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Sample records for space radio astronomy

  1. The first radio astronomy from space - RAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, M. L.

    1987-01-01

    The spacecraft design, instrumentation, and performance of the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) satellites (RAE-1 launched to earth orbit in 1968 and RAE-2 launched to lunar orbit in 1972) are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs of typical data. Consideration is given to the three pairs of antennas, the Ryle-Vonberg and burst radiometers, and problems encountered with antenna deployment and observing patterns. Results summarized include observations of type III solar bursts, the spectral distribution of cosmic noise in broad sky regions, Jupiter at low frequencies, and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) from the earth. The importance of avoiding the AKR bands in designing future space observatories is stressed.

  2. First radio astronomy from space - RAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The spacecraft design, instrumentation, and performance of the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) satellites (RAE-1 launched to earth orbit in 1968 and RAE-2 launched to lunar orbit in 1972) are reviewed and illustrated with drawings, diagrams, and graphs of typical data. Consideration is given to the three pairs of antennas, the Ryle-Vonberg and burst radiometers, and problems encountered with antenna deployment and observing patterns. Results summarized include observations of type III solar bursts, the spectral distribution of cosmic noise in broad sky regions, Jupiter at low frequencies, and auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) from the earth. The importance of avoiding the AKR bands in designing future space observatories is stressed. 11 references

  3. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parijskij, Y.N.; Gossachinskij, I.V.; Zuckerman, B.; Khersonsky, V.K.; Pustilnik, S.; Robinson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    A critical review of major developments and discoveries in the field of radioastronomy during the period 1973-1975 is presented. The report is presented under the following headings:(1) Continuum radiation from the Galaxy; (2) Neutral hydrogen, 21 cm (galactic and extragalactic) and recombination lines; (3) Radioastronomy investigations of interstellar molecules; (4) Extragalactic radio astronomy and (6) Development in radio astronomy instruments. (B.R.H.)

  4. Daris, a low-frequency distributed aperture array for radio astronomy in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.J.; Saks, N.; Bentum, Marinus Jan; van 't Klooster, K.; Falcke, H.

    2010-01-01

    DARIS (Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy in Space) is a radio astronomy space mission concept aimed at observing the low-frequency radio sky in the range 1-10 MHz. Because of the Earth's ionospheric disturbances and opaqueness, this frequency range can only be observed from space. The

  5. Radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Alder, Berni

    1975-01-01

    Methods in Computational Physics, Volume 14: Radio Astronomy is devoted to the role of the digital computer both as a control device and as a calculator in addressing problems related to galactic radio noise. This volume contains four chapters and begins with a technical description of the hardware and the special data-handling problems of using radioheliography, with an emphasis on a selection of observational results obtained with the Culgoora radioheliograph and their significance to solar physics and to astrophysics in general. The subsequent chapter examines interstellar dispersion, i

  6. The significance of radio astronomy for space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geschwinde, H.; Pilz, M.

    1982-01-01

    The age of radio astronomy started in the thirties with the discovery of radio emissions at a wavelength of 16.7 m from the milky way by the American Scientist Jansky. The first surprizing results however have been obtained with improved techniques not until world war II. With the large telescope in Jodrell Bank, English scientists discovered the 21 cm spectral line of neutral atomic hydrogen in 1951. (orig.) [de

  7. Radio astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagnibeda, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    The history of radio astronomical observations at the Astronomical Observatory of Leningrad State University is reviewed. Various facilities are described, and methods and instruments used are discussed. Some results are summarized for radio observations of the sun, including observations of local sources of solar radio emission, the absolute solar radio flux, and radio emission from filaments and prominences.

  8. The RFI situation for a space-based low-frequency radio astronomy instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Space based ultra-long wavelength radio astronomy has recently gained a lot of interest. Techniques to open the virtually unexplored frequency band below 30 MHz are becoming within reach at this moment. Due to the ionosphere and the radio interference (RFI) on Earth exploring this frequency band

  9. Molecules in Space: A Chemistry lab using Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekberg, M. J.; Pratap, P.

    2000-12-01

    We present the results of a laboratory exercise developed with the support of the NSF Research Experiences for Teachers program at MIT Haystack Observatory. The exercise takes the students beyond the traditional test tubes of a chemistry laboratory into the interstellar medium, where the same principles that they study about in the classroom are found to hold. It also utilizes the true multi-disciplinary nature of radio astronomy and allows the students to realize how much can be learnt by studying the universe at various wavelengths. The astronomical chemistry laboratory is presented wherein students from Chelmsford High School in Massachusetts operate the 37-m telescope at Haystack Observatory via the internet to observe radio signals from galactic chemicals. The laboratory is designed to be the means by which students witness physical evidence for molecular and orbital shapes by observing the radio emission from rotating dipoles. The laboratory described is a lynch pin activity for an integrated unit that moves from the valance shell electron configurations through molecular and orbital geometry to an understanding that many physical and chemical properties of chemicals are ultimately dependent upon the shape/geometry and consequently, dipole of the molecule. Students are expected to interpret and evaluate the nature of molecular dipoles and account for the diversity of rotational spectra using their conceptual knowledge of bonding orbital theory and their knowledge of the electronic atom. Flexibility in the lab allows students to identify individual chemicals by cross referencing radio emission from the galactic sources they have chosen against a prepared catalogue listing or by choosing to "listen" for specific chemicals at exact frequencies. A teacher resource manual containing information and data on a variety of daytime galactic source and individual chemical flux densities of molecular candidates has been prepared. Collaborative exercises and activities

  10. Radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It is shown how some of the main areas of current CSIRO radioastronomy research are contributing to increasing our knowledge of the universe. The survey includes background astronomy, interstellar gas, the Sun, exploding stars and pulsars, galaxies and quasars. The Australia Telescope and other CSIRO research programs are described

  11. Applications of Microwave Photonics in Radio Astronomy and Space Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Shillue, William P.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of narrow band vs wide band signals is given. Topics discussed included signal transmission, reference distribution and photonic antenna metrology. Examples of VLA, ALMA, ATA and DSN arrays are given. . Arrays of small antennas have become more cost-effective than large antennas for achieving large total aperture or gain, both for astronomy and for communication. It is concluded that emerging applications involving arrays of many antennas require low-cost optical communication of both wide bandwidth and narrow bandwidth; development of round-trip correction schemes enables timing precision; and free-space laser beams with microwave modulation allow structural metrology with approx 100 micrometer precision over distances of 200 meters.

  12. Enhancing the Radio Astronomy Capabilities at NASA's Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Lawrence; Franco, Manuel M.; Garcia-Miro, Cristina; Horiuchi, Shinji; Jacobs, Christopher; Kuiper, Thomas; Majid, Walid

    2015-08-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is well known for its role in commanding and communicating with spacecraft across the solar system that produce a steady stream of new discoveries in Astrophysics, Heliophysics, and Planetary Science. Equipped with a number of large antennas distributed across the world, the DSN also has a history of contributing to a number of leading radio astronomical projects. This paper summarizes a number of enhancements that are being implemented currently and that are aimed at increasing its capabilities to engage in a wide range of science observations. These enhancements include* A dual-beam system operating between 18 and 27 GHz (~ 1 cm) capable of conducting a variety of molecular line observations, searches for pulsars in the Galactic center, and continuum flux density (photometry) of objects such as nearby protoplanetary disks* Enhanced spectroscopy and pulsar processing backends for use at 1.4--1.9 GHz (20 cm), 18--27 GHz (1 cm), and 38--50 GHz (0.7 cm)* The DSN Transient Observatory (DTN), an automated, non-invasive backend for transient searching* Larger bandwidths (>= 0.5 GHz) for pulsar searching and timing; and* Improved data rates (2048 Mbps) and better instrumental response for very long baseline interferometric (VLBI) observations with the new DSN VLBI processor (DVP), which is providing unprecedented sensitivity for maintenance of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) and development of future versions.One of the results of these improvements is that the 70~m Deep Space Station 43 (DSS-43, Tidbinbilla antenna) is now the most sensitive radio antenna in the southern hemisphere. Proposals to use these systems are accepted from the international community.Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics & Space Administration.

  13. New results and techniques in space radio astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    The methods and results of early space radioastronomy experiments are reviewed, with emphasis on the RAE 1 spacecraft which was designed specifically and exclusively for radio astronomical studies. The RAE 1 carries two gravity-gradient-stabilized 229-m traveling-wave V-antennas, a 37-m dipole antenna, and a number of radiometer systems to provide measurements over the 0.2 to 9.2 MHz frequency range with a time resolution of 0.5 sec and an absolute accuracy of plus or minus 25%. Observations of solar bursts at frequencies down to 0.2 MHz provide new information on the density, plasma velocity, and dynamics of coronal streamers out to distances greater than 50 solar radii. New information on the distribution of the ionized component of the interstellar medium is being obtained from galactic continuum background maps at frequencies around 4 MHz. Cosmic noise background spectra measured down to 0.5 MHz produce new estimates on the interstellar flux of cosmic rays, on magnetic fields in the galactic halo, and on distant extragalactic radio sources.

  14. Current problems in astrophysics needing space-based radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The potential value of space-based radio observatories and VLBI networks for studies of cosmology, AGN and starburst galaxies, the ISM and the intergalactic medium, and molecular clouds and star formation is discussed. Topics examined include distance estimates for masers in external galaxies, high-resolution 21-cm observations of distant-galaxy kinematics and morphology, searches for LF emission from the neutral ISM at redshifts higher than the QSO turnon, detection of changes in the distribution of dark matter surrounding galaxies at redshifts near 1, and observations of Galactic SNRs and filamentary structures near the Galactic center. Consideration is given to comparative studies of the ISM in the Galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds, and M 31; estimates of the molecular content of external galaxies; emssion-line studies of H 2 O masers; and kinematic investigations of bipolar flows and molecular disks. 19 references

  15. Division B Commission 40: Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapman, Jessica M.; Giovaninni, Gabriele; Taylor, Russell; Carilli, Christopher; Hills, Richard; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Jonas, Justin L.; Lazio, Joseph; Morganti, Raffaella; Nan, Rendong; Rubio, Monica; Shastri, Prjaval; Kellermann, Ken; Ekers, Ronald; Ohishi, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    IAU Commission 40 for Radio Astronomy (hereafter C40) brought together scientists and engineers who carry out observational and theoretical research in radio astronomy and who develop and operate the ground and space-based radio astronomy facilities and instrumentation. As of June 2015, the

  16. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  17. The road to OLFAR - a roadmap to interferometric long-wavelength radio astronomy using miniaturized distributed space systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Steven; Quillien, Kevin A.; Verhoeven, Chris; Noroozi, Arash; Sundaramoorthy, Prem; van der Veen, Alle-Jan; Rajan, Raj; Rajan, Raj Thilak; Boonstra, Albert Jan; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Meijerink, Arjan; Budianu, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Orbiting Low Frequency Antennas for Radio Astronomy (OLFAR) project aims to develop a space-based low frequency radio telescope that will explore the universe's so-called dark ages, map the interstellar medium, and discover planetary and solar bursts in other solar systems. The telescope,

  18. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    This 6th edition of “Tools of Radio Astronomy”, the most used introductory text in radio astronomy, has been revised to reflect the current state of this important branch of astronomy. This includes the use of satellites, low radio frequencies, the millimeter/sub-mm universe, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the increased importance of mm/sub-mm dust emission. Several derivations and presentations of technical aspects of radio astronomy and receivers, such as receiver noise, the Hertz dipole and  beam forming have been updated, expanded, re-worked or complemented by alternative derivations. These reflect advances in technology. The wider bandwidths of the Jansky-VLA and long wave arrays such as LOFAR and mm/sub-mm arrays such as ALMA required an expansion of the discussion of interferometers and aperture synthesis. Developments in data reduction algorithms have been included. As a result of the large amount of data collected in the past 20 years, the discussion of solar system radio astronomy, dust em...

  19. Classics in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    1982-01-01

    Radio techniques were the nrst to lead astronomy away from the quiescent and limited Universe revealed by traditional observations at optical wave­ lengths. In the earliest days of radio astronomy, a handful of radio physicists and engineers made one startling discovery after another as they opened up the radio sky. With this collection of classic papers and the extensive intro­ ductory material, the reader can experience these exciting discoveries, as well as understand the developing techniques and follow the motivations which prompted the various lines of inquiry. For instance he or she will follow in detail the several attempts to detect radio waves from the sun at the turn of the century; the unravelling by Jansky of a "steady hiss type static"; the incredible story of Reber who built a 9 meter dish in his backyard in 1937 and then mapped the Milky Way; the vital discoveries by Hey and colleagues of radio bursts from the Sun and of a discrete source in the constellation of Cygnus; the development of re...

  20. Tools of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Thomas L; Hüttemeister, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    The recent years have seen breathtaking progress in technology, especially in the receiver and digital technologies relevant for radio astronomy, which has at the same time advanced to shorter wavelengths. This is the updated and completely revised 5th edition of the most used introductory text in radio astronomy. It presents a unified treatment of the entire field from centimeter to sub-millimeter wavelengths. Topics covered include instruments, sensitivity considerations, observational methods and interpretations of the data recorded with both single dishes and interferometers. This text is useful to both students and experienced practicing astronomers. Besides making major updates and additions throughout the book, the authors have re-organized a number of chapters to more clearly separate basic theory from rapidly evolving practical aspects. Further, problem sets have been added at the end of each chapter.

  1. The Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute Astro Space Center: yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagkesamanskii, Rustam D

    2009-01-01

    The development of Russian (formerly Soviet) radio astronomy is indissolubly linked with the P N Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Russian Academy of Sciences. From the late 1940s, the institute conducted most of its radio astronomy research in the Crimea, at stations or on field trips; in the late 1950s, the center of gravity of research moved to the southern Moscow region, where one of the largest radio astronomy observatories in the country and in the world was developed within less than twenty years. The observatory unique instrumentation system is briefly reviewed in a historical perspective. Key research areas and some major achievements are outlined, and the prospects of the observatory as (currently) part of the LPI Astro Space Center are examined. (conferences and symposia)

  2. The Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute Astro Space Center: yesterday, today, and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagkesamanskii, Rustam D [Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory, Astro Space Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2009-11-30

    The development of Russian (formerly Soviet) radio astronomy is indissolubly linked with the P N Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI), Russian Academy of Sciences. From the late 1940s, the institute conducted most of its radio astronomy research in the Crimea, at stations or on field trips; in the late 1950s, the center of gravity of research moved to the southern Moscow region, where one of the largest radio astronomy observatories in the country and in the world was developed within less than twenty years. The observatory unique instrumentation system is briefly reviewed in a historical perspective. Key research areas and some major achievements are outlined, and the prospects of the observatory as (currently) part of the LPI Astro Space Center are examined. (conferences and symposia)

  3. The Radio JOVE Project - Shoestring Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J.; Flagg, R.; Greenman, W.; Higgins, C.; Reyes, F.; Sky, J.

    2010-01-01

    Radio JOVE is an education and outreach project intended to give students and other interested individuals hands-on experience in learning radio astronomy. They can do this through building a radio telescope from a relatively inexpensive kit that includes the parts for a receiver and an antenna as well as software for a computer chart recorder emulator (Radio Skypipe) and other reference materials

  4. Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    This special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten contains the proceedings of a session of the Historic Radio Astronomy Working Group of the International Astronomical Union that took place during the 26th General Assembly of the IAU in Prague on 17th August 2006. In addition to the talks presented in Prague some contributions were solicited to give a more complete overview of `The Early History of European Radio Astronomy'.

  5. Radio astronomy on the moon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.O.; Asbell, J.

    1987-01-01

    The advantages and opportunities for radio astronomy on the moon during the early to mid 21st century are reviewed. In particular, it is argued that the lack of atmosphere, the extremely low seismic activity, the low RF background, and the natural cryogenic environment make the moon (particularly the far side and the poles) a nearly ideal locale for submillimeter/FIR to VLF (below 10 MHz) radio astronomy. 22 references

  6. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  7. OLFAR: the orbiting low frequency array, how a cube sat swarm becomes a novel radio astronomy instrument in space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Meijerink, Arjan; Boonstra, Albert Jan; Verhoeven, Chris; van der Veen, Alle-Jan

    2010-01-01

    To study the physical processes in the Universe, observations are done at various wavelengths, from Gamma rays to optical and radio frequencies. At this moment research at low frequencies is one of the major topics in radio astronomy. Several Earth-based radio telescopes are being built and will be

  8. The Hartebeeshoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolson, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the questions, problems and study fields of the modern astronomer. Radioastronomy has made important contributions to the study of the evolution of stars and has given much information on the birth of stars while at the other extreme, studies of neutron stars and the radio emission from the remnants of supernova explosions have given further insight into the death of individual stars. Radio astronomical studies have learned astronomers much about the structure of the Milky way and some twenty years ago, in a search for new radio galaxies, quasars were discovered. Radioastronomy research in South Africa is carried out at the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory

  9. Synthesis imaging in radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perley, R.A.; Schwab, F.R.; Bridle, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques and instrumentation for radio synthesis imaging in astronomy are discussed in a collection of review essays. Topics addressed include coherence in radio astronomy, the interferometer in practice, primary antenna elements, cross correlators, calibration and editing, sensitivity, deconvolution, self-calibration, error recognition, and image analysis. Consideration is given to wide-field imaging (bandwidth and time-average smearing, noncoplanar arrays, and mosaicking), high-dynamic-range imaging, spectral-line imaging, VLBI, solar imaging with a synthesis telescope, synthesis imaging of spatially coherent objects, noise in images of very bright sources, synthesis observing strategies, and the design of aperture-synthesis arrays

  10. Utrecht and Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, H.

    Important roles in early Dutch Galactic radio astronomy were played by several Utrecht astronomers: Van de Hulst, Minnaert and Houtgast. The poster announcing the conference contained a number of pictures referring to scientific achievements of the Astronomical Institute Utrecht. One of these

  11. The Importance of Site Selection for Radio Astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2014-01-01

    Radio sources are very weak since this object travel very far from outer space. Radio astronomy studies are limited due to radio frequency interference (RFI) that is made by man. If the harassment is not stopped, it will provide critical problems in their radio astronomy scientists research. The purpose of this study is to provide RFI map Peninsular Malaysia with a minimum mapping techniques RFI interference. RFI mapping technique using GIS is proposed as a tool in mapping techniques. Decision-making process for the selection requires gathering information from a variety of parameters. These factors affecting the selection process are also taken account. In this study, various factors or parameters involved such as availability of telecommunications transmission (including radio and television), rainfall, water line and human activity. This study will benefit radio astronomy research especially in the RFI profile in Malaysia. Keywords: Radio Astronomy, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), RFI mapping technique : GIS

  12. Space and astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Some daring explorers like to study distant frontiers by venturing out into them, but others prefer to study them by bringing them, or representative samples, a little closer to the lab. Both options are pursued in the fields of space and astronomy. Space exploration and astronomy are intricately linked and are examined in-depth in this guide. Dedicated to the scientists who explore the frontiers of space and astronomy-and the results of their unfamiliar findings-each chapter in Space and Astronomy explores one of the frontiers of this science. The development of technology, such as rocket pro

  13. The Spectrum Landscape: Prospects for Terrestrial Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszt, Harvey Steven

    2018-01-01

    Radio astronomers work within broad constraints imposed by commercial and other non-astronomical uses of the radio spectrum, somewhat modified to accommodate astronomy’s particular needs through the provision of radio quiet zones, radio frequency allocations, coordination agreements and other devices of spectrum management. As radio astronomers increase the instantaneous bandwidth, frequency coverage and sensitivity of their instruments, these external constraints, and not the limitations of their own instruments, will increasingly be the greatest obstacles to radio astronomy’s ability to observe the cosmos from the surface of the Earth. Therefore, prospects for future radio astronomy operations are contingent on situational awareness and planning for the impact of non-astronomical uses of the radio frequency spectrum. New radio astronomy instruments will have to incorporate adaptive reactions to external developments, and radio astronomers should be encouraged to think in untraditional ways. Increased attention to spectrum management is one of these. In this talk I’ll recap some recent developments such as the proliferation of 76 – 81 GHz car radar and orbiting earth-mapping radars, either of which can burn out a radio astronomy receiver. I’ll summarize present trends for non-astronomical radio spectrum use that will be coming to fruition in the next decade or so, categorized into terrestrial fixed and mobile, airborne and space-borne uses, sub-divided by waveband from the cm to the sub-mm. I’ll discuss how they will impact terrestrial radio astronomy and the various ways in which radio astronomy should be prepared to react. Protective developments must occur both within radio astronomy’s own domain – designing, siting and constructing its instruments and mitigating unavoidable RFI – and facing outward toward the community of other spectrum users. Engagement with spectrum management is no panacea but it is an important means, and perhaps the only

  14. The Future of Space Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, George B.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of space astronomy, considering advantages, the space telescope and ground-based astronomy, an orbiting astrophysics facility, solar physics, and other areas. Indicates that earth-based astronomy will continue to be carried out there and space astronomy will be limited to observations that can be carried out only from…

  15. Expanding radio astronomy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylard, M J

    2013-01-01

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA [1]. South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.

  16. Radio Astronomy on and Around the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcke, Heino; Klein Wolt, Mark; Ping, Jinsong; Chen, Linjie

    2018-06-01

    The exploration of remote places on other planets has now become a major goal in current space flight scenarios. On the other hand, astronomers have always sought the most remote and isolated sites to place their observatories and to make their most precise and most breath taking discoveries. Especially for radio astronomy, lunar exploration offers a complete new window to the universe. The polar region and the far-side of the moon are acknowledged as unique locations for a low-frequency radio telescope providing scientific data at wavelengths that cannot be obtained from the Earth nor from single satellites. Scientific areas to be covered range from radio surveys, to solar-system studies, exo-planet detection, and astroparticle physics. The key science area, however, is the detection and measurement of cosmological 21 cm hydrogen emission from the still unexplored dark ages of the universe. Developing a lunar radio facility can happen in steps and may involve small satellites, rover-based radio antennas, of free- flying constellations around the moon. A first such step could be the Netherlands-Chinese Long Wavelength Explorer (NCLE), which is supposed to be launched in 2018 as part of the ChangE’4 mission to the moon-earth L2 point.

  17. HF Radio Astronomy from a Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    SSC16-XI-03 HF Radio Astronomy from a Small Satellite Frank C. Robey1, Mary Knapp2, Alan J. Fenn1, Mark Silver1, Kerry Johnson1 Frank J. Lind3...frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum (below 15 MHz) is one of the least explored windows in observational astronomy . Observations at these...pdf. [Accessed: 17-Oct-2015]. 3. G. Hallinan, “The Owens Valley LWA,” in Exascale Radio Astronomy , 2014, vol. 2. 4. C. J. Lonsdale, R. J. Cappallo

  18. Introduction to solar radio astronomy and radio physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, A.

    1979-01-01

    A systematic summary is presented of the work done during the last thirty years in the field of solar radio astronomy from the standpoint of general solar physics. Instrumental aspects, observations and theory are covered. A brief introduction is given to the matter consisting of the history of solar radio astronomy and some fundamentals of astronomy and solar physics are outlined. Some topics of the instrumental background of solar radio astronomy and the main results of observations are presented. The elements of a theoretical interpretation of solar radio observations are reported and a synthesis of both observation and theory contributing to a general picture of solar and solar-terrestrial physics is outlined. (C.F./Auth)

  19. Orbiting low frequency array for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Rai Thilak; Rajan, Raj; Engelen, Steven; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Verhoeven, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Recently new and interesting science drivers have emerged for very low frequency radio astronomy from 0.3 MHz to 30 MHz. However Earth bound radio observations at these wavelengths are severely hampered by ionospheric distortions, man made interference, solar flares and even complete reflection

  20. 47 CFR 2.107 - Radio astronomy station notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio astronomy station notification. 2.107....107 Radio astronomy station notification. (a) Pursuant to No. 1492 of Article 13 and Section F of Appendix 3 to the international Radio Regulations (Geneva, 1982), operators of radio astronomy stations...

  1. DARIS, a fleet of passive formation flying small satellites for low frequency radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saks, Noah; Boonstra, Albert Jan; Rajan, Raj Thilak; Rajan, Raj; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Beliën, Frederik; van 't Klooster, Kees

    2010-01-01

    DARIS (Distributed Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy In Space) is a mission to conduct radio astronomy in the low frequency region from 1-10MHz. This region has not yet been explored, as the Earth's ionosphere is opaque to those frequencies, and so a space based observatory is the only solution.

  2. Impact of cognitive radio on radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, A.J.; Baan, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of new communication techniques requires an increase in the efficiency of spectrum usage. Cognitive radio is one of the new techniques that fosters spectrum efficiency by using unoccupied frequency spectrum for communications. However, cognitive radio will increase the transmission

  3. A scientific program for infrared, submillimeter and radio astronomy from space: A report by the Management Operations Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Important and fundamental scientific progress can be attained through space observations in the wavelengths longward of 1 micron. The formation of galaxies, stars, and planets, the origin of quasars and the nature of active galactic nuclei, the large scale structure of the Universe, and the problem of the missing mass, are among the major scientific issues that can be addressed by these observations. Significant advances in many areas of astrophysics can be made over the next 20 years by implementing the outlined program. This program combines large observatories with smaller projects to create an overall scheme that emphasized complementarity and synergy, advanced technology, community support and development, and the training of the next generation of scientists. Key aspects of the program include: the Space Infrared Telescope Facility; the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy; a robust program of small missions; and the creation of the technology base for future major observatories.

  4. Division X, XII / Commission 40, 41 / Working Group Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kellermann, Kenneth; Orchiston, Wayne; Davies, Rod; Gurvits, Leonid; Ishiguro, Masato; Lequeux, James; Swarup, Govind; Wall, Jasper; Wielebinski, Richard; van Woerden, Hugo

    The IAU Working Group on Historical Radio Astronomy (WGHRA) was formed at the 2003 General Assembly of the IAU as a Joint Working Group of Commissions 40 (Radio Astronomy) and 41 (History of Astronomy), in order to: a) assemble a master list of surviving historically-significant radio telescopes and

  5. Intelligent Cognitive Radio Models for Enhancing Future Radio Astronomy Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele Abiola Periola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio astronomy organisations desire to optimise the terrestrial radio astronomy observations by mitigating against interference and enhancing angular resolution. Ground telescopes (GTs experience interference from intersatellite links (ISLs. Astronomy source radio signals received by GTs are analysed at the high performance computing (HPC infrastructure. Furthermore, observation limitation conditions prevent GTs from conducting radio astronomy observations all the time, thereby causing low HPC utilisation. This paper proposes mechanisms that protect GTs from ISL interference without permanent prevention of ISL data transmission and enhance angular resolution. The ISL transmits data by taking advantage of similarities in the sequence of observed astronomy sources to increase ISL connection duration. In addition, the paper proposes a mechanism that enhances angular resolution by using reconfigurable earth stations. Furthermore, the paper presents the opportunistic computing scheme (OCS to enhance HPC utilisation. OCS enables the underutilised HPC to be used to train learning algorithms of a cognitive base station. The performances of the three mechanisms are evaluated. Simulations show that the proposed mechanisms protect GTs from ISL interference, enhance angular resolution, and improve HPC utilisation.

  6. Shoestring Budget Radio Astronomy (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoot, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    (Abstract only) The commercial exploitation of microwave frequencies for cellular, WiFi, Bluetooth, HDTV, and satellite digital media transmission has brought down the cost of the components required to build an effective radio telescope to the point where, for the cost of a good eyepiece, you can construct and operate a radio telescope. This paper sets forth a family of designs for 1421 MHz telescopes. It also proposes a method by which operators of such instruments can aggregate and archive data via the Internet. With 90 or so instruments it will be possible to survey the entire radio sky for transients with a 24 hour cadence.

  7. The Beginnings of Australian Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T.

    The early stages of Australian radio astronomy, especially the first decade after World War II, are described in detail. These include the transition of the CSIRO Radiophysics Laboratory, under the leadership of Joseph Pawsey and Taffy Bowen, from a wartime laboratory in 1945 to, by 1950, the largest and one of the two most important radio astronomy groups in the world (with the Cavendish Laboratory at Cambridge University). The initial solar investigations are described, including discovery of the hot corona and development of the sea-cliff interferometer. During this same period painstaking `radio star' observations by John Bolton and colleagues led to the first suggested optical identifications of Taurus-A (the Crab Nebula), Centaurus-A (NGC 5128), and Virgo-A (M87). The factors that led to the extraordinary early success of the Radiophysics Laboratory are analyzed in detail, followed by discussion of how the situation changed significantly in the second decade of 1955-1965. Finally, the development of major Australian instruments, from the Parkes Radio Telescope (1961) to the Australia Telescope (1988), is briefly presented. This chapter is a direct reprint of the following research paper: Sullivan, W., 2005. The beginnings of Australian radio astronomy. Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, 8, 11-32.

  8. A Brief History of Radio Astronomy in the USSR A Collection of Scientific Essays

    CERN Document Server

    Salomonovich, A; Samanian, V; Shklovskii, I; Sorochenko, R; Troitskii, V; Kellermann, K; Dubinskii, B; Kaidanovskii, N; Kardashev, N; Kobrin, M; Kuzmin, A; Molchanov, A; Pariiskii, Yu; Rzhiga, O

    2012-01-01

    This translation from Russian makes the history of radio astronomy in the USSR available in the English language for the first time. The book includes descriptions of the antennas and instrumentation used in the USSR, the astronomical discoveries, as well as interesting personal backgrounds of many of the early key players in Soviet radio astronomy. A Brief History of Radio Astronomy in the USSR is a collection of memoirs recounting an interesting but largely still dark era of Soviet astronomy. The arrangement of the essays is determined primarily by the time when radio astronomy studies began at the institutions involved. These include the Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN), Gorkii State University and the affiliated Physical-Technical Institute (GIFTI), Moscow State University Sternberg Astronomical institute (GAISH) and Space Research Institute (IKI), the Department of Radio Astronomy of the Main Astronomical Observatory in Pulkovo (GAO), Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), Byurakan Astrophysical Obse...

  9. Radio Astronomy Explorer /RAE/. I - Observations of terrestrial radio noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.; Stone, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) I data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial radio noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 dB and more above cosmic noise background, on frequencies above the F-layer critical frequency.

  10. Advances in solar radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    The status of the observations and interpretations of the sun's radio emission covering the entire radio spectrum from millimeter wavelengths to hectometer and kilometer wavelengths is reviewed. Emphasis is given to the progress made in solar radio physics as a result of recent advances in plasma and radiation theory. It is noted that the capability now exists of observing the sun with a spatial resolution of approximately a second of arc and a temporal resolution of about a millisecond at centimeter wavelengths and of obtaining fast multifrequency two-dimensional pictures of the sun at meter and decameter wavelengths. A summary is given of the properties of nonflaring active regions at millimeter, centimeter, and meter-decameter wavelengths. The properties of centimeter wave bursts are discussed in connection with the high spatial resolution observations. The observations of the preflare build-up of an active region are reviewed. High spatial resolution observations (a few seconds of arc to approximately 1 arcsec) are discussed, with particular attention given to the one- and two-dimensional maps of centimeter-wavelength burst sources.

  11. Solar system radio astronomy at low frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desch, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The planetary radio-astronomy observations obtained with the two Voyager spacecraft since their launch in 1977 are briefly characterized and illustrated with graphs, diagrams, and sample spectra. Topics addressed include the spacecraft designs and trajectories, the wavelength coverage of the radio instruments, the Io-controlled LF emission of Jupiter, the solar-wind effect on the Saturn kilometric radiation, the Saturn electrostatic discharges, and the use of the clocklike feature of the Uranus emission to measure the planet's rotation period. 23 references

  12. The Effect of Solar Radiation on Radio Signal for Radio Astronomy Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Hazmin Sabri; Atiq Wahidah Azlan; Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Shahirah Syafa Sulan; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim; Wan Zul Adli Wan Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    Radio astronomy is a subfields of astronomy which is discovers the celestial objects at radio frequencies. Observation in radio astronomy is conducted using single antenna or array of antennas, known as radio telescope. Other than that, radio astronomy also holds an advantage over other alternatives to optical astronomy due to its capability of observing from the ground level. In this study, the effect of solar radiation that contributes the Radio Frequency Interferences (RFI) is reviewed. The low RFI level is required to set up the radio telescope for radio astronomy observation. The effect of solar radiation on radio signal was investigated by determining the RFI pattern using spectrum analyzer. The solar radiation data was obtained from weather station located at KUSZA Observatory, East Coast Environmental Research Institute (ESERI), UniSZA. We can conclude that the solar radiation factor give the minimum significant effect to radio signal. (author)

  13. Interferometry and synthesis in radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, A Richard; Swenson Jr , George W

    2017-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 4.0 license. The third edition of this indispensable book in radio interferometry provides extensive updates to the second edition, including results and technical advances from the past decade; discussion of arrays that now span the full range of the radio part of the electromagnetic spectrum observable from the ground, 10 MHz to 1 THz; an analysis of factors that affect array speed; and an expanded discussion of digital signal-processing techniques and of scintillation phenomena and the effects of atmospheric water vapor on image distortion, among many other topics. With its comprehensiveness and detailed exposition of all aspects of the theory and practice of radio interferometry and synthesis imaging, this book has established itself as a standard reference in the field. It begins with an overview of the basic principles of radio astronomy, a short history of the development of radio interferometry, and an elementary discussion of the operation of an interferomete...

  14. Large Instrument Development for Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J. Richard; Warnick, Karl F.; Jeffs, Brian D.; Norrod, Roger D.; Lockman, Felix J.; Cordes, James M.; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2009-03-01

    This white paper offers cautionary observations about the planning and development of new, large radio astronomy instruments. Complexity is a strong cost driver so every effort should be made to assign differing science requirements to different instruments and probably different sites. The appeal of shared resources is generally not realized in practice and can often be counterproductive. Instrument optimization is much more difficult with longer lists of requirements, and the development process is longer and less efficient. More complex instruments are necessarily further behind the technology state of the art because of longer development times. Including technology R&D in the construction phase of projects is a growing trend that leads to higher risks, cost overruns, schedule delays, and project de-scoping. There are no technology breakthroughs just over the horizon that will suddenly bring down the cost of collecting area. Advances come largely through careful attention to detail in the adoption of new technology provided by industry and the commercial market. Radio astronomy instrumentation has a very bright future, but a vigorous long-term R&D program not tied directly to specific projects needs to be restored, fostered, and preserved.

  15. OLFAR - Orbiting low frequency antennas for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2013-01-01

    One of the last unexplored frequency ranges in radio astronomy is the frequency band below 30 MHz. New interesting astronomical science drivers for low frequency radio astronomy have emerged, ranging from studies of the astronomical dark ages, the epoch of reionization, exoplanets, to ultra-high

  16. The invisible universe the story of radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Verschuur, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Hidden from human view, accessible only to sensitive receivers attached to huge radio telescopes, the invisible universe beyond our senses continues to fascinate and intrigue our imaginations. Closer to home, in the Milky Way galaxy, radio astronomers listen patiently to the ticking of pulsars that tell of star death and states of matter of awesome densities. All of this happens out there in the universe hidden from our eyes, even when aided by the Hubble Space Telescope. This is the story of radio astronomy, of how radio waves are generated by stars, supernova, quasars, colliding galaxies and by the very beginnings of the universe itself. The author discusses what radio astronomers are doing in the New Mexico desert, in a remote valley in Puerto Rico, and in the green Pocahontas Valley in West Virginia, as well as dozens of other remote sites around the world. With each of these observatories, the scientists collect and analyze their data, "listening" to the radio signals from space in order to learn what, ...

  17. Review of decametric radio astronomy - instruments and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.C.; Cane, H.V.

    1987-01-01

    The techniques and instruments used in Galactic and extragalactic radio astronomy at dkm wavelengths are surveyed, and typical results are summarized. Consideration is given to the large specialized phased arrays used for early surveys, the use of wideband elements to increase frequency agility, experimental VLBI observations, and limitations on ground-based observations below about 10 MHz (where the proposed LF Space Array, with resolution 0.5-5 arcmin, could make a major contribution). Observations discussed cover the Galactic center, the Galactic background radiation, SNRs, compact Galactic sources, the ISM, and large extragalactic sources. 38 references

  18. Report of the panel to review the future of radio astronomy in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-02-01

    The panel was appointed by the Astronomy, Space and Radio Board of the Science Research Council, to review the present scientific position in radio (including millimetre) astronomy, to consider the likely future development of the field over the next 10 to 15 years taking account of facilities being planned in other countries and to advise on a programme to enable the present UK position to be maintained, indicating the facilities needed. The report deals with all these items and recommends the implementation of a proposal for a National Millimetre Wavelength Astronomy Facility. Detailed recommendations are made for financing and organizing the project. (U.K.)

  19. The History of Radio Astronomy and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory: Evolution Toward Big Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, Benjamin Kevin

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the sequence of events that led to the establishment of the NRAO, the construction and development of instrumentation and the contributions and discovery events and to relate the significance of these events to the evolution of the sciences of radio astronomy and cosmology. After an overview of the resources, a brief discussion of the early days of the science is given to set the stage for an examination of events that led to the establishment of the NRAO. The developmental and construction phases of the major instruments including the 85-foot Tatel telescope, the 300-foot telescope, the 140-foot telescope, and the Green Bank lnterferometer are examined. The technical evolution of these instruments is traced and their relevance to scientific programs and discovery events is discussed. The history is told in narrative format that is interspersed with technical and scientific explanations. Through the use of original data technical and scientific information of historical concern is provided to elucidate major developments and events. An interpretive discussion of selected programs, events and technological developments that epitomize the contributions of the NRAO to the science of radio astronomy is provided. Scientific programs conducted with the NRAO instruments that were significant to galactic and extragalactic astronomy are presented. NRAO research programs presented include continuum and source surveys, mapping, a high precision verification of general relativity, and SETI programs. Cosmic phenomena investigated in these programs include galactic and extragalactic HI and HII, emission nebula, supernova remnants, cosmic masers, giant molecular clouds, radio stars, normal and radio galaxies, and quasars. Modern NRAO instruments including the VLA and VLBA and their scientific programs are presented in the final chapter as well as plans for future NRAO instruments such as the GBT.

  20. Radio Astronomy at TIFR, some highlights and reminiscences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarup, G.

    Radio astronomy research was initiated at TIFR fifty years ago. In this historical article, I firstly trace my initiation in the field of radio astronomy during 1953-55 in the Radio Physics Laboratory of CSIRO in Australia and later during 1956-63 in USA. In September 1961, four radio astronomers working abroad wrote to a number of scientific organizations in India with their desire to start radio astronomy research in India. Soon thereafter Dr. Homi Bhabha, the founder Director of TIFR, approved the formation of a radio astronomy group therein. I joined TIFR in April 1963. During the last 50 years, TIFR has built two of the world's largest radio telescopes, namely the 530m long and 30 m wide parabolic cylinder equatorially mounted on a hill at Ooty in South India during 1960s and the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope near Pune, consisting of 30 nos. of fully steerable parabolic dishes of 45 m diameters during 1990s. Fifty years of radio astronomy research at TIFR is briefly highlighted here.

  1. Space Telecommunications Radio System STRS Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    Radios today are evolving from awareness toward cognition. A software defined radio (SDR) provides the most capability for integrating autonomic decision making ability and allows the incremental evolution toward a cognitive radio. This cognitive radio technology will impact NASA space communications in areas such as spectrum utilization, interoperability, network operations, and radio resource management over a wide range of operating conditions. NASAs cognitive radio will build upon the infrastructure being developed by Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) SDR technology. This paper explores the feasibility of inserting cognitive capabilities in the NASA STRS architecture and the interfaces between the cognitive engine and the STRS radio. The STRS architecture defines methods that can inform the cognitive engine about the radio environment so that the cognitive engine can learn autonomously from experience, and take appropriate actions to adapt the radio operating characteristics and optimize performance.

  2. Cosmic noise: a history of early radio astronomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sullivan, Woodruff Turner

    2009-01-01

    .... The whole of worldwide radio and radar astronomy is covered, beginning with the discoveries by Jansky and Reber of cosmic noise before World War II, through the wartime detections of solar noise...

  3. Emergence of radio astronomy-the Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das Gupta, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    Professor S.K. Mitra, the initiator of post graduate studies in radio-electronics and the pioneer of radio research in India realized the far-reaching importance of the then emerging science of radio astronomy, as early as mid-forties. The exposition of the subject has been dedicated to the memory of esteemed Professor S.K. Mitra. The article is divided into three broad heads, namely (i)the emergence of radioastronomy-achievements made so far, (ii)some major contributions made by the Indian scientists working abroad in the fifties, and (iii) the emergence of radio astronomy in India and its present status. (author). 55 refs

  4. Design course in space astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A J; Perez-Fournon, I

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this course is to provide direct experience of collaboration with other European astronomy/space science students and to gain an insight into the establishment of ESA space science programmes. The first half of the course takes place in Southampton. The Southampton students work as a team to track a past ESA space science mission from initial conception through to final realization and operations. This is achieved through the study of the high quality documentation available in the form of ESA reports. Each student has well defined responsibilities within the team. The second half of the course takes place in Tenerife, at the University of La Laguna. Again the students are expected to complete a team study of a space science mission. This time, however, there are important differences: the study teams are now international, approximately half Southampton and half University of La Laguna students; and this time they are expected to design a completely new space astronomy mission with clearly specified scientific objectives and operational constraints

  5. NASA IDEAS to Improve Instruction in Astronomy and Space Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malphrus, B.; Kidwell, K.

    1999-12-01

    The IDEAS to Improve Instructional Competencies in Astronomy and Space Science project is intended to develop and/or enhance teacher competencies in astronomy and space sciences of teacher participants (Grades 5-12) in Kentucky. The project is being implemented through a two-week summer workshop, a series of five follow-up meetings, and an academic year research project. The resources of Kentucky's only Radio Astronomy Observatory- the Morehead Radio Telescope (MRT), Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) (via remote observing using the Internet), and the Kentucky Department of Education regional service centers are combined to provide a unique educational experience. The project is designed to improve science teacher's instructional methodologies by providing pedagogical assistance, content training, involving the teachers and their students in research in radio astronomy, providing access to the facilities of the Morehead Astrophysical Observatory, and by working closely with a NASA-JOVE research astronomer. Participating teachers will ultimately produce curriculum units and research projects, the results of which will be published on the WWW. A major goal of this project is to share with teachers and ultimately students the excitement and importance of scientific research. The project represents a partnership of five agencies, each matching the commitment both financially and/or personnel. This project is funded by the NASA IDEAS initiative administered by the Space Telescope Science Institute and the National Air and Space Administration (NASA).

  6. Olfar: orbiting low frequency antenna for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, Albert Jan

    2009-01-01

    New interesting astronomical science drivers for very low frequency radio astronomy have emerged, ranging from studies of the astronomical dark ages, the epoch of reionization, exoplanets, to ultra-high energy cosmic rays. However, astronomical observations with Earth-bound radio telescopes at very

  7. Academic Training: Astronomy from Space

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2004-2005 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 14, 15, 16, 18 March from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Astronomy from Space by T. Courvoisier / Observatoire de Genève In the very wide field of High Energy astrophysics we will select a number of topics that range from the source of radiative energy in the deep potential well around Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes and the basics of accretion disks around compact objects to the description and (where possible) the understanding of binary systems including a compact object (neutron star or black hole), of Active Galactic Nuclei and of gamma ray bursts. The approach that is chosen aims at giving an understanding of the most important phenomenologies encountered in high energy astrophysics rather than a detailed knowledge of one specific topic. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch

  8. Space Debris and Observational Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Since the launch of Sputnik 1 in 1957, astronomers have faced an increasing number of artificial objects contaminating their images of the night sky. Currently almost 17000 objects larger than 10 cm are tracked and have current orbits in the public catalog. Active missions are only a small fraction of these objects. Most are inactive satellites, rocket bodies, and fragments of larger objects: all space debris. Several mega-constellations are planned which will increase this number by 20% or more in low Earth orbit (LEO). In terms of observational astronomy, this population of Earth orbiting objects has three implications: 1) the number of streaks and glints from spacecraft will only increase. There are some practical steps that can be taken to minimize the number of such streaks and glints in astronomical imaging data. 2) The risk to damage to orbiting astronomical telescopes will only increase, particularly those in LEO. 3) If you are working on a plan for an orbiting telescope project, then there are specific steps that must be taken to minimize space debris generation during the mission lifetime, and actions to safely dispose of the spacecraft at end of mission to prevent it from becoming space debris and a risk to other missions. These steps may involve sacrifices to mission performance and lifetime, but are essential in today's orbital environment.

  9. 47 CFR 5.91 - Notification of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory. In order to minimize possible harmful interference at the National Radio Astronomy... Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box NZ2, Green Bank, West Virginia, 24944, in writing, of the technical...

  10. The importance of Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ) for radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Roslan; Abidin, Zamri Zainal; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin

    2013-05-01

    Most of radio observatories are located in isolated areas. Since radio sources from the universe is very weak, astronomer need to avoid radio frequency interference (RFI) from active spectrum users and radio noise produced by human made (telecommunication, mobile phone, microwave user and many more. There are many observatories around the world are surrounded by a Radio Quiet Zone (RQZ), which is it was set up using public or state laws. A Radio Quiet Zone normally consists of two areas: an exclusive area in which totally radio emissions are forbidden, with restrictions for residents and business developments, and a larger (radius up to 100 km above) coordination area where the power of radio transmission limits to threshold levels. Geographical Information System (GIS) can be used as a powerful tool in mapping large areas with varying RQZ profiles. In this paper, we report the initial testing of the usage of this system in order to identify the areas were suitable for Radio Quiet Zone. Among the important parameters used to develop the database for our GIS are population density, information on TV and telecommunication (mobile phones) transmitters, road networks (highway), and contour shielding. We will also use other information gathered from on-site RFI level measurements on selected 'best' areas generated by the GIS. The intention is to find the best site for the purpose of establishing first radio quiet zones for radio telescope in Malaysia.

  11. Antenna architecture of a nanosatellite for radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budianu, A.; Meijerink, Arjan; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Smith, David M.P.; Boonstra, Albert Jan

    2014-01-01

    Recent technological advancements have led to the emergence of a new miniaturized satellite platforms and this opened up the path for a whole new range of applications. The Orbiting Low Frequency Antennas for Radio Astronomy (OLFAR) project is one of these applications, and aims to develop a

  12. Plasma Diagnostics of the Interstellar Medium with Radio Astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Haverkorn, Marijke; Spangler, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the degree to which radio propagation measurements diagnose conditions in the ionized gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). The "signal generators" of the radio waves of interest are extragalactic radio sources (quasars and radio galaxies), as well as Galactic sources, primarily pulsars. The polarized synchrotron radiation of the Galactic non-thermal radiation also serves to probe the ISM, including space between the emitting regions and the solar system. Radio propagation measurem...

  13. Genetic programming applied to RFI mitigation in radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, K.

    2016-12-01

    Genetic Programming is a type of machine learning that employs a stochastic search of a solutions space, genetic operators, a fitness function, and multiple generations of evolved programs to resolve a user-defined task, such as the classification of data. At the time of this research, the application of machine learning to radio astronomy was relatively new, with a limited number of publications on the subject. Genetic Programming had never been applied, and as such, was a novel approach to this challenging arena. Foundational to this body of research, the application Karoo GP was developed in the programming language Python following the fundamentals of tree-based Genetic Programming described in "A Field Guide to Genetic Programming" by Poli, et al. Karoo GP was tasked with the classification of data points as signal or radio frequency interference (RFI) generated by instruments and machinery which makes challenging astronomers' ability to discern the desired targets. The training data was derived from the output of an observation run of the KAT-7 radio telescope array built by the South African Square Kilometre Array (SKA-SA). Karoo GP, kNN, and SVM were comparatively employed, the outcome of which provided noteworthy correlations between input parameters, the complexity of the evolved hypotheses, and performance of raw data versus engineered features. This dissertation includes description of novel approaches to GP, such as upper and lower limits to the size of syntax trees, an auto-scaling multiclass classifier, and a Numpy array element manager. In addition to the research conducted at the SKA-SA, it is described how Karoo GP was applied to fine-tuning parameters of a weather prediction model at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO), to glitch classification at the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO), and to astro-particle physics at The Ohio State University.

  14. Ionospheric wave and irregularity measurements using passive radio astronomy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, W.C.; Mahoney, M.J.; Jacobson, A.R.; Knowles, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    The observation of midlatitude structures using passive radio astronomy techniques is discussed, with particular attention being given to the low-frequency radio telescope at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory. The present telescope operates in the 10-125-MHz frequency range. Observations of the ionosphere at separations of a few kilometers to a few hundreds of kilometers by the lines of sight to sources are possible, allowing the determination of the amplitude, wavelength, direction of propagation, and propagation speed of ionospheric waves. Data are considered on large-scale ionospheric gradients and the two-dimensional shapes and sizes of ionospheric irregularities. 10 references

  15. NAC/NINE Program Building Radio Jove's and Brining Radio Astronomy to the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramona Gallego, Angelina; Paul Gueye, Al Amin Kabir,

    2018-01-01

    During the course of the 8-week program, (NINE, National and International Non-Traditional Exchange Program), the summer was spent in Socorro, New Mexico, working on building a Radio Jove, and making observations with the Radio Jove as well as working on learning project management practices in order to take the CAPM PMI Exam. The NINE built the Radio Jove’s at the same time and in doing so learned to replicate it to teach it to others. The final portion of the program that was worked on was to create a NINE hub and do outreach with the community teaching them about radio astronomy and teaching students how to build their own Radio Jove’s and make observations. An important aspect of the summer program was to bring back the knowledge received about radio astronomy and teach it to high school students with the help of the institution each NINE participants came from.

  16. A Radio Astronomy Science Education Partnership - GAVRT and Radio JOVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C. A.; Thieman, J. R.; Bunnell, K.; Soholt, G.

    2009-12-01

    The planet Jupiter provides an excellent subject to educate, engage, and inspire students and teachers to learn science. The Goldstone Apple-Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program (http://www.lewiscenter.org/gavrt) and The Radio JOVE project (http://radiojove.gsfc.nasa.gov) each have a long history of allowing students and teachers to interact with scientists and real radio telescopes. The upcoming Juno mission to Jupiter (2011 launch) allows both GAVRT and Radio JOVE to combine efforts and engage with the NASA Juno mission, thus increasing the excitement and learning potential for teachers, students, and the general public. Teachers can attend workshops for training to operate a 34-meter radio telescope and/or build their own simple radio telescope, both of which can be used directly in the classroom. We will overview some classroom activities and highlight some teacher-student experiences. In addition, we will update our efforts on greater Web-based control of the radio telescopes, as well as highlight our upcoming workshops to allow better access for teachers in different parts of the Country.

  17. Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickola, Marisa; Gaylard, Mike; Quick, Jonathan; Combrinck, Ludwig

    2013-01-01

    HartRAO provides the only fiducial geodetic site in Africa, and it participates in global networks for VLBI, GNSS, SLR, and DORIS. This report provides an overview of geodetic VLBI activities at HartRAO during 2012, including the conversion of a 15-m alt-az radio telescope to an operational geodetic VLBI antenna.

  18. 47 CFR 73.6027 - Class A TV notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. 73.6027 Section 73.6027... radio astronomy, research and receiving installations. An applicant for digital operation of an existing... astronomy, research and receiving installations. [69 FR 69331, Nov. 29, 2004] ...

  19. Getting started in radio astronomy beginner projects for the amateur

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Radio astronomy is a mystery to the majority of amateur astronomers, yet it is the best subject to turn to when desirous of an expanded knowledge of the sky. This guide intends to instruct complete newcomers to radio astronomy, and provides help for the first steps on the road towards the study of this fascinating subject. In addition to a history of the science behind the pursuit, directions are included for four easy-to-build projects, based around long-term NASA and Stanford Solar Center projects. The first three projects constitute self-contained units available as kits, so there is no nee

  20. Radio Astronomy in Malaysia: Current Status and Outreach Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, N.; Abidin, Z. Z.; Ibrahim, U. F. S. U.; Umar, R.; Hassan, M. S. R.; Rosli, Z.; Hamidi, Z. S.; Ibrahim, Z. A.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we will present the current status of radio astronomical research and outreach in Malaysia. We will also present a short history of our research group, which is currently the only radio astronomical facility in Malaysia. Our group is called the Radio Cosmology Research Lab and was established in 2005 by Dr Zamri Zainal Abidin and Prof Dr Zainol Abidin Ibrahim. We will discuss the future plans for this group including our keen interest in being part of a more global network of radio astronomers. We are already an active member of the South-East Asia Astronomy Network (SEAAN) and aims to have a radio astronomical facility in order to join the Global Very Long Baseline Interferometer (VLBI) as well becoming a research hub for the future Square Kilometer Array (SKA) project. We will also present some of the scientific goals of our group including providing a platform for radio astronomers to be able to do observations of weak and high red-shifted radio objects such as galaxy clusters and supernovae.

  1. Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE) 1 observations of terrestrial radio noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. R.; Caruso, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Radio Astonomy Explorer (RAE) 1 data are analyzed to establish characteristics of HF terrestrial radio noise at an altitude of about 6000 km. Time and frequency variations in amplitude of the observed noise well above cosmic noise background are explained on the basis of temporal and spatial variations in ionospheric critical frequency coupled with those in noise source distributions. It is shown that terrestrial noise regularly breaks through the ionosphere and reaches RAE with magnitudes 15 or more db higher than cosmic noise background. Maximum terrestrial noise is observed when RAE is over the dark side of the Earth in the neighborhood of equatorial continental land masses where thunderstorms occur most frequently. The observed noise level is 30-40 db lower with RAE over oceans.

  2. The statistics of low frequency radio interference at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolowski, Marcin; Wayth, Randall B.; Lewis, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    We characterize the low frequency radio-frequency interference (RFI) environment at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO), the location selected for the low-frequency component of the Square Kilometre Array. Data were collected from the BIGHORNS instrument, located at the MRO, which records a contiguous bandwidth between 70 and 300 MHz, between November 2014 to March 2015 inclusive. The data were processed to identify RFI, and we describe a series of statistics in both the time and ...

  3. A Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber link for large-array radio astronomy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mena, J; Bandura, K; Cliche, J-F; Dobbs, M; Gilbert, A; Tang, Q Y

    2013-01-01

    A prototype 425-850 MHz Radio-Frequency-over-Fiber (RFoF) link for the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) is presented. The design is based on a directly modulated Fabry-Perot (FP) laser, operating at ambient temperature, and a single-mode fiber. The dynamic performance, gain stability, and phase stability of the RFoF link are characterized. Tests on a two-element interferometer built at the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory for CHIME prototyping demonstrate that RFoF can be successfully used as a cost-effective solution for analog signal transport on the CHIME telescope and other large-array radio astronomy applications

  4. Optical, infrared and radio astronomy from techniques to observation

    CERN Document Server

    Poggiani, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the established sciences of optical, infrared, and radio astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the science targets and the constraints that they place on instrumentation in the different domains. It aims to bridge the gap between specialized books and practical texts, presenting the state of the art in different techniques. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities that drive the building of instrumentation and the development of advanced techniques. The specific telescopes and detectors are then presented, together with the techniques used to measure fluxes and spectra. Finally, the instruments and their limits are discussed to assist readers in choice of setup, planning and execution of observations, and data reduction. The volume also includes worked examples and problem sets to improve student understanding; tables and figures in chapters summarize the state of the art of instrumentation and techniques.

  5. Maps of Information Spaces: Assessments from Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poincot, Philippe; Lesteven, Soizick; Murtagh, Fionn

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the implementation of a cartographic user interface to bibliographic and other information sub-spaces in astronomy. Presents a range of comparative assessments, in operational frameworks, of this approach to accessing and retrieving astronomical information. Discusses the particular role that such cartographic user interfaces can play in…

  6. Pioneers in Astronomy and Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The pioneers of astronomy and space exploration have advanced humankind's understanding of the universe. These individuals include earthbound theorists such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galileo, as well as those who put their lives on the line travelling into the great unknown. Readers chronicle the lives of individuals positioned at the vanguard of astronomical discovery, laying the groundwork for space exploration past, present, and yet to come.

  7. UniBoard: generic hardware for radio astronomy signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, J. E.

    2012-09-01

    UniBoard is a generic high-performance computing platform for radio astronomy, developed as a Joint Research Activity in the RadioNet FP7 Programme. The hardware comprises eight Altera Stratix IV Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) interconnected by a high speed transceiver mesh. Each FPGA is connected to two DDR3 memory modules and three external 10Gbps ports. In addition, a total of 128 low voltage differential input lines permit connection to external ADC cards. The DSP capability of the board exceeds 644E9 complex multiply-accumulate operations per second. The first production run of eight boards was distributed to partners in The Netherlands, France, Italy, UK, China and Korea in May 2011, with a further production runs completed in December 2011 and early 2012. The function of the board is determined by the firmware loaded into its FPGAs. Current applications include beamformers, correlators, digital receivers, RFI mitigation for pulsar astronomy, and pulsar gating and search machines The new UniBoard based correlator for the European VLBI network (EVN) uses an FX architecture with half the resources of the board devoted to station based processing: delay and phase correction and channelization, and half to the correlation function. A single UniBoard can process a 64MHz band from 32 stations, 2 polarizations, sampled at 8 bit. Adding more UniBoards can expand the total bandwidth of the correlator. The design is able to process both prerecorded and real time (eVLBI) data.

  8. Inter-Division IV-V-IX / Working Group Historic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Davies, Rodney D.; Débarbat, Suzanne V.; Morimoto, Masaki; Slysh, Slava; Swarup, Govind; van Woerden, Hugo; Wall, Jasper V.; Wielebinski, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Working Group was formed at the IAU XXV General Assembly in Sydney, 2003, as a joint initiative of Commissions 40 Radio Astronomy and Commission 41 History of Astronomy, in order to assemble a master list of surviving historically-significant radio telescopes and associated instrumentation found

  9. The Very Large Array: Pioneering New Directions in Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The Very Large Array (VLA) started science operations in 1980 and was rechristened the Jansky VLA after a major upgrade to its electronics system was completed in 2012. The VLA plays a prominent role in scientific discovery through studies of the Solar System, star and planet formation, galaxy formation, and time domain astronomy. It has attained iconic status as one of the most scientifically productive telescopes on EarthIn 2017, three major initiatives were launched at the VLA with the goal of maintaining its leadership role and impact in radio astronomy in the near and long term future:1. In September, the VLA embarked upon the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), the highest resolution survey ever undertaken at radio wavelengths. The survey was planned in consultation with the astronomy community and will be used to search for transients, study the polarization properties of extragalactic radio sources, and study highly obscured sources in our Galaxy.2. Detailed planning for a next generation VLA (ngVLA) began in earnest in 2017. The ngVLA will open a new window on the Universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milliarcsecond resolution, as well as unprecedented broad-band continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes. A proposal for the instrument will be submitted to the 2020 Decadal Survey.3. A multi-year program to replace the 40+ year old infrastructure at the VLA site was initiated in 2017. The program includes the replacement of the VLA’s electrical infrastructure in 2018, improvements to the VLA rail system, and the replacement of heavy maintenance equipment.The VLA continued to play a major role in discovering and explaining the physics of transient phenomena in 2017, to include fast transients, such as fast radio bursts, and long time scale transients, such as novae, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts.More thorough descriptions of the VLASS and ngVLA, along with the science that can be done with

  10. DSP-Enabled Radio Astronomy: Towards IIIZW35 Reconquest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Lecacheux

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In radio astronomy, the radio spectrum is used to detect weak emission from celestial sources. By spectral averaging, observation noise is reduced and weak sources can be detected. However, more and more observations are polluted by man-made radio frequency interferences (RFI. The impact of these RFIs on power spectral measurement ranges from total saturation to subtle distortions of the data. To some extent, elimination of artefacts can be achieved by blanking polluted channels in real time. With this aim in view, a complete real-time digital system has been implemented on a set of FPGA and DSP. The current functionalities of the digital system have high dynamic range of 70 dB, bandwidth selection facilities ranging from 875 kHz to 14 MHz, high spectral resolution through a polyphase filter bank with up to 8192 channels with 49 152 coefficients and real-time time-frequency blanking with a robust threshold detector. This receiver has been used to reobserve the IIIWZ35 astronomical source which has been scrambled by a strong satellite RFI for several years.

  11. Found: The Original 1945 Records of Australian Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Miller; Ekers, Ron; Sim, Helen

    2015-08-01

    In July 2014, we found the original records of the first published Australian radio astronomy observations. These were obtained by Joseph L. Pawsey and Ruby Payne-Scott in early October 1945. The observations gave strong evidence of a million degree corona as well as frequent radio bursts.These observations followed earlier detections of the radio sun by Stanley Hey, George Southworth, Grote Reber and Elizabeth Alexander. The latter observations (the "Norfolk Island Effect" of March 1945) were the immediate motivation for the campaign carried out by Pawsey and Payne-Scott.These observations formed the basis for a number of pioneering publications: the 9 February 1946 Nature paper of Pawsey, Payne-Scott and McCready which was submitted on the last date on which data was obtained on 23 October 1945, the major publication of the initial Australian radio solar publication in the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London in August 1947 and Pawsey's presentation of the radio properties of the million degree corona in the Nature of 2 November 1946. Contemporaneously with these publications, D. F.Martyn was involved in an independent theoretical study of the properties of the solar corona.(Ginzburg and Shklovsky were also involved in this era in a study of the properties of the corona.) The back-to-back Martyn and Pawsey Nature papers were the first that described the radio properties of the hot corona, due to free-free emission. The division of the observed emission into "bursting" and "quiet" modes was challenging for the novice radio astronomers.These historical records had been recognized by Paul Wild in 1968, who instructed the CSIRO Division of Radiophysics secretary to E.("Taffy") G. Bowen, Ms. Sally Atkinson, to submit these to the Australian Academy of Science. Wild characterized these documents as "of considerable historical interest". Apparently the transmission of the documents was not done; a thorough search of the Australian Academy Library in August 2014

  12. Compressive Sensing: Analysis of Signals in Radio Astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaigals G.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The compressive sensing (CS theory says that for some kind of signals there is no need to keep or transfer all the data acquired accordingly to the Nyquist criterion. In this work we investigate if the CS approach is applicable for recording and analysis of radio astronomy (RA signals. Since CS methods are applicable for the signals with sparse (and compressible representations, the compressibility of RA signals is verified. As a result, we identify which RA signals can be processed using CS, find the parameters which can improve or degrade CS application to RA results, describe the optimum way how to perform signal filtering in CS applications. Also, a range of virtual LabVIEW instruments are created for the signal analysis with the CS theory.

  13. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teegarden, B.J

    1999-02-11

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world.

  14. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world

  15. Space astronomy and astrophysics program by CSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurin, Denis; Ouellet, Alain; Dupuis, Jean; Chicoine, Ruth-Ann

    2014-07-01

    Canada became actively engaged in space astronomy in the 1990s by contributing two fine guidance sensors to the FUSE Far-UV mission (NASA 1999-2008). In the same period, Canada contributed to ODIN's infrared instrument (ESA 2001-2006) and correlators for VSOP (JAXA 1997-2005). In early 2000, Canada developed its own space telescope, Micro-variability and Observations of STars (MOST), a 15-cm telescope on a microsatellite, operating since 2003, and more recently contributed to the realization of the BRITE nanosatellites constellation. Canada also provided hardware to the European Space Agency's Herschel HIFI instrument and simulators to the SPIRE instrument and data analysis tools for Planck. More recently the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) delivered detector units for the UVIT instrument on board the Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) ASTROSAT. The CSA's most important contribution to a space astronomy mission to date is the Fine Guidance Senor (FGS) and Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) instrument to NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. The CSA is currently building the laser metrology system for JAXA's ASTRO-H hard X-ray telescope. Canadian astronomers contributed to several high profile stratospheric balloon projects investigating the CMB and the CSA recently established a balloon launch facility. As expressed in Canada's new Space Policy Framework announced in February 2014, Canada remains committed to future space exploration endeavors. The policy aims at ensure that Canada is a sought-after partner in the international space exploration missions that serve Canada's national interests; and continuing to invest in the development of Canadian contributions in the form of advanced systems and optical instruments. In the longer term, through consultations and in keeping the Canadian astronomical community's proposed Long Range Plan, the CSA is exploring possibilities to contributions to important missions such as WFIRST, SPICA and Athena

  16. Dictionary of astronomy, space, and atmospheric phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tver, D.F.; Motz, L.; Hartmann, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    This concise and up-to-date compendium features descriptions and definitions of terms, techniques and equipment relating to celestial phenomena. It explains the latest concepts in space exploration, planetary research, stellar astronomy, and meteorological science. The authors explore the general configurations of star groups, galaxy types, stars, and other small bodies in the solar system, including such important facts as magnitude of each and distance from Earth. They describe the brightest stars one by one. Vital data provided by the Viking, Mariner, and Pioneer space probes, the Voyager flights past Jupiter and its moons, and the Apollo landings are clearly presented and explained. New concepts in stellar astronomy such as quasars, neutron stars (pulsars), and black holes are precisely defined. Also included are discussions of meteor showers and the important rock types found on each planet; definitions of meteorological terms, ad astronomical equipment including telescopes, eyepieces and their accessories, the Golay cell, canopus sensor, filar micrometer, and more. Charts aid in identifying and locating stars and planets, and helpful reference tables list the location of the major celestial bodies - asteroids, constellations, the nearest stars, the brightest stars, interesting double and variable stars and cluters. Also included is the Meisser catalog of the coordinates and magnitudes for more than 100 celestial objects

  17. Observing photons in space a guide to experimental space astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Pauluhn, Anuschka; Culhane, J; Timothy, J; Wilhelm, Klaus; Zehnder, Alex

    2013-01-01

    An ideal resource for lecturers, this book provides a comprehensive review of experimental space astronomy. The number of astronomers whose knowledge and interest is concentrated on interpreting observations has grown substantially in the past decades; yet, the number of scientists who are familiar with and capable of dealing with instrumentation has dwindled.  All of the authors of this work are leading and experienced experts and practitioners who have designed, built, tested, calibrated, launched and operated advanced observing equipment for space astronomy. This book also contains concise information on the history of the field, supported by appropriate references. Moreover, scientists working in other fields will be able to get a quick overview of the salient issues of observing photons in any one of the various energy, wavelength and frequency ranges accessible in space. This book was written with the intention to make it accessible to advanced undergraduate and graduate students.

  18. Under the Radar: The First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Goss, W.

    2012-05-01

    Under the Radar, the First Woman in Radio Astronomy, Ruby Payne-Scott W. Miller Goss, NRAO Socorro NM Ruby Payne-Scott (1912-1981) was an eminent Australian scientist who made major contributions to the WWII radar effort (CSIR) from 1941 to 1945. In late 1945, she pioneered radio astronomy efforts at Dover Heights in Sydney, Australia at a beautiful cliff top overlooking the Tasman Sea. Again at Dover Heights, Payne-Scott carried out the first interferometry in radio astronomy using an Australian Army radar antenna as a radio telescope at sun-rise, 26 January 1946. She continued these ground breaking activities until 1951. Ruby Payne-Scott played a major role in discovering and elucidating the properties of Type III bursts from the sun, the most common of the five classes of transient phenomena from the solar corona. These bursts are one of the most intensively studied forms of radio emission in all of astronomy. She is also one of the inventors of aperture synthesis in radio astronomy. I examine her career at the University of Sydney and her conflicts with the CSIR hierarchy concerning the rights of women in the work place, specifically equal wages and the lack of permanent status for married women. I also explore her membership in the Communist Party of Australia as well as her partially released Australian Scientific Intelligence Organization file. Payne-Scott’s role as a major participant in the flourishing radio astronomy research of the post war era remains a remarkable story. She had a number of strong collaborations with the pioneers of early radio astronomy in Australia: Pawsey, Mills, Christiansen, Bolton and Little. I am currently working on a popular version of the Payne-Scott story; “Making Waves, The Story of Ruby Payne-Scott: Australian Pioneer Radio Astronomer” will be published in 2013 by Springer in the Astronomers’ Universe Series.

  19. Panoramic Radio Astronomy : Wide-field 1-2 GHz research on galaxy evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, G.; Serra, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution we give a brief overview of the Panoramic Radio Astronomy (PRA) conference held on 2-5 June 2009 in Groningen, the Netherlands. The conference was motivated by the on-going development of a large number of new radio telescopes and instruments which, within a few years, will

  20. Collaboration and Development of Radio Astronomy in Australasia and South-Pacific Region: New Zealand Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, S.; Natusch, T.

    2006-08-01

    Radio telescopes in the Asia-Pacific region form a natural network for VLBI observations, similar to the very successful networks in North America (Network Users Group) and Europe (European VLBI Network). New Zealand's VLBI facility, which we are developing since 2005, has the potential to strengthen the Asian-Pacific VLBI network and its role in astronomy, geodesy and geoscience. It will positively influence regional and international activities in geoscience and geodesy that advance New Zealand's national interests. A self-contained radio astronomy system for VLBI, including a 1.658 GHz (centre frequency), 16 MHz bandwidth RF system (feed and downconversion system locked to a Rubidium maser and GPS clock), an 8-bit sampler/digitisation system, and a disk-based recording system built around a commodity PC was developed in New Zealand Centre for Radiophysics and Space Research. This was designed as a portable system for use on various radio telescopes. A number of Trans-Tasman tests has been conducted in 2005-2006 between the CRSR system installed on a 6 metre dish located in Auckland and the Australia Telescope Compact Array in Narrabri, Australia. This work has been successful, with fringes located from the recorded data and high resolution image of the quasar PKS1921-231 obtained. Experiments were recently conducted with Japan; new tests are planned with Korea and Fiji. Plans have been made to build a new 16.5 m antenna in New Zealand's North Island and to upgrade an 11 m dish in the South Island. A possible future of New Zealand's participation in the SKA is being discussed.

  1. Future of Space Astronomy: A Global Road Map for the Next Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubertini, Pietro; Gehrels, Neil; Corbett, Ian; DeBernardis, Paolo; Machado, Marcos; Griffin, Matt; Hauser, Michael; Manchanda, Ravinder K.; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; hide

    2012-01-01

    The use of space techniques continues to play a key role in the advance of astrophysics by providing access to the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the radio observations to the high energy gamma rays. The increasing size, complexity and cost of large space observatories places a growing emphasis on international collaboration. Furthermore, combining existing and future datasets from space and ground based observatories is an emerging mode of powerful and relatively inexpensive research to address problems that can only be tackled by the application of large multi-wavelength observations. If the present set of space and ground-based astronomy facilities today is impressive and complete, with space and ground based astronomy telescopes nicely complementing each other, the situation becomes concerning and critical in the next 10-20 years. In fact, only a few main space missions are planned, possibly restricted to JWST and, perhaps, WFIRST and SPICA, since no other main facilities are already recommended. A "Working Group on the Future of Space Astronomy" was established at the 38th COSPAR Assembly held in Bremen, Germany in July 2010. The purpose of this Working Group was to establish a roadmap for future major space missions to complement future large ground-based telescopes. This paper presents the results of this study including a number of recommendations and a road map for the next decades of Space Astronomy research.

  2. New Book Recounts Exciting, Colorful History Of Radio Astronomy in Green Bank, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A new book published by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) tells the story of the founding and early years of the Observatory at Green Bank, West Virginia. But it was Fun: the first forty years of radio astronomy at Green Bank, is not a formal history, but rather a scrapbook of early memos, recollections, anecdotes and reports. But it was Fun... is liberally illustrated with archival photographs. It includes historical and scientific papers from symposia held in 1987 and 1995 to celebrate the birthdays of two of the radio telescopes at the Observatory. Book cover The National Radio Astronomy Observatory was formed in 1956 after the National Science Foundation decided to establish an observatory in the eastern United States for the study of faint radio signals from distant objects in the Universe. But it was Fun... reprints early memos from the group of scientists who searched the mountains for a suitable site -- an area free from radio transmitters and other sources of radio interference -- "in a valley surrounded by as many ranges of high mountains in as many directions as possible," which was "at least 50 miles distant from any city or other concentration of people." The committee settled on Green Bank, a small village in West Virginia, and the book documents the struggles that followed to create a world-class scientific facility in an isolated area more accustomed to cows than computers. Groundbreaking at the Observatory, then a patchwork of farms and fields, took place in October 1957, only a few days after the launch of Sputnik by the Soviet Union. A year later, Green Bank's first telescope was dedicated, and the book contains a transcription of speeches given at that ceremony, when the Cold War, the space race and America's scientific stature were issues of the hour. The centerpiece of the new Observatory was to be a highly-precise radio telescope 140 feet in diameter, but it was expected that it would soon be surpassed by dishes of much greater

  3. Space astronomy and astrophysics program by NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Paul L.

    2014-07-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration recently released the NASA Strategic Plan 20141, and the NASA Science Mission Directorate released the NASA 2014 Science Plan3. These strategic documents establish NASA's astrophysics strategic objectives to be (i) to discover how the universe works, (ii) to explore how it began and evolved, and (iii) to search for life on planets around other stars. The multidisciplinary nature of astrophysics makes it imperative to strive for a balanced science and technology portfolio, both in terms of science goals addressed and in missions to address these goals. NASA uses the prioritized recommendations and decision rules of the National Research Council's 2010 decadal survey in astronomy and astrophysics2 to set the priorities for its investments. The NASA Astrophysics Division has laid out its strategy for advancing the priorities of the decadal survey in its Astrophysics 2012 Implementation Plan4. With substantial input from the astrophysics community, the NASA Advisory Council's Astrophysics Subcommittee has developed an astrophysics visionary roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions5, to examine possible longer-term futures. The successful development of the James Webb Space Telescope leading to a 2018 launch is an Agency priority. One important goal of the Astrophysics Division is to begin a strategic mission, subject to the availability of funds, which follows from the 2010 decadal survey and is launched after the James Webb Space Telescope. NASA is studying a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its next large astrophysics mission. NASA is also planning to partner with other space agencies on their missions as well as increase the cadence of smaller Principal Investigator led, competitively selected Astrophysics Explorers missions.

  4. Cosmic Noise: The Pioneers of Early Radio Astronomy and Their Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

    2012-01-01

    Extraterrestrial radio waves (the galactic background), often referred to as "cosmic noise", were first detected accidentally by Karl Jansky at a frequency of 20 MHz in 1932, with significant followup by Grote Reber. Yet after World War II it was England and Australia that dominated the field. An entirely different sky from that of visual astronomy was revealed by the discoveries of solar noise, "radio stars” (discrete sources such as Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, Cen A and Vir A), galactic noise, lunar and meteor radar experiments, the detection of the 21 cm hydrogen line, and eventually optical identifications such as the Crab Nebula and M87. Key players included wartime radar experts such as Stanley Hey (the British Army's Operational Research Group), Martin Ryle (Cambridge University), Bernard Lovell (Jodrell Bank) and Joe Pawsey (Radiophysics Lab, Sydney). Younger leaders also emerged such as Graham Smith, Tony Hewish, John Davies, "Chris" Christiansen, Bernie Mills, Paul Wild, and John Bolton. Some optical astronomers (Jan Oort, Henk van de Hulst, Jesse Greenstein, Rudolph Minkowski, and Walter Baade) were also extremely supportive. By the end of the postwar decade, radio astronomy was firmly established within the gamut of astronomy, although very few of its practitioners had been trained as astronomers. I will also trace the technical and social aspects of this wholly new type of astronomy, with special attention on military and national influences. I argue that radio astronomy represents one of the key developments in twentieth century astronomy not only because of its own discoveries, but also its pathfinding for the further opening the electromagnetic spectrum. This study is based on exhaustive archival research and over one hundred interviews with pioneering radio astronomers. Full details are available in the book "Cosmic Noise: A History of Early Radio Astronomy" (Cambridge Univ. Pr.).

  5. Commercial Optics for Space Surveillance and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Kopit, E.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    Since the first days of the space program, there have been both amateur and government satellite watchers. Large, expensive government systems with custom optics are still the most capable, but with modern sensors and high speed computers, amateur trackers are easily pushing the limits of what government systems achieved only a decade ago. A very recent trend in the space world is the emergence of commercial space operations centers. Once the exclusive purview of governments, corporations are now providing orbital environment awareness services to the operators of commercial satellites. The requirement for synoptic satellite observations has led to corporations developing world-wide observing networks. A problem facing both amateur and corporate observers is the limited availability of suitable optical systems. Most observing efforts rely on long focus (f/8 or greater) optical systems with focal reducers, and a somewhat limited field of view. Often, the cameras in use are not ideally matched to the optical system. While there are a few exceptions, the choices are not many. Celestron recently introduced the C-11 RASA optical system, with an 11-inch aperture and an f/2.2 focal ratio. This optical system is designed for dedicated imaging and is ideally suited for both wide-field astronomy and the detection and tracking of satellites. The larger C-14 RASA, to be introduced later this year, was specifically designed for wide-field imaging with large commercial CCDs. It offers greater sensitivity and a wider field of view than the smaller C-11 RASA and should prove to be the instrument of choice for both amateur and corporate satellite observers. We present data from satellite observations with a production model C-11 RASA and estimated performance for the new C-14 RASA.

  6. The wideband backend for host country radio astronomy in the Spanish DSN Robledo complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, J. R.; Pedreira, A.; García Miró, C.; Sotuela, I.; Kuiper, T. B. H.; Cernicharo, J.; Castro Cerón, J. M.; Larrañaga, J. R.; Ojalvo, L.

    2012-09-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network hosts three complexes worldwide for spacecrafts tracking. The Spanish complex, the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC), operates a set of highly sensitive antennas, which are used for Host Country Radio Astronomy (HCRA) during a percentage of their operational time. We have designed, developed and built a wideband backend for HCRA in MDSCC, which greatly improves its available facilities, and opens new scientic cases to be tackled. The backend is able to sample up to 6 GHz of instantaneous bandwidth, in the frequency range from 18 to 50 GHz, using two dierent antennas. An intermediate-frequency (IF) processor downconverts the two-polarization signals to four base-band channels of 1.5 GHz width. Digitalisation is done through a set of FPGA-based FFT spectrometers, which can provide spectral resolutions from 7 to 200 kHz, and spectral coverages from 100MHz to 1.5 GHz each. This new facility enables HCRA to aord new scientic projects, such as extragalactic radio astronomy and spectral surveys; at the same time, the available time for HC is greatly optimized. It was necessary the development of dedicated software for spectra acquisition and control of the equipment, and also the upgrading of the existing observing programs. Once end-to-end assembled, the whole backend was tested through a set of commissioning observations. In this contribution the main features of the new backend are described, including the IF processor, the FFT spectrometer and the developed software. Some astronomical results are also included.

  7. Scientific Visualization of Radio Astronomy Data using Gesture Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulumba, P.; Gain, J.; Marais, P.; Woudt, P.

    2015-09-01

    MeerKAT in South Africa (Meer = More Karoo Array Telescope) will require software to help visualize, interpret and interact with multidimensional data. While visualization of multi-dimensional data is a well explored topic, little work has been published on the design of intuitive interfaces to such systems. More specifically, the use of non-traditional interfaces (such as motion tracking and multi-touch) has not been widely investigated within the context of visualizing astronomy data. We hypothesize that a natural user interface would allow for easier data exploration which would in turn lead to certain kinds of visualizations (volumetric, multidimensional). To this end, we have developed a multi-platform scientific visualization system for FITS spectral data cubes using VTK (Visualization Toolkit) and a natural user interface to explore the interaction between a gesture input device and multidimensional data space. Our system supports visual transformations (translation, rotation and scaling) as well as sub-volume extraction and arbitrary slicing of 3D volumetric data. These tasks were implemented across three prototypes aimed at exploring different interaction strategies: standard (mouse/keyboard) interaction, volumetric gesture tracking (Leap Motion controller) and multi-touch interaction (multi-touch monitor). A Heuristic Evaluation revealed that the volumetric gesture tracking prototype shows great promise for interfacing with the depth component (z-axis) of 3D volumetric space across multiple transformations. However, this is limited by users needing to remember the required gestures. In comparison, the touch-based gesture navigation is typically more familiar to users as these gestures were engineered from standard multi-touch actions. Future work will address a complete usability test to evaluate and compare the different interaction modalities against the different visualization tasks.

  8. Making Space for Specialized Astronomy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, D.

    2007-10-01

    With the growth of both free and subscription-based resources, articles on astronomy have never been easier to find. Locating the best and most current materials for any given search, however, now requires multiple tools and strategies dependent on the query. An analysis of the tools currently available shows that while astronomy is well-served by Google Scholar, Scopus and Inspec, its literature is best accessed through specialized resources such as ADS (Astrophysics Data System). While no surprise to astronomers, this has major implications for those of us who teach information literacy skills to astronomy students and work in academic settings where astronomy is just one of many subjects for which our non-specialist colleagues at the reference desk provide assistance. This paper will examine some of the implications of this analysis for library instruction, reference assistance and training, and library webpage development.

  9. The TF1 Radio Astronomy Working Group in the Andean ROAD: goals and challenges for 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaparro Molano, G.

    2017-07-01

    Since the creation of the Andean Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) of the International Astronomical Union, one of the main goals has been to foster a scientific culture of radio astronomy in countries of the central and northern Andes (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, and Venezuela). For this reason, Andean ROAD Task Force 1 (Research and Education in Universities) created the Radio Astronomy Working Group to set a path along which collaborative endeavors can grow and yield scientific results. The first official meeting of the Working Group took place in Bogotá, Colombia during the 2nd Astronomá en los Andes Workshop (2015) where scientists actively developing projects in radio astronomy set goals for the near future, such as improving mobility for researchers and students, developing collaborations in related areas such as engineering and data science, and building transnational collaborations aiming at developing VLBI across the countries of the Andean ROAD and beyond. In this poster, I present current projects and associated research groups (ROAS - Perú, SiAMo - Colombia, Alfa-Orion UTP - Colombia, RAIG - Chile) and discuss goalposts and current challenges in the development of transnational radioastronomical projects. As a case study, I present the development and early astronomical results of the privately funded UECCI 4m Radio Telescope for 21 cm line observations in Bogotá, Colombia.

  10. New Mexico Fiber-Optic Link Marks Giant Leap Toward Future of Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    SOCORRO, NM -- Scientists and engineers at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) have made a giant leap toward the future of radio astronomy by successfully utilizing the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in conjunction with an antenna of the continent-wide Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) using the longest fiber-optic data link ever demonstrated in radio astronomy. The 65-mile fiber link will allow scientists to use the two National Science Foundation (NSF) facilities together in real time, and is the first step toward expanding the VLA to include eight proposed new radio-telescope antennas throughout New Mexico. LEFT: Miller Goss, NRAO's director of VLA/VLBA Operations, unveils graphic showing success of the Pie Town-VLA fiber link. The project, funded by the NSF and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), which operates NRAO for the NSF, links the VLA and the VLBA antenna in Pie Town, NM, using a Western New Mexico Telephone Co. fiber-optic cable. The successful hookup was announced at a ceremony that also marked the 10th anniversary of NRAO's Operations Center in Socorro. "Linking the Pie Town antenna to the VLA quadruples the VLA's ability to make detailed images of astronomical objects," said Paul Vanden Bout, NRAO's Director. "This alone makes the link an advance for science, but its greater importance is that it clearly demonstrates the technology for improving the VLA's capabilities even more in the future." "Clearly, the big skies and wide open spaces in New Mexico create near perfect conditions for the incredible astronomical assets located in our state. This new fiber-optic link paves the way for multiplying the already breathtaking scientific capabilities of the VLA," Senator Pete Domenici (R-NM) said. The VLA is a system of 27 radio-telescope antennas distributed over the high desert west of Socorro, NM, in the shape of a giant "Y." Made famous in movies, commercials and numerous published photos, the VLA has been one of the most productive

  11. Astronomy and astrophysics for the 1970's. Volume 2. Reports of the panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Specific panel reports include: radio astronomy, optical astronomy, infrared astronomy, space astronomy, solar astronomy, theoretical astrophysics, dynamical astronomy, astrophysics and relativity, and statistics. These provide guidance as to the major trends anticipated in astronomical and astrophysical research. They also list instrumental facilities, auxiliary equipment, and programs of theoretical research and offer numerous recommendations

  12. Astronomers Make First Images With Space Radio Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Marking an important new milestone in radio astronomy history, scientists at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, have made the first images using a radio telescope antenna in space. The images, more than a million times more detailed than those produced by the human eye, used the new Japanese HALCA satellite, working in conjunction with the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Very Large Array (VLA) ground-based radio telescopes. The landmark images are the result of a long-term NRAO effort supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). "This success means that our ability to make detailed radio images of objects in the universe is no longer limited by the size of the Earth," said NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout. "Astronomy's vision has just become much sharper." HALCA, launched on Feb. 11 by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), is the first satellite designed for radio astronomy imaging. It is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by NRAO; Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL); the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. On May 22, HALCA observed a distant active galaxy called PKS 1519-273, while the VLBA and VLA also observed it. Data from the satellite was received by a tracking station at the NRAO facility in Green Bank, West Virginia. Tape-recorded data from the satellite and from the radio telescopes on the ground were sent to NRAO's Array Operations Center (AOC) in Socorro, NM. In Socorro, astronomers and computer scientists used a special-purpose computer to digitally combine the signals from the satellite and the ground telescopes to make them all work together as a single, giant radio telescope. This dedicated machine, the VLBA Correlator, built as

  13. MULTI-MESSENGER ASTRONOMY OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES WITH FLEXIBLE WIDE-AREA RADIO TRANSIENT SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yancey, Cregg C.; Shawhan, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Bear, Brandon E.; Akukwe, Bernadine; Simonetti, John H.; Tsai, Jr-Wei [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Chen, Kevin [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Dowell, Jayce; Obenberger, Kenneth; Taylor, Gregory B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque NM, 87131 (United States); Gough, Jonathan D. [Department of Chemistry, Lehman College, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Kanner, Jonah [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California CA 91125 (United States); Kavic, Michael [Department of Physics, Long Island University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)

    2015-10-20

    We explore opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy using gravitational waves (GWs) and prompt, transient low-frequency radio emission to study highly energetic astrophysical events. We review the literature on possible sources of correlated emission of GWs and radio transients, highlighting proposed mechanisms that lead to a short-duration, high-flux radio pulse originating from the merger of two neutron stars or from a superconducting cosmic string cusp. We discuss the detection prospects for each of these mechanisms by low-frequency dipole array instruments such as LWA1, the Low Frequency Array and the Murchison Widefield Array. We find that a broad range of models may be tested by searching for radio pulses that, when de-dispersed, are temporally and spatially coincident with a LIGO/Virgo GW trigger within a ∼30 s time window and ∼200–500 deg{sup 2} sky region. We consider various possible observing strategies and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Uniquely, for low-frequency radio arrays, dispersion can delay the radio pulse until after low-latency GW data analysis has identified and reported an event candidate, enabling a prompt radio signal to be captured by a deliberately targeted beam. If neutron star mergers do have detectable prompt radio emissions, a coincident search with the GW detector network and low-frequency radio arrays could increase the LIGO/Virgo effective search volume by up to a factor of ∼2. For some models, we also map the parameter space that may be constrained by non-detections.

  14. Astronomie spatiale infrarouge, aujourd’hui et demain = Infrared space astronomy, today and tomorrow

    CERN Document Server

    Lequeux, J; David, F

    2000-01-01

    This book brings together the lectures given at the Les Houches summer school "Infrared space astronomy, today and tomorrow". It gives a wide overview of infrared astronomy, a wavelength domain crucial for studies of the solar system, stars at the beginning and end of their lives, interstellar matter and galaxies at all distances. Recent developments in observational techniques have been tremendous. The first contributions give an introduction to the basic physical processes and methods of detection and data processing. They are followed by a series of lectures dealing with the wide variety of astronomical objects that can be seen in the infrared.

  15. International Colloquium on Scattering and Scintillation in Radio Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Coles, W A; Rickett, B J; Bird, M K; Efimov, A I; Samoznaev, L N; Rudash, V K; Chashei, I V; Plettemeier, D; Spangler, S R; Tokarev, Y; Belov, Y; Boiko, G; Komrakov, G; Chau, J; Harmon, J; Sulzer, M; Kojima, M; Tokumaru, M; Fujiki, K; Janardhan, P; Jackson, B V; Hick, P P; Buffington, A; Olyak, M R; Fallows, R A; Nechaeva, M B; Gavrilenko, V G; Gorshenkov, Yu N; Alimov, V A; Molotov, I E; Pushkarev, A B; Shanks, R; Tuccari, G; Lotova, N A; Vladimirski, K V; Obridko, V N; Gubenko, V N; Andreev, V E; Stinebring, D R; Gwinn, C; Lovell, J E J; Jauncey, D L; Senkbeil, C; Shabala, S; Bignall, H E; MacQuart, J P; Kedziora-Chudczer, L; Smirnova, T V; Malofeev, V M; Malov, O I; Tyulbashev, S A; Jessner, A; Sieber, W; Wielebinski, R; Scattering and Scintillation in Radio Astronomy

    2006-01-01

    Topics of the Colloquium: a) Interplanetary scintillation b) Interstellar scintillation c) Modeling and physical origin of the interplanetary and the interstellar plasma turbulence d) Scintillation as a tool for investigation of radio sources e) Seeing through interplanetary and interstellar turbulent media Ppt-presentations are available on the Web-site: http://www.prao.ru/conf/Colloquium/main.html

  16. Division X Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Kellermann, Kenneth I.; Davies, Rodney D.; Débarbat, Suzanne V.; Morimoto, Masaki; Slysh, Slava; Swarup, Govind; van Woerden, Hugo; Wall, Jasper V.; Wielebinski, Richard

    During the Rio General Assembly we held the following meetings of the Working Group: a Business Meeting, a Science Meeting on “The Development of Aperture Synthesis Imaging in Radio Astronomy”, and a Science Meeting on “Recent Research”.

  17. Bayesian estimation for ionospheric calibration in radio astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Tol, S.

    2009-01-01

    Radio astronomical observations at low frequencies (< 250 MHz), can be severely distorted by fluctuations in electron density in the ionosphere. The free electrons cause a phase change of electromagnetic waves traveling through the ionosphere. This effect increases for lower frequencies. For this

  18. Testing the Copernican principle with future radio-astronomy observations

    OpenAIRE

    Bester, Hertzog L.; Larena, Julien; Bishop, Nigel T.

    2017-01-01

    We use a direct observational approach to investigate the possibility of testing the Copernican principle with data from upcoming radio surveys. In particular we illustrate the importance of measuring derivatives transverse to the past light-cone when prior knowledge of the value of the cosmological constant is not available.

  19. Advanced Technologies For Heterodyne Radio Astronomy Instrumentation - Part1 By A. Pavolotsky, And Advanced Technologies For Heterodyne Radio Astronomy Instrumentation - Part2 By V. Desmaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavolotsky, Alexey

    2018-01-01

    Modern and future heterodyne radio astronomy instrumentation critically depends on availability of advanced fabrication technologies and components. In Part1 of the Poster, we present the thin film fabrication process for SIS mixer receivers, utilizing either AlOx, or AlN barrier superconducting tunnel junctions developed and supported by GARD. The summary of the process design rules is presented. It is well known that performance of waveguide mixer components critically depends on accuracy of their geometrical dimensions. At GARD, all critical mechanical parts are 3D-mapped with a sub-um accuracy. Further progress of heterodyne instrumentation requires new efficient and compact sources of LO signal. We present SIS-based frequency multiplier, which could become a new option for LO source. Future radio astronomy THz receivers will need waveguide components, which fabricating due to their tiny dimensions is not feasible by traditional mechanical machining. We present the alternative micromachining technique for fabricating waveguide component for up 5 THz band and probably beyond.

  20. Radio Astronomy at the Centre for High Performance Computing in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catherine Cress; UWC Simulation Team

    2014-04-01

    I will present results on galaxy evolution and cosmology which we obtained using the supercomputing facilities at the CHPC. These include cosmological-scale N-body simulations modelling neutral hydrogen as well as the study of the clustering of radio galaxies to probe the relationship between dark and luminous matter in the universe. I will also discuss the various roles that the CHPC is playing in Astronomy in SA, including the provision of HPC for a variety of Astronomical applications, the provision of storage for radio data, our educational programs and our participation in planning for the SKA.

  1. Workshop on Satellite Power Systems (SPS) effects on optical and radio astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, G.M.; Ekstrom, P.A.

    1980-04-01

    The impacts of the SPS on astronomy were concluded to be: increased sky brightness, reducing the effective aperture of terrestrial telescopes; microwave leakage radiation causing erroneous radioastronomical signals; direct overload of radioastronomical receivers at centimeter wavelengths; and unintentional radio emissions associated with massive amounts of microwave power or with the presence of large, warm structures in orbit causing the satellites to appear as individual stationary radio sources; finally, the fixed location of the geostationary satellite orbits would result in fixed regions of the sky being unusable for observations

  2. Low-Power Architectures for Large Radio Astronomy Correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry R.

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a cross-correlator for a synthesis radio telescope with N greater than 1000 antennas is studied with the objective of minimizing power consumption. It is found that the optimum architecture minimizes memory operations, and this implies preference for a matrix structure over a pipeline structure and avoiding the use of memory banks as accumulation registers when sharing multiply-accumulators among baselines. A straw-man design for N = 2000 and bandwidth of 1 GHz, based on ASICs fabricated in a 90 nm CMOS process, is presented. The cross-correlator proper (excluding per-antenna processing) is estimated to consume less than 35 kW.

  3. Instrumentation for Kinetic-Inductance-Detector-Based Submillimeter Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Ran

    A substantial amount of important scientific information is contained within astronomical data at the submillimeter and far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths, including information regarding dusty galaxies, galaxy clusters, and star-forming regions; however, these wavelengths are among the least-explored fields in astronomy because of the technological difficulties involved in such research. Over the past 20 years, considerable efforts have been devoted to developing submillimeter- and millimeter-wavelength astronomical instruments and telescopes. The number of detectors is an important property of such instruments and is the subject of the current study. Future telescopes will require as many as hundreds of thousands of detectors to meet the necessary requirements in terms of the field of view, scan speed, and resolution. A large pixel count is one benefit of the development of multiplexable detectors that use kinetic inductance detector (KID) technology. This dissertation presents the development of a KID-based instrument including a portion of the millimeter-wave bandpass filters and all aspects of the readout electronics, which together enabled one of the largest detector counts achieved to date in submillimeter-/millimeter-wavelength imaging arrays: a total of 2304 detectors. The work presented in this dissertation has been implemented in the MUltiwavelength Submillimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC), a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO).

  4. Four pillars of radio astronomy Mills, Christiansen, Wild, Bracewell

    CERN Document Server

    Frater, R H; Wendt, H W

    2017-01-01

    This is the story of Bernie Mills, Chris Christiansen, Paul Wild and Ron Bracewell, members of a team of radio astronomers that would lead Australia, and the world, into this new field of research. Each of the four is remembered for his remarkable work: Mills for the development the cross type instrument that now bears his name; Christiansen for the application of rotational synthesis techniques; Wild for the masterful joining of observations and theory to elicit the nature of the solar atmosphere; Bracewell for his contribution to imaging theory. As well, these Four Pillars are remembered for creating a remarkable environment for scientific discovery and for influencing the careers of future generations. Their pursuit of basic science helped pave the way for technological developments in areas ranging from Wi-Fi to sonar to medical imaging to air navigation, and for underpinning the foundations of modern cosmology and astrophysics.

  5. HERA Broadband Feed Design for Low-Frequency Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Sierra; Trung, Vincent; Ewall-Wice, Aaron Michael; Li, Jianshu; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Riley, Daniel; Bradley, Richard F.; Makhija, Krishna

    2018-01-01

    As part of the Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array (HERA) project, we are designing a broadband low-frequency radio feed to extend the bandwidth from 100-200 MHz to 50-220 MHz. By extending the lower-limit to 50 MHz, we hope to detect the signatures of the first black holes heating the hydrogen gas in the intergalactic medium.The isolation of a very faint signal from vastly brighter foregrounds sets strict requirements on antenna spectral smoothness, polarization purity, forward gain, and internal reflections. We are currently working to meet these requirements with a broad-band sinuous antenna feed suspended over the 14-m parabolic HERA dish, using a combination of measurements and simulations to verify the performance of our design.A sinuous feed has been designed and simulated with Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software. We will present the construction of a prototype sinuous antenna and measurements of its reflection coefficient, S11, including laboratory characterization of baluns. Our measurements agree well with the CST simulations of the antenna’s performance, giving us confidence in our ability to model the feed and ensure that it meets the requirements of a 21cm cosmology measurement.

  6. High-energy astronomy in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounds, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    Highlights of British research on radio galaxies, x-ray astronomy, and hot black holes are described. The prospects for international collaboration on space projects, in particular x-ray astronomy, are discussed

  7. Antenna design and implementation for the future space Ultra-Long wavelength radio telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linjie; Aminaei, Amin; Gurvits, Leonid I.; Wolt, Marc Klein; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Yan, Yihua; Falcke, Heino

    2018-04-01

    In radio astronomy, the Ultra-Long Wavelengths (ULW) regime of longer than 10 m (frequencies below 30 MHz), remains the last virtually unexplored window of the celestial electromagnetic spectrum. The strength of the science case for extending radio astronomy into the ULW window is growing. However, the opaqueness of the Earth's ionosphere makes ULW observations by ground-based facilities practically impossible. Furthermore, the ULW spectrum is full of anthropogenic radio frequency interference (RFI). The only radical solution for both problems is in placing an ULW astronomy facility in space. We present a concept of a key element of a space-borne ULW array facility, an antenna that addresses radio astronomical specifications. A tripole-type antenna and amplifier are analysed as a solution for ULW implementation. A receiver system with a low power dissipation is discussed as well. The active antenna is optimized to operate at the noise level defined by the celestial emission in the frequency band 1 - 30 MHz. Field experiments with a prototype tripole antenna enabled estimates of the system noise temperature. They indicated that the proposed concept meets the requirements of a space-borne ULW array facility.

  8. The contribution of the Georges Heights Experimental Radar Antenna to Australian radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Wendt, Harry

    2017-12-01

    During the late 1940s and throughout the1950s Australia was one of the world’s foremost astronomical nations owing primarily to the dynamic Radio Astronomy Group within the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Organisation’s Division of Radiophysics based in Sydney. The earliest celestial observations were made with former WWII radar antennas and simple Yagi aerials attached to recycled radar receivers, before more sophisticated purpose-built radio telescopes of various types were designed and developed. One of the recycled WWII antennas that was used extensively for pioneering radio astronomical research was an experimental radar antenna that initially was located at the Division’s short-lived Georges Heights Field Station but in 1948 was relocated to the new Potts Hill Field Station in suburban Sydney. In this paper we describe this unique antenna, and discuss the wide-ranging solar, galactic and extragalactic research programs that it was used for.

  9. Space instrumentation: physics and astronomy in harmony?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aderin, M

    2008-01-01

    Surrey Satellite Technology Limited was formed as a company in 1985 and has been involved in 23 small satellite missions, making it the most successful and experienced small satellite supplier in the world. The challenge of getting a satellite into space takes a dedicated multidisciplinary team of physicists and engineers working together to achieve a common goal. In this paper the author will look at the breakdown of the teams for a number of space projects including NigeriaSAT1; one of the satellites that make up the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC), which produces high quality commercial images for monitoring agriculture and the environment as well as dedicating a proportion of it's time to disaster monitoring. Commercial projects like this will be contrasted to instruments such as the Integral Field Unit (IFU) for the NIRSpec instrument on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST is the replacement for the Hubble Space telescope). Although both projects have been running through commercial contracts at SSTL, how does the final goal of the instrument influence the synergy between the physics and the engineering needed to make it, and what, if any, economic differences are seen?

  10. Exploring the Birth and Evolution of the Universe: How Detectors Have Revolutionized Space Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Samuel H.

    2012-01-01

    The past century has seen tremendous advances in the capability of instruments used for astronomical imaging and spectroscopy. Capabilities of instruments have expanded in many dimensions; the scale of telescopes has grown tremendously, the wavelengths used for astronomy have grown from visible light to the full electromagnetic spectrum, extending from gamma rays to low frequency radio waves. Additional advances have been enabled by the availability of space facilities, which eliminate the effects of the earths atmosphere and magnetosphere, and allow cooling of instruments to avoid instrumental thermal radiation. Even with all these advances, the increase in capability of detection systems has produced truly revolutionary improvements in capability. Today, I will describe the advances in astronomical detection from the photographic plates of the early 20th century to the giant high efficiency focal planes being developed for modern space and ground based astronomical instrument. I will review the demanding performance requirements set by space astronomy, and show how the detector community has risen to the challenge in producing high performance detectors for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the James Webb Space Telescope, now under development.

  11. Heterogeneous real-time computing in radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John M.; Demorest, Paul; Ransom, Scott

    2010-07-01

    Modern computer architectures suited for general purpose computing are often not the best choice for either I/O-bound or compute-bound problems. Sometimes the best choice is not to choose a single architecture, but to take advantage of the best characteristics of different computer architectures to solve your problems. This paper examines the tradeoffs between using computer systems based on the ubiquitous X86 Central Processing Units (CPU's), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based signal processors, and Graphical Processing Units (GPU's). We will show how a heterogeneous system can be produced that blends the best of each of these technologies into a real-time signal processing system. FPGA's tightly coupled to analog-to-digital converters connect the instrument to the telescope and supply the first level of computing to the system. These FPGA's are coupled to other FPGA's to continue to provide highly efficient processing power. Data is then packaged up and shipped over fast networks to a cluster of general purpose computers equipped with GPU's, which are used for floating-point intensive computation. Finally, the data is handled by the CPU and written to disk, or further processed. Each of the elements in the system has been chosen for its specific characteristics and the role it can play in creating a system that does the most for the least, in terms of power, space, and money.

  12. Infrared, Submillimeter, and RadioAstronomy Program Astophysics Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takeshi

    1996-01-01

    The object of my research for the NASA grant NAGW-4769 was to observe infrared spectra of molecular ions with special astrophysical interest in plasmas both in the laboratory and in space. Progress made during the period from September 1995 to September 1996 is summarized in the following: 1. Detection of Interstellar H3(+) The discovery of interstellar H3(+) through its mid-infrared absorption spectrum was by far the most inspiring development during this fiscal year. H3(+), the simplest stable polyatomic system, has been postulated to play the central role in the ion-neutral reaction scheme of interstellar chemistry, but its presence had not been directly observed in spite of intensive searches by several groups. 2. Observation of High Revibrational States of H3(+). The initial discovery of H3(+) in the Jovian aurora region was made through the identification of the 2(nu)(sub 2)(sup 2) approaches O overtone band indicating the population of H3(+) in high revibration state. 3. Observation of Ortho-Para H3(+) selection rules in plasma chemistry. Celection rules that relate quantum states before and ufter various processes are fascinating subject based on the symmetry argument. 4. Spectroscopy of other ions. Spectroscopy of carbocations ch3(+), CH2(+), C2H3(+) and C2H2(+) has been continued.

  13. Measurement Technique in Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Study for Radio Astronomy Purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Nor Hazmin Sabri; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim; Zamri Zainal Abidin; Asyaari Muhamad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we will review our method in making measurements of radio frequency interference (RFI) in order to investigate the sereneness of interference in selected radio interference in Malaysia and Thailand. The selected site are University of Malaya (UM), Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI), Ubon (UB) and Chiang Mai (CM). The major RFI affecting radio astronomical windows below 1 GHz are electronic equipment system specifically radio navigation between 73.1 MHz and 75.2 MHz, radio broadcasting (151 MHz, 151.8 MHz and 152 MHz), aeronautical navigation (245.5 MHz, 248.7 MHz and 249 MHz and also fixed mobile at 605 MHz, 608.3 MHz, 612.2 MHz, 613.3 MHz. It is obviously showed that all sites within this region are free from interference between 320MHz and 330 MHz and is the best specific region to be considered for solar burst monitoring. We also investigate the effect of RFI on discovery of solar burst. (author)

  14. Optimization of a Conical Corrugated Antenna Using Multiobjective Heuristics for Radio-Astronomy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    López-Ruiz, S.; Sánchez Montero, R.; Tercero-Martínez, F.; López-Espí, P. L.; López-Fernandez, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a tree sections corrugated horn antenna with a modified linear profile, using NURBS, suitable for radio-astronomy applications. The operating band ranges from 4.5 to 8.8 GHz. The aperture efficiency is higher than 84% and the return losses are greater than 20 dB in the whole bandwidth. The antenna optimization has been carried out with multiobjective versions of an evolutionary algorithm (EA) and a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm. We show that bot...

  15. Astronomy and Space Technologies, WILGA 2012; EuCARD Sessions

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2012-01-01

    Wilga Sessions on HEP experiments, astroparticle physics and accelerator technology were organized under the umbrella of the EU FP7 Project EuCARD – European Coordination for Accelerator Research and Development. This paper is the first part (out of five) of the research survey of WILGA Symposium work, May 2012 Edition, concerned with photonics and electronics applications in astronomy and space technologies. It presents a digest of chosen technical work results shown by young researchers from different technical universities from this country during the Jubilee XXXth SPIE-IEEE Wilga 2012, May Edition, symposium on Photonics and Web Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced, among others, nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JE...

  16. Space weather impact on radio device operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berngardt O.I.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the space weather impact on operation of radio devices. The review is based on recently published papers, books, and strategic scientific plans of space weather investigations. The main attention is paid to ionospheric effects on propagation of radiowaves, basically short ones. Some examples of such effects are based on 2012–2016 ISTP SB RAS EKB radar data: attenuation of ground backscatter signals during solar flares, effects of traveling ionospheric disturbances of different scales in ground backscatter signals, effects of magnetospheric waves in ionospheric scatter signals.

  17. Space weather impact on radio device operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berngardt, Oleg

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews the space weather impact on operation of radio devices. The review is based on recently published papers, books, and strategic scientific plans of space weather investigations. The main attention is paid to ionospheric effects on propagation of radiowaves, basically short ones. Some examples of such effects are based on 2012–2016 ISTP SB RAS EKB radar data: attenuation of ground backscatter signals during solar flares, effects of traveling ionospheric disturbances of different scales in ground backscatter signals, effects of magnetospheric waves in ionospheric scatter signals.

  18. Solar Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk,

    2012-01-01

    Radio bursts from the Sun are produced by electron accelerated to relativistic energies by physical processes on the Sun such as solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The radio bursts are thus good indicators of solar eruptions. Three types of nonthermal radio bursts are generally associated with CMEs. Type III bursts due to accelerated electrons propagating along open magnetic field lines. The electrons are thought to be accelerated at the reconnection region beneath the erupting CME, although there is another view that the electrons may be accelerated at the CME-driven shock. Type II bursts are due to electrons accelerated at the shock front. Type II bursts are also excellent indicators of solar energetic particle (SEP) events because the same shock is supposed accelerate electrons and ions. There is a hierarchical relationship between the wavelength range of type /I bursts and the CME kinetic energy. Finally, Type IV bursts are due to electrons trapped in moving or stationary structures. The low frequency stationary type IV bursts are observed occasionally in association with very fast CMEs. These bursts originate from flare loops behind the erupting CME and hence indicate tall loops. This paper presents a summary of radio bursts and their relation to CMEs and how they can be useful for space weather predictions.

  19. Indexing data cubes for content-based searches in radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, M.; Candia, G.; Gregorio, R.; Mendoza, M.; Solar, M.

    2016-01-01

    Methods for observing space have changed profoundly in the past few decades. The methods needed to detect and record astronomical objects have shifted from conventional observations in the optical range to more sophisticated methods which permit the detection of not only the shape of an object but also the velocity and frequency of emissions in the millimeter-scale wavelength range and the chemical substances from which they originate. The consolidation of radio astronomy through a range of global-scale projects such as the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reinforces the need to develop better methods of data processing that can automatically detect regions of interest (ROIs) within data cubes (position-position-velocity), index them and facilitate subsequent searches via methods based on queries using spatial coordinates and/or velocity ranges. In this article, we present the development of an automatic system for indexing ROIs in data cubes that is capable of automatically detecting and recording ROIs while reducing the necessary storage space. The system is able to process data cubes containing megabytes of data in fractions of a second without human supervision, thus allowing it to be incorporated into a production line for displaying objects in a virtual observatory. We conducted a set of comprehensive experiments to illustrate how our system works. As a result, an index of 3% of the input size was stored in a spatial database, representing a compression ratio equal to 33:1 over an input of 20.875 GB, achieving an index of 773 MB approximately. On the other hand, a single query can be evaluated over our system in a fraction of second, showing that the indexing step works as a shock-absorber of the computational time involved in data cube processing. The system forms part of the Chilean Virtual Observatory (ChiVO), an initiative which belongs to the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) that

  20. Society News: Monica Grady awarded CBE; Grubb Parsons Lecture 2012; Join the RAS; Astronomy on radio for kids; New Fellows; Peter D Hingley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    RAS Fellow Prof. Monica Grady has been made a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (CBE), in recognition of her services to space science. The RAS sponsors the annual Grubb Parsons Lecture, which this year took place on 6 June at the University of Durham. If you are a professional astronomer, geophysicist, or similar, a student studying these disciplines, or simply someone with a serious interest in them, we urge you to apply for membership of the RAS. Outreach is an important activity for the RAS. We recently supported an astronomy series called Deep Space High on the digital radio channel Fun Kids.

  1. Tracking Solar Type II Bursts with Space Based Radio Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, Alexander M.; Kasper, Justin C.; Manchester, Ward B.

    2018-06-01

    The Earth’s Ionosphere limits radio measurements on its surface, blocking out any radiation below 10 MHz. Valuable insight into many astrophysical processes could be gained by having a radio interferometer in space to image the low frequency window for the first time. One application is observing type II bursts tracking solar energetic particle acceleration in Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). In this work we create a simulated data processing pipeline for several space based radio interferometer (SBRI) concepts and evaluate their performance in the task of localizing these type II bursts.Traditional radio astronomy software is hard coded to assume an Earth based array. To circumvent this, we manually calculate the antenna separations and insert them along with the simulated visibilities into a CASA MS file for analysis. To create the realest possible virtual input data, we take a 2-temperature MHD simulation of a CME event, superimpose realistic radio emission models from the CME-driven shock front, and propagate the signal through simulated SBRIs. We consider both probabilistic emission models derived from plasma parameters correlated with type II bursts, and analytical emission models using plasma emission wave interaction theory.One proposed SBRI is the pathfinder mission SunRISE, a 6 CubeSat interferometer to circle the Earth in a GEO graveyard orbit. We test simulated trajectories of SunRISE and image what the array recovers, comparing it to the virtual input. An interferometer on the lunar surface would be a stable alternative that avoids noise sources that affect orbiting arrays, namely the phase noise from positional uncertainty and atmospheric 10s-100s kHz noise. Using Digital Elevation Models from laser altimeter data, we test different sets of locations on the lunar surface to find near optimal configurations for tracking type II bursts far from the sun. Custom software is used to model the response of different array configurations over the lunar year

  2. Infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setti, G.; Fazio, G.

    1978-01-01

    This volume contains lectures describing the important achievements in infrared astronomy. The topics included are galactic infrared sources and their role in star formation, the nature of the interstellar medium and galactic structure, the interpretation of infrared, optical and radio observations of extra-galactic sources and their role in the origin and structure of the universe, instrumental techniques and a review of future space observations. (C.F.)

  3. Archiving of interferometric radio and mm/submm data at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Modern radio interferometers such as ALMA and the VLA are capable of producing ~1TB/day of data for processing into image products of comparable size. Besides the shear volume of data, the products themselves can be complicated and are sometimes hard to map into standard astronomical archive metadata. We also face similar issues to those faced by archives at other wavelengths, namely the role of archives as the basis of reprocessing platforms and facilities, and the validation and ingestion of user-derived products. In this talk I shall discuss the plans of NRAO in these areas over the next decade.

  4. JPL Space Telecommunications Radio System Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.; Lang, Minh; Peters, Kenneth J.; Taylor, Gregory H.; Duncan, Courtney B.; Orozco, David S.; Stern, Ryan A.; Ahten, Earl R.; Girard, Mike

    2013-01-01

    A flight-qualified implementation of a Software Defined Radio (SDR) Operating Environment for the JPL-SDR built for the CoNNeCT Project has been developed. It is compliant with the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard, and provides the software infrastructure for STRS compliant waveform applications. This software provides a standards-compliant abstracted view of the JPL-SDR hardware platform. It uses industry standard POSIX interfaces for most functions, as well as exposing the STRS API (Application Programming In terface) required by the standard. This software includes a standardized interface for IP components instantiated within a Xilinx FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array). The software provides a standardized abstracted interface to platform resources such as data converters, file system, etc., which can be used by STRS standards conformant waveform applications. It provides a generic SDR operating environment with a much smaller resource footprint than similar products such as SCA (Software Communications Architecture) compliant implementations, or the DoD Joint Tactical Radio Systems (JTRS).

  5. Optimization of a Conical Corrugated Antenna Using Multiobjective Heuristics for Radio-Astronomy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. López-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a tree sections corrugated horn antenna with a modified linear profile, using NURBS, suitable for radio-astronomy applications. The operating band ranges from 4.5 to 8.8 GHz. The aperture efficiency is higher than 84% and the return losses are greater than 20 dB in the whole bandwidth. The antenna optimization has been carried out with multiobjective versions of an evolutionary algorithm (EA and a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm. We show that both techniques provide good antenna design, but the experience carried out shows that the results of the evolutionary algorithm outperform the particle swarm results.

  6. Improvements to Host Country Radio Astronomy at Robledo: Another antenna, a new receiver, a new backend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, J. R.; García-Miró, G.

    2013-05-01

    NASA hosts three complexes worldwide built for spacecraft tracking, whose sensitive antennas are suitable for radio astronomy. Since more than a decade, INTA has managed guaranteed Spanish time at the complex located in Robledo de Chavela, in the frame of the Host Country Radio Astronomy (HCRA) program. Until now, the vast majority of the scientific results were achieved using a K-band (18 to 26 GHz) receiver, attached to the 70m antenna, and a narrow-band autocorrelator. In the recent years, we have undertaken two large instrumental projects: (1) the incorporation of a second antenna (34m in diameter), working in Q-band (38 to 50 GHz); and (2) the design and construction of a wideband backend, which may operate with both the Q- and K-band receivers, providing instantaneous bandwidths from 100 MHz to 6 GHz, and resolutions from 6 to 200 kHz. The new wideband backend is expanding the HCRA possibilities due its bandwidth, versatility, spectral resolution and stability of the baselines. Its IF processor splits each of the two circular-polarization signals, and downconverts them to four base-band channels, 1.5 GHz width. Two different frequencies may be tuned independently. Digitalisation is done through FPGA-based FFT spectrometers, which may be independently configured. Once end-to-end assembled, the commissioning of the new backend was done using the 34m antenna in Q-band. We report the main characteristics of both the antenna recently incorporated to HCRA, and the wideband backend.

  7. Examination of the Transfer of Astronomy and Space Sciences Knowledge to Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrahoglu, Nuri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine the levels of the ability of science teaching fourth grade students to transfer their knowledge of astronomy and space sciences to daily life within the scope of the Astronomy and Space Sciences lesson. For this purpose, the research method was designed as the mixed method including both the quantitative…

  8. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Compliance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) defines an open architecture for software defined radios. This document describes the testing methodology to aid in determining the degree of compliance to the STRS architecture. Non-compliances are reported to the software and hardware developers as well as the NASA project manager so that any non-compliances may be fixed or waivers issued. Since the software developers may be divided into those that provide the operating environment including the operating system and STRS infrastructure (OE) and those that supply the waveform applications, the tests are divided accordingly. The static tests are also divided by the availability of an automated tool that determines whether the source code and configuration files contain the appropriate items. Thus, there are six separate step-by-step test procedures described as well as the corresponding requirements that they test. The six types of STRS compliance tests are: STRS application automated testing, STRS infrastructure automated testing, STRS infrastructure testing by compiling WFCCN with the infrastructure, STRS configuration file testing, STRS application manual code testing, and STRS infrastructure manual code testing. Examples of the input and output of the scripts are shown in the appendices as well as more specific information about what to configure and test in WFCCN for non-compliance. In addition, each STRS requirement is listed and the type of testing briefly described. Attached is also a set of guidelines on what to look for in addition to the requirements to aid in the document review process.

  9. INSPIRE: Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, K. A.; Garcia, L. N.; Webb, P. A.; Green, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The INSPIRE Project is a non-profit scientific and educational corporation whose objective is to bring the excitement of observing very low frequency (VLF) natural radio waves to high school students. Underlying this objective is the conviction that science and technology are the underpinnings of our modern society, and that only with an understanding of these disciplines can people make correct decisions in their lives. Since 1989, the INSPIRE Project has provided specially designed radio receiver kits to over 2,500 students and other groups to make observations of signals in the VLF frequency range. These kits provide an innovative and unique opportunity for students to actively gather data that can be used in a basic research project. Natural VLF emissions that can be studied with the INSPIRE receiver kits include sferics, tweeks, whistlers, and chorus, which originate from phenomena such as lightning. These emissions can either come from the local atmospheric environment within a few tens of kilometers of the receiver or from outer space thousands of kilometers from the Earth. VLF emissions are at such low frequencies that they can be received, amplified and turned into sound that we can hear, with each emission producing in a distinctive sound. In 2006 INSPIRE was re-branded and its mission has expanded to developing new partnerships with multiple science projects. Links to magnetospheric physics, astronomy, and meteorology are being identified. This presentation will introduce the INSPIRE project, display the INSPIRE receiver kits, show examples of the types of VLF emissions that can be collected and provide information on scholarship programs being offered.

  10. Realistic Goals and Processes for Future Space Astronomy Portfolio Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jon

    2015-08-01

    It is generally recognized that international participation and coordination is highly valuable for maximizing the scientific impact of modern space science facilities, as well as for cost-sharing reasons. Indeed, all large space science missions, and most medium and small missions, are international, even if one country or space agency has a clear leadership role and bears most of the development costs. International coordination is a necessary aspect of future mission planning, but how that coordination is done remains debatable. I propose that the community's scientific vision is generally homogeneous enough to permit international coordination of decadal-scale strategic science goals. However, the timing and budget allocation/funding mechanisms of individual countries and/or space agencies are too disparate for effective long-term strategic portfolio planning via a single international process. Rather, I argue that coordinated space mission portfolio planning is a natural consequence of international collaboration on individual strategic missions. I review the process and outcomes of the U.S. 2010 decadal survey in astronomy & astrophysics from the perspective of a government official who helped craft the survey charter and transmitted guidance to the scientific community on behalf of a sponsoring agency (NASA), while continuing to manage the current portfolio that involved ongoing negotiations with other space agencies. I analyze the difficulties associated with projecting long-term budgets, obtaining realistic mission costs (including the additional cost burdens of international partnerships), and developing new (possibly transformational) technologies. Finally, I remark on the future role that privately funded space science missions can have in accomplishing international science community goals.

  11. INSPIRE - Premission. [Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William W. L.; Mideke, Michael; Pine, William E.; Ericson, James D.

    1992-01-01

    The Interactive NASA Space Physics Ionosphere Radio Experiment (INSPIRE) designed to assist in a Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) project is discussed. INSPIRE is aimed at recording data from a large number of receivers on the ground to determine the exact propagation paths and absorption of radio waves at frequencies between 50 Hz and 7 kHz. It is indicated how to participate in the experiment that will involve high school classes, colleges, and amateur radio operators.

  12. Frontiers of Radio Astronomy in the 2020s: The Next Generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eric Joseph; ngVLA Project Office, ngVLA Science and Technical Advisory Councils, ngVLA Science Working Groups

    2018-01-01

    This talk will describe the current community-driven science goals, design, and planning status of a future large centimeter radio array: the ‘Next Generation Very Large Array’ (ngVLA). The ngVLA is being developed to observe at wavelengths between ALMA at submm wavelengths, and the future SKA-1 at few centimeter and longer wavelengths, opening a new window on the Universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milliarcsecond resolution, and unprecedented broad band continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes. The current design for the array includes 10x more effective collecting area and 10x higher spatial resolution than the current JVLA or ALMA, carefully optimized for operation in the frequency range 10GHz to 50GHz, while still delivering world-leading sensitivity over the entire 1.2GHz to 116 GHz spectrum.With this array, new frontiers in modern astronomy can be reached, including direct imaging and chemical analysis of planet formation in the terrestrial-zone of nearby stars, studies of dust-obscured star formation and the cosmic baryon cycle down to pc-scales in the local Universe, and detailed imaging of molecular gas and galaxy formation into the epoch of reionization. Novel techniques for exploring temporal phenomena on timescales from milliseconds to years will also be implemented. The ngVLA will be situated in the desert southwest of the United States, centered on the current JVLA infrastructure, with multiple antennas anticipated in states/regions adjacent to NM, and in northern Mexico.A recently formed Project Office is working closely with the U.S. and international research community to design the array, and plan its construction beginning mid next decade. Recent significant funding for design and development brought forward by the NSF will enable detailed science case development and technology prototyping/risk reduction before the next U.S astronomy Decadal Survey.

  13. Breakthrough Capability for UVOIR Space Astronomy: Reaching the Darkest Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Benson, Scott W.; Englander, Jacob; Falck, Robert D.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Kruk, Jeffery W.; Oleson, Steven R.; Thronson, Harley A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present two case studies in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class and 7000 kg flagship-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point (SEL2) orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. Similarly, we find that astrophysics utilization of high power SEP being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission (ARRM) can have a substantial impact on the sensitivity performance of heavier flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope.

  14. Novel reconfigurable wide-beam radio interferometer for space physics instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George; Honary, Farideh

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the instrumentation design of a novel wide-beam interferometer system for radio astronomy studies. The system measures the Earth's or another planet's atmospheric layers attenuation of the highly energetic galactic electron emissions superimposed on the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and other last scattering surface galactic and extragalactic radio astronomical background emissions. Right ascension coordinates are surveyed in a unique manner in terms of digital signal processing flexibility, compared to existing wide-beam instrumentations, allowing higher resolution analysis of the captured Space Physics events. The system provides a prototyping platform for other Space Physics projects, since a modular software and hardware design approach has been followed. The system is reconfigurable to meet a variety of testing scenarios.

  15. Audiovisual Aids for Astronomy and Space Physics at an Urban College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Dinah L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the use of easily available audiovisual aids to teach a one semester course in astronomy and space physics to liberal arts students of both sexes at Queensborough Community College. Included is a list of teaching aids for use in astronomy instruction. (CC)

  16. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  17. Radio Frequency Plasma Applications for Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W. Jr.; Barber, G.C.; Carter, M.D.; Chang-Diaz, F.R.; Goulding, R.H.; Ilin, A.V.; Jaeger, E.F.; Sparks, D.O.; Squire, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in solid-state radio frequency (RF) power technologies allow for the practical consideration of RF heated plasmas for space propulsion. These technologies permit the use of any electrical power source, de-couple the power and propellant sources, and allow for the efficient use of both the propellant mass and power. Efficient use of the propellant is obtained by expelling the rocket exhaust at the highest possible velocity, which can be orders of magnitude higher than those achieved in chemical rockets. Handling the hot plasma exhaust requires the use of magnetic nozzles, and the basic physics of ion detachment from the magnetic eld is discussed. The plasma can be generated by RF using helicon waves to heat electrons. Further direct heating of the ions helps to reduce the line radiation losses, and the magnetic geometry is tailored to allow ion cyclotron resonance heating. RF eld and ion trajectory calculations are presented to give a reasonably self-consistent picture of the ion acceleration process

  18. Radio Interferometric Research of Ionosphere by Signals of Space Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugin N.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2012, the Radiophysical Research Institute and the Lobachevsky State University at Nizhny Novgorod, Russia and the Ventspils International Radio Astronomy Centre at Irbene, Latvia are making radio interferometric experiments on study of ionosphere parameters in a quiet (natural state of medium and research of artificial turbulence of the ionosphere, heated by the emission from the SURA facility. Remote diagnostics of the ionosphere is implemented using a method of radio sounding by signals of navigation satellites in combination with the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI method. As a result of spectral and correlation analysis, interferometric responses of the two-element (RRI–UNN and three-element (RRI–UNN–Irbene interferometers were received by observations of 12 satellites of the navigation systems GLONASS and GPS. Here the first results are reported.

  19. Radio Telescopes Extend Astronomy's Best "Yardstick," Provide Vital Tool for Unraveling Dark Energy Mystery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Radio astronomers have directly measured the distance to a faraway galaxy, providing a valuable "yardstick" for calibrating large astronomical distances and demonstrating a vital method that could help determine the elusive nature of the mysterious Dark Energy that pervades the Universe. Galaxy UGC 3789 Visible-light image of UGC 3789 CREDIT: STScI "We measured a direct, geometric distance to the galaxy, independent of the complications and assumptions inherent in other techniques. The measurement highlights a valuable method that can be used to determine the local expansion rate of the Universe, which is essential in our quest to find the nature of Dark Energy," said James Braatz, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), who presented the work to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Pasadena, California. Braatz and his colleagues used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Effelsberg Radio Telescope of the Max Planck Institute for Radioastronomy (MPIfR) in Germany to determine that a galaxy dubbed UGC 3789 is 160 million light-years from Earth. To do this, they precisely measured both the linear and angular size of a disk of material orbiting the galaxy's central black hole. Water molecules in the disk act as masers to amplify, or strengthen, radio waves the way lasers amplify light waves. The observation is a key element of a major effort to measure the expansion rate of the Universe, known as the Hubble Constant, with greatly improved precision. That effort, cosmologists say, is the best way to narrow down possible explanations for the nature of Dark Energy. "The new measurement is important because it demonstrates a one-step, geometric technique for measuring distances to galaxies far enough to infer the expansion rate of the Universe," said Braatz. The GBT Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF The VLBA Very Long Baseline Array CREDIT: NRAO

  20. New Cosmic Horizons: Space Astronomy from the V2 to the Hubble Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David

    2001-02-01

    Preface; 1. The sounding rocket era; 2. The start of the space race; 3. Initial exploration of the Solar System; 4. Lunar exploration; 5. Mars and Venus; early results; 6. Mars and Venus; the middle period; 7. Venus, Mars and cometary spacecraft post-1980; 8. Early missions to the outer planets; 9. The Voyager missions to the outer planets; 10. The Sun; 11. Early spacecraft observations of non-solar system sources; 12. A period of rapid growth; 13. The high energy astronomy observatory programme; 14. IUE, IRAS and Exosat - spacecraft for the early 1980s; 15. Hiatus; 16. Business as usual; 17. The Hubble Space Telescope.

  1. Introduction. Progress in astronomy: from gravitational waves to space weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J Michael T

    2008-12-13

    This brief paper introduces and reviews the 'visions of the future' articles prepared by leading young scientists throughout the world for the first of two Christmas 2008 Triennial issues of Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, devoted, respectively, to astronomy and Earth science. Contributions in astronomy include the very topical gamma-ray bursts, new ideas on stellar collapse and the unusual atmospheres of synchronized planets orbiting nearby stars.

  2. Near Earth space sporadic radio emission busts occurring during sunrise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnik, A. V.; Zaljubovsky, I. I.; Kartashev, V. M.; Lasarev, A. V.; Shmatko, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    During the period of low solar activity at sunrise the effect of sporadic high frequency near Earth space radio emission was experimentally discovered at middle latitudes. The possible mechanism of its origin is discussed.

  3. Advances in SELEX ES infrared detectors for space and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, P.; Hipwood, L.; Baker, I.; Weller, H.

    2017-11-01

    Selex ES produces a wide range of infrared detectors from mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) and triglycine sulfate (TGS), and has supplied both materials into space programmes spanning a period of over 40 years. Current development activities that underpin potential future space missions include large format arrays for near- and short-wave infrared (NIR and SWIR) incorporating radiation-hard designs and suppression of glow. Improved heterostructures are aimed at the reduction of dark currents and avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and parallel studies have been undertaken for low-stress MCT array mounts. Much of this development work has been supported by ESA, UK Space, and ESO, and some has been performed in collaboration with the UK Astronomy Technology Centre and E2V. This paper focuses on MCT heterostructure developments and novel design elements in silicon read-out chips (ROICs). The 2048 x 2048 element, 17um pitch ROIC for ESA's SWIR array development forms the basis for the largest cooled infrared detector manufactured in Europe. Selex ES MCT is grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), currently on 75mm diameter GaAs substrates. The MCT die size of the SWIR array is 35mm square and only a single array can be printed on the 75mm diameter wafer, utilising only 28% of the wafer area. The situation for 100mm substrates is little better, allowing only 2 arrays and 31% utilisation. However, low cost GaAs substrates are readily available in 150mm diameter and the MCT growth is scalable to this size, offering the real possibility of 6 arrays per wafer with 42% utilisation. A similar 2k x 2k ROIC is the goal of ESA's NIR programme, which is currently in phase 2 with a 1k x 1k demonstrator, and a smaller 320 x 256 ROIC (SAPHIRA) has been designed for ESO for the adaptive optics application in the VLT Gravity instrument. All 3 chips have low noise source-follower architecture and are enabled for MCT APD arrays, which have been demonstrated by ESO to be capable of

  4. Low-Frequency Radio Bursts and Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    Low-frequency radio phenomena are due to the presence of nonthermal electrons in the interplanetary (IP) medium. Understanding these phenomena is important in characterizing the space environment near Earth and other destinations in the solar system. Substantial progress has been made in the past two decades, because of the continuous and uniform data sets available from space-based radio and white-light instrumentation. This paper highlights some recent results obtained on IP radio phenomena. In particular, the source of type IV radio bursts, the behavior of type III storms, shock propagation in the IP medium, and the solar-cycle variation of type II radio bursts are considered. All these phenomena are closely related to solar eruptions and active region evolution. The results presented were obtained by combining data from the Wind and SOHO missions.

  5. Astronomy Education Programs at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Katie; de Messieres, G.; Edson, S.

    2014-01-01

    Astronomy educators present the range of astronomy education programming available at the National Air and Space Museum, including the following. In the Phoebe Waterman Haas Public Observatory, visitors use telescopes and other scientific equipment to observe and discuss the Sun, Venus, and other celestial sights in an unstructured, inquiry-based environment. At Discovery Stations throughout the Museum, staff and volunteers engage visitors in hands-on exploration of a wide range of artifacts and teaching materials. Astronomy-related Discovery Stations include Cosmic Survey, an exploration of gravitational lensing using a rubber sheet, spectroscopy using discharge tubes, and several others. Astronomy lectures in the planetarium or IMAX theater, featuring researchers as the speakers, include a full evening of activities: a custom pre-lecture Discovery Station, a handout to help visitors explore the topic in more depth, and evening stargazing at the Public Observatory. Astronomy educators present planetarium shows, including star tours and explorations of recent science news. During Astronomy Chat, an astronomy researcher engages visitors in an informal conversation about science. The goal is to make the public feel welcome in the environment of professional research and to give busy scientists a convenient outreach opportunity. Astronomy educators also recruit, train, and coordinate a corps of volunteers who contribute their efforts to the programming above. The volunteer program has grown significantly since the Public Observatory was built in 2009.

  6. Infrared astronomy seeing the heat : from William Herschel to the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David L

    2014-01-01

    Uncover the Secrets of the Universe Hidden at Wavelengths beyond Our Optical GazeWilliam Herschel's discovery of infrared light in 1800 led to the development of astronomy at wavelengths other than the optical. Infrared Astronomy - Seeing the Heat: from William Herschel to the Herschel Space Observatory explores the work in astronomy that relies on observations in the infrared. Author David L. Clements, a distinguished academic and science fiction writer, delves into how the universe works, from the planets in our own Solar System to the universe as a whole. The book first presents the major t

  7. The Space Vehicle--Teaching Physics through Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are some areas of overlap between physics and astronomy. Topics include solar power, fusion reactions, atmospheric refraction, solar spectrum, Doppler effects, Hubble constant, quasars, redshift and the expanding universe, sunspots, sundial construction, solar spectroscopes, the moon, optics, wave theory, the history of science,…

  8. Reviews in Modern Astronomy: Vol. 15: JENAM 2001: Astronomy with Large Telescopes from Ground and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielicke, Reinhard E.

    2002-11-01

    This 15th volume in the annual series on recent developments and scientific progress in astronomy and astrophysics contains fourteen invited reviews presented during the Joint European and National Astronomical Meeting JENAM 2001, held in Munich, Germany. Readers also learn about the lecture on macro- and microscopic views of nearby galaxies given by Keiichi Kodaira, Japan, who was awarded the Karl Schwarzschild medal 2001. Further contributions on the topic provide the latest results on the search for extra-solar planets, formation of stars and galaxies, physics of active galactic nuclei, as well as new telescopes and sensor technologies for various wavelengths.

  9. Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Justin C.; SunRISE Team

    2018-06-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity currently in Phase A. SunRISE is a constellation of spacecraft flying in a 10-km diameter formation and operating as the first imaging radio interferometer in space. The purpose of SunRISE is to reveal critical aspects of solar energetic particle (SEP) acceleration at coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and transport into space by making the first spatially resolved observations of coherent Type II and III radio bursts produced by electrons accelerated at CMEs or released from flares. SunRISE will focus on solar Decametric-Hectometric (DH, 0.1 space before major SEP events, but cannot be seen on Earth due to ionospheric absorption. This talk will describe SunRISE objectives and implementation. Presented on behalf of the entire SunRISE team.

  10. Crowd-Sourced Radio Science at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C. D.; McTernan, J. K.; Suggs, R. M.; Rawlins, L.; Krause, L. H.; Gallagher, D. L.; Adams, M. L.

    2018-01-01

    August 21, 2017 provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the total solar eclipse on high frequency (HF) radio propagation and ionospheric variability. In Marshall Space Flight Center's partnership with the US Space and Rocket Center (USSRC) and Austin Peay State University (APSU), we engaged citizen scientists and students in an investigation of the effects of an eclipse on the mid-latitude ionosphere. Activities included fieldwork and station-based data collection of HF Amateur Radio frequency bands and VLF radio waves before, during, and after the eclipse to build a continuous record of changing propagation conditions as the moon's shadow marched across the United States. Post-eclipse radio propagation analysis provided insights into ionospheric variability due to the eclipse.

  11. Image Reconstruction in Radio Astronomy with Non-Coplanar Synthesis Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrick, L.

    2015-03-01

    Traditional radio astronomy imaging techniques assume that the interferometric array is coplanar, with a small field of view, and that the two-dimensional Fourier relationship between brightness and visibility remains valid, allowing the Fast Fourier Transform to be used. In practice, to acquire more accurate data, the non-coplanar baseline effects need to be incorporated, as small height variations in the array plane introduces the w spatial frequency component. This component adds an additional phase shift to the incoming signals. There are two approaches to account for the non-coplanar baseline effects: either the full three-dimensional brightness and visibility model can be used to reconstruct an image, or the non-coplanar effects can be removed, reducing the three dimensional relationship to that of the two-dimensional one. This thesis describes and implements the w-projection and w-stacking algorithms. The aim of these algorithms is to account for the phase error introduced by non-coplanar synthesis arrays configurations, making the recovered visibilities more true to the actual brightness distribution model. This is done by reducing the 3D visibilities to a 2D visibility model. The algorithms also have the added benefit of wide-field imaging, although w-stacking supports a wider field of view at the cost of more FFT bin support. For w-projection, the w-term is accounted for in the visibility domain by convolving it out of the problem with a convolution kernel, allowing the use of the two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform. Similarly, the w-Stacking algorithm applies a phase correction in the image domain to image layers to produce an intensity model that accounts for the non-coplanar baseline effects. This project considers the KAT7 array for simulation and analysis of the limitations and advantages of both the algorithms. Additionally, a variant of the Högbom CLEAN algorithm was used which employs contour trimming for extended source emission flagging. The

  12. Deep Space Telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  13. Space-Based Reconfigurable Software Defined Radio Test Bed Aboard International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Lux, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) recently launched a new software defined radio research test bed to the International Space Station. The test bed, sponsored by the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Office within NASA is referred to as the SCaN Testbed. The SCaN Testbed is a highly capable communications system, composed of three software defined radios, integrated into a flight system, and mounted to the truss of the International Space Station. Software defined radios offer the future promise of in-flight reconfigurability, autonomy, and eventually cognitive operation. The adoption of software defined radios offers space missions a new way to develop and operate space transceivers for communications and navigation. Reconfigurable or software defined radios with communications and navigation functions implemented in software or VHDL (Very High Speed Hardware Description Language) provide the capability to change the functionality of the radio during development or after launch. The ability to change the operating characteristics of a radio through software once deployed to space offers the flexibility to adapt to new science opportunities, recover from anomalies within the science payload or communication system, and potentially reduce development cost and risk by adapting generic space platforms to meet specific mission requirements. The software defined radios on the SCaN Testbed are each compliant to NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. The STRS Architecture is an open, non-proprietary architecture that defines interfaces for the connections between radio components. It provides an operating environment to abstract the communication waveform application from the underlying platform specific hardware such as digital-to-analog converters, analog-to-digital converters, oscillators, RF attenuators, automatic gain control circuits, FPGAs, general-purpose processors, etc. and the interconnections among

  14. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture. Part 1; Tutorial - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.; Briones, Janette C.; Mortensen, Dale J.; Reinhart, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard provides a NASA standard for software-defined radio. STRS is being demonstrated in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed formerly known as Communications, Navigation and Networking Configurable Testbed (CoNNeCT). Ground station radios communicating the SCaN testbed are also being written to comply with the STRS architecture. The STRS Architecture Tutorial Overview presents a general introduction to the STRS architecture standard developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), addresses frequently asked questions, and clarifies methods of implementing the standard. The STRS architecture should be used as a base for many of NASA s future telecommunications technologies. The presentation will provide a basic understanding of STRS.

  15. The Sun Radio Imaging Space Experiment (SunRISE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Alibay, F.; Amiri, N.; Bastian, T.; Cohen, C.; Landi, E.; Hegedus, A. M.; Maksimovic, M.; Manchester, W.; Reinard, A.; Schwadron, N.; Cecconi, B.; Hallinan, G.; Krupar, V.

    2017-12-01

    Radio emission from coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is a direct tracer of particle acceleration in the inner heliosphere and potential magnetic connections from the lower solar corona to the larger heliosphere. Energized electrons excite Langmuir waves, which then convert into intense radio emission at the local plasma frequency, with the most intense acceleration thought to occur within 20 R_S. The radio emission from CMEs is quite strong such that only a relatively small number of antennas is required to detect and map it, but many aspects of this particle acceleration and transport remain poorly constrained. Ground-based arrays would be quite capable of tracking the radio emission associated with CMEs, but absorption by the Earth's ionosphere limits the frequency coverage of ground-based arrays (nu > 15 MHz), which in turn limits the range of solar distances over which they can track the radio emission (concept: A constellation of small spacecraft in a geostationary graveyard orbit designed to localize and track radio emissions in the inner heliosphere. Each spacecraft would carry a receiving system for observations below 25 MHz, and SunRISE would produce the first images of CMEs more than a few solar radii from the Sun. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  16. RADIO-FREQUENCY MASS SPECTROMETERS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS IN SPACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, Jr., A. S.

    1963-08-15

    The operation of three common radio-frequency mass spectrometers is described, and their performances are compared. Their limitations are pointed out. It is concluded that the quadrupole spectrometer has fewer limitations and is more generally useful in space probes than the other devices. Some present and proposed uses of spectrometers in space are discussed, and the problem of contamination of the atmosphere being sampled by the spectrometer is reviewed. (auth)

  17. 47 CFR 73.1030 - Notifications concerning interference to radio astronomy, research and receiving installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All... guidelines, which will be provided by Cornell University. Applicants who choose to transmit information... and FCC Rule Part, type of emission, and effective radiated power. (ii) After receipt of such...

  18. Effect of Parasitic Element on 408 MHz Antenna for Radio Astronomy Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radial Anwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenna is one of the important subsystem components in a radio telescope system. In this paper, analysis on the effect of parasitic element on 408 MHz antenna in a radio telescope system is presented. Higher gain up to 10.24 dBi with reduction on beamwidth size has been achieved by optimizing the position of parasitic element relative to the driven element. The proposed antenna is suitable to be utilized in a transient radio telescope array.

  19. Characterizing Interference in Radio Astronomy Observations through Active and Unsupervised Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the process of observing signals from astronomical sources, radio astronomers must mitigate the effects of manmade radio sources such as cell phones, satellites, aircraft, and observatory equipment. Radio frequency interference (RFI) often occurs as short bursts (active learning approach in which an astronomer labels events that are most confusing to a classifier, minimizing the human effort required for classification. We also explore the use of unsupervised clustering techniques, which automatically group events into classes without user input. We apply these techniques to data from the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey to characterize several million detected RFI events from over a thousand hours of observation.

  20. An adaptive software defined radio design based on a standard space telecommunication radio system API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhao; Tian, Xin; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik

    2017-05-01

    Software defined radio (SDR) has become a popular tool for the implementation and testing for communications performance. The advantage of the SDR approach includes: a re-configurable design, adaptive response to changing conditions, efficient development, and highly versatile implementation. In order to understand the benefits of SDR, the space telecommunication radio system (STRS) was proposed by NASA Glenn research center (GRC) along with the standard application program interface (API) structure. Each component of the system uses a well-defined API to communicate with other components. The benefit of standard API is to relax the platform limitation of each component for addition options. For example, the waveform generating process can support a field programmable gate array (FPGA), personal computer (PC), or an embedded system. As long as the API defines the requirements, the generated waveform selection will work with the complete system. In this paper, we demonstrate the design and development of adaptive SDR following the STRS and standard API protocol. We introduce step by step the SDR testbed system including the controlling graphic user interface (GUI), database, GNU radio hardware control, and universal software radio peripheral (USRP) tranceiving front end. In addition, a performance evaluation in shown on the effectiveness of the SDR approach for space telecommunication.

  1. Highlighting the history of Japanese radio astronomy. 5: The 1950 Osaka solar grating array proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Harry; Orchiston, Wayne; Ishiguro, Masato; Nakamura, Tsuko

    2017-04-01

    In November 1950, a paper was presented at the 5th Annual Assembly of the Physical Society of Japan that outlined the plan for a radio frequency grating array, designed to provide high-resolution observations of solar radio emission at 3.3 GHz. This short paper provides details of the invention of this array, which occurred independently of W.N. Christiansen's invention of the solar grating array in Australia at almost the same time.

  2. Space Shuttle and Space Station Radio Frequency (RF) Exposure Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Sham, Catherine C.; Kroll, Quin D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines the modeling techniques and important parameters to define a rigorous but practical procedure that can verify the compliance of RF exposure to the NASA standards for astronauts and electronic equipment. The electromagnetic modeling techniques are applied to analyze RF exposure in Space Shuttle and Space Station environments with reasonable computing time and resources. The modeling techniques are capable of taking into account the field interactions with Space Shuttle and Space Station structures. The obtained results illustrate the multipath effects due to the presence of the space vehicle structures. It's necessary to include the field interactions with the space vehicle in the analysis for an accurate assessment of the RF exposure. Based on the obtained results, the RF keep out zones are identified for appropriate operational scenarios, flight rules and necessary RF transmitter constraints to ensure a safe operating environment and mission success.

  3. The Sharjah Center for Astronomy and Space Sciences (SCASS 2015): Concept and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimiy, Hamid M. K. Al

    2015-08-01

    The Sharjah Center for Astronomy and Space Sciences (SCASS) was launched this year 2015 at the University of Sharjah in the UAE. The center will serve to enrich research in the fields of astronomy and space sciences, promote these fields at all educational levels, and encourage community involvement in these sciences. SCASS consists of:The Planetarium: Contains a semi-circle display screen (18 meters in diameter) installed at an angle of 10° which displays high-definition images using an advanced digital display system consisting of seven (7) high-performance light-display channels. The Planetarium Theatre offers a 200-seat capacity with seats placed at highly calculated angles. The Planetarium also contains an enormous star display (Star Ball - 10 million stars) located in the heart of the celestial dome theatre.The Sharjah Astronomy Observatory: A small optical observatory consisting of a reflector telescope 45 centimeters in diameter to observe the galaxies, stars and planets. Connected to it is a refractor telescope of 20 centimeters in diameter to observe the sun and moon with highly developed astronomical devices, including a digital camera (CCD) and a high-resolution Echelle Spectrograph with auto-giving and remote calibration ports.Astronomy, space and physics educational displays for various age groups include:An advanced space display that allows for viewing the universe during four (4) different time periods as seen by:1) The naked eye; 2) Galileo; 3) Spectrographic technology; and 4) The space technology of today.A space technology display that includes space discoveries since the launching of the first satellite in 1940s until now.The Design Concept for the Center (450,000 sq. meters) was originated by HH Sheikh Sultan bin Mohammed Al Qasimi, Ruler of Sharjah, and depicts the dome as representing the sun in the middle of the center surrounded by planetary bodies in orbit to form the solar system as seen in the sky.

  4. Numerical Relativity for Space-Based Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2011-01-01

    In the next decade, gravitational wave instruments in space may provide high-precision measurements of gravitational-wave signals from strong sources, such as black holes. Currently variations on the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna mission concepts are under study in the hope of reducing costs. Even the observations of a reduced instrument may place strong demands on numerical relativity capabilities. Possible advances in the coming years may fuel a new generation of codes ready to confront these challenges.

  5. Software Defined Radio Architecture Contributions to Next Generation Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacpura, Thomas J.; Eddy, Wesley M.; Smith, Carl R.; Liebetreu, John

    2015-01-01

    systems, as well as those communications and navigation systems operated by international space agencies and civilian and government agencies. In this paper, we review the philosophies, technologies, architectural attributes, mission services, and communications capabilities that form the structure of candidate next-generation integrated communication architectures for space communications and navigation. A key area that this paper explores is from the development and operation of the software defined radio for the NASA Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed currently on the International Space Station (ISS). Evaluating the lessons learned from development and operation feed back into the communications architecture. Leveraging the reconfigurability provides a change in the way that operations are done and must be considered. Quantifying the impact on the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) software defined radio architecture provides feedback to keep the standard useful and up to date. NASA is not the only customer of these radios. Software defined radios are developed for other applications, and taking advantage of these developments promotes an architecture that is cost effective and sustainable. Developments in the following areas such as an updated operating environment, higher data rates, networking and security can be leveraged. The ability to sustain an architecture that uses radios for multiple markets can lower costs and keep new technology infused.

  6. Astronomical Observations Astronomy and the Study of Deep Space

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Our Search for knowledge about the universe has been remarkable, heartbreaking, fantastical, and inspiring, and this search is just beginning. Astronomical Observations is part of a 7 book series that takes readers through a virtual time warp of our discovery. From the nascent space programs of the 1960's to today's space tourism and the promise of distant planet colonization, readers will be transfixed. Throughout this journey of the mind, Earth-bound explorers gain keen insight into the celestial phenomena that have fascinated humans for centuries. Thrilling narratives about indefatigable sc

  7. The World Space Observatory Ultraviolet (WSO-UV), as a bridge to future UV astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustov, B.; Gómez de Castro, A. I.; Sachkov, M.; Vallejo, J. C.; Marcos-Arenal, P.; Kanev, E.; Savanov, I.; Shugarov, A.; Sichevskii, S.

    2018-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) astronomy is a vital branch of space astronomy. Many dozens of short-term UV-experiments in space, as well as long-term observatories, have brought a very important knowledge on the physics and chemistry of the Universe during the last decades. Unfortunately, no large UV-observatories are planned to be launched by most of space agencies in the coming 10-15 years. Conversely, the large UVOIR observatories of the future will appear not earlier than in 2030s. This paper briefly describes the projects that have been proposed by various groups. We conclude that the World Space Observatory-Ultraviolet (WSO-UV) will be the only 2-m class UV telescope with capabilities similar to those of the HST for the next decade. The WSO-UV has been described in detail in previous publications, and this paper updates the main characteristics of its instruments and the current state of the whole project. It also addresses the major science topics that have been included in the core program of the WSO-UV, making this core program very relevant to the current state of the UV-astronomy. Finally, we also present here the ground segment architecture that will implement this program.

  8. Overview of diffraction gratings technologies for space-flight satellites and astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, Arnaud; Liard, Audrey; Desserouer, Frédéric; Bonnemason, Francis; Pichon, Pierre

    2014-09-01

    The diffraction gratings are widely used in Space-flight satellites for spectrograph instruments or in ground-based telescopes in astronomy. The diffraction gratings are one of the key optical components of such systems and have to exhibit very high optical performances. HORIBA Jobin Yvon S.A.S. (part of HORIBA Group) is in the forefront of such gratings development for more than 40 years. During the past decades, HORIBA Jobin Yvon (HJY) has developed a unique expertise in diffraction grating design and manufacturing processes for holographic, ruled or etched gratings. We will present in this paper an overview of diffraction grating technologies especially designed for space and astronomy applications. We will firstly review the heritage of the company in this field with the space qualification of different grating types. Then, we will describe several key grating technologies developed for specific space or astronomy projects: ruled blazed low groove density plane reflection grating, holographic blazed replica plane grating, high-groove density holographic toroidal and spherical grating and transmission Fused Silica Etched (FSE) grismassembled grating.

  9. Four Decades of Space-Borne Radio Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    A review is given of the 38 rocket, satellite, and planetary payloads dedicated to ionospheric/magnetospheric radio sounding since 1961. Between 1961 and 1995, eleven sounding-rocket payloads from four countries evolved from proof-of-concept flights to sophisticated instruments. Some involved dual payloads, with the sounder transmitter on one and the sounder receiver on the other. The rocket sounders addressed specific space-plasma-wave questions, and provided improved measurements of ionospheric electron-density (N(sub e)) field-aligned irregularities (FAI). Four countries launched 12 ionospheric topside-sounder satellites between 1962 and 1994, and an ionospheric sounder was placed on the Mir Space Station in 1998. Eleven magnetospheric radio sounders, most of the relaxation type, were launched from 1977 to 2000. The relaxation sounders used low-power transmitters, designed to stimulate plasma resonances for accurate local Ne determinations. The latest magnetospheric sounder designed for remote sensing incorporated long antennas and digital signal processing techniques to overcome the challenges posed by low Ne values and large propagation distances. Three radio sounders from three countries were included on payloads to extraterrestrial destinations from 1990 to 2003. The scientific accomplishments of space-borne radio sounders included (1) a wealth of global N(sub e) information on the topside ionosphere and magnetosphere, based on vertical and magnetic-field-aligned N(sub e) profiles; (2) accurate in-situ N(sub e) values, even under low-density conditions; and (3) fundamental advances in our understanding of the excitation and propagation of plasma waves, which have even led to the prediction of a new plasma-wave mode.

  10. Astronomy and Space Science On The School - An Outreach Project for Elementary and High School Students of Brasilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo

    2016-07-01

    This project aims to develop interdisciplinary actions, articulated and convergence in the field of education, dissemination and popularization of science and technology in Brasilia-DF, the Federal District of Brazil. These actions are also been carried out at DF surroundings areas. Since 2015 linked convergent actions are focused on the development of space science and astronomy teaching with hands on experimental activities. Workshops, short basic astronomy courses, expositions and planetarium show are been carried out by a team of professors, graduate and under graduate students from University of Brasilia- UnB. At the same time upgrade actions are been done in order to modernize The Luiz Cruls Astronomical Observatory located at the far campus of UnB, named Fazenda Água Limpa. It is now a Center for research and space science dissemination and popularization not only for students but also for the whole community of Brasilia. Working toghether with the Physics Institute of UnB we have the recently created Museum of Science and Technology of Brasilia, also located at the UnB campus. The Museum is responsible for contac with schools and Brasilia community and for the organization of the activities of the Science on the School Project. Science on the School is an educational, scientific and cultural proposal approved and financed by the brazillian national research council (CNPq) and by the Science and Technology Reseach Foundation of Brasilia. Besides science dissemination for the brazillian society the project is also developing theoretical and experimental research in the area of Space Science and Astronomy. The project also aim to transform the Museum in a strong Science Education Center for the Brazil central region population, It is going to be a cultural environment and leisure for the Federal District and surrounding areas of Brasilia. In this work we will describe the coordinate actions of The Luiz Cruls Astronomical Observatory the Physics Institute of

  11. The Search for Exoplanets using Ultra-long Wavelength Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies on extra solar planets (exoplanets) provide us with a new glimpse into the Milky Way's composition. Exoplanets appear to be very typical around Sunlike stars. Most of these exoplanets are observed via indirect measurements. If a direct radio observation of the exoplanet's signal was

  12. New developments of radio-astronomy in the sub-mmwave region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    Astronomy at submillimeter wavelengths is a technically demanding discipline which is coming of age through the recent construction of several large ground-based facilities and continuing advances in receiver technology. The current status of the field is reviewed with attention being paid particularly to the potential contributions to astrophysics and to the major difficulties facing the observer at these wavelengths. The results of surveys for molecular transitions and examples of the uses of such lines in determining excitation and other parameters of circum- and interstellar material is discussed. Observations of continuum radiation, principally of cold dust, is also touched upon. Both line and continuum studies have great potential at these wavelengths in the study of protostellar objects, as well as in the late stages of stellar evolution. Prospects for the future development of sub-mm astronomy are bright; plans to overcome the limitations imposed by the atmosphere using satellite technology, and to increase angular resolution by the use of interferometry are reviewed

  13. Starguides plus a world-wide directory of organizations in astronomy and related space sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2004-01-01

    StarGuides Plus represents the most comprehensive and accurately validated collection of practical data on organizations involved in astronomy, related space sciences and other related fields This invaluable reference source (and its companion volume, StarBriefs Plus) should be on the reference shelf of every library, organization or individual with any interest in these areas The coverage includes relevant universities, scientific committees, institutions, associations, societies, agencies, companies, bibliographic services, data centers, museums, dealers, distributors, funding organizations, journals, manufacturers, meteorological services, national norms & standard institutes, parent associations & societies, publishers, software producers & distributors, and so on Besides astronomy and associated space sciences, related fields such as aeronautics, aeronomy, astronautics, atmospheric sciences, chemistry, communications, computer sciences, data processing, education, electronics, engineering, en...

  14. Radio quite site qualification for the Brasilian Southern Space Observatory by monitoring the low frequency 10-240 MHz Eletromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Guilherme Simon; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Espindola Antunes, Cassio; Gomes, Natanael

    The monitoring of the level of the radio interference in the Site of the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory - SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT, (29S, 53W), São Martinho da Serra, RS, in south a of Brazil, aims to gather spectral data for the Observatory's Site qualification as a radio quite site for installation of Radio Astronomy instrumentation, free of radio noise. The determination of the radio interference level is being conducted by using a spectrum analyzer and Omni directional antennas remotely controlled through a GPIB interface, via IEEE 488 bus, and programs written in C language. That procedure allows the scanning of the Electromagnetic Spectrum power over the examined frequency range from 10 - 240MHz. The methodology for these tests was to amplify the radio signal from the antenna by a block amplifier. Subsequently, the received signals are evaluated by the spectrum analyzer. A dedicated PC computer is used for the control and data acquisition, with the developed software. The data are instantly stored in digital format and remotely transferred via VNC software from the SSO-Observatory Site to the Radio Frequency and Telecommunication Laboratory at the Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT, in Santa Maria, RS, for analysis and storage on the radio interference data base for long period. It is compared the SSO's Electromagnetic Spectrum data obtained since the beginning of the 1990's decade, before the Site constructions, with the current observed data. Some radio transmissions were found in the observed frequency range due to some local FMs, mostly between 93.5 MHz to 105.7 MHz, which were observed in previous monitoring. A good evidence of the site quality is the fact that the power of the Electromagnetic Spectrum is much lower than that measured at the Radio Frequency and Telecommunication Laboratory, in Santa Maria, RS, where the signals do not exceed -60 dB. On the Site of the SSO, due to the low power observed, weak radio signals

  15. Development of optimized detector/spectrophotometer technology for low background space astronomy missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.

    1985-01-01

    This program was directed towards a better understanding of some of the important factors in the performance of infrared detector arrays at low background conditions appropriate for space astronomy. The arrays were manufactured by Aerojet Electrosystems Corporation, Azusa. Two arrays, both bismuth doped silicon, were investigated: an AMCID 32x32 Engineering mosiac Si:Bi accumulation mode charge injection device detector array and a metal oxide semiconductor/field effect transistor (MOS-FET) switched array of 16x32 pixels.

  16. Space-Based Astronomy: An Educator Guide with Activities for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    2001-01-01

    If you go to the country, far from city lights, you can see about 3,000 stars on a clear night. If your eyes were bigger, you could see many more stars. With a pair of binoculars, an optical device that effectively enlarges the pupil of your eye by about 30 times, the number of stars you can see increases to the tens of thousands. With a medium-sized telescope with a light-collecting mirror 30 centimeters in diameter, you can see hundreds of thousands of stars. With a large observatory telescope, millions of stars become visible. This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outer space. It is not intended to serve as a curriculum. Instead, teachers should select activities from this guide that support and extend existing study. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. It tells, rather, the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Teachers are encouraged to adapt these activities for the particular needs of their students. When selected activities from this guide are used in conjunction with traditional astronomy curricula, students benefit from a more complete experience.

  17. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Louis M.

    2013-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Application Repository Design and Analysis document describes the STRS application repository for software-defined radio (SDR) applications intended to be compliant to the STRS Architecture Standard. The document provides information about the submission of artifacts to the STRS application repository, to provide information to the potential users of that information, and for the systems engineer to understand the requirements, concepts, and approach to the STRS application repository. The STRS application repository is intended to capture knowledge, documents, and other artifacts for each waveform application or other application outside of its project so that when the project ends, the knowledge is retained. The document describes the transmission of technology from mission to mission capturing lessons learned that are used for continuous improvement across projects and supporting NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for performing software engineering projects and NASAs release process.

  18. RESOLVE: A new algorithm for aperture synthesis imaging of extended emission in radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junklewitz, H.; Bell, M. R.; Selig, M.; Enßlin, T. A.

    2016-02-01

    We present resolve, a new algorithm for radio aperture synthesis imaging of extended and diffuse emission in total intensity. The algorithm is derived using Bayesian statistical inference techniques, estimating the surface brightness in the sky assuming a priori log-normal statistics. resolve estimates the measured sky brightness in total intensity, and the spatial correlation structure in the sky, which is used to guide the algorithm to an optimal reconstruction of extended and diffuse sources. During this process, the algorithm succeeds in deconvolving the effects of the radio interferometric point spread function. Additionally, resolve provides a map with an uncertainty estimate of the reconstructed surface brightness. Furthermore, with resolve we introduce a new, optimal visibility weighting scheme that can be viewed as an extension to robust weighting. In tests using simulated observations, the algorithm shows improved performance against two standard imaging approaches for extended sources, Multiscale-CLEAN and the Maximum Entropy Method.

  19. The origin and development of extragalactic radio astronomy: the role of CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics Dover Heights Field Station in Sydney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Robertson, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Initial post-war developments in non-solar radio astronomy were inspired by Hey, Phillips and Parson’s report in 1946 of an intense source of radio emission in Cygnus. This so-called ‘radio star’ was unique, and questions immediately were raised about its true nature. But it did not remain unique for long. Observing from Sydney, John Bolton, Gordon Stanley and Bruce Slee followed up the Cygnus discovery with more radio star detections, beginning what would evolve into a long-term multi-faceted research program and one of the mainstays of the CSIRO’s Division of Radiophysics. But more than this, these early discoveries in England and in Sydney opened up a whole new field of investigation, extragalactic radio astronomy, which has remained a major area of investigation through to the present day. This paper focusses on the early years of this program when the observations were carried out at Dover Heights Field Station in Sydney, and the ways in which new developments in instrumentation that allowed a major expansion of the program eventually led to the closure of Dover Heights and the founding of the Fleurs Field Station.

  20. Gravity-gradient dynamics experiments performed in orbit utilizing the Radio Astronomy Explorer (RAE-1) spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, H.

    1973-01-01

    Six dynamic experiments were performed in earth orbit utilizing the RAE spacecraft in order to test the accuracy of the mathematical model of RAE dynamics. The spacecraft consisted of four flexible antenna booms, mounted on a rigid cylindrical spacecraft hub at center, for measuring radio emissions from extraterrestrial sources. Attitude control of the gravity stabilized spacecraft was tested by using damper clamping, single lower leading boom operations, and double lower boom operations. Results and conclusions of the in-orbit dynamic experiments proved the accuracy of the analytic techniques used to model RAE dynamical behavior.

  1. Atmospheric profiles from active space-based radio measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kenneth R.; Hinson, David P.; Tyler, G. L.; Kursinski, E. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes determinations of atmospheric profiles from space-based radio measurements and the retrieval methodology used, with special attention given to the measurement procedure and the characteristics of the soundings. It is speculated that reliable profiles of the terrestrial atmosphere can be obtained by the occultation technique from the surface to a height of about 60 km. With the full complement of 21 the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites and one GPS receiver in sun synchronous polar orbit, a maximum of 42 soundings could be obtained for each complete orbit or about 670 per day, providing almost uniform global coverage.

  2. Solar maximum mission: Ground support programs at the Harvard Radio Astronomy Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, A.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of the spectral characteristics of solar radio bursts were made with new dynamic spectrum analyzers of high sensitivity and high reliability, over the frequency range 25-580 MHz. The observations also covered the maximum period of the current solar cycle and the period of international cooperative programs designated as the Solar Maximum Year. Radio data on shock waves generated by solar flares were combined with optical data on coronal transients, taken with equipment on the SMM and other satellites, and then incorporated into computer models for the outward passage of fast-mode MHD shocks through the solar corona. The MHD models are non-linear, time-dependent and for the most recent models, quasi-three-dimensional. They examine the global response of the corona for different types of input pulses (thermal, magnetic, etc.) and for different magnetic topologies (for example, open and closed fields). Data on coronal shocks and high-velocity material ejected from solar flares have been interpreted in terms of a model consisting of three main velocity regimes.

  3. The NASA Space Place: A Plethora of Games, Projects, and Fun Facts for Celebrating Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, N. J.; Fisher, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    The Space Place is a unique NASA education and public outreach program. It includes a NASA website (spaceplace.nasa.gov) in English and Spanish that targets elementary age children with appealing, content- rich STEM material on space science, Earth science, and technology. The site features science and/or technology content related to, so far, over 40 NASA missions. This overall program, as well as special efforts planned for IYA2009, strongly support many of the objectives of IYA. Some of these are: 1. Stimulate interest in astronomy and science, especially among young people and in audiences not normally reached. 2. Increase scientific awareness. 3. Support and improve formal and informal science education. 4. Provide a contemporary image of science and scientists. 5. Facilitate new astronomy education networks and strengthen existing ones. 6. Improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement of underrepresented groups. The Space Place program has cultivated a large network of community partners (Obj. 5), including museums, libraries, and planetariums, as well as a large network of avocational astronomy societies. We send the community partners monthly mailings of the latest NASA materials for their "NASA Space Place" display boards (Obj. 1, 2, 3, 5). The astronomy societies receive original articles with the latest "insider" news on NASA missions for publication in their newsletters or on their websites (Obj. 2, 5). Through these leveraged partnerships, we reach a large audience of children; parents; formal and informal educators; rural, minority, and otherwise underserved audiences (Obj. 1, 6); and avocational astronomers, many of whom work with children and the general public in the classroom or at special events (Obj. 2, 3). Supporting Obj. 4, are the "Space Place Live" cartoon "talk show" episodes, spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/live. For IYA 2009, we will specifically prepare our partners to plan and carry

  4. Interactive Lab to Learn Radio Astronomy, Microwave & Antenna Engineering at the Technical University of Cartagena (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Daniel Quesada-Pereira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An initiative carried out at the Technical University of Cartagena (UPCT, Spain to encourage students and promote the interest for Scientific and Engineering Culture between society is presented in this contribution. For this purpose, a long-term project based on the set-up of an interactive laboratory surrounding a small Radio Telescope (SRT system has been carried out. The main novelty is that this project is entirely being developed by students of last courses of our Telecommunication Engineering Faculty, under the supervision of four lecturers. This lab offers the possibility to remotely control the SRT, and it provides a set of multimedia web-based applications to produce a novel, practical, multidisciplinary virtual laboratory to improve the learning and teaching processes in related sciences and technologies.

  5. ICE-Based Custom Full-Mesh Network for the CHIME High Bandwidth Radio Astronomy Correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, K.; Cliche, J. F.; Dobbs, M. A.; Gilbert, A. J.; Ittah, D.; Mena Parra, J.; Smecher, G.

    2016-03-01

    New generation radio interferometers encode signals from thousands of antenna feeds across large bandwidth. Channelizing and correlating this data requires networking capabilities that can handle unprecedented data rates with reasonable cost. The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) correlator processes 8-bits from N=2,048 digitizer inputs across 400MHz of bandwidth. Measured in N2× bandwidth, it is the largest radio correlator that is currently commissioning. Its digital back-end must exchange and reorganize the 6.6terabit/s produced by its 128 digitizing and channelizing nodes, and feed it to the 256 graphics processing unit (GPU) node spatial correlator in a way that each node obtains data from all digitizer inputs but across a small fraction of the bandwidth (i.e. ‘corner-turn’). In order to maximize performance and reliability of the corner-turn system while minimizing cost, a custom networking solution has been implemented. The system makes use of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) transceivers to implement direct, passive copper, full-mesh, high speed serial connections between sixteen circuit boards in a crate, to exchange data between crates, and to offload the data to a cluster of 256 GPU nodes using standard 10Gbit/s Ethernet links. The GPU nodes complete the corner-turn by combining data from all crates and then computing visibilities. Eye diagrams and frame error counters confirm error-free operation of the corner-turn network in both the currently operating CHIME Pathfinder telescope (a prototype for the full CHIME telescope) and a representative fraction of the full CHIME hardware providing an end-to-end system validation. An analysis of an equivalent corner-turn system built with Ethernet switches instead of custom passive data links is provided.

  6. Astronomy and space sciences studies - use of a remotely controlled robotic observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskitch, Ray

    Trinity College in Perth, Western Australia, has designed a self-paced online astronomy and space science course in response to the Earth & Beyond strand of the State's Curriculum Framework learning environment. The course also provides senior physics students the opportunity to undertake research that contributes towards their school-based assessment. Special features of the course include use of the first remotely controlled robotic telescope in a secondary school within Australia, and direct real time links to NASA's Johnson Space Centre. The quantum leap in telescope design and control technology introduces users, especially school students, to a means of data collection and processing that hitherto was in the realm of the professional astronomer. No longer must students be, both in time and space, located at the telescope when an event is taking place. Convenience of use and the high quality of data allows students to undertake scientific investigations that were impractical or of dubious quality beforehand. The Astronomy and Space Sciences course at Trinity offers students the opportunity to explore the solar system and the universe beyond whilst also incorporating a wide range of subjects other than science per se such as mathematics, computing, geography, multimedia, religious education and art. Skills developed in this course are of practical value, such as image processing, and the context of the studies serve to illuminate and stimulate student awareness of our unique environment and its finiteness.

  7. Ground and space observations of medium frequency auroral radio emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Matthew C.

    The auroral zone is a rich source of natural radio emissions that can be observed in space and at ground-level. By studying these waves, scientists can gain insight into the plasma processes that generate them and use the near-Earth space environment as a large-scale plasma physics laboratory. This thesis uses both ground-level and in situ observations to study two kinds of natural radio emissions. First, we report observations of a new kind of auroral radio emission. The waves have frequencies ranging from 1.3-2.2 MHz, bandwidths ranging from 90-272 kHz, and durations ranging from 16-355 s. Spectral analysis of the waveform data has revealed that the emission has a complex combination of at least three kinds of fine structures. For model auroral electron distributions, calculations indicate that Langmuir waves could be excited at frequencies consistent with observations. The remainder of the thesis discusses auroral medium frequency (MF) burst, an impulsive, broadband natural radio emission observed at ground-level within a few minutes of local substorm onset. LaBelle [2011] proposed that MF burst originates as Langmuir/Z-mode waves on the topside of the ionosphere that subsequently mode convert to L-mode waves and propagate to ground-level. Using continuous waveform measurements and combined observations with the Sondrestrom Incoherent Scatter Radar, we have performed two tests of this mechanism. The results of these tests are consistent with the mechanism described in LaBelle [2011]. A survey of 8,624 half-orbits of the DEMETER spacecraft has revealed 68 observations of bursty MF waves. We have compared the wave properties of these waves to those of MF burst and have found that although it is uncertain, the balance of the evidence suggests that the bursty MF waves observed with DEMETER are the same phenomenon as the ground-level MF burst. Finally, we have used numerical simulations to model both the fine structure of MF burst and to estimate the attenuation the

  8. International Summer School on Astronomy and Space Science in Chile, first experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, M.; Arellano-Baeza, A. A.

    I International Summer School on Astronomy and Space Science took place in the Elqui Valley Chile January 15-29 2005 Eighty 12-17 year old students from Chile Russia Venezuela and Bulgaria obtained a valuable experience to work together with outstanding scientists from Chile and Russia and with Russian cosmonaut Alexander Balandine They also had opportunity to visit the main astronomical observatories and to participate in workshops dedicated to the telescope and satellite design and remote sensing This activity was supported by numerous institutions in Chile including the Ministry of Education the European Southern Observatory Chilean Space Agency Chilean Air Force Latin American Association of Space Geophysics the principal Chilean universities and the First Lady Mrs Luisa Duran

  9. Development of the radio astronomical method of cosmic particle detection for extremely high-energy cosmic ray physics and neutrino astronomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheleznykh Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposal to use ground based radio telescopes for detection of Askaryan radio pulses from particle cascades arising when extremely high-energy (EHE > 1020 eV cosmic rays (including neutrinos interact with the lunar regolith of multi gigaton mass was made at the end of 1980s in the framework of the Russian (Soviet DUMAND Program. During more than a quarter of century a number of lunar experiments were carried out mainly in the 1–3 GHz frequency range using the large radio telescopes of Australia, USA, Russia and other countries but these experiments only put upper limits to the EHE cosmic rays fluxes. For this reason, it would be of great interest to search for nanosecond radio pulses from the Moon in a wider interval of frequencies (including lower ones of 100–350 MHz with larger radio detectors – for example the giant radio telescope SKA (Square Kilometer Array which is constructed in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. In this paper possibilities are discussed to use one of the most sensitive meter-wavelength (∼ 110 MHz Large Phased Array (LPA of 187 × 384 m2 and the wide field of view meter-wavelength array of the Pushchino Radio Astronomy Observatory as prototypes of low frequency radio detectors for lunar experiments. The new scheme for fast simulation of ultrahigh and extremely high-energy cascades in dense media is also suggested. This scheme will be used later for calculations of radio emission of cascades in the lunar regolith with energies up to 1020 eV and higher in the wide frequency band of 0.1− a few GHz.

  10. The NSF Undergraduate ALFALFA Team: Partnering with Arecibo Observatory to Offer Undergraduate and Faculty Extragalactic Radio Astronomy Research Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaudo, Joseph; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Balonek, Thomas J.; Cannon, John M.; Coble, Kimberly A.; Craig, David W.; Denn, Grant R.; Durbala, Adriana; Finn, Rose; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Hoffman, G. Lyle; Lebron, Mayra E.; Miller, Brendan P.; Crone-Odekon, Mary; O'Donoghue, Aileen A.; Olowin, Ronald Paul; Pantoja, Carmen; Pisano, Daniel J.; Rosenberg, Jessica L.; Troischt, Parker; Venkatesan, Aparna; Wilcots, Eric M.; ALFALFA Team

    2017-01-01

    The NSF-sponsored Undergraduate ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) Team (UAT) is a consortium of 20 institutions across the US and Puerto Rico, founded to promote undergraduate research and faculty development within the extragalactic ALFALFA HI blind survey project and follow-up programs. The objective of the UAT is to provide opportunities for its members to develop expertise in the technical aspects of observational radio spectroscopy, its associated data analysis, and the motivating science. Partnering with Arecibo Observatory, the UAT has worked with more than 280 undergraduates and 26 faculty to date, offering 8 workshops onsite at Arecibo (148 undergraduates), observing runs at Arecibo (69 undergraduates), remote observing runs on campus, undergraduate research projects based on Arecibo science (120 academic year and 185 summer projects), and presentation of results at national meetings such as the AAS (at AAS229: Ball et al., Collova et al., Davis et al., Miazzo et al., Ruvolo et al, Singer et al., Cannon et al., Craig et al., Koopmann et al., O'Donoghue et al.). 40% of the students and 45% of the faculty participants have been women and members of underrepresented groups. More than 90% of student alumni are attending graduate school and/or pursuing a career in STEM. 42% of those pursuing graduate degrees in Physics or Astronomy are women.In this presentation, we summarize the UAT program and the current research efforts of UAT members based on Arecibo science, including multiwavelength followup observations of ALFALFA sources, the UAT Collaborative Groups Project, the Survey of HI in Extremely Low-mass Dwarfs (SHIELD), and the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS). This work has been supported by NSF grants AST-0724918/0902211, AST-075267/0903394, AST-0725380, AST-121105, and AST-1637339.

  11. An Integrated Circuit for Radio Astronomy Correlators Supporting Large Arrays of Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, Larry R.; Wang, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Radio telescopes that employ arrays of many antennas are in operation, and ever larger ones are being designed and proposed. Signals from the antennas are combined by cross-correlation. While the cost of most components of the telescope is proportional to the number of antennas N, the cost and power consumption of cross-correlationare proportional to N2 and dominate at sufficiently large N. Here we report the design of an integrated circuit (IC) that performs digital cross-correlations for arbitrarily many antennas in a power-efficient way. It uses an intrinsically low-power architecture in which the movement of data between devices is minimized. In a large system, each IC performs correlations for all pairs of antennas but for a portion of the telescope's bandwidth (the so-called "FX" structure). In our design, the correlations are performed in an array of 4096 complex multiply-accumulate (CMAC) units. This is sufficient to perform all correlations in parallel for 64 signals (N=32 antennas with 2 opposite-polarization signals per antenna). When N is larger, the input data are buffered in an on-chipmemory and the CMACs are re-used as many times as needed to compute all correlations. The design has been synthesized and simulated so as to obtain accurate estimates of the IC's size and power consumption. It isintended for fabrication in a 32 nm silicon-on-insulator process, where it will require less than 12mm2 of silicon area and achieve an energy efficiency of 1.76 to 3.3 pJ per CMAC operation, depending on the number of antennas. Operation has been analyzed in detail up to N = 4096. The system-level energy efficiency, including board-levelI/O, power supplies, and controls, is expected to be 5 to 7 pJ per CMAC operation. Existing correlators for the JVLA (N = 32) and ALMA (N = 64) telescopes achieve about 5000 pJ and 1000 pJ respectively usingapplication-specific ICs in older technologies. To our knowledge, the largest-N existing correlator is LEDA atN = 256; it

  12. Hardware Interface Description for the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) Space Telecommunications Radio Ssystem (STRS) Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.; Roche, Rigoberto

    2017-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) provides a common, consistent framework for software defined radios (SDRs) to abstract the application software from the radio platform hardware. The STRS standard aims to reduce the cost and risk of using complex, configurable and reprogrammable radio systems across NASA missions. To promote the use of the STRS architecture for future NASA advanced exploration missions, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed an STRS-compliant SDR on a radio platform used by the Advance Exploration System program at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in their Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) laboratory. The iPAS STRS Radio was implemented on the Reconfigurable, Intelligently-Adaptive Communication System (RIACS) platform, currently being used for radio development at JSC. The platform consists of a Xilinx ML605 Virtex-6 FPGA board, an Analog Devices FMCOMMS1-EBZ RF transceiver board, and an Embedded PC (Axiomtek eBox 620-110-FL) running the Ubuntu 12.4 operating system. Figure 1 shows the RIACS platform hardware. The result of this development is a very low cost STRS compliant platform that can be used for waveform developments for multiple applications.The purpose of this document is to describe how to develop a new waveform using the RIACS platform and the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) FPGA wrapper code and the STRS implementation on the Axiomtek processor.

  13. Waveform Developer's Guide for the Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.; Roche, Rigoberto

    2017-01-01

    The Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) provides a common, consistent framework for software defined radios (SDRs) to abstract the application software from the radio platform hardware. The STRS standard aims to reduce the cost and risk of using complex, configurable and reprogrammable radio systems across NASA missions. To promote the use of the STRS architecture for future NASA advanced exploration missions, NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) developed an STRS-compliant SDR on a radio platform used by the Advance Exploration System program at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in their Integrated Power, Avionics, and Software (iPAS) laboratory. The iPAS STRS Radio was implemented on the Reconfigurable, Intelligently-Adaptive Communication System (RIACS) platform, currently being used for radio development at JSC. The platform consists of a Xilinx(Trademark) ML605 Virtex(Trademark)-6 FPGA board, an Analog Devices FMCOMMS1-EBZ RF transceiver board, and an Embedded PC (Axiomtek(Trademark) eBox 620-110-FL) running the Ubuntu 12.4 operating system. The result of this development is a very low cost STRS compliant platform that can be used for waveform developments for multiple applications. The purpose of this document is to describe how to develop a new waveform using the RIACS platform and the Very High Speed Integrated Circuits (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) FPGA wrapper code and the STRS implementation on the Axiomtek processor.

  14. Radio-wave propagation for space communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ippolito, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    The most recent information on the effects of Earth's atmosphere on space communications systems is reviewed. The design and reliable operation of satellite systems that provide the many applications in space which rely on the transmission of radio waves for communications and scientific purposes are dependent on the propagation characteristics of the transmission path. The presence of atmospheric gases, clouds, fog, precipitation, and turbulence causes uncontrolled variations in the signal characteristics. These variations can result in a reduction of the quality and reliability of the transmitted information. Models and other techniques are used in the prediction of atmospheric effects as influenced by frequency, geography, elevation angle, and type of transmission. Recent data on performance characteristics obtained from direct measurements on satellite links operating to above 30 GHz have been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the effects of precipitation on the Earth/space path, including rain attenuation, and ice particle depolarization. Other factors are sky noise, antenna gain degradation, scintillations, and bandwidth coherence. Each of the various propagation factors has an effect on design criteria for communications systems. These criteria include link reliability, power margins, noise contribution, modulation and polarization factors, channel cross talk, error rate, and bandwidth limitations.

  15. Propagation of Energetic Electrons from the Corona into Interplanetary Space and Type III Radio Emission. Planetary Radio Emissions| PLANETARY RADIO EMISSIONS VII 7|

    OpenAIRE

    Vocks, C.; Breitling, F.; Mann, G.

    2011-01-01

    During solar flares a large amount of electrons with energies greater than 20 keV is generated with a production rate of typically 1036 s-1. A part of them is able to propagate along open magnetic field lines through the corona into interplanetary space. During their travel they emit radio radiation which is observed as type III radio bursts in the frequency range from 100 MHz down to 10 kHz by the WAVES radio spectrometer aboard the spacecraft WIND, for instance. From the drift rates of thes...

  16. MF-CRA: Multi-Function Cognitive Radio Architecture for Space Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — EpiSys Science, Inc. and University of Arizona propose to develop, implement, and demonstrate Multi-Function Cognitive Radio Architecture (MF-CRA) for Space...

  17. All Over the World: Mid-Twentieth Century Radio Astronomy and the Origin of the International SETI Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    Cold War mythology is rife with stories about secrecy, competition, espionage, and animosity. Yet the history behind the myth-- the overlooked scientists collaborating outside of the aims of the state-- also tells an interesting story. This paper examines the challenges of international scientific collaboration during the Cold War, focusing especially on a case study concerning Soviet radio astronomer Iosif Samuilovich Shklovskii and U.S. astrophysicist Carl Sagan, and their collaborative work on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI). Despite the hyper-politics that instigated and fueled the Space Race, SETI was held up as an ideal internationalist science, with the lofty goal of uniting all of humanity by situating it within a cosmic community. Although the internationalism of SETI discourse is not entirely unfounded due to its roots in international collaboration, further research indicates that such internationalism was in reality instilled with geopolitics, international conflict, and even espionage. That said, however, the cultural and philosophical perspectives of individual SETI scientists led them to operate within the tensions between national and ideological restraints and their own personal philosophical perspectives. In reviewing the letters of correspondence, conference proceedings, interviews, transcripts of lectures, and autobiographical writings of early-SETI radio astronomers, this paper ultimately argues that, although SETI was not the ideal internationalist science it was portrayed as, SETI pioneers were able to connect and form international networks within a contentious system which often centred on the restriction of free information and international collaboration through their mutual unconventional scientific interests, and facilitated by their personal utopian futurist philosophies.

  18. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A unique opportunity for journalists and cameramen to view INTEGRAL will be provided at ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands on Tuesday 22 September. On show will be the full-size structural thermal model which is now beeing examined in ESA's test centre. Following introductions to the project, the INTEGRAL spacecraft can be seen, filmed and photographed in its special clean room environment.. Media representatives wishing to participate in the visit to ESA's test centre and the presentation of INTEGRAL are kindly requested to return by fax the attached registration form to ESA Public relations, Tel. +33 (0) 1.53.69.71.55 - Fax. +33 (0) 1.53.69.76.90. For details please see the attached programme Gamma-ray astronomy - why ? Gamma-rays cannot be detected from the ground since the earth's atmosphere shields us from high energetic radiation. Only space technology has made gamma-astronomy possible. To avoid background radiation effects INTEGRAL will spend most of its time in the orbit outside earth's radiation belts above an altitude of 40'000 km. Gamma-rays are the highest energy form of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic phenomena occurring in nature and addresses some of the most fundamental problems in physics. We know for instance that most of the chemical elements in our bodies come from long-dead stars. But how were these elements formed? INTEGRAL will register gamma-ray evidence of element-making. Gamma-rays also appear when matter squirms in the intense gravity of collapsed stars or black holes. One of the most important scientific objectives of INTEGRAL is to study such compact objects as neutron stars or black holes. Besides stellar black holes there may exist much bigger specimens of these extremely dense objects. Most astronomers believe that in the heart of our Milky Way as in the centre of other galaxies there may lurk giant black holes. INTEGRAL will have to find evidence of these exotic objects. Even

  19. CfDS attends the first meeting of the All-Party Parliamentary Astronomy and Space Environment Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizon, B.

    1999-06-01

    This group first met on March 11th, 1999, as 'a forum for discussion to further parliamentary interest in astronomy and the space environment affecting terrestrial life and its climate; and to increase awareness of the social, political and philosophical implications of present and future space technologies connected with exploring and understanding the cosmos'. CfDS coordinator Bob Mizon attended the first meeting of the group.

  20. Radio Wavelength Studies of the Galactic Center Source N3, Spectroscopic Instrumentation For Robotic Telescope Systems, and Developing Active Learning Activities for Astronomy Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Dominic Alesio

    2017-08-01

    The mysterious radio source N3 appears to be located within the vicinity of the Radio Arc region of the Galactic Center. To investigate the nature of this source, we have conducted radio observations with the VLA and the VLBA. Continuum observations between 2 and 50 GHz reveal that N3 is an extremely compact and bright source with a non-thermal spectrum. Molecular line observations with the VLA reveal a compact molecular cloud adjacent to N3 in projection. The properties of this cloud are consistent with other galactic center clouds. We are able to rule out several hypotheses for the nature of N3, though a micro-blazar origin cannot be ruled out. Robotic Telescope systems are now seeing widespread deployment as both teaching and research instruments. While these systems have traditionally been able to produce high quality images, these systems have lacked the capability to conduct spectroscopic observations. To enable spectroscopic observations on the Iowa Robotic Observatory, we have developed a low cost (˜ 500), low resolution (R ˜ 300) spectrometer which mounts inside a modified filter wheel and a moderate cost (˜ 5000), medium resolution (R ˜ 8000) fiber-fed spectrometer. Software has been developed to operate both instruments robotically and calibration pipelines are being developed to automate calibration of the data. The University of Iowa offers several introductory astronomy laboratory courses taken by many hundreds of students each semester. To improve student learning in these laboratory courses, we have worked to integrate active learning into laboratory activities. We present the pedagogical approaches used to develop and update the laboratory activities and present an inventory of the current laboratory exercises. Using the inventory, we make observations of the strengths and weaknesses of the current exercises and provide suggestions for future refinement of the astronomy laboratory curriculum.

  1. Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) technology is a scalable solution for the backhaul planning. However, its performance is limited in terms of data rate and latency. Free Space Optical (FSO) backhaul, on the other hand, offers a higher data rate

  2. Space astronomy for the mid-21st century: Robotically maintained space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The historical development of ground based astronomical telescopes leads us to expect that space-based astronomical telescopes will need to be operational for many decades. The exchange of scientific instruments in space will be a prerequisite for the long lasting scientific success of such missions. Operationally, the possibility to repair or replace key spacecraft components in space will be mandatory. We argue that these requirements can be fulfilled with robotic missions and see the development of the required engineering as the main challenge. Ground based operations, scientifically and technically, will require a low operational budget of the running costs. These can be achieved through enhanced autonomy of the spacecraft and mission independent concepts for the support of the software. This concept can be applied to areas where the mirror capabilities do not constrain the lifetime of the mission. Online material is available at the CDS via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/AN/333/209

  3. Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  4. Organizing space: Dutch space science between astronomy, industry and the government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baneke, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes how scientists, private companies and the government in the Netherlands cooperated in the creation of the new field of space research. It examines especially the role of Philips Electronics and Fokker Aircraft, and the consequences of their different structure and corporate

  5. Oscillation Maps in the Broadband Radio Spectrum of the 1 August 2010 Event

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karlický, Marian; Rybák, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 1 (2017), 1/1-1/17 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun flares * radio radiation * oscillations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016

  6. TV white space opportunity for cognitive radio networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available to benefit from the digital dividend brought about by the DSO, regulators from the developed countries are promoting license-exempt cognitive radio (CR) access to TVWS. However, there is a need to understand how much TVWS is available in South Africa...

  7. Long-term integrated radiophysical studies of the ionosphere, near space, and the propagation of radio waves from space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misyura, V. A.

    1974-01-01

    The radiophysical studies reported consist of direct measurements of certain effects induced in the propagation of radio waves from space objects. From measured effects and from data on the motion and position of space objects, physical parameters of the medium and bodies are determined.

  8. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - the First Operational Payload on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.; McFadin, L.; Steiner, M.; Conley, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    As astronauts and cosmonauts have adapted to life on the International Space Station (ISS), they have found Amateur Radio and its connection to life on Earth to be a constant companion and a substantial psychological boost. Since its first use in November 2000, the first five expedition crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the FGB to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early in the development of ISS, an international organization called ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station) was formed to coordinate the construction and operation of amateur radio (ham radio) equipment on ISS. ARISS represents a melding of the volunteer teams that have pioneered the development and use of amateur radio equipment on human spaceflight vehicles. The Shuttle/Space Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) team enabled Owen Garriott to become the first astronaut ham to use amateur radio from space in 1983. Since then, amateur radio teams in the U.S. (SAREX), Germany, (SAFEX), and Russia (Mirex) have led the development and operation of amateur radio equipment on board NASA's Space Shuttle, Russia's Mir space station, and the International Space Station. The primary goals of the ARISS program are fourfold: 1) educational outreach through crew contacts with schools, 2) random contacts with the Amateur Radio public, 3) scheduled contacts with the astronauts' friends and families and 4) ISS-based communications experimentation. To date, over 65 schools have been selected from around the world for scheduled contacts with the orbiting ISS crew. Ten or more students at each school ask the astronauts questions, and the nature of these contacts embodies the primary goal of the ARISS program, -- to excite student's interest in science, technology and amateur radio. The ARISS team has developed various hardware elements for the ISS amateur radio station. These hardware elements have flown to ISS

  9. Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Reyes, George

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a new space radio astronomy mission for astrometry using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) called Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS). The ultimate goals of AVS are improving the accuracy of radio astrometry measurements to the microarcsecond level in one epoch of measurements and improving the accuracy of the transformation between the inertial radio and optical coordinate reference frames. This study will also assess the impact of this mission on astrophysics astrometry and geophysics.

  10. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.; Gibson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of stellar radio emission became an important field of research in the 1970's and have now expanded to become a major area of radio astronomy with the advent of new instruments such as the Very Large Array in New Mexico and transcontinental telescope arrays. This volume contains papers from the workshop on stellar continuum radio astronomy held in Boulder, Colorado, and is the first book on the rapidly expanding field of radio emission from stars and stellar systems. Subjects covered include the observational and theoretical aspects of stellar winds from both hot and cool stars, radio flares from active double star systems and red dwarf stars, bipolar flows from star-forming regions, and the radio emission from X-ray binaries. (orig.)

  11. Characterization of dual-polarization LTE radio over a free-space optical turbulence channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohata, J; Zvanovec, S; Korinek, T; Mansour Abadi, M; Ghassemlooy, Z

    2015-08-10

    A dual polarization (DP) radio over a free-space optical (FSO) communication link using a long-term evolution (LTE) radio signal is proposed and analyzed under different turbulence channel conditions. Radio signal transmission over the DP FSO channel is experimentally verified by means of error vector magnitude (EVM) statistics. We demonstrate that such a system, employing a 64 quadrature amplitude modulation at the frequency bands of 800 MHz and 2.6 GHz, evinces reliability with LTE signal over the FSO channel is a potential solution for last-mile access or backbone networks, when using multiple-input multiple-output based DP signals.

  12. Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Architecture Standard. Release 1.02.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, C. Steve; Mortensen, Dale J.; Johnson, Sandra K.; Briones, Janette C.; Nappier, Jennifer M.; Downey, Joseph A.; Lux, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This document contains the NASA architecture standard for software defined radios used in space- and ground-based platforms to enable commonality among radio developments to enhance capability and services while reducing mission and programmatic risk. Transceivers (or transponders) with functionality primarily defined in software (e.g., firmware) have the ability to change their functional behavior through software alone. This radio architecture standard offers value by employing common waveform software interfaces, method of instantiation, operation, and testing among different compliant hardware and software products. These common interfaces within the architecture abstract application software from the underlying hardware to enable technology insertion independently at either the software or hardware layer.

  13. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  14. A New Approach to Suppress the Effect of Machining Error for Waveguide Septum Circular Polarizer at 230 GHz Band in Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yutaka; Harada, Ryohei; Tokuda, Kazuki; Kimura, Kimihiro; Ogawa, Hideo; Onishi, Toshikazu; Nishimura, Atsushi; Han, Johnson; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    A new stepped septum-type waveguide circular polarizer (SST-CP) was developed to operate in the 230 GHz band for radio astronomy, especially submillimeter-band VLBI observations. For previously reported SST-CP models, the 230 GHz band is too high to achieve the design characteristics in manufactured devices because of unexpected machining errors. To realize a functional SST-CP that can operate in the submillimeter band, a new method was developed, in which the division surface is shifted from the top step of the septum to the second step from the top, and we simulated the expected machining error. The SST-CP using this method can compensate for specified machining errors and suppress serious deterioration. To verify the proposed method, several test pieces were manufactured, and their characteristics were measured using a VNA. These results indicated that the insertion losses were approximately 0.75 dB, and the input return losses and the crosstalk of the left- and right-hand circular polarization were greater than 20 dB at 220-245 GHz on 300 K. Moreover, a 230 GHz SST-CP was developed by the proposed method and installed in a 1.85-m radio telescope receiver systems, and then had used for scientific observations during one observation season without any problems. These achievements demonstrate the successful development of a 230 GHz SST-CP for radio astronomical observations. Furthermore, the proposed method can be applicable for observations in higher frequency bands, such as 345 GHz.

  15. Reflected ray retrieval from radio occultation data using radio holographic filtering of wave fields in ray space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Gorbunov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear and non-linear representations of wave fields constitute the basis of modern algorithms for analysis of radio occultation (RO data. Linear representations are implemented by Fourier Integral Operators, which allow for high-resolution retrieval of bending angles. Non-linear representations include Wigner Distribution Function (WDF, which equals the pseudo-density of energy in the ray space. Representations allow for filtering wave fields by suppressing some areas of the ray space and mapping the field back from the transformed space to the initial one. We apply this technique to the retrieval of reflected rays from RO observations. The use of reflected rays may increase the accuracy of the retrieval of the atmospheric refractivity. Reflected rays can be identified by the visual inspection of WDF or spectrogram plots. Numerous examples from COSMIC data indicate that reflections are mostly observed over oceans or snow, in particular over Antarctica. We introduce the reflection index that characterizes the relative intensity of the reflected ray with respect to the direct ray. The index allows for the automatic identification of events with reflections. We use the radio holographic estimate of the errors of the retrieved bending angle profiles of reflected rays. A comparison of indices evaluated for a large base of events including the visual identification of reflections indicated a good agreement with our definition of reflection index.

  16. Reflected ray retrieval from radio occultation data using radio holographic filtering of wave fields in ray space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, Michael E.; Cardellach, Estel; Lauritsen, Kent B.

    2018-03-01

    Linear and non-linear representations of wave fields constitute the basis of modern algorithms for analysis of radio occultation (RO) data. Linear representations are implemented by Fourier Integral Operators, which allow for high-resolution retrieval of bending angles. Non-linear representations include Wigner Distribution Function (WDF), which equals the pseudo-density of energy in the ray space. Representations allow for filtering wave fields by suppressing some areas of the ray space and mapping the field back from the transformed space to the initial one. We apply this technique to the retrieval of reflected rays from RO observations. The use of reflected rays may increase the accuracy of the retrieval of the atmospheric refractivity. Reflected rays can be identified by the visual inspection of WDF or spectrogram plots. Numerous examples from COSMIC data indicate that reflections are mostly observed over oceans or snow, in particular over Antarctica. We introduce the reflection index that characterizes the relative intensity of the reflected ray with respect to the direct ray. The index allows for the automatic identification of events with reflections. We use the radio holographic estimate of the errors of the retrieved bending angle profiles of reflected rays. A comparison of indices evaluated for a large base of events including the visual identification of reflections indicated a good agreement with our definition of reflection index.

  17. Radio stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjellming, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    Any discussion of the radio emission from stars should begin by emphasizing certain unique problems. First of all, one must clarify a semantic confusion introduced into radio astronomy in the late 1950's when most new radio sources were described as radio stars. All of these early 'radio stars' were eventually identified with other galactic and extra-galactic objects. The study of true radio stars, where the radio emission is produced in the atmosphere of a star, began only in the 1960's. Most of the work on the subject has, in fact, been carried out in only the last few years. Because the real information about radio stars is quite new, it is not surprising that major aspects of the subject are not at all understood. For this reason this paper is organized mainly around three questions: what is the available observational information; what physical processes seem to be involved; and what working hypotheses look potentially fruitful. (Auth.)

  18. Sporadic radio emission connected with a definite manifestation of solar activity in the near Earth space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnic, A. V.; Zaljubovski, I. I.; Kartashev, V. M.; Shmatko, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Sporadic radio emission of near Earth space at the frequency of 38 MHz is shown to appear in the event of a rapid development of instabilities in the ionospheric plasma. The instabilities are generated due to primary ionospheric disturbances occurring under the influence of solar chromospheric flares.

  19. A superconducting radio-frequency cavity for manipulating the phase space of pion beams at LAMPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, J.M.; Davis, J.; DeHaven, R.A.; Gray, E.; Johnson, R.; Lomax, R.E.; McCloud, B.J.; McGill, J.A.; Morris, C.L.; Novak, J.; Rusnak, B.; Tubb, G. (Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States)); Applegate, J.M.; Averett, T.D.; Beck, J.; Ritchie, B.G. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)); Haebel, E. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)); Kiehlmann, D.; Klein, U.; Peniger, M.; Schaefer, P.; Vogel, H. (Siemens AG, Accelerator and Magnet Technology, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany)); Ward, H.; Moore, C.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States))

    1992-07-15

    The SCRUNCHER is a superconducting radio-frequency cavity for manipulating the longitudinal phase space of the secondary pion beam from the low energy pion channel at LAMPF. Test results of the cavity performance and initial results from in-beam tests are presented. (orig.).

  20. A superconducting radio-frequency cavity for manipulating the phase space of pion beams at LAMPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. M.; Davis, J.; DeHaven, R. A.; Gray, E.; Johnson, R.; Lomax, R. E.; McCloud, B. J.; McGill, J. A.; Morris, C. L.; Novak, J.; Rusnak, B.; Tubb, G.; Applegate, J. M.; Averett, T. D.; Beck, J.; Ritchie, B. G.; Haebel, E.; Kiehlmann, D.; Klein, U.; Peiniger, M.; Schäfer, P.; Vogel, H.; Ward, H.; Fred Moore, C.

    1992-07-01

    The SCRUNCHER is a superconducting radio-frequency cavity for manipulating the longitudinal phase space of the secondary pion beam from the low energy pion channel at LAMPF. Test results of the cavity performance and initial results from in-beam tests are presented.

  1. The white space opportunity in Southern Africa: measurements with Meraka cognitive radio platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available space is available and how can it be used opportunistically and dynamically without causing harmful interference to licensed users? In this paper, we present work that is currently ongoing in our research lab with regard to the use of cognitive radio...

  2. Highlights of Astronomy, Vol. 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Part I. Invited Discourses: 1. The Herschel view of star formation; 2. Past, present and future of Chinese astronomy; 3. The zoo of galaxies; 4. Supernovae, the accelerating cosmos, and dark energy; Part II. Joint Discussion: 5. Very massive stars in the local universe; 6. 3-D views of the cycling Sun in stellar context; 7. Ultraviolet emission in early-type galaxies; 8. From meteors and meteorites to their parent bodies: current status and future developments; 9. The connection between radio properties and high-energy emission in AGNs; 10. Space-time reference systems for future research; Part III. Special Sessions: 11. Origin and complexity of massive star clusters; 12. Cosmic evolution of groups and clusters of galaxies; 13. Galaxy evolution through secular processes; 14. New era for studying interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields; 15. The IR view of massive stars: the main sequence and beyond; 16. Science with large solar telescopes; 17. The impact hazard: current activities and future plans; 18. Calibration of star-formation rate measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum; 19. Future large scale facilities; 20. Dynamics of the star-planet relations strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 21. Strategic plan and the Global Office of Astronomy for Development; 22. Modern views of the interstellar medium; 23. High-precision tests of stellar physics from high-precision photometry; 24. Communicating astronomy with the public for scientists; 25. Data intensive astronomy; 26. Unexplained spectral phenomena in the interstellar medium; 27. Light pollution: protecting astronomical sites and increasing global awareness through education.

  3. Future Standardization of Space Telecommunications Radio System with Core Flight System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Hickey, Joseph P.; Roche, Rigoberto; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is integrating the NASA Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) Standard with the Core Flight System (cFS), an avionics software operating environment. The STRS standard provides a common, consistent framework to develop, qualify, operate and maintain complex, reconfigurable and reprogrammable radio systems. The cFS is a flexible, open architecture that features a plugand- play software executive called the Core Flight Executive (cFE), a reusable library of software components for flight and space missions and an integrated tool suite. Together, STRS and cFS create a development environment that allows for STRS compliant applications to reference the STRS application programmer interfaces (APIs) that use the cFS infrastructure. These APIs are used to standardize the communication protocols on NASAs space SDRs. The cFS-STRS Operating Environment (OE) is a portable cFS library, which adds the ability to run STRS applications on existing cFS platforms. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the cFS-STRS OE prototype, preliminary experimental results performed using the Advanced Space Radio Platform (ASRP), the GRC S- band Ground Station and the SCaN (Space Communication and Navigation) Testbed currently flying onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Additionally, this paper presents a demonstration of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Spacecraft Onboard Interface Services (SOIS) using electronic data sheets (EDS) inside cFE. This configuration allows for the data sheets to specify binary formats for data exchange between STRS applications. The integration of STRS with cFS leverages mission-proven platform functions and mitigates barriers to integration with future missions. This reduces flight software development time and the costs of software-defined radio (SDR) platforms. Furthermore, the combined benefits of STRS standardization with the flexibility of cFS provide an effective, reliable and

  4. Solar radio bursts as a tool for space weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Matamoros, Carolina Salas; Zucca, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    The solar corona and its activity induce disturbances that may affect the space environment of the Earth. Noticeable disturbances come from coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which are large-scale ejections of plasma and magnetic fields from the solar corona, and solar energetic particles (SEPs). These particles are accelerated during the explosive variation of the coronal magnetic field or at the shock wave driven by a fast CME. In this contribution, it is illustrated how full Sun microwave observations can lead to (1) an estimate of CME speeds and of the arrival time of the CME at the Earth, (2) the prediction of SEP events attaining the Earth. xml:lang="fr"

  5. Chaco astronomies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín López, Alejandro

    2015-08-01

    This presentation discusses the result of 18 years of ethnographic and ethnohistorical studies on Chaco astronomies. The main features of the systems of astronomical knowledge of the Chaco Aboriginal groups will be discussed. In particular we will discuss the relevance of the Milky Way, the role of the visibility of the Pleiades, the ways in which the celestial space is represented, the constitution of astronomical orientations in geographic space, etc. We also address a key feature of their vision of the cosmos: the universe is seen by these groups as a socio-cosmos, where humans and non-humans are related. These are therefore actually socio-cosmologies. We will link this to the theories of Chaco Aboriginal groups about power and political relations.We will discuss how the study of Aboriginal astronomies must be performed along with the studies about astronomies of Creole people and European migrants, as well as anthropological studies about the science teaching in the formal education system and by the mass media. In this form we will discuss the relevance of a very complex system of interethnic relations for the conformation of these astronomical representations and practices.We will also discuss the general methodological implications of this case for the ethnoastronomy studies. In particular we will talk about the advantages of a study of regional scope and about the key importance of put in contact the ethnoastronomy with contemporary issues in social sciences.We also analyze the importance of ethnoastronomy studies in relation to studies of sociology of science, especially astronomy. We also study the potential impact on improving formal and informal science curricula and in shaping effective policies to protect the tangible and intangible astronomical heritage in a context of respect for the rights of Aboriginal groups.

  6. Considerations for the Next Revision of NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sandra K.; Handler, Louis M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2016-01-01

    Development of NASA's Software Defined Radio architecture, the Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS), was initiated in 2004 with a goal of reducing the cost, risk and schedule when implementing Software Defined Radios (SDR) for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space missions. Since STRS was first flown in 2012 on three Software Defined Radios on the Space Communication and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed, only minor changes have been made to the architecture. Multiple entities have since implemented the architecture and provided significant feedback for consideration for the next revision of the standard. The focus for the first set of updates to the architecture is items that enhance application portability. Items that require modifications to existing applications before migrating to the updated architecture will only be considered if there is compelling reasons to make the change. The significant suggestions that were further evaluated for consideration include expanding and clarifying the timing Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), improving handle name and identification (ID) definitions and use, and multiple items related to implementation of STRS Devices. In addition to ideas suggested while implementing STRS, SDR technology has evolved significantly and this impact to the architecture needs to be considered. These include incorporating cognitive concepts - learning from past decisions and making new decisions that the radio can act upon. SDRs are also being developed that do not contain a General Purpose Module - which is currently required for the platform to be STRS compliant. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the comments received, provide a summary of the evaluation considerations, and examine planned dispositions.

  7. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) - the First Educational Outreach Program on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, C. L.; Bauer, F. H.; Brown, D.; White, R.

    2002-01-01

    More than 40 missions over five years will be required to assemble the International Space Station in orbit. The astronauts and cosmonauts will work hard on these missions, but they plan to take some time off for educational activities with schools. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station represents the first Educational Outreach program that is flying on ISS. NASA's Division of Education is a major supporter and sponsor of this student outreach activity on the International Space Station. This meets NASA's educational mission objective: "To inspire the next generation of explorers...as only NASA can." As the International Space Station takes its place in the heavens, the amateur radio community is doing its part by helping to enrich the experience of those visiting and living on the station as well as the students on Earth. Through ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station), students on Earth have a once in a lifetime opportunity--to talk to the crew on-board ISS. Using amateur radio equipment set up in their classroom, students get a first-hand feel of what it is like to live and work in space. Each school gets a 10 minute question and answer interview with the on-orbit crew using a ground station located in their classroom or through a remote ground station. The ARISS opportunity has proven itself as a tremendous educational boon to teachers and students. Through ARISS, students learn about orbit dynamics, Doppler shift, radio communications, and working with the press. Since its first flight in 1983, amateur radio has flown on more than two-dozen space shuttle missions. Dozens of astronauts have used the predecessor program called SAREX (The Space Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment) to talk to thousands of kids in school and to their families on Earth while they were in orbit. The primary goals of the ARISS program are fourfold: 1) educational outreach through crew contacts with schools, 2) random contacts with the amateur radio public, 3

  8. To See the Unseen: A History of Planetary Radar Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrica, Andrew J.

    1996-01-01

    This book relates the history of planetary radar astronomy from its origins in radar to the present day and secondarily to bring to light that history as a case of 'Big Equipment but not Big Science'. Chapter One sketches the emergence of radar astronomy as an ongoing scientific activity at Jodrell Bank, where radar research revealed that meteors were part of the solar system. The chief Big Science driving early radar astronomy experiments was ionospheric research. Chapter Two links the Cold War and the Space Race to the first radar experiments attempted on planetary targets, while recounting the initial achievements of planetary radar, namely, the refinement of the astronomical unit and the rotational rate and direction of Venus. Chapter Three discusses early attempts to organize radar astronomy and the efforts at MIT's Lincoln Laboratory, in conjunction with Harvard radio astronomers, to acquire antenna time unfettered by military priorities. Here, the chief Big Science influencing the development of planetary radar astronomy was radio astronomy. Chapter Four spotlights the evolution of planetary radar astronomy at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a NASA facility, at Cornell University's Arecibo Observatory, and at Jodrell Bank. A congeries of funding from the military, the National Science Foundation, and finally NASA marked that evolution, which culminated in planetary radar astronomy finding a single Big Science patron, NASA. Chapter Five analyzes planetary radar astronomy as a science using the theoretical framework provided by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn. Chapter Six explores the shift in planetary radar astronomy beginning in the 1970s that resulted from its financial and institutional relationship with NASA Big Science. Chapter Seven addresses the Magellan mission and its relation to the evolution of planetary radar astronomy from a ground-based to a space-based activity. Chapters Eight and Nine discuss the research carried out at ground

  9. Elementary astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, J.

    2006-08-01

    In developing nations such as Mexico, basic science education has scarcely improved. There are multiple reasons for this problem; they include poor teacher training and curricula that are not challenging for students. I shall suggest ways in which astronomy can be used to improve basic education, it is so attractive that it can be employed to teach how to read and write, learn a second language, mathematics, physics, as well as geography. If third world nations do not teach science in an adequate way, they will be in serious problems when they will try to achieve a better standard of living for their population. I shall also address informal education, it is by this means that most adults learn and keep up to date with subjects that are not their specialty. If we provide good outreach programs in developing nations we can aid adult training; astronomy is ideal since it is particularly multidisciplinary. In particular radio and television programs are useful for popularization since they reach such wide audiences.

  10. Analyzing the capability of a radio telescope in a bistatic space debris observation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhe; Zhao You; Gao Peng-Qi

    2013-01-01

    A bistatic space debris observation system using a radio telescope as the receiving part is introduced. The detection capability of the system at different working frequencies is analyzed based on real instruments. The detection range of targets with a fixed radar cross section and the detection ability of small space debris at a fixed range are discussed. The simulations of this particular observation system at different transmitting powers are also implemented and the detection capability is discussed. The simulated results approximately match the actual experiments. The analysis in this paper provides a theoretical basis for developing a space debris observation system that can be built in China

  11. Radio stimulation and diagnostics of space plasmas. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minchang.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes the investigation of the small-scale topside ionospheric plasma structures first observed at Millstone Hill, Massachusetts with the 440 MHz incoherent scatter radar. These small-scale obliquely propagating plasma modes occurring in the vicinity of the midlatitude ionospheric trough, have large radar cross-sections and narrow spectral widths. They have, until recently, been dismissed solely as hard target contamination of the incoherent scatter radar. The geophysical conditions associated with the ionospheric trough, such as the field-aligned current activity and steep plasma density gradients, suggest that these recently discovered small-scale topside ionospheric plasmas may also appear in the auroral and polar ionosphere. In fact, this speculation has been corroborated by the preliminary experiments and data analyses at Tromso, Norway and Sondrestromfjord, Greenland. The primary research results are highlighted. Described in Section 3 are the experiments conducted at Arecibo, Puerto Rico in the past summer for simulating the geophysical conditions of generating these topside ionospheric plasma structures. Recommendation for the future research is finally given. Attached as the appendix of this report are several chapters which present the detailed results of research in the concerned topside ionospheric clutter. Highlights of the research results include: (1) causes of the enhanced radar backscatter (ERB) phenomenon; (2) occurrence of the ERB phenomenon; (3) altitudes of the ERB phenomenon; (4) strength of the ERB returns; (5) range of altitudes of the ERB returns; (6) occurrence frequency of the ERB phenomenon; (7) Doppler effect of the ERB phenomenon; (8) persistency of the ERB; and (9) distinction between ERB phenomenon and space object signatures

  12. Quickly Creating Interactive Astronomy Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    An innate advantage for astronomy teachers is having numerous breathtaking images of the cosmos available to capture students' curiosity, imagination, and wonder. Internet-based astronomy image libraries are numerous and easy to navigate. The Astronomy Picture of the Day, the Hubble Space Telescope image archive, and the NASA Planetary…

  13. Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Roberts, Sarah; Newsam, Andy; Barclay, Charles

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the good, bad and (occasionally) ugly aspects of teaching astronomy in UK schools. It covers the most common problems reported by teachers when asked about covering the astronomy/space topics in school. Particular focus is given to the GCSE Astronomy qualification offered by Edexcel (which is currently the…

  14. Astronomy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, F.; Couch, W.

    2017-12-01

    Australians have watched the sky for tens of thousands of years. The nineteenth century saw the foundation of government observatories in capital cities such as Sydney and Melbourne. While early twentieth-century astronomy focused largely on solar physics, the advent of radio astronomy at the end of the Second World War enabled Australia to take a leading role in the new science, with particular emphasis on low-frequency studies. Today, the radio quietness of its outback interior provides an excellent location for the Australian core of the Square Kilometre Array. Australian optical astronomy has flourished since the 1960s, with the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope becoming the principal national facility in 1974. Access to ESO’s facilities at the La Silla Paranal Observatory is warmly welcomed by all Australian astronomers.

  15. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Geophysics, Astronomy and Space, Number 393

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    Pankov, "A Voice from Distant Stars"] [Excerpt] During recent years radioastronomy has made it possible to detect extremely "dark" phenomena and...Earlier in radioastronomy it was most common to use apparatus oper- ating on radio tubes and semiconductor crystals. But such apparatus has a serious

  16. Astrometry VLBI in Space (AVS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunin, V.; Alekseev, V.; Akim, E.; Eubanks, M.; Kingham, K.; Treuhaft, R.; Sukhanov, K.

    1995-01-01

    A proposed new space radio astronomy mission for astrometry is described. The Astrometry VLBI (very long baseline) in Space (AVS) nominal mission includes two identical spacecraft, each with a 4-m antenna sending data to a 70-m ground station. The goals of AVS are improving astrometry accuracy to the microarcsecond level and improving the accuracy of the transformation between the inertial radio and optical coordinate reference frames.

  17. The Astronomy and Space Science Concept Inventory: Assessment Instruments Aligned with the K-12 National Science Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the development of an item test bank and associated instruments based on those K-12 national standards which involve astronomy and space science. Utilizing hundreds of studies in the science education research literature on student misconceptions, we have constructed 211 unique items that measure the degree to which students abandon such ideas for accepted scientific views. Piloted nationally with 7599 students and their 88 teachers spanning grades 5-12, the items reveal a range of interesting results, particularly student difficulties in mastering the NRC Standards and AAAS Benchmarks. Teachers generally perform well on items covering the standards of the grade level at which they teach, exhibiting few misconceptions of their own. Teachers dramatically overestimate their students’ performance, perhaps because they are unaware of their students’ misconceptions. Examples are given showing how the developed instruments can be used to assess the effectiveness of instruction and to evaluate the impact of professional development activities for teachers.

  18. GEROS-ISS: GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Cardellach, Estel; Bandeiras, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    GEROS-ISS stands for GNSS REflectometry, radio occultation, and scatterometry onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is a scientific experiment, successfully proposed to the European Space Agency in 2011. The experiment as the name indicates will be conducted on the ISS. The main focus...... of GEROS-ISS is the dedicated use of signals from the currently available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) in L-band for remote sensing of the Earth with a focus to study climate change. Prime mission objectives are the determination of the altimetric sea surface height of the oceans...

  19. Visual astronomy under dark skies a new approach to observing deep space

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2005-01-01

    Modern astronomical telescopes, along with other advances in technology, have brought the deep sky - star clusters, nebulae and the galaxies - within reach of amateur astronomers. And it isn't even necessary to image many of these deep-sky objects in order to see them; they are within reach of visual observers using modern techniques and enhancement technology. The first requirement is truly dark skies; if you are observing from a light-polluted environment you need Tony Cooke's book, Visual Astronomy in the Suburbs. Given a site with clear, dark night skies everything else follows… this book will provide the reader with everything he needs to know about what to observe, and using some of today's state-of-the-art technique and commercial equipment, how to get superb views of faint and distant astronomical objects.

  20. Space Weather Action Plan Solar Radio Burst Phase 1 Benchmarks and the Steps to Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, D. A.; White, S. M.; Gopalswamy, N.; Black, C.; Love, J. J.; Pierson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Solar radio bursts, when at the right frequency and when strong enough, can interfere with radar, communication, and tracking signals. In severe cases, radio bursts can inhibit the successful use of radio communications and disrupt a wide range of systems that are reliant on Position, Navigation, and Timing services on timescales ranging from minutes to hours across wide areas on the dayside of Earth. The White House's Space Weather Action Plan asked for solar radio burst intensity benchmarks for an event occurrence frequency of 1 in 100 years and also a theoretical maximum intensity benchmark. The benchmark team has developed preliminary (phase 1) benchmarks for the VHF (30-300 MHz), UHF (300-3000 MHz), GPS (1176-1602 MHz), F10.7 (2800 MHz), and Microwave (4000-20000) bands. The preliminary benchmarks were derived based on previously published work. Limitations in the published work will be addressed in phase 2 of the benchmark process. In addition, deriving theoretical maxima requires additional work, where it is even possible to, in order to meet the Action Plan objectives. In this presentation, we will present the phase 1 benchmarks, the basis used to derive them, and the limitations of that work. We will also discuss the work that needs to be done to complete the phase 2 benchmarks.

  1. New advanced netted ground based and topside radio diagnostics for Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkaehl, Hanna; Krankowski, Andrzej; Morawski, Marek; Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii

    2014-05-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. All they will be connected via PIONIER dedicated links to Poznan. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). They will most time work as a part of European network, however, when less charged, they can operate as a national network The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the RELEC satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. In order to improve and validate the large scales and small scales ionospheric structures we will used the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN network employed to reconstruct diurnal variations of TEC using all satellite passes over individual GPS stations and the

  2. Vistas in astronomy. Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A series of papers dealing with theoretical and experimental work in solar, planetary, and stellar astronomy, including stellar spectroscopy, photometry, and radio astronomy. The topics covered include: solar flares, the historical development of solar theories, the intrinsic light variation and the reflection effect in very close eclipsing binary systems with distorted components, spectroscopic binaries, early-type stars with abnormal spectra, photometric classification of the O-B stars, the nova DQ Herculis, emission nebulas at radio wavelengths, and the planetary nebulas as radio sources. (IAA)

  3. Astronomy in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauthier, A.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Second Life (SL is a multi-user virtual environment that is not limited to adult social entertainment. SL is also a 3D playground for innovative instructors and education/outreach professionals in the sciences. Astronomy and space science have a presence in SL, but it could be so much more. This paper describes some of the current astronomy themed spaces in SL and briefly discusses future innovations.

  4. Radio frequency diagnostics on board of Cubesat as a tool for planetary Space Weather monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Morawski, M.; Szewczyk, T.

    2014-04-01

    CubeSat pico-satellite standard was developed recently to allow easy access to space for projects with limited funds. Due to relatively cheap yet professional development process, CubeSats have also great educational impact. This allows the students to learn about all crucial aspects of space engineering and project management. Since all the basic steps for developing CubeSat are similar to those performed on bigger satellites (i.e. designing, testing, operating in space), this gives possibility to develop all the necessary skills and experience for future work at space industries. Space Research Center, together with its collaborators from University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn and others, would like to design and build double unit CubeSat as an opportunity to perform scientific experiments in space together with technological demonstrators of subsystems. In order to monitor the Earth's and planetary space environment and obtain a much more complete picture of magnetosphere and ionosphere coupling and particularly waves-particle interaction in this system than those available hitherto new mission of clustered Cubesat mission can be propose. Moreover to enhance our understanding of the rich plasma physical processes that drive the Solar Terrestrial space environment, we need to increase our ability to perform multi-point measurements by means of different sensors. Therefore, new technologies radio frequency radio analyser RFA instrument will gave the possibility for diagnostics 3D electric field component (spectra and wave forms) with extremely high time resolution. Additional technological challenges regarding size, computational power and energy constraints are imposed by the design of CubeSat.

  5. Data catalog series for space science and applications flight missions. Volume 5A: Descriptions of astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations. Volume 5B: Descriptions of data sets from astronomy, astrophysics, and solar physics spacecraft and investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang J. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The main purpose of the data catalog series is to provide descriptive references to data generated by space science flight missions. The data sets described include all of the actual holdings of the Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), all data sets for which direct contact information is available, and some data collections held and serviced by foreign investigators, NASA and other U.S. government agencies. This volume contains narrative descriptions of data sets of astronomy, astrophysics, solar physics spacecraft and investigations. The following spacecraft series are included: Mariner, Pioneer, Pioneer Venus, Venera, Viking, Voyager, and Helios. Separate indexes to the planetary and interplanetary missions are also provided.

  6. The extreme blazar AO 0235+164 as seen by extensive ground and space radio observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutkin, A. M.; Pashchenko, I. N.; Lisakov, M. M.; Voytsik, P. A.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lobanov, A. P.; Ipatov, A. V.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Tornikoski, M.; Gurvits, L. I.

    2018-04-01

    Clues to the physical conditions in radio cores of blazars come from measurements of brightness temperatures as well as effects produced by intrinsic opacity. We study the properties of the ultra-compact blazar AO 0235+164 with RadioAstron ground-space radio interferometer, multifrequency VLBA, EVN, and single-dish radio observations. We employ visibility modelling and image stacking for deriving structure and kinematics of the source, and use Gaussian process regression to find the relative multiband time delays of the flares. The multifrequency core size and time lags support prevailing synchrotron self-absorption. The intrinsic brightness temperature of the core derived from ground-based very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) is close to the equipartition regime value. In the same time, there is evidence for ultra-compact features of the size of less than 10 μas in the source, which might be responsible for the extreme apparent brightness temperatures of up to 1014 K as measured by RadioAstron. In 2007-2016 the VLBI components in the source at 43 GHz are found predominantly in two directions, suggesting a bend of the outflow from southern to northern direction. The apparent opening angle of the jet seen in the stacked image at 43 GHz is two times wider than that at 15 GHz, indicating a collimation of the flow within the central 1.5 mas. We estimate the Lorentz factor Γ = 14, the Doppler factor δ = 21, and the viewing angle θ = 1.7° of the apparent jet base, derive the gradients of magnetic field strength and electron density in the outflow, and the distance between jet apex and the core at each frequency.

  7. Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

  8. Making astronomy incredibly easy, engaging and affordable for anyone with a desire to see outer space for themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Michael

    2015-08-01

    We have built a social interface and funding model based on collaborative consumption to empower public access to powerful telescopes.Slooh’s robotic observatories put anyone with a desire to look up and wonder in the driver’s seat of powerful mountaintop telescopes. Our members have taken millions of images of over 50,000 objects in the night sky, from tracking asteroids for NASA to discovering supernovae. Slooh launched December 25th, 2003 from our flagship observatory at the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands and in the ensuing decade we’ve built a network of 20+ observatory partners around the world to capture every magical moment in outer space. We are the world’s largest community of people peering into space together.About SloohSlooh makes astronomy incredibly easy, engaging and affordable for anyone with a desire to see outer space for themselves. Since 2003 Slooh has connected telescopes to the Internet for access by the broader public. Slooh’s automated observatories develop celestial images in real-time for broadcast to the Internet. Slooh’s technology is protected by Patent No.: US 7,194,146 B2 which was awarded in 2006. Slooh members have taken over 3m photos/150,000 FITS of over 50,000 celestial objects, participated in numerous discoveries with leading astronomical institutions and made over 2,000 submissions to the Minor Planet Center. Slooh’s flagship observatories are situated on Mt. Teide, in partnership with the Institute of Astrophysics of the Canary Islands (IAC), and in Chile, in partnership with the Catholic University. Slooh has also broadcast live celestial events from partner observatories in Arizona, Japan, Hawaii, Cypress, Dubai, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and Norway. Slooh’s free live broadcasts of potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs), comets, transits, eclipses, solar activity etc. feature narration by astronomy experts Will Gater, Bob Berman, Paul Cox and Eric Edelman and are syndicated to

  9. Naming asteroids for the popularisation of astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, O. A.

    2008-06-01

    We give a detailed description of how the naming of asteroids was used as a prize in competitions run by educational institutions and museums. There were two events, one in Venezuela and one in Brazil, which used this as an attractive alternative method for the popularisation of astronomy. The first competition, named Bautizo Espacial (Space Baptism), consisted of scientific stories written by high school students. The second, called Grande Desafio (Big Challenge), was a competition where teams of students were challenged to design and build prototype equipment to fight forest fires. Nationally, both events received wide publicity through newspapers, radio, TV and web pages, reaching many people in both countries. As part of both the events, several activities promoting the public knowledge of astronomy were held. The asteroids that were named in these competitions are just some of the many discovered in a search programme developed by the Group of Theoretical Astrophysics of University of Los Andes in Mérida, Venezuela (Grupo de Astrofisica Teórica de la Universidad de Los Andes) as a mainstream research programme. Finally, Asteroids for the Popularisation of Astronomy has been formally proposed to the IAU as a worldwide programme during the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 (IYA2009).

  10. Teaching radio astrophysics the hand-on way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra

    Astronomy and space sciences have always been instrumental in attracting young students to physical sciences. While the lectures/demonstrations and exhibitions pertaining to space sci-ences capture the imagination of young students, these alone are not sufficient to induce them to join scientific research. In countries like India, where a large number of students take to physical sciences for under-graduate education, complex sociological factors are key issues in translating this large body of students to potential researchers. While lectures and exhibition lead to an increase in scientific awareness for these students, these do not give a feel for scien-tific research and bridge the gap between high school/college science education and high end research. In this context, a hands-on approach to astronomy education, in science research environments or closely connected to scientific institutions, offers a promising alternative. This approach has been used in optical astronomy, where inexpensive small telescopes are available, often coupling a vast network of amateur astronomy clubs to leading astronomy institutes. The non-visual and relatively more technical nature of radio astronomy has limited a similar approach in past for connecting students to space sciences using radio waveband. The tech-nological explosion in communication industry and radio connectivity in the last decade along with an expansion in engineering education makes this possible now using a hands-on approach in teaching radio astrophysics. In this presentation, the sociological factors affecting the student choice are discussed followed by a review of the efforts to bridge the above mentioned gap by various groups in the world in the last decade with a view to enumerate the best practices in a hands-on approach. A program using this approach at National Center for Radio Astrophysics is described, where the students are exposed to simple hands-on radio astronomy experiments such as spectral line

  11. A graded d-spacing multilayer telescope for high-energy x-ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; WESTERGAARD, NJ

    1992-01-01

    A high energy telescope design is presented which combines grazing incidence geometry with Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multilayer coating to obtain significant sensitivity up to --6O keV. The concept utilizes total reflection and first order Bragg reflection in a graded d-spacing multi...

  12. Temperature dependent growth rates of the upper-hybrid waves and solar radio zebra patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benáček, J.; Karlický, Marian; Yasnov, L. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 598, February (2017), A106/1-A106/6 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0103 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun radio radiation * instabilities * methods analytical Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  13. Oscillations in the 45-5000 MHz Radio Spectrum of the 18 April 2014 Flare

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karlický, Marian; Rybák, J.; Monstein, Ch.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 7 (2017), 94/1-94/15 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13277S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-16447S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun flares * radio radiation * oscillations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016

  14. Chains of type-I radio bursts and drifting pulsation structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karlický, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 602, June (2017), A122/1-A122/7 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13277S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-16447S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun activity * radio radiation * flares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  15. Astronomy Landscape in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemaungani, Takalani

    2015-01-01

    The vision for astronomy in Africa is embedded in the African Space Policy of the African Union in early 2014. The vision is about positioning Africa as an emerging hub for astronomy sciences and facilities. Africa recognized the need to take advantage of its natural resource, the geographical advantage of the clear southern skies and pristine sites for astronomy. The Pan African University (PAU) initiative also presents an opportunity as a post-graduate training and research network of university nodes in five regions of Africa and supported by the African Union. The Southern African node based in South Africa concentrates on space sciences which also includes astronomy. The PAU aims to provide the opportunity for advanced graduate training and postgraduate research to high-performing African students. Objectives also include promoting mobility of students and teachers and harmonizing programs and degrees.A number of astronomy initiatives have burgeoned in the Southern African region and these include the Southern Africa Largest Optical Telescope (SALT), HESS (High Energy Stereoscopic System), the SKA (Square Kilometre Array) and the AVN (African Very Long Baseline Interferometer Network). There is a growing appetite for astronomy sciences in Africa. In East Africa, the astronomy community is well organized and is growing - the East African Astronomical society (EAAS) held its successful fourth annual conference since 2010 on 30 June to 04 July 2014 at the University of Rwanda. Centred around the 'Role of Astronomy in Socio-Economic Transformation,' this conference aimed at strengthening capacity building in Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science in general, while providing a forum for astronomers from the region to train young and upcoming scientists.

  16. Programme of Indian Centre for Space Physics using Very Low Frequency Radio Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Sasmal, Sudipta; Pal, Sujay; Kanta Maji, Surya; Ray, Suman

    Indian Centre for Space Physics conducted two major VLF campaigns all over Indian Sub-continent to study the propagation effects of VLF radio waves. It made multi-receiver observations during solar eclipse. ICSP not only recorded multitudes of solar flares, it also reproduced VLF observation from ab initio calculation. ICSP extended its study to the field of earthquake predictions using signal anomalies and using case by case studies as well as statistical analysis, showed that anomalies are real and more studies are required to understand them. Using earth as a gigantic detector, it detected ionospheric perturbations due to soft gamma-ray repeaters and gamma-ray bursts.

  17. Propagation of electromagnetic radiation in a random field of gravitational waves and space radio interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginsky, V.B.; Kardashev, N.S.; Polnarev, A.G.; Novikov, I.D.

    1989-12-01

    Propagation of an electromagnetic wave in the field of gravitational waves is considered. Attention is given to the principal difference between the electromagnetic wave propagation in the field of random gravitational waves and the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a randomly-inhomogeneous refraction index. It is shown that in the case of the gravitation wave field the phase shift of an electromagnetic wave does not increase with distance. The capability of space radio interferometry to detect relic gravitational waves as well as gravitational wave bursts of non cosmological origin are analyzed. (author). 64 refs, 2 figs

  18. Stamping through astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Dicati, Renato

    2013-01-01

    Stamps and other postal documents are an attractive vehicle for presenting astronomy and its development. Written with expertise and great enthusiasm, this unique book offers a historical and philatelic survey of astronomy and some related topics on space exploration. It contains more than 1300 color reproductions of stamps relating to the history of astronomy, ranging from the earliest observations of the sky to modern research conducted with satellites and space probes. Featured are the astronomers and astrophysicists who contributed to this marvelous story – not only Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Herschel, and Einstein but also hundreds of other minor protagonists who played an important role in the development of this, the most ancient yet the most modern of all the sciences. The book also examines in depth the diverse areas which have contributed to the history of astronomy, including the instrumentation, the theories, and the observations. Many stamps illustrate the beauty and the mystery of ce...

  19. Characterization of a Prototype Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for interspacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of the medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for Radio Frequency Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  20. Unseen cosmos the universe in radio

    CERN Document Server

    Graham-Smith, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Radio telescopes have transformed our understanding of the Universe. Pulsars, quasars, Big Bang cosmology: all are discoveries of the new science of radio astronomy. Here, Francis Graham-Smith describes the birth, development, and maturity of radio astronomy, from the first discovery of cosmic radio waves to its present role as a major part of modern astronomy. Radio is part of the electromagnetic spectrum, covering infra-red, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma-rays, and Graham-Smith explains why it is that radio waves give us a unique view of the Universe. Tracing the development o

  1. Mu-Spec - A High Performance Ultra-Compact Photon Counting spectrometer for Space Submillimeter Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, H.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Stevenson, T.; Wollack, E.; Brown, A.; Benford, D.; Sadleir; U-Yen, I.; Ehsan, N.; Zmuidzinas, J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We have designed and are testing elements of a fully integrated submillimeter spectrometer based on superconducting microstrip technology. The instrument can offer resolving power R approximately 1500, and its high frequency cutoff is set by the gap of available high performance superconductors. All functions of the spectrometer are integrated - light is coupled to the microstrip circuit with a planar antenna, the spectra discrimination is achieved using a synthetic grating, orders are separated using planar filter, and detected using photon counting MKID detector. This spectrometer promises to revolutionize submillimeter spectroscopy from space. It replaces instruments with the scale of 1m with a spectrometer on a 10 cm Si wafer. The reduction in mass and volume promises a much higher performance system within available resource in a space mission. We will describe the system and the performance of the components that have been fabricated and tested.

  2. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts Geophysics, Astronomy and Space No. 404

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    intensity of cosmic rays at Yakutsk. Muon telescopes were placed on the ground surface and beneath the ground at depths of 7, 20 and 60 m water... Ray Variations ..45 Separation of Cosmic Ray Variations of Different Origin 45 Determining Atmospheric Turbidity from Pyranometric Measurements ...46...in Plasmosphere 47 IR Spectra of Lunar Regolith .....47 Correlation Between Cosmic Ray Variations and Solar Activity...48 Space Research for

  3. Figure and Dimension Metrology of Extremely Lightweight X-Ray Mirrors for Space Astronomy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is the next major space X-ray observatory, performing both imaging and spectroscopic studies of all kinds of objects in the Universe. It is a collaborative mission of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States, the European Space Agency, and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. It is to be launched into a Sun-Earth L2 orbit in 2021. One of the most challenging aspects of the mission is the construction of a flight mirror assembly capable focusing X-rays in the band of 0.1 to 40 keY with an angular resolution of better than 5 arc-seconds and with an effective collection area of more than 3 sq m. The mirror assembly will consist of approximately 15,000 parabolic and hyperbolic mirror segments, each of which is approximately 200mm by 300mm with a thickness of 0.4mm. The manufacture and qualification of these mirror segments and their integration into the giant mirror assembly have been the objectives of a vigorous technology development program at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Each of these mirror segments needs to be measured and qualified for both optical figure and mechanical dimensions. In this talk, I will describe the technology program with a particular emphasis on a measurement system we are developing to meet those requirements, including the use of coordinate measuring machines, Fizeau interferometers, and custom-designed, and -built null lens. This system is capable of measuring highly off-axis aspherical or cylindrical mirrors with repeatability, accuracy, and speed.

  4. USSR and Eastern Europe Scientific Abstracts, Geophysics, Astronomy and Space, Number 427.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-08-15

    OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-LOW SATELLITE PAIR FOR GEOID DETERMINATIONS Warsaw GEODEZJA I KARTOGRAFIA in Polish Vol 27, No 1, 1978 pp 17-27 [Article by Jan...EARTH’S GRAVITY FIELD Warsaw GEODEZJA I KARTOGRAFIA in Polish Vol 26, No 4, 1977 pp 241-253 [Article by Jan Krynski, "Investigation of the Earth’s...FIELD Warsaw GEODEZJA I KARTOGRAFIA in Polish Vol 26, No 4, 1977 pp 235-239 [Article by Janusz B. Zielinski, Department of Planetary Geodesy, Space

  5. Cambridge observations at 38-115 MHz and their implications for space astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.

    1987-01-01

    The design and performance of the Cambridge LF telescopes are reviewed. Consideration is given to the 151-MHz 6C telescope, the 38-MHz and 151-MHz LF synthesis telescopes, 81.5-MHz interplanetary scintillation observations with the 3.6-hectare array, long-baseline interferometry at 81.5 MHz, and the use of the Jodrell Bank MERLIN for 151-MHz closure-phase observations of bright sources. The strict limitation on the field mappable at a given resolution in ground-based observations at these frequencies is pointed out, and some outstanding astronomical problems requiring 0.3-30-MHz space observations are listed. 7 references

  6. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors—the test-mass-to-test-mass interferometric link—behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as nongravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterized by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system's free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-frequency detectors. Working with acceleration also provides an effective way to subtract measured signals acting as systematics, including the actuation forces. Because of the strong similarity with the equations of motion, the optimal subtraction of systematic signals, known within some amplitude and time shift, with the focus on measuring the noise provides an effective way to solve the problem and marginalize over nuisance parameters. The F statistic, in widespread use throughout the gravitation waves community, is included in the method and suitably generalized to marginalize over linear parameters and noise at the same time. The method is applied to LPF simulator data and, thanks to its generality, can also be applied to the data reduction and analysis of future gravitational wave detectors.

  7. The future of astronomy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Elaine M.

    2017-09-01

    Australian astronomy has a bright future, thanks largely to recent government investments in major new telescopes, instruments and research centres. There are some short-term challenges as Australia's focus continues to shift from the current (mainly) national facilities for radio and optical astronomy to new multinational and global facilities.

  8. The Space Geodesy Project and Radio Frequency Interference Characterization and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Hilliard M.; Beaudoin, C.; Corey, B. E.; Tourain, C. L.; Petrachenko, B.; Dickey, John

    2013-01-01

    The Space Geodesy Project (SGP) development by NASA is an effort to co-locate the four international geodetic techniques Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), and Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) into one tightly referenced campus and coordinated reference frame analysis. The SGP requirement locates these stations within a small area to maintain line-of-sight and frequent automated survey known as the vector tie system. This causes a direct conflict with the new broadband VLBI technique. Broadband means 2-14 GHz, and RFI susceptibility at -80 dBW or higher due to sensitive RF components in the front end of the radio receiver.

  9. Propagation effects on radio range and noise in earth-space telecommunications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, W. L.; Slobin, S. D.; Smith, E. K.

    1982-01-01

    Attention is given to the propagation effects on radio range and noise in earth-space telecommunications. The use of higher frequencies minimizes ionospheric effects on propagation, but tropospheric effects often increase or dominate. For paths of geostationary satellites, and beyond, the excess range delay caused by the ionosphere and plasmasphere is proportional to the total electron content along the path and inversely proportional to frequency squared. The delay due to dry air is usually of the order of a few meters while the delay due to water vapor (a few tens of centimeters) is responsible for most of the temporal variation in the range delay for clean air. For systems such as that of the Voyager spacecraft, and for attenuation values up to about 10 dB, increased sky noise degrades the received signal-to-noise ratio more than does the reduction in signal level due to attenuation.

  10. Achievable Rate of Multi-relay Cognitive Radio MIMO Channel with Space Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    We study the impact of multiple relays on the primary user (PU) and secondary user (SU) rates of underlay MIMO cognitive radio. Both users exploit amplify-and-forward relays to communicate with the destination. A space alignment technique and a special linear precoding and decoding scheme are applied to allow the SU to use the resulting free eigenmodes. In addition, the SU can communicate over the used eigenmodes under the condition of respecting an interference constraint tolerated by the PU. At the destination, a successive interference cancellation (SIC) is performed to estimate the secondary signal. We present the explicit expressions of the optimal PU and SU powers that maximize their achievable rates. In the numerical results, we show that our scheme provides cognitive rate gain even in absence of tolerated interference. In addition, we show that increasing the number of relays enhances the PU and SU rates at low power regime and/or when the relays power is sufficiently high.

  11. Achievable Rate of Multi-relay Cognitive Radio MIMO Channel with Space Alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2015-04-21

    We study the impact of multiple relays on the primary user (PU) and secondary user (SU) rates of underlay MIMO cognitive radio. Both users exploit amplify-and-forward relays to communicate with the destination. A space alignment technique and a special linear precoding and decoding scheme are applied to allow the SU to use the resulting free eigenmodes. In addition, the SU can communicate over the used eigenmodes under the condition of respecting an interference constraint tolerated by the PU. At the destination, a successive interference cancellation (SIC) is performed to estimate the secondary signal. We present the explicit expressions of the optimal PU and SU powers that maximize their achievable rates. In the numerical results, we show that our scheme provides cognitive rate gain even in absence of tolerated interference. In addition, we show that increasing the number of relays enhances the PU and SU rates at low power regime and/or when the relays power is sufficiently high.

  12. Space use of bumblebees (Bombus spp. revealed by radio-tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hagen

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of movement behavior and distances travelled by animals are difficult to obtain, especially for small-bodied insects where transmitter weights have prevented the use of radio-tracking.Here, we report the first successful use of micro radio telemetry to track flight distances and space use of bumblebees. Using ground surveys and Cessna overflights in a Central European rural landscape mosaic we obtained maximum flight distances of 2.5 km, 1.9 km and 1.3 km for Bombus terrestris (workers, Bombus ruderatus (worker, and Bombus hortorum (young queens, respectively. Bumblebee individuals used large areas (0.25-43.53 ha within one or a few days. Habitat analyses of one B. hortorum queen at the landscape scale indicated that gardens within villages were used more often than expected from habitat availability. Detailed movement trajectories of this individual revealed that prominent landscape structures (e.g. trees and flower patches were repeatedly visited. However, we also observed long (i.e. >45 min resting periods between flights (B. hortorum and differences in flower-handling between bumblebees with and without transmitters (B. terrestris suggesting that the current weight of transmitters (200 mg may still impose significant energetic costs on the insects.Spatio-temporal movements of bumblebees can now be tracked with telemetry methods. Our measured flight distances exceed many previous estimates of bumblebee foraging ranges and suggest that travelling long distances to food resources may be common. However, even the smallest currently available transmitters still appear to compromise flower handling performance and cause an increase in resting behavior of bees. Future reductions of transmitter mass and size could open up new avenues for quantifying landscape-scale space use of insect pollinators and could provide novel insights into the behavior and requirements of bumblebees during critical life stages, e.g. when searching for

  13. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Subhashis Roy. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 30 Review. Explosive and Radio-Selected Transients: Transient Astronomy with Square Kilometre Array and its Precursors · Poonam Chandra G. C. ...

  14. Handbook of pulsar astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Lorimer, Duncan

    2005-01-01

    Radio pulsars are rapidly rotating highly magnetized neutron stars. Studies of these fascinating objects have provided applications in solid-state physics, general relativity, galactic astronomy, astrometry, planetary physics and even cosmology. Most of these applications and much of what we know about neutron stars are derived from single-dish radio observations using state-of-the-art receivers and data acquisition systems. This comprehensive 2004 book is a unique resource that brings together the key observational techniques, background information and a review of results, including the discovery of a double pulsar system. Useful software tools are provided which can be used to analyse example data, made available on a related website. This work will be of great value not only to graduate students but also to researchers wishing to carry out and interpret a wide variety of radio pulsar observations.

  15. Bad Astronomy Goes Hollywood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plait, P.

    2003-05-01

    It can be argued that astronomy is the oldest of all the sciences, so you'd think that after all this time people would have a pretty good understanding of it. In reality, however, misconceptions about astronomy abound, and even basic concepts are misunderstood. There are many sources of these cosmic misconceptions, including incorrect textbooks, parents and/or teachers who don't understand astronomy and therefore spread misinformation, urban legends, and so on. Perhaps the most pervasive source of bad astronomy is Hollywood. Science fiction movies are enormously popular, but are commonly written and directed by people who don't have even a passing familiarity with astronomy. The smash hit "Armageddon" (the number one box office movie of 1998), for example, used vast quantities of incorrect astronomy in the plot. It reinforced such popular misconceptions as huge asteroids impacting the Earth with little warning, small meteorites being hot when they impact, air existing in space, and that a simple bomb can blow up an asteroid the size of a small moon (even when the bomb is buried only 800 feet deep!). However, movie scenes can be used as a hook that engages the student, helping them learn and remember the correct science. In this talk, I will light-heartedly discuss specific examples of common misinformation, using movie clips, diagrams, and a splash of common sense to show just where Hollywood gets it wrong, and what you can do to help students and the public get it right.

  16. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and associated terrestrial repeaters. 25.214 Section 25.214 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...

  17. Blazing the Trail for Astronomy Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Janelle M.; Lombardi, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Education research has long considered student learning of topics in astronomy and the space sciences, but astronomy education research as a sub-field of discipline-based education research is relatively new. Driven by a growing interest among higher education astronomy educators in improving the general education, introductory science survey…

  18. The Explorer program for astronomy and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, B.D.; Becklin, E.E.; Cassinelli, J.P.; Dupree, A.K.; Elliot, J.L.; Hoffmann, W.F.; Hudson, H.S.; Jura, M.; Kurfess, J.; Murray, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    This report was prepared to provide NASA with a strategy for proceeding with Explorer-class programs for research in space astronomy and astrophysics. The role of Explorers in astronomy and astrophysics and their past accomplishments are discussed, as are current and future astronomy and astrophysics Explorers. Specific cost needs for an effective Explorer program are considered

  19. Preliminary Data Pipeline for SunRISE: Assessing the Performance of Space Based Radio Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedus, A. M.; Kasper, J. C.; Lazio, J.; Amiri, N.; Stuart, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Sun Radio Interferometer Space Experiment (SunRISE) is a NASA Heliophysics Explorer Mission of Opportunity that was recently awarded phase A funding. SunRISE's main science goals are to localize the source of particle acceleration in coronal mass ejections to 1/4th of their width, and trace the path of electron beams along magnetic field lines out to 20 solar radii. These processes generate cascading Type II and III bursts that have ever only been detected in low frequencies with single spacecraft antenna. These bursts emit below the ionospheric cutoff of 10 MHz past 2 solar radii, so a synthetic aperture made from multiple space antennae is needed to pinpoint the origin of these bursts. In this work, we create an end to end simulation of the data processing pipeline of SunRISE, which uses 6 small satellites to do this localization. One of the main inputs of the simulation is a ground truth of what we want the array to image. We idealized this as an elliptical Gaussian offset from the sun, which previous modeling suggests is a good approximation of what SunRISE would see in space. Another input is an orbit file describing the positions of all the spacecraft. The simulated orbit determinations are made with GPS sidelobes and have an error associated with the recovered positions. From there we compute the Fourier coefficients every antenna will see, then apply the correct phase lags and multiply each pair of coefficients to simulate the process of correlation. We compute the projected UVW coordinates and put these along with the correlated visibilities into a CASA MS file. The correlated visibilities are compared to CASA's simulated visibilities at the same UVW coordinates, verifying the accuracy of our method. The visibilities are then subjected to realistic thermal noise, as well as phase noise from uncertainties in the spacecraft position. We employ CASA's CLEAN algorithm to image the data, and CASA's imfit algorithm to estimate the parameters of the imaged

  20. Achievable rate of cognitive radio spectrum sharing MIMO channel with space alignment and interference temperature precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the spectral efficiency gain of an uplink Cognitive Radio (CR) Multi-Input MultiOutput (MIMO) system in which the Secondary/unlicensed User (SU) is allowed to share the spectrum with the Primary/licensed User (PU) using a specific precoding scheme to communicate with a common receiver. The proposed scheme exploits at the same time the free eigenmodes of the primary channel after a space alignment procedure and the interference threshold tolerated by the PU. In our work, we study the maximum achievable rate of the CR node after deriving an optimal power allocation with respect to an outage interference and an average power constraints. We, then, study a protection protocol that considers a fixed interference threshold. Applied to Rayleigh fading channels, we show, through numerical results, that our proposed scheme enhances considerably the cognitive achievable rate. For instance, in case of a perfect detection of the PU signal, after applying Successive Interference Cancellation (SIC), the CR rate remains non-zero for high Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) which is usually impossible when we only use space alignment technique. In addition, we show that the rate gain is proportional to the allowed interference threshold by providing a fixed rate even in the high SNR range. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Development of a Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and. control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for inter-spacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for RF Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  2. Citizen Science Opportunity With the NASA Heliophysics Education Consortium (HEC)-Radio JOVE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, S. F.; Higgins, C.; Thieman, J.; Garcia, L. N.; Young, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Radio JOVE project has long been a hands-on inquiry-based educational project that allows students, teachers and the general public to learn and practice radio astronomy by building their own radio antenna and receiver system from an inexpensive kit that operates at 20.1 MHz and/or using remote radio telescopes through the Internet. Radio JOVE participants observe and analyze natural radio emissions from Jupiter and the Sun. Within the last few years, several Radio JOVE amateurs have upgraded their equipment to make semi-professional spectrographic observations in the frequency band of 15-30 MHz. Due to the widely distributed Radio JOVE observing stations across the US, the Radio JOVE observations can uniquely augment observations by professional telescopes, such as the Long Wavelength Array (LWA) . The Radio JOVE project has recently partnered with the NASA Heliophysics Education Consortium (HEC) to work with students and interested amateur radio astronomers to establish additional spectrograph and single-frequency Radio JOVE stations. These additional Radio JOVE stations will help build a larger amateur radio science network and increase the spatial coverage of long-wavelength radio observations across the US. Our presentation will describe the Radio JOVE project within the context of the HEC. We will discuss the potential for citizen scientists to make and use Radio JOVE observations to study solar radio bursts (particularly during the upcoming solar eclipse in August 2017) and Jovian radio emissions. Radio JOVE observations will also be used to study ionospheric radio scintillation, promoting appreciation and understanding of this important space weather effect.

  3. The physics-astronomy frontier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, F.; Narlikar, K.

    1980-01-01

    Spacetime diagrams and the structure of matter are considered, and aspects of electrical interaction are investigated. Attention is given to radiation, quantum mechanics, spectrum lines, black bodies, stellar spectra, the H-R diagram, radio astronomy, millimeter-wave astronomy, interstellar grains and infrared astronomy, and X-ray astronomy. The strong and weak interactions are examined, taking into account atoms, nuclei, the evolution of stars, and the measurement of astronomical distances. A description of gravitational interaction is also presented. The laws of motion and gravitation are considered along with black holes, the significance of cosmology, Hubble's law, the expanding universe, the symmetries of the universe, Olbers' paradox, the big-bang universe, Mach's principle, the meaning of the expansion of the system of galaxies, the redshift-magnitude relation of Hubble and Humason, the early universe, and the geometry of special relativity

  4. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  5. Greek astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Sir Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy as a science began with the Ionian philosophers, with whom Greek philosophy and mathematics also began. While the Egyptians and Babylonians had accomplished much of astronomical worth, it remained for the unrivalled speculative genius of the Greeks, in particular, their mathematical genius, to lay the foundations of the true science of astronomy. In this classic study, a noted scholar discusses in lucid detail the specific advances made by the Greeks, many of whose ideas anticipated the discoveries of modern astronomy.Pythagoras, born at Samos about 572 B.C., was probably the first

  6. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  7. Astronomy in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabti, A. W.

    2006-08-01

    The history of modern Iraqi astronomy is reviewed. During the early 1970's Iraqi astronomy witnessed significant growth through the introduction of the subject at university level and extensively within the school curriculum. In addition, astronomy was popularised in the media, a large planetarium was built in Baghdad, plus a smaller one in Basra. Late 1970 witnessed the construction of the Iraqi National Observatory at Mount Korek in Iraqi Kurdistan. The core facilities of the Observatory included 3.5-meter and 1.25-meter optical telescopes, and a 30-meter radio telescope for millimetre wavelength astronomy. The Iraqi Astronomical Society was founded and Iraq joined the IAU in 1976. During the regime of Saddam Hussain in the 1980's, the Observatory was attacked by Iranian artillery during the Iraq-Iran war, and then again during the second Gulf war by the US air force. Years of sanctions during the 1990's left Iraq cut off from the rest of the international scientific community. Subscriptions to astronomical journals were halted and travel to conferences abroad was virtually non-existent. Most senior astronomers left the country for one reason or another. Support from expatriate Iraqi astronomers existed (and still exists) however, this is not sufficient. Recent changes in Iraq, and the fall of Saddam's regime, has meant that scientific communication with the outside world has resumed to a limited degree. The Ministry of Higher Education in Baghdad, Baghdad University and the Iraqi National Academy of Science, have all played active roles in re-establishing Iraqi astronomy and re-building the damaged Observatory at Mount Korek. More importantly the University of Sallahudin in Erbil, capital of Iraqi Kurdistan, has taken particular interest in astronomy and the Observatory. Organized visits to the universities, and also to the Observatory, have given us a first-hand assessment of the scale of the damage to the Observatory, as well as the needs of astronomy teaching

  8. Adaptive Optics, LLLFT Interferometry, Astronomy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    We propose to build a three telescope Michelson optical interferometer equipped with wavefront compensation technology as a demonstration and test bed for high resolution Deep Space Surveillance (DSS) and Astronomy...

  9. Case Study: Using The OMG SWRADIO Profile and SDR Forum Input for NASA's Space Telecommunications Radio System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, Janette C.; Handler, Louis M.; Hall, Steve C.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    The Space Telecommunication Radio System (STRS) standard is a Software Defined Radio (SDR) architecture standard developed by NASA. The goal of STRS is to reduce NASA s dependence on custom, proprietary architectures with unique and varying interfaces and hardware and support reuse of waveforms across platforms. The STRS project worked with members of the Object Management Group (OMG), Software Defined Radio Forum, and industry partners to leverage existing standards and knowledge. This collaboration included investigating the use of the OMG s Platform-Independent Model (PIM) SWRadio as the basis for an STRS PIM. This paper details the influence of the OMG technologies on the STRS update effort, findings in the STRS/SWRadio mapping, and provides a summary of the SDR Forum recommendations.

  10. Gamma astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.; Cesarsky, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    This article overviews the gamma astronomy research. Sources already observed, and what causes to give to them; the galactic radiation and its interpretation; techniques already used and current projects [fr

  11. Accessible Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickstein, Neil

    1994-01-01

    Describes the development of a theme-based, multidisciplinary course. The article partitions into the following sections: (1) Constructing the Course; (2) Putting the Ideas to Work; (3) Connecting Science and Society; and (4) The Arts and Astronomy. (ZWH)

  12. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  13. Observation and simulation of space-charge effects in a radio-frequency photoinjector using a transverse multibeamlet distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rihaoui

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental study of space-charge effects in a radio-frequency (rf photoinjector. A 5 MeV electron bunch, consisting of a number of beamlets separated transversely, was generated in an rf photocathode gun and propagated in the succeeding drift space. The collective interaction of these beamlets was studied for different experimental conditions. The experiment allowed the exploration of space-charge effects and its comparison with 3D particle-in-cell simulations. Our observations also suggest the possible use of a multibeam configuration to tailor the transverse distribution of an electron beam.

  14. Resilient backhaul network design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-07-26

    The radio-frequency (RF) technology is a scalable solution for the backhaul planning. However, its performance is limited in terms of data rate and latency. Free Space Optical (FSO) backhaul, on the other hand, offers a higher data rate but is sensitive to weather conditions. To combine the advantages of RF and FSO backhauls, this paper proposes a cost-efficient backhaul network using the hybrid RF/FSO technology. To ensure a resilient backhaul, the paper imposes a given degree of redundancy by connecting each node through K link-disjoint paths so as to cope with potential link failures. Hence, the network planning problem considered in this paper is the one of minimizing the total deployment cost by choosing the appropriate link type, i.e., either hybrid RF/FSO or optical fiber (OF), between each couple of base-stations while guaranteeing K link-disjoint connections, a data rate target, and a reliability threshold. The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques. It reformulates the problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the planning graph, under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links. Simulation results show the cost of the different planning and suggest that the proposed heuristic solution has a close-to-optimal performance for a significant gain in computation complexity. © 2016 IEEE.

  15. Hybrid Radio/Free-Space Optical Design for Next Generation Backhaul Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed

    2016-04-22

    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks imposes a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost-efficient backhaul solutions becomes an exciting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks, including either radio-frequency (RF) backhauls or optical fibers (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared with OF, it supports the lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution is the free-space optics (FSO) as it offers both a high data rate and a relatively low cost. The FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions, e.g., rain, fog, and line-of-sight. This paper combines both the RF and FSO advantages and proposes a hybrid RF/FSO backhaul solution. It considers the problem of minimizing the cost of the backhaul network by choosing either OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links between the base stations, so as to satisfy data rate, connectivity, and reliability constraints. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that the proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for reasonable prices of the hybrid RF/FSO links. They further reveal that the hybrid RF/FSO is a cost-efficient solution and a good candidate for upgrading the existing backhaul networks. © 2016 IEEE.

  16. What next for astronomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert

    2009-12-01

    "Astronomy is in the midst of a golden age," wrote Catherine Cesarsky, my predecessor as president of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), earlier this year in Physics World (March pp22-24). I believe that is certainly true and it is an opportunity that we must take full advantage of. Astronomy is one of the great ways to bring science to the public - the images of the universe obtained using the Hubble Space Telescope, for example, are full of beauty. Astronomy is all about us. Indeed, the Earth and the life on it have developed from the cosmos, and the sky is the one laboratory that all humanity shares equally and that is accessible to all. There is little about the subject that appeals to fear - except, perhaps, the occasional killer asteroid. So what better science to inspire and educate people that what we do not know is definitely worth knowing?

  17. Open Astronomy Catalogs API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillochon, James; Cowperthwaite, Philip S.

    2018-05-01

    We announce the public release of the application program interface (API) for the Open Astronomy Catalogs (OACs), the OACAPI. The OACs serve near-complete collections of supernova, tidal disruption, kilonova, and fast stars data (including photometry, spectra, radio, and X-ray observations) via a user-friendly web interface that displays the data interactively and offers full data downloads. The OACAPI, by contrast, enables users to specifically download particular pieces of the OAC dataset via a flexible programmatic syntax, either via URL GET requests, or via a module within the astroquery Python package.

  18. Solar Fireworks - Integrating an Exhibit on Solar Physics and Space Science into the Science and Astronomy Curriculum of High-School and College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, C.; Wang, H.; Conod, K. D.; Wintemberg, T.; Calderon, I.

    2005-05-01

    Astronomers at The Newark Museum's Alice and Leonard Dreyfuss Planetarium teamed up with the New Jersey Institute of Technology's (NJIT) Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research (CSTR) and the Big Bear Solar Observatory in presenting Solar Fireworks. The exhibit opened on May 15, 2004 and features two exhibition kiosks with interactive touch screen displays, where students and other visitors can take "virtual tours" in the fields of solar physics, solar activity, Sun-Earth connection, and geo-sciences. Planetarium and museum visits are an integral part of the introductory physics and astronomy classes at NJIT and the exhibition has been integrated in the astronomy curriculum. For example, NJIT students of the Astronomy Club and regular astronomy courses were closely involved in the design and development of the exhibit. The exhibit is the latest addition to the long-running natural science exhibit "Dynamic Earth: Revealing Nature's Secrets" at the museum. More than 30,000 people per year attend various programs offered by the planetarium including public shows, more than a dozen programs for school groups, after school activities, portable planetarium outreach, outdoor sky watches, solar observing and other family events. More than 1,000 high school students visited the planetarium in 2004. The exhibit is accompanied by a yearly teacher workshop (the first one was held on October 18-20, 2004) to enhance the learning experience of classes visiting the Newark Museum. The planetarium and museum staff has been working with teachers of Newark high schools and has presented many workshops for educators on a wide range of topics from astronomy to zoology. At the conclusion of the exhibit in December 2005, the exhibit will go "on the road" and will be made available to schools or other museums. Finally, the exhibit will find its permanent home at the new office complex of CSTR at NJIT. Acknowledgements: Solar Fireworks was organized by The Newark Museum and the New Jersey

  19. Remote Sensing of the Heliospheric Solar Wind using Radio ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    Astr. (2000) 21, 439–444. Remote Sensing of the Heliospheric Solar Wind using Radio. Astronomy Methods and Numerical Simulations. S. Ananthakrishnan, National Center for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute of. Fundamental Research, Pune, India. Abstract. The ground-based radio astronomy method of interplanetary.

  20. Multiverso: Rock'n'Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, J. A.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, there have been several projects involving astronomy and classical music. But have a rock band ever appeared at a science conference or an astronomer at a rock concert? We present a project, Multiverso, in which we mix rock and astronomy, together with poetry and video art (Caballero, 2010). The project started in late 2009 and has already reached tens of thousands people in Spain through the release of an album, several concert-talks, television, radio, newspapers and the internet.

  1. From classical polymerizations in solution towards radio-induced polymerizations controlled in confined space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois-Clochard, M.-C.

    2013-01-01

    The manuscript of Mrs Marie-Claude Dubois-Clochard reports on the main results obtained in synthesis and structuration of functional polymers at the nano-scale. If the synthesis of functional polymers is the basic of the presented studies, the chronological order of her research activities from 1995 to 2013 shows an evolution from classical polymerizations in solution towards radio-induced polymerizations in confined space controlled by RAFT mechanism. The innovation is about the development of new objects made of polymers and organic/inorganic composites designed at the nano-scale to bring original physical and physico-chemical properties. Three applied fields stand out: Energy-Environment (Engines, Fuel cells, Sensors for water quality), Health (Nano-vector for tumour therapies and imaging, Ion and molecules translocation through a single nano-pore in a polymer membrane) and Nano-technologies (Magnetoresistance of a single magnetic nano-wire). Noteworthy results are: - the setting up of bi-langmuirian adsorption isotherm equations at solid/hydrocarbon interface for macromolecules at low concentrations, and, at high concentration, particular behaviour of reorganisation of these identical macromolecules, not in alternative layers but in reverse hemi-micelles formation. - the synthesis of a novel pH-degradable polymer allowing an hydrolytic degradation from pH 7.4 (Sang) to pH 5.5 (Intracellular lysosome) to deliver drugs into tumor cells (Sante). - the radiation-induced grafting-through process in solid polymers showed by a cooperative effect of solvent/growing polymer chains into fluoropolymers. - the synthesis of bi-functional nano-porous polymer track-etched membranes having a functionality in the pores and another on the surface. This membrane, after changing in electrode by simple metallization, has been the subject of valorisation projects to a start-up creation and/or a technological transfer for the development of a sensor able to detect heavy metals ions

  2. Highlighting the History of Astronomy in the Asia-Pacific Region

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamura, Tsuko; Strom, Richard G; ICOA-6 Conference

    2011-01-01

    This book provides readers with the results of recent research from some of the world's leading historians of astronomy on aspects of Arabic, Australian, Chinese, Japanese, and North and South American astronomy and astrophysics. It contains peer-reviewed papers gathered from the International Conferences on Oriental Astronomy 6 (ICO-6) with the chosen theme of "Highlighting the History of Astronomy in the Asia-Pacific Region." Of particular note are the sections on Arabic astronomy, Asian applied astronomy and the history of Australian radio astronomy, and the chapter on Peruvian astronomy. This title is a valuable complement for those with research interests in applied historical astronomy; archaeoastronomy; calendars, manuscripts, and star charts; historical instruments and observatories, and the history of radio astronomy.

  3. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2015-06-08

    The deluge of date rate in today\\'s networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  4. Cost-effective backhaul design using hybrid radio/free-space optical technology

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.; Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    The deluge of date rate in today's networks poses a cost burden on the backhaul network design. Developing cost efficient backhaul solutions becomes an interesting, yet challenging, problem. Traditional technologies for backhaul networks include either radio-frequency backhauls (RF) or optical fibres (OF). While RF is a cost-effective solution as compared to OF, it supports lower data rate requirements. Another promising backhaul solution that may combine both a high data rate and a relatively low cost is the free-space optics (FSO). FSO, however, is sensitive to nature conditions (e.g., rain, fog, line-ofsight, etc.). A more reliable alternative is, therefore, to combine RF and FSO solutions through a hybrid structure called hybrid RF/FSO. Consider a backhaul network, where the base-stations (BS) can be connected to each other either via OF or hybrid RF/FSO backhaul links. The paper addresses the problem of minimizing the cost of backhaul planning under connectivity and data rates constraints, so as to choose the appropriate costeffective backhaul type between BSs (i.e., either OF or hybrid RF/FSO). The paper solves the problem using graph theory techniques by introducing the corresponding planning graph. It shows that under a specified realistic assumption about the cost of OF and hybrid RF/FSO links, the problem is equivalent to a maximum weight clique problem, which can be solved with moderate complexity. Simulation results show that our proposed solution shows a close-to-optimal performance, especially for practical prices of the hybrid RF/FSO.

  5. Astronomy Explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Gerald

    Every year large numbers of people take up the study of astronomy, mostly at amateur level. There are plenty of elementary books on the market, full of colourful photographs, but lacking in proper explanations of how and why things are as they are. Many people eventually wish to go beyond the 'coffee-table book' stage and study this fascinating subject in greater depth. This book is written for them. In addition, many people sit for public examinations in this subject each year and this book is also intended to be of use to them. All the topics from the GCSE syllabus are covered here, with sample questions at the end of each chapter. Astronomy Explained provides a comprehensive treatment of the subject in more depth than is usually found in elementary works, and will be of interest to both amateur astronomers and students of astronomy.

  6. Compact state-space models for complex superconducting radio-frequency structures based on model order reduction and concatenation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flisgen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of large chains of superconducting cavities with couplers is a challenging task in computational electrical engineering. The direct numerical treatment of these structures can easily lead to problems with more than ten million degrees of freedom. Problems of this complexity are typically solved with the help of parallel programs running on supercomputing infrastructures. However, these infrastructures are expensive to purchase, to operate, and to maintain. The aim of this thesis is to introduce and to validate an approach which allows for modeling large structures on a standard workstation. The novel technique is called State-Space Concatenations and is based on the decomposition of the complete structure into individual segments. The radio-frequency properties of the generated segments are described by a set of state-space equations which either emerge from analytical considerations or from numerical discretization schemes. The model order of these equations is reduced using dedicated model order reduction techniques. In a final step, the reduced-order state-space models of the segments are concatenated in accordance with the topology of the complete structure. The concatenation is based on algebraic continuity constraints of electric and magnetic fields on the decomposition planes and results in a compact state-space system of the complete radio-frequency structure. Compared to the original problem, the number of degrees of freedom is drastically reduced, i.e. a problem with more than ten million degrees of freedom can be reduced on a standard workstation to a problem with less than one thousand degrees of freedom. The final state-space system allows for determining frequency-domain transfer functions, field distributions, resonances, and quality factors of the complete structure in a convenient manner. This thesis presents the theory of the state-space concatenation approach and discusses several validation and application examples. The examples

  7. Astronomy essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Brass, Charles O

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Astronomy includes the historical perspective of astronomy, sky basics and the celestial coordinate systems, a model and the origin of the solar system, the sun, the planets, Kepler'

  8. The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Schill, Lyndele; Ivory, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) program is designed to increase the number of underrepresented minority students into STEM and STEM careers by providing unique summer research experiences followed by long-term mentoring and cohort support. Hallmarks of the NAC program include: research or internship opportunities at one of the NAC partner sites, a framework to continue research over the academic year, peer and faculty mentoring, monthly virtual hangouts, and much more. NAC students also participate in two professional travel opportunities each year: the annual NAC conference at Howard University and poster presentation at the annual AAS winter meeting following their summer internship.The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) is a program led by the National Radio Astronomy Consortium (NRAO) and Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), in partnership with the National Society of Black Physicist (NSBP), along with a number of minority and majority universities.

  9. Lithuanian Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudzius, J.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    Lithuanian folklore, archaic calendars and terminology show that Lithuanians were interested in astronomy from ancient times. A lot of celestial bodies have names of Lithuanian origin that are not related to widely accepted ancient Greek mythology. For example, the Milky Way is named `Pauksciu Takas' (literally the way of birds), the constellation of the Great Bear `Didieji Grizulo Ratai' (literal...

  10. γ astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfendale, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Some problems of gamma astronomy are discussed in the popular form. The most interesting research directions are considered:e + e - pair annihilation, 100 MeV gamma quanta sources, Cherenkov radiation gamma quanta recording and cosmic ray anisotropy. Special attention is paid to unique gamma quanta source - Cygnus X-3. The source possesses the highest luminosity in the gamma range

  11. The decade of discovery in astronomy and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The conference presents papers on recommended ground- and space-based initiatives for the 1990s. The need to restore the research infrastructure at the university level is addressed as well as ways of achieving a balanced space program. Consideration is also given to science opportunities, astronomy and the computer revolution, lunar astronomy, policy opportunities, and astronomy as a national asset

  12. Infrared-faint radio sources remain undetected at far-infrared wavelengths. Deep photometric observations using the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Norris, R. P.; Middelberg, E.; Spitler, L. R.; Leipski, C.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Showing 1.4 GHz flux densities in the range of a few to a few tens of mJy, infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are a type of galaxy characterised by faint or absent near-infrared counterparts and consequently extreme radio-to-infrared flux density ratios up to several thousand. Recent studies showed that IFRS are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts ≳2, potentially linked to high-redshift radio galaxies (HzRGs). Aims: This work explores the far-infrared emission of IFRS, providing crucial information on the star forming and AGN activity of IFRS. Furthermore, the data enable examining the putative relationship between IFRS and HzRGs and testing whether IFRS are more distant or fainter siblings of these massive galaxies. Methods: A sample of six IFRS was observed with the Herschel Space Observatory between 100 μm and 500 μm. Using these results, we constrained the nature of IFRS by modelling their broad-band spectral energy distribution (SED). Furthermore, we set an upper limit on their infrared SED and decomposed their emission into contributions from an AGN and from star forming activity. Results: All six observed IFRS were undetected in all five Herschel far-infrared channels (stacking limits: σ = 0.74 mJy at 100 μm, σ = 3.45 mJy at 500 μm). Based on our SED modelling, we ruled out the following objects to explain the photometric characteristics of IFRS: (a) known radio-loud quasars and compact steep-spectrum sources at any redshift; (b) starburst galaxies with and without an AGN and Seyfert galaxies at any redshift, even if the templates were modified; and (c) known HzRGs at z ≲ 10.5. We find that the IFRS analysed in this work can only be explained by objects that fulfil the selection criteria of HzRGs. More precisely, IFRS could be (a) known HzRGs at very high redshifts (z ≳ 10.5); (b) low-luminosity siblings of HzRGs with additional dust obscuration at lower redshifts; (c) scaled or unscaled versions of Cygnus A at any

  13. Astronomy and astrophysics in the new millennium: Panel reports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Space Studies Board, National Research Council

    2001-01-01

    In preparing the report, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millenium , the AASC made use of a series of panel reports that address various aspects of ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysic...

  14. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  15. From COST 271 to 296 EU actions on ionospheric monitoring and modelling for terrestrial and Earth space radio systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolesi, B.; Cander, Lj. R.; Altadill, D.

    The ionospheric community has long been aware that co-operative research on an international basis is essential to deal with temporal and spatial changes in the ionosphere that influence the performance of terrestrial and Earth-space radio systems. The EU COST (Co-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) 271 Action on "Effects of the Upper Atmosphere on Terrestrial and Earth-space Communications" has had during the period of October 2000-August 2004 the following main objectives: (1) to evaluate the influence of upper atmospheric conditions on terrestrial and Earth-space communications, (2) to develop methods and techniques to improve ionospheric models over Europe for telecommunication and navigation applications and (3) to transfer the results to the appropriate radiocommunication study groups of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) and other national and international organizations dealing with the modern communication systems. At the beginning of 2005 the new 296 Action in the COST Telecommunications, Information Science and Technology domain on "Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems (MIERS)" was approved for the period 2005-2009. The main objectives of the MIERS are: (a) to support and enhanced the existing European facilities for historical and real-time digital ionospheric data collection and exchange; (b) to develop an integrated approach to ionospheric modelling, create the mechanism needed to ingest processed data into models, extend and develop suitable mitigation models and define the protocols needed to link models together; and (c) to strengthen the areas of expertise that already exist by stimulating closer cooperation between scientists and users, focusing the scope of all the previous COST ionospheric related studies to the mitigation of ionospheric effects on radio systems. This paper summarises briefly how the major objectives of the COST271 Action have been achieved and what are the most important

  16. Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) Low Cost Telemetry - Access from Space Advanced Technologies or Down the Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims. Herb; Varnavas, Kosta; Eberly, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology has been proven in the commercial sector since the early 1990's. Today's rapid advancement in mobile telephone reliability and power management capabilities exemplifies the effectiveness of the SDR technology for the modern communications market. In contrast, presently qualified satellite transponder applications were developed during the early 1960's space program. Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR, NASA-MSFC SDR) technology revolutionizes satellite transponder technology by increasing data through-put capability by, at least, an order of magnitude. PULSAR leverages existing Marshall Space Flight Center SDR designs and commercially enhanced capabilities to provide a path to a radiation tolerant SDR transponder. These innovations will (1) reduce the cost of NASA Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Deep Space transponders, (2) decrease power requirements, and (3) a commensurate volume reduction. Also, PULSAR increases flexibility to implement multiple transponder types by utilizing the same hardware with altered logic - no analog hardware change is required - all of which can be accomplished in orbit. This provides high capability, low cost, transponders to programs of all sizes. The final project outcome would be the introduction of a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 low-cost CubeSat to SmallSat telemetry system into the NASA Portfolio.

  17. Extragalactic astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sersic, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    This book condenses the author's yearly semester lectures on 'Extra galactic Astronomy' held almost without interruption over two decades at Cordoba University for students of Astronomy. After a first chapter on Morphology and Classification of galaxies, the second gives most of the basic information about normal galaxies as individuals. Active galaxies are described in chapter III whilst chapter IV deals with the mutual relationship between galaxies and their environment. The Scale of distance is considered in chapter V. Distance indicators are introduced and several conflicting viewpoints of different schools are presented. Chapter VI deals with Cosmology, just to give the necessary elements for chapter VII where the relation between gravitational instability and galaxy formation is discussed. Chapter VIII is an appendix containing additional notes. (Auth.)

  18. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  19. Space weather effects on radio propagation: study of the CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Blagoveshchensky

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 14 geomagnetic storms from a list of CEDAR, GEM and ISTP storms, that occurred during 1997–1999, on radio propagation conditions has been investigated. The propagation conditions were estimated through variations of the MOF and LOF (the maximum and lowest operation frequencies on three high-latitude HF radio paths in north-west Russia. Geophysical data of Dst, Bz, AE as well as some riometer data from Sodankyla observatory, Finland, were used for the analysis. It was shown that the storm impact on the ionosphere and radio propagation for each storm has an individual character. Nevertheless, there are common patterns in variation of the propagation parameters for all storms. Thus, the frequency range Δ=MOF−LOF increases several hours before a storm, then it narrows sharply during the storm, and expands again several hours after the end of the storm. This regular behaviour should be useful for the HF radio propagation predictions and frequency management at high latitudes. On the trans-auroral radio path, the time interval when the signal is lost through a storm (tdes depends on the local time. For the day-time storms an average value tdes is 6 h, but for night storms tdes is only 2 h. The ionization increase in the F2 layer before storm onset is 3.5 h during the day-time and 2.4 h at night. Mechanisms to explain the observed variations are discussed including some novel possibilities involving energy input through the cusp.

  20. Inuit Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John

    Inuit live mainly in the treeless Arctic regions of North America, Greenland, and parts of northeastern Siberia. Their cosmology, based on shamanistic belief, constructed a view of the sky and its contents distinctively suited to their spiritual and pragmatic needs. Their astronomy, particularly for those groups living far above the Arctic Circle, reflects the unique appearance of the celestial sphere at high northerly latitudes, demonstrated most noticeably in the annual disappearance of the sun during midwinter months.

  1. Fundamental astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, Pekka; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Now in its sixth edition this successful undergraduate textbook gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The chapters on galactic and extragalactic astronomy as well as cosmology were extensively modernized in the previous edition. In this new edition they have been further revised to include more recent results. The long chapter on the solar system has been split into two parts: the first one deals with the general properties, and the other one describes individual objects. A new chapter on exoplanets has been added to the end of the book next to the chapter on astrobiology. In response to the fact that astronomy has evolved enormously over the last few years, only a few chapters of this book have been left unmodified. Long considered a standard text for physical science maj...

  2. Humanising Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, S.

    2008-06-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that aims to expose underprivileged children (in the age group 4-10) to the inspirational aspects of astronomy. We are currently at the stage of developing materials that will be utilised in a diverse range of environments. This paper explores UNAWE's particular approach to developing tools which includes not only indigenous and folkloric astronomical knowledge, but also the culture of transmission of such knowledge. A specific understanding and explanation of the Universe, the Sun, Moon and stars is present in every culture and can be found contained in its history, legends and belief systems. By consciously embracing different ways of knowing the Universe and not uniquely the rational model, UNAWE places the humanising potential of astronomy at the centre of its purpose. Whilst inspiring curiosity, pride and a sense of ownership in one's own cultural identity, such an approach also exposes children to the diversity of other peoples and their cultures as well as the unifying aspects of our common scientific heritage. The means of creating and delivering the astronomy programme are as relevant to the desired educational outcomes as the content. The challenge in the design of materials is to communicate this stimulating message to the very young. Respect for alternative values systems, the need for dialogue and community participation, and where possible the production of materials using local resources is emphasised. This paper touches recent experiences liaising with communities in India, South Africa, Tunisia, Venezuela and Colombia.

  3. Non-Euclidean Space, Movement and Astronomy in Modern Art: Alexander Calder’s Mobiles and Ben Nicholson’s Reliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malloy Vanja

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available John Keats once wrote that ‘there is no such thing as time and space’ rather, believing that time and space are mental constructs that are subject to a variety of forms and as diverse as the human mind. In the 1920s through the 1930s, modern physics in many ways supported this idea through the various philosophical writings on the Theory of General Relativity to the masses by scientists such as Arthur Eddington and Albert Einstein. These new concepts of modern physics fundamentally changed our understanding of time and space and had substantial philosophical implications, which were absorbed by modern artists resulting in the 1936 Dimensionist Manifesto. Seeking to internalize the developments of modern science within modern art, this manifesto was widely endorsed by the most prominent figures of the avant-garde such as Marcel Duchamp, Jean Arp, Naum Gabo, Joan Miró, László Moholy-Nagy, Wassily Kandinsky and Alexander Calder. Of particular interest to this manifesto was the new concept of the fourth-dimension, which in many ways revolutionized the arts. Importantly, its interpretation varied widely in the artistic community, ranging from a purely physical four-dimensional space, to a kinetic concept of space in which space and time are linked, to a metaphysical interest in a space that exists beyond the material realm. The impact of modern science and astronomy on avant-garde art is currently a bourgeoning area of research with considerable implications to our rethinking of substantial artistic figures of this era. Through a case study of Alexander Calder’s Mobiles and Ben Nicholson’s Reliefs, this paper explores how these artworks were informed by an interest in modern science.

  4. Brightness Temperature of Radio Zebras and Wave Energy Densities in Their Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yasnov, L. V.; Benáček, J.; Karlický, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 11 (2017), 163/1-163/12 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-13277S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-16447S Grant - others:GA MŠk,CERIT-SC(CZ) LM2015085; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015042 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun corona * Su flares * radio radiation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 2.682, year: 2016

  5. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. P. Kharb. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 34 Review. From Nearby Low Luminosity AGN to High Redshift Radio Galaxies: Science Interests with Square Kilometre Array · P. Kharb D. V. Lal V. Singh J.

  6. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Sagar Sethi. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 41 Review. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio Continuum Observations using SKA and Citizen-Science Research using ...

  7. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. John McKean. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 32 Issue 4 December 2011 pp 557-566. LOFAR and APERTIF Surveys of the Radio Sky: Probing Shocks and Magnetic Fields in Galaxy Clusters · Huub Röttgering ...

  8. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Siddharth Malu. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 32 Issue 4 December 2011 pp 529-532. Discovery of a Giant Radio Halo in a Massive Merging Cluster at = 0.443 · K. S. Dwarakanath Siddharth Malu Ruta Kale · More Details ...

  9. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Ruta Kale. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 32 Issue 4 December 2011 pp 529-532. Discovery of a Giant Radio Halo in a Massive Merging Cluster at = 0.443 · K. S. Dwarakanath Siddharth Malu Ruta Kale · More Details Abstract ...

  10. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. C. Konar. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 32 Issue 4 December 2011 pp 471-474. A Multifrequency Study of Five Large Radio Galaxies · A. Pirya S. Nandi D. J. Saikia C. Konar M. Singh · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  11. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Sravani Vaddi. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 41 Review. Tracking Galaxy Evolution Through Low-Frequency Radio Continuum Observations using SKA and Citizen-Science Research using ...

  12. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... ... Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 21; Issue 3-4. Remote Sensing of the Heliospheric Solar Wind using Radio Astronomy Methods and Numerical Simulations. S. Ananthakrishnan. Session XI – Solar Wind & Interplanetary Magnetic Fields Volume 21 Issue 3-4 September-December 2000 pp ...

  13. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. D. J. Saikia. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 32 Issue 4 December 2011 pp 471-474. A Multifrequency Study of Five Large Radio Galaxies · A. Pirya S. Nandi D. J. Saikia C. Konar M. Singh · More Details Abstract ...

  14. RadioAstron and millimetron space observatories: Multiverse models and the search for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardashev, N. S.

    2017-04-01

    The transition from the radio to the millimeter and submillimeter ranges is very promising for studies of galactic nuclei, as well as detailed studies of processes related to supermassive black holes, wormholes, and possible manifestations of multi-element Universe (Multiverse) models. This is shown by observations with the largest interferometer available—RadioAstron observatory—that will be used for the scientific program forMillimetron observatory. Observations have also shown the promise of this range for studies of the formation and evolution of planetary systems and searches for manifestations of intelligent life. This is caused by the requirements to use a large amount of condensedmatter and energy in large-scale technological activities. This range can also be used efficiently in the organisation of optimal channels for the transmission of information.

  15. Radio and Optical Telescopes for School Students and Professional Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosmer, Laura; Langston, G.; Heatherly, S.; Towner, A. P.; Ford, J.; Simon, R. S.; White, S.; O'Neil, K. L.; Haipslip, J.; Reichart, D.

    2013-01-01

    The NRAO 20m telescope is now on-line as a part of UNC's Skynet worldwide telescope network. The NRAO is completing integration of radio astronomy tools with the Skynet web interface. We present the web interface and astronomy projects that allow students and astronomers from all over the country to become Radio Astronomers. The 20 meter radio telescope at NRAO in Green Bank, WV is dedicated to public education and also is part of an experiment in public funding for astronomy. The telescope has a fantastic new web-based interface, with priority queuing, accommodating priority for paying customers and enabling free use of otherwise unused time. This revival included many software and hardware improvements including automatic calibration and improved time integration resulting in improved data processing, and a new ultra high resolution spectrometer. This new spectrometer is optimized for very narrow spectral lines, which will allow astronomers to study complex molecules and very cold regions of space in remarkable detail. In accordance with focusing on broader impacts, many public outreach and high school education activities have been completed with many confirmed future activities. The 20 meter is now a fully automated, powerful tool capable of professional grade results available to anyone in the world. Drop by our poster and try out real-time telescope control!

  16. Infrared Astronomy Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrera, G. A.

    1981-09-01

    In 1982, the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) will be launched into a 900-km sun-synchronous (twilight) orbit to perform an unbiased, all-sky survey of the far-infrared spectrum from 8 to 120 microns. Observations telemetered to ground stations will be compiled into an IR astronomy catalog. Attention is given the cryogenically cooled, 60-cm Ritchey-Chretien telescope carried by the satellite, whose primary and secondary mirrors are fabricated from beryllium by means of 'Cryo-Null Figuring'. This technique anticipates the mirror distortions that will result from cryogenic cooling of the telescope and introduces dimensional compensations for them during machining and polishing. Consideration is also given to the interferometric characterization of telescope performance and Cryo/Thermal/Vacuum simulated space environment testing.

  17. General Education Earth, Astronomy and Space Science College Courses Serve as a Vehicle for Improving Science Literacy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, E.

    2011-10-01

    Every year approximately 500,000 undergraduate college students take a general education Earth, Astronomy and Space Science (EASS) course in the Unites States. For the majority of these students this will be their last physical science course in life. This population of students is incredibly important to the science literacy of the United States citizenry and to the success of the STEM career pipeline. These students represent future scientists, technologists, business leaders, politicians, journalists, historians, artists, and most importantly, policy makers, parents, voters, and teachers. A significant portion of these students are taught at minority serving institutions and community colleges and often are from underserved and underrepresented groups, such as women and minorities. Members of the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) at the University of Arizona have been developing and conducting research on the effectiveness of instructional strategies and materials that are explicitly designed to challenge students' naïve ideas and intellectually engage their thinking at a deep level in the traditional lecture classroom. The results of this work show that dramatic improvement in student understanding can be made from increased use of interactive learning strategies. These improvements are shown to be independent of institution type or class size, but appear to be strongly influenced by the quality of the instructor's implementation. In addition, we find that the positive effects of interactive learning strategies apply equally to men and women, across ethnicities, for students with all levels of prior mathematical preparation and physical science course experience, independent of GPA, and regardless of primary language. These results powerfully illustrate that all students can benefit from the effective implementation of interactive learning strategies.

  18. Radio outbursts in extragalactic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinzel, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    Three aspects of the flux density variability of extragalactic radio sources were examined: millimeter wavelength short timescale variability, the spectral evolution of outbursts, and whether the outbursts are periodically spaced. Observations of extragalactic radio sources were conducted using the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory between January and June 1985 at 88.2 GHz and during June and July 1985 at 40.0 GHz. Many of the sources exhibited significant flux density variations during the observing span. In addition, the most rapid variations observed were comparable with those reported in previous works. Two sources, 0355+50 and OJ287, both exhibited outbursts whose rise and fall timescales were less than a month. An anomalous flux density dropout was observed in 3C446 and was interpreted as an occultation event. Data at five frequencies between 2.7 and 89.6 GHz from the Dent-Balonek monitoring program were used to investigate the spectral evolution of eight outbursts. Outburst profile fitting was used to deconvolve the individual outbursts from one another at each frequency. The fit profiles were used to generate multiple epoch spectra to investigate the evolution of the outbursts. A phase residual minimization method was used to examine four sources for periodic behavior

  19. Astronomy stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenson, Rhoda

    2015-03-01

    For many years I have taught physics and astronomy courses to liberal arts students. I have found most of my students to be intelligent and diligent, but not anxious to study science. They typically take the class only because their degree requires a science course. Many arrive having already decided they will not be able to do the math or understand the scientific concepts, and have essentially built a wall between themselves and science. In the 1990s, in an effort to help break down that wall, as part of an NSF-supported course, "The Evolution of the Universe, Earth and Life," I began using creative writing assignments.

  20. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  1. Resources for Teaching Astronomy in UK Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Paul; Newsam, Andy; Roberts, Sarah; Mason, Tom; Baruch, John

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at a selection of resources currently available for use in the teaching of astronomy in UK schools. It is by no means an exhaustive list but it highlights a variety of free resources that can be used in the classroom to help engage students of all ages with astronomy and space science. It also lists several facilities with a…

  2. High Speed, Low Cost Telemetry Access from Space Development Update on Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, William Herbert, III; Varnavas, Kosta; Eberly, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Software Defined Radio (SDR) technology has been proven in the commercial sector since the early 1990's. Today's rapid advancement in mobile telephone reliability and power management capabilities exemplifies the effectiveness of the SDR technology for the modern communications market. In contrast, the foundations of transponder technology presently qualified for satellite applications were developed during the early space program of the 1960's. Conventional transponders are built to a specific platform and must be redesigned for every new bus while the SDR is adaptive in nature and can fit numerous applications with no hardware modifications. A SDR uses a minimum amount of analog / Radio Frequency (RF) components to up/down-convert the RF signal to/from a digital format. Once the signal is digitized, all processing is performed using hardware or software logic. Typical SDR digital processes include; filtering, modulation, up/down converting and demodulation. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Programmable Ultra Lightweight System Adaptable Radio (PULSAR) leverages existing MSFC SDR designs and commercial sector enhanced capabilities to provide a path to a radiation tolerant SDR transponder. These innovations (1) reduce the cost of NASA Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Deep Space standard transponders, (2) decrease power requirements, and (3) commensurately reduce volume. A second pay-off is the increased SDR flexibility by allowing the same hardware to implement multiple transponder types simply by altering hardware logic - no change of hardware is required - all of which will ultimately be accomplished in orbit. Development of SDR technology for space applications will provide a highly capable, low cost transponder to programs of all sizes. The MSFC PULSAR Project results in a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7 low-cost telemetry system available to Smallsat and CubeSat missions, as well as other platforms. This paper documents the continued development and

  3. XUV astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuermann, K.P.; Technische Univ. Berlin

    1980-01-01

    A review is presented of the young field of extreme-ultraviolet astronomy at wavelengths from 50 Angstroem to 912 Angstroem. In recent years, it was realized that observations in this wavelength band could be performed due to the lucky circumstance that the sun is located in an extended region of extremely low interstellar gas density. Hence, the horizon for observations at 100 Angstroem due to the photoelectric opacity of the interstellar medium is typically at a distance of about 200 pc. Since 1975 a series of rocket and satellite observations have yielded the first positive results. Sources which radiate primarily in the extreme ultraviolet have been detected and even the small list of currently observed objects has had immediate impact on the studies of both stellar evolution and the interstellar medium. Diffuse emission from the interstellar medium results from a hot 10 5 to 10 6 K component of the interstellar gas. Prime stellar candidates for extreme-ultraviolet observations are (1) hot low-luminosity stars at the blue end of the HR diagram as, e.g., white dwarfs at the beginning of the cooling sequence, (2) atmospheric emission from stars surrounded by a hot corona or with flaring activity, (3) mass-exchanging binary systems as, e.g., main-sequence close binaries or catalysmic variables. The article discusses the prospects of extreme-ultraviolet astronomy and reviews the existing observations of extreme-ultraviolet emission from the interstellar medium and from stellar sources of the different categories. (orig.)

  4. On the verge of an astronomy CubeSat revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2018-05-01

    CubeSats are small satellites built in standard sizes and form factors, which have been growing in popularity but have thus far been largely ignored within the field of astronomy. When deployed as space-based telescopes, they enable science experiments not possible with existing or planned large space missions, filling several key gaps in astronomical research. Unlike expensive and highly sought after space telescopes such as the Hubble Space Telescope, whose time must be shared among many instruments and science programs, CubeSats can monitor sources for weeks or months at time, and at wavelengths not accessible from the ground such as the ultraviolet, far-infrared and low-frequency radio. Science cases for CubeSats being developed now include a wide variety of astrophysical experiments, including exoplanets, stars, black holes and radio transients. Achieving high-impact astronomical research with CubeSats is becoming increasingly feasible with advances in technologies such as precision pointing, compact sensitive detectors and the miniaturization of propulsion systems. CubeSats may also pair with the large space- and ground-based telescopes to provide complementary data to better explain the physical processes observed.

  5. Astronomers Win Protection for Key Part of Radio Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    International Telecommunication Union meet to painstakingly parcel out the radio frequency spectrum between radio-based applications such as personal communications, satellite broadcasting, GPS and amateur radio, and the sciences of radio astronomy, earth exploration and deep space research. The WRC also coordinates sharing between services in the same radio bands. WRC decisions are incorporated into the Radio Regulations that govern radio services worldwide. The new spectrum allocations for radio astronomy are the first since 1979. Millimeter-wave astronomy was then in its infancy and many of its needs were not yet known. As astronomers began to explore this region of the spectrum they found spectral lines from many interesting molecules in space. Many of those lines had not fallen into the areas originally set aside for astronomy, but most will be under the new allocations. "It's a win for millimeter-wave science," said Dr. John Whiteoak of the Australia Telescope National Facility, Australian delegate to WRC-00. "This secures its future." The protection is a significant step for both existing millimeter-wave telescopes and new ones such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) now being planned by a U.S.-European consortium. Even at its isolated site in Chile's Atacama desert, ALMA would be vulnerable to interference from satellite emissions. Sensitive radio astronomy receivers are blinded by these emissions, just as an optical telescope would be by a searchlight. "There is more energy at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths washing through the Universe than there is of light or any other kind of radiation," said ALMA Project Scientist, Dr. Al Wootten of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory. "Imaging the sources of this energy can tell us a great deal about the formation of stars and galaxies, and even planets." "But the Earth's atmosphere isn't very kind to us - it has only a few windows at these frequencies, and not very transparent ones at that. They are

  6. Radio Astronomers Get Their First Glimpse of Powerful Solar Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Astronomers have made the first radio-telescope images of a powerful coronal mass ejection on the Sun, giving them a long-sought glimpse of hitherto unseen aspects of these potentially dangerous events. "These observations are going to provide us with a new and unique tool for deciphering the mechanisms of coronal mass ejections and how they are related to other solar events," said Tim Bastian, an astronomer at the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Charlottesville, Virginia. Radio image of coronal mass ejection; circle indicates the size and location of the Sun. White dots are where radio spectral measurements were made. Bastian, along with Monique Pick, Alain Kerdraon and Dalmiro Maia of the Paris Observatory, and Angelos Vourlidas of the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C., used a solar radio telescope in Nancay, France, to study a coronal mass ejection that occurred on April 20, 1998. Their results will be published in the September 1 edition of the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Coronal mass ejections are powerful magnetic explosions in the Sun's corona, or outer atmosphere, that can blast billions of tons of charged particles into interplanetary space at tremendous speeds. If the ejection is aimed in the direction of Earth, the speeding particles interact with our planet's magnetic field to cause auroral displays, radio-communication blackouts, and potentially damage satellites and electric-power systems. "Coronal mass ejections have been observed for many years, but only with visible-light telescopes, usually in space. While previous radio observations have provided us with powerful diagnostics of mass ejections and associated phenomena in the corona, this is the first time that one has been directly imaged in wavelengths other than visible light," Bastian said. "These new data from the radio observations give us important clues about how these very energetic events work," he added. The radio images show an

  7. Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    The book contains the Proceedings of XIII Annual Meeting of the Armenian Astronomical Society "Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society". It consists of 9 main sections: "Introductory", "Astronomy and Philosophy", "Astrobiology", "Space-Earth Connections", "Astrostatistics and Astroinformatics", "Astronomy and Culture, Astrolinguistics", "Archaeoastronomy", "Scientific Tourism and Scientific Journalism", and "Armenian Astronomy". The book may be interesting to astronomers, philosophers, biologists, culturologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists and to other specialists, as well as to students.

  8. Pulsar astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.; Graham-Smith, F.

    1990-01-01

    This account of the properties of pulsars tells an exciting story of discovery in modern astronomy. Pulsars, discovered in 1967, now take their place in a very wide range of astrophysics. They are one of the endpoints of stellar evolution, in which the core of a star collapses to a rapidly spinning neutron star a few kilometres in size. This book is an introductory account for those entering the field. It introduces the circumstances of the discovery and gives an overview of pulsar astrophysics. There are chapters on search techniques, distances, pulse timing, the galactic population of pulsars, binary and millisecond pulsars, geometry and physics of the emission regions, and applications to the interstellar medium. An important feature of this book is the inclusion of an up-to-date catalogue of all known pulsars. (author)

  9. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.

  10. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deployment of detectors outside the deleterious effects of the atmosphere by sending them in space vehicles, has been explained. This has thrown open the entire spectrum of the electromagnetic and particle radiation to direct observations, thus enlarging the vistas of the field of astronomy and astrophysics. The discovery of strong emitters of X-rays such as SCO X-1, NorX-2, transient sources such as Cen X-2, Cen X-4, Cen X-1, Supernova remnants Tan X-1, etc., are reported. The background of the X-ray spectrum as measured during two rocket flights over Thumba, India is presented. (K.B.)

  11. TeachAstronomy.com - Digitizing Astronomy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; Impey, C. D.; Austin, C.; Patikkal, A.; Paul, M.; Ganesan, N.

    2013-06-01

    Teach Astronomy—a new, free online resource—can be used as a teaching tool in non-science major introductory college level astronomy courses, and as a reference guide for casual learners and hobbyists. Digital content available on Teach Astronomy includes: a comprehensive introductory astronomy textbook by Chris Impey, Wikipedia astronomy articles, images from Astronomy Picture of the Day archives and (new) AstroPix database, two to three minute topical video clips by Chris Impey, podcasts from 365 Days of Astronomy archives, and an RSS feed of astronomy news from Science Daily. Teach Astronomy features an original technology called the Wikimap to cluster, display, and navigate site search results. Development of Teach Astronomy was motivated by steep increases in textbook prices, the rapid adoption of digital resources by students and the public, and the modern capabilities of digital technology. This past spring semester Teach Astronomy was used as content supplement to lectures in a massive, open, online course (MOOC) taught by Chris Impey. Usage of Teach Astronomy has been steadily growing since its initial release in August of 2012. The site has users in all corners of the country and is being used as a primary teaching tool in at least four states.

  12. Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Interstellar medium, Light, Magnetisphere, Matter, Planet Earth, Public Impact, Solar Activity, Solar Heliosphere, Solar Interior, Solar Systems, Space, Stellar Astrophysics, Stellar Populations, Telescopes, Time The Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics covers 30 major subject areas, such as Active galaxies, Astrometry, Astrophysical theory, Atmospheres, Binary stars, Biography, Clusters, Coordinates, Cosmology, Earth, Education, Galaxies,

  13. Astronomy a visual guide

    CERN Document Server

    Garlick, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    Space has fascinated man and challenged scientists for centuries and astronomy is the oldest and one of the most dynamic of the sciences. Here is a book that will stimulate your curiosity and feed your imagination. Detailed and fascinating text is clearly and richly illustrated with fabulous, vibrant photographs and diagrams. This is a comprehensive guide to understanding and observing the night sky, from distant stars and galaxies to our neighbouring planets; from comets to shooting stars; from eclipses to black holes. With details of the latest space probes, a series of monthly sky maps to provide guidance for the amateur observer and the latest photos from space, this book brings the beauty and wonder of our universe into your living room and will have you reaching for the telescope!

  14. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Even though radio band is the least explored of the afterglow spectrum, it has played an important role in the progress of GRB physics, specifically in confirming the hypothesized relativistic effects. Currently radio astronomy is in the beginning of a revolution. The high sensitive Square Kilometer Array (SKA) is being planned ...

  15. Space-Based FPGA Radio Receiver Design, Debug, and Development of a Radiation-Tolerant Computing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary K. Baker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los Alamos has recently completed the latest in a series of Reconfigurable Software Radios, which incorporates several key innovations in both hardware design and algorithms. Due to our focus on satellite applications, each design must extract the best size, weight, and power performance possible from the ensemble of Commodity Off-the-Shelf (COTS parts available at the time of design. A large component of our work lies in determining if a given part will survive in space and how it will fail under various space radiation conditions. Using two Xilinx Virtex 4 FPGAs, we have achieved 1 TeraOps/second signal processing on a 1920 Megabit/second datastream. This processing capability enables very advanced algorithms such as our wideband RF compression scheme to operate at the source, allowing bandwidth-constrained applications to deliver previously unattainable performance. This paper will discuss the design of the payload, making electronics survivable in the radiation of space, and techniques for debug.

  16. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    1966-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 4 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and starts with a description of objective prism and its application in space observations. The next chapter deals with the possibilities of deriving reliable models of the figure, density distribution, and gravity field of the Moon based on data obtained through Earth-bound telescopes. These topics are followed by a discussion on the ideal partially relativistic, partially degenerate gas in an exact manner. A ch

  17. Study and optimisation of the high energy detector in Cd(Zn)Te of the Simbol-X space mission for X and gamma astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meuris, A.

    2009-09-01

    Stars in final phases of evolution are sites of highest energetic phenomena of the Universe. The understanding of their mechanisms is based on the observation of the X and gamma rays from the sources. The Simbol-X French-Italian project is a novel concept of telescope with two satellites flying in formation. This space mission combines upgraded optics from X-ray telescopes with detection Systems from gamma-ray telescopes. CEA Saclay involved in major space missions for gamma astronomy is in charge of the definition and the design of the High Energy Detector (HED) of Simbol-X to cover the spectral range from 8 to 80 keV. Two generations of micro-cameras called Caliste have been designed, fabricated and tested. They integrate cadmium telluride (CdTe) crystals and optimised front-end electronics named Idef-X. The hybridization technique enables to put them side by side as a mosaic to achieve for the first time a CdTe detection plane with fine spatial resolution (600 μm) and arbitrarily large surface. By setting up test benches and leading test campaigns, I was involved in the fabrication of Caliste prototypes and I assessed temporal, spatial and spectral resolutions. At the conclusion of experiments and simulations, I propose a detector type, operating conditions and digital processing on board the spacecraft to optimise HED performance. The best detector candidate is CdTe Schottky, well suited to high resolution spectroscopy; however, it suffers from lost in stability during biasing. Beyond Simbol-X mission, I studied theoretically and experimentally this kind of detector to build an updated model that can apply to other projects of gamma spectroscopy and imaging. (author)

  18. 2009 International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    400 years ago, Galileo first turned a telescope to the sky, and to honor that historic moment, 2009 has been designated the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009). This session will feature two scientists who have used the telescope to understand our solar system and well beyond to yield fantastic new discoveries. Jennifer Wiseman will share the work she does with NASA, presenting beautiful and tantalizing images from the Hubble Space Telescope and discussing how space astronomy can inspire all ages.

  19. On the throughput of a relay-assisted cognitive radio MIMO channel with space alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman; Ghazzai, Hakim; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2014-01-01

    We study the achievable rate of a multiple antenna relay-assisted cognitive radio system where a secondary user (SU) aims to communicate instantaneously with the primary user (PU). A special linear precoding scheme is proposed to enable the SU to take advantage of the primary eigenmodes. The used eigenmodes are subject to an interference constraint fixed beforehand by the primary transmitter. Due to the absence of a direct link, both users exploit an amplify-and-forward relay to accomplish their transmissions to a common receiver. After decoding the PU signal, the receiver employs a successive interference cancellation (SIC) to estimate the secondary message. We derive the optimal power allocation that maximizes the achievable rate of the SU respecting interference, peak and relay power constraints. Furthermore, we analyze the SIC detection accuracy on the PU throughput. Numerical results highlight the cognitive rate gain achieved by our proposed scheme without harming the primary rate. In addition, we show that the relay has an important role in increasing or decreasing PU and SU rates especially when varying its power and/or its amplifying gain. © 2014 IFIP.

  20. On the throughput of a relay-assisted cognitive radio MIMO channel with space alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2014-05-01

    We study the achievable rate of a multiple antenna relay-assisted cognitive radio system where a secondary user (SU) aims to communicate instantaneously with the primary user (PU). A special linear precoding scheme is proposed to enable the SU to take advantage of the primary eigenmodes. The used eigenmodes are subject to an interference constraint fixed beforehand by the primary transmitter. Due to the absence of a direct link, both users exploit an amplify-and-forward relay to accomplish their transmissions to a common receiver. After decoding the PU signal, the receiver employs a successive interference cancellation (SIC) to estimate the secondary message. We derive the optimal power allocation that maximizes the achievable rate of the SU respecting interference, peak and relay power constraints. Furthermore, we analyze the SIC detection accuracy on the PU throughput. Numerical results highlight the cognitive rate gain achieved by our proposed scheme without harming the primary rate. In addition, we show that the relay has an important role in increasing or decreasing PU and SU rates especially when varying its power and/or its amplifying gain. © 2014 IFIP.

  1. The Radio Jove Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The Radio love Project is a hands-on education and outreach project in which students, or any other interested individuals or groups build a radio telescope from a kit, operate the radio telescope, transmit the resulting signals through the internet if desired, analyze the results, and share the results with others through archives or general discussions among the observers. Radio love is intended to provide an introduction to radio astronomy for the observer. The equipment allows the user to observe radio signals from Jupiter, the Sun, the galaxy, and Earth-based radiation both natural and man-made. The project was started through a NASA Director's Discretionary Fund grant more than ten years ago. it has continued to be carried out through the dedicated efforts of a group of mainly volunteers. Dearly 1500 kits have been distributed throughout the world. Participation can also be done without building a kit. Pre-built kits are available. Users can also monitor remote radio telescopes through the internet using free downloadable software available through the radiosky.com website. There have been many stories of prize-winning projects, inspirational results, collaborative efforts, etc. We continue to build the community of observers and are always open to new thoughts about how to inspire the observers to still greater involvement in the science and technology associated with Radio Jove.

  2. The Gateway to Cosmic Dawn: A Low Frequency Radio Telescope for the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauscher, K.; Burns, J. O.; Monsalve, R.; Rapetti, D.

    2018-02-01

    We suggest that, with a suitable antenna and receiver, the Deep Space Gateway can be used to measure the highly redshifted, global 21-cm signal from neutral hydrogen, a spectral imprint of the history of the universe onto cosmic background radiation.

  3. Astronomy for teachers: A South African Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Witt, Aletha; West, Marion; Leeuw, Lerothodi; Gouws, Eldrie

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has nominated Astronomy as a “flagship science” and aims to be an international Astronomy hub through projects such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) and the South African Large Telescope (SALT). These projects open up career opportunities in maths, science and engineering and therefore offers a very real door for learners to enter into careers in science and technology through Astronomy. However, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS), the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) and Annual National Assessment (ANA) have highlighted that South Africa’s Science and Mathematics education is in a critical condition and that South African learners score amongst the worst in the world in both these subjects. In South Africa Astronomy is generally regarded as the worst taught and most avoided Natural Science knowledge strand, and most teachers that specialised in Natural Sciences, never covered Astronomy in their training.In order to address these issues a collaborative project between the University of South Africa (UNISA) and the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO) was initiated, which aims to assist teachers to gain more knowledge and skills so that they can teach Astronomy with confidence. By collaborating we aim to ensure that the level of astronomy development will be raised in both South Africa and the rest of Africa.With the focus on Teaching and Learning, the research was conducted within a quantitative paradigm and 600 structured questionnaires were administered to Natural Science teachers in Public primary schools in Gauteng, South Africa. This paper reports the findings of this research and makes recommendations on how to assist teachers to teach Astronomy with confidence.

  4. NRAO Response to NSF Senior Review of Astronomy Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) Astronomy Senior Review Committee report (pdf file), released today, made major recommendations for restructuring the NSF's ground-based astronomy efforts, including significant changes for the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The committee's report urged that leadership in radio astronomy, including millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observatories, "remain centered at NRAO as it is, by far, the largest radio astronomy organization in the world." The report praised the record of management of NRAO and the scientific capabilities of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Expanded Very Large Array (EVLA), the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). However, the report also recommended that some reductions and changes occur at the NRAO by 2011. Specifically, the report recommended that: (a) VLBA operations make a transition to a significant reliance on international funding or risk closure; (b) GBT operations costs be reduced; and (c) NRAO scientific staff costs be reduced. "The Senior Review Committee had the very difficult task of reconciling the needs of current facilities and funding new facilities for the future of astronomy. We appreciate their efforts and look forward to working with the NSF to ensure that the valuable and unique research capabilities of our NRAO telescopes continue to serve the astronomical community," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, NRAO Director. The VLBA provides the greatest angular resolution, or ability to see fine detail, of any telescope in the world, greatly exceeding the capabilities of the Hubble Space Telescope and the future Square Kilometre Array. The committee recognized that, "if the VLBA is closed, a unique capability would likely be lost for decades." "The VLBA is used by scientists from around the world because of its unique capabilities. It has produced landmark research milestones and the committee recognized in its

  5. Teaching and Learning Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay; Percy, John

    2009-07-01

    Preface; Part I. Astronomy in the Curriculum Around the World: Preface; 1. Why astronomy is useful and should be included in the school curriculum John R. Percy; 2. Astronomy and mathematics education Rosa M. Ros; 3. Astronomy in the curriculum around the world; 4. Engaging gifted science students through astronomy Robert Hollow; 5. Poster highlights: astronomy in the curriculum around the world; Part II. Astronomy Education Research: Preface; 6. Astronomy education research down under John M. Broadfoot and Ian S. Ginns; 7. A contemporary review of K-16 astronomy education research Janelle M. Bailey and Timothy F. Slater; 8. Implementing astronomy education research Leonarda Fucili; 9. The Astronomy Education Review: report on a new journal Sidney C. Wolff and Andrew Fraknoi; 10. Poster highlights: astronomy education research; Part III. Educating Students: Preface; 11. Textbooks for K-12 astronomy Jay M. Pasachoff; 12. Distance/internet astronomy education David H. McKinnon; 13. Educating students with robotic telescopes - open discussion; 14. Poster highlights - educating students; Part IV. Educating teachers: Preface; 15. Pre-service astronomy education of teachers Mary Kay Hemenway; 16. In-service education of teachers Michèle Gerbaldi; 17. Poster highlights: educating teachers; Part V. Astronomy and Pseudoscience: Preface; 18. Astronomy, pseudoscience and rational thinking Jayant V. Narlikar; 19. Astronomical pseudosciences in North America John R. Percy and Jay M. Pasachoff; Part VI. Astronomy and Culture: Preface; 20. Teaching astronomy in other cultures: archeoastronomy Julieta Fierro; 21. Poster highlights: astronomy and culture; Part VII. Astronomy in Developing Countries: Preface; 22. Astronomy Curriculum for developing countries Case Rijsdijk; 23. Science education resources for the developing countries James C. White II; Part VIII. Public Outreach in Astronomy: Preface; 24. What makes informal education programs successful? Nahide Craig and Isabel

  6. Binocular astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Tonkin, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Binoculars have, for many, long been regarded as an “entry level” observational tool, and relatively few have used them as a serious observing instrument. This is changing! Many people appreciate the relative comfort of two-eyed observing, but those who use binoculars come to realize that they offer more than comfort. The view of the stars is more aesthetically pleasing and therefore binocular observers tend to observe more frequently and for longer periods. Binocular Astronomy, 2nd Edition, extends its coverage of small and medium binoculars to large and giant (i.e., up to 300mm aperture) binoculars and also binoviewers, which brings the work into the realm of serious observing instruments. Additionally, it goes far deeper into the varying optical characteristics of binoculars, giving newcomers and advanced astronomers the information needed to make informed choices on purchasing a pair. It also covers relevant aspects of the physiology of binocular (as in “both eyes”) observation. The first edition ...

  7. An Experiment on Radio Location of Objects in the Near-Earth Space with VLBI in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nechaeva M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment on radar location of space debris objects using of the method of VLBI was carried out in April, 2012. The radar VLBI experiment consisted in irradiation of some space debris objects (4 rocket stages and 5 inactive satellites with a signal of the transmitter with RT-70 in Evpatoria, Ukraine. Reflected signals were received by a complex of radio telescopes in the VLBI mode. The following VLBI stations took part in the observations: Ventspils (RT-32, Urumqi (RT-25, Medicina (RT-32 and Simeiz (RT-22. The experiment included measurements of the Doppler frequency shift and the delay for orbit refining, and measurements of the rotation period and sizes of objects by the amplitudes of output interferometer signals. The cross-correlation of VLBI-data is performed at a correlator NIRFI-4 of Radiophysical Research Institute (Nizhny Novgorod. Preliminary data processing resulted in the series of Doppler frequency shifts, which comprised the information on radial velocities of the objects. Some results of the experiment are presented.

  8. Astronomy in the City for Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Rosa M.; Garc, Beatriz

    2016-10-01

    Astronomy is part of our culture. Astronomy cannot be isolated in a classroom, it has to be integrated in the normal life of teachers and students. ``Astronomy in the city'' is an important part of NASE (Network for Astronomy School Education) (Ros & Hemenway 2012). In each NASE course we introduce a ``working group session'' chaired by a local expert in cultural astronomy. The chair introduces several examples of astronomy in their city and after that, the participants have the opportunity to discuss and mention several similar examples. After this session all participants visit one or two sites proposed and introduced by the chair. After more than 5 years using this method we visited and discovered several examples of astronomy in the city: •Astronomy in ancient typical clothes. •Archaeological temples oriented according to the sunrise or set. •Petroglyphs with astronomical meaning. •Astronomy in monuments. •Sundials. •Oriented Colonial churches. •Astronomy in Souvenirs. In any case, teachers and students discover that Astronomy is part of their everyday life. They can take into account the Sun's path when they park their car or when they take a bus ``what is the best part in order to be seat in the shadow during the journey?'' The result is motivation to go with ``open eyes'' when they are in the street and they try to get more and more information about their surroundings. In summary, one of the main activities is to introduce local cultural aspects in NASE astronomy courses. The participants can discover a new approach to local culture from an astronomical point of view.

  9. Concept Study of Radio Frequency (RF Plasma Thruster for Space Propulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Theodora ANDREESCU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric thrusters are capable of accelerating ions to speeds that are impossible to reach using chemical reaction. Recent advances in plasma-based concepts have led to the identification of electromagnetic (RF generation and acceleration systems as able to provide not only continuous thrust, but also highly controllable and wide-range exhaust velocities. For Future Space Propulsion there is a pressing need for low pressure, high mass flow rate and controlled ion energies. This paper explores the potential of using RF heated plasmas for space propulsion in order to mitigate the electric propulsion problems caused by erosion and gain flexibility in plasma manipulation. The main key components of RF thruster architecture are: a feeding system able to provide the required neutral gas flow, plasma source chamber, antenna/electrodes wrapped around the discharge tube and optimized electromagnetic field coils for plasma confinement. A preliminary analysis of system performance (thrust, specific impulse, efficiency is performed along with future plans of Space Propulsion based on this new concept of plasma mechanism.

  10. Innovation in Astronomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Ros, Rosa M.; Pasachoff, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. General Strategies for Effective Teaching: Introduction; 1. Main objectives of SpS2; 2. Learning astronomy by doing astronomy; 3. Hands-on Universe-Europe; 4. Life on Earth in the atmosphere of the Sun; 5. A model of teaching astronomy to pre-service teachers; 6. How to teach, learn about, and enjoy astronomy; 7. Clickers: a new teaching tool of exceptional promise; 8. Educational opportunities in pro-am collaboration; 9. Teaching history of astronomy to second-year engineering students; 10. Teaching the evolution of stellar and Milky Way concepts through the ages; 11. Educational efforts of the International Astronomical Union; 12. Astronomy in culture; 13. Light pollution: a tool for astronomy education; 14. Astronomy by distance learning; 15. Edible astronomy demonstrations; 16. Amateur astronomers as public outreach partners; 17. Does the Sun rotate around Earth or Earth rotate around the Sun?; 18. Using sounds and sonifications for astronomy outreach; 19. Teaching astronomy and the crisis in science education; 20. Astronomy for all as part of a general education; Poster abstracts; Part II. Connecting Astronomy with the Public: Introduction; 21. A status report from the Division XII working group; 22. Outreach using media; 23. Astronomy podcasting; 24. IAU's communication strategy, hands-on science communication, and the communication of the planet definition discussion; 25. Getting a word in edgeways: the survival of discourse in audiovisual astronomy; 26. Critical evaluation of the new Hall of Astronomy; 27. Revitalizing astronomy teaching through research on student understanding; Poster abstracts; Part III. Effective Use of Instruction and Information Technology: Introduction; 28. ESO's astronomy education program; 29. U.S. student astronomy research and remote observing projects; 30. Global network of autonomous observatories dedicated to student research; 31. Remote telescopes in education: report of an Australian study; 32. Visualizing

  11. Advances in astronomy and astrophysics 7

    CERN Document Server

    Kopal, Zdenek

    2013-01-01

    Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 7 covers reviews about the advances in astronomy and astrophysics. The book presents reviews on the scattering of electrons by diatomic molecules and on Babcock's theory of the 22-year solar cycle and the latitude drift of the sunspot zone. The text then describes reviews on the structures of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury) and on type III solar radio bursts. The compact and dispersed cosmic matter is also considered with regard to the search for new cosmic objects and phenomena and on the nature of the ref shift from compact

  12. Cognitive radio networks with orthogonal space-time block coding and multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2013-04-01

    This paper considers a multiuser spectrum sharing (SS) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment and in which every node is equipped with multiple antennas. The system employs orthogonal space-time block coding at the secondary users. Under such a framework, the average capacity and error performance under a peak interference constraint are first analyzed. For a comparison purpose, an analysis of the transmit antenna selection scheme is also presented. Finally, some selected numerical results are presented to corroborate the proposed analysis. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  13. Cognitive radio networks with orthogonal space-time block coding and multiuser diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang; Qaraqe, Khalid A.; Serpedin, Erchin; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Liu, Weiping

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers a multiuser spectrum sharing (SS) system operating in a Rayleigh fading environment and in which every node is equipped with multiple antennas. The system employs orthogonal space-time block coding at the secondary users. Under such a framework, the average capacity and error performance under a peak interference constraint are first analyzed. For a comparison purpose, an analysis of the transmit antenna selection scheme is also presented. Finally, some selected numerical results are presented to corroborate the proposed analysis. © 1997-2012 IEEE.

  14. The astronomy spacelab payloads study: executive volume. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The progress of the Astronomy Spacelab Payloads Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center is reported. Astronomical research in space, using the Spacelab in conjunction with the Space Shuttle, is described. The various fields of solar astronomy or solar physics, ultraviolet and optical astronomy, and high energy astrophysics are among the topics discussed. These fields include scientific studies of the Sun and its dynamical processes, of the stars in wavelength regions not accessible to ground based observations, and the exciting new fields of X-ray, gamma ray, and particle astronomy

  15. Design, Development and Pre-Flight Testing of the Communications, Navigation, and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (Connect) to Investigate Software Defined Radio Architecture on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Ann P.; Barrett, Michael J.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    The Communication Navigation and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) is a NASA-sponsored mission, which will investigate the usage of Software Defined Radios (SDRs) as a multi-function communication system for space missions. A softwaredefined radio system is a communication system in which typical components of the system (e.g., modulators) are incorporated into software. The software-defined capability allows flexibility and experimentation in different modulation, coding and other parameters to understand their effects on performance. This flexibility builds inherent redundancy and flexibility into the system for improved operational efficiency, real-time changes to space missions and enhanced reliability/redundancy. The CoNNeCT Project is a collaboration between industrial radio providers and NASA. The industrial radio providers are providing the SDRs and NASA is designing, building and testing the entire flight system. The flight system will be integrated on the Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) on the International Space Station (ISS) after launch on the H-IIB Transfer Vehicle in 2012. This paper provides an overview of the technology research objectives, payload description, design challenges and pre-flight testing results.

  16. State-space modeling of the radio frequency inductively-coupled plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewangan, Rakesh Kumar; Punjabi, Sangeeta B; Mangalvedekar, H A; Lande, B K; Joshi, N K; Barve, D N

    2010-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics models of RF-ICP are useful in understanding the basic transport phenomenon in an ICP torch under a wide variety of operating conditions. However, these models lack the ability to evaluate the effects of the plasma condition on the RF generator. In this paper, simulation of an induction plasma generator has been done using state space modelling by considering inductively coupled plasma as a part of RF network .The time dependent response of the RF-ICP generator circuit to given input excitation has been computed by extracting the circuit's state-space variables and their constraint matrices. MATLAB 7.1 software has been used to solve the state equations. The values of RF coil current, frequency and plasma power has been measured experimentally also at different plate bias voltage. The simulated model is able to predict RF coil current, frequency, plasma power, overall efficiency of the generator. The simulated and measured values are in agreement with each other. This model can prove useful as a design tool for the Induction plasma generator.

  17. Radio Astronomy and the Giant Metre-Wave Radio Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    begs the question – why (on earth) would anyone want to do so? .... For example, the Sun's spectrum has a characteristic sharp colour ..... miliar to readers is that blu-ray DVDs which work with shorter wavelength blue light can pack more.

  18. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ULTRA-HIGH ENERGY NEUTRINO ASTRONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. F. Grieder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We outline the current situation in ultrahigh energy (UHE cosmic ray physics, pointing out the remaining problems, in particular the puzzle concerning the origin of the primary radiation and the role of neutrino astronomy for locating the sources. Various methods for the detection of UHE neutrinos are briefly described and their merits compared. We give an account of the achievements of the existing optical Cherenkov neutrino telescopes, outline the possibility of using air fluorescence and particle properties of air showers to identify neutrino induced events, and discuss various pioneering experiments employing radio and acoustic detection of extremely energetic neutrinos. The next generation of space, ground and sea based neutrino telescopes now under construction or in the planning phase are listed.

  19. Energy Storage and Release through the Solar Activity Cycle Models Meet Radio Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Nindos, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    For nearly sixty years, radio observations have provided a unique insight into the physics of the active and quiescent solar atmosphere. Thanks to the variety of emission mechanisms and to the large altitude range available to observations, fundamental plasma parameters have been measured from the low chromosphere to the upper corona and interplanetary medium. This book presents current research in solar radio astronomy and shows how well it fits in the exceptional scientific context brought by the current space solar observatories. It essentially contains contributed research and review papers presented during the 2010 Community of European Solar Radio Astronomers (CESRA) meeting, which took place in Belgium in June 2010. This book is aimed at graduate students and researchers working in solar physics and space science. Previously published in Solar Physics journal, Vol. 273/2, 2011.

  20. On achievable rate of two-way relaying cognitive radio with space alignment

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2015-09-11

    We study a multiple-antenna two-way relaying (TWR) spectrum sharing system. A space alignment (SA) technique is adopted by the secondary users (SU\\'s) to avoid interference with the primary users (PU\\'s). We derive the optimal power allocation that maximizes the TWR achievable sum-rate of the SU while respecting the total power budget and the relay power constraints. In the numerical results, we quantify the sum-rate gain of using the SA in the TWR CR and we show that the SU sum-rate is very limited when the relay power is low or the PU\\'s power and its resulting interference is high. © 2015 IEEE.

  1. Multicolor Photometric Observation of Lightning from Space: Comparison with Radio Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Toru; Cohen, Morris; Said, Ryan; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Cummer, Steven A.; Li, Jingbo; Lu, Geopeng; Hsu, Rue-Ron; Su, Han-Tzong; Chen, Alfred Bing-Chih; hide

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of spectrophotometric measurements from space in revealing properties of lightning flash. The multicolor optical waveform data obtained by FORMOSAT-2/Imager of Sprites and Upper Atmospheric Lightning (ISUAL) were analyzed in relation to National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). As of July 2011, we found six lightning events which were observed by ISUAL and North Alabama LMA. In two of these events, NLDN showed clear positive cloud-to-ground (CG) discharges with peak current of +139.9 kA and +41.6 kA and, around that time, LMA showed continuous intra-cloud (IC) leader activities at 4-6 km altitudes. ISUAL also observed consistent optical waveforms of the IC and CG components and, interestingly, it was found that the blue/red spectral ratio clearly decreased by a factor of 1.5-2.5 at the time of CG discharges. Other four lightning events in which NLDN did not detect any CG discharges were also investigated, but such a feature was not found in any of these cases. These results suggest that the optical color of CG component is more reddish than that of IC component and we explain this as a result of more effective Rayleigh scattering in blue light emissions coming from lower-altitude light source. This finding suggests that spectral measurements could be a new useful technique to characterize ICs and CGs from space. In this talk, we will also present a result from lightning statistical analysis of ISUAL spectrophotometric data and ULF magnetic data.

  2. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.; Sanford, P.W.

    1981-01-01

    X-ray astronomy has been established as a powerful means of observing matter in its most extreme form. The energy liberated by sources discovered in our Galaxy has confirmed that collapsed stars of great density, and with intense gravitational fields, can be studied by making observations in the X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The astronomical objects which emit detectable X-rays include our own Sun and extend to quasars at the edge of the Universe. This book describes the history, techniques and results obtained in the first twenty-five years of exploration. Space rockets and satellites are essential for carrying the instruments above the Earth's atmosphere where it becomes possible to view the X-rays from stars and nebulae. The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: the birth of X-ray astronomy; the nature of X-radiation; X-rays from the Sun; solar-flare X-rays; X-rays from beyond the solar system; supernovae and their remnants; X-rays from binary stars; white dwarfs and neutron stars; black holes; X-rays from galaxies and quasars; clusters of galaxies; the observatories of the future. (author)

  3. First data from X-ray astronomy satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, J.

    1984-01-01

    EXOSAT, the European Space Agency's first x-ray astronomy satellite which was launched last year, has sent back information on x-ray sources. The article briefly discusses the observations made by the satellite concerning Cygnus x-1 and the galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A. EXOSAT is the first x-ray astronomy satellite to be operated in a deep space orbit

  4. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weekes, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Current interest in gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 100 GeV comes from the identification of Cygnus X-3 and other X-ray binaries as sources. In addition there are reports of emission from radio pulsars and a variety of other objects. The statistical significance of many of the observations is not high and many reported effects await confirmation, but there are a sufficient number of independent reports that very high energy gamma-ray astronomy must now be considered to have an observational basis. The observations are summarized with particular emphasis on those reported since 1980. The techniques used - the detection of small air showers using the secondary photons and particles at ground level - are unusual and are described. Future prospects for the field are discussed in relation to new ground-based experiments, satellite gamma-ray studies and proposed neutrino astronomy experiments. (orig.) With 296 refs

  5. The sociology of innovation in modern astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes some of the main features of the development of astronomy since 1945, stressing sociological factors, and drawing examples mainly from the history of radio astronomy. Particular attention is given to aspects which appear to distinguish astronomy from other recently-studied sciences - notably, the prevalence of serendipitous discoveries, and the lack of any general resistance from the 'parent' discipline. The work of Kuhn and Hagstrom is used to illuminate these features, and also to indicate how a sociological analysis can be advanced of individual research decisions, and of the nature of disputes within science. Common misconceptions about the nature and scope of sociology are briefly discussed; in particular, it is emphasized that the kind of sociology of science under discussion cannot be normative. (author)

  6. Astronomy and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  7. Astronomy for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Becan, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy For Beginners is a friendly and accessible guide to our universe, our galaxy, our solar system and the planet we call home. Each year as we cruise through space on this tiny blue-green wonder, a number of amazing and remarkable events occur. For example, like clockwork, we'll run head-on into asteroid and cometary debris that spreads shooting stars across our skies. On occasion, we'll get to watch the disk of the Moon passing the Sun, casting its shadow on the face of the Earth, and sometimes we'll get to watch our own shadow as it glides across the face of the Moon. The Sun's path w

  8. African Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Jarita C; Medupe, R. Thebe; Current Archaeoastronomy and Ethnoastronomy research in Africa

    2008-01-01

    Astronomy is the science of studying the sky using telescopes and light collectors such as photographic plates or CCD detectors. However, people have always studied the sky and continue to study the sky without the aid of instruments this is the realm of cultural astronomy. This is the first scholarly collection of articles focused on the cultural astronomy of Africans. It weaves together astronomy, anthropology, and Africa. The volume includes African myths and legends about the sky, alignments to celestial bodies found at archaeological sites and at places of worship, rock art with celestial imagery, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions including ethnomathematics and the creation of calendars. Authors include astronomers Kim Malville, Johnson Urama, and Thebe Medupe; archaeologist Felix Chami, and geographer Michael Bonine, and many new authors. As an emerging subfield of cultural astronomy, African cultural astronomy researchers are focused on training students specifically for do...

  9. Education in astronomy and solar-terrestrial relations in science research environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Penka; Stoev, Alexey

    2009 -more than 5000 people were happy to observe the Sun, Moon, Venus and other celestial objects; "The Galileoscope"; "Galilean Nights" -encourages everybody to go out to the streets and observe the cosmos; "Dark Skies Awareness" -Measuring of the light pollution level above the region of Stara Zagora; "Astronomy and World Heritage" -archaeoastronomical research of megalithic mon-uments and sanctuaries -examples of ancient observatories for observations of solar extreme rises, sets and meridional culminations; history of the first modern astronomical observatory in Bulgaria; "Galileo Teacher Training Program" -Teaching the teachers. At the beginning of every school year teacher-training course is conducted on astronomy and astrophysics. This year they will actively use telescopes to observe the sky with students; "Universe Awareness" -a lot of games and observations, modeling, exhibitions and parties are organized. "From Earth to the Universe" Exhibitions of astronomical photographs from space and ground based telescopes. Astronomy Olympiads -scientific teaching is improved when the students engaged in doing real science on real data. Fifteen years we participate in the International Astronomy Olympiad and our students win medals. Observarion of solar eclipses is an example of educa-tion in science research environment. We were happy to observe the longest for the last 2000 years total solar eclipse on July 22, 2009, in TianHuangPing, China, at 900m above the sea level. Immediately after the end of this unique phenomenon, images of the eclipsed Sun were sent in Bulgaria. Cooperations -we have good international and national cooperations with a lot of Institutes, Universities, organizations and mass media -radio, TV, magazines, news-papers Information and press conferences about the events have been regularly made available for journalists. With the experience we gained from the IHY and IYA initiatives, being a host of a SID Monitor, we focus on the new International

  10. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  11. 24-26  GHz radio-over-fiber and free-space optics for fifth-generation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohata, Jan; Komanec, Matěj; Spáčil, Jan; Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Zvánovec, Stanislav; Slavík, Radan

    2018-03-01

    This Letter outlines radio-over-fiber combined with radio-over-free-space optics (RoFSO) and radio frequency free-space transmission, which is of particular relevance for fifth-generation networks. Here, the frequency band of 24-26 GHz is adopted to demonstrate a low-cost, compact, and high-energy-efficient solution based on the direct intensity modulation and direct detection scheme. For our proof-of-concept demonstration, we use 64 quadrature amplitude modulation with a 100 MHz bandwidth. We assess the link performance by exposing the RoFSO section to atmospheric turbulence conditions. Further, we show that the measured minimum error vector magnitude (EVM) is 4.7% and also verify that the proposed system with the free-space-optics link span of 100 m under strong turbulence can deliver an acceptable EVM of <9% with signal-to-noise ratio levels of 22 dB and 10 dB with and without turbulence, respectively.

  12. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  13. Dark Skies Awareness Programs for the International Year of Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; US IYA Dark Skies Working Group

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's cultural and natural heritage. More than 1/5 of the world population, 2/3 of the United States population and 1/2 of the European Union population have already lost naked-eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1) Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2) Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3) Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4) Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5) Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The poster will provide an update, describe how people can continue to participate, and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  14. Simulation of a long focal length Wolter-I telescope for hard X-ray astronomy. Application to the Simbol-X and PheniX space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, M.

    2011-01-01

    The future of hard X-ray astronomy relies on the development of new instruments able to focus photons of a hundred keV. Indeed, focalization allows an important improvement in sensitivity and angular resolution. Achieved by grazing incidence reflections on Wolter-I mirrors, its use currently limited to tens of keV can be extended to higher energies thanks to a specific coating and a large focal length. As X-ray observations are only possible above the atmosphere, the size of the observatories, and hence their focal length, was limited by the launcher capacity. Over the past few years, different technologies like extendible masts or formation flight have been studied to go beyond this limit. To gain a better understanding of these telescopes, I detail the Wolter-I mirror geometry, their coating reflectivity, the detection in semi-conductor as well as the dynamic related to extendible masts and formation flight. These telescopes are complex optical systems, subject to deformations during observation and need a fine metrology system to measure these deformations for image correction. To study their performance, I developed a code reproducing the real functioning of such a telescope. Each photon is considered individually, its path and interactions depend on the behavior of the telescope structure along with time. Each component of the telescope is modeled, as well as the metrology needed for the restitution of its dynamic. The path of the photon is computed in a three dimensional vector space, using Monte-Carlo methods to reproduce the mirror defaults, their reflectivity and the interactions in the detector. The simulation produces images and energy spectra, from which we can infer the angular resolution, the field of view, the effective area and the detection efficiency. In 2006, the Simbol-X mission was selected in the framework of the formation flight studies. This concept allows a large focal length, the telescope being distributed on two independent spacecrafts

  15. ORGANIZATIONS AND STRATEGIES IN ASTRONOMY VOLUME 7

    CERN Document Server

    HECK, ANDRÉ

    2006-01-01

    This book is the seventh volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series covers a large range of fields and themes: in practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, operational techniques, observing practicalities, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, series of conferences, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detailed information and somet...

  16. Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy Volume 6

    CERN Document Server

    Heck, André

    2006-01-01

    This book is the sixth volume under the title Organizations and Strategies in Astronomy (OSA). The OSA series is intended to cover a large range of fields and themes. In practice, one could say that all aspects of astronomy-related life and environment are considered in the spirit of sharing specific expertise and lessons learned. The chapters of this book are dealing with socio-dynamical aspects of the astronomy (and related space sciences) community: characteristics of organizations, strategies for development, legal issues, operational techniques, observing practicalities, educational policies, journal and magazine profiles, public outreach, publication studies, relationships with the media, research communication, evaluation and selection procedures, research indicators, national specificities, contemporary history, and so on. The experts contributing to this volume have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy while providing specific detai...

  17. Armenian Cultural Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Cultural Astronomy is the reflection of sky events in various fields of nations' culture. In foreign literature this field is also called "Astronomy in Culture" or "Astronomy and Culture". Cultural astronomy is the set of interdisciplinary fields studying the astronomical systems of current or ancient societies and cultures. It is manifested in Religion, Mythology, Folklore, Poetry, Art, Linguistics and other fields. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to this sphere, particularly international organizations were established, conferences are held and journals are published. Armenia is also rich in cultural astronomy. The present paper focuses on Armenian archaeoastronomy and cultural astronomy, including many creations related to astronomical knowledge; calendars, rock art, mythology, etc. On the other hand, this subject is rather poorly developed in Armenia; there are only individual studies on various related issues (especially many studies related to Anania Shirakatsi) but not coordinated actions to manage this important field of investigation.

  18. Information Content in Radio Waves: Student Investigations in Radio Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, K.; Scaduto, T.

    2013-12-01

    We describe an inquiry-based instructional unit on information content in radio waves, created in the summer of 2013 as part of a MIT Haystack Observatory (Westford, MA) NSF Research Experiences for Teachers (RET) program. This topic is current and highly relevant, addressing science and technical aspects from radio astronomy, geodesy, and atmospheric research areas as well as Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). Projects and activities range from simple classroom demonstrations and group investigations, to long term research projects incorporating data acquisition from both student-built instrumentation as well as online databases. Each of the core lessons is applied to one of the primary research centers at Haystack through an inquiry project that builds on previously developed units through the MIT Haystack RET program. In radio astronomy, students investigate the application of a simple and inexpensive software defined radio chip (RTL-SDR) for use in systems implementing a small and very small radio telescope (SRT and VSRT). Both of these systems allow students to explore fundamental principles of radio waves and interferometry as applied to radio astronomy. In ionospheric research, students track solar storms from the initial coronal mass ejection (using Solar Dynamics Observatory images) to the resulting variability in total electron density concentrations using data from the community standard Madrigal distributed database system maintained by MIT Haystack. Finally, students get to explore very long-baseline interferometry as it is used in geodetic studies by measuring crustal plate displacements over time. Alignment to NextGen standards is provided for each lesson and activity with emphasis on HS-PS4 'Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer'.

  19. High energy astrophysics in radio-astronomical form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, H. van der

    1980-01-01

    The application of high energy astrophysics in observational astronomy, and in particular in radioastronomy, is considered. The current situation of extragalactic HEA, as brought to light by radio-astronomical techniques, is sketched. (C.F.)

  20. The purpose of astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Davoust, Emmanuel

    1995-01-01

    This is a presentation of the purpose of astronomy in the context of modern society. After exposing two misconceptions about astronomy, I detail its role in five domains, certified knowledge, incorporated abilities, innovations, collective goods, and popular science; with each domain is associated an institution, an incentive, and a method of evaluation. Finally, I point out the role of astronomy as a source of inspiration in other fields than science.

  1. The handy astronomy answer book

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, PhD, Charles

    2013-01-01

    From planetary movements and the exploration of our solar system to black holes and dark matter, this comprehensive reference simplifies all aspects of astronomy with an approachable question-and-answer format. With chapters broken into various astronomical studies—including the universe, galaxies, planets, and space exploration—this fully updated resource is an ideal companion for students, teachers, and amateur astronomers, answering more than 1,000 questions, such as Is the universe infinite? What would happen to you if you fell onto a black hole? What are the basic concepts of Einstein's special theory of relativity? and Who was the first person in space?.

  2. Some innovative programmes in Astronomy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G. S. D.; Sujatha, S.

    In order to inculcate a systematic scientific awareness of the subject of Astronomy among the students and to motivate them to pursue careers in Astronomy and Astrophysics, various innovative educational programmes have been designed at MPBIFR. Among them, the main programme is termed as the ``100-hour Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics'' which has been designed basically for the students of the undergraduate level of B.Sc. and B.E. streams. The time duration of the 100 hours in this course is partitioned as 36 hours of classroom lectures, 34 hours of practicals and field trips and the remaining 30 hours being dedicated to dissertation writing and seminar presentations by the students. In addition, after the 100-hour course, the students have the option to take up specialized advance courses in the topics of Astrobiology, Astrochemistry, Radio Astronomy, Solar Astronomy and Cosmology as week-end classes. These courses are at the post graduate level and are covered in a span of 18 to 20 hours spread over a period of 9 to 10 weeks. As a preparatory programme, short-term introductory courses in the same subject are conducted for the high school students during the summer vacation period. Along with this, a three-week programme in basic Astronomy is also designed as an educational package for the general public. The students of these courses have the opportunity of being taken on field trips to various astronomical centers as well as the Radio, Solar and the Optical Observatories as part of their curriculum. The guided trips to the ISRO’s Satellite Centre at Bangalore and the Satellite Launching Station at SHAR provide high degree of motivation apart from giving thrilling experiences to the students. Further, the motivated students are encouraged to involve themselves in regular research programmes in Astronomy at MPBIFR for publishing research papers in national and international journals. The teaching and mentoring faculty for all these programmes

  3. Bringing Astronomy Directly to People Who Do Not Come to Star Parties, Science Museums, or Science Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowich, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    My successful programs have included telescope observations, hands-on activities, and edible astronomy demonstrations for: outdoor concerts or music festivals; the National Mall; churches, synagogues, seminaries, or clergy conferences; the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY), the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center (Mineola, NY); the Fresh Air Fund summer camps; a Halloween star party with costumed kids looking through telescopes; a Super Bowl Star Party; the World Science Festival (NYC); the Princeton University Science and Engineering Expo; the USA Science and Engineering Festival; and the NYC Columbus Day Parade. These outreach activities have reached thousands of people including many young girls. Information was also provided about local science museums, citizen science projects, astronomy educational sites, and astronomy clubs to encourage learning after these events. In 2010 I created Astronomy Night on the National Mall (co-sponsored the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy) with the participation of astronomy clubs, Chandra X-Ray Center, STScI, NASA, NOAO, NSF and the National Air and Space Museum. Since 2009 my NASA-funded Music and Astronomy Under the Stars (MAUS) program has brought astronomy to 50,000 music lovers who attended the Central Park Jazz, Newport Folk, Tanglewood, or Ravinia music festivals or classical, folk, rock, pop, opera, or county-western concerts in local parks assisted by astronomy clubs. MAUS is an evening, nighttime, and cloudy weather traveling astronomy program combining solar, optical, and radio telescope observations; a live image projection system; large outdoor posters and banners; videos; and hands-on activities before and after the concerts or at intermission. Yo-Yo-Ma and the Chicago Symphony or Boston Symphony Orchestras, the McCoy Tyner Quartet with Ravi Coltrane, Esperanza Spalding, the Stanley Clarke Band, Phish, Blood Sweat and Tears, Deep Purple, Patti Smith

  4. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Author Affiliations. J. B. Su1 Z.-Q. Shen1 X. Chen1 Jiyune Yi2 D. R. Jiang1 Y. J. Yun3. Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030, China. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348, South Korea. Department of Physics and Astronomy, ...

  5. Gamma ray astronomy and the COS-B satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesarsky, C.J.; Paul, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The European satellite COS-B, operating in space for almost seven years, has produced a full chart of the sky in gamma radiation. This chart is discussed in detail, as well as gamma astronomy, high energy photons, gamma photons, strange stars, young pulsars, stars seething with activity and quasar 3C273. Other gamma astronomy programmes are briefly mentioned. (U.K.)

  6. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Annie Baglin. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 21 Issue 3-4 September-December 2000 pp 319-322 Session VII – Magnetoconvection & Stellar Activity. The Space Stellar Photometry Mission COROT: Asteroseismology and Search ...

  7. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Corot team. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 21 Issue 3-4 September-December 2000 pp 319-322 Session VII – Magnetoconvection & Stellar Activity. The Space Stellar Photometry Mission COROT: Asteroseismology and Search for ...

  8. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Gerard Vauclair. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 21 Issue 3-4 September-December 2000 pp 319-322 Session VII – Magnetoconvection & Stellar Activity. The Space Stellar Photometry Mission COROT: Asteroseismology and Search ...

  9. Scientists Detect Radio Emission from Rapidly Rotating Cosmic Dust Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    Astronomers have made the first tentative observations of a long-speculated, but never before detected, source of natural radio waves in interstellar space. Data from the National Science Foundation's 140 Foot Radio Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Green Bank, W.Va., show the faint, tell-tale signals of what appear to be dust grains spinning billions of times each second. This discovery eventually could yield a powerful new tool for understanding the interstellar medium - the immense clouds of gas and dust that populate interstellar space. The NRAO 140 Foot Radio Telescope The NRAO 140-Foot Radio Telescope "What we believe we have found," said Douglas P. Finkbeiner of Princeton University's Department of Astrophysics, "is the first hard evidence for electric dipole emission from rapidly rotating dust grains. If our studies are confirmed, it will be the first new source of continuum emission to be conclusively identified in the interstellar medium in nearly the past 20 years." Finkbeiner believes that these emissions have the potential in the future of revealing new and exciting information about the interstellar medium; they also may help to refine future studies of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. The results from this study, which took place in spring 1999, were accepted for publication in Astrophysical Journal. Other contributors to this paper include David J. Schlegel, department of astrophysics, Princeton University; Curtis Frank, department of astronomy, University of Maryland; and Carl Heiles, department of astronomy, University of California at Berkeley. "The idea of dust grains emitting radiation by rotating is not new," comments Finkbeiner, "but to date it has been somewhat speculative." Scientists first proposed in 1957 that dust grains could emit radio signals, if they were caused to rotate rapidly enough. It was believed, however, that these radio emissions would be negligibly small - too weak to be of any impact to

  10. Radio emission of the sun and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zheleznyakov, V V

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 25: Radio Emission of the Sun and Planets presents the origin of the radio emission of the planets. This book examines the outstanding triumphs achieved by radio astronomy of the solar system. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the physical conditions in the upper layers of the Sun, the Moon, and the planets. This text then examines the three characteristics of radio emission, namely, the frequency spectrum, the polarization, and the angular spectrum. Other chapters consider the measurements of the i

  11. Indian Astronomy: History of

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, R.; Murdin, P.

    2002-01-01

    From the time of A macronryabhat under dota (ca AD 500) there appeared in India a series of Sanskrit treatises on astronomy. Written always in verse, and normally accompanied by prose commentaries, these served to create an Indian tradition of mathematical astronomy which continued into the 18th century. There are as well texts from earlier centuries, grouped under the name Jyotishaveda macronn d...

  12. Astronomy in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Valério A. R. M.; Paulo, Cláudio M.

    2015-03-01

    We present the state of Astronomy in Mozambique and how it has evolved since 2009 following the International Year of Astronomy. Activities have been lead by staff at University Eduardo Mondlane and several outreach activities have also flourished. In 2010 the University introduced its first astronomy module, Introduction to Astronomy and Astrophysics, for the second year students in the Department of Physics. The course has now produced the first students who will be graduating in late 2012 with some astronomy content. Some of these students will now be looking for further studies and those who have been keen in astronomy have been recommended to pursue this as a career. At the university level we have also discussed on the possibility to introduce a whole astronomy course by 2016 which falls well within the HCD that the university is now investing in. With the announcement that the SKA will be split between South Africa with its partner countries (including Mozambique), and Australia we have been working closely with the Ministry of Science and Technology to make astronomy a priority on its agenda. In this respect, an old telecommunications antenna is being converted by the South Africa SKA Project Office, and donated to Mozambique for educational purposes. It will be situated in Maluana, Mozambique.

  13. Extragalactic infrared astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondhalekar, P.M.

    1985-05-01

    The paper concerns the field of Extragalactic Infrared Astronomy, discussed at the Fourth RAL Workshop on Astronomy and Astrophysics. Fifteen papers were presented on infrared emission from extragalactic objects. Both ground-(and aircraft-) based and IRAS infrared data were reviewed. The topics covered star formation in galaxies, active galactic nuclei and cosmology. (U.K.)

  14. The RadioAstron Dedicated DiFX Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Bruni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed FX-architecture (DiFX is a software Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI correlator currently adopted by several main correlation sites around the globe. After the launch of the RadioAstron Space-VLBI mission in 2011, an extension was necessary to handle processing of an orbiting antenna, to be correlated with supporting ground arrays. Here, we present a branch of the main DiFX distribution (2.4, uploaded on the publicly available repository during July 2016, that the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy (MPIfR developed to process data of the three key active galactic nuclei (AGN-imaging RadioAstron science projects, as well as part of the AGN survey project, and General Observing Time (GOT projects proposed since Announcement of Opportunity 2 (AO-2, July 2014–July 2015. It can account for general relativistic correction of an orbiting antenna with variable position/velocity, providing a routine to convert the native RadioAstron Data Format (RDF format to the more common Mark5 B (M5B. The possibility of introducing a polynomial clock allows one to mitigate the effects of spacecraft acceleration terms in near-perigee observations. Additionally, since for the first time polarimetry on space-baselines is available thanks to RadioAstron, this DiFX branch allows one to include the spacecraft orientation information at the correlation stage, in order to perform proper polarization calibration during data reduction. Finally, a fringe-finding algorithm able to manage an arbitrarily large fringe-search window is included, allowing one to increase the search space normally adopted by common software packages like HOPS.

  15. Europe's Astronomy Teachers Meet at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    European Association for Astronomy Education Formed A joint EU/ESO Workshop (1) on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe was held at the ESO Headquarters from November 25-30, 1994, under the auspices of the 1994 European Week for Scientific Culture. More than 100 teachers from secondary schools in 17 European countries participated together with representatives of national ministries and local authorities, as well as professional astronomers. This meeting was the first of its kind ever held and was very successful. As a most visible and immediate outcome, the participants agreed to form the "European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE)", uniting astronomy educators all over Europe into one network. A provisional Executive Committee of the EAAE was elected which will work towards the organisation of a constitutional conference within the next year. The participants unanimously adopted a "Declaration on the Teaching of Astronomy in Europe", specifying the overall aims and initial actions needed to achieve them. Astronomy: Science, Technology and Culture At the beginning of the Workshop the participants listened to lectures by several specialists about some of the most active fields of astronomy. The scientific sessions included topics as diverse as minor bodies in the solar system, nucleosynthesis, interstellar chemistry and cosmology. Then followed overviews of various recent advances in astronomical technology, some of which are already having direct impact on highly specialized sectors of European industry. They included the advanced use of computers in astronomy, for instance within image processing and data archiving, as well as a demonstration of remote observing. Discussing the cultural aspects, Nigel Calder (UK) and Hubert Reeves (France) emphasized the important role of astronomy in modern society, in particular its continuing influence on our perceptions of mankind's unique location in time and space. Teaching of Astronomy in European Countries

  16. Radioactive Mapping Contaminant of Alpha on The Air in Space of Repair of Hot Cell and Medium Radioactivity Laboratory in Radio metallurgy Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf-Nampira; Endang-Sukesi; S-Wahyuningsih; R-Budi-Santoso

    2007-01-01

    Hot cell and space of acid laboratory medium activity in Radio metallurgy Installation are used for the examination preparation of fuel nuclear post irradiation. The sample examined is dangerous radioactive material representing which can disseminate passing air stream. The dangerous material spreading can be pursued by arranging air stream from laboratory space to examination space. To know the performance the air stream arrangement is hence conducted by radioactive mapping contaminant of alpha in laboratory / space of activity place, for example, medium activity laboratory and repair space. This mapping radioactivity contaminant is executed with the measurement level of the radioactivity from sample air taken at various height with the distance of 1 m, various distance and from potential source as contaminant spreading access. The mapping result indicate that a little spreading of radioactive material happened from acid cupboard locker to laboratory activity up to distance of 3 m from acid cupboard locker and spreading of radioactive contaminant from goods access door of the hot cell 104 to repair space reach the distance of 2 m from goods door access. Level of the radioactive contamination in the space was far under maximum limitation allowed (20 Bq / m 3 ). (author)

  17. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, multiwaveband observational efforts with wide fields of view will be the key to progress of transients astronomy from the middle 2020s offering unprecedented deep images and high spatial and spectral resolutions. Radio observations of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) with SKA will uncover not only much fainter ...

  18. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 37; Issue 4. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 37, Issue 4. December 2016. Science with the Square Kilometre Array: An Indian Perspective. Article ID 25 Review. Probing Statistical Isotropy of Cosmological Radio Sources using Square Kilometre Array.

  19. Low frequency astronomy - the challenge in a crowded RFI environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentum, Marinus Jan; Boonstra, Albert Jan

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency radio astronomy is a hot topic at the moment. Many large arrays of antennas are built to facilitate the astronomical research on low frequencies. Building an instrument for the frequency band below 30 MHz on Earth will run into some problems. One of the issues is the instable and

  20. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 22; Issue 4. Volume 22, Issue 4. December 2001, pages 263-349. pp 263-282. Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color, Radio Spectral Index and Absorption Lines · D. Basu · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  1. Time analysis in astronomy: Tools for periodicity searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buccheri, R.; Sacco, B.

    1985-01-01

    The authors discuss periodicity searches in radio and gamma-ray astronomy with special considerations for pulsar searches. The basic methodologies of fast Fourier transform, Rayleigh test, and epoch folding are reviewed with the main objective to compare cost and sensitivities in different applications. It is found that FFT procedures are convenient in unbiased searches for periodicity in radio astronomy, while in spark chamber gamma-ray astronomy, where the measurements are spread over a long integration time, unbiased searches are very difficult with the existing computing facilities and analyses with a-priori knowledge on the period values to look for are better done using the Rayleigh test with harmonics folding (Z /sub n/ test)

  2. Radio Frequency Interference Site Survey for Thai Radio Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroenjittichai, P.; Punyawarin, S.; Singwong, D.; Somboonpon, P.; Prasert, N.; Bandudej, K.; Kempet, P.; Leckngam, A.; Poshyachinda, S.; Soonthornthum, B.; Kramer, B.

    2017-09-01

    Radio astronomical observations have increasingly been threaten by the march of today telecommunication and wireless technology. Performance of radio telescopes lies within the fact that astronomical sources are extremely weak. National Astronomy Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) has initiated a 5-year project, known as the Radio Astronomy Network and Geodesy for Development (RANGD), which includes the establishment of 40-meter and 13-meter radio telescopes. Possible locations have been narrowed down to three candidates, situated in the Northern part of Thailand, where the atmosphere is sufficiently dry and suitable for 22 and 43 GHz observations. The Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) measurements were carried out with a DC spectrum analyzer and directional antennas at 1.5 meter above ground, from 20 MHz to 6 GHz with full azimuth coverage. The data from a 3-minute pointing were recorded for both horizontal and vertical polarizations, in maxhold and average modes. The results, for which we used to make preliminary site selection, show signals from typical broadcast and telecommunication services and aeronautics applications. The signal intensity varies accordingly to the presence of nearby population and topography of the region.

  3. Radio Frequency Interference Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, T.; Chen, X.; Mohan, P.; Lao, B. Q.

    2017-09-01

    The observational facilities of radio astronomy keep constant upgrades and developments to achieve better capabilities including increasing the time of the data recording and frequency resolutions, and increasing the receiving and recording bandwidth. However in contrast, only a limited spectrum resource has been allocated to radio astronomy by the International Telecommunication Union, resulting in that the radio observational instrumentations are inevitably exposed to undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI) signals which originate mainly from the terrestrial human activity and are becoming stronger with time. RFIs degrade the quality of data and even lead to invalid data. The impact of RFIs on scientific outcome becomes more and more serious. In this article, the requirement for RFI mitigation is motivated, and the RFI characteristics, mitigation techniques, and strategies are reviewed. The mitigation strategies adopted at some representative observatories, telescopes, and arrays are also introduced. The advantages and shortcomings of the four classes of RFI mitigation strategies are discussed and presented, applicable at the connected causal stages: preventive, pre-detection, pre-correlation, and post-correlation. The proper identification and flagging of RFI is the key to the reduction of data loss and improvement in data quality, and is also the ultimate goal of developing RFI mitigation technique. This can be achieved through a strategy involving a combination of the discussed techniques in stages. The recent advances in the high speed digital signal processing and high performance computing allow for performing RFI excision of the large data volumes generated from large telescopes or arrays in both real time and offline modes, aiding the proposed strategy.

  4. The Network for Astronomy in Education in Southwest New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, B.

    1998-12-01

    The Network for Astronomy in Education was organized to use astronomy as a motivational tool to teach science methods and principles in the public schools. NFO is a small private research observatory, associated with the local University, Western New Mexico. We started our program in 1996 with an IDEA grant by introducing local teachers to the Internet, funding a portable planetarium (Starlab) for the students, and upgrading our local radio linked computer network. Grant County is a rural mining and ranching county in Southwest New Mexico. It is ethnically diverse and has a large portion of the population below the poverty line. It's dryness and 6000' foot elevation, along with dark skies, suite it to the appreciation of astronomy. We now have 8 local schools involved in astronomy at some level. Our main programs are the Starlab and Project Astro, and we will soon install a Sidewalk Solar System in the center of Silver City.

  5. Powerful Radio Burst Indicates New Astronomical Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Hawking. The newly-discovered radio burst, the researchers said, might be the "last gasp" of a black hole as it finally evaporates completely. "We're actively looking for more of these powerful, short bursts, in other archival pulsar surveys, and hope to resolve the mystery of their origin," said McLaughlin. "In addition, if we can associate these events with galaxies of known distance, the radio dispersion we measure can be used as a powerful new way to determine the amount of material in intergalactic space," she added. The Parkes radio telescope is part of the Australia Telescope, which is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  6. Danish Space Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The present report presents a description of the activities and finances of the Danish Space Reserach Institute during 1989 and 1990. The research deals with infrared astronomy (ISOPHOT), X-ray astronomy (EXPECT/SODART), hard X-ray astronomy (WATCH), satellite projects and sounding rocket experiments. (CLS)

  7. The Astronomy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, D. P.; Asbury, M. L.; Proctor, A.

    2001-12-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is an interactive online astronomy resource developed, and maintained at the University of Maryland, for use by students, educators and the general public. The Astronomy Workshop has been extensively tested and used successfully at many different levels, including High School and Junior High School science classes, University introductory astronomy courses, and University intermediate and advanced astronomy courses. Some topics currently covered in the Astronomy Workshop are: Animated Orbits of Planets and Moons: The orbits of the nine planets and 91 known planetary satellites are shown in animated, to-scale drawings. The orbiting bodies move at their correct relative speeds about their parent, which is rendered as an attractive, to-scale gif image. Solar System Collisions: This most popular of our applications shows what happens when an asteroid or comet with user-defined size and speed impacts a given planet. The program calculates many effects, including the country impacted (if Earth is the target), energy of the explosion, crater size, magnitude of the planetquake generated. It also displays a relevant image (e.g. terrestrial crater, lunar crater, etc.). Planetary and Satellite Data Calculators: These tools allow the user to easily calculate physical data for all of the planets or satellites simultaneously, making comparison very easy. Orbital Simulations: These tools allow the student to investigate different aspects of the three-body problem of celestial mechanics. Astronomy Workshop Bulletin Board: Get innovative teaching ideas and read about in-class experiences with the Astronomy Workshop. Share your ideas with other educators by posting on the Bulletin Board. Funding for the Astronomy Workshop is provided by the National Science Foundation.

  8. Teaching Astronomy with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Carmen; Impey, Chris David; Wenger, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Students today are expected to have access to computers and the Internet. Students young and old, in school and out of school, are interested in learning about astronomy, and have computers to use for this. Teach Astronomy is a website with a comprehensive digital astronomy textbook freely available to students and educators. In addition to the textbook, there are astronomy Wikipedia articles, image archives from Astronomy Picture of the Day and AstroPix, and video lectures covering all topics of astronomy. Teach Astronomy has a unique search tool called the wikimap that can be used to search through all of the resources on the site. Astronomy: State of the Art (ASOTA) is a massive, open, online course (MOOC). Over 18,000 students have enrolled over the past year and half. This MOOC has been presented in various forms. First, only to students on the web, with content released weekly on host site Udemy. Then to university students who met formally in the classroom for educational activities, but were also expected to watch lectures online on their own time. Presently, it is available online for students to go at their own pace. In the future it will be available in an extended format on a new host site, Coursera. ASOTA instructors use social media to interact with students. Students ask questions via the course host site, Udemy. Live question and answer sessions are conducted using Google Hangouts on Air, and interesting and relevant astronomy news, or supplementary educational content is shared via the ASOTA Facebook page. Teaching on the Internet may seem impersonal and impractical, but by learning to use all of these tools, instructors have the ability to interact with students, and keep them engaged.

  9. Astronomy and culture

    CERN Document Server

    Hetherington, Edith

    2009-01-01

    While astronomy is a burgeoning science, with tremendous increases in knowledge every year, it also has a tremendous past, one that has altered humanity's understanding of our place in the universe. The impact of astronomy on culture - whether through myths and stories, or through challenges to the intellectual status quo - is incalculable. This volume in the Greenwood Guides to the Universe series examines how human cultures, in all regions and time periods, have tried to make sense of the wonders of the universe. Astronomy and Culture shows students how people throughout time have struggled

  10. Mathematical Astronomy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plofker, Kim

    Astronomy in South Asia's Sanskrit tradition, apparently originating in simple calendric computations regulating the timing of ancient ritual practices, expanded over the course of two or three millennia to include detailed spherical models, an endless variety of astrological systems, and academic mathematics in general. Assimilating various technical models, methods, and genres from the astronomy of neighboring cultures, Indian astronomers created new forms that were in turn borrowed by their foreign counterparts. Always recognizably related to the main themes of Eurasian geocentric mathematical astronomy, Indian astral science nonetheless maintained its culturally distinct character until Keplerian heliocentrism and Newtonian mechanics replaced it in colonial South Asia's academic mainstream.

  11. Discovering Astronomy Through Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannone, John C.

    2011-05-01

    The literature is replete with astronomical references. And much of that literature is poetry. Using this fact, not only can the teacher infuse a new appreciation of astronomy, but also, the student has the opportunity to rediscover history through astronomy. Poetry can be an effective icebreaker in the introduction of new topics in physics and astronomy, as well as a point of conclusion to a lecture. This presentation will give examples of these things from the ancient literature (sacred Hebraic texts), classical literature (Homer's Iliad and Odyssey), traditional poetry (Longfellow, Tennyson and Poe) and modern literature (Frost, Kooser, and others, including the contemporary work of this author).

  12. Can Radio Telescopes Find Axions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    axions. Now scientists Katharine Kelley and Peter Quinn at ICRAR, University of Western Australia, have explored how we might use next-generation radio telescopes to search for photons that were created by axions interacting with the magnetic fields of our galaxy.Hope for Next-Gen TelescopesPotential axion coupling strengths vs. mass (click for a closer look). The axion mass is thought to lie between a eV and a meV; two theoretical models are shown with dashed lines. The plot shows the sensitivity of the upcoming SKA and its precursors, ASKAP and MEERKAT. [KelleyQuinn 2017]By using a simple galactic halo model and reasonable assumptions for the central galactic magnetic field even taking into account the time dependence of the field Kelley and Quinn estimate the radio-frequency power density that we would observe at Earth from axions being converted to photons within the Milky Ways magnetic field.The authors then compare this signature to the detection capabilities of upcoming radio telescope arrays. They show that the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and its precursors should have the capability to detect signs of axions across large parts of parameter space.Kelley and Quinn conclude that theres good cause for optimism about future radio telescopes ability to detect axions. And if we did succeed in making a detection, it would be a triumph for both particle physics and astrophysics, finally providing an explanation for the universes dark matter.CitationKatharine Kelley and P. J. Quinn 2017 ApJL 845 L4. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa808d

  13. First Colombian Solar Radio Interferometer: current stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Gómez, J. C.; Martínez Oliveros, J. C.; Calvo-Mozo, B.

    2017-10-01

    Solar radio astronomy is a fast developing research field in Colombia. Here, we present the scientific goals, specifications and current state of the First Colombian Solar Radio Interferometer consisting of two log-periodic antennas covering a frequency bandwidth op to 800 MHz. We describe the importance and benefits of its development to the radioastronomy in Latin America and its impact on the scientific community and general public.

  14. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  15. Compact radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altschuler, D.R.

    1975-01-01

    Eighty-seven compact radio sources were monitored between 1971 and 1974 with the National Radio Astronomy Observatory interferometer. Both flux density and polarization were measured at intervals of about one month at wavelengths of 3.7 and 11.1 cms. Forty-four sources showed definite variability in their total and/or polarized flux density. The variations in polarization were of a shorter time scale than the corresponding flux density variations. Some of the qualitative features of an expanding source model were observed. The data suggest that some form of injection of relativistic electrons is taking place. The absence of significant depolarization in the variable sources indicates that only a small fraction of the mass of the radio outburst is in the form of non-relativistic plasma. Some of the objects observed belong to the BL-Lacertal class. It is shown that this class is very inhomogeneous in its radio properties. For the violently variable BL-Lacertal type objects the spectrum, flux variations and polarization data strongly suggest that these are very young objects

  16. Artificial intelligence in astronomy - a forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorf, H. M.

    Since several years artificial intelligence techniques are being actively used in astronomy, particularly within the Hubble Space Telescope project. This contribution reviews achievements, analyses some problems of using artificial intelligence in an astronomical environment, and projects current AI programming trends into the future.

  17. Vol. 33 - Compact State-Space Models for Complex Superconducting Radio-Frequency Structures Based on Model Order Reduction and Concatenation Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Flisgen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The modeling of large chains of superconducting cavities with couplers is a challeng- ing task in computational electrical engineering. The direct numerical treatment of these structures can easily lead to problems with more than ten million degrees of freedom. Problems of this complexity are typically solved with the help of parallel programs running on supercomputing infrastructures. However, these infrastructures are expensive to purchase, to operate, and to maintain. The aim of this thesis is to introduce and to validate an approach which allows for modeling large structures on a standard workstation. The novel technique is called State-Space Concatena- tions and is based on the decomposition of the complete structure into individual segments. The radio-frequency properties of the generated segments are described by a set of state-space equations which either emerge from analytical considera- tions or from numerical discretization schemes. The model order of these equations is reduced...

  18. Scalable, Asynchronous, Distributed Eigen-Monitoring of Astronomy Data Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper, we develop a distributed algorithm for monitoring the principal components (PCs) for next generation of astronomy petascale data pipelines such as the...

  19. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P. Ajith, International Center for Theoretical Sciences (ICTS), Bengaluru ... Anandmayee Tej, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, ... 2016, the Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy has moved to Continuous Article Publishing ...

  20. News Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Teaching: The epiSTEMe project: KS3 maths and science improvement Field trip: Pupils learn physics in a stately home Conference: ShowPhysics welcomes fun in Europe Student numbers: Physics numbers increase in UK Tournament: Physics tournament travels to Singapore Particle physics: Hadron Collider sets new record Astronomy: Take your classroom into space Forthcoming Events

  1. Panel discussion on: trends in optical and radio data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.

    1985-01-01

    The panel begins by placing optical and radio astronomy into the same category and then goes on to discuss a wide variety of hardware and software approaches which have been or can be utilized in the analysis of optical and radio data

  2. Astronomy in Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M.; Bladon, G.; Russo, P.; Christensen, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    For a long time astronomers and other scientists believed that the importance of their work was evident to society. But in these difficult days of financial austerity, even the most obvious benefits of science have to undergo careful scrutiny. So, now more than ever is the time to highlight the importance of astronomy as a field in terms of its contributions to our technology, our mind sets and our lives. Here we will outline both the tangible and intangible reasons why astronomy is an important part of society. Whilst considerable attention will be given to technology and knowledge transfer from astronomy, perhaps the most important contribution outlined is the awareness that astronomy gives us of the vastness of the Universe and our place within it.

  3. Gravity wave astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, R.

    1979-01-01

    The properties and production of gravitational radiation are described. The prospects for their detection are considered including the Weber apparatus and gravity-wave telescopes. Possibilities of gravity-wave astronomy are noted

  4. 2004 ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    This publication of the Academy on Astronomy and Astrophysics is unique in ... bring out position papers on societal issues where science plays a major ..... funding agencies, the Astronomical Society of ..... orbit very close to the parent star.

  5. Astronomy, Astrology, and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Dorian Gieseler

    Astronomy and astrology were combined with medicine for thousands of years. Beginning in Mesopotamia in the second millennium BCE and continuing into the eighteenth century, medical practitioners used astronomy/astrology as an important part of diagnosis and prescription. Throughout this time frame, scientists cited the similarities between medicine and astrology, in addition to combining the two in practice. Hippocrates and Galen based medical theories on the relationship between heavenly bodies and human bodies. In an enduring cultural phenomenon, parts of the body as well as diseases were linked to zodiac signs and planets. In Renaissance universities, astronomy and astrology were studied by students of medicine. History records a long tradition of astrologer-physicians. This chapter covers the topic of astronomy, astrology, and medicine from the Old Babylonian period to the Enlightenment.

  6. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  7. Evaluating Middle School Students' Spatial-Scientific Performance within Earth/Space Astronomy in Terms of Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Jennifer; Toland, Michael D.; Cole, Merryn

    2017-01-01

    Differences were examined between groups of sixth grade students? spatial-scientific development pre/post implementation of an Earth/Space unit. Treatment teachers employed a spatially-integrated Earth/Space curriculum, while control teachers implemented their Business as Usual (BAU) Earth/Space units. A multi-level modeling approach was used in a…

  8. Radio-tracking manatees from land and space: tag design, implementation, and lessons learned from long-term study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, C.J.; Bonde, R.K.; Reid, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) were tracked along the Atlantic coast of Florida and Georgia (N = 83 manatees, n = 439 tag deployments, 1986-1996) and in eastern Puerto Rico (N = 8, n = 43, 1992-1996) using conventional and satellite-based radio-telemetry systems. A floating radio-tag, attached by a flexible tether to a padded belt around the base of the tail, enabled us to track manatees in saltwater environments. The tag incorporated VHF (very high frequency) and ultrasonic transmitters for field tracking and tag recovery, and an Argos satellite-monitored transmitter for remote tracking. We located each animal in the field about twice per week, received more than 60 000 good-quality Argos locations, and recovered tags in over 90% of deployments. The tag was designed to detach from the belt when entangled to prevent injury or drowning, and this often led to premature termination of tracking bouts. We had considerable success, however, in retagging belted manatees without recapture (97% of 392 retagging events). Most individuals were radio-tagged more than once (median = 3.0, maximum = 43) for a median total duration of 7.5 months (maximum = 6.8 yr). Data obtained through Argos have been valuable in addressing questions relating to long-distance movements, site fidelity, and identification of high-use areas. Fine-scale analyses of manatee habitat use and movements may require restricting the data set to the highest location quality or developing new analytical techniques to incorporate locational error. Field tracking provided useful ancillary data on life-history parameters, but sample sizes were small and survival estimates imprecise. Modification of the existing tag design to include Global Positioning System (GPS) functionality, with its finer spatial and temporal resolution, will offer new opportunities to address critical research and management problems facing this endangered species.

  9. Space science public outreach at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T.; Babin, E.; Cooney, W.; Giammanco, J.; Hartman, D.; McNeil, R.; Slovak, M.; Stacy, J.

    Over the last seven years the Astronomy / Astrophysics group in the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Louisiana State University has developed an exten- sive Space Science education and public outreach program. This program includes the local park district (the Recreation and Park Commission for the Parish of East Baton Rouge, BREC), the local amateur astronomer group (the Baton Rouge As- tronomical Society, BRAS), the Louisiana Arts and Science Museum (LASM), and Southern University (SU, part of the largest HBCU system in the nation). Our effort has directly led to the development of the Highland Road Park Observatory (HRPO, http://www.bro.lsu.edu/hrpo) that supports student astronomy training at LSU and SU, amateur observations and a public program for adults and children, establishment of a series of teacher professional development workshops in astronomy and physics, and the "Robots for Internet Experiences (ROBIE)" project (http://www.bro.lsu.edu/) where we have several instruments (e.g. HAM radio, radio telescope, optical tele- scopes) that can be controlled over the internet by students and teachers in the class- room along with associated lessons developed by a teacher group. In addition, this year the LASM, will be opening a new planetarium / space theater in downtown Baton Rouge, Louisiana. We are currently working to bring live views of the heavens from the HRPO telescope to audiences attending planetarium shows and will be working closely with planetarium staff to develop shows that highlight LSU astronomy / space science research. During the presentation we will provide some details about our in- dividual projects, the overall structure of our program, establishing community links and some of the lessons we learned along the way. Finally, we would like to acknowl- edge NASA, Louisiana State University, the Louisiana Systemic Initiatives Program and the Louisiana Technology Innovation Fund for their support.

  10. Radio Frequency Interference: The Study of Rain Effect on Radio Signal Attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan Umar; Roslan Umar; Shahirah Syafa Sulan; Atiq Wahidah Azlan; Zainol Abidin Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The intensity of radio waves received by radio telescopes is always not subject to human control. In the millimetre band, the propagation of the electromagnetic waves is severely affected by rain rate, dust particle size and drop size in the terms of attenuation, noise and depolarization. At the frequency above 10 GHz, the absorption and scattering by rain cause a reduction in the transmitted signal amplitude which will lead to the reducing of the availability, reliability and performance on the communications link. In this study, the rain effect on radio signal has been investigated. Spectrum analyzer and weather stations were used to obtain the RFI level and rain rate data respectively. The radio frequency interference (RFI) pattern due to rain factor was determined. This will benefit radio astronomer in managing sites for radio observation for radio astronomy purposes. (author)

  11. Astronomy adventures and vacations how to get the most out of astronomy in your leisure time

    CERN Document Server

    Treadwell, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    This astronomy travel guide examines the many wonderful opportunities for experiencing the observing hobby. Amateur astronomy is often consigned to observing from home or from a local park, yet it can be much more. Tim Treadwell explores all the possibilities of astronomical and space-related activities that are available on day trips and longer vacations. These activities range from observatory visits and other simple ways to build an astronomy event into a holiday, to full blown specialized astronomy travel. Many trips give the opportunity to visit some of the world’s famous attractions. On most vacations it can be a matter of just taking a day (or night) out of your schedule to fit in an astronomy event, but larger, dedicated pilgrimages are also possible. How to make the most of astronomy potential on a holiday, whether observing on the beach in Hawaii with the Telescope Guy or visiting Star City in Russia, is covered in detail. Go to a star party, explore the national parks or see the northern lights! ...

  12. High-efficiency space-based software radio architectures & algorithms (a minimum size, weight, and power TeraOps processor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Mark Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Baker, Zachary K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stettler, Matthew W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pigue, Michael J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmierer, Eric N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Power, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Paul S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos has recently completed the latest in a series of Reconfigurable Software Radios, which incorporates several key innovations in both hardware design and algorithms. Due to our focus on satellite applications, each design must extract the best size, weight, and power performance possible from the ensemble of Commodity Off-the-Shelf (COTS) parts available at the time of design. In this case we have achieved 1 TeraOps/second signal processing on a 1920 Megabit/second datastream, while using only 53 Watts mains power, 5.5 kg, and 3 liters. This processing capability enables very advanced algorithms such as our wideband RF compression scheme to operate remotely, allowing network bandwidth constrained applications to deliver previously unattainable performance.

  13. Rescuing Middle School Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L. A.; Janney, D.

    2010-12-01

    There is a crisis in education at the middle school level (Spellings, 2006). Recent studies point to large disparities in middle school performance in schools with high minority populations. The largest disparities exist in areas of math and science. Astronomy has a universal appeal for K-12 students but is rarely taught at the middle school level. When it is taught at all it is usually taught in isolation with few references in other classes such as other sciences (e.g. physics, biology, and chemistry), math, history, geography, music, art, or English. The problem is greatest in our most challenged school districts. With scores in reading and math below national averages in these schools and with most state achievement tests ignoring subjects like astronomy, there is little room in the school day to teach about the world outside our atmosphere. Add to this the exceedingly minimal training and education in astronomy that most middle school teachers have and it is a rare school that includes any astronomy teaching at all. In this presentation, we show how to develop and offer an astronomy education training program for middle school teachers encompassing a wide range of educational disciplines that are frequently taught at the middle school level. The prototype for this program was developed and launched in two of the most challenged and diverse school systems in the country; D.C. Public Schools, and Montgomery County (MD) Public Schools.

  14. NASA deep space network operations planning and preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, W. N.

    1982-01-01

    The responsibilities and structural organization of the Operations Planning Group of NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) Operations are outlined. The Operations Planning group establishes an early interface with a user's planning organization to educate the user on DSN capabilities and limitations for deep space tracking support. A team of one or two individuals works through all phases of the spacecraft launch and also provides planning and preparation for specific events such as planetary encounters. Coordinating interface is also provided for nonflight projects such as radio astronomy and VLBI experiments. The group is divided into a Long Range Support Planning element and a Near Term Operations Coordination element.

  15. Scientists Celebrate VLBA's First Decade As Astronomy's Sharpest "Eye" on the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Scientists from around the globe are gathered in Socorro, New Mexico, to mark the tenth anniversary of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) , a continent-wide radio telescope that produces the most detailed images of any instrument available to the world's astronomers. The VLBA The VLBA CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Nearly 200 scientists are presenting 160 research papers on topics including geophysics, star and planet formation, supernova explosions, galaxies, supermassive black holes, and future directions of research and instrumentation in astronomy. The meeting is sponsored by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech). The meeting is being held on the NM Tech campus in Socorro. "In ten years of operation, the VLBA has made landmark contributions to astronomy. In this scientific meeting, we are acknowledging those contributions and looking forward to an even more exciting future of frontier research," said James Ulvestad, director of VLA/VLBA operations for the NRAO. "The presentations at this meeting show that the VLBA is being used to study a much broader range of astronomical objects than was anticipated by its designers," said Prof. Roger Blandford of Caltech, who delivered the meeting's opening Keynote Address. Dedicated in 1993, the $85-million VLBA includes ten, 240-ton radio-telescope antennas, ranging from Hawaii in the west to the U.S. Virgin Islands in the east. Two are in New Mexico, one near Pie Town in Catron County and the other at Los Alamos. The VLBA is operated from the NRAO's Array Operations Center in Socorro. Acting like a giant eye 5,000 miles wide, the VLBA can produce the sharpest images of any telescope on Earth or in space. Its ability to see fine detail, called resolving power, is equivalent to being able to stand in New York and read a newspaper in Los Angeles. The VLBA's scientific achievements include making the most accurate distance

  16. Submillimetre-wave astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, J.E.; Phillips, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Observations in the 100-1000-micron band and the instruments used to obtain them are discussed in contributions to the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Conference held at Queen Mary College, London, in September 1981. The major subject areas covered are large-scale structure and radiative transfer within interstellar clouds, spectroscopic observations of molecular sources, interstellar chemistry, and submillimeter (SM) instrumentation. Reports are included on the formation of giant cloud complexes, cool molecular clouds, models for hot-centered and externally heated clouds, dust in Bok globules, airborne FIR and SM spectroscopy, rotational transitions of CH3OH and NH2 near 1.2 mm, high-velocity flows and molecular jets, FIR emissions from late-type galaxies, ion-grain collisions as a source of interstellar molecules, bandpass filters for SM astronomy, the SM receiver of the future, HF techniques in heterodyne astronomy, and the mm-wave cosmic background

  17. High Efficiency Traveling-Wave Tube Power Amplifier for Ka-Band Software Defined Radio on International Space Station-A Platform for Communications Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Force, Dale A.; Kacpura, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The design, fabrication and RF performance of the output traveling-wave tube amplifier (TWTA) for a space based Ka-band software defined radio (SDR) is presented. The TWTA, the SDR and the supporting avionics are integrated to forms a testbed, which is currently located on an exterior truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The SDR in the testbed communicates at Ka-band frequencies through a high-gain antenna directed to NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS), which communicates to the ground station located at White Sands Complex. The application of the testbed is for demonstrating new waveforms and software designed to enhance data delivery from scientific spacecraft and, the waveforms and software can be upgraded and reconfigured from the ground. The construction and the salient features of the Ka-band SDR are discussed. The testbed is currently undergoing on-orbit checkout and commissioning and is expected to operate for 3 to 5 years in space.

  18. Women in Astronomy Workshop Report

    OpenAIRE

    Brough, Sarah; Bauer, Amanda E.; Brooks, Kate; Hopkins, Andrew; Maddison, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Here we report on the Women in Astronomy Workshop (http://asawomeninastronomy.org/meetings/wia2011/), which was held on 13 May 2011 in Sydney, Australia. The workshop was organised by the Astronomical Society of Australia's Chapter on Women in Astronomy, to discuss some of the issues that face women in astronomy and make recommendations to help support the success of women in Australian astronomy but came to broader conclusions that have value for the whole astronomical community. The worksho...

  19. Astronomy and Poetry (overview)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samvelyan, David

    2016-12-01

    Through this work we have tried to show how astronomy penetrates into the poetry of different periods in time and in various poets' works all over the world. The following work has significant cognitive value, demonstrates and reveals the general nature of certain poets' astronomical ideas and provides a brief analysis in some cases. As a result, we have come to the conclusion that astronomy with all its components such as the sky, our solar system and phenomena such as these have always been a source of inspiration for those who create works of art, moreover some of them have even gained actual astronomical knowledge.

  20. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The first certain detection of celestial high energy gamma rays came from a satellite experiment flown on the third Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-111). A Gamma ray spark chamber telescope with substantively greater sensitivity and angular resolution (a few degrees) flown on the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-II) has now provided a better picture of the gamma ray sky, and particularly the galactic plane and pulsars. This paper will summarize the present picture of gamma ray astronomy as it has developed at this conference from measurements made with experiments carried out on balloons, those remaining on the ground, and ones flown on satellites. (orig.) [de

  1. The Cambridge encyclopaedia of astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    Astronomy has been transformed in the last two decades by a series of dramatic discoveries that have left most reference books completely out of date. The Cambridge Encyclopaedia of Astronomy presents a broadly based survey of the whole of astronomy which places emphasis on these critical new findings.

  2. School-Based Extracurricular Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    The International Year of Astronomy in 2009 focused considerable public attention on Astronomy and generated valuable resources for educators. These activities are an effective vehicle for promoting Science to students and to the wider school community. The most engaging practical astronomy activities are best delivered with sustained support from…

  3. In Memoriam: Jules Aarons (1921-2008): Space Weather Pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendillo, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Prior to the use of the phrase “space weather” to summarize all possible effects of solar-terrestrial physics upon technological systems, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) created and maintained active programs in the application aspects of space physics. The person arguably most associated with those efforts was Jules Aarons, who died on 21 November 2008 at age 87 at his home in Newton, Mass. Jules was a research professor of astronomy and space physics at Boston University from 1981 to 2005, but it was as a civilian scientist at the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory (AFCRL) from 1946 to 1981 that Jules emerged as a true leader in studies of how the ionosphere can affect radio communications. He specialized in scintillations, those serious fluctuations of radio signal amplitudes and phases that cause dropouts in otherwise reliable communications links.

  4. Study and optimisation of the high energy detector in Cd(Zn)Te of the Simbol-X space mission for X and gamma astronomy; Etude et optimisation du plan de detection de haute energie en Cd(Zn)Te pour la mission spatiale d'observation astronomie X et gamma SIMBOL-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meuris, A.

    2009-09-15

    Stars in final phases of evolution are sites of highest energetic phenomena of the Universe. The understanding of their mechanisms is based on the observation of the X and gamma rays from the sources. The Simbol-X French-Italian project is a novel concept of telescope with two satellites flying in formation. This space mission combines upgraded optics from X-ray telescopes with detection Systems from gamma-ray telescopes. CEA Saclay involved in major space missions for gamma astronomy is in charge of the definition and the design of the High Energy Detector (HED) of Simbol-X to cover the spectral range from 8 to 80 keV. Two generations of micro-cameras called Caliste have been designed, fabricated and tested. They integrate cadmium telluride (CdTe) crystals and optimised front-end electronics named Idef-X. The hybridization technique enables to put them side by side as a mosaic to achieve for the first time a CdTe detection plane with fine spatial resolution (600 {mu}m) and arbitrarily large surface. By setting up test benches and leading test campaigns, I was involved in the fabrication of Caliste prototypes and I assessed temporal, spatial and spectral resolutions. At the conclusion of experiments and simulations, I propose a detector type, operating conditions and digital processing on board the spacecraft to optimise HED performance. The best detector candidate is CdTe Schottky, well suited to high resolution spectroscopy; however, it suffers from lost in stability during biasing. Beyond Simbol-X mission, I studied theoretically and experimentally this kind of detector to build an updated model that can apply to other projects of gamma spectroscopy and imaging. (author)

  5. The Cost of Astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.

    Using Scopus and national sources, I have investigated the evolution of the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale over a number of years. I find that the number of publications per year from Danish astronomers increased by a factor of four during 15 years: naturally, the correspo......Using Scopus and national sources, I have investigated the evolution of the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale over a number of years. I find that the number of publications per year from Danish astronomers increased by a factor of four during 15 years: naturally......, the corresponding potential cost of publishing must have increased similarly. The actual realized cost of publishing in core journals are investigated for a high profile Danish astronomy research institutions. I argue that the situation is highly unstable if the current cost scenario continues, and I speculate...... that Danish astronomy is risking a scholarly communication collapse due to the combination of increasing subscription cost, increased research output, and increased direct publishing costs related to Open access and other page charges....

  6. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear gamma astronomy is presented, in particular the Gamma Ray Observatory, an enormous eight tonnes machine fitted with gamma telescopes, scheduled for launching around 1985. It is thereby hoped to study the natural nuclear reactions which occur when stars explode [fr

  7. Teaching Astronomy Using Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloni, Mario; Christian, Wolfgang; Brown, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    A recent paper in this journal presented a set of innovative uses of video analysis for introductory physics using Tracker. In addition, numerous other papers have described how video analysis can be a meaningful part of introductory courses. Yet despite this, there are few resources for using video analysis in introductory astronomy classes. In…

  8. Gamma ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The book reviews the development of gamma ray astronomy over the past twenty five years. A large section of the book is devoted to the problems of background radiation and the design of detectors. Gamma rays from the sun, the galactic disc, the galaxy, and extra galactic sources; are also discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Astronomy and Creationism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the effects on astronomy courses/curriculum if equal time were given to the concept that the universe was created in its present form about ten thousand years ago. Includes the full text on a resolution concerning creationism passed by the Board of Directors of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. (Author/JN)

  10. The Cost of Astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil F.

    Using Scopus and national sources, I have investigated the evolution of the cost of publishing in Danish astronomy on a fine scale over a number of years. I find that the number of publications per year from Danish astronomers increased by a factor of four during 15 years: naturally, the correspo...

  11. Physics and astronomy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moraal, H

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The chapter is about physics and astronomy. The chapter gives a background about the origins of physics in South Africa. After the CSIR was founded in 1945, physics emerged as a nationwide and unified discipline. The authors show how physics...

  12. Astronomy and Shakespeare's Hamlet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1996-05-01

    Payne-Gaposchkin and others have suggested that Hamlet shows evidence of the Bard's awareness of the astronomical revolutions of the sixteenth century. I summarize major arguments and note that the play's themes recur in modern astronomy teaching and research: (1) The play amounts to a redefinition of universal order and humankind's position in it. (2) There is interplay between appearance and reality. Such a contrast is commonplace wherever superficial celestial appearances obscure underlying physical realities, the nature of which emerge as the tale unfolds. (3) The outermost sphere of the Ptolemaic and Copernican models seems to encase humanity, who are liberated by the reality of Digges' model and the implications advanced by Bruno. Similarly the oppressiveness of the castle interior is relieved by the observing platform which enables the heavens to be viewed in their true light. (4) Hamlet could be bounded in a nut-shell and count himself a king of infinite space, were it not that he has bad dreams. These concern the subversiveness of the new doctrine, for Hamlet refers to the infinite universe only hypothetically and in the presence of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who are named for relatives of the Danish astronomer Brahe. (5) Hamlet, and Brahe and Bruno, have connections to the university at Wittenberg, as does the Copernican champion Rheticus. (6) Ways are needed to reveal both the truths of nature, and the true nature of Danish royalty. Those unaccustomed to science think that there is madness in Hamlet's method. In particular, `doubt' is advanced as a methodological principle of inquiry. (7) The impression of normalcy and propriety in the upper reaches of society is like the false impression of an encapsulating universe. In Hamlet this duality is dramatized tragically, whereas in King John (cf. BAAS 27, 1325, 1995) it is not; for by 1601 when the writing of Hamlet was probably completed, Shakespeare would have known of the martyrdom of Bruno the previous

  13. Estimation of High-Frequency Earth-Space Radio Wave Signals via Ground-Based Polarimetric Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Steve; Chandrasekar, V.

    2002-01-01

    Expanding human presence in space, and enabling the commercialization of this frontier, is part of the strategic goals for NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise. Future near-Earth and planetary missions will support the use of high-frequency Earth-space communication systems. Additionally, increased commercial demand on low-frequency Earth-space links in the S- and C-band spectra have led to increased interest in the use of higher frequencies in regions like Ku and Ka-band. Attenuation of high-frequency signals, due to a precipitating medium, can be quite severe and can cause considerable disruptions in a communications link that traverses such a medium. Previously, ground radar measurements were made along the Earth-space path and compared to satellite beacon data that was transmitted to a ground station. In this paper, quantitative estimation of the attenuation along the propagation path is made via inter-comparisons of radar data taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) and ground-based polarimetric radar observations. Theoretical relationships between the expected specific attenuation (k) of spaceborne measurements with ground-based measurements of reflectivity (Zh) and differential propagation phase shift (Kdp) are developed for various hydrometeors that could be present along the propagation path, which are used to estimate the two-way path-integrated attenuation (PIA) on the PR return echo. Resolution volume matching and alignment of the radar systems is performed, and a direct comparison of PR return echo with ground radar attenuation estimates is made directly on a beam-by-beam basis. The technique is validated using data collected from the TExas and Florida UNderflights (TEFLUN-B) experiment and the TRMM large Biosphere-Atmosphere experiment in Amazonia (LBA) campaign. Attenuation estimation derived from this method can be used for strategiC planning of communication systems for

  14. Strategies for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.

    2000-12-01

    No matter whether you are teaching school children, undergraduates, or colleagues, a few key strategies are always useful. I will present and give examples for the following five key strategies for teaching astronomy. 1. Provide a Contextual Framework: It is much easier to learn new facts or concepts if they can be ``binned" into some kind of pre-existing mental framework. Unless your listeners are already familiar with the basic ideas of modern astronomy (such as the hierarchy of structure in the universe, the scale of the universe, and the origin of the universe), you must provide this before going into the details of how we've developed this modern picture through history. 2. Create Conditions for Conceptual Change: Many people hold misconceptions about astronomical ideas. Therefore we cannot teach them the correct ideas unless we first help them unlearn their prior misconceptions. 3. Make the Material Relevant: It's human nature to be more interested in subjects that seem relevant to our lives. Therefore we must always show students the many connections between astronomy and their personal concerns, such as emphasizing how we are ``star stuff" (in the words of Carl Sagan), how studying other planets helps us understand our own, and so on. 4. Limit Use of Jargon: The number of new terms in many introductory astronomy books is larger than the number of words taught in many first courses in foreign language. This means the books are essentially teaching astronomy in a foreign language, which is a clear recipe for failure. We must find ways to replace jargon with plain language. 5. Challenge Your Students: Don't dumb your teaching down; by and large, students will rise to meet your expectations, as long as you follow the other strategies and practice good teaching.

  15. Galactic Astronomy in the Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastorguev, A. S.; Sachkov, M. E.; Zabolotskikh, M. V.

    2017-12-01

    We propose a number of prospective observational programs for the ultraviolet space observatory WSO-UV, which seem to be of great importance to modern galactic astronomy. The programs include the search for binary Cepheids; the search and detailed photometric study and the analysis of radial distribution of UV-bright stars in globular clusters ("blue stragglers", blue horizontal-branch stars, RR Lyrae variables, white dwarfs, and stars with UV excesses); the investigation of stellar content and kinematics of young open clusters and associations; the study of spectral energy distribution in hot stars, including calculation of the extinction curves in the UV, optical and NIR; and accurate definition of the relations between the UV-colors and effective temperature. The high angular resolution of the observatory allows accurate astrometric measurements of stellar proper motions and their kinematic analysis.

  16. Fourier Analysis of Radio Bursts Observed with Very High Time Resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dabrowski, Bartosz Premyslaw; Karlický, Marian; Rudawy, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 1 (2015), s. 169-180 ISSN 0038-0938 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar corona * flares * radio bursts Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.862, year: 2015

  17. Image of the Quasar 3C 273 Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This image is an observation of Quasar 3C 273 by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory. It reveals the presence of a new source (upper left) with a red shift that indicates that it is about 10 billion light years away. Quasars are mysterious, bright, star-like objects apparently located at the very edge of the visible universe. Although no bigger than our solar system, they radiate as much visible light as a thousand galaxies. Quasars also emit radio signals and were previously recognized as x-ray sources. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2 was designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  18. Image of the Vela Supernova Remnant Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Like the Crab Nebula, the Vela Supernova Remnant has a radio pulsar at its center. In this image taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory, the pulsar appears as a point source surrounded by weak and diffused emissions of x-rays. HEAO-2's computer processing system was able to record and display the total number of x-ray photons (a tiny bundle of radiant energy used as the fundamental unit of electromagnetic radiation) on a scale along the margin of the picture. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  19. The Development of Astronomy and Emergence of Astrophysics in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John; Orchiston, Wayne

    The development of astronomy and astrophysics in New Zealand from the earliest European exploration and settlement to the present day is discussed. The major contributions to astronomy by amateur astronomers are covered, as is the later development of astronomy and astrophysics in New Zealand's universities. The account includes the founding of professional observatories for optical astronomy at Mt. John (belonging to the University of Canterbury) and for radio astronomy at Warkworth (belonging to the Auckland University of Technology). Several major international collaborations in which New Zealand is participating (or has participated) are described, including SALT, MOA, IceCube and SKA. The founding and history of the Carter Observatory in Wellington, of the Stardome Observatory in Auckland (both engaged in astronomical education and outreach) and of the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand are briefly covered.

  20. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 32; Issue 1-2. Position Measurements of the Core in 3C 66B. G.-Y. Zhao Y.-J. Chen Z.-Q. Shen H. Sudou S. Iguchi Y. Murata Y. Taniguchi. Part 1. Blazar Observations in Radio Volume 32 Issue 1-2 March-June 2011 pp 61-63 ...