions are analysed. The possibility of a sustainable development must be assessed in relation to the fact that more power is gathered in the global flow of capital. 26 refs

  7. Improved Mapping of Human Population and Settlements through Integration of Remote Sensing and Socioeconomic Data

    de Sherbinin, A. M.; Yetman, G.; MacManus, K.; Vinay, S.

    2017-12-01

    The diversity of data on human settlements, infrastructure, and population continues to grow rapidly, with recent releases of data products based on a range of different remote sensing data sources as well as census and administrative data. We report here on recent improvements in data from the NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) and partner organizations, aimed at supporting both interdisciplinary research and real-world applications. The fourth version of SEDAC's Gridded Population of the World (GPWv4) now includes variables for age categories, gender, and urban/rural location, and has also been integrated with the Global Human Settlements (GHS) data developed by the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission to produce a GHS-POP grid for the years 1975, 1990, 2000 and 2015. Through a collaboration between Facebook's Connectivity Lab and the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), High Resolution Settlement Layer (HRSL) data derived from 50-cm DigitalGlobe imagery are now available for selected developing countries at 30-m resolution. SEDAC is also developing interactive mapping and analysis tools to facilitate visualization and access to these often large and complex data products. For example, SEDAC has collaborated with scientists from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center to release the Global Man-made Impervious Surfaces & Settlement Extents from Landsat data at 30-m resolution through an innovative map interface. We also summarize recent progress in developing an international data collective that is bringing together both data developers and data users from the public and private sectors to collaborate on expanding data access and use, improving data quality and documentation, facilitating data intercomparison and integration, and sharing of resources and capabilities.

  8. METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR MODELING THE RURAL SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT

    Gorbenkova Elena Vladimirovna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Subject: the paper describes the research results on validation of a rural settlement developmental model. The basic methods and approaches for solving the problem of assessment of the urban and rural settlement development efficiency are considered. Research objectives: determination of methodological approaches to modeling and creating a model for the development of rural settlements. Materials and methods: domestic and foreign experience in modeling the territorial development of urban and rural settlements and settlement structures was generalized. The motivation for using the Pentagon-model for solving similar problems was demonstrated. Based on a systematic analysis of existing development models of urban and rural settlements as well as the authors-developed method for assessing the level of agro-towns development, the systems/factors that are necessary for a rural settlement sustainable development are identified. Results: we created the rural development model which consists of five major systems that include critical factors essential for achieving a sustainable development of a settlement system: ecological system, economic system, administrative system, anthropogenic (physical system and social system (supra-structure. The methodological approaches for creating an evaluation model of rural settlements development were revealed; the basic motivating factors that provide interrelations of systems were determined; the critical factors for each subsystem were identified and substantiated. Such an approach was justified by the composition of tasks for territorial planning of the local and state administration levels. The feasibility of applying the basic Pentagon-model, which was successfully used for solving the analogous problems of sustainable development, was shown. Conclusions: the resulting model can be used for identifying and substantiating the critical factors for rural sustainable development and also become the basis of

  9. Factors influencing mode of claims settlement in workers' compensation cases.

    Morrison, D L; Wood, G A; MacDonald, S

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the variables that influence the means by which 10,192 injured workers settled their compensation claims during 1990. The data on which this study is based come from a state in Australia where there are three means by which workers' compensation claims can be settled by lump sum payment: settlement following a specific injury payment, early settlement payment and settlement following a common law payment. This paper is specifically concerned with identifying the variables that determine whether the claim will be settled by a lump sum payment and whether different modes of claims settlement by lump sum are unique and predictable from a range of variables that include injury characteristics and demographics. The results of logistic regression modelling revealed that those who received a lump sum settlement could be reliably distinguished from those who did not receive such a payment. Each mode of settlement varied in the extent to which it could be predicted. Contrary to expectations, the most difficult form of settlement mode to predict was that of specific injury payments (4% accurate) with the most predictive being early settlement payments (81% accurate). Common law payments were also highly predictable (48% accurate). The form of lump sum payment received by injured workers was found to depend on a range of injury characteristics, indices of severity and for common law payments, gender and potential income loss. It is argued that although injury characteristics play a part in the process of claims settlement, personal circumstances and insurance company policies are influential in dictating the form by which workers compensation cases are finalized.

  10. Settlement of Canisters with smectite clay envelopes in deposition holes

    Pusch, R.

    1986-12-01

    Settlement of canisters containing radioactive waste and being surrounded by dense smectite clay is caused by the stresses and heat induced in the clay. Consolidation by water expulsion of the clay underlying a model canister with 5 cm diameter and 30 cm length would theoretically account for a maximum finite settlement of about 70 my m in a few weeks, while shear-induced creep would yield a settlement of only a few microns in the same time period. These predictions were checked by running a laboratory test in which a dead load of 80 kg was applied to a small cylindrical copper canister embedded in Na bentonite. The settlement, which increased in proportion to log time, turned out to be about 6 my m in the first 2.5 months. After the first loading period at room temperature, heating to 50 degrees C and, after a 4 months long 'room temperature' period, to 70 degrees C took place. This cycling gave strong, instant settlement and upheaval because of the different thermal expansion of the interacting components of the system. After the development of constant temperature conditions in the entire system and completion of the consolidation or expansion that followed from the thermo-mechanical interactions, the settlement proceeded at a rather high rate at 70 degrees C, still following a log time creep law, but with somewhat stronger retardation. At room temperature, i.e. in the post-heating periods, the settlement seemed to cease, on the other hand. The conclusion from the study is that the canister movements under isothermal conditions were in accordance with the log t-type creep settlement that was predicted in theoretical grounds. Pre-heating and low stresses may account for extraordinary retardation of the settlement. (author)

  11. 78 FR 21180 - Announcement of the 2013 SBA-Visa Export Video Contest Under the America COMPETES Reauthorization...

    2013-04-09

    ... submitted per business. Videos must not contain violence, profanity, sex, images of a prurient nature, or... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Announcement of the 2013 SBA-Visa Export Video Contest Under the... the ``Cosponsors'') announce a video contest for eligible small businesses to showcase the advantages...

  12. Positive Affect Relevant to Epistemic Curiosity to Reflect Continuance Intention to Join a Hands-On Making Contest

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Szeto, Elson; Tai, Kai-Hsin; Tsai, Chi-Ruei

    2016-01-01

    Hands-on making (e.g., "Maker") has become prevalent in current educational settings. To understand the role that students' epistemic curiosity plays in hands-on making contests, this study explored its correlation to students' positive affect and continuance intention to participate in a hands-on making contest called…

  13. Mathematical Modeling in the People's Republic of China--Indicators of Participation and Performance on COMAP's Modeling Contest

    Tian, Xiaoxi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Mainland Chinese teams have been the dominant participants in the two COMAP-sponsored mathematical modeling competitions: the Mathematical Contest in Modeling (MCM) and the Interdisciplinary Contest in Modeling (ICM). This study examines five factors that lead to the Chinese teams' dramatic increase in participation rate and…

  14. Understanding Fear of Opportunism in Global Prize-Based Science Contests: Evidence for Gender and Age Differences.

    Acar, Oguz Ali; van den Ende, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Global prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure, however, is paradoxical in nature: in order for the value of knowledge to be assessed, inventors must disclose their knowledge, but then the person who receives that knowledge does so at no cost and may use it opportunistically. This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure. In this project, we investigated this fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests by surveying 630 contest participants in the InnoCentive online platform for science contests. We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge. Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.

  15. Understanding fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests : Evidence for gender and age differences

    O.A. Acar (Oguz); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractGlobal prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure,

  16. Understanding Fear of Opportunism in Global Prize-Based Science Contests: Evidence for Gender and Age Differences.

    Oguz Ali Acar

    Full Text Available Global prize-based science contests have great potential for tapping into diverse knowledge on a global scale and overcoming important scientific challenges. A necessary step for knowledge to be utilized in these contests is for that knowledge to be disclosed. Knowledge disclosure, however, is paradoxical in nature: in order for the value of knowledge to be assessed, inventors must disclose their knowledge, but then the person who receives that knowledge does so at no cost and may use it opportunistically. This risk of potential opportunistic behavior in turn makes the inventor fearful of disclosing knowledge, and this is a major psychological barrier to knowledge disclosure. In this project, we investigated this fear of opportunism in global prize-based science contests by surveying 630 contest participants in the InnoCentive online platform for science contests. We found that participants in these science contests experience fear of opportunism to varying degrees, and that women and older participants have significantly less fear of disclosing their scientific knowledge. Our findings highlight the importance of taking differences in such fears into account when designing global prize-based contests so that the potential of the contests for reaching solutions to important and challenging problems can be used more effectively.

  17. Open Data for Global Multimodal Land Use Classification: Outcome of the 2017 IEEE GRSS Data Fusion Contest

    Yokoya, Naoto; Ghamisi, Pedram; Xia, Junshi; Sukhanov, Sergey; Heremans, Roel; Tankoyeu, Ivan; Bechtel, Benjamin; Saux, Le Bertrand; Moser, Gabriele; Tuia, Devis

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present the scientific outcomes of the 2017 Data Fusion Contest organized by the Image Analysis and Data Fusion Technical Committee of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society. The 2017 Contest was aimed at addressing the problem of local climate zones classification based on

  18. Critical Trajectories for the Human Settlement of the High Frontier

    Valentine, Lee S.

    2007-02-01

    If preservation and prosperity of humanity on the Earth and human settlement of space are our goals, we should concentrate on a commercial path to get there. Commercial enterprise has a long history of fortuitously aiding scientific progress. We expect radical changes in the cost of earth to orbit transportation, and in the methods and efficacy of deep space transportation, within the next two decades. A successful space tourism industry, beginning with suborbital tourism, will greatly drive down the cost of access to orbit over the next 15 years. Inexpensive transportation to low Earth orbit is the first requirement for a great future on the High Frontier. Inexpensive means the cost associated with a mature transportation system. A mature system has a cost of three to five times the cost of the propellant. The first cheap, reliable and highly reusable rocket engines are just now appearing in vehicles. With an assured market and high flight rate, the heretofore glacial progress in reducing the cost of space transportation is likely to become rapid. This is the first critical enabling example of synergy between free market economics and scientific and technical progress in space. It will not be the last. New high power switches and ultracapacitors developed for the automotive market make possible cheap, robust and reliable mass driver engines. In space construction, using masses of nonterrestrial materials make the gravity tractor technique much more capable than previous schemes to maneuver asteroids. Ion propulsion will continue to improve and the first solar sails will be flown. Advanced robotics will allow remarkable improvements in productivity. The computing power available to robots began to follow the exponential Moore's law less than decade ago. The first commercial autonomous mobile robots appeared in late summer 2006. Humans, however, will be required for the foreseeable future in repair and supervisory roles, particularly in unstructured settings such as

  19. Types of population dynamics in settlements of Zaplanje area

    Martinović Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the main directions of changes in the spatial-demographic settlements organization of Zaplanje, which, due to rapid demographic recession since the 60s of the 20th century, is the strongest depopulation area with the oldest population in Serbia. This research aims is to determine the main types of changes in demographic development of the settlements and indirectly reveals key issues of the sustainable development of Zaplanje settlements and revitalization of villages. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  20. Microscale atmospheric pollution of Pogranichny settlement (Primorsky region, Russia)

    Kholodov, Aleksei; Ugay, Sergey; Drozd, Vladimir; Agoshkov, Alexander; Golokhvast, Kirill

    2017-10-01

    The paper discusses the study of atmospheric particulate matter in the small urban settlement Pogranichny by means of laser granulometry of snow water. The atmosphere of this settlement is polluted with particles under 10 μm (PM10) to a certain extent. We found microparticles potentially hazardous to health in significant quantities (from 176.3% to 24.9%) in 4 sampling points out of 9. Large particles (sized over 400 μm) dominate on the most territory of the settlement reaching 78.1%.

  1. The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil

    Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper......, the behavior of a piled raft on undrained soil is studied based on a series of parametric studies on the average and differential settlement of piled raft using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The settlement behavior is found to be dependent on the number of piles and raft thickness....

  2. Settlements and the future Ontario wholesale electricity market

    Kozlik, K.

    1998-01-01

    Settlement system processes which are likely to be in place in Ontario's new deregulated electricity market are discussed. Electricity settlements, i. e. the collection of metered and operational data, the processing of that data to ensure its integrity, the analysis of the data, the determination of payment, and the administration of the required transfer of funds, are analyzed. Some of the actions that those processes will require of prospective wholesale market participants are outlined. The paper also explains why it is that the settlement processes drove certain pivotal market design decisions

  3. Contesting restrictive mobility norms among female mentors implementing a sport based programme for young girls in a Mumbai slum.

    Bankar, Shweta; Collumbien, Martine; Das, Madhumita; Verma, Ravi K; Cislaghi, Beniamino; Heise, Lori

    2018-04-10

    Harmful gender norms are known structural barriers to many public health and development interventions involving adolescent girls. In India, restrictions on girls' liberty to move freely in public spaces contribute to school dropout and early marriage, and negatively affect girls' health and wellbeing, from adolescence into adulthood. We report on mechanisms of change among female mentors 18 to 24 years old who contested discriminatory norms while implementing a sports-based programme for adolescent girls in a Mumbai slum. We adopted a prospective qualitative research design. Our analysis is based on case studies derived from two rounds of face to face, in -depth interviews with 10 young women recruited to serve as mentors for the project's young female athletes. We combined both thematic and narrative analysis. The programme created opportunities for collective action, increasing mentors' ability to think and relate in a collectivized manner, and challenged the traditional female identity constructed for young women, which centres on domestic duties. The mentors themselves negotiated freedoms both in and outside their homes, which required careful and strategic bargaining. They changed the nature of key day-to-day social interactions with parents and brothers, as well as with neighbours, parents of their groups of athletes and men on the streets. They formed a new reference group for each other in terms of what was possible and acceptable. Demonstrating greater negotiation skills within the family helped win parents' trust in the mentor's ability to be safe in public spaces. Parents became active supporters by not giving into social sanctions of neighbours and relatives thus co-producing a new identity for their daughters as respectable young women doing 'good work'. They effectively side stepped reputational risk with their presence in public spaces becoming de-sexualised. Mentors contested mobility restrictions by taking risks as a group first, with collective

  4. Evidence for the influence of the mere-exposure effect on voting in the Eurovision Song Contest

    Diarmuid B. Verrier

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mere exposure, or familiarity, effect is the tendency for people to feel more positive about stimuli to which they have previously been exposed. The Eurovision Song Contest is a two-stage event, in which some contestants in the final will be more familiar to viewers than others. Thus, viewers' voting is likely to be influenced by this effect. Previous work attempting to demonstrate this effect in this context has been unable to control for contestant quality. The current study, which used a novel procedure to analyse the way in which contestant countries distributed their points (a function of how viewers voted in those countries between 2008 and 2011, showed that contestants did better if they previously appeared in a semifinal that was seen by voters. This is evidence that the mere exposure effect, alongside previously studied factors such as cultural and geographical closeness, influences the way viewers vote in the Eurovision.

  5. 26 CFR 157.5891-1 - Imposition of excise tax on structured settlement factoring transactions.

    2010-04-01

    ... settlement factoring transactions. 157.5891-1 Section 157.5891-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... SETTLEMENT FACTORING TRANSACTIONS Tax on Structured Settlement Factoring Transactions § 157.5891-1 Imposition of excise tax on structured settlement factoring transactions. (a) In general. Section 5891 imposes...

  6. 11 CFR 116.7 - Debt settlement plans filed by terminating committees; Commission review.

    2010-01-01

    ... description of the terms under which the creditor has extended credit to nonpolitical debtors of similar risk... settlement plan after the creditors included in the debt settlement plan have agreed to the settlement or... payments to the creditors included in the debt settlement plan until completion of Commission review. The...

  7. Frontier spaces

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg; Lund, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The global expansion of markets produces frontiers of contestation over the definition and control of resources. In a frontier context, new patterns of resource exploration, extraction, and commodification create new territories. A recently published collection (Rasmussen and Lund 2018) explores...

  8. Causes of informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality: An exploration

    Noah K. Marutlulle

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to explore the causes of informal settlements in Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Municipality (EMM. The article strongly challenges the view that the cause of informal settlements in EMM and other parts of South Africa is predominantly the apartheid government and agrees with literature which provides evidence that to a larger extent, the present government, not the apartheid government, is one of the dominant causes of informal settlements. The article further establishes a common and fertile ground for the convergence of the different views and perspectives into variables which, in addition to the present government, include population growth, government economic policies, economic variables, housing shortage, unavailability of land and unaffordability as the real causes of informal settlements in EMM.

  9. Foundation Settlement Prediction Based on a Novel NGM Model

    Peng-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of foundation or subgrade settlement is very important during engineering construction. According to the fact that there are lots of settlement-time sequences with a nonhomogeneous index trend, a novel grey forecasting model called NGM (1,1,k,c model is proposed in this paper. With an optimized whitenization differential equation, the proposed NGM (1,1,k,c model has the property of white exponential law coincidence and can predict a pure nonhomogeneous index sequence precisely. We used two case studies to verify the predictive effect of NGM (1,1,k,c model for settlement prediction. The results show that this model can achieve excellent prediction accuracy; thus, the model is quite suitable for simulation and prediction of approximate nonhomogeneous index sequence and has excellent application value in settlement prediction.

  10. The Proposed Tobacco Settlement: Issues from a Federal Perspective

    Antos, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    ..., sold, and consumed in the United States. That settlement would impose large payments on the tobacco industry, strengthen regulatory controls, and expand public health initiatives to reduce cigarette smoking...

  11. Current methodologies for assessing seismically induced settlements in soil

    Ledbetter, R.

    1983-08-01

    Earthquake-induced surface settlements have ranged from 0.7 to 10 percent of layer thickness for the relatively few incidences where reliable estimates have been made of settlement magnitudes and soil conditions. Standard penetration test results obtained for pre-earthquake and postearthquake conditions in Japan show that relative densities have changed from 188 percent increase to 44 percent decrease. At present, there are no verified methods of seismic settlement analysis. However, there are current methods of analysis ranging from empirical to fully theoretical, which take into account a few to all of the major variables affecting seismically induced settlement behavior. This report reviews pertinent current knowledge and methodologies related to this subject. 69 references, 9 figures

  12. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems in general and on biobarriers in particular

  13. 32 CFR 842.129 - Settlement of claims against NAFIs.

    2010-07-01

    ... LITIGATION ADMINISTRATIVE CLAIMS Nonappropriated Fund Claims § 842.129 Settlement of claims against NAFIs. (a) This subpart does not establish legal theories for adjudication of claims. Refer to the appropriate...

  14. FEATURES OF WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT. THE STANDING OF THE EU

    Costin Horia Rogoveanu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The WTO has an innovative system of dispute settlement, with the following features: sui-generis, integrated, resolving the disputes according to the WTO agreements, excluding unilateral solutions, interstate system. These features are detailed in the present article. Another level of analysis concerns the standing of the EU in the WTO, in general, and in the Geneva proceedings for dispute settlement, in particular. Generated by the quality of the European Communities statute as an original member of the Organisation, the EU has become one of the main users of the WTO dispute settlement system. One of the main challenges of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism is the implementation of decisions. In view of the cases assessed, while the execution record of the EU is a quite satisfactory one, it is apparent that implementation of decisions in more intricate cases creates difficulties at the Union level.

  15. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    Abeele, W.V.

    1985-01-01

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems, in general, and on biobarriers, in particular. 16 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  16. 31 CFR 248.7 - Claims requiring settlement action.

    2010-07-01

    ...) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE ISSUE OF SUBSTITUTES OF LOST... claimant and transmit such data to the Claims Division, General Accounting Office, for settlement action. ...

  17. Coastal environments around Thule settlements in Northeast Greenland

    Kroon, Aart; Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2010-01-01

    Inuit have travelled to and settled in the coastal landscapes of Northeast Greenland for several longer periods during the latest ca. 4500 years. Most recently the Thule culture Inuit lived in the region from around 1400 until 1850 AD. The access to partly and periodically ice covered near coastal...... waters has been crucial to the primarily marine based subsistence strategy of the Thule Inuit culture, and their settlements are therefore found immediately at the coast. Changing geological and geomorphologic settings strongly influence the coastal morphodynamics, and only specific locations offer...... stable and protected conditions needed for proper winter settlements. The comprehensive study of coastal environments and Thule culture winter settlements in the Young Sound region show an accumulation of winter settlements, nearly all located either in protected pocket beaches or on stable basalt capes...

  18. 48 CFR 49.109-7 - Settlement by determination.

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.109-7 Settlement by determination. (a... determination of the amount due consistent with the termination clause, including any cost principles...

  19. 32 CFR 750.10 - Claims: Settlement and release.

    2010-07-01

    ... amount in full settlement and final satisfaction of the claim. In the latter instance, no payment will be... employee of the Government whose act or omission gave rise to the claim. [57 FR 4722, Feb. 7, 1992, as...

  20. 48 CFR 49.206-1 - Submission of settlement proposals.

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting data. Actual, standard (appropriately adjusted), or average costs may be used in preparing settlement proposals if they are determined under generally recognized accounting principles consistently... not be required to maintain unduly elaborate cost accounting systems merely because their contracts...